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1

Study protocol for the randomised controlled trial: Antiglucocorticoid augmentation of anti-Depressants in Depression (The ADD Study)  

PubMed Central

Background Some patients with depression do not respond to first and second line conventional antidepressants and are therefore characterised as suffering from treatment refractory depression (TRD). On-going psychosocial stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are both associated with an attenuated clinical response to antidepressants. Preclinical data shows that co-administration of corticosteroids leads to a reduction in the ability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to increase forebrain 5-hydroxytryptamine, while co-administration of antiglucocorticoids has the opposite effect. A Cochrane review suggests that antiglucocorticoid augmentation of antidepressants may be effective in treating TRD and includes a pilot study of the cortisol synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone. The Antiglucocorticoid augmentation of anti-Depressants in Depression (The ADD Study) is a multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial of metyrapone augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in a large population of patients with TRD in the UK National Health Service. Methods/design Patients with moderate to severe treatment refractory Major Depression aged 18 to 65 will be randomised to metyrapone 500 mg twice daily or placebo for three weeks, in addition to on-going conventional serotonergic antidepressants. The primary outcome will be improvement in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score five weeks after randomisation (i.e. two weeks after trial medication discontinuation). Secondary outcomes will include the degree of persistence of treatment effect for up to 6 months, improvements in quality of life and also safety and tolerability of metyrapone. The ADD Study will also include a range of sub-studies investigating the potential mechanism of action of metyrapone. Discussion Strengths of the ADD study include broad inclusion criteria meaning that the sample will be representative of patients with TRD treated within the UK National Health Service, longer follow up, which to our knowledge is longer than any previous study of antiglucocorticoid treatments in depression, and the range of mechanistic investigations being carried out. The data set acquired will be a rich resource for a range of research questions relating to both refractory depression and the use of antiglucocorticoid treatments. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN45338259; EudraCT Number: 2009-015165-31. PMID:23914988

2013-01-01

2

Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy augmentation in major depression treatment (ECAM study): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Major depression is a serious mental disorder that causes substantial distress and impairment in individuals and places an enormous burden on society. Although antidepressant treatment is the most common therapy provided in routine practice, there is little evidence to guide second-line therapy for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants. The aim of this paper is to describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial that measures the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an augmentation strategy to treat patients with non-psychotic major depression identified as suboptimal responders to usual depression care. Methods and analysis The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded randomised, parallel-groups superiority trial with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care. Patients aged 20–65?years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder who have experienced at least one failed trial of antidepressants as part of usual depression care, will be randomly assigned to receive CBT plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone. The primary outcome is the change in clinician-rated 17-item GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD) score at 16?weeks, and secondary outcomes include severity and change in scores of subjective depression symptoms, proportion of responders and remitters, safety and quality of life. The primary population will be the intention-to-treat patients. Ethics and dissemination All protocols and the informed consent form comply with the Ethics Guideline for Clinical Research (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). Ethics review committees at the Keio University School of Medicine and the Sakuragaoka Memorial Hospital approved the study protocol. The results of the study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the CONSORT statement. Trial registration number UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001218. PMID:25335963

Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuda, Dai; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Abe, Takayuki; Sato, Yuji; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Ono, Yutaka

2014-01-01

3

Effects of acupuncture treatment on depression insomnia: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background More than 70% of patients with depression who see their doctors experience insomnia. Insomnia treatment is a very important link for depression treatment. Furthermore, antidepression treatment is also important for depression insomnia. In acupuncture, LU-7 (Lie Que) and KID-6 (Zhao Hai), which are two of the eight confluence points in meridian theory, are used as main points. An embedded needle technique is used, alternately, at two groups of points to consolidate the treatment effect. These two groups of points are BL-15 (Xin Shu) with BL-23 (Shen Shu) and BL-19 (Dan Shu) with N-HN-54 (An Mian). The effectiveness of these optimized acupuncture formulas is well proven in the practice by our senior acupuncturists in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM. This study has been designed to examine whether this set of optimized clinical formulas is able to increase the clinical efficacy of depression insomnia treatment. Methods/design In this randomized controlled multicenter trial, all the eligible participants are diagnosed with depression insomnia. All participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups in a ratio of 1:1 and receive either conventional acupuncture treatment or optimized acupuncture treatment. Patients are evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI)and the Hamilton rating scale(HAMD) for depression. The use of antidepression and hypnotics drugs is also considered. Results are obtained at the start of treatment, 1 and 2 months after treatment has begun, and at the end of treatment. The entire duration of the study will be approximately 36 months. Discussion A high quality of trial methodologies is utilized in the study, and the results may provide better evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for depression insomnia. The optimized acupuncture formula has potential benefits in increasing the efficacy of treating depression insomnia. Trial registration The trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCR-TRC-00000481) on 12 August 2009. PMID:23286297

2013-01-01

4

Internet-based self-help treatment for depression in multiple sclerosis: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in MS patients is frequent but often not treated adequately. An important underlying factor may be physical limitations that preclude face-to-face contact. Internet-based treatment showed to be effective for depressive symptoms in general and could thus be a promising tool for treatment in MS. Methods/design Here, we present a study protocol to investigate the effectiveness of a 5 week Internet-based self-help problem solving treatment (PST) for depressive symptoms in MS patients in a randomized controlled trial. We aim to include 166 MS patients with moderate to severe depressive symptoms who will be randomly assigned to an Internet-based intervention (with or without supportive text-messages) or waiting list control group. The primary outcome is the change in depressive symptoms defined by a change in the sum score on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Secondary outcomes will include measures of anxiety, fatigue, cognitive functioning, physical and psychological impact of MS, quality of life, problem solving skills, social support, mastery, satisfaction and compliance rate. Assessments will take place at baseline (T0), within a week after the intervention (T1), at four months (T2) and at ten months follow-up (T3: only the intervention group). The control group will be measured at the same moments in time. Analysis will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion If shown to be effective, Internet-based PST will offer new possibilities to reach and treat MS patients with depressive symptoms and to improve the quality of care. Trial Registration The Dutch Cochrane Center, NTR2772 PMID:22967202

2012-01-01

5

Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite limited effectiveness of short-term psychotherapy for chronic depression, there is a lack of trials of long-term psychotherapy. Our study is the first to determine the effectiveness of controlled long-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments and to assess the effects of preferential vs. randomized assessment. Methods/design Patients are assigned to treatment according to their preference or randomized (if they have no clear preference). Up to 80 sessions of psychodynamic or psychoanalytically oriented treatments (PAT) or up to 60 sessions of CBT are offered during the first year in the study. After the first year, PAT can be continued according to the ‘naturalistic’ usual method of treating such patients within the system of German health care (normally from 240 up to 300 sessions over two to three years). CBT therapists may extend their treatment up to 80 sessions, but focus mainly maintenance and relapse prevention. We plan to recruit a total of 240 patients (60 per arm). A total of 11 assessments are conducted throughout treatment and up to three years after initiation of treatment. The primary outcome measures are the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS, independent clinician rating) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) after the first year. Discussion We combine a naturalistic approach with randomized controlled trials(RCTs)to investigate how effectively chronic depression can be treated on an outpatient basis by the two forms of treatment reimbursed in the German healthcare system and we will determine the effects of treatment preference vs. randomization. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN91956346 PMID:22834725

2012-01-01

6

Cognitive bias modification to prevent depression (COPE): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and, although efficacious treatments are available, their efficacy is suboptimal and recurrence of symptoms is common. Effective preventive strategies could reduce disability and the long term social and health complications associated with the disorder, but current options are limited. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel, simple, and safe intervention that addresses attentional and interpretive biases associated with anxiety, dysphoria, and depression. The primary aim of this trial is to determine if CBM decreases the one-year onset of a major depressive episode among adults with subsyndromal depression. Design and methods This randomised controlled trial will recruit 532 adults with subsyndromal symptoms of depression living in the Australian community (parallel design, 1:1 allocation ratio). Participants will be free of clinically significant symptoms of depression and of psychotic disorders, sensory and cognitive impairment, and risky alcohol use. The CBM intervention will target attentional and interpretive biases associated with depressive symptoms. The sessions will be delivered via the internet over a period of 52 weeks. The primary outcome of interest is the onset of a major depressive episode according the DSM-IV-TR criteria over a 12-month period. Secondary outcomes of interest include change in the severity of depressive symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), use of antidepressants or benzodiazepines, and changes in attention and interpretive biases. The assessment of outcomes will take place 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomisation and will occur via the internet. Discussion We propose to test the efficacy of an innovative intervention that is well grounded in theory and for which increasing empirical evidence for an effect on mood is available. The intervention is simple, inexpensive, easy to access, and could be easily rolled out into practice if our findings confirm a role for CBM in the prevention of depression. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001334796. Date: 5th December 2013. PMID:25012399

2014-01-01

7

INtegration of DEPression Treatment into HIV Care in Uganda (INDEPTH-Uganda): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite 10 to% of persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa having clinical depression, and the consequences of depression for key public health outcomes (HIV treatment adherence and condom use), depression treatment is rarely integrated into HIV care programs. Task-shifting, protocolized approaches to depression care have been used to overcome severe shortages of mental health specialists in developing countries, but not in sub-Saharan Africa and not with HIV clients. The aims of this trial are to evaluate the implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a task-shifting, protocolized model of antidepressant care for HIV clinics in Uganda. Methods/Design INDEPTH-Uganda is a cluster randomized controlled trial that compares two task-shifting models of depression care - a protocolized model versus a model that relies on the clinical acumen of trained providers to provide depression care in ten public health HIV clinics in Uganda. In addition to data abstracted from routine data collection mechanisms and supervision logs, survey data will be collected from patient and provider longitudinal cohorts; at each site, a random sample of 150 medically stable patients who are depressed according to the PHQ-2 screening will be followed for 12 months, and providers involved in depression care implementation will be followed over 24 months. These data will be used to assess whether the two models differ on implementation outcomes (proportion screened, diagnosed, treated; provider fidelity to model of care), provider adoption of treatment care knowledge and practices, and depression alleviation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to compare the relative use of resources by each model. Discussion If effective and resource-efficient, the task-shifting, protocolized model will provide an approach to building the capacity for sustainable integration of depression treatment in HIV care settings across sub-Saharan Africa and improving key public health outcomes. Trial registration INDEPTH-Uganda has been registered with the National Institutes of Health sponsored clinical trials registry (3 February 2013) and has been assigned the identifier NCT02056106. PMID:24962086

2014-01-01

8

The postcard intervention against depression among community-dwelling older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in older adults deteriorates quality of life and increases morbidity, mortality, and medical expenses. Medicine and social policy should work together to decrease this burden. Existing prevention studies are often based on time-consuming psychotherapies, which therefore are not feasible for a wide application at the community level. Postcard interventions have been shown to be effective for patients after hospitalization for major depression, drug overdose, or self-harm. This paper describes the protocol of a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the efficacy of a postcard intervention for depression among community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, non-blinded, parallel comparison, randomized controlled trial using Zelen’s design in a community setting. Participants will include community-dwelling older adults (aged 65 years or older) with limited social support (indicated by eating meals alone) and with symptoms of depression (scoring 4 or higher on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)). The intervention will consist of sending postcards with handwritten messages and seasonal reports from a historical city to participants once a month for eight consecutive months. Self-addressed, stamped envelopes will be enclosed to facilitate non-obligatory replies. Primary outcomes will be changes in the GDS scores that are administered to all elderly inhabitants of the community every year as part of annual health checks. Secondary outcomes include quality of life as measured by a visual analogue scale, and self-rated basic and advanced activities of daily living. We will also examine the subjective sense of effectiveness of the intervention, recollection of the number of intervention mailings received, and the number of mailed replies as the index of the acceptability of the postcard intervention. The time × group interaction for two consecutive years will be analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. To detect an effect size of 0.5 at alpha error of 0.05 and statistical power of 0.80, 63 participants per group are required. Based on an estimated consent and dropout rate of 70%, a total of 180 subjects will be recruited. Trial registration UMIN000010529 PMID:23837527

2013-01-01

9

Strategic use of new generation antidepressants for depression: SUN(^_^)D study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background After more than half a century of modern psychopharmacology, with billions of dollars spent on antidepressants annually world-wide, we lack good evidence to guide our everyday decisions in conducting antidepressant treatment of patients with major depression. First we did not know which antidepressant to use as first line treatment. Second we do not know which dosage we should be aiming at with that antidepressant. Because more than half of the patients with major depression starting treatment do not remit after adequate trial with the first agent, they will need a second line treatment. Dose escalation, augmentation and switching are the three often recommended second line strategies but we do not know which is better than the others. Moreover, we do not know when to start considering this second line treatment. The recently published multiple-treatments meta-analysis of 12 new generation antidepressants has provided some partial answers to the first question. Starting with these findings, this proposed trial aims to establish the optimum 1st line and 2nd line antidepressant treatment strategy among adult patients with a non-psychotic unipolar major depressive episode. Methods SUN(^_^)D, the Strategic Use of New generation antidepressants for Depression, is an assessor-blinded, parallel-group, multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Step I is a cluster-randomised trial comparing titration up to the minimum vs maximum of the recommended dose range among patients starting with sertraline. The primary outcome is the change in the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 scores administered by a blinded rater via telephone at week 1 through 3. Step II is an individually randomised trial comparing staying on sertraline, augmentation of sertraline with mirtazapine, and switching to mirtazapine among patients who have not remitted on the first line treatment by week 3. The primary outcome is the change in the PHQ-9 scores at week 4 through 9. Step III represents a continuation phase to Steps I and II and aims to establish longer-term effectiveness and acceptability of the above-examined treatment strategies up to week 25. The trial is supported by the Grant-in-Aid by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. Discussion SUN(^_^)D promises to be a pragmatic large trial to answer important clinical questions that every clinician treating patients with major depression faces in his/her daily practices concerning its first- and second-line treatments. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01109693 PMID:21569309

2011-01-01

10

Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted “job strain”) are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field.   Methods: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression based on hospital treatment registers.  The study will be based on data from approximately 120,000 individuals who participated in 14 studies on work environment and health in 4 European countries. The self-reported working conditions data will be merged with national registers on psychiatric hospital treatment, primarily hospital admissions. Study-specific risk estimates for the association between job strain and depression will be calculated using Cox regressions. The study-specific risk estimates will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis.   Discussion: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled risk estimates will not be influenced by selective reporting and publication bias. However, the results of the planned study may only pertain to severe cases of unipolar depression, because of the outcome measure applied. PMID:24627793

Madsen, Ida E. H.

2014-01-01

11

Brain imaging predictors and the international study to predict optimized treatment for depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 50% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond optimally to antidepressant treatments. Given this is a large proportion of the patient population, pretreatment tests that predict which patients will respond to which types of treatment could save time, money and patient burden. Brain imaging offers a means to identify treatment predictors that are grounded in the neurobiology of the treatment and the pathophysiology of MDD. Methods/Design The international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression is a multi-center, parallel model, randomized clinical trial with an embedded imaging sub-study to identify such predictors. We focus on brain circuits implicated in major depressive disorder and its treatment. In the full trial, depressed participants are randomized to receive escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-XR (open-label). They are assessed using standardized multiple clinical, cognitive-emotional behavioral, electroencephalographic and genetic measures at baseline and at eight weeks post-treatment. Overall, 2,016 depressed participants (18 to 65 years old) will enter the study, of whom a target of 10% will be recruited into the brain imaging sub-study (approximately 67 participants in each treatment arm) and 67 controls. The imaging sub-study is conducted at the University of Sydney and at Stanford University. Structural studies include high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor and T2/Proton Density scans. Functional studies include standardized functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three cognitive tasks (auditory oddball, a continuous performance task, and Go-NoGo) and two emotion tasks (unmasked conscious and masked non-conscious emotion processing tasks). After eight weeks of treatment, the functional MRI is repeated with the above tasks. We will establish the methods in the first 30 patients. Then we will identify predictors in the first half (n?=?102), test the findings in the second half, and then extend the analyses to the total sample. Trial registration International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D). ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00693849. PMID:23866851

2013-01-01

12

Morning light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of depression in young people is increasing. The predominant co-morbidities of juvenile depression include sleep disturbances and persistent problems with the sleep-wake rhythm, which have shown to influence treatment outcomes negatively. Severe mood dysregulation is another condition that includes depressive symptoms and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm. Patients with severe mood dysregulation show symptoms of depression, reduced need for sleep, and disturbances in circadian functioning which negatively affect both disorder-specific symptoms and daytime functioning. One approach to treating both depression and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm is the use of light therapy. Light therapy is now a standard therapy for ameliorating symptoms of seasonal affective disorder and depression in adults, but has not yet been investigated in children and adolescents. In this trial, the effects of 2 weeks of morning bright-light therapy on juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation will be evaluated. Methods/design A total of 60 patients with depression, aged between 12 and 18 years, in some cases presenting additional symptoms of affective dysregulation, will be included in this trial. Morning bright-light therapy will be implemented for 2 weeks (10 sessions of 45 minutes each), either with ‘active’ light (10,000 lux) or ‘inactive’ light (100 lux). A comprehensive test battery will be conducted before and after treatment and at follow-up 3 weeks later, to assess depression severity, sleep, and attention parameters. Melatonin levels will be measured by assessing the Dim Light Melatonin Onset. Discussion In this pilot study, the use of morning bright-light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation shall be evaluated and discussed. Trials registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89305231 PMID:23773310

2013-01-01

13

Update to the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM) can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. A recently developed treatment, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), shows potential as a brief group program for people with recurring depression. This trial asks the policy research question; is MBCT with support to taper/discontinue antidepressant medication (MBCT-TS) superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and secondary outcomes of (a) depression free days, (b) residual depressive symptoms, (c) antidepressant medication (ADM) usage, (d) psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e) quality of life, and (f) cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question also asks whether an increase in mindfulness skills is the key mechanism of change. The design is a single-blind, parallel randomized controlled trial examining MBCT-TS versus m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT-TS with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Results Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. Analyses will be conducted following CONSORT standards and overseen by the trial’s Data Monitoring and Safety Committee. Initial analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis, with subsequent analyses being per protocol. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre- and post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users’ views and experiences. Conclusions If the results of our exploratory trial are extended to this definitive trial, MBCT-TS will be established as an alternative approach to maintenance antidepressants for people with a history of recurrent depression. The process studies will provide evidence about the effective components which can be used to improve MBCT and inform theory as well as other therapeutic approaches. Trial registration Trial registered 7 May 2009; ISRCTN26666654. PMID:24916319

2014-01-01

14

Cognitive-reminiscence therapy and usual care for depression in young adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common affliction for young adults, and is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy is a brief, structured intervention that has been shown to be highly effective for reducing depressive symptoms, yet to date has not been evaluated in young adult populations. Given its basis in theory-guided reminiscence-based therapy, and incorporation of effective therapeutic techniques drawn from cognitive therapy and problem-solving frameworks, it is hypothesized to be effective in treating depression in this age group. Methods and design This article presents the design of a randomized controlled trial implemented in a community-based youth mental health service to compare cognitive-reminiscence therapy with usual care for the treatment of depressive symptoms in young adults. Participants in the cognitive-reminiscence group will receive six sessions of weekly, individual psychotherapy, whilst participants in the usual-care group will receive support from the youth mental health service according to usual procedures. A between-within repeated-measures design will be used to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, psychological wellbeing and anxiety across baseline, three weeks into the intervention, post-intervention, one month post-intervention and three months post-intervention. Interviews will also be conducted with participants from the cognitive-reminiscence group to collect information about their experience receiving the intervention, and the process underlying any changes that occur. Discussion This study will determine whether a therapeutic approach to depression that has been shown to be effective in older adult populations is also effective for young adults. The expected outcome of this study is the validation of a brief, evidence-based, manualized treatment for young adults with depressive symptoms. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000084785. PMID:24143890

2013-01-01

15

Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behaviour therapy for depression (COBRA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. Methods/Design COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. Discussion The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline developers decide on the merits of including BA as a first-line treatment of depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN27473954 PMID:24447460

2014-01-01

16

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of depression: a study protocol for a double blinded randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are the most common form of mental disorders in community and health care settings. Unfortunately, the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is far from satisfactory. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a relatively new and promising physical treatment for depressive disorders. One particularly appealing element of VNS is the long-term benefit in mood regulation. However, because this intervention involves surgery, perioperative risks, and potentially significant side effects, this treatment has been limited to those patients with treatment-resistant depression who have failed medication trials and exhausted established somatic treatments for major depression, due to intolerance or lack of response. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aims to overcome these limitations by introducing a novel method of stimulating superficial branches of the vagus nerve on the ear to treat MDD. The rationale is that direct stimulation of the afferent nerve fibers on the ear area with afferent vagus nerve distribution should produce a similar effect as classic VNS in reducing depressive symptoms without the burden of surgical intervention. Design One hundred twenty cases (60 males) of volunteer patients with mild and moderate depression will be randomly divided into transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation group (tVNS) and sham tVNS group. The treatment period lasts 4 months and all clinical and physiological measurements are acquired at the beginning and the end of the treatment period. Discussion This study has the potential to significantly extend the application of VNS treatment for MDD and other disorders (including epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and morbid obesity), resulting in direct benefit to the patients suffering from these highly prevalent disorders. In addition, the results of this double-blinded clinical trial will shed new light on our understanding of acupuncture point specificity, and development of methodologies in clinical trials of acupuncture treatment. Trials registration Clinical Trials. ChiCTR-TRC-11001201 http://www.chictr.org/cn/ PMID:23241431

2012-01-01

17

Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for depressed breast cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20?+?5 sessions) or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendation for counseling center and physician information). We plan to recruit a total of 180 patients (90 per arm) in two centers. Assessments are conducted pretreatment, after 6 (treatment termination) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary outcome measures are reduction of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and remission of depression as assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders by independent, blinded assessors at treatment termination. Secondary outcomes refer to quality of life. Discussion We investigate the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in acute care and we aim to identify predictors for acceptance and success of treatment. Trial registration ISRCTN96793588 PMID:23217093

2012-01-01

18

Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing community and government recognition of the magnitude and impact of adolescent depression. Family based interventions have significant potential to address known risk factors for adolescent depression and could be an effective way of engaging adolescents in treatment. The evidence for family based treatments of adolescent depression is not well developed. The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether a family based intervention can reduce rates of unipolar depressive disorders in adolescents, improve family functioning and engage adolescents who are reluctant to access mental health services. Methods/Design The Family Options study will determine whether a manualized family based intervention designed to target both individual and family based factors in adolescent depression (BEST MOOD) will be more effective in reducing unipolar depressive disorders than an active (standard practice) control condition consisting of a parenting group using supportive techniques (PAST). The study is a multicenter effectiveness randomized controlled trial. Both interventions are delivered in group format over eight weekly sessions, of two hours per session. We will recruit 160 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) and their families, randomized equally to each treatment condition. Participants will be assessed at baseline, eight weeks and 20 weeks. Assessment of eligibility and primary outcome will be conducted using the KID-SCID structured clinical interview via adolescent and parent self-report. Assessments of family mental health, functioning and therapeutic processes will also be conducted. Data will be analyzed using Multilevel Mixed Modeling accounting for time x treatment effects and random effects for group and family characteristics. This trial is currently recruiting. Challenges in design and implementation to-date are discussed. These include diagnosis and differential diagnosis of mental disorders in the context of adolescent development, non-compliance of adolescents with requirements of assessment, questionnaire completion and treatment attendance, breaking randomization, and measuring the complexity of change in the context of a family-based intervention. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Title: engaging youth with high prevalence mental health problems using family based interventions; number 12612000398808. Prospectively registered on 10 April 2012. PMID:24220547

2013-01-01

19

The study protocol of the Norwegian randomized controlled trial of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some

Ute Kessler; Arne E Vaaler; Helle Schøyen; Ketil J Oedegaard; Per Bergsholm; Ole A Andreassen; Ulrik F Malt; Gunnar Morken

2010-01-01

20

Predictors of remission in depression to individual and combined treatments (PReDICT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Limited controlled data exist to guide treatment choices for clinicians caring for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although many putative predictors of treatment response have been reported, most were identified through retrospective analyses of existing datasets and very few have been replicated in a manner that can impact clinical practice. One major confound in previous studies examining predictors of treatment response is the patient’s treatment history, which may affect both the predictor of interest and treatment outcomes. Moreover, prior treatment history provides an important source of selection bias, thereby limiting generalizability. Consequently, we initiated a randomized clinical trial designed to identify factors that moderate response to three treatments for MDD among patients never treated previously for the condition. Methods/design Treatment-naïve adults aged 18 to 65?years with moderate-to-severe, non-psychotic MDD are randomized equally to one of three 12-week treatment arms: (1) cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, 16 sessions); (2) duloxetine (30–60?mg/d); or (3) escitalopram (10–20?mg/d). Prior to randomization, patients undergo multiple assessments, including resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), immune markers, DNA and gene expression products, and dexamethasone-corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) testing. Prior to or shortly after randomization, patients also complete a comprehensive personality assessment. Repeat assessment of the biological measures (fMRI, immune markers, and gene expression products) occurs at an early time-point in treatment, and upon completion of 12-week treatment, when a second Dex/CRH test is also conducted. Patients remitting by the end of this acute treatment phase are then eligible to enter a 21-month follow-up phase, with quarterly visits to monitor for recurrence. Non-remitters are offered augmentation treatment for a second 12-week course of treatment, during which they receive a combination of CBT and antidepressant medication. Predictors of the primary outcome, remission, will be identified for overall and treatment-specific effects, and a statistical model incorporating multiple predictors will be developed to predict outcomes. Discussion The PReDICT study’s evaluation of biological, psychological, and clinical factors that may differentially impact treatment outcomes represents a sizeable step toward developing personalized treatments for MDD. Identified predictors should help guide the selection of initial treatments, and identify those patients most vulnerable to recurrence, who thus warrant maintenance or combination treatments to achieve and maintain wellness. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00360399. Registered 02 AUG 2006. First patient randomized 09 FEB 2007. PMID:22776534

2012-01-01

21

The efficacy of a behavioral activation intervention among depressed US Latinos with limited English language proficiency: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder is highly prevalent among Latinos with limited English language proficiency in the United States. Although major depressive disorder is highly treatable, barriers to depression treatment have historically prevented Latinos with limited English language proficiency from accessing effective interventions. The project seeks to evaluate the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression, an empirically supported treatment for depression, as an intervention that may address some of the disparities surrounding the receipt of efficacious mental health care for this population. Methods/design Following a pilot study of behavioral activation treatment for depression with 10 participants which yielded very promising results, the current study is a randomized control trial testing behavioral activation treatment for depression versus a supportive counseling treatment for depression. We are in the process of recruiting 60 Latinos with limited English language proficiency meeting criteria for major depressive disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th and 5th Edition for participation in a single-center efficacy trial. Participants are randomized to receive 10 sessions of behavioral activation treatment for depression (n?=?30) or 10 sessions of supportive counseling (n?=?30). Assessments occur prior to each session and at 1 month after completing treatment. Intervention targets include depressive symptomatology and the proposed mechanisms of behavioral activation treatment for depression: activity level and environmental reward. We will also examine other factors related to treatment outcome such as treatment adherence, treatment satisfaction, and therapeutic alliance. Discussion This randomized controlled trial will allow us to determine the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression in a fast-growing, yet highly underserved population in US mental health services. The study is also among the first to examine the effect of the proposed mechanisms of change of behavioral activation treatment for depression (that is, activity level and environmental reward) on depression over time. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to compare an empirical-supported treatment to a control supportive counseling condition in a sample of depressed, Spanish-speaking Latinos in the United States. Trial registration Clinical Trials Register: NCT01958840; registered 8 October 2013. PMID:24938081

2014-01-01

22

Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM) can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. We need to develop psychological therapies that prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. A recently developed treatment, Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, see http://www.mbct.co.uk) shows potential as a brief group programme for people with recurring depression. In two studies it has been shown to halve the rates of depression recurring compared to usual care. This trial asks the policy research question, is MBCT superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and, secondary outcomes of (a) depression free days, (b) residual depressive symptoms, (c) antidepressant (ADM) usage, (d) psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e) quality of life, and (f) cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question asks is an increase in mindfulness skills the key mechanism of change? Methods/Design The design is a single blind, parallel RCT examining MBCT vs. m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT plus ADM-tapering with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre/post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users' views and experiences. Discussion If the results of our exploratory trial are extended to this definitive trial, MBCT will be established as an alternative approach to maintenance anti-depressants for people with a history of recurrent depression. The process studies will provide evidence about the effective components which can be used to improve MBCT and inform theory as well as other therapeutic approaches. Trial registration number ISRCTN26666654 PMID:20961444

2010-01-01

23

Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: The PREVENT trial  

E-print Network

depressive relapse/recurrence. A recently developed treatment, Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, see http://www.mbct.co.uk) shows potential as a brief group programme for people with recurring depression. In two studies it has been shown to halve...

Kuyken, Willem; Byford, Sarah; Byng, Richard; Dalgleish, Tim; Lewis, Glyn; Taylor, Rod; Watkins, Edward R; Hayes, Rachel; Lanham, Paul; Kessler, David; Morant, Nicola; Evans, Alison

2010-10-20

24

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus the health-enhancement program (HEP) for adults with treatment-resistant depression: a randomized control trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability in the developed world, yet broadly effective treatments remain elusive. Up to 40% of patients with depression are unresponsive to at least two trials of antidepressant medication and thus have “treatment-resistant depression” (TRD). There is an urgent need for cost-effective, non-pharmacologic, evidence-based treatments for TRD. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an effective treatment for relapse prevention and residual depression in major depression, but has not been previously studied in patients with TRD in a large randomized trial. Methods/Design The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether MBCT is an effective augmentation of antidepressants for adults with MDD who failed to respond to standard pharmacotherapy. MBCT was compared to an active control condition, the Health-Enhancement Program (HEP), which incorporates physical activity, functional movement, music therapy and nutritional advice. HEP was designed as a comparator condition for mindfulness-based interventions to control for non-specific effects. Originally investigated in a non-clinical sample to promote stress reduction, HEP was adapted for a depressed population for this study. Individuals age 18 and older with moderate to severe TRD, who failed to respond to at least two trials of antidepressants in the current episode, were recruited to participate. All participants were taking antidepressants (Treatment as usual; TAU) at the time of enrollment. After signing an informed consent, participants were randomly assigned to either MBCT or HEP condition. Participants were followed for 1 year and assessed at weeks 1–7, 8, 24, 36, and 52. Change in depression severity, rate of treatment response and remission after 8 weeks were the primary outcomes measured by the clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Severity Rating (HAM-D) 17-item scale. The participant-rated Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomology (QIDS-SR) 16-item scale was the secondary outcome measure of depression severity, response, and remission. Discussion Treatment-resistant depression entails significant morbidity and has few effective treatments. We studied the effect of augmenting antidepressant medication with MBCT, compared with a HEP control, for patients with TRD. Analyses will focus on clinician and patient assessment of depression, participants’ clinical global impression change, employment and social functioning scores and quality of life and satisfaction ratings. Trial registration ClincalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01021254 PMID:24612825

2014-01-01

25

Use of a structured reminiscence protocol to decrease depression in older women.  

PubMed

Depression is a major public health problem for older women. Medications do not always decrease depression. Therefore, there is a need to research alternative approaches to dealing with depression in this age group. Structured reminiscence has been suggested as a cognitive behaviour approach for dealing with depression in older women. However, the research is limited. This article presents a research study using a structured reminiscence protocol to decrease depression in older women. This study found significant positive results. First, structured reminiscence decreases depression levels of women 60 years and older residing in assisted living facilities when offered twice weekly for 6-week duration to document significant improvement in depression scores. Second, engagement in reminiscence must occur longer than 3 weeks to measure a significant improvement in depression scores. The study also recommends screening of all older women admitted to assisted living facilities for depression on admission and offering education to nurses working with older adults to educate them on the positive effects of structured reminiscence group interventions. PMID:21050332

Stinson, C K; Young, E A; Kirk, E; Walker, R

2010-10-01

26

Effects of emotion recognition training on mood among individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

E-print Network

. This ap- proach allows us to refine the ingredients of successful intervention and to establish the best clinical study to sub- sequently carry out in a depressed cohort. In particular, it avoids potential confounding effects of medication, and al- lows... : a longitudinal study. J Nerv Ment Dis 1999, 187:595–602. 8. Holmes EA, Lang TJ, Shah DM: Developing interpretation bias modification as a ‘cognitive vaccine’ for depressed mood: imagining16:423–44020. 20. Brissette I, Scheier MF, Carver CS: The role...

Adams, Sally; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Harmer, Catherine J; Holmes, Emily A; Munafò, Marcus R

2013-06-01

27

Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions). Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol's independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22888415

Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

2012-01-01

28

Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of guided online treatment for patients with major depressive disorder on a waiting list for psychotherapy: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent and result in negative consequences for both patients and society. It is therefore important that these disorders are treated adequately. However, due to increased demand for mental healthcare and subsequent increased costs, it would be desirable to reduce costs associated with major depressive disorder while maintaining or improving the quality of care within the healthcare system. Introducing evidence-based online self-help interventions in mental healthcare might be the way to maintain clinical effects while minimizing costs by reducing the number of face-to-face sessions. This study aims to evaluate the clinical and economical effects of a guided online self-help intervention when offered to patients with major depressive disorder on a waiting list for psychotherapy in specialized mental health centers (MHCs). Methods Patients at mental health centers identified with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major depression who are awaiting face-to-face treatment are studied in a randomized controlled trial. During this waiting list period, patients are randomized and either (1) receive an internet-based guided self-help treatment or (2) receive a self-help book. The 5-week internet-based guided self-help intervention and the self-help booklet are based on problem solving treatment. After the intervention, patients are allowed to start regular face-to-face treatment at MHCs. Costs and effects are measured at baseline, after the intervention at 6 to 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is symptoms of depression. Secondary outcome measures are diagnosis of depression, number of face-to-face sessions, absence of work and healthcare uptake in general. Additional outcome measures are anxiety, insomnia, quality of life and mastery. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of internet-based guided self-help in patients at specialized mental health centers. The aim is to demonstrate whether the introduction of internet-based self-help interventions in regular mental healthcare for depressive disorders can maintain clinical effects and reduce costs. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2824 PMID:24289099

2013-01-01

29

Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged?>?21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in moderating these associations. Findings from the study have the potential to inform more effective pharmacological, psychological and behavioural interventions and better guide health policy on the use of health care resources. PMID:24237848

2013-01-01

30

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in an Older Gay Man: A Clinical Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…

Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca

2010-01-01

31

Depression care management for late-life depression in China primary care: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background As a major public health issue in China and worldwide, late-life depression is associated with physical limitations, greater functional impairment, increased utilization and cost of health care, and suicide. Like other chronic diseases in elders such as hypertension and diabetes, depression is a chronic disease that the new National Health Policy of China indicates should be managed in primary care settings. Collaborative care, linking primary and mental health specialty care, has been shown to be effective for the treatment of late-life depression in primary care settings in Western countries. The primary aim of this project is to implement a depression care management (DCM) intervention, and examine its effectiveness on the depressive symptoms of older patients in Chinese primary care settings. Methods/Design The trial is a multi-site, primary clinic based randomized controlled trial design in Hangzhou, China. Sixteen primary care clinics will be enrolled in and randomly assigned to deliver either DCM or care as usual (CAU) (8 clinics each) to 320 patients (aged ? 60 years) with major depression (20/clinic; n = 160 in each treatment condition). In the DCM arm, primary care physicians (PCPs) will prescribe 16 weeks of antidepressant medication according to the treatment guideline protocol. Care managers monitor the progress of treatment and side effects, educate patients/family, and facilitate communication between providers; psychiatrists will provide weekly group psychiatric consultation and CM supervision. Patients in both DCM and CAU arms will be assessed by clinical research coordinators at baseline, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months. Depressive symptoms, functional status, treatment stigma and clients' satisfaction will be used to assess patients' outcomes; and clinic practices, attitudes/knowledge, and satisfaction will be providers' outcomes. Discussion This will be the first trial of the effectiveness of a collaborative care intervention aiming to the management of late-life depression in China primary care. If effective, its finding will have relevance to policy makers who wish to scale up DCM treatments for late-life depression in national wide primary care across China. Study Registration The DCM project is registered through the National Institutes of Health sponsored by clinical trials registry and has been assigned the identifier: NCT01287494 PMID:21569445

2011-01-01

32

Comparing dietary patterns of depressed patients versus healthy people in a case control protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. Because of the high rate of medication discontinuation by patients and the risk of recurrence, factors such as nutrition could be useful for the prevention or treatment of depression. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. Therefore, we have decided to study the possible effects of cultural, social, racial, geographic and environmental conditions on this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods and analysis In our case control protocol, 110 cases and 220 controls will be individually matched based on age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression, based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), will be recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers will then go to each patient's home and invite qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intakes of all participants will be obtained by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires covering the past year; these will be transformed into actual food intake (g/day). Dietary patterns will be determined by the principal components method. Conditional logistic regression, as a multivariate analysis, will be used for assessing the relationship between dietary patterns and depression, taking into consideration the potential role of different variables. The results may help to identify differences in dietary patterns between depressed and healthy people. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. At the beginning of the study, a written informed consent form will be signed and dated by subjects and investigators. The results will be published in due time. PMID:24525387

Khosravi, Maryam; Sotoudeh, Gity; Raisi, Firoozeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Foroughifar, Tahereh

2014-01-01

33

Transdiagnostic, affect-focused, psychodynamic, guided self-help for depression and anxiety through the internet: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cognitive behaviour therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the internet has been found to be effective for a range of conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders. Recent results indicate that guided self-help via the internet is a promising treatment format also for psychodynamic therapy. However, to date and to our knowledge, no study has evaluated internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy as a transdiagnostic treatment. The affect-phobia model of psychopathology by McCullough et al provides a psychodynamic conceptualisation of a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a transdiagnostic guided self-help treatment based on the affect-phobia model in a sample of clients with depression and anxiety. Methods and analysis This study will be a randomised controlled trial with a total sample size of 100 participants. The treatment group receives a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on the transdiagnostic affect-phobia model of psychopathology. The treatment consists of eight text-based treatment modules and includes therapist contact in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group receive similar online therapist support without any treatment modules. Outcome measures are the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale and the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures that concerns emotional processing and mindfulness are included. All outcome and process measures will be administered weekly via the internet and at 6-month follow-up. Discussion This trial will add to the body of knowledge on internet-delivered psychological treatments in general and to psychodynamic treatments in particular. We also hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and working mechanisms of psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model. PMID:23257775

Johansson, Robert; Hesser, Hugo; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Frederick, Ronald J; Andersson, Gerhard

2012-01-01

34

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lay counsellor-delivered psychological treatments for harmful and dependent drinking and moderate to severe depression in primary care in India: PREMIUM study protocol for randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background The leading mental health causes of the global burden of disease are depression in women and alcohol use disorders in men. A major hurdle to the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments in primary care in developing countries is the non-availability of skilled human resources. The aim of these trials is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two psychological treatments developed for the treatment of depression and alcohol use disorders in primary care in India. Methods/design This study protocol is for parallel group, randomized controlled trials (Healthy Activity Program for moderate to severe depression, Counselling for Alcohol Problems for harmful and dependent drinking) in eight primary health centres in Goa, India. Adult primary care attendees will be screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression and, in men only, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for drinking problems. Screen-positive attendees will be invited to participate; men who screen positive for both disorders will be invited to participate in the Counselling for Alcohol Problems trial. Those who consent will be allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the respective psychological treatment plus enhanced usual care or enhanced usual care only using a computer generated allocation sequence, stratified by primary health centre and, for depression, by sex. The enhanced usual care comprises providing primary health centre doctors with contextualized World Health Organization guidelines and screening results. Psychological treatments will be delivered by lay counsellors, over a maximum period of three months. Primary outcomes are severity of disorder and remission rates at three months post-enrolment and, for the Counselling for Alcohol Problems trial, drinking and the impact of drinking on daily lives. Secondary outcomes include severity of disorder and remission rates at 12?months, disability scores, suicidal behaviour and economic impact, and cost-effectiveness at three and 12?months. 500 participants with depression and 400 participants with harmful drinking will be recruited. Primary analyses will be intention-to-treat. Discussion These trials may offer a new approach for the treatment of moderate-severe depression and drinking problems in primary care that is potentially scalable as it relies on delivery by a single pool of lay counsellors. Trial registration Both trials are registered with the International Society for the Registration of Clinical Trials (Healthy Activity Programme registration number ISRCTN95149997; Counselling for Alcohol Problems registration number ISRCTN76465238). PMID:24690184

2014-01-01

35

Evolutionary cognitive therapy versus standard cognitive therapy for depression: a protocol for a blinded, randomized, superiority clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is estimated to become the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Despite existing efficacious treatments (both medical and psychotherapeutic), a large proportion of patients do not respond to therapy. Recent insights from evolutionary psychology suggest that, in addition to targeting the proximal causes of depression (for example, targeting dysfunctional beliefs by cognitive behavioral therapy), the distal or evolutionary causes (for example, inclusive fitness) should also be addressed. A randomized superiority trial is conducted to develop and test an evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy protocol for depression, and to compare its efficacy against standard cognitive therapy for depression. Methods/design Romanian-speaking adults (18 years or older) with elevated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores (>13), current diagnosis of major depressive disorder or major depressive episode (MDD or MDE), and MDD with comorbid dysthymia, as evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), are included in the study. Participants are randomized to one of two conditions: 1) evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy (ED-CT) or 2) cognitive therapy (CT). Both groups undergo 12 psychotherapy sessions, and data are collected at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and the 3-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology and a categorical diagnosis of depression post-treatment. Discussion This randomized trial compares the newly proposed ED-CT with a classic CT protocol for depression. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to integrate insights from evolutionary theories of depression into the treatment of this condition in a controlled manner. This study can thus add substantially to the body of knowledge on validated treatments for depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64664414 The trial was registered in June 2013. The first participant was enrolled on October 3, 2012. PMID:24641778

2014-01-01

36

Health coaching to promote healthier lifestyle among older people at moderate risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and depression: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background The challenge of an aging population in the society makes it important to find strategies to promote health for all. The aim of this study is to evaluate if repeated health coaching in terms of motivational interviewing, and an offer of wide range of activities, will contribute to positive lifestyle modifications and health among persons aged 60–75 years, with moderately elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or mild depression. Methods/Design Men and women between 60 and 75 are recruited in four regions in Sweden if they fulfill one or more of the four inclusion criteria. •Current reading of blood pressure (140-159/90-99) without medication. •Current reading of blood sugar (Hba1c 42–52 mmol/mol) without medication. •A current waist-circumference of ?94 cm for men and ?80 for women. •A minor/mild depression (12–20 points) according to Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale without medication. Individuals with a worse result than inclusion criteria are treated according to regular guidelines at the PHCs and therefore not included. Exclusion criteria for the study are dementia, mental illness or other condition deemed unsuitable for participation. All participants fill out a questionnaire at baseline, and at the 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-ups containing questions on demographic characteristics, social life, HRQoL, lifestyle habits, general health/medication, self-rated mental health, and sense of coherence. At the 12-month follow-up, the health coach will give each participant a second questionnaire to capture attitudes and perceptions related to health coaching and venues/activities offered. Qualitative data will be collected twice to obtain a deeper understanding of perceptions and attitudes related to health and lifestyle/lifestyle modifications. A health economic assessment will be performed. Individual costs for health care utilisation will be collected and QALY-scores will be estimated. Discussion Several drawbacks can be identified when conducting research in real life. However, many of the identified problems can diminish the positive results of the intervention and if the intervention shows positive effects they might be underestimated. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01396033. PMID:23497163

2013-01-01

37

Protocol for a collaborative meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR, stress, and depression  

PubMed Central

Background Debate is ongoing about what role, if any, variation in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) plays in depression. Some studies report an interaction between 5-HTTLPR variation and stressful life events affecting the risk for depression, others report a main effect of 5-HTTLPR variation on depression, while others find no evidence for either a main or interaction effect. Meta-analyses of multiple studies have also reached differing conclusions. Methods/Design To improve understanding of the combined roles of 5-HTTLPR variation and stress in the development of depression, we are conducting a meta-analysis of multiple independent datasets. This coordinated approach utilizes new analyses performed with centrally-developed, standardized scripts. This publication documents the protocol for this collaborative, consortium-based meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR variation, stress, and depression. Study eligibility criteria: Our goal is to invite all datasets, published or unpublished, with 5-HTTLPR genotype and assessments of stress and depression for at least 300 subjects. This inclusive approach is to minimize potential impact from publication bias. Data sources: This project currently includes investigators from 35 independent groups, providing data on at least N = 33,761 participants. The analytic plan was determined prior to starting data analysis. Analyses of individual study datasets will be performed by the investigators who collected the data using centrally-developed standardized analysis scripts to ensure a consistent analytical approach across sites. The consortium as a group will review and interpret the meta-analysis results. Discussion Variation in 5-HTTLPR is hypothesized to moderate the response to stress on depression. To test specific hypotheses about the role of 5-HTTLPR variation on depression, we will perform coordinated meta-analyses of de novo results obtained from all available data, using variables and analyses determined a priori. Primary analyses, based on the original 2003 report by Caspi and colleagues of a GxE interaction will be supplemented by secondary analyses to help interpret and clarify issues ranging from the mechanism of effect to heterogeneity among the contributing studies. Publication of this protocol serves to protect this project from biased reporting and to improve the ability of readers to interpret the results of this specific meta-analysis upon its completion. PMID:24219410

2013-01-01

38

[Depression.  

PubMed

The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression are presented. PMID:25292467

Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

2014-08-01

39

Using standardized fMRI protocols to identify patterns of prefrontal circuit dysregulation that are common and specific to cognitive and emotional tasks in major depressive disorder: first wave results from the iSPOT-D study.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD. PMID:23303059

Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M

2013-04-01

40

Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of specialist psychotherapy that reduce relapse in unipolar major depression in adolescents and thereby costs of treatment to society. We also anticipate being able to utilise psychotherapy experience, neuroimaging, genetic and hormone measures to reveal what techniques and their protocols may work best for which patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN83033550 PMID:21752257

2011-01-01

41

A cluster randomized trial of standard quality improvement versus patient-centered interventions to enhance depression care for African Americans in the primary care setting: study protocol NCT00243425  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies document disparities in access to care and quality of care for depression for African Americans. Research suggests that patient attitudes and clinician communication behaviors may contribute to these disparities. Evidence links patient-centered care to improvements in mental health outcomes; therefore, quality improvement interventions that enhance this dimension of care are promising strategies to improve treatment and outcomes of depression among African Americans. This paper describes the design of the BRIDGE (Blacks Receiving Interventions for Depression and Gaining Empowerment) Study. The goal of the study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions for African-American patients with depression--a standard quality improvement program and a patient-centered quality improvement program. The main hypothesis is that patients in the patient-centered group will have a greater reduction in their depression symptoms, higher rates of depression remission, and greater improvements in mental health functioning at six, twelve, and eighteen months than patients in the standard group. The study also examines patient ratings of care and receipt of guideline-concordant treatment for depression. Methods/Design A total of 36 primary care clinicians and 132 of their African-American patients with major depressive disorder were recruited into a cluster randomized trial. The study uses intent-to-treat analyses to compare the effectiveness of standard quality improvement interventions (academic detailing about depression guidelines for clinicians and disease-oriented care management for their patients) and patient-centered quality improvement interventions (communication skills training to enhance participatory decision-making for clinicians and care management focused on explanatory models, socio-cultural barriers, and treatment preferences for their patients) for improving outcomes over 12 months of follow-up. Discussion The BRIDGE Study includes clinicians and African-American patients in under-resourced community-based practices who have not been well-represented in clinical trials to improve depression care. The patient-centered and culturally targeted approach to depression care is a relatively new one that has not been tested in most previous studies. The study will provide evidence about whether patient-centered accommodations improve quality of care and outcomes to a greater extent than standard quality improvement strategies for African Americans with depression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00243425 PMID:20178624

2010-01-01

42

Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The current randomised controlled trial will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) intervention for depression when compared with an active control condition and help establish the additive benefit of positive imagery CBM when delivered in combination with internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression. Methods and analysis Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for a current major depressive episode will be recruited through the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical and research unit in Australia. The minimum sample size for each group (? set at 0.05, power at 0.80) was identified as 29, but at least 10% more will be recruited to hedge against expected attrition. We will measure the impact of CBM on primary measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—second edition (BDI-II), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9)) and interpretive bias (ambiguous scenarios test-depression), and on a secondary measure of psychological distress (Kessler-10 (K10)) following the 1-week CBM intervention. Secondary outcome measures of psychological distress (K10), as well as disability (WHO disability assessment schedule-II), repetitive negative thinking (repetitive thinking questionnaire), and anxiety (state trait anxiety inventory-trait version) will be evaluated following completion of the 11-week combined intervention, in addition to the BDI-II and PHQ9. Intent-to-treat marginal and mixed effect models using restricted maximum likelihood estimation will be used to evaluate the primary hypotheses. Clinically significant change will be defined as high-end state functioning (a BDI-II score <14) combined with a total score reduction greater than the reliable change index score. Maintenance of gains will be assessed at 3-month follow-up. Ethics and dissemination The current trial protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of St Vincent's Hospital and the University of New South Wales, Sydney. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000139774 and Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01787513. This trial protocol is written in compliance with the Standard Protocol Items: recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines. PMID:24171941

Williams, Alishia D; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A; Andrews, Gavin

2013-01-01

43

Electrophysiological differences between high and low frequency rTMS protocols in depression treatment.  

PubMed

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a rapidly expanding mean in drug resistant depression treatment. Yet, despite vast research in this field, exact neurophysiological mechanism of rTMS therapy still remains unclear. This results in difficulties choosing suitable rTMS parameters in advance and compromises thorough evaluation of efficacy after the treatment. In order to obtain more explicit assessment of rTMS therapy in the psychiatric field, we evaluated and compared the influence of two most widely used antidepressive rTMS protocols on EEG band power spectrum and relation to clinical test scores (MADRS, BDI, HAM-D17). Forty-five patients (12 male, 33 female, mean age 52.16 years) participated in the study. Twenty-three patients received high frequency (10 Hz) stimulation, the rest 22 were stimulated using low frequency (1 Hz) protocol. Both groups received 10 to 15 daily rTMS sessions. EEG recordings and clinical tests were obtained the day before rTMS course and same day after the last session. Majority (57.78%) of patients showed considerable improvement after the treatment. There were no notable differences in clinical test score drop between the two rTMS protocols. However, we found that different protocols resulted in significantly different electrophysiological changes. High frequency (10 Hz) rTMS resulted in widespread changes off EEG band power, including delta power increase on the left hemisphere and alpha power growth on the right. Theta power increase was also obtained in parietal-occipital areas. Low frequency (1 Hz) rTMS showed to have no major effect on basic EEG band power, however, we found a notable shift of frontal alpha power asymmetry towards the right hemisphere, which correlated with the clinical outcome. Our study results suggest that two widely used rTMS protocols strongly differ in their electrophysiological mechanisms. Low frequency stimulation finesse on frontal alpha power asymmetry shift, whereas high frequency protocol acts on wider electrophysiological changes in the brain. PMID:23093015

Valiulis, Vladas; Gerulskis, Giedrius; Dapšys, Kastytis; Vištartaite, Giedre; Šiurkute, Aldona; Ma?iulis, Valentinas

2012-01-01

44

Remitted depression studies as tests of the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of cognitive patterns among individuals who have recovered from a depressive episode (i.e., remitted depressives) have figured importantly in evaluations of the validity of the vulnerability hypotheses of the cognitive theories of depression. However, we suggest that remitted depression studies as typically conducted and interpreted are inadequate tests of the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression onset for four reasons:

Nancy Just; Lyn Y. Abramson; Lauren B. Alloy

2001-01-01

45

Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene’s Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Discussion This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment using C-potencies versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. It is an attempt to deal with the obstacles of homeopathic research due to the need for individual prescriptions in one of the most common psychiatric diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01635218. PMID:23782520

2013-01-01

46

Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression. PMID:21394856

Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Muñoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.

2010-01-01

47

The ANU WellBeing study: a protocol for a quasi-factorial randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of an Internet support group and an automated Internet intervention for depression  

PubMed Central

Background Recent projections suggest that by the year 2030 depression will be the primary cause of disease burden among developed countries. Delivery of accessible consumer-focused evidenced-based services may be an important element in reducing this burden. Many consumers report a preference for self-help modes of delivery. The Internet offers a promising modality for delivering such services and there is now evidence that automated professionally developed self-help psychological interventions can be effective. By contrast, despite their popularity, there is little evidence as to the effectiveness of Internet support groups which provide peer-to-peer mutual support. Methods/Design Members of the community with elevated psychological distress were randomised to receive one of the following: (1) Internet Support Group (ISG) intervention, (2) a multi-module automated psychoeducational and skills Internet Training Program (ITP), (3) a combination of the ISG and ITP, or (4) an Internet Attention Control website (IAC) comprising health and wellbeing information and question and answer modules. Each intervention was 12 weeks long. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, 6 and 12 months to examine depressive symptoms, social support, self-esteem, quality of life, depression literacy, stigma and help-seeking for depression. Participants were recruited through a screening postal survey sent to 70,000 Australians aged 18 to 65 years randomly selected from four rural and four metropolitan regions in Australia. Discussion To our knowledge this study is the first randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a depression ISG. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65657330. PMID:20211025

2010-01-01

48

Obesity and Depression Often Twin Ills, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity and Depression Often Twin Ills, Study Finds Nature ... 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Health Disparities Obesity THURSDAY, Oct. 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Depression and ...

49

Supported cognitive-behavioural self-help versus treatment-as-usual for depressed informal carers of stroke survivors (CEDArS): study protocol for a feasibility randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Increased life expectancy has resulted in a greater provision of informal care within the community for patients with chronic physical health conditions. Informal carers are at greater risk of poor mental health, with one in three informal carers of stroke survivors experiencing depression. However, currently no psychological treatments tailored to the unique needs of depressed informal carers of stroke survivors exist. Furthermore, informal carers of stroke survivors experience a number of barriers to attending traditional face-to-face psychological services, such as lack of time and the demands of the caring role. The increased flexibility associated with supported cognitive behavioral therapy self-help (CBTsh), such as the ability for support to be provided by telephone, email, or face-to-face, alongside shorter support sessions, may help overcome such barriers to access. CBTsh, tailored to depressed informal carers of stroke survivors may represent an effective and acceptable solution. Methods/Design This study is a Phase II (feasibility) randomized controlled trial (RCT) following guidance in the MRC Complex Interventions Research Methods Framework. We will randomize a sample of depressed informal carers of stroke survivors to receive CBT self-help supported by mental health paraprofessionals, or treatment-as-usual. Consistent with the objectives of assessing the feasibility of trial design and procedures for a potential larger scale trial we will measure the following outcomes: a) feasibility of patient recruitment (recruitment and refusal rates); (b) feasibility and acceptability of data collection procedures; (c) levels of attrition; (d) likely intervention effect size; (e) variability in number, length and frequency of support sessions estimated to bring about recovery; and (f) acceptability of the intervention. Additionally, we will collect data on the diagnosis of depression, symptoms of depression and anxiety, functional impairment, carer burden, quality of life, and stroke survivor mobility skill, self-care and functional ability, measured at four and six months post-randomization. Discussion This study will provide important information for the feasibility and design of a Phase III (effectiveness) trial in the future. If the intervention is identified to be feasible, effective, and acceptable, a written CBTsh intervention for informal carers of stroke survivors, supported by mental health paraprofessionals, could represent a cost-effective model of care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63590486. PMID:24886151

2014-01-01

50

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... major depressive episode within one month after delivery. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is a depression during the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. Return to top What causes depression? There is no single cause of depression. ...

51

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... children, teens, and seniors. Causes & Risk Factors What causes depression? Depression may be caused by an imbalance of ... such as heart disease, diabetes, or cancer may cause depression. Events in your life. Depression can be triggered ...

52

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... People Get Depressed? Cutting Talking to Parents About Depression Stress & Coping Center Seasonal Affective Disorder Finding Low-Cost Mental Health Care 5 Ways to Fight Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Contact Us Print Additional resources ...

53

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... sadness and the disabling weight of clinical depression. Causes Depression can affect anyone—even a person who appears ... g., a brain tumor or vitamin deficiency) can cause depression, so it is important to be evaluated by ...

54

Negotiating ‘depression’ in primary care: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatry has provided primary care physicians with tools for recognising and labelling mild, moderate or severe ‘depression’. General practitioners (GPs) in the UK have been guided to manage depression within primary care and to prescribe anti-depressants as a first-line treatment. The present study aimed to examine how GPs would construct ‘depression’ when asked to talk about those anomalous patients for

Susan McPherson; David Armstrong

2009-01-01

55

Major depressive disorder: A prospective study of residual subthreshold depressive symptoms as predictor of rapid relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study tested whether level of recovery from major depressive episodes (MDEs) predicts duration of recovery in unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Methods: MDD patients seeking treatment at five academic centers were followed naturalistically for 10 years or longer. Patients were divided on the basis of intake MDE recovery into residual depressive symptoms (SSD; N=82) and asymptomatic (N=155)

Lewis L. Judd; Hagop S. Akiskal; Jack D. Maser; Pamela J. Zeller; Jean Endicott; William Coryell; Martin P. Paulus; Jelena L. Kunovac; Andrew C Leon; Timothy I. Mueller; John A. Rice; Martin B. Keller

1998-01-01

56

Development and testing of culturally sensitive patient information material for Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migrants with depression or chronic low back pain (KULTINFO): study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many of the approximately 15 million people with a migration background living in Germany (19% of the population) are inadequately reached by existing healthcare provision. In the literature, the necessity for cultural adaptation of information material for patients with a migration background is often cited as a measure for improving healthcare. In this study, culturally sensitive information material will be developed and evaluated for patients with a migration background and depression or chronic low back pain. In this respect, it will be examined whether culturally sensitive information material is judged as more useful by the patients than standard translated patient information without cultural adaptation. Methods/Design The implementation and evaluation of culturally sensitive patient information material will occur in the framework of a double-blind randomized controlled parallel-group study in four study centres in Germany. Primary care patients with a Turkish, Polish, Russian or Italian migration background with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or chronic low back pain will be included and randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. In the intervention group, culturally sensitive patient information will be handed to the patient at the end of the physician consultation, while in the control group, standard translated patient information material will be provided. The patients will be surveyed by means of questionnaires following the consultation as well as after 8 weeks and 6 months. In addition to the primary outcome (subjective usefulness), several patient- and physician-rated secondary outcomes will be considered. Discussion The study will provide an empirical answer to the question of whether persons with a migration background perceive culturally sensitive patient information material as more useful than translated information material without cultural adaptation. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS-ID) DRKS00004241 and Universal Trial Number (UTN) U1111-1135-8043. PMID:24996511

2014-01-01

57

A written self-help intervention for depressed adults comparing behavioural activation combined with physical activity promotion with a self-help intervention based upon behavioural activation alone: study protocol for a parallel group pilot randomised controlled trial (BAcPAc)  

PubMed Central

Background Challenges remain to find ways to support patients with depression who have low levels of physical activity (PA) to overcome perceived barriers and enhance the perceived value of PA for preventing future relapse. There is an evidence-base for behavioural activation (BA) for depression, which focuses on supporting patients to restore activities that have been avoided, but practitioners have no specific training in promoting PA. We aimed to design and evaluate an integrated BA and PA (BAcPAc) practitioner-led, written, self-help intervention to enhance both physical and mental health. Methods/design This study is informed by the Medical Research Council Complex Intervention Framework and describes a protocol for a pilot phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the feasibility and acceptability of the trial methods to inform a definitive phase III RCT. Following development of the augmented written self-help intervention (BAcPAc) incorporating behavioural activation with physical activity promotion, depressed adults are randomised to receive up to 12 sessions over a maximum of 4 months of either BAcPAc or behavioural activation alone within a written self-help format, which represents treatment as usual. The study is located within two ‘Improving Access to Psychological Therapies’ services in South West England, with both written self-help interventions supported by mental health paraprofessionals. Measures assessed at 4, 9, and 12 month follow-up include the following: CIS-R, PHQ-9, accelerometer recorded (4 months only) and self-reported PA, body mass index, blood pressure, Insomnia Severity Index, quality of life, and health and social care service use. Process evaluation will include analysis of recorded support sessions and patient and practitioner interviews. At the time of writing the study has recruited 60 patients. Discussion The feasibility outcomes will inform a definitive RCT to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the augmented BAcPAc written self-help intervention to reduce depression and depressive relapse, and bring about improvements across a range of physical health outcomes. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74390532, 26.03.2013. PMID:24886116

2014-01-01

58

An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation  

PubMed Central

Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167

Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

2015-01-01

59

Preventing the onset of major depression based on the level and profile of risk of primary care attendees: protocol of a cluster randomised trial (the predictD-CCRT study)  

PubMed Central

Background The ‘predictD algorithm’ provides an estimate of the level and profile of risk of the onset of major depression in primary care attendees. This gives us the opportunity to develop interventions to prevent depression in a personalized way. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a new intervention, personalized and implemented by family physicians (FPs), to prevent the onset of episodes of major depression. Methods/Design This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT), with cluster assignment by health center and two parallel arms. Two interventions will be applied by FPs, usual care versus the new intervention predictD-CCRT. The latter has four components: a training workshop for FPs; communicating the level and profile of risk of depression; building up a tailored bio-psycho-family-social intervention by FPs to prevent depression; offering a booklet to prevent depression; and activating and empowering patients. We will recruit a systematic random sample of 3286 non-depressed adult patients (1643 in each trial arm), nested in 140 FPs and 70 health centers from 7 Spanish cities. All patients will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The level and profile of risk of depression will be communicated to patients by the FPs in the intervention practices at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Our primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of major depression (measured by CIDI each 6 months) over 18 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be health-related quality of life (SF-12 and EuroQol), and measurements of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The inferences will be made at patient level. We shall undertake an intention-to-treat effectiveness analysis and will handle missing data using multiple imputations. We will perform multi-level logistic regressions and will adjust for the probability of the onset of major depression at 12 months measured at baseline as well as for unbalanced variables if appropriate. The economic evaluation will be approached from two perspectives, societal and health system. Discussion To our knowledge, this will be the first RCT of universal primary prevention for depression in adults and the first to test a personalized intervention implemented by FPs. We discuss possible biases as well as other limitations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01151982 PMID:23782553

2013-01-01

60

Depression, Anxiety Can Precede Memory Loss in Alzheimer's, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Depression, Anxiety Can Precede Memory Loss in Alzheimer's, Study Finds Those who developed dementia were more ... 2015) Wednesday, January 14, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Depression WEDNESDAY, Jan. 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

61

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... is most likely due to a lack of sunlight. Depression may also alternate with mania (known as ... therapy using a special lamp that is like sunlight. If you have moderate to severe depression, the ...

62

Depression care management for late-life depression in China primary care: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  As a major public health issue in China and worldwide, late-life depression is associated with physical limitations, greater\\u000a functional impairment, increased utilization and cost of health care, and suicide. Like other chronic diseases in elders such\\u000a as hypertension and diabetes, depression is a chronic disease that the new National Health Policy of China indicates should\\u000a be managed in primary care

Shulin Chen; Yeates Conwell; Baihua Xu; Helen Chiu; Xin Tu; Yan Ma

2011-01-01

63

Relationships between the Underlying Constructs of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck and others, 1979) in 261 college students. Findings suggest the BDI and CES-D measure different aspects of depression and should not be used…

Skorikov, Vladimir B.; Vandervoort, Debra J.

2003-01-01

64

Does Depression Cause Obesity?A Meta-analysis of Longitudinal Studies of Depression and Weight Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the causal effects of depression on obesity, longitudinal tests of the effect of depression on follow-up obesity status were meta-analyzed. Combining data from 16 studies the results confirmed that, after controlling for potential confounding variables, depressed compared to nondepressed people were at significantly higher risk for developing obesity. The risk among depressed people for later obesity was particularly

Bruce Blaine

2008-01-01

65

The effect of improvisational music therapy on the treatment of depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other

Jaakko Erkkilä; Christian Gold; Jörg Fachner; Esa Ala-Ruona; Marko Punkanen; Mauno Vanhala

2008-01-01

66

A prospective study of predictors of depression symptoms in police.  

PubMed

Police work is one of the most stressful occupations. Previous research has indicated that work stress and trauma exposure may place individuals at heightened risk for the development of depression symptomatology. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to examine predictors of depression symptoms in police service. Participants comprised 119 healthy police recruits from an ongoing prospective study. They completed baseline measures of depression symptoms, childhood trauma exposure, neuroticism, and self-worth during academy training. Follow-up measures of depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, critical incident exposure, negative life events, and routine work environment stress were assessed after 12 months of police service. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to examine predictors of current levels of depression symptoms, controlling for baseline depression symptoms and current PTSD symptoms. Greater childhood trauma exposure, lower self-worth during training, and greater perceived work stress in the first year of police service predicted greater depression symptoms at 12 months. Depression symptoms at 1 year of police service were partly independent from PTSD symptoms at 12 months. Greater childhood trauma exposure and lower self-worth during training may be important variables to screen as risk factors for duty-related depression. Strategies to reduce routine work environment stress have the potential to decrease duty-related depression in law enforcement. PMID:20044144

Wang, Zhen; Inslicht, Sabra S; Metzler, Thomas J; Henn-Haase, Clare; McCaslin, Shannon E; Tong, Huiqi; Neylan, Thomas C; Marmar, Charles R

2010-02-28

67

A Genome-Wide Association Study of Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. Methods In this genome-wide association study, we combined the results of 17 population-based studies assessing depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Replication of the independent top hits (p < 1 × 10?5) was performed in five studies assessing depressive symptoms with other instruments. In addition, we performed a combined meta-analysis of all 22 discovery and replication studies. Results The discovery sample comprised 34,549 individuals (mean age of 66.5) and no loci reached genome-wide significance (lowest p = 1.05 × 10?7). Seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for replication. In the replication set (n = 16,709), we found suggestive association of one single nucleotide polymorphism with depressive symptoms (rs161645, 5q21, p = 9.19 × 10?3). This 5q21 region reached genome-wide significance (p = 4.78 × 10?8) in the overall meta-analysis combining discovery and replication studies (n = 51,258). Conclusions The results suggest that only a large sample comprising more than 50,000 subjects may be sufficiently powered to detect genes for depressive symptoms. PMID:23290196

Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshis, Erin; Baumert, Jens; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Marciante, Kristin; Meirelles, Osorio; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Yu, Lei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, David A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Cannas, Alessandra; Coker, Laura H.; de Geus, Eco; De Jager, Philip L.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Purcell, Shaun; Hu, Frank B.; Rimma, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary; Rice, Kenneth; Penman, Alan D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Emeny, Rebecca; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Kardia, Sharon; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Koenen, Karestan; Kraft, Peter; Kuningas, Maris; Massaro, Joseph M.; Melzer, David; Mulas, Antonella; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Murray, Anna; Oostra, Ben A.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Petersmann, Astrid; Pilling, Luke C.; Psaty, Bruce; Rawal, Rajesh; Reiman, Eric M.; Schulz, Andrea; Shulman, Joshua M.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Widen, Elisabeth; Yaffe, Kristine; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cucca, Francesco; Harris, Tamara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Llewellyn, David J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Tanaka, Toshiko

2013-01-01

68

Depression means different things: A qualitative study of psychiatrists' conceptualization of depression in the palliative care setting.  

PubMed

Objective: Medical practitioners conceptualize depression in different ways, which adds to the challenges of its diagnosis and treatment, as well as research in the palliative care setting. Psychiatric assessment is often considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis, therefore how psychiatrists conceptualize depression in this setting is pertinent. Our study aimed to investigate this issue. Method: Psychiatrists working in palliative care in Australia were individually interviewed using a semistructured approach. Nine participants were interviewed to reach data saturation. Interview transcripts were analyzed for themes. Results: Three overarching themes were identified: (1) depression means different things; (2) depression is conceptualized using different models; and (3) depression is the same concept within and outside of the palliative care setting. Participants explicitly articulated the heterogeneous nature of depression and described a different breadths of concepts, ranging from a narrow construct of a depressive illness to a broader one that encompassed depressive symptoms and emotions. However, depressive illness was a consistent concept, and participants considered this in terms of phenotypic subtypes. Participants used three models (spectral, dichotomous, and mixed) to relate various depressive presentations. Significance of Results: Psychiatrists did not subscribe to a unitary model of depression but understood it as a heterogeneous concept comprised of depressive illness and other less clearly defined depressive presentations. Given the influence of psychiatric opinion in the area of depression, these findings may serve as a platform for further discussions to refine the concepts of depression in the palliative care setting, which in turn may improve diagnostic and treatment outcomes. PMID:25331292

Ng, Felicity; Crawford, Gregory B; Chur-Hansen, Anna

2014-10-21

69

Computerized adaptive measurement of depression: A simulation study  

PubMed Central

Background Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We examined its efficiency and its usefulness in identifying Major Depressive Episodes (MDE) and in measuring depression severity. Methods Subjects were 744 participants in research studies in which each subject completed both the BDI and the SCID. In addition, 285 patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results The adaptive BDI had an AUC as an indicator of a SCID diagnosis of MDE of 88%, equivalent to the full BDI. The adaptive BDI asked fewer questions than the full BDI (5.6 versus 21 items). The adaptive latent depression score correlated r = .92 with the BDI total score and the latent depression score correlated more highly with the Hamilton (r = .74) than the BDI total score did (r = .70). Conclusions Adaptive testing for depression may provide greatly increased efficiency without loss of accuracy in identifying MDE or in measuring depression severity. PMID:15132755

Gardner, William; Shear, Katherine; Kelleher, Kelly J; Pajer, Kathleen A; Mammen, Oommen; Buysse, Daniel; Frank, Ellen

2004-01-01

70

Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p?=?0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p?depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

2013-01-01

71

Depressants  

MedlinePLUS

... can slow heart rate and breathing enough to cause death. Legal status in the United States Most depressants are controlled substances that range from Schedule I to Schedule IV under the Controlled Substances Act, depending on their risk for abuse and whether they currently have an accepted medical ...

72

Depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women: results from the MEDIS Study.  

PubMed

Data regarding the factors associated with depressive symptoms are limited, especially in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent depressive symptoms were present in postmenopausal women, to explore characteristics associated with depressive symptoms and to determine if time since menopause was independently associated with depressive symptoms. Data collected within the Mediterranean Islands (MEDIS) Study, a health and nutrition survey of elderly people living on Mediterranean islands was used. A total of 851 postmenopausal women living in various Greek islands, Cyprus, and Malta participated in the study. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Age-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that a year's increase in the time since menopause increased the likelihood of postmenopausal women having severe depressive symptoms by 3% (odds ratio [OR] per 1 year = 1.03, 95% CI 1.001-1.05). This positive association was also evident when other potential confounding factors (i.e, living conditions, financial status, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, smoking habits, and several clinical conditions) were also taken into account in multivariable analyses. Primary health care practitioners and public health care authorities could use the findings of this study to identify depressive symptoms early in postmenopausal women. PMID:24791809

Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zeimbekis, Akis; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Lionis, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

2014-01-01

73

A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs  

PubMed Central

The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2010-01-01

74

A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.  

PubMed

The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2010-01-01

75

Depression in Children with Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Case-Control Family History Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the family histories of 13 children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) with depression and 10 similar children without depression. Ten of the depressed children had a positive family history of depression compared to three of the nondepressed group. Findings support the validity of depression as a distinct…

Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; Greden, John

1998-01-01

76

Doctoral Thesis A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags  

E-print Network

Doctoral Thesis RFID A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags ( Dang, Nguyen Duc 2010 #12;RFID A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags #12;A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags Advisor : Professor Kim, Kwangjo by Dang, Nguyen Duc Department of Information

Kim, Kwangjo

77

The Adolescent Depression Rating Scale (ADRS): a validation study  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Depression Rating Scale (ADRS), a new measure was specifically designed to evaluate adolescent depression. Methods The 11-item clinician-report and 44-item self-report versions of the ADRS were developed from a qualitative phase involving interviews of experts and adolescents. These two instruments were then administered to 402 French speaking adolescents with and without depressive disorders. Item distribution, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity and factorial structure were assessed. Results After reduction procedures, a 10-item clinician version and a 10-item self-report version were obtained. The ADRS demonstrated good internal consistency (alpha Cronbach coefficient >.70). It also discriminated better between adolescents with and without depression than the Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13). Conclusion The ADRS is a useful, short, clinician-report and self-report scale to evaluate adolescent depression. Further studies to replicate our findings and evaluate ADRS sensitivity to effects of treatment and psychometric properties in populations of adolescents with several psychiatric disorders are warranted. PMID:17222346

Revah-Levy, Anne; Birmaher, Boris; Gasquet, Isabelle; Falissard, Bruno

2007-01-01

78

Depression and ways of coping with stress: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Coping with stress is defined as all activities undertaken by a human in a stressful situation. The effect of stress on depression, its role in triggering the subsequent phases of the disease, and the factors that mediate the stress-depression relationship become more and more often subjects of research in psychiatry and psychology. Factors important for the formation of depressive symptoms and disease progression are significantly associated with coping strategies used in the face of stress. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the most popular strategies of coping with stress in people with depression in comparison to healthy subjects. Material/Methods Initial research was carried on 80 patients aged from 20 to 66 years with a diagnosis of depression. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 22 to 57 years. Analysis of the most popular strategies of coping with stress was performed with the Multiphasic Inventory for Measuring Coping (COPE) by Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub. Results In contrast with healthy people, patients with depression in stressful situations more often use strategies based on avoidance and denial and have more difficulties in finding positive aspects of stressful events. Conclusions Depression may be an important factor in the negative assessment of one’s own ability to cope with difficult situations and can aggravate a tendency to perceive stressful events as overwhelming. PMID:24270182

Orzechowska, Agata; Zaj?czkowska, Marlena; Talarowska, Monika; Ga?ecki, Piotr

2013-01-01

79

The stress systems in depression: a postmortem study  

PubMed Central

After trauma, depressive disorders are among the most frequent emerging diagnoses. However, although the symptoms of depression are well characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown. Factors involved in the heterogeneous pathogenesis of depression include polymorphisms in stress-related genes, gender, age, developmental history, and environmental (traumatic) stressors such as epigenetic factors. These factors may make different parts of the stress-related brain systems more vulnerable to different stressful or traumatic life events or psychological stresses, causing alterations in a network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators including amines, amino acids, nitric oxide (NO), and neuropeptides, and finally make individuals at risk for depression. The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis has a prominent position in this network. With the postmortem brain material obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank, we have carried on a series of studies with the aim to elucidate the specific changes in these systems in relation to special subtypes of depression. Our final destination is to set up tailor-made treatment for depressive patients on the basis of his/her developmental history, genetic and epigenetic background, and the vulnerability in particular neurobiological systems. This presentation is a review of our findings of changes in systems of sex steroids, receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, orexin, ?-aminobutyric acid, and NO in the etiology of depression, in relation to HPA activity, sex differences, and suicide. PMID:25511726

Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

2014-01-01

80

GENetic and clinical Predictors Of treatment response in Depression: the GenPod randomised trial protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The most effective pharmacological treatments for depression inhibit the transporters that reuptake serotonin (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors – SSRIs) and noradrenaline (Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors – NaRIs) into the presynaptic terminal. There is evidence to suggest that noradrenaline and serotonin enhancing drugs work through separate mechanisms to produce their clinical antidepressant action. Although most of the current evidence suggests there

Laura Thomas; Jean Mulligan; Victoria Mason; Debbie Tallon; Nicola Wiles; Philip Cowen; David Nutt; Michael O'Donovan; Deborah Sharp; Tim Peters; Glyn Lewis

2008-01-01

81

Understanding prognostic benefits of exercise and antidepressant therapy for persons with depression and heart disease: the UPBEAT study – rationale, design, and methodological issues  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is relatively common in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and is associated with worse prognosis. Recently there has been interest in evaluating the impact of treating depression on clinical outcomes. Anti-depressant medications have been shown to be safe and efficacious for many patients; exercise also may be effective for treating depression and may also improve cardiopulmonary functioning. However, methodological limitations of previous studies have raised questions about the value of exercise, and no study has compared the effects of exercise with standard anti-depressant medication in depressed cardiac patients. Purpose UPBEAT is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) funded by NHLBI to evaluate the effects of sertraline or exercise compared to placebo on depression and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in patients with CHD and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods The UPBEAT study includes 200 stable CHD patients with scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) ? 9 randomized to 4 months of treatment with aerobic exercise, sertraline, or placebo. The primary outcomes include depressive symptoms determined by clinical ratings on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and measures of heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex control (BRC), vascular function (i.e., flow-mediated dilation (FMD)), and measures of inflammation and platelet aggregation. Results This article reviews the rationale and design of UPBEAT and addresses several key methodologic issues that were carefully considered in the development of this protocol: the use of a placebo control condition in depressed cardiac patients, study design, and selection of intermediate endpoints or biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Limitations This study is not powered to assess treatment group differences in CHD morbidity and mortality. Intermediate endpoints are not equivalent to ‘hard’ clinical events and further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these biomarkers. Conclusions The UPBEAT study is designed to assess the efficacy of exercise in treating depression in cardiac patients and evaluates the impact of treating depression on important biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. PMID:17942470

Blumenthal, James A; Sherwood, Andrew; Rogers, Sharon D; Babyak, Michael A; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Watkins, Lana; Hoffman, Benson M; O’Connell, Cara; Johnson, Julie J; Patidar, Seema M; Waugh, Robert; Hinderliter, Alan

2013-01-01

82

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy. PMID:16257993

Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe

2005-01-01

83

Distinctive Clinical Correlates of Psychotic Major Depression: The CRESCEND Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this investigation was to identify distinctive clinical correlates of psychotic major depression (PMD) as compared with non-psychotic major depression (NPMD) in a large cohort of Korean patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods We recruited 966 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea (CRESCEND) study. Diagnoses of PMD (n=24) and NPMD (n=942) were made with the DSM-IV definitions and confirmed with SCID. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (HAMD), anxiety (HAMA), global severity (CGI-S), suicidal ideation (SSI-Beck), functioning (SOFAS), and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Using independent t-tests and ?2 tests, we compared clinical characteristics of patients with PMD and NPMD. A binary logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with increased likelihood of PMD. Results PMD subjects were characterized by a higher rate of inpatient enrollment, and higher scores on many items on BPRS (somatic concern, anxiety, emotional withdrawal, guilt feelings, tension, depression, suspiciousness, hallucination, motor retardation, blunted affect and excitement) global severity (CGI-s), and suicidal ideation (SSI-Beck). The explanatory factor model revealed that high levels of tension, excitement, and suicidal ideation were associated with increased likelihood of PMD. Conclusion Our findings partly support the view that PMD has its own distinctive clinical manifestation and course, and may be considered a diagnostic entity separate from NPMD. PMID:25110501

Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Hwa-Young; Sakong, Jeong-Kyu; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

2014-01-01

84

A three-year follow-up of major depression, dysthymia, minor depression and subsyndromal depression: results from a population-based study.  

PubMed

This study examined the 3-year outcome of major depression (MD)/dysthymic disorder (DD), minor depression (MinD), and subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD) in a population-based sample. The aims were to study the fluctuating nature of the symptoms of depression and to analyze the risk of fulfilling the criteria for MD/DD at the follow-up. An extensive questionnaire was sent out to persons ages 20-64 years registered in Stockholm County. Depression was assessed with the Major Depression Inventory. After 3 years the procedure was repeated, and 8,622 persons participated in both waves. Diagnoses of MD/DD, MinD, or SSD were made. Highest 3-year stability in fulfilling the criteria for a specific depressive category was found in MD/DD, and of those affected, only 35.9% had one or fewer symptoms of depression at the 3-year follow-up. The frequency of those with one or fewer symptom of depression was equal in MinD (58.9%) and in SSD (56.5%). The relative risk (RR) of fulfilling the criteria for MD/DD at Wave 2 was highest for those affected by MD/DD (RR=22.4) at Wave 1, whereas those fulfilling the criteria for MinD or SSD had similar rates (RR=4.8 and 5.0, respectively). This study supports the view that depression is a dimensional illness, with the affected persons moving in and out of diagnostic subtypes. The 3-year prognosis was severe in half of the affected persons in all three diagnostic depression categories. PMID:16947910

Forsell, Yvonne

2007-01-01

85

Prescribing patterns of antidepressants in Europe: Results from the Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antidepressant prescribing patterns and factors influencing the choice of antidepressant for the treatment of depression were examined in the Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER) study, a prospective, observational study in 12 European countries of 3468 adults about to start antidepressant medication for their first episode of depression or a new episode of recurrent depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Michael Bauer; Brigitta U. Monz; Angel L. Montejo; Deborah Quail; Nicolas Dantchev; Koen Demyttenaere; Ana Garcia-Cebrian; Luigi Grassi; David G. S. Perahia; Catherine Reed; Andre Tylee

2008-01-01

86

Depression and Risk of Heart Failure Among the Elderly: A Prospective Community-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although the association between depression and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been established in many studies, the impact of depression on the incidence of heart failure has not been previously investigated. Methods: We examined the effect of depression (assessed by means of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with a cutoff point of 21) on

SETAREH A. WILLIAMS; STANISLAV V. KASL; ASEFEH HEIAT; JEROME L. ABRAMSON; HARLAN M. KRUMHOLZ; VIOLA VACCARINO

2002-01-01

87

A Reliability Generalization Study of the Geriatric Depression Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted a reliability generalization study of the Geriatric Depression Scale (T. Brink and others, 1982). Results from this investigation of 338 studies shows that the average score reliability across studies was 0.8482 and identifies the most important predictors of score reliability. (SLD)

Kieffer, Kevin M.; Reese, Robert J.

2002-01-01

88

Linkage study between manic-depressive illness and chromosome 21  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome 21, of interest as potentially containing a disease gene for manic-depressive illness as possible evidence for a gene predisposing to affective disorder, has recently been reported in a single large family as well as samples of families. The present study investigates for linkage between manic-depressive illness and markers covering the long arm of chromosome 21 in two manic-depressive families, using ten microsatellite polymorphisms as markers. No conclusive evidence for a disease gene on the long arm of chromosome 21 was found. Assuming either a dominant or recessive mode of inheritance, close linkage to the marker PFKL, which has been reported as possibly linked to affective disorder, seems unlikely in the families studied here. PFKL and more telomeric markers yielded small positive lod scores at higher recombination fractions in the largest family, and small positive lod scores at lower recombination fractions in the affecteds-only analyses in the smallest family. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Ewald, H.; Mors, O.; Flint, T. [Psychiatric Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others] [Psychiatric Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); and others

1996-04-09

89

Neurological signs and late-life depressive symptoms in a community population: the ESPRIT Study  

E-print Network

that the causes of depression in the elderly may be different from that occurring in young adults, in that1 Neurological signs and late-life depressive symptoms in a community population: the ESPRIT Study: Neurological signs, Late-life Depression, Depressive symptoms, Old age, Neurodegenerative theory Key points

Boyer, Edmond

90

Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression among adults in Japanese clinical settings: a single-group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating Japanese patients with major depression is lacking, therefore, a feasibility study of CBT for depression in Japanese clinical settings is urgently required. FINDINGS: A culturally adapted, 16-week manualized individual CBT program for Japanese patients with major depressive disorder was developed. A total of 27 patients with major depression were enrolled

Daisuke Fujisawa; Atsuo Nakagawa; Miyuki Tajima; Mitsuhiro Sado; Toshiaki Kikuchi; Motomi Hanaoka; Yutaka Ono

2010-01-01

91

An Exploratory Study of Depression Among Older African American Users of an Academic Outpatient Rehabilitation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the presentation of depressive illness among older African Americans may complicate assessment of depression, especially among those with multiple medical comorbidities and functional disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of depression among older poor African Americans attending an academic outpatient rehabil- itation program, using a depression measure with low somatic item content. Correlates

Lenore H. Kurlowicz; Freida H. Outlaw; Sarah J. Ratcliffe; Lois K. Evans

2005-01-01

92

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Comparison between three types of stented  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Comparison between three types of stented pericardial aortic valves Keywords: Stented pericardial aortic valves, Pericardial aortic valves, Hemodynamic performance Background

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Light therapy for seasonal and nonseasonal depression: efficacy, protocol, safety, and side effects.  

PubMed

Bright light therapy for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has been investigated and applied for over 20 years. Physicians and clinicians are increasingly confident that bright light therapy is a potent, specifically active, nonpharmaceutical treatment modality. Indeed, the domain of light treatment is moving beyond SAD, to nonseasonal depression (unipolar and bipolar), seasonal flare-ups of bulimia nervosa, circadian sleep phase disorders, and more. Light therapy is simple to deliver to outpatients and inpatients alike, although the optimum dosing of light and treatment time of day requires individual adjustment. The side-effect profile is favorable in comparison with medications, although the clinician must remain vigilant about emergent hypomania and autonomic hyperactivation, especially during the first few days of treatment. Importantly, light therapy provides a compatible adjunct to antidepressant medication, which can result in accelerated improvement and fewer residual symptoms. PMID:16041296

Terman, Michael; Terman, Jiuan Su

2005-08-01

94

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Transmission of Parental Depression to Children's Depression and Conduct Disturbance: An Extended Children of Twins Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children's behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental…

Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon J.

2010-01-01

95

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genome-wide association study of major depressive  

E-print Network

) support for the bipolar disorder risk variant SNP rs1006737 in CACNA1C (P = 0.020, odds ratio = 1ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 3 Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital

Nyholt, Dale R.

96

Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

2012-01-01

97

Molecular studies of major depressive disorder: the epigenetic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder encompassing a spectrum of symptoms involving deficits to a range of cognitive, psychomotor and emotional processes. As is the norm for aetiological studies into the majority of psychiatric phenotypes, particular focus has fallen on the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. There are, however, several epidemiological, clinical and

J Mill; A Petronis

2007-01-01

98

Is sertraline treatment or depression remission in depressed Alzheimer’s patients associated with improved caregiver wellbeing? The Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease Study 2 (DIADS-2)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess if sertraline treatment (vs. placebo) or remission of depression at 12 weeks (vs. non-remission) in Alzheimer’s patients is associated with improved caregiver wellbeing. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of sertraline for the treatment of depression in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. Setting Five clinical research sites across the United States. Participants Caregivers of patients enrolled in the Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease Study 2 (N=131). Intervention All caregivers received standardized psychosocial support throughout the study. Measurements Caregiver outcome measures included depression (Beck Depression Inventory), distress (Neuropsychiatric Inventory), burden (Zarit Burden Interview), and quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey). Results Fifty-nine percent of caregivers were spouses, 63.4% were female, and 64.1% were white. Caregivers of patients in both treatment groups had significant reductions in distress scores over the 24 week study period, but there was not a greater benefit for caregivers of patients taking sertraline. However, caregivers of patients whose depression was in remission at week 12 had greater declines in distress scores over the 24 weeks than caregivers of patients whose depression did not remit by week 12. Conclusions Patient treatment with sertraline was not associated with significantly greater reductions in caregiver distress than placebo treatment. Distress but not level of depression or burden lessened for all caregivers regardless of remission status and even more so for those who cared for patients whose depression remitted. Results imply an interrelationship between caregiver distress and patient psychiatric outcomes. PMID:24314887

Longmire, Crystal V. Flynn; Drye, Lea T.; Frangakis, Constantine E.; Martin, Barbara K.; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Weintraub, Daniel; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2014-01-01

99

Hostility and Depression: Longitudinal Study of Data from the National Survey of Families and Households  

E-print Network

with depression is sadness. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV- TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000), “depressed mood” is the only affective symptom explicitly included in the diagnostic... of experiencing hostility in the context of depressive disorders. The prominence of hostility-related features in the context of depressed mood has implications for nearly every area of depression research including, but not limited to, studies concerning...

Gaddy, Melinda Ann

2013-08-31

100

Pacific Islands Families Study: Intimate Partner Violence and Postnatal Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The present study examined the association between maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) and postnatal depression (PND)\\u000a 6 weeks after giving birth. Study Design Data were gathered from the Pacific Islands Families Study. Mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born in Auckland, New\\u000a Zealand during 2000 were interviewed 6 weeks after giving birth. There were 1,085 mothers cohabiting in married or

Wanzhen Gao; Janis Paterson; Max Abbott; Sarnia Carter; Leon Iusitini

2010-01-01

101

Group interpersonal psychotherapy for postnatal depression: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We conducted a pilot study to assess the potential effectiveness of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) as a treatment\\u000a for postnatal depression (PND). The study was also established to test a treatment manual for IPT-G, assess the acceptability\\u000a of this format for participants and test a recruitment strategy for a randomised controlled trial. 18 mothers diagnosed with\\u000a PND participated in 2

R. Reay; Y. Fisher; M. Robertson; E. Adams; C. Owen

2006-01-01

102

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treating Depression in a Patient With Right Hemispheric Dominance: A Case Study.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with major depressive disorder for the last 6 months. The patient had been diagnosed with dyslexia during childhood and was left-handed. The intervention protocol consisted in 10 consecutive daily transcranial direct current stimulation sessions. However, after 5 days of stimulation, the patient presented with intensification of depressive symptoms and panic attacks. It was hypothetized that the intensification of symptoms may have been due to stimulation protocol itself. Considering the patient was left-handed and presented comorbidity with dyslexia, there was a plausible hypothesis of right hemispheric dominance. This was corroborated by the Edinburgh Handedness Scale. In fact, dyslexic patients present right hemisphere dominance more frequently. The patient also presented a single photon emission computed tomography with a hypoperfusion area over the left posterior parietal lobe. After the patients agreement, a 10-day experimental repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation low-frequency protocol over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was started to inhibit the area, which was hypothetically hyperactivated following the rationale of right dominance. The patient presented amelioration of depressive and anxious symptoms. Given the hemispheric reversal we show in the present case study, however, it seems that therapies that are beneficial to right-handers could be detrimental to left-handers. PMID:25203287

Shiozawa, Pedro; da Silva, Mailu Enokibara; Cordeiro, Quirino

2014-09-01

103

Study of Insider Attacks for the OSPF Routing Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to protect the network infrastructure (e.g., network routing and management protocols) against security intrusions, yet dealing with insider attacks are pr obably one of the most challenging research pr oblems in network security. We study the security threats, especially internal\\/insider threats, for the standardized routing protocol OSPF. In OSPF, a group of r outers collaborate, exchange routing

Brian Vetter; Feiyi Wang; S. Felix Wu

104

An experimental study of insider attacks for OSPF routing protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is critical to protect the network infrastructure (e.g., network routing and management protocols) against security intrusions, yet dealing with insider attacks are probably one of the most challenging research problems in network security. We study the security threats, especially internal\\/insider threats, for the standardized routing protocol OSPF. In OSPF, a group of routers collaborate, exchange routing information, and forward

Brain Vetter; Feiyi Wang; Shyhtsun Felix Wu

1997-01-01

105

A Prospective 12Year Study of Subsyndromal and Syndromal Depressive Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

9 of 10 patients spent weeks at 3 or 4 different levels during follow-up. The MinD (27%) and SSD (17%) symptom levels were more common than the MDD (15%) symptom level. Patients with double depression and recurrent depression had more chronic symptoms than patients with their first lifetime major depressive episode (72% and 65%, respectively, vs 46% of fol- low-up

Lewis L. Judd; Hagop S. Akiskal; Jack D. Maser; Pamela J. Zeller; Jean Endicott; William Coryell; Martin P. Paulus; Jelena L. Kunovac; Andrew C. Leon; Timothy I. Mueller; John A. Rice; Martin B. Keller

1998-01-01

106

Functional brain imaging studies of youth depression: A systematic review?  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) in youth, particularly in the context of neuroimaging studies. This systematic review provides a timely comprehensive account of the available functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature in youth MDD. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMED, PsycINFO and Science Direct databases, to identify fMRI studies in younger and older youth with MDD, spanning 13–18 and 19–25 years of age, respectively. Results Twenty-eight studies focusing on 5 functional imaging domains were identified, namely emotion processing, cognitive control, affective cognition, reward processing and resting-state functional connectivity. Elevated activity in “extended medial network” regions including the anterior cingulate, ventromedial and orbitofrontal cortices, as well as the amygdala was most consistently implicated across these five domains. For the most part, findings in younger adolescents did not differ from those in older youth; however a general comparison of findings in both groups compared to adults indicated differences in the domains of cognitive control and affective cognition. Conclusions Youth MDD is characterized by abnormal activations in ventromedial frontal regions, the anterior cingulate and amygdala, which are broadly consistent with the implicated role of medial network regions in the pathophysiology of depression. Future longitudinal studies examining the effects of neurodevelopmental changes and pubertal maturation on brain systems implicated in youth MDD will provide a more comprehensive neurobiological model of youth depression. PMID:24455472

Kerestes, Rebecca; Davey, Christopher G.; Stephanou, Katerina; Whittle, Sarah; Harrison, Ben J.

2013-01-01

107

Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

2012-01-01

108

Genetic studies of bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression in a large Scottish family   

E-print Network

Bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression are complex psychiatric illnesses with a substantial, yet unknown genetic component. Genetic studies have identified linkage of bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression ...

Houlihan, Lorna M.

2008-01-01

109

Mouse Models for Studying Depression-Like States and Antidepressant Drugs  

E-print Network

Chapter 16 Mouse Models for Studying Depression-Like States and Antidepressant Drugs Carisa L V. Kalueff Abstract Depression is a common psychiatric disorder, with diverse symptoms and high effective drugs. Animal models mimicking various symptoms of depression are indispensable in studying

Kalueff, Allan V.

110

Atypical depression is more common than melancholic in fibromyalgia: an observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that atypical and melancholic depression subtypes exist in depressed fibromyalgia (FM) patients, yet no study has empirically tested this hypothesis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical features and MDD with melancholic features occurs in a FM sample and to describe their demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics.

Rebecca L Ross; Kim D Jones; Rachel L Ward; Lisa J Wood; Robert M Bennett

2010-01-01

111

Group interpersonal psychotherapy for postnatal depression: a pilot study.  

PubMed

We conducted a pilot study to assess the potential effectiveness of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) as a treatment for postnatal depression (PND). The study was also established to test a treatment manual for IPT-G, assess the acceptability of this format for participants and test a recruitment strategy for a randomised controlled trial. 18 mothers diagnosed with PND participated in 2 individual session and 8 sessions of group IPT. A two-hour psychoeducational session was also held for the partners of the participants. Measures of depressive symptomatology and social adjustment were administered by an independent clinician at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 3 months post treatment. Patient satisfaction with the treatment was also evaluated. Severity scores on the BDI, EPDS and the HDRS decreased from pre- to post-treatment. This was maintained at three months follow up. No overall improvement in the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report was noted, although there was improvement in their relationship with their significant other. The results confirm previous work that IPT-G may improve symptom severity for women suffering from postnatal depression. Limitations included the use of antidepressant therapy by 67% of subjects and the lack of a control group. There is a need for further randomised controlled trials of IPT-G with larger sample sizes to establish its effectiveness as treatment for PND. PMID:16222425

Reay, R; Fisher, Y; Robertson, M; Adams, E; Owen, C; Kumar, R

2006-01-01

112

Does Age at Onset of First Major Depressive Episode Indicate the Subtype of Major Depressive Disorder?: The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. Materials and Methods We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages <18), early adult onset (ages 18-44), middle adult onset (ages 45-59), and late onset (ages 60+). Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and ordinal logistic regression analysis with adjusting the effect of age, the relationships between clinical features and age at onset of MDD were evaluated. Results There was an apparent, but inconsistent correlation between clinical features and age at onset. Earlier onset MDD was significantly associated with higher proportion of female gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.570, p=0.022], more previous suicide attempts (AOR=0.635, p=0.038), greater number of previous depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, p<0.0001), and the alcohol use disorder identification test (F=7.061, p<0.0001). Conclusion Early age at onset may increase the likelihood of distinguishable MDD subtype, and age at onset of the first major depressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD. PMID:25323911

Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

2014-01-01

113

Sense of coherence as a predictor of onset of depression among Japanese workers: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to predict future onset of depression is required for primary prevention of depression. Many cross-sectional studies have reported a correlation between sense of coherence (SOC) and the presence of depressive symptoms. However, it is unclear whether SOC can predict future onset of depression. Therefore, whether measures to prevent onset of depression are needed in for persons with low SOC is uncertain. Thus, the aim of this cohort study was to determine whether SOC could predict onset of depression and to assess the need for measures to prevent onset of depression for persons with low SOC. Methods A total of 1854 Japanese workers aged 20-70 years in 2005 who completed a sense of coherence (SOC) questionnaire were followed-up until August 2007 using their sick-pay records with medical certificates. Depression was defined as a description of "depression" or "depressive" as a reason for sick leave on the medical certificates. The day of incidence of depression was defined as the first day of the sick leave. Risk ratios of SOC for onset of depression were calculated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of the 1854 participants, 14 developed depression during a mean of 1.8 years of follow-up. After adjustment for gender and age, the risk ratio of high SOC compared with low SOC for sick leave from depression was 0.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.79). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of SOC was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.82). Conclusions The SOC may be able to predict onset of depression in Japanese workers. Measures to prevent onset of depression for persons with low SOC might be required in Japanese workplaces. Thus, SOC could be useful for identifying persons at high risk for future depression. PMID:21453548

2011-01-01

114

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Depression in Adolescents with Diabetes: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to adapt and pilot test a group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model which has been proven to be effective in treating depression in Puerto Rican adolescents, to treat depressive symptoms and improve glycemic control in adolescents with diabetes. Eleven adolescents aged 13-16 participated in a 12 session group CBT intervention. Indicators of outcome effects (depressive

Jeannette M. Rosselló; María I. Jiménez-Chafey

115

The discriminant validity of burnout and depression: A confirmatory factor analytic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care workers (N=307) completed measures of burnout and depression as part of a study of personal and occupational sources of distress. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for differentiating burnout and depression. The analysis confirmed the three-factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and s multiple factor structure for depression measures. The analysis also provided support for the existence

Michael P. Leiter; Josette Durup

1994-01-01

116

On the Relation Between Job Characteristics and Depression: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study assumes that workers actively influence the characteristics of their work environment. Not only will one's work environment (job characteristics) affect personal characteristics, such as feelings of depression; depression in turn is expected to affect the characteristics of one's work environment as well. Using a sample of 593 young Dutch workers, a longitudinal model relating feelings of depression

Toon W. Taris; Inge A. Bok; Denise G. Caljé

1998-01-01

117

Focused crawling in depression portal search: A feasibility study Thanh Tin Tang  

E-print Network

-specific search. 1 Introduction Depression is a major public health problem, being a leading cause of disease with a reduction in depressive symptoms [6]. Thus, the Web is a potentially valuable resource for peopleFocused crawling in depression portal search: A feasibility study Thanh Tin Tang Department

Hawking, David

118

Metabolic syndrome and onset of depressive symptoms in elderly: Finding from the Three-City Study  

E-print Network

; research suggests that the etiology of late-onset depression is linked to vascular causes, such as diseases1 Metabolic syndrome and onset of depressive symptoms in elderly: Finding from the Three-City Study Running title: Metabolic Syndrome and depression in elderly Tasnime N. Akbaraly PhD1,2 , Marie

Boyer, Edmond

119

THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DEFENSES AND EXPERIENCES OF DEPRESSION: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between defenses and depressive experiences. Two questionnaires, in counterbalanced order, were administered to a community sample of 205 adults: the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; S. Blatt, J. D'Afflitti, & D. Quinlan 1976, 1979) and the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI; D. Ihilevich & G. C. Gleser, 1986). Although turning against self related significantly to both depressive

Rui C. Campos; Avi Besser; Sidney J. Blatt

2011-01-01

120

Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than

Cheryl L. Beseler; Lorann Stallones; Jane A. Hoppin; Michael C. R. Alavanja; Aaron Blair; Thomas Keefe; Freya Kamel

2008-01-01

121

Validation of the Spanish Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales: A Comparative Validation Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are leading contributors to burden of disease in developing countries. Research aiming to improve their diagnosis and treatment is fundamental in these settings, and psychometric tools are widely used instruments to support mental health research. Our aim is to validate and compare the psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Methodology/Principal Findings A Spanish version of the CES-D was revised by 5 native Spanish speaking psychiatrists using as reference the English version. A locally standardized Spanish version of the ZSDS was used. These Spanish versions were administered to 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode (MDE), 63 without major depression but with clinical diagnosis of other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 61 with no evidence of psychiatric disorders (NEP). For both scales, Cronbach's alpha (C-?) and Hierarchical McDonald Omega for polychoric variables (MD-?) were estimated; and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis performed. For the CES-D and ZSDS scales, C-? was 0.93 and 0.89 respectively, while MD-? was 0.90 and 0.75 respectively. The area under the ROC curve in MDE+OPD was 0.83 for CES-D and 0.84 for ZSDS; and in MDE+NEP was 0.98 for CES-D and 0.96 for ZSDS. Cut-off scores (co) for the highest proportions of correctly classified (cc) individuals among MDE+OPD were ?29 for CES-D (sensitivity (ss)?=?77.1/specificity (sp)?=?79.4%/(cc)?=?78.2%) and ?47 for ZSDS (ss?=?85.7%/sp?=?71.4%/cc?=?78.9%). In the MDE+NEP, co were ?24 for the CES-D (ss?=?91.4%/sp?=?96.7%/cc?=?93.9%) and ?45 for the ZSDS (ss?=?91.4%/sp?=?91.8%/cc?=?91.6%). Conclusion Spanish versions of the CES-D and ZSDS are valid instruments to detect depression in clinical settings and could be useful for both epidemiological research and primary clinical settings in settings similar as those of public hospitals in Lima, Peru. PMID:23056202

Arevalo, Jorge M.; Chavez, Kristhy; Vilela, Ana; Lazo, Maria; Huapaya, Julio

2012-01-01

122

Depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the General Population: Results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.  

PubMed

Background: The literature suggests an association between depression and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, but not all studies have examined this association with regard to MCI subtypes reflecting different dementia etiologies. Objective: To examine if there is a cross-sectional relationship of depression and MCI and to examine if the relationship differs depending on the type of depression (currently elevated depressive symptoms or a positive history of lifetime depression or both) and on the MCI subtype (amnestic versus non-amnestic MCI (aMCI/naMCI)). Methods: From the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (50% men, 50-80 years), 583 participants with MCI (aMCI n = 304; naMCI n = 279) and 1,446 cognitively normal participants were included in the analyses. Currently elevated depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; score ?18). Furthermore, participants were asked if they have ever received a previous diagnosis of depression. Log-Poisson regression models (adjusted for sociodemographic/cardiovascular risk factors) were calculated to determine the association of MCI and its subtypes with all depression variables. Results: The fully adjusted prevalence rate ratios for MCI, aMCI, and naMCI in depressed versus non-depressed participants were 2.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.60-2.64), 3.06 (2.21-4.23), and 1.93 (1.46-2.57). A positive history of lifetime depression without current depressive symptoms was solely associated with naMCI (1.31 (0.99-1.73)). Conclusion: These results suggest that the relationship of depression/depressive symptoms and MCI might differ depending on the timing of depression and on the MCI subtype. Our longitudinal follow-up will allow us to further elucidate this relationship. PMID:25471191

Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Dragano, Nico; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Weimar, Christian

2014-12-01

123

Temporal Patterns of Anxious and Depressed Mood in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Daily Diary Study  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that anxiety disorders tend to temporally precede depressive disorders, a finding potentially relevant to understanding comorbidity. The current study used diary methods to determine whether daily anxious mood also temporally precedes daily depressed mood. 55 participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and history of depressive symptoms completed a 21-day daily diary tracking anxious and depressed mood. Daily anxious and depressed moods were concurrently associated. Daily anxious mood predicted later depressed mood at a variety of time lags, with significance peaking at a two-day lag. Depressed mood generally did not predict later anxious mood. Results suggest that the temporal antecedence of anxiety over depression extends to daily symptoms in GAD. Implications for the refinement of comorbidity models, including causal theories, are discussed. PMID:22196213

Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne

2011-01-01

124

Study of proportion and determinants of depression among college students in Mangalore city  

PubMed Central

Background: Onset of depression is occurring earlier in life today than in past decades. Adolescence being transitional period from childhood to adulthood is a stage of emotional instability resulting from demand for separation and independence. Evidence suggests that early intervention for depression in children can improve long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in January 2010 to find out the prevalence of depression among pre university students in Mangalore city. Prevalence of depression was assessed using Beck's Depression Inventory II. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Out of 308 participants, depression was seen among 79.2% students. A majority (41.2%) were found to be suffering from moderate followed by mild (26.6%) depression. Prevalence of depression (P = 0.027) and severity of depression (P = 0.0357) was found to significantly increase with age of the participants. Students of commerce were found to be significantly more depressed than students of science stream (P = 0.002). No association of depression with gender of participants or with the type of college they were studying in was observed. Conclusion: There is a need for college students to be educated about depression in order to improve recognition and diagnosis. Also student counselling service offering mental health assistance needs to be established at colleges. PMID:24791051

Naushad, Sarah; Farooqui, Waseem; Sharma, Satish; Rani, Mukthi; Singh, Rajashree; Verma, Supreet

2014-01-01

125

Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study of the Frontopolar Hemodynamic Response and Depressive Mood in Children with Major Depressive Disorder: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

AIM The aim of this study was to evaluate the frontopolar hemodynamic response and depressive mood in children with mild or moderate major depressive disorder during six weeks treatment without medication. METHODS The subjects were 10 patients with mild or moderate depression. They were depressive drug-naive children and adolescents. The scores of Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), the results of the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), and the concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) of frontal pole brain assessed by two-channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) after six weeks of treatment was compared with those of initial treatment. RESULTS The score of DSRS was significantly reduced after six weeks of initial treatment (p<0.001, t-test). The word number of VFT was not significantly changed after six weeks of treatment. The oxy-Hb concentration significantly increased after six weeks of treatment (p<0.001, t-test). CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that the concentration of oxy-Hb of frontopolar cortex in children with mild and moderate depression improved along with their depressive mood. These results suggested that concentration of oxy-Hb using NIRS may be used as the state maker for change in depressive mood of children having depression, similar to that in adults. PMID:24466008

Usami, Masahide; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kodaira, Masaki; Watanabe, Kyota; Saito, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

126

Online screening and referral for postpartum depression: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

The fear and stigma associated with postpartum depression (PPD) is a major challenge in the treatment of this disease. Our goal is to develop innovative methods of screening women for the symptoms of PPD to facilitate referral and treatment. This study explores the efficacy of the Internet in reaching out to postpartum women in the convenience and privacy of their own homes, particularly those in rural and underserved areas. An exploratory study design was used to explore the feasibility and acceptability of online screening for PPD with postpartum women in the first 2-3 months after delivery (N = 18). In the first phase, a focus group was conducted with a small group of postpartum women; the second phase consisted of individual interviews of postpartum women in their homes; and in phase three, 10 women participated in the on-line screening intervention. PPD was measured using an online version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) a well-established instrument with reported alpha reliabilities (0.81-0.88) across studies and concurrent validity demonstrated using the gold standard, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for depression interview. Qualitative data collected from all the participants were also analyzed. The sample included women age 18-29; 70 % White/Caucasian, 50 % low income, and the majority living in rural areas. The EPDS scores ranged from 0 to 13 (mean 8.0; SD 4.76). Participants described the online PPD screening process as easy, straightforward and personalized and provided additional suggestions for improvement. PMID:23283485

Drake, Emily; Howard, Erica; Kinsey, Emily

2014-04-01

127

An international study exploring levels of postpartum depressive symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Differences in postpartum depressive symptomatology (PPDS) among an international sample of 892 women from nine countries representing five continents were explored.Method: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess PPDS among a convenience sample that completed the two questionnaires twice, yielding a total of four sets of scores per subject. Women sampled were

Dyanne D. Affonso; Anindya K. De; June Andrews Horowitz; Linda J. Mayberry

2000-01-01

128

Prospective study of postpartum depression: Prevalence, course, and predictive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

99 women (mean age 26.5 yrs) were followed from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until about 6 mo postpartum. Depression diagnostic and severity assessments were conducted during pregnancy and after delivery. Instruments included the Beck Depression Inventory and an interview adapted from the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Depression severity decreased steadily from the 2nd trimester until 9 wks

Michael W. OHara; Danny J. Neunaber; Ellen M. Zekoski

1984-01-01

129

A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

2005-01-01

130

The Impact of Staff Initiated Referral and Intervention Protocols on Symptoms of Depression in People with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been estimated that people with ID experience the same and possibly higher levels of depression than the general population. Referral to a General Medical Practitioner (GP) for primary care is recommended practice for people with depression and cognitive behavioural (CB) therapy is now an accepted evidence based intervention. A growing body…

McGillivray, Jane A.; Kershaw, Mavis M.

2013-01-01

131

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

132

A Longitudinal Study of the Relation Between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study examined whether mothers’ depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6 years old. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were also related to increases in overreactivity across the preschool years. Moreover, depression and parenting practices (overreactivity and laxness) covaried over time within mothers. These results provide evidence of a strong link between maternal depression and parenting during the preschool years. PMID:22611298

Errázuriz, Paula A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

2011-01-01

133

Comparing the feasibility, acceptability, clinical-, and cost-effectiveness of mental health e-screening to paper-based screening on the detection of depression, anxiety, and psychosocial risk in pregnant women: a study protocol of a randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial  

PubMed Central

Background Stress, depression, and anxiety affect 15% to 25% of pregnant women. However, substantial barriers to psychosocial assessment exist, resulting in less than 20% of prenatal care providers assessing and treating mental health problems. Moreover, pregnant women are often reluctant to disclose their mental health concerns to a healthcare provider. Identifying screening and assessment tools and procedures that are acceptable to both women and service providers, cost-effective, and clinically useful is needed. Methods/Design The primary objective of this randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a computer tablet-based prenatal psychosocial assessment (e-screening) compared to paper-based screening. Secondary objectives are to compare the two modes of screening on: (1) the level of detection of prenatal depression and anxiety symptoms and psychosocial risk; (2) the level of disclosure of symptoms; (3) the factors associated with feasibility, acceptability, and disclosure; (4) the psychometric properties of the e-version of the assessment tools; and (5) cost-effectiveness. A sample of 542 women will be recruited from large, primary care maternity clinics and a high-risk antenatal unit in an urban Canadian city. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they: (1) receive care at one of the recruitment sites; (2) are able to speak/read English; (3) are willing to be randomized to e-screening; and (4) are willing to participate in a follow-up diagnostic interview within 1 week of recruitment. Allocation is by computer-generated randomization. Women in the intervention group will complete an online psychosocial assessment on a computer tablet, while those in the control group will complete the same assessment in paper-based form. All women will complete baseline questionnaires at the time of recruitment and will participate in a diagnostic interview within 1 week of recruitment. Research assistants conducting diagnostic interviews and physicians will be blinded. A qualitative descriptive study involving healthcare providers from the recruitment sites and women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We hypothesize that mental health e-screening in primary care maternity settings and high-risk antenatal units will be as or more feasible, acceptable, and capable of detecting depression, anxiety, and psychosocial risk compared to paper-based screening. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01899534. PMID:24383441

2014-01-01

134

A Study of Health Maintenance Protocols in Family Practice  

PubMed Central

A series of color-coded health maintenance protocols for four age groupings were introduced into a community health centre. In a pilot study of the 16-49 year age range, levels of recording before introduction of the protocols were below 50% in all categories, except “blood pressure” “coping skills” and “sexuality/contraception”. After one year, it was not possible to assess changes in recording of screening maneuvers reliably due to the short study period and major changes in staffing that coincidentally occurred during the study period. Further studies should use stable solo practices and a much longer follow up period. PMID:21279143

Herbert, Carol P.; Moore, Daniel

1985-01-01

135

The Quality Improvement for Depression Collaboration: general analytic strategies for a coordinated study of quality improvement in depression care  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to evaluate the promise of primary care quality-improvement interventions for depression because published studies have evaluated diverse interventions by using different research designs in dissimilar populations. Preplanned meta-analysis provides an alternative to derive more precise and generalizable estimates of intervention effects; however, this approach requires the resolution of analytic challenges resulting from design differences that threaten internal

Kathryn M Rost; Naihua Duan; Lisa V Rubenstein; Daniel E Ford; Cathy D Sherbourne; Lisa S Meredith; Kenneth B Wells

2001-01-01

136

The relationship between cognitive styles and depression: a prospective study  

E-print Network

predictors of depression. Ninety-one participants, who were selected based on pre-test Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of 6 through 12, were randomly assigned to a failure condition or a no-failure condition. Each participant completed a BDI and a... measure of positive or negative expectancies prior to the condition and a ran- domly ordered series of cognitive measures after the condition. All participants returned four weeks later and completed a second BDI. Aside from the initial depression...

Neville, Brian

2012-06-07

137

Physical activity and depressive symptoms among pregnant women: the PIN3 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal depression confers health risks for both mother and family. Physical activity may promote better mental health; however,\\u000a few studies have examined the influence of physical activity on prenatal depression. Data from 1,220 women enrolled in the\\u000a third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001–2005) were used to examine the associations between overall and domain-specific\\u000a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive

Zewditu Demissie; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Kelly R. Evenson; Amy H. Herring; Nancy Dole; Bradley N. Gaynes

2011-01-01

138

Cognitive mechanisms linking low trait positive affect to depressive symptoms: a prospective diary study.  

PubMed

Low trait positive affect represents an affective vulnerability to depression, but little research has examined mechanisms linking low trait positive affect to depressive symptoms. The current study investigated whether the cognitive strategies of dampening and positive rumination mediated the prospective association between low trait positive affect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 209 undergraduate students who participated in an eight-week online study. Depressive symptoms and trait temperament were assessed at baseline, followed by seven weekly questionnaires which assessed cognitive strategies in response to weekly events and weekly depressive symptoms. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling following the mediation approach proposed by Nezlek. Results indicated that low trait positive affect significantly predicted less positive rumination but not greater dampening in response to weekly positive events. Less positive rumination in response to weekly positive events partially mediated the association between low trait positive affect and greater depressive symptoms across the study. PMID:24552238

Harding, Kaitlin A; Hudson, Melissa R; Mezulis, Amy

2014-01-01

139

Relationship Between Glycemic Control and Depression Among American Indians in the Strong Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the relationship between depression and glycemic control in the Strong Heart Study (SHS), a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. Methods This cross sectional analysis focused on the relationship between depression, diabetes, and glycemic control among 2,832 individuals ?age 15. Depression was measured by the CES-D scale and diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria. An ordered logit regression model was used to assess whether diabetes was related to level of depression (none, mild, moderate, severe). Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between A1c and severe depression in participants with diabetes. Results Rates of depression were higher in men and women with diabetes when compared to those without diabetes, respectively (p<.05). For every 1-unit increase in A1c, the odds of severe depression increased by 22% (OR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05–1.42). Female gender (OR 2.97, 95% CI: 1.32–6.69) and BMI (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00–1.08) also were significantly associated with increased risk for severe depression. Although BMI appears to be significantly associated with increased risk for severe depression, the magnitude of this effect was small. Conclusions Individuals with diabetes have higher rates of depression than those without diabetes, consistent with other populations. There is a positive relationship between severity of depression and A1c levels; men and women with severe depression have higher A1c levels than those with moderate-to-no depression. PMID:19454372

Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Carter, Elizabeth A.; Mete, Mihriye; Welty, Thomas K.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.

2014-01-01

140

The Association of Depression and Anxiety with Pain: A Study from NESDA  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR?=?6.67; P<.001), anxiety (OR?=?4.84; P<.001), or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR?=?30.26; P<.001) was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR?=?3.53; P<.001) as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR?=?2.96; p<.001) and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR?=?5.15; P<.001) were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research. PMID:25330004

de Heer, Eric W.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Dekker, Jack; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.

2014-01-01

141

Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and\\/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with

Ing-Marie Claesson; Ann Josefsson; Gunilla Sydsjö

2010-01-01

142

Sleep and depression — results from psychobiological studies: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances of sleep are typical for most depressed patients and belong to the core symptoms of the disorder. Polysomnographic sleep research has demonstrated that besides disturbances of sleep continuity, in depression sleep is characterized by a reduction of slow wave sleep and a disinhibition of REM sleep, with a shortening of REM latency, a prolongation of the first REM period

Dieter Riemann; Mathias Berger; Ulrich Voderholzer

2001-01-01

143

Cognitive evolutionary therapy for depression: a case study  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message We present an evolutionary-driven cognitive–behavioral intervention for a moderately depressed patient. Standard cognitive and behavioral therapy techniques focused on the patient's perfectionistic and self-downing beliefs, while novel, evolutionary-informed techniques were used to guide behavioral activation and conceptualize secondary emotional problems related to anger. The treatment reduced depressive symptomatology and increased evolutionary fitness.

Giosan, Cezar; Muresan, Vlad; Moldovan, Ramona

2014-01-01

144

How common is depression among ALS caregivers? A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to assess the impact of personal, situational and patient characteristics on mood, and changes over time, among ALS caregivers. Seventy-one patient-caregiver pairs were interviewed once and 51 (72%) monthly until endpoints of death or tracheostomy for long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV). Depressive symptoms and DSM-IV disorders, coping strategies, caregiver burden, satisfaction with care-giving, and patient disease severity were assessed. At baseline, 13% of caregivers had major depression, and 10% had minor depression. Rates declined at last visit before death or LTMV (median interval three months), as did depressive symptoms. Correlates of caregiver depression included reliance on avoidance, perceived burden, fatigue, and feeling that the patient was critical and unappreciative. Half of the 14 caregivers of patients who planned LTMV were depressed at baseline, declining to 8% at endpoint, versus 16% (9/57) among caregivers of patients who died, declining non-significantly to 11%. While few personal or situational factors were correlated with caregiver distress, patients’ plans and degree of supportiveness influenced caregiver mood. Verbal comments of caregivers clarified the distinction between sadness and psychiatric depression. The high baseline rate of depression among caregivers of patients who planned tracheostomy decreased as caregivers instituted major changes in patient care or personal counseling. PMID:19922139

RABKIN, JUDITH G.; ALBERT, STEVEN M.; ROWLAND, LEWIS P.; MITSUMOTO, HIROSHI

2008-01-01

145

Review of intervention studies on depression in persons with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Depression is prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), an acquired neurologic disability that affects predominantly women. The purpose of this article is to review intervention studies on depression in persons with MS. An integrative review of eight intervention studies published from 2000 to 2005 has revealed that various interventions could potentially alleviate depression. Although no definite conclusions can be made from this review, there is reasonable evidence that cognitive behavioral approaches are beneficial in the treatment of depression and in helping people adjust to, and cope with, having MS. PMID:17613150

Walker, I Diane; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W

2007-05-01

146

Risk of Developing Depressive Disorders following Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims To evaluate the risk of depressive disorders among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of a matched cohort of 18 285 participants (3 657 RA patients and 14 628 control patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 10 years to determine the rates of newly diagnosed depressive disorders, and Cox regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with depressive disorders in RA patients. Results During the 10-year follow-up period, 205 (11.2 per 1000 person-years) RA patients and 384 (5.1 per 1000 person-years) control patients were diagnosed with depressive disorders. In RA patients, most depressive disorders (n?=?163, 80%) developed with five years of being diagnosed with RA. The incidence risk ratio of depressive disorders between RA patients and control patients was 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84–2.61, P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, RA patients were 2.06 times more likely to develop depressive disorders (95% CI, 1.73–2.44, P<.001) compared with the control patients. Hyperthyroidism (HR?=?1.67) was an independent risk factor for depressive disorders in patients with RA. Conclusions The likelihood of developing depressive disorders is greater among RA patients than among patients without RA. Symptoms of depression should be sought in patients with RA. PMID:25226167

Hu, Li-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C.; You, Zi-Hong

2014-01-01

147

A STUDY OF MAJOR PHYSICAL DISORDERS AMONG THE ELDERLY DEPRESSIVES  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric evaluation and assessment of common physical illnesses and disabilities was carried out in elderly depressives (aged 60 years and above). Correlation, if any, was seen between depression and physical problems. The ‘patient group’ comprised of 40 drawn from MHI, Cuttack, having a depressive disorder (ICD-10). The ‘control group’ of 20 was drawn from the general population with no psychiatric disorder. The presence of physical illness was looked for in both groups. The patient group had physical illnesses, 76% of which were previously undiagnosed. The control group had physical illnesses 71% of which were previously diagnosed. Undiagnosed physical illnesses are more common among elderly patients with depression than among matched control. The physical illnesses contributed in two thirds of the patients. So careful detection and management of physical illness is of equal importance in the management of depression. PMID:21584092

Satapthy, Ramanand; Kar, Nilamadhab; Das, Indubhusan; Kar, Gopal Chandra; Pati, Tophan

1997-01-01

148

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Evaluating the effectiveness of reasoning training  

E-print Network

and civilian chronic traumatic brain injury patients: study protocol Daniel C Krawczyk1,2* , Carlos Marquez de rehabilitation, Traumatic brain injury, Neuroimaging, Neuropsychology, Reasoning, Memory, Attention of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and the functional problems they entail are often tragic for injured

Krawczyk, Daniel

149

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EMPIRICUS micafungin versus placebo during  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EMPIRICUS micafungin versus placebo during nosocomial sepsis in Candida micafungin 100 mg intravenously once a day or placebo for 14 days. We plan to enroll 260 patients. The main at day 28 as compared to placebo. Other outcomes include day 28 and 90 survival and organ failure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in selected breast-cancer for early-breast cancer in selected patients. IORT provides good late cosmetics results and should-Bernard Dubois1 and Marian Gutowski3 Abstract Background: The Montpellier cancer institute phase II trial started

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Characterizing the syphilis epidemic among men  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Characterizing the syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men Klausner2 Abstract Background: Syphilis is an important sexually transmitted infection (STI) with serious testing for syphilis infection along with a behavioral survey covering demographics, sexual behavior, drug

Jones, Peter JS

152

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Incidence and economical effects of pneumonia  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Incidence and economical effects of pneumonia in the older population are particularly relevant. In fact, the onset of pneumonias is associated with a significant worsening negative consequences of pneumonia may be particularly evident among the frailest groups of elders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study 1 EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol Summary Few studies have examined in detail the nature of tomato handling policies and practices in food service establishments. The purpose of this study

154

Depression Training in Nursing Homes: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Late-life depression is common among nursing home residents, but often is not addressed by nurses. Using a self-directed, CD-based depression training program, this pilot study used mixed methods to assess feasibility issues, determine nurse perceptions of training, and evaluate depression-related outcomes among residents in usual care and training conditions. Of 58 nurses enrolled, 24 completed the training and gave it high ratings. Outcomes for 50 residents include statistically significant reductions in depression severity over time (p<0.001) among all groups. Depression training is an important vehicle to improve depression recognition and daily nursing care, but diverse factors must be addressed to assure optimal outcomes. PMID:23369120

Smith, Marianne; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Jaggers, Benjamin; Liu, Megan; Haedke, Chris

2014-01-01

155

Incidence and risk of depression associated with diabetes in adults: evidence from longitudinal studies.  

PubMed

This meta-analysis examined depression as a consequence of diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis, using data from longitudinal studies. Databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Incidence of depression is presented as cumulative incident proportion (CIP). Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects model. The data were reconstructed to compute relative risk (RR) and CIP. The 16 studies selected for review generated 16 datasets of which 11 studies reporting binary estimates (RR) and 5 studies reporting time-to-event estimates [hazard ratio (HR)]. Both RR and HR were significant at 1.27 (95 % CI 1.17-1.38) and 1.23 (95 % CI 1.08-1.40) for incident depression associated with diabetes mellitus. Our observations also revealed greater cumulative incidence of depression in diabetes than in non diabetes groups. Our study shows that diabetes is a significant risk factor for the onset of depression. PMID:24951962

Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Mamun, Abdullah A; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Kairuz, Therese

2015-02-01

156

Is Alpha Wave Neurofeedback Effective with Randomized Clinical Trials in Depression? A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal asymmetric activation has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism for depression. Some case studies have reported that the enhancement of a relative right frontal alpha activity by an asymmetry neurofeedback training leads to improvement in depressive symptoms. In the present study, we examined whether a neurofeedback training designed to increase the relative activity of the right frontal alpha

Sung Won Choi; Sang Eun Chi; Sun Yong Chung; Jong Woo Kim; Chang Yil Ahn; Hyun Taek Kim

2011-01-01

157

Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

2004-01-01

158

Depression in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Related Factors in Turkey: A Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of the study was to determine whether there was any difference, with respect to depression, between mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and mothers of healthy children. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether some additional factors had an impact on the depression of the mothers. The study included 49…

Unsal-Delialioglu, Sibel; Kaya, Kurtulus; Ozel, Sumru; Gorgulu, Gulderen

2009-01-01

159

Inter-hemispheric asymmetry of motor corticospinal excitability in major depression studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundImaging and electroencephalographic studies have reported inter-hemispheric asymmetries in frontal cortical regions associated with depression. This study aimed at comparing motor corticospinal excitability assessed by methods of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) between the right and left hemispheres in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

J. P. Lefaucheur; B. Lucas; F. Andraud; J. Y. Hogrel; F. Bellivier; A. Del Cul; A. Rousseva; M. Leboyer; M. L. Paillère-Martinot

2008-01-01

160

Compounded Effect of Early Adolescence Depressive Symptoms and Impulsivity on Late Adolescence Gambling: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeDepression and impulsivity have been positively correlated to problem gambling, but no study has focused on their combined effects on the onset of problem gambling. This study examined the possible synergistic effect of depressive symptoms and impulsivity in early adolescence on late adolescence gambling behaviors among a longitudinal cohort of 678 students from Baltimore, Maryland.

Grace P. Lee; Carla L. Storr; Nicholas S. Ialongo; Silvia S. Martins

2011-01-01

161

Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

2014-01-01

162

Midlife Motivational Abilities Predict Apathy and Depression in Alzheimer Disease: The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apathy and depression are the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). This study was the first to explore midlife motivational abilities as a predictor of the progression of apathy and depression in MCI and AD. It used a subsample of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (N = 137). Participants, aged over 70,

Moyra Elizabeth Mortby; Andreas Maercker; Simon Forstmeier

2011-01-01

163

Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

2009-01-01

164

Thoughts on cross-cultural studies on the epidemiology of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable, number of studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of depression across cultures. These studies have relied on two basic research methods: treated cases and untreated cases. However, limitations in these two methods make it impossible to arrive at any substantive conclusions about ethno-cultural variations in the rates of depression. The treated cases approach fails to control for

Anthony J. Marsella

1978-01-01

165

A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol

James M. Bolton; Jina Pagura; Murray W. Enns; Bridget Grant; Jitender Sareen

2010-01-01

166

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

167

Depression in the elderly: Does family system play a role? A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The most common geriatric psychiatric disorder is depression. The role of family systems in depression among the elderly has not been studied extensively. It has been suggested that urbanization promotes nucleation of family systems and a decrease in care and support for the elderly. We conducted this study in Karachi, a large urban city of Pakistan, to determine the

Ather M Taqui; Ahmed Itrat; Waris Qidwai; Zeeshan Qadri

2007-01-01

168

Gender, Poverty, and Postnatal Depression: A Study of Mothers in Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study described the nat- ural history of depression in mothers who recently gave birth in a low-income coun- try and to investigate the effect of risk fac- tors, particularly related to infant gender bias, on the occurrence and outcome of depression. Method: The authors studied a group of pregnant mothers recruited during their third trimester of pregnancy from

Vikram Patel; M. R. C. Psych; Merlyn Rodrigues; M. A. Nandita DeSouza

2002-01-01

169

Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

2005-01-01

170

Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…

Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

2006-01-01

171

Depression among elderly people. A psychosocial study of urban and rural populations.  

PubMed

A total of 317 elderly subjects randomly selected among people living in the community in 1 urban and 2 rural areas were studied by means of a semistructured clinical interview, the Social Adjustment Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. An emerging trend was demonstrated towards a higher rate of prevalence of depression among females and urban residents. Widowhood, absence of a confidant, poor education and financial difficulties (only among urban elderly people) were significantly correlated with rates of depression. Physical impairments and diseases were also associated with depression, independently of whether subjects lived alone. The findings are discussed using a psychosocial frame of reference. PMID:2596342

Carpiniello, B; Carta, M G; Rudas, N

1989-11-01

172

A cross-sectional study of antenatal depression and associated factors in Malawi.  

PubMed

Depression, and disabling levels of mixed depressive, anxious and somatic symptoms, termed common mental disorder, occurring in the perinatal period are an important health problem in low- and middle-income countries. In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women were recruited from a district hospital antenatal clinic in Malawi. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and non-specific somatic symptoms commonly associated with distress, were measured using validated local versions of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). In a sub-sample, Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV diagnoses of major and minor depressive disorders were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Maternal socio-demographic and health variables were measured, and associations with SRQ score and depression diagnosis were determined. Of 599 eligible women, 583 were included in the analysis. The adjusted weighted prevalence of current major depressive episode and current major or minor depressive episode were 10.7 % (95 % CI 6.9-14.5 %) and 21.1 % (95 % CI 15.5-26.6 %), respectively. On multivariate analysis, SRQ score was significantly associated with lower perceived social support, experience of intimate partner violence, having had a complication in a previous delivery, higher maternal mid-upper arm circumference and more years of schooling. Major depressive episode was associated with lower perceived social support and experience of intimate partner violence. This study demonstrates that antenatal depression/CMD is common in Malawi and is associated with factors that may be amenable to psychosocial interventions. PMID:24240635

Stewart, Robert C; Umar, Eric; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis

2014-04-01

173

Religiosity and Major Depression in Adults at High Risk: A Ten-Year Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Previously the authors found that personal importance of religion or spirituality was associated with a lower risk for major depression in a study of adults with and without a history of depression. Here the authors examine the association of personal importance of religion or spirituality with major depression in the adult offspring of the original sample using a 10-year prospective longitudinal design. Method Participants were 114 adult offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents, followed longitudinally. The analysis covers the period from the 10-year to the 20-year follow-up assessments. Diagnosis was assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia–Lifetime Version. Religiosity measures included personal importance of religion or spirituality, frequency of attendance at religious services, and denomination (all participants were Catholic or Protestant). In a logistic regression analysis, major depression at 20 years was used as the outcome measure and the three religiosity variables at 10 years as predictors. Results Offspring who reported at year 10 that religion or spirituality was highly important to them had about one-fourth the risk of experiencing major depression between years 10 and 20 compared with other participants. Religious attendance and denomination did not significantly predict this outcome. The effect was most pronounced among offspring at high risk for depression by virtue of having a depressed parent; in this group, those who reported a high importance of religion or spirituality had about one-tenth the risk of experiencing major depression between years 10 and 20 compared with those who did not. The protective effect was found primarily against recurrence rather than onset of depression. Conclusions A high self-report rating of the importance of religion or spirituality may have a protective effect against recurrence of depression, particularly in adults with a history of parental depression. PMID:21865527

Miller, Lisa; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gameroff, Marc J.; Sage, Mia; Tenke, Craig E.; Weissman, Myrna M.

2013-01-01

174

EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study 1 EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol Summary Good hand hygiene is of critical importance in preventing-ill controls (Hennessy et al, 1998; Kassenborg et al, 1998). Research has also indicated that good hand hygiene

175

Genetic association study of individual symptoms in depression.  

PubMed

The heritability of some individual depressive symptoms has been well established. However, the causal genes related to individual depressive symptoms and genetic effects on the courses of individual depressive symptoms are still unclear. We examined these issues in 241 Korean patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depression. Patients entered a 12-week clinical trial with antidepressants. A total of 1399 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 79 candidate genes were assessed. The rs557762 and the TT haplotype in the 11th haplotype block of the GRIA3 gene were associated with feelings of guilt in females. The GGCCGGGC haplotype in the first haplotype block of TPH1 was significantly associated with middle insomnia. The ACAG haplotype in the 13th haplotype block of the GRIK2 gene was associated with somatic anxiety. Moreover, the effect of the rs557762 on guilt significantly varied across times. Our results indicate that there are associations between particular gene polymorphisms and some individual depressive symptoms. These results could contribute to understanding the biological mechanisms of depression. PMID:22429480

Myung, Woojae; Song, Jihye; Lim, Shinn-Won; Won, Hong-Hee; Kim, Seonwoo; Lee, Yujin; Kang, Hyo Shin; Lee, Hong; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

2012-08-15

176

A Prospective Study of Stressful Cicumstances, Illness Symptoms, and Depressed Mood among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study on commonly experienced stress-provoking circumstances in adolescence found that accumulation of negatively rated circumstances was associated with illness symptoms and depressed mood. Prospective analyses showed that positively rated circumstances moderated the impact of negative circumstances on both illness symptoms and depressed

Siegel, Judith M.; Brown, Jonathon D.

1988-01-01

177

A Combined Cognitive–Behavioral Family Education Intervention for Depression in Children: A Treatment Development Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the acceptability and efficacy of a combined cognitive–behavioral family education intervention for fourth through sixth graders reporting depressive symptoms. When compared to a wait list control group, children receiving the intervention were more likely to show improvements in depressive symptoms, reductions in negative automatic thoughts, and less internalizing coping. Children and their parents reported high satisfaction with

Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow; Cynthia V. Scott; Jim Mintz

2002-01-01

178

The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

2006-01-01

179

School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

2009-01-01

180

A Study of Autobiographical Memories in Depressed and Nondepressed Elderly Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used autobiographical memory task to study memory processes and depression in 27 nondepressed and 27 depressed older adults who each recalled 30 memories. Results were consistent with mood congruence hypothesis, in that participants recalled more memories affectively consistent with current mood, and self-enhancement view of reminiscing, such that…

Yang, Janet Anderson; Rehm, Lynn P.

1993-01-01

181

Assessing the Saskatchewan database for outcomes research studies of depression and its treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of using the Saskatchewan Health administrative claims databases for conducting depression research. To develop a claims-based definition of depression, we identified a cohort of individuals who began a “new” period of antidepressant use (no use 180 days prior) from which we selected a stratified random sample (n = 600) for medical record

Suzanne L West; Anke Richter; Catherine A Melfi; Mary McNutt; Marianne E Nennstiel; Josephine A Mauskopf

2000-01-01

182

Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

2010-01-01

183

Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

2006-01-01

184

School-Based Prevention of Depression: A Randomised Controlled Study of the "beyondblue" Schools Research Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressive disorders are experienced by 3-5% of the adolescent population at any point of time. They adversely affect adolescent development in a range of areas and greatly increase risk for suicide. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a universal intervention designed to reduce depressive symptoms among students…

Sawyer, Michael G.; Pfeiffer, Sara; Spence, Susan H.; Bond, Lyndal; Graetz, Brian; Kay, Debra; Patton, George; Sheffield, Jeanie

2010-01-01

185

Neurasthenia and depression: A study of somatization and culture in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews conceptual and empirical issues regarding the interaction of neurasthenia, somatization and depression in Chinese culture and in the West. The historical background of neurasthenia and its current status are discussed, along with the epidemiology and phenomenology of somatization and depression. Findings are presented from a combined clinical and anthropological field study of 100 patients with neurasthenia in

Arthur Kleinman

1982-01-01

186

A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

2011-01-01

187

The Interference of Introversion-Extraversion and Depressive Symptomatology with Reasoning Performance: A Behavioural Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the link between the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) scores and depressive symptomatology with reasoning performance induced by a task including valid and invalid Aristotelian syllogisms. The EPQ and the Zung Depressive Scale (ZDS) were completed by 48 healthy subjects (27 male, 21 female)…

Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rabavilas, Andreas D.; Stachtea, Xanthy; Giannakakis, Giorgos A.; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Papadimitriou, George N.; Stefanis, Costas N.

2012-01-01

188

Depressive symptoms during childhood and adult obesity: the Zurich Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and obesity have become major health problems with increasing prevalence. Given the limited effectiveness of treatment for weight problems, the identification of novel, potentially modifiable risk factors may provide insights on new preventive approaches to obesity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that depressive symptoms during childhood are associated with weight gain and obesity during

G Hasler; D S Pine; D G Kleinbaum; A Gamma; D Luckenbaugh; V Ajdacic; D Eich; W Rössler; J Angst

2005-01-01

189

A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

2008-01-01

190

Home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) for Depressed, Cognitively Impaired, Disabled Elders: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This preliminary study examines the efficacy of 12-week home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) vs. home-delivered Supportive Therapy (ST) in reducing depression and disability in 30 depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled older adults. Design A 12-week randomized clinical trial. Research assistants were unaware of the participants' randomization status. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Setting Weill Cornell - Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research (ACISR). Participants Thirty elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability were recruited through advertisement and the Home-Delivered Meals Program of the Westchester County Department of Senior Programs and Services. Intervention PATH is a home-delivered intervention designed to reduce depression and disability in depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled elders. PATH is based on Problem Solving Therapy (PST) and integrates environmental adaptation and caregiver participation. PATH is consistent with Lawton's ecological model of adaptive functioning in aging. Measurements Depression and disability were measured with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale – 24 items and Sheehan Disability Scale, respectively. Client Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction with treatment. Results Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that PATH was more efficacious than ST in reducing depression and disability at 12 weeks. Participants in both treatment groups were satisfied with treatment. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that PATH is well accepted and efficacious in depressed elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. Because this population may not adequately respond to antidepressant medication treatment, PATH may provide relief to many patients who would otherwise remain depressed and suffer. PMID:20808092

Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Arean, Patricia A.; Teri, Linda; Alexopoulos, George S.

2010-01-01

191

Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.  

PubMed

Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ?10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ?8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

2015-02-01

192

Childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood: the 1970 British Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Sleeping difficulties in childhood have been associated with an increased risk of depression in adult life, but existing studies have not accounted for comorbid maternal sleeping difficulties and depression. This study aimed to determine the association between childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood after adjusting for the potential confounding influences of maternal depression and sleeping difficulties. Data from the British Cohort Study 1970, a prospective birth cohort with 30 years of follow-up (1975-2005) were used. At 5 years of age, 7437 parents of participants recorded information on whether their child had sleeping difficulties, the frequency of bed-wetting, nightmares, maternal depression and sleep difficulties. At 34 years of age, participants reported whether or not they had received medical treatment for depression in the past year. Parental reports of severe sleeping difficulties at 5 years were associated with an increased risk of depression at age 34 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 3.2] whereas moderate sleeping difficulties were not (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.3). In conclusion, severe sleeping problems in childhood may be associated with increased susceptibility to depression in adult life. PMID:25178397

Greene, Giles; Gregory, Alice M; Fone, David; White, James

2015-02-01

193

Flat and depressed colorectal tumours in a southern Swedish population: a prospective chromoendoscopic and histopathological study  

PubMed Central

Background: Flat and depressed colorectal tumours are common in Japan but are very rare or non-existent in Western countries. Aims: To study the occurrence of flat colorectal tumours in a southern Swedish population. Methods: In this prospective study, 371 consecutive European patients were examined by high resolution video colonoscopy combined with chromoendoscopy. The nature of the lesions was determined by histopathological examination. Results: A total of 973 tumours were found; 907 (93.2%) were protruding and 66 (6.8%) were flat or depressed. Of the flat/depressed tumours, five (7.7%) were early adenocarcinomas infiltrating the submucosa. Eleven carcinomas (1.2%) were found among protruding tumours. High grade dysplasia was observed in 18% (n=11) of flat/depressed adenomas in contrast with 7.3% (n=65) of protruding adenomas, and occurred in smaller flat/depressed tumours compared with protruding ones (mean diameter 8 mm v 23 mm, respectively). Furthermore, high grade dysplasia was significantly more common in flat elevated tumours with central depression or in depressed adenomas (35.7%; 5/14) than in flat elevated adenomas (12.8%; 6/47). Conclusion: Flat and depressed tumours exist in a Western population. Future studies should address whether or not chromoendoscopy with video colonoscopy is necessary in the search for flat colorectal neoplasms. PMID:12235079

Tsuda, S; Veress, B; Tóth, E; Fork, F-T

2002-01-01

194

Depression and Oxidative Stress: Results From a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1980 through December 2012. A random-effects model, weighted by inverse variance, was performed to pool standard deviation (Cohen’s d) effect size estimates across studies for oxidative stress and antioxidant status measures, separately. Results Twenty-three studies with 4980 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Depression was most commonly measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A Cohen’s d effect size of 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.47–0.63) was found for the association between depression and oxidative stress, indicating a roughly 0.55 of 1-standard-deviation increase in oxidative stress among individuals with depression compared with those without depression. The results of the studies displayed significant heterogeneity (I2 = 80.0%, p < .001). A statistically significant effect was also observed for the association between depression and antioxidant status markers (Cohen’s d = ?0.24, 95% confidence interval = ?0.33 to ?0.15). Conclusions This meta-analysis observed an association between depression and oxidative stress and antioxidant status across many different studies. Differences in measures of depression and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status markers could account for the observed heterogeneity. These findings suggest that well-established associations between depression and poor heath outcomes may be mediated by high oxidative stress. PMID:24336428

Palta, Priya; Samuel, Laura J.; Miller, Edgar R.; Szanton, Sarah L.

2014-01-01

195

Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels of pesticide exposure experienced by farmers’ wives likely do not increase risk. PMID:23916637

Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

2013-01-01

196

Adjunctive Sleep Medications and Depression Outcome in the Treatment of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Resistant Depression in Adolescents Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective In the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents, study participants who received medication for sleep had a lower response rate. This report sought to clarify this finding. Method Depressed adolescents who had not responded to a previous adequate serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) trial were randomly assigned to another SSRI, venlafaxine, another SSRI+cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), or venlafaxine+CBT. Augmentation with sleep medication was permitted as clinically indicated. Results Youth who received trazodone were six times less likely to respond than those with no sleep medication (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05–0.50, p=0.001) and were three times more likely to experience self-harm (OR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–7.9, p=0.03), even after adjusting for baseline differences associated with trazodone use. None (0/13) of those cotreated with trazodone and either paroxetine or fluoxetine responded. In contrast, those treated with other sleep medications had similar rates of response (60.0% vs. 50.4%, ?2=0.85, p=0.36) and of self-harm events (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.1–2.6, p=0.53) as those who received no sleep medication. Conclusions These findings should be interpreted cautiously because these sleep agents were not assigned randomly, but at clinician discretion. Nevertheless, they suggest that the use of trazodone for the management of sleep difficulties in adolescent depression should be re-evaluated and that future research on the management of sleep disturbance in adolescent depression is needed. The very low response rate of participants cotreated with trazodone and either fluoxetine or paroxetine could be due to inhibition of CYP 2D6 by these antidepressants. PMID:22251024

Shamseddeen, Wael; Clarke, Gregory; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Emslie, Graham J.; Ryan, Neal; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna

2012-01-01

197

Predictors of Dementia Caregiver Depressive Symptoms in a Population: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Previous research has consistently reported elevated rates of depressive symptoms in dementia caregivers, but mostly with convenience samples. This study examined rates and correlates of depression at the baseline visit of a population sample of dementia caregivers (N = 256). Method. Using a modified version of Williams (Williams, I. C. [2005]. Emotional health of black and white dementia caregivers: A contextual examination. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, P287–P295) ecological contextual model, we examined 5 contexts that have contributed to dementia caregiver depression. A series of linear regressions were performed to determine correlates of depression. Results. Rates of depressive symptoms were lower than those reported in most convenience studies. We found fewer depressive symptoms in caregivers with higher levels of education and larger social support networks, fewer health problems, greater likelihood of using problem-focused coping, and less likelihood of wishful thinking and with fewer behavioral disturbances in the persons with dementia. Discussion. These results suggest that depression may be less prevalent in populations of dementia caregivers than in clinic-based samples, but that the correlates of depression are similar for both population and convenience samples. Interventions targeting individuals with small support networks, emotion-focused coping styles, poorer health, low quality of life, and those caring for persons with higher numbers of behavioral problems need development and testing. PMID:23241850

2013-01-01

198

Prenatal immunologic predictors of postpartum depressive symptoms: a prospective study for potential diagnostic markers.  

PubMed

In postpartum depression (PPD), immunologic changes have been proposed to be involved in the disease pathology. The study evaluates the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response over the course of late pregnancy and postpartum period and their association with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. Furthermore, prenatal immunologic markers for a PPD were investigated. Hundred pregnant women were included. At 34th and 38th week of pregnancy as well as 2 days, 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum, immune parameters (neopterin, regulatory T cells, CXCR1, CCR2, MNP1 and CD11a) were measured by flow cytometry/ELISA, and the psychopathology was evaluated. We found that regulatory T cells were significantly increased prenatal (p=0.011) and postnatal (p=0.01) in mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms. The decrease in CXCR 1 after delivery was significantly higher in mother with postnatal depressive symptoms (p=0.032). Mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms showed already prenatal significantly elevated neopterin levels (p=0.049). Finally, regulatory T cells in pregnancy strongly predict postnatal depressive symptoms (p=0.004). The present study revealed that prenatal and postnatal immunologic parameters are associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in mothers. In addition, we found immune markers that could eventually be the base for a biomarker set that predicts postnatal depressive symptoms already during pregnancy. PMID:24595743

Krause, Daniela; Jobst, Andrea; Kirchberg, Franka; Kieper, Susann; Härtl, Kristin; Kästner, Ralph; Myint, Aye-Mu; Müller, Norbert; Schwarz, Markus J

2014-10-01

199

Neurological complications of breast cancer: study protocol of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The improvement in breast cancer survival rates, along with the expected overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with breast cancer screening, requires a comprehensive assessment of its burden. Neurological complications can have a devastating impact on these patients; neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are among the most frequently reported. This project aims to understand the burden of neurological complications of breast cancer treatment in Northern Portugal, and their role as mediator of the impact of the treatment in different dimensions of the patients’ quality of life. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study was designed to include 500 patients with breast cancer, to be followed for 3?years. The patients were recruited at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and evaluations were planned at different stages: pretreatment, after surgery, after chemotherapy (whenever applicable) and at 1 and 3?years after enrolment. Patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain or chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (subcohorts), were also evaluated at the moment of confirmation of clinical diagnosis of the neurological complication and 6?months later. In each of the follow-up periods, a neurological examination has been performed by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression. Between January and December 2012, we recruited and conducted the baseline evaluation of 506 participants. The end of the follow-up period is scheduled for December 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and all patients provided written informed consent. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality. Results from this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in relevant conferences. PMID:25351600

Pereira, Susana; Fontes, Filipa; Sonin, Teresa; Dias, Teresa; Fragoso, Maria; Castro-Lopes, José; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

200

Children of Treatment-Seeking Depressed Mothers: A Comparison with the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Child Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study ancillary…

Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.

2012-01-01

201

Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens  

PubMed Central

A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic interpersonal events (physical/sexual abuse or witnessing domestic violence). First, we provide an empirical rationale for targeting executive function deficits and trauma-related cognitions in the mCBT protocol. Second, we present promising results from 2 community clinic cases.

DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

202

Drug abuse as self-medication for depression: an empirical study.  

PubMed

The authors empirically studied the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse by examining drug effects and motivation for drug use in 494 hospitalized drug abusers. Most patients reported that they used drugs in response to depressive symptoms and experienced mood elevation, regardless of their drug of choice. Drug use to relieve depressive symptoms was far more likely in men if they had major depression, but was equally common in women with and without major depression. Information regarding a history of self-medication may thus be more helpful in diagnosing major depression in men than in women. Difficulties in diagnosing psychiatric disorders in substance abusers are discussed, as are the limitations of obtaining retrospective data on drug-using behavior. The implications of these limitations on the generalizability of the findings are reviewed. PMID:1562010

Weiss, R D; Griffin, M L; Mirin, S M

1992-01-01

203

Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression. PMID:22853622

2012-01-01

204

Patients understanding of depression associated with chronic physical illness: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of depression can be difficult in primary care, particularly when associated with chronic illness. Patient beliefs may affect detection and subsequent engagement with management. We explored patient beliefs about the nature of depression associated with physical illness. Methods A qualitative interview study of patients registered with general practices in Leeds, UK. We invited patients with coronary heart disease or diabetes from primary care to participate in semi-structured interviews exploring their beliefs and experiences. We analysed transcripts using a thematic approach, extended to consider narratives as important contextual elements. Results We interviewed 26 patients, including 17 with personal experience of depression. We developed six themes: recognising a problem, complex causality, the role of the primary care, responsibility, resilience, and the role of their life story. Participants did not consistently talk about depression as an illness-like disorder. They described a change in their sense of self against the background of their life stories. Participants were unsure about seeking help from general practitioners (GPs) and felt a personal responsibility to overcome depression themselves. Chronic illness, as opposed to other life pressures, was seen as a justifiable cause of depression. Conclusions People with chronic illness do not necessarily regard depression as an easily defined illness, especially outside of the context of their life stories. Efforts to engage patients with chronic illness in the detection and management of depression may need further tailoring to accommodate beliefs about how people view themselves, responsibility and negative views of treatment. PMID:24555886

2014-01-01

205

Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

Tanaka, Fumihiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Systems Engineering; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

1996-12-31

206

In vitro studies of prolonged synaptic depression in the neonatal rat spinal cord.  

PubMed

1. Synaptic transmission between dorsal root afferents and alpha-motoneurones was studied in the in vitro hemisected spinal cord preparation isolated from neonatal rats. 2. Repetitive stimulation of the dorsal roots depressed the monosynaptic reflex recorded from the homologous ventral roots. The depression developed within the first five to six pulses in a stimulus train and stabilized at a plateau-like level for many seconds of stimulation. 3. The magnitude of the reflex depression depended on the stimulation interval and was capable of reducing the reflex to 17% of its undepressed control during 5 Hz stimulus trains. Complete recovery from depression was obtained at stimulation intervals greater than or equal to 30 s. 4. Monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded intracellularly after reduction of the activity in polysynaptic pathways by addition of mephenesin to the bathing media. These EPSPs exhibited a prolonged, frequency-dependent synaptic depression. The depression reduced the amplitude of the EPSP to 25% of the undepressed control during 5 Hz stimulus trains, and was alleviated completely at stimulus interval greater than or equal to 60 s. 5. The prolonged EPSP depression was not altered by blockade of glycinergic and type-A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA-ergic) receptors underlying postsynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord. Injection of current steps to motoneurones before and during the prolonged depression revealed similar values of the membrane time constant and input resistance. These excluded changes in the passive properties of the motoneurone membrane as an explanation for the observed synaptic depression. 6. Extracellular recordings of terminal potentials and their accompanying synaptic fields from motor nuclei in the ventrolateral cord revealed that the frequency-dependent depression in the synaptic fields was not preceded by any detectable changes in the amplitude or the shape of the terminal potential, suggesting that the depression cannot be attributed to impairment of action potential invasion to the afferent terminals. 7. Reduction of the basic level of transmitter release in the spinal cord by increasing the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of the bathing solution or by application of 2 microM of L(-)baclofen markedly diminished the synaptic potential depression at all the stimulation intervals tested in this study. Recovery from depression was evident for stimulation intervals greater than or equal to 5 s. Under these conditions, short tetanic trains (5 pulses at 25 Hz) revealed a substantial facilitation and potentiation of the EPSPs. 8. We suggest that prolonged depression of synaptic potentials in the neonatal rat reflects decreased transmitter output from the activated afferent terminals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1593445

Lev-Tov, A; Pinco, M

1992-02-01

207

Collectivistic orientation, acculturative stress, cultural self-efficacy, and depression: a longitudinal study among chinese internal migrants.  

PubMed

The current study examined the longitudinal relationship of collectivistic orientation and depression and the mediating effects of acculturative stress and cultural self-efficacy between collectivistic orientation and depression. We expect that collectivistic orientation would decrease acculturative stress and increase cultural self-efficacy, and in turn, improve depression. Using data from 641 Chinese internal migrants during a 1-year period, the results supported the hypothesis that collectivistic orientation predicted decreased depression. Moreover, collectivistic orientation alleviated depression through reducing acculturative stress. Although cultural self-efficacy was also a significant mediator, collectivistic orientation relieved depression through decreasing cultural self-efficacy. Implications for future research directions and counseling are discussed. PMID:25480108

Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

2015-02-01

208

The Effects of Lavandula Angustifolia Mill Infusion on Depression in Patients Using Citalopram: A comparison Study  

PubMed Central

Background Many herbs have been used to treat psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression in traditional medicine. Objectives This study was carried out to determine the effect of using Lavandula angustifilia infusion on depression in patients taking Citalopram. Patients and Methods Among all patients referred to the Hajar Hospital psychiatric clinic, Shahrekord, Iran, 80 patients who met the criteria of major depression according to the structured interviews and the Hamilton questionnaire for Depression were included in the study. They were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental treatment group and standard treatment group at this study. In standard treatment group, the patients were given Citalopram 20 mg. In experimental treatment group, the patients took 2 cups of the infusion of 5 g dried Lavandula angustifilia in addition to tablet Citalopram 20 mg twice a day. The patients were followed up for four and eight weeks of the study onset using Hamilton Scale questionnaire and treatment side effects form. Data were analyzed using student t-test, pair t-test and chi square. Results After four weeks of the trial onset, the mean depression score according to the Hamilton Scale for Depression was 17.5 ± 3.5 in the standard treatment group and 15.2 ± 3.6 in the experimental treatment group (P < 0.05). After eight weeks, it was 16.8±4.6 and 14.8±4 respectively (P < 0.01). In addition, the most commonly observed adverse effects were nausea (12.8 %) and confusion (10%). In terms of side effects, there were no significant differences between two groups. Conclusions Considering the results of this study, Lavandula angustifilia infusion has some positive therapeutic effects on depressed patients most importantly decreases mean depression score and might be used alone or as an adjunct to other anti-depressant drugs. PMID:24578844

Nikfarjam, Masoud; Parvin, Neda; Assarzadegan, Naziheh; Asghari, Shabnam

2013-01-01

209

Depression among Korean immigrant elders living in Canada and the United States: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Korean immigrant elders in North America experience a high level of depression. This study explored the correlates of depression among a sample of 245 Korean immigrant elders living in metropolitan cities in Canada (n = 128) and a southwestern state in the United States (n = 117), using a stress-coping framework. Results revealed discrepancies between the 2 subgroups. Years since immigration and number of health concerns were positively associated, and English proficiency was negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Korean immigrant elders in the United States; only health status was significant among Korean immigrant elders in Canada. Implications of the study are presented. PMID:24963783

Kim, Wooksoo; Kang, Suk-Young; Kim, Isok

2015-01-01

210

MD Anderson study finds depression and shortened telomeres increase bladder cancer mortality  

Cancer.gov

The combination of shortened telomeres, a biological marker of aging associated with cancer development, and elevated depression significantly impacted bladder cancer mortality, according to data presented at the 11th Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research. As part of an ongoing, large-scale epidemiologic study of bladder cancer, researchers from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston collected clinical and mental health information on 464 patients with bladder cancer. They assessed patients' depression levels with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

211

Hazardous Drinking-Related Characteristics of Depressive Disorders in Korea: The CRESCEND Study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify clinical correlates of hazardous drinking in a large cohort of Korean patients with depression. We recruited a total of 402 depressed patients aged > 18 yr from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea. Patients' drinking habits were assessed using the Korean Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-K). Psychometric scales, including the HAMD, HAMA, BPRS, CGI-S, SSI-Beck, SOFAS, and WHOQOL-BREF, were used to assess depression, anxiety, overall psychiatric symptoms, global severity, suicidal ideation, social functioning, and quality of life, respectively. We compared demographic and clinical features and psychometric scores between patients with and without hazardous drinking behavior after adjusting for the effects of age and sex. We then performed binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent correlates of hazardous drinking in the study population. Our results revealed that hazardous drinking was associated with current smoking status, history of attempted suicide, greater psychomotor retardation, suicidal ideation, weight loss, and lower hypochondriasis than non-hazardous drinking. The regression model also demonstrated that more frequent smoking, higher levels of suicidal ideation, and lower levels of hypochondriasis were independently correlates for hazardous drinking in depressed patients. In conclusion, depressed patients who are hazardous drinkers experience severer symptoms and a greater burden of illness than non-hazardous drinkers. In Korea, screening depressed patients for signs of hazardous drinking could help identify subjects who may benefit from comprehensive therapeutic approaches. PMID:25552886

Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Kyu; Oh, Hong Seok; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

2015-01-01

212

Depressive Symptoms, HIV Medication Adherence, and HIV Clinical Outcomes in Tanzania: A Prospective, Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Depressive symptoms have been shown to independently affect both antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV clinical outcomes in high-income countries. We examined the prospective relationship between depressive symptoms and adherence, virologic failure, and suppressed immune function in people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. Data from 403 study participants who were on stable ART and engaged in HIV clinical care were analyzed. We assessed crude and adjusted associations of depressive symptoms and ART adherence, both at baseline and at 12 months, using logistic regression. We used logistic generalized estimating equations to assess the association and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between depressive symptoms and both virologic failure and suppressed immune function. Ten percent of participants reported moderate or severe depressive symptoms at baseline and 31% of participants experienced virologic failure (>150 copies/ml) over two years. Depressive symptoms were associated with greater odds of reported medication nonadherence at both baseline (Odds Ratio [OR] per 1-unit increase ?=?1.18, 95% CI [1.12, 1.24]) and 12 months (OR ?=?1.08, 95% CI [1.03, 1.14]). By contrast, increases in depressive symptom score were inversely related to both virologic failure (OR?=?0.93, 95% CI [0.87, 1.00]) and immune system suppression (OR?=?0.88, 95% CI [0.79, 0.99]), though the association between depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes was less precise than for the association with nonadherence. Findings indicate a positive association between depressive symptoms and nonadherence, and also an inverse relationship between depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes, possibly due to informative loss to follow-up. PMID:24798428

Belenky, Nadya M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Pence, Brian W.; Itemba, Dafrosa; Maro, Venance; Whetten, Kathryn

2014-01-01

213

Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group). Results The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46) and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74). Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7%) had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001). Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal malignancies, chest tumors and breast cancer. Conclusions This study highlights high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Younger age was associated with a higher likelihood of meeting criteria for psychological morbidity. The findings support screening patients for symptoms of depression and anxiety as part of standard cancer care and referring those at a higher risk of developing psychological morbidity for appropriate care. PMID:21034465

2010-01-01

214

The Symptom Frequency Characteristics of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Possible Symptom Clusters of Depressive Disorders in Korea: The CRESCEND Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study analyzed the symptom frequencies of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) to understand the characteristics of each item and to propose the possible symptoms clusters. Methods From psychiatric clinics of 18 Hospitals in Korea, 1,183 patients, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (psychotic or non-psychotic), dysthymia or depressive disorder not otherwise specified. according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study from January 2006 to August 2008. The frequencies of each item of HDRS-17 were analyzed according to sex and severity. In addition, we compared this study with a previous study performed in England by Hamilton and with two studies performed in Korea by Kim et al. Results The frequencies of HDRS-17 items varied widely in this study, ranging from 95.8% in work and activities to 37.4% in loss of weight. But, depressed mood, psychic anxiety and work and activities items exhibited constant and higher frequency or rank regardless of study, the severity of depression or sex. Insomnia early, somatic gastrointestinal, genital symptoms and insight showed relatively constant but lower frequency or rank in disregard of studies or the clinical variables. Other symptoms had variable frequencies or ranks according to the variable clinical situations (culture, time, sex, severity of depression). Conclusion We propose three clusters of symptoms in depressive disorders: core symptoms cluster, an associated symptoms, and a situation-specific symptoms. We can use these possible symptom clusters of depression in simplifying diagnosis of depression, increasing diagnostic specificity in special situation and indexing disease severity. PMID:22216040

Park, Young-Nam; Jae, Young-Myo; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum

2011-01-01

215

Association Between Depression and Peripheral Artery Disease: Insights From the Heart and Soul Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is known to increase the risk of coronary artery disease, but few studies have evaluated the association between depression and peripheral artery disease (PAD). We examined the association of depression with PAD and evaluated potential mediators of this association. Methods and Results We used data from the Heart and Soul Study, a prospective cohort of 1024 men and women with coronary artery disease recruited in 2000–2002 and followed for a mean of 7.2±2.6 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the validated 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Prevalent PAD at baseline was determined by self-report. Prospective PAD events were adjudicated on the basis of review of medical records. We used logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models to estimate the independent associations of depressive symptoms with prevalent PAD and subsequent PAD events. At baseline, 199 patients (19%) had depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire ?10). Prevalent PAD was reported by 12% of patients with depression and 7% of those without depression (base model adjusted for age and sex: odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.06–3.04, P=0.03; full model adjusted for comorbidities, medications, PAD risk factors, inflammation, and health behaviors: odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 0.90–2.83, P=0.11). During follow-up, PAD events occurred in 7% of patients with depression and 5% of those without depression (base model adjusted for age and sex: hazard ratio 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.09–4.00, P=0.03; full model adjusted for comorbidities, medications, PAD risk factors, inflammation, and health behaviors: hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.65–2.71, P=0.44). Factors explaining >5% of the association between depression and incident PAD events included race/ethnicity, diabetes, congestive heart failure, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride levels, serum creatinine, inflammation, smoking, and levels of physical activity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were associated with a greater risk of PAD. Because the association was explained partly by modifiable risk factors, our findings suggest that more aggressive treatment of these risk factors could reduce the excess risk of PAD associated with depression. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e002667 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.002667.) PMID:23130170

Grenon, S Marlene; Hiramoto, Jade; Smolderen, Kim G.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Whooley, Mary A.; Cohen, Beth E.

2012-01-01

216

Emotional information processing in depression and burnout: an eye-tracking study.  

PubMed

Whether burnout is a form of depression is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relevance of the burnout-depression distinction by comparing attentional processing of emotional information in burnout and depression. Eye-tracking technology was employed for assessing overt attentional deployment. The gaze of 54 human services employees was monitored as they freely viewed a series of emotional images, labeled as dysphoric, positive, anxiogenic, and neutral. Similar to depression, burnout was associated with increased attention for dysphoric stimuli and decreased attention for positive stimuli. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that burnout no longer predicted these attentional alterations when depression was controlled for and vice versa, suggesting interchangeability of the two entities in this matter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to (a) investigate emotional attention in burnout and (b) address the issue of the burnout-depression overlap at both cognitive and behavioral levels using eye movement measurement. Overall, our findings point to structural similarities between burnout and depression, thus deepening concerns regarding the singularity of the burnout phenomenon. PMID:25297694

Bianchi, Renzo; Laurent, Eric

2015-02-01

217

Individualized and Clinically Derived Stimuli Activate Limbic Structures in Depression: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In the search for neurobiological correlates of depression, a major finding is hyperactivity in limbic-paralimbic regions. However, results so far have been inconsistent, and the stimuli used are often unspecific to depression. This study explored hemodynamic responses of the brain in patients with depression while processing individualized and clinically derived stimuli. Methods Eighteen unmedicated patients with recurrent major depressive disorder and 17 never-depressed control subjects took part in standardized clinical interviews from which individualized formulations of core interpersonal dysfunction were derived. In the patient group such formulations reflected core themes relating to the onset and maintenance of depression. In controls, formulations reflected a major source of distress. This material was thereafter presented to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment. Results Increased hemodynamic responses in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus and occipital lobe were observed in both patients and controls when viewing individualized stimuli. Relative to control subjects, patients with depression showed increased hemodynamic responses in limbic-paralimbic and subcortical regions (e.g. amygdala and basal ganglia) but no signal decrease in prefrontal regions. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that individualized stimuli derived from standardized clinical interviewing can lead to hemodynamic responses in regions associated with self-referential and emotional processing in both groups and limbic-paralimbic and subcortical structures in individuals with depression. Although the regions with increased responses in patients have been previously reported, this study enhances the ecological value of fMRI findings by applying stimuli that are of personal relevance to each individual's depression. PMID:21283580

Kessler, Henrik; Taubner, Svenja; Buchheim, Anna; Münte, Thomas F.; Stasch, Michael; Kächele, Horst; Roth, Gerhard; Heinecke, Armin; Erhard, Peter; Cierpka, Manfred; Wiswede, Daniel

2011-01-01

218

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over EthernetConnected Networks  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over Ethernet­Connected Networks Ryan G. Lane multicast using the standard UDP interface. We evaluate the performance of the protocols over Ethernet­connected networks, study the impact of some special features of the Ethernet on the performance of the protocols

Yuan, Xin

219

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over EthernetConnected Networks  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over Ethernet­Connected Networks Ryan G. Lane evaluate the performance of the protocols over Ethernet­connected networks, study the impact of architectural features of the Ethernet on the per- formance of the protocols, and investigate the methods

Yuan, Xin

220

Evaluating a Brief, Internet-Based Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and alcohol misuse represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this co-occurrence is associated with increased risks and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective, however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it, particularly in young people. The increased availability of Internet-based programs to complement health care presents a unique opportunity in the treatment of these conditions. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate whether a brief, Internet-based, self-help intervention (the DEAL [DEpression-ALcohol] Project) can be effective in treating co-occurring depression and problematic alcohol use in young people (18-25 years old). Methods The evaluation will take the form of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing the DEAL Project with an attention-control condition (HealthWatch). The RCT will consist of a four-week intervention phase and a 24-week follow-up. It will be entirely Internet-based and open Australia-wide to young people 18 to 25 years old. The primary outcomes will be change in depression symptoms and alcohol use at 5, 12, and 24 weeks post baseline. Secondary outcomes include change in general functioning and quality of life, anxiety/stress symptomatology, and a number of other depression/alcohol related outcomes. Process analysis will also measure engagement across the conditions. Results This study is currently ongoing with preliminary results expected in late 2014. Conclusions This study, to our knowledge, will be the first RCT of a Internet-based treatment for comorbid depression and problematic alcohol use in any age group. If successful, the program represents a novel and innovative approach to addressing the significant harms associated with these conditions and will be an invaluable resource to those not receiving help elsewhere. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; ACTRN12613000033741; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=363461 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Mrg9VFX4). PMID:24583824

Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Mills, Katherine L

2014-01-01

221

Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

2008-01-01

222

EEG-based Upper-Alpha Neurofeedback for Cognitive Enhancement in Major Depressive Disorder: A preliminary, uncontrolled study  

E-print Network

EEG-based Upper-Alpha Neurofeedback for Cognitive Enhancement in Major Depressive Disorder cognitive deficits, such as depressive subjects, remains underexplored. This paper reports on a preliminary uncontrolled study to assess the effects of an upper-alpha NF intervention on patients with major depressive

Minguez, Javier

223

Hostility may explain the association between depressive mood and mortality: Evidence from the French GAZEL cohort study  

E-print Network

is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide [1] and even subthreshold depressive symptoms1/26 Hostility may explain the association between depressive mood and mortality: Evidence from the French GAZEL cohort study Running title: Hostility, depression and mortality. Cédric Lemogne a, b, c

224

Depression is a serious public-health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies have shown neighbourhood  

E-print Network

Abstract MOTIVATION Depression is a serious public-health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies have shown neighbourhood characteristics to be associated with depression, but it is not clear which neighbourhood features matter most for depression, for whom this effect is most relevant

Kambhampati, Patanjali

225

Self-Structures, Negative Events, and Adolescent Depression: Clarifying the Role of Self-Complexity in a Prospective, Multiwave Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this multiwave longitudinal study was to examine the structure of self-complexity and its relation to depressive symptoms in 276 adolescents (M = 12.55; SD = 1.04). Self-complexity, depressive symptoms, and negative events were assessed during a laboratory assessment at baseline, and then depressive symptoms and negative events were…

Cohen, Joseph R.; Spiegler, Kevin M.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Abela, John R. Z.

2014-01-01

226

Antenatal Depression is Not Associated with Low-Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Low-birth weight (LBW) (<2500?g) is considered to be a leading cause of cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in children. Incidence of LBW in South Asia has been reported to be as high as 33%. We investigated the association between antenatal depression and LBW in an urban community, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1357 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited into the study. They were screened for antenatal depression with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Self-reporting questionnaire was also used to measure psychological distress. Birth weights of 763 newborns were obtained from the hospital records. Results: We did not find a significant association between antenatal depression and LBW (odds ratio 0.881, 95%CI 0.732–1.060) in mothers attending a charity run hospital in an urban setting in Pakistan. Conclusion: Antenatal depression is not associated with LBW in this urban population in Pakistan. However, the prevalence of depression is high during pregnancy. There is a need to develop culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to address the high rates of depression for this population group. PMID:25540627

Husain, Nusrat; Munshi, Tariq; Jafri, Farhat; Husain, Meher; Parveen, Asia; Saeed, Qamar; Tomenson, Barbara; Naeem, Farooq; Chaudhry, Nasim

2014-01-01

227

Improving medical protocols through formalisation: a case study  

E-print Network

fulfill strong quality requirements. Medical bodies worldwide have made efforts in this direction approach, namely the quality improvement of medical protocols through for- malisation. Currently, protocols these anoma- lous parts, we expect to obtain useful indications for the improvement of the protocols

van Harmelen, Frank

228

Headache, anxiety and depressive disorders: the HADAS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to assess prevalence and characteristics of anxiety and depression in migraine without aura\\u000a and tension-type headache, either isolated or in combination. Although the association between headache and psychiatric disorders\\u000a is undisputed, patients with migraine and\\/or tension-type headache have been frequently investigated in different settings\\u000a and using different tests, which prevents meaningful comparisons. Psychiatric comorbidity

Ettore Beghi; Gennaro Bussone; Domenico D’Amico; Pietro Cortelli; Sabina Cevoli; Gian Camillo Manzoni; Paola Torelli; Maria Clara Tonini; Giovanni Allais; Roberto De Simone; Florindo D’Onofrio; Sergio Genco; Franca Moschiano; Massimiliano Beghi; Sara Salvi

2010-01-01

229

A twin-study of genetic contributions to morningness-eveningness and depression.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms are associated with the preference for sleep-wake timing, also known as morningness-eveningness (ME). Both circadian rhythms and ME are influenced by genetic factors. Studies show an association between eveningness and depression. This study investigates the heritability of ME and whether ME and depression share common genetic influences. Study participants (n?=?1237) were from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of aging with a baseline in midlife. Participants received the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale as part of an extensive neurocognitive and psychosocial assessment. MEQ correlations between members of twin pairs were 0.41 (95% CI 0.31-0.49) for monozygotic (MZ) twins and 0.28 for dizygotic (DZ) twins (95% CI 0.19-0.41). CES-D correlations were 0.38 (95% CI 0.28-0.46) for MZ twins and 0.24 (95% CI 0.14-0.36) for DZ twins. Greater eveningness (i.e. lower MEQ scores) was significantly related to more depression symptoms (phenotypic correlation?=?-0.15 (95% CI -0.21 to -0.09). In the best fitting model, the heritability estimates are 0.42 for the MEQ and 0.37 for the CES-D. A significant genetic correlation of -0.21 indicated that ME and depression share a significant amount of their underlying genetic variance. The genetic covariance between ME and depression accounted for 59.1% of the phenotypic correlation. Of the CES-D sub-scales, Depressed Mood and Interpersonal Difficulties were significantly heritable, while only Well-Being had a significant genetic correlation with ME. ME and depression are both heritable (ME 0.42, depression 0.37) and share common genetic factors, suggesting an overlap in etiology and the relevance of circadian rhythms to depression. Further study of this relationship may help elucidate etiological factors in depression and targets for treatment. PMID:25347156

Toomey, Rosemary; Panizzon, Matthew S; Kremen, William S; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J

2014-10-27

230

Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Study (TASA)  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the course of depression during the treatment of depressed adolescents who had recently attempted suicide. Method Adolescents (N=124), age 12–18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) score of 36 or greater, entered a 6-month treatment with antidepressant medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy focused on suicide prevention, or their combination (Comb), at five academic sites. Treatment assignment could be either random or chosen by study participants. Intent-to-treat, mixed effects regression models of depression and other relevant ratings were estimated. Improvement and remission rates were computed with the last observation carried forward. Results Most patients (N=104 or 84%) chose treatment assignment and, overall, three-fourths (N=93) received Comb. In Comb, CDRS-R declined from a baseline adjusted mean of 49.6 (SD 12.3) to 38.3 (8.0) at week 12, and to 27.0 (10.1) at week 24 (p<0.0001), with a Clinical Global Impression-defined improvement rate of 58.0% at week 12, and 72.2% at week 24; and a remission (CDRS-R ?28) rate of 32.5% at week 12 and 50.0% at week 24. CDRS-R and the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) scores were correlated at baseline (r=0.43, p<0.0001), and declined in parallel. Conclusions When vigorously treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy, depressed adolescents who have recently attempted suicide show rates of improvement and remission of depression that appear comparable to those observed in non-suicidal depressed adolescents. PMID:20854770

Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

2009-01-01

231

Basolateral amygdala volume and cell numbers in major depressive disorder: a postmortem stereological study.  

PubMed

Functional imaging studies consistently report abnormal amygdala activity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Neuroanatomical correlates are less clear: imaging studies have produced mixed results on amygdala volume, and postmortem neuroanatomic studies have only examined cell densities in portions of the amygdala or its subregions in MDD. Here, we present a stereological analysis of the volume of, and the total number of, neurons, glia, and neurovascular (pericyte and endothelial) cells in the basolateral amygdala in MDD. Postmortem tissues from 13 subjects with MDD and 10 controls were examined. Sections (~15/subject) taken throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were stained for Nissl substance and utilized for stereological estimation of volume and cell numbers. Results indicate that depressed subjects had a larger lateral nucleus than controls and a greater number of total BLA neurovascular cells than controls. There were no differences in the number or density of neurons or glia between depressed and control subjects. These findings present a more detailed picture of BLA cellular anatomy in depression than has previously been available. Further studies are needed to determine whether the greater number of neurovascular cells in depressed subjects may be related to increased amygdala activity in depression. PMID:25287512

Rubinow, Marisa J; Mahajan, Gouri; May, Warren; Overholser, James C; Jurjus, George J; Dieter, Lesa; Herbst, Nicole; Steffens, David C; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A

2014-10-01

232

Major depressive disorder, anhedonia and agomelatine: an open-label study.  

PubMed

Despite a wide range of available antidepressants, the effect of the treatment is often suboptimal and there is a need for more effective and better tolerated drugs. Unlike other antidepressants, agomelatine represents a new approach to depression with an innovative mechanism of action. It is an agonist of melatoninergic receptors MT1 and MT2 and a selective antagonist of 5-HT2c receptors. In this open-label 8-week study we aimed to investigate the efficacy of agomelatine on depressive symptoms in patients with major depression. Secondary endpoints were the effect of agomelatine on anhedonia. Thirty major depressive patients received a flexible dose (25-50 mg; per os, daily) of agomelatine. Depressive (Hamilton Depression Scale) and anxious (Hamilton Anxiety Scale) symptoms, anhedonia (Snaith Hamilton Rating Scale), and sleep quality (Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire) were assessed. Twenty-four patients (80%) completed 8 weeks of treatment. Significant improvements were seen at all visits on the HAM-D (p<.05), HAM-A(p<.01), SHAPS (p<.05), LSEQ (p<.05). Nine subjects (30%) were responders and 5 (17%) remitters at week 1; 18 (60%) were remitters by the end of the trial. There was no serious adverse event. No aminotrasferase elevations were noted. In line with previous studies, in which agomelatine was associated with early clinical improvement, this study also provides evidence of an early response and the findings of improvements in depression scores. Moreover, this is the first study where agomelatine was effective in the treatment of anhedonia. Additional trials are needed to delineate the place of agomelatine in the contemporary pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders. PMID:21382280

Di Giannantonio, M; Di Iorio, G; Guglielmo, R; De Berardis, D; Conti, C M; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Martinotti, G

2011-01-01

233

Distress and Depression in Men Who Have Sex With Men: The Urban Men's Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study estimates the prev- alence of depression and describes the correlates and independent associations of distress and depression among U.S. men who have sex with men. Method: A household-based probability sample of men who have sex with men (N=2,881) was interviewed between 1996 and 1998 in four large American cities. With cutoff points of 15 and 22 for

Thomas C. Mills; Jay Paul; Ron Stall; M. P. H. Lance Pollack; D. Jesse Canchola; Jason Chang; M. S. Judith; T. Moskowitz; Joseph A. Catania

2004-01-01

234

Prospective study of cardiorespiratory fitness and depressive symptoms in women and men.  

PubMed

Most studies of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and depression have been limited to cross-sectional designs. The objective of this study was to follow individuals over time to examine whether those with higher levels of CRF have lower risk of developing depressive symptoms. Participants were 11,258 men and 3085 women enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study in Dallas, TX. All participants completed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline (1970-1995) and a follow-up health survey in 1990 and/or 1995. Individuals with a history of a mental disorder, cardiovascular disease, or cancer were excluded. CRF was quantified by exercise test duration, and categorized into age and sex-stratified groups as low (lowest 20%), moderate (middle 40%), or high (upper 40%). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Those who scored 16 or more on the CES-D were considered to have depressive symptoms. After an average of 12 years of follow-up, 282 women and 740 men reported depressive symptoms. After adjusting for age, baseline examination year, and survey response year, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 31% lower for men with moderate CRF (odds ratio, OR 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.56-0.85) and 51% lower for men with high CRF (OR 0.49, CI 0.39-0.60), compared to men with low CRF. Corresponding ORs for women were 0.56 (CI 0.40-0.80) and 0.46 (CI 0.32-0.65). Higher CRF is associated with lower risk of incident depressive symptoms independent of other clinical risk predictors. PMID:18845305

Sui, Xuemei; Laditka, James N; Church, Timothy S; Hardin, James W; Chase, Nancy; Davis, Keith; Blair, Steven N

2009-02-01

235

Relapse of depression during pregnancy following antidepressant discontinuation: a preliminary prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Objective: Pregnancy has frequently been referred to as a time of emotional well-being for patients. However, systematic data about the risk for relapse of depression during pregnancy are sparse. Method: We completed a longitudinal cohort study of thirty-two (N?=?32) women with histories of depression who were euthymic at conception and who either discontinued or attempted to discontinue antidepressant therapy

L. S. Cohen; R. M. Nonacs; J. W. Bailey; A. C. Viguera; A. M. Reminick; L. L. Altshuler; Z. N. Stowe; S. V. Faraone

2004-01-01

236

Immigrant women’s experiences of postpartum depression in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Literature documents that immigrant women in Canada have a higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptomatology than Canadian-born women. There exists a need to synthesize information on the contextual factors and social determinants of health that influence immigrant women’s reception of and behavior in accessing existing mental health services. Our research question is: what are the ethnoculturally defined patterns of help-seeking behaviors and decision-making and other predictive factors for therapeutic mental health care access and outcomes with respect to postpartum depression for immigrant women in Canada? Methods/design Our synthesis incorporates a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports (peer- and non-peer reviewed) of empirical research and aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on postpartum mental health care services as experienced by immigrant women. To reach this goal we are using integrated knowledge translation, thus partnering with key stakeholders throughout the planning, implementation and dissemination stages to ensure topic relevancy and impact on future practice and policy. The search and selection strategies draw upon established systematic review methodologies as outlined by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and also incorporate guidelines for selection and appraisal of gray literature. Two search phases (a database and a gray literature phase) will identify literature for screening and final selection based on an inclusion/exclusion checklist. Quality appraisal will be performed using the tools produced by the Centre for Evidence Based Management. The narrative synthesis will be informed by Popay et al. (2006) framework using identified tools for each of its four elements. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their impact on policy and practice change throughout health service, public health, immigration and community sectors. Discussion The narrative synthesis methodology will facilitate understandings and acknowledgement of the broader influences of theoretical and contextual variables, such as race, gender, socio-economic status, pre-migration history and geographical location. Our review aims to have a substantive and sustainable impact on health outcomes, practice, programs and/or policy in the context of postpartum mental health of immigrant women. PROSPERO registration number CRD42012003020. PMID:23965183

2013-01-01

237

Postpartum Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... postpartum depression? • When does postpartum depression occur? • What causes postpartum depression? • If I think I have postpartum depression, when ... College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists f AQ What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination ...

238

Protocol and Rationale-The Efficacy of Minocycline as an Adjunctive Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder: A Double Blind, Randomised, Placebo Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

While current pharmacotherapies are efficacious, there remain a clear shortfall between symptom remission and functional recovery. With the explosion in our understanding of the biology of these disorders, the time is ripe for the investigation of novel therapies. Recently depression is conceptualized as an immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative stress related disorder. Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has anti-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, glutamatergic, neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties that make it a viable target to explore as a new therapy. This double blind, randomised, placebo controlled adjunctive trial will investigate the benefits of 200 mg/day of minocycline treatment, in addition to any usual treatment, as an adjunctive treatment for moderate-severe major depressive disorder. Sixty adults are being randomised to 12 weeks of treatment (with a 4 week follow-up post-discontinuation). The primary outcome measure for the study is mean change on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), with secondary outcomes including the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), Patient Global Impression (PGI), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Biomarker analyses will also be conducted at baseline and week 12. The study has the potential to provide new treatment targets, both by showing efficacy with a new class of 'antidepressant' but also through the analysis of biomarkers that may further inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of unipolar depression. PMID:25598820

Maes, Michael; Ashton, Melanie; Berk, Lesley; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sughondhabirom, Atapol; Tangwongchai, Sookjareon; Ng, Chee; Dowling, Nathan; Malhi, Gin S.; Berk, MIchael

2014-01-01

239

Associations between Depression and Diabetes in the Community: Do Symptom Dimensions Matter? Results from the Gutenberg Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives While a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression has been established, there is little knowledge if the associations are due to somatic-affective or cognitive-affective dimensions of depression. Research Design and Methods In a population-based, representative survey of 15.010 participants we therefore studied the associations of the two dimensions of depression with diabetes and health care utilization among depressed and diabetic participants. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9. Results We found a linear and consistent association between the intensity of depression and the presence of diabetes increasing from 6.9% in no or minimal depression to 7.6% in mild, 9% in moderate and 10.5% in severe depression. There was a strong positive association between somatic-affective symptoms but not with cognitive-affective symptoms and diabetes. Depression and diabetes were both independently related to somatic health care utilisation. Conclusions Diabetes and depression are associated, and the association is primarily driven by the somatic-affective component of depression. The main limitation of our study pertains to the cross-sectional data acquisition. Further longitudinal work on the relationship of obesity and diabetes should differentiate the somatic and the cognitive symptoms of depression. PMID:25127227

Wiltink, Jörg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S.; Schneider, Astrid; König, Jochem; Blettner, Maria; Münzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Weber, Matthias; Fottner, Christian; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl; Beutel, Manfred E.

2014-01-01

240

Depression-like deficits in rats improved by subchronic modafinil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Attentional and sensorimotor gating deficits in human depression are observed as residual symptoms irrespective of antidepressant\\u000a treatment. Clinical studies point to a benefit of modafinil in depression. No data are available on modafinil effects in depression-like\\u000a animal models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We investigated effects of modafinil on attention and sensorimotor gating after subchronic treatment during a restraint stress\\u000a protocol inducing depression-like changes in

Ralf Regenthal; Holger Koch; Christian Köhler; Rainer Preiss; Ute Krügel

2009-01-01

241

Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Psoriasis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case) referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control) who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45%) were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (P < 0.05). Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men. PMID:22844272

Golpour, Masoud; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Khademloo, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ebadi, Aghdas; Koohkan, Fatemeh; Shahmohammadi, Soheila

2012-01-01

242

Early Risk Factors for Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: A 6-to-8 Year Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms. PMID:24265533

Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

2013-01-01

243

A study using transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate motor mechanisms in psychomotor retardation in depression.  

PubMed

The pathophysiological basis of psychomotor retardation in depression is unclear. In this study, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to examine the functioning of the motor cortical system in 19 depressed patients and 10 healthy control subjects. Motor-evoked potentials were measured in the biceps brachii muscle during a series of tests with the muscle at rest and during voluntary elbow flexion contractions. Maximal voluntary force, as well as force and electromyographic responses to TMS were also measured during fatiguing maximal contractions. Depressed psychomotor-retarded subjects were less able to produce output from the motor cortex than non-psychomotor-retarded, depressed subjects and healthy controls during maximal exertion and fatigue. This finding was independent of depression severity. In contrast, responses to TMS elicited during relaxation or weak contractions did not differ between healthy and psychomotor-retarded subjects. Our study suggests that although the motor pathway from the motor cortex to the muscle is unimpaired, psychomotor retardation in depression is characterized by a reduced ability to drive the motor cortex. PMID:18447965

Loo, Colleen K; Sachdev, Perminder; Mitchell, Philip B; Gandevia, Simon C; Malhi, Gin S; Todd, Gabrielle; Taylor, Janet L

2008-11-01

244

A study of cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to test the validity of the integrated cognitive model of depression proposed by Kwon and Oei (1994) with a Chinese adolescent sample. A two-wave panel design was used. We hypothesized that the interaction between dysfunctional attitudes measured at time 1 and adolescents' negative life events experienced between times 1 and 2 would predict changes in the frequency of automatic thoughts between times 1 and 2. We further hypothesized that changes in the frequency of automatic thoughts would, in turn, predict changes in the severity of depressive symptoms. Participants were 329 Chinese adolescents. As a comparison, we tested three other competing models: linear mediation, alternative aetiologies and symptom models. All participants completed the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale on two occasions-5?months apart. Path analysis was used to test all models. Results of the path analysis indicated that the integrated cognitive model showed an adequate fit for the Chinese adolescent data. During phases of increased depression, dysfunctional attitudes were common cognitive moderators of depression, whereas automatic thoughts were specific cognitive mediators of depression. PMID:23389904

Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; Oei, Tian P S

2013-12-01

245

Utilization and Barriers to Mental Health Services Among Depressed Medical Interns: A Prospective Multisite Study  

PubMed Central

Background Compared with graduate students and young adults in the general population, depression is more prevalent among training physicians, yet physicians are often reluctant to seek mental health treatment. The purpose of this study is to identify perceived barriers to mental health treatment among depressed training physicians. Methods Subjects for this study were drawn from intern classes during the 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 academic years from 6 and 13 participating community and university hospitals, respectively. At 3-month intervals throughout the intern year, participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire regarding current depressive symptoms and questions regarding current mental health treatment. We explored potential barriers to mental health treatment at the end of the intern year and determined the proportion of subjects screening positive for depression and seeking treatment through analysis of subject responses. Stepwise binary logistic regression was conducted to compare baseline characteristics among depressed interns who sought mental health treatment and those that did not. Results Of the 42.5% (278 of 654) of interns who screened positive for depression, 22.7% (63 of 278) reported receiving treatment during the intern year. The most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment were time (91.5%), preference to manage problems on their own (75.1%), lack of convenient access (61.8%), and concerns about confidentiality (57.3%). Interns who had previously sought treatment for depression were more likely to seek treatment during internship. Conclusions Despite high rates of depression, few interns appear to seek mental health treatment due to time constraints, lack of convenient access, concerns about confidentiality, and a preference to manage problems on their own. By identifying barriers to mental health treatment we can begin to remove obstacles to the delivery of evidence-based treatments and implement prevention, screening, and early detection programs to improve the mental health of physicians in training. PMID:21975622

Guille, Constance; Speller, Heather; Laff, Rachel; Epperson, C. Neill; Sen, Srijan

2010-01-01

246

Selenium exposure and depressive symptoms: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Trace Element Study.  

PubMed

Selenium is an essential trace element important to neurotransmission, but toxic at high levels. Some studies suggest beneficial effects on mood. We assessed the association of selenium exposure with presence of depressive symptoms. Selenium exposure was measured in toenail samples collected in 1987 from 3735 US participants (age 20-32 years) and depressive symptoms assessed in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Binary and polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of log2(selenium) and selenium quintiles with presence of depressive symptoms (CES-D score?27 or on antidepressant medication). Relative to selenium quintile 1, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having depressive symptoms in 1990 for quintile 5 was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.51) and a unit increase in log2(selenium), which represents a doubling of the selenium level, was associated with an OR=2.03 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.70). When examining 1, 2 or 3+ exams vs. no exams with symptoms, the OR for quintile 5 was 1.73 (1.04, 2.89) for 3+ exams and for one exam and two exams, there were no associations. In a generalized estimating equations longitudinal model, a doubling of the selenium level was associated with a 56% higher odds of having depressive symptoms at an exam. Contrary to previously reported findings related to mood, higher level of selenium exposure was associated with presence of elevated depressive symptoms. More research is needed to elucidate the role of selenium in depressive disorders. PMID:24560993

Colangelo, Laura A; He, Ka; Whooley, Mary A; Daviglus, Martha L; Morris, Steven; Liu, Kiang

2014-03-01

247

A controlled study on the cognitive effect of alpha neurofeedback training in patients with major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits are core symptoms of depression. This study aims to investigate whether neurofeedback (NF) training can improve working memory (WM) performance in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The NF group (n = 40) underwent eight NF sessions and was compared to a non-interventional control group (n = 20). The NF protocol aimed to increase the individual upper alpha power in the parieto-occipital area of the scalp. Main cognitive variable was WM, which was measured pre- and post- training along with other variables such as attention and executive functions. EEG was recorded in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity, pre- and post- NF training, and pre- and post- the NF trials within each session. A power EEG analysis and an alpha asymmetry analysis were conducted at the sensor level. Frequency domain standardized low resolution tomography (sLORETA) was used to assess the effect at brain source level. Correlation analysis between the clinical/cognitive and EEG measurements was conducted at both the sensor and brain source level. The NF group showed increased performance as well as improved processing speed in a WM test after the training. The NF group showed pre-post enhancement in the upper alpha power after the training, better visible in task-related activity as compared to resting state. A current density increase appeared in the alpha band (8–12 Hz) for the NF group, localized in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC, BA 25). A positive correlation was found for the NF group between the improvement in processing speed and the increase of beta power at both the sensor and brain source level. These results show the effectiveness of this NF protocol in improving WM performance in patients with MDD. PMID:25228864

Escolano, Carlos; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Congedo, Marco; De Ridder, Dirk; Minguez, Javier

2014-01-01

248

Impact of Depression on Health Care Utilization and Costs among Multimorbid Patients – Results from the MultiCare Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the effects of depression on health care utilization and costs in a sample of multimorbid elderly patients. Method This cross-sectional analysis used data of a prospective cohort study, consisting of 1,050 randomly selected multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years. Depression was defined as a score of six points or more on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization. The impact of depression on health care costs was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. A societal perspective was adopted. Results Prevalence of depression was 10.7%. Mean total costs per six-month period were €8,144 (95% CI: €6,199-€10,090) in patients with depression as compared to €3,137 (95% CI: €2,735-€3,538; p<0.001) in patients without depression. The positive association between depression and total costs persisted after controlling for socio-economic variables, functional status and level of multimorbidity. In particular, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive association between depression and pharmaceutical costs. Conclusion Among multimorbid elderly patients, depression was associated with significantly higher health care utilization and costs. The effect of depression on costs was even greater than reported by previous studies conducted in less morbid patients. PMID:24638040

Bock, Jens-Oliver; Luppa, Melanie; Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Bickel, Horst; Fuchs, Angela; Gensichen, Jochen; Maier, Wolfgang; Mergenthal, Karola; Schäfer, Ingmar; Schön, Gerhard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; König, Hans-Helmut

2014-01-01

249

Earlier depression and later-life self-reported chewing difficulties: results from the Whitehall II study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess, whether depression in adulthood was associated with self-reported chewing difficulties at older age, and examine whether the strength of the association differed according to the number of depression episodes in earlier adult life. We used Whitehall II study data from 277 participants who completed a questionnaire in 2011. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 2003 and 2008. The association between CES-D depression and self-reported chewing ability was assessed using regression models adjusted for some socio-demographic factors. Participants with depression at some point in their earlier adulthood had an odds ratio (95% CI) of 2·01 (1·06, 3·82) for reporting chewing difficulties in older adulthood, compared to those without depression. The respective odds ratios were 1·42 (0·66, 3·04) for individuals with depression in only one phase, but 3·53 (1·51, 8·24) for those with depression in two phases. In conclusion, while further research is required, there was an association between depression and chewing difficulty that was independent of demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Furthermore, this increased odds for chewing difficulties was primarily among adults that experienced two episodes or a prolonged period of depression. PMID:25284358

AlJameel, A H; Watt, R G; Brunner, E J; Tsakos, G

2015-02-01

250

Earlier depression and later-life self-reported chewing difficulties: results from the Whitehall II study  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess, whether depression in adulthood was associated with self-reported chewing difficulties at older age, and examine whether the strength of the association differed according to the number of depression episodes in earlier adult life. We used Whitehall II study data from 277 participants who completed a questionnaire in 2011. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 2003 and 2008. The association between CES-D depression and self-reported chewing ability was assessed using regression models adjusted for some socio-demographic factors. Participants with depression at some point in their earlier adulthood had an odds ratio (95% CI) of 2·01 (1·06, 3·82) for reporting chewing difficulties in older adulthood, compared to those without depression. The respective odds ratios were 1·42 (0·66, 3·04) for individuals with depression in only one phase, but 3·53 (1·51, 8·24) for those with depression in two phases. In conclusion, while further research is required, there was an association between depression and chewing difficulty that was independent of demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Furthermore, this increased odds for chewing difficulties was primarily among adults that experienced two episodes or a prolonged period of depression. PMID:25284358

AlJameel, A H; Watt, R G; Brunner, E J; Tsakos, G

2015-01-01

251

Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking previously examined determinants into account. Methods: Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.0), we established comorbid anxiety disorders (social phobia (SP), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and agoraphobia (AGO)) in 350 patients (aged ?60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria within the past six months. Adjusted for age, sex, and level of education, we first examined previously identified determinants of anxious depression: depression severity, suicidality, partner status, loneliness, chronic diseases, and gait speed in multiple logistic regression models. Subsequently, associations were explored with the big five personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events. First, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the presence of any anxiety disorder (yes/no) as dependent variable, where after analyses were repeated for each anxiety disorder, separately. Results: In our sample, the prevalence rate of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression was 38.6%. Determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders were a lower age, female sex, less education, higher depression severity, early traumatization, neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Nonetheless, determinants differed across the specific anxiety disorders and lumping all anxiety disorder together masked some determinants (education, personality). Conclusions: Our findings stress the need to examine determinants of comorbid anxiety disorder for specific anxiety disorders separately, enabling the development of targeted interventions within subgroups of depressed patients. PMID:25370017

van der Veen, D C; van Zelst, W H; Schoevers, R A; Comijs, H C; Voshaar, R C Oude

2014-11-01

252

Neurofeedback As a Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder – A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in neurofeedback as a treatment for major depressive disorder. Reduction of asymmetry of alpha-activity between left and right prefrontal areas with neurofeedback has been postulated as effective in earlier studies. Unfortunately, methodological shortcomings limit conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. In a pilot-study, we investigated the effectiveness of reduction of asymmetry of alpha-activity with neurofeedback in depressed participants with the use of a stringent methodological approach. Methods Nine participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were treated with a maximum of 30 neurofeedback-sessions, aimed at reducing asymmetry of alpha-activity, over a 10-week period. No changes in the use of antidepressants were allowed 6 weeks before and during the intervention. Changes in depressive symptomatology were assessed with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, self-report version. Results We observed response in 1 and remission in 4 out of a total of 9 participants. The effectiveness appeared largest in female participants. The mean asymmetry of alpha-activity decreased significantly over sessions in a quadratic fashion. This decrease was associated with clinical response. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that neurofeedback aimed at a reduction of frontal asymmetry of alpha-activity may be effective as a treatment for depression. However, this was an open label pilot study. Non-specific effects of the procedure and/or a beneficial natural course may have confounded the results. Randomized controlled trials will have to establish the efficacy of neurofeedback for depression. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR1629 PMID:24642756

Peeters, Frenk; Oehlen, Mare; Ronner, Jacco; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

2014-01-01

253

A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET  

E-print Network

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper concludes by a tabular comparison of the various routing protocols for VANET.

Kumar, Rakesh

2011-01-01

254

Towards the Study of Functional Brain Development in Depression: An Interactive Specialization Approach  

PubMed Central

Depression is a significant and impairing mood disorder with onset possible as early as age 3 and into adulthood. Given this varying pattern of age of onset, identifying the relationship between brain development and depression across the lifespan has proven elusive. This review identifies some of the factors that may have limited the advancement of our knowledge in this area and discusses how synthesizing established models of depression and normative brain development may help to overcome them. More specifically, it is suggested that current neurobiological models of depression fail to account for the developmental variance associated with early neural network development and the potential influence of experience on this process. The utility of applying an established framework of normative brain development to this topic is described and its potential utility for conceptualizing the influence of depression on brain function across the life span is addressed. Future directions including longitudinal neuroimaging studies of early onset depression and groups at risk for this disorder are proposed. PMID:22750525

Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

2012-01-01

255

Personality as a predictor of depression symptoms in burn patients: A follow-up study.  

PubMed

There is empirical evidence that having some personality characteristics increases the risk of developing depression. This is the first study which analyses the role of personality dimensions, assessed by the Alternative Five Factor Model, in the development of depressive symptoms in adult burn survivors across time. Participants were 109 adult burn survivors admitted to a Burns Unit. Personality was assessed by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and depression symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory. After adjusting by age, gender and burn size, results showed that high Neuroticism-Anxiety (N-Anx) and Aggression-Hostility (Agg-Host) were related to higher depression scores when compared with low N-Anx and Agg-Host groups along the six months follow-up. Moreover, Activity and Impulsive-Sensation Seeking factors were involved in statistically significant different depressive symptom development trajectories during the six months after burn. These findings suggest that personality factors could be used to identify the most vulnerable patients, who could develop severe mood symptoms at different points in their recovery. PMID:25145874

Giannoni-Pastor, A; Gomà-I-Freixanet, M; Valero, S; Fidel Kinori, S G; Tasqué-Cebrián, R; Arguello, J M; Casas, M

2015-02-01

256

Depression is associated with increased sensitivity to signals of disgust: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study  

PubMed Central

Emotions of fear and disgust are related to core symptoms of depression. The neurobiological mechanisms of these associations are poorly understood. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at examining the Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response to facial expressions of fear and disgust in patients with major depressive disorder. Nine patients in an episode of major depression and nine healthy controls underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments where they judged the gender of facial identities displaying different degrees (mild, strong) of fear or disgust, intermixed with non-emotional faces. Compared with healthy controls, patients with depression demonstrated greater activation in left insula, left orbito-frontal gyrus, left middle/inferior temporal gyrus, and right middle/inferior temporal gyrus to expressions of strong disgust. Depressed patients also demonstrated reduced activation in left inferior parietal lobe to mildly fearful faces. Enhanced activation to facial expressions of disgust may reflect an emotion processing bias that suggests high relevance of emotion of disgust to depression. PMID:20307892

Surguladze, Simon A.; El-Hage, Wissam; Dalgleish, Tim; Radua, Joaquim; Gohier, Benedicte; Phillips, Mary L.

2014-01-01

257

Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

2012-01-01

258

Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model of Depression during Adolescence: Investigating Depressive Symptom Specificity in a Multi-Wave Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression commonly co-occurs with anxiety and externalizing problems. Etiological factors from a central cognitive theory of depression, the Hopelessness Theory (Abramson et al. "Psychological Review," 96, 358-372, 1989), were examined to evaluate whether a negative inferential style about cause, consequence, and self interacted with stressors…

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2008-01-01

259

Using problem solving therapy to treat veterans with subsyndromal depression: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective We conducted a pilot study comparing problem solving therapy for primary care (PST-PC) to a dietary education control condition in middle-aged and older veterans with symptoms of emotional distress and subsyndromal depression. Methods This was a two-site study at the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System and Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Participants included veterans >= 50 years of age referred from primary care clinics who were eligible if they obtained a pre-screen score >=11 on the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Exclusions were a DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode within the past year, active substance abuse/dependence within 1 month, current antidepressant therapy, and a Mini mental status exam score <24. Participants were randomized to receive one of two interventions—either PST-PC or an attention control condition consisting of dietary education (DIET)—each consisting of six to eight sessions within a 4-month period. Results Of 45 individuals randomized, 23 (11 PST-PC and 12 DIET) completed treatment. Using regression models in completers that examined outcomes at end of treatment while controlling for baseline scores, there were significant differences between treatment groups in SF-36 mental health component scores but not in depressive symptoms (as assessed with either the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression or the Beck Depression Inventory), social problem solving skills, or physical health status (SF-36 physical health component score). Conclusions These pilot study findings suggest that a six-to-eight session version of PST-PC may lead to improvements in mental health functioning in primary care veterans with subsyndromal depressive symptoms. PMID:24789736

Kasckow, J.; Klaus, J.; Morse, J.; Oslin, D.; Luther, J.; Fox, L.; Reynolds, C.; Haas, G. L.

2014-01-01

260

Patients’ perceptions of depression and coronary heart disease: a qualitative UPBEAT-UK study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of depression in people with coronary heart disease (CHD) is high but little is known about patients’ own perceptions and experiences of this. This study aimed to explore (i) primary care (PC) patients’ perceptions of links between their physical condition and mental health, (ii) their experiences of living with depression and CHD and (iii) their own self-help strategies and attitudes to current PC interventions for depression. Method Qualitative study using consecutive sampling, in-depth interviews and thematic analysis using a process of constant comparison. 30 participants from the UPBEAT-UK cohort study, with CHD and symptoms of depression. All participants were registered on the General Practitioner (GP) primary care, coronary register. Results A personal and social story of loss underpinned participants’ accounts of their lives, both before and after their experience of having CHD. This theme included two interrelated domains: interpersonal loss and loss centred upon health/control issues. Strong links were made between CHD and depression by men who felt emasculated by CHD. Weaker links were made by participants who had experienced distressing life events such as divorce and bereavement or were living with additional chronic health conditions (i.e. multimorbidity). Participants also felt ‘depressed’ by the ‘medicalisation’ of their lives, loneliness and the experience of ageing and ill health. Just under half the sample had consulted their GP about their low mood and participants were somewhat ambivalent about accessing primary care interventions for depression believing the GP would not be able to help them with complex health and social issues. Talking therapies and interventions providing the opportunity for social interaction, support and exercise, such as Cardiac Rehabilitation, were thought to be helpful whereas anti-depressants were not favoured. Conclusions The experiences and needs of patients with CHD and depression are diverse and include psycho-social issues involving interpersonal and health/control losses. In view of the varying social and health needs of patients with CHD and depression the adoption of a holistic, case management approach to care is recommended together with personalised support providing the opportunity for patients to develop and achieve life and health goals, where appropriate. PMID:23509869

2013-01-01

261

Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered “cohort” study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719 PMID:25429244

Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

2014-01-01

262

Glucose levels and depression in Hispanic patients admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Depression is frequently associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) and may worsen DM-related morbidity and mortality. We determined the potential association of glucose levels with depression in Hispanic patients admitted to the Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit. Patients were given the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale survey within 24 hours of admission. Glycated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose levels within 30 days of admission were extracted. The HbA1c levels remained significantly associated with both presence of depression and depression levels. Histories of DM, myocardial infarction, and percutaneous coronary intervention as well as baseline brain natriuretic peptide levels were also significantly associated with depression levels. The presence of a significant association between glucose levels and depression in Hispanic patients indicates that there is a need for optimal management of glycemic levels. This may then lead to better health outcomes in Hispanics with cardiovascular disease. PMID:24301424

Azimova, Komola; Rude, Jennifer; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Dwivedi, Alok; Sarosiek, Jerzy; Mukherjee, Debabrata

2015-01-01

263

Revisiting mendelian randomization studies of the effect of body mass index on depression.  

PubMed

Mendelian Randomization studies, which use genetic instrumental variables (IVs) as quasi-experiments to estimate causal effects, report inconsistent findings regarding effects of body mass index (BMI) on mental health. We used genetic IV to estimate effects of BMI on depression and evaluated validity of a commonly used IV. Female Nurse's Health Study participants (n?=?6989, average age 56.4, [Standard Deviation 6.91] years at first depression assessment) self-reported BMI, which was averaged across eight reports prior to depression assessment (mean?=?24.96, SD 4.50). Genetic instruments included fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) alleles, melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) alleles, and polygenic risk scores based on 32 established polymorphisms for BMI. Depression was assessed using multiple symptom measures, scaled to the Geriatric Depression Scale 15, averaged across up to 7 biennial waves. We used over-identification tests to assess the validity of genetic IVs. In conventional estimates, each additional BMI point predicted 0.024 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.020-0.029) higher average depression scores. Genetic IV estimates were not significant when based on FTO (beta: 0.064, CI: -0.014, 0.142), MC4R (beta: 0.005, CI: -0.146, 0.156), polygenic score excluding FTO (beta?=?-0.003, 95%-CI -0.051, 0.045), or mechanism-specific scores. The over-identification test comparing IV estimates based on FTO to estimates based on the polygenic score excluding FTO rejected equality of estimated effects (P?=?0.014). Results provide no evidence against a null effect of BMI on depression and call into question validity of FTO as an instrument for BMI in Mendelian Randomization studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25656382

Walter, Stefan; Kubzansky, Laura D; Koenen, Karestan C; Liang, Liming; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Rimm, Eric; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, M Maria

2015-03-01

264

A Meta-Analytic Study of Changes in Brain Activation in Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective A large number of studies with considerably variable methods have been performed to investigate brain regions involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to use a quantitative meta-analytic technique to synthesise the results of much of this research. Methods Three separate quantitative meta-analytical studies were conducted using the Activation Likelihood Estimation technique. Analysis was performed on three types of studies: (1) those conducted at rest comparing brain activation in patients with depression and controls; (2) those involving brain changes following antidepressant treatment; and (3) those comparing brain activation patterns induced by the induction of positive or negative emotion in patients with depression compared with controls. Results There appears to be a complex series of areas of the brain implicated in the pathophysiology of depression although limited overlap was found across imaging paradigms. This included a network of regions including frontal and temporal cortex as well as the insula and cerebellum that are hypoactive in depressed subjects and in which there is increase in activity with treatment. There was a corresponding set of subcortical and limbic regions in which opposite changes were found. Conclusions There is limited overlap between the brain regions identified using differing imaging methods. The most consistently identified regions include areas of the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral, medial and inferior prefrontal cortex, insula, superior temporal gyrus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Further research is required to identify if different imaging methods are identifying complementary networks that are equally involved in the disorder. PMID:17598168

Fitzgerald, Paul B.; Laird, Angela R.; Maller, Jerome; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.

2010-01-01

265

The Great Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the personal impact of the depression on the lives of Americans. We will follow Utah\\'s Social Studies core curriculum Standard 6: Students will understand how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected the United States. Objective 1 Investigate the impact of the Great Depression on the United States. * Analyze the major causes of the Great Depression. ...

Randyandamber

2007-11-30

266

Anxiety, Depression, Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes Mellitus; An Association Study in Ghaem Hospital, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an increasing trend in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Iran. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of anxiety, depression, diabetes and coronary artery disease among patients undergoing angiography in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted between September 2011 and August 2012 among 200 patients undergoing coronary angiography for symptoms of coronary disease at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The control group consisted of 697 healthy adults recruited from the individuals who attended the clinic for routine medical checkups or pre-employment examinations. The Beck anxiety and depression inventory scores and fasting blood glucose results were assessed in all the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of patients was 57.52 ± 9.33 years old and for the control group it was 55.35 ± 8.45 years; there was no significant difference between the subjects (P = 0.647) regarding age. There was also no significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and control groups (P = 0.205). There was however a significant difference in anxiety and depression scores between the patients and healthy controls (P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety score and depression score in both groups when data were analyzed by Pearson test. (P < 0.001, r = 0.604 and r = 0.521). Moreover, there was a significant positive linear correlation between the depression/anxiety scores and fasting blood glucose concentrations in the patients group (r = 0.3, P < 0.001) and a weak negative correlation in the healthy controls (r = -0.096, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Depression and anxiety are potentially important factors among patients with angiographically-defined CAD. There appear to be significant associations between glucose tolerance and anxiety and depression in these patients.

Tajfard, Mohammad; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Mouhebati, Mohsen; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Ferns, Gordon A; Latiff, Latiffah A; Taghipour, Ali; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Abdul-Aziz, Ahmad Fazli

2014-01-01

267

Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.  

PubMed

Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)=2.6 in 2003; OR=4.4 in 2006; OR=4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR=2.4 in 2006; OR=2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health. PMID:24647705

Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

2014-06-01

268

Characterization of depression in prodromal Huntington disease in the neurobiological predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) study.  

PubMed

Depression causes significant morbidity and mortality, and this also occurs in Huntington Disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative illness with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. The presentation of depression in this population remains poorly understood, particularly in the prodromal period before development of significant motor symptoms. In this study, we assessed depressive symptoms in a sample of 803 individuals with the HD mutation in the prodromal stage and 223 mutation-negative participants at the time of entry in the Neurobiological Predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) study. Clinical and biological HD variables potentially related to severity of depression were analyzed. A factor analysis was conducted to characterize the symptom domains of depression in a subset (n=168) with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found to be more prevalent in HD mutation carriers but did not increase with proximity to HD diagnosis and were not associated with length of the HD mutation. Increased depressive symptoms were significantly associated with female gender, self-report of past history of depression, and a slight decrease in functioning, but not with time since genetic testing. The factor analysis identified symptom domains similar to prior studies in other populations. These results show that individuals with the HD mutation are at increased risk to develop depressive symptoms at any time during the HD prodrome. The clinical presentation appears to be similar to other populations. Severity and progression are not related to the HD mutation. PMID:23790259

Epping, Eric A; Mills, James A; Beglinger, Leigh J; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Craufurd, David; Smith, Megan M; Groves, Mark; Bijanki, Kelly R; Downing, Nancy; Williams, Janet K; Long, Jeffrey D; Paulsen, Jane S

2013-10-01

269

Characterization of Depression in Prodromal Huntington Disease in the Neurobiological Predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) Study  

PubMed Central

Depression causes significant morbidity and mortality, and this also occurs in Huntington Disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative illness with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. The presentation of depression in this population remains poorly understood, particularly in the prodromal period before development of significant motor symptoms. In this study, we assessed depressive symptoms in a sample of 803 individuals with the HD mutation in the prodromal stage and 223 mutation-negative participants at the time of entry in the Neurobiological Predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) study. Clinical and biological HD variables potentially related to severity of depression were analyzed. A factor analysis was conducted to characterize the symptom domains of depression in a subset (n=168) with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found to be more prevalent in HD mutation carriers but did not increase with proximity to HD diagnosis and were not associated with length of the HD mutation. Increased depressive symptoms were significantly associated with female gender, self-report of past history of depression, and a slight decrease in functioning, but not with time since genetic testing. The factor analysis identified symptom domains similar to prior studies in other populations. These results show that individuals with the HD mutation are at increased risk to develop depressive symptoms at any time during the HD prodrome. The clinical presentation appears to be similar to other populations. Severity and progression are not related to the HD mutation. PMID:23790259

Epping, Eric A.; Mills, James A.; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Craufurd, David; Smith, Megan M.; Groves, Mark; Bijanki, Kelly R.; Downing, Nancy; Williams, Janet K.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Paulsen, Jane S.

2013-01-01

270

An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

2012-01-01

271

The Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Risk factors underlying the development and progression of some of the less well-recognised complications of type 2 diabetes, including cognitive impairment and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are poorly understood. The Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study was established in 2006 in order to investigate the role of potential risk factors in these complications, as well as to further investigate mechanisms underlying the development and progression of micro and macrovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Methods and design The study is designed as a prospective cohort study. Participants recruited at baseline (2006–2007) constitute 1066 men and women aged 60 to 75 years with established type 2 diabetes, living in the Lothian region of central Scotland. Subjects underwent detailed cognitive and physical examination, the latter including measures of micro- and macro-vascular disease, glycaemic control, body fat composition and plasma inflammatory markers, cortisol, lipids and liver function tests. Participants were re-examined after one year with hepatic ultrasonography and additional measures of vascular disease. This paper reports the methods of recruitment to the study and examinations performed at baseline and one year. Follow-up cognitive, vascular and liver assessments are scheduled for 2010–2011 when subjects will have been in the study for 4 years. Discussion This study will provide a wealth of epidemiological and biomarker data that should be invaluable in the identification of potentially modifiable, causal risk factors for diabetes-related cognitive impairment, liver dysfunction and vascular disease, which can be targeted for the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:19077235

Price, Jackie F; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Mitchell, Rory J; Williamson, Rachel M; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Deary, Ian J; Lee, Amanda J; Frier, Brian M; Hayes, Peter C; Strachan, Mark WJ

2008-01-01

272

Validation of the depression item bank from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in a three-month observational study.  

PubMed

The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is an NIH Roadmap initiative devoted to developing better measurement tools for assessing constructs relevant to the clinical investigation and treatment of all diseases-constructs such as pain, fatigue, emotional distress, sleep, physical functioning, and social participation. Following creation of item banks for these constructs, our priority has been to validate them, most often in short-term observational studies. We report here on a three-month prospective observational study with depressed outpatients in the early stages of a new treatment episode (with assessments at intake, one-month follow-up, and three-month follow-up). The protocol was designed to compare the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression item bank (administered as a computerized adaptive test, CAT) with two legacy self-report instruments: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD; Radloff, 1977) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999). PROMIS depression demonstrated strong convergent validity with the CESD and the PHQ-9 (with correlations in a range from .72 to .84 across all time points), as well as responsiveness to change when characterizing symptom severity in a clinical outpatient sample. Identification of patients as "recovered" varied across the measures, with the PHQ-9 being the most conservative. The use of calibrations based on models from item response theory (IRT) provides advantages for PROMIS depression both psychometrically (creating the possibility of adaptive testing, providing a broader effective range of measurement, and generating greater precision) and practically (these psychometric advantages can be achieved with fewer items-a median of 4 items administered by CAT-resulting in less patient burden). PMID:24931848

Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Maihoefer, Catherine C; Lawrence, Suzanne M

2014-09-01

273

Comparing telehealth-based and clinic-based group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with depression and anxiety: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate reliable adherence to a group cognitive behavioral (CBT) therapy protocol when delivered using on-line video conferencing as compared with face-to-face delivery of group CBT. A secondary aim was to show comparability of changes in subject depression inventory scores between on-line and face-to-face delivery of group CBT. Methods We screened 31 individuals, 18 of whom met the criteria for a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis of mood and/or anxiety disorder. All qualifying participants had the necessary equipment (computer, webcam, Internet) for participation in the study, but could exercise their preference for either the on-line or face-to-face format. Eighteen completed the 13 weekly session intervention program (ten face-to-face; eight video conferencing). We coded adherence to protocol in both intervention formats and generated pre–post changes in scores on the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II) for each participant. Results Application of the CBT protocol coding system showed reliable adherence to the group CBT intervention protocol in both delivery formats. Similarly, qualitative analysis of the themes in group discussion indicated that both groups addressed similar issues. Pre–post intervention scores for the BDI-II were comparable across the two delivery formats, with 60% of participants in each group showing a positive change in BDI-II severity classification (eg, from moderate to low symptoms). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates that group CBT could be delivered in a technology-supported environment (on-line video conferencing) and can meet the same professional practice standards and outcomes as face-to-face delivery of the intervention program. PMID:24855345

Khatri, Nasreen; Marziali, Elsa; Tchernikov, Illia; Shepherd, Nancy

2014-01-01

274

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), a treatment combining mindfulness meditation and interventions taken from cognitive therapy, in patients suffering from chronic-recurrent depression. Currently symptomatic patients with at least three previous episodes of depression and a history of suicidal ideation were randomly allocated to receive either MBCT delivered in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU; N = 14 completers) or TAU alone (N = 14 completers). Depressive symptoms and diagnostic status were assessed before and after treatment phase. Self-reported symptoms of depression decreased from severe to mild levels in the MBCT group while there was no significant change in the TAU group. Similarly, numbers of patients meeting full criteria for depression decreased significantly more in the MBCT group than in the TAU group. Results are consistent with previous uncontrolled studies. Although based on a small sample and, therefore, limited in their generalizability, they provide further preliminary evidence that MBCT can be used to successfully reduce current symptoms in patients suffering from a protracted course of the disorder. PMID:19249017

Barnhofer, Thorsten; Crane, Catherine; Hargus, Emily; Amarasinghe, Myanthi; Winder, Rosie; Williams, J. Mark G.

2009-01-01

275

Web-Based Depression Screening and Psychiatric Consultation for College Students: A Feasibility and Acceptability Study  

PubMed Central

Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9???10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895

Williams, Aya; LaRocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio

2014-01-01

276

Depression and HIV in Botswana: A Population-Based Study on Gender-Specific Socioeconomic and Behavioral Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDepression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18–49 year-old adults from five districts

Reshma Gupta; Madhavi Dandu; Laura Packel; George Rutherford; Karen Leiter; Nthabiseng Phaladze; Fiona Percy-De Korte; Vincent Iacopino; Sheri D. Weiser; Beatriz Grinsztejn

2010-01-01

277

Study & Analysis of various Protocols in popular Web Browsers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The web browsers are the application software that are used to access information from the World Wide Web. With the increasing popularity of the web browsers, the modern web browsers are designed to contain more features as compared to the existing web browsers. For the transferring of information through these browsers, various protocols have been implemented on these modern web browsers to make these browsers more efficient. Different protocols used in different layers have different functions and by increasing the efficiency of these protocols we can make the working of browsers more efficient.

Mishra, Bharat; Baghel, Harish Singh; Patil, Manoj; Singh, Pramod

2012-08-01

278

Factorial structure of the Spanish center for epidemiologic studies depression scales in HIV patients.  

PubMed

The factor structure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (Radloff in Appl Psychol Meas 1(3):385-401, 1977) was examined in two independent samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The first sample, composed of HIV patients undergoing hospital follow-up, was used to explore the factor structure of the CES-D. The second sample, composed of HIV patients confined in prison, was used to confirm the factor structure previously found. In both samples the best structure accounting for data was three 1st-order factors with a general 2nd-order factor of depression. We found a strong factorial invariance of this structure across samples, pointing out a high consistency of results in HIV patients. Additionally, the cut-off score for depression screening in this population was studied. PMID:23756721

Privado, Jesús; Garrido, Jesús

2013-08-01

279

Study exploring depression and cardiovascular diseases amongst Arabic speaking patients living in the State of Qatar: Rationale and methodology  

PubMed Central

Abstract: In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Studies show that depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular patients. Thus, early detection of, and intervention for, depression among cardiovascular patients can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To date there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among cardiovascular patients. The goals of our three-phase research program are to (1) understand the mental health issues, specifically depression, as experienced by cardiovascular patients living in the State of Qatar; (2) identify and implement strategies that would prevent depression and assist patients to deal with depression; and (3) evaluate, facilitate, and sustain strategies that are effective at reducing depression and foster its treatment among cardiovascular patients. This paper describe phase I of the research program. Using both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, we will investigate (1) the prevalence and severity of depression among patients who have confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (2) how contextual factors such as social, cultural, and economic factors contribute to the risk of depression and its management among cardiovascular patients, and (3) formulate effective intervention strategies that are expected to increase awareness, prevention of and treatment for depression among cardiovascular patients, thus reducing cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in Qatar. PMID:24688991

Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim M; Alqahtani, Awad; Assad, Nidal; Qader, Najla Abdul; Byrne, Carolyn; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak Shing

2012-01-01

280

A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

2014-01-01

281

Memory and Depressive Symptoms Are Dynamically Linked among Married Couples: Longitudinal Evidence from the AHEAD Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…

Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.

2009-01-01

282

Assessing the Reliability of Beck Depression Inventory Scores: Reliability Generalization across Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performed a meta-analysis of reliability estimates for Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (A. Beck and others, 1961) scores across studies. Only 7.5% of studies reviewed (n=1,200) reported meaningful reliability estimates. Analysis results suggest that standard errors of measurement should be considered in addition to reliability estimates when…

Yin, Ping; Fan, Xitao

2000-01-01

283

Major depression, fibromyalgia and labour force participation: A population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have documented an elevated frequency of depressive symptoms and disorders in fibromyalgia, but have not examined the association between this comorbidity and occupational status. The purpose of this study was to describe these epidemiological associations using a national probability sample. METHODS: Data from iteration 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used. The CCHS 1.1

Aliya Kassam; Scott B Patten

2006-01-01

284

The CRF system, stress, depression and anxiety—insights from human genetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concatenation of findings from preclinical and clinical studies support a preeminent function for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in mediating the physiological response to external stressors and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Recently, human genetic studies have provided considerable support to several long-standing hypotheses of mood and anxiety disorders, including the CRF hypothesis. These data, reviewed in

E B Binder; C B Nemeroff

2010-01-01

285

Neurobiology of Decision Making in Depressed Adolescents: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Despite evidence that impaired reward- and risk-related behavior during adolescence can have potentially serious short- and long-term consequences, few studies have investigated the impact of depression on reward-related selection in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between reward-related behavior and prefrontal…

Shad, Mujeeb U.; Bidesi, Anup P.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique; Rao, Uma

2011-01-01

286

Unrecognized Hypoxia and Respiratory Depression in Emergency Department Patients Sedated For Psychomotor Agitation: Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The incidence of respiratory depression in patients who are chemically sedated in the emergency department (ED) is not well understood. As the drugs used for chemical restraint are respiratory depressants, improving respiratory monitoring practice in the ED may be warranted. The objective of this study is to describe the incidence of respiratory depression in patients chemically sedated for violent behavior and psychomotor agitation in the ED. Methods Adult patients who met eligibility criteria with psychomotor agitation and violent behavior who were chemically sedated were eligible. SpO2 and ETCO2 (end-tidal CO2) was recorded and saved every 5 seconds. Demographic data, history of drug or alcohol abuse, medical and psychiatric history, HR and BP every 5 minutes, any physician intervention for hypoxia or respiratory depression, or adverse events were also recorded. We defined respiratory depression as an ETCO2 of ?50 mmHg, a change of 10% above or below baseline, or a loss of waveform for ?15 seconds. Hypoxia was defined as a SpO2 of ?93% for ?15 seconds. Results We enrolled 59 patients, and excluded 9 because of ?35% data loss. Twenty-eight (28/50) patients developed respiratory depression at least once during their chemical restraint (56%, 95% CI 42–69%); the median number of events was 2 (range 1–6). Twenty-one (21/50) patients had at least one hypoxic event during their chemical restraint (42%, 95% CI 29–55%); the median number of events was 2 (range 1–5). Nineteen (19/21) (90%, 95% CI 71–97%) of the patients that developed hypoxia had a corresponding ETCO2 change. Fifteen (15/19) (79%, 95% CI 56–91%) patients who became hypoxic met criteria for respiratory depression before the onset of hypoxia. The sensitivity of ETCO2 to predict the onset of a hypoxic event was 90.48% (95% CI: 68–98%) and specificity 69% (95% CI: 49–84%). Five patients received respiratory interventions from the healthcare team to improve respiration [Airway repositioning: (2), Verbal stimulation: (3)]. Thirty-seven patients had a history of concurrent drug or alcohol abuse and 24 had a concurrent psychiatric history. None of these patients had a major adverse event. Conclusion About half of the patients in this study exhibited respiratory depression. Many of these patients went on to have a hypoxic event, and most of the incidences of hypoxia were preceded by respiratory depression. Few of these events were recognized by their treating physicians. PMID:25035749

Deitch, Kenneth; Rowden, Adam; Damiron, Kathia; Lares, Claudia; Oqroshidze, Nino; Aguilera, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

287

Study protocol: the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS)  

PubMed Central

Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in children’s health and development. PMID:24103080

2013-01-01

288

Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD) and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations. Methods The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D), were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western blots were performed using a specific antibody that acts against the sigma-1 receptor, and the net densities of each band were quantified. Results All participants showed improvement in depressive symptoms, which was indicated by a significant decrease in the HAM-D scores. The mean plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration also increased significantly following antidepressant treatment. However, no significant correlations were found between changes in plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration and changes in HAM-D scores. Conclusion In this preliminary study, we demonstrated that the sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma increases following antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life MDD. Further studies are warranted to confirm this finding with a larger number of patients. PMID:24353420

Shimizu, Hideyuki; Takebayashi, Minoru; Tani, Masayuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yamagata, Bun; Kurosawa, Kenzo; Yamada, Hiroki; Hachisu, Mitsugu; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Mimura, Masaru; Iwanami, Akira

2013-01-01

289

The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists. PMID:22420301

2012-01-01

290

Bupropion for Interferon-Alpha-Induced Depression in Patients with Hepatitis C Viral Infection: An Open-Label Study  

PubMed Central

Interferon (IFN)-? therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with major depressive episodes. Bupropion, a commonly used antidepressant agent, has recently found to have strong anti-inflammatory effects in animal models. Despite of the theoretical relevancy, the antidepressant effect of bupropion in IFN-alpha-induced depression has never been studied. Ten HCV patients with IFN-?-induced depression were recruited to receive 8-week bupropion treatment and were assessed every 2 weeks for depressive symptoms by the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and somatic symptoms by the Neurotoxicity Rating Scale (NRS). Four of the 10 patients met the criteria for remission (total HAMD scores?7), and 5 patients met the criteria for response (at least 50% reduction in total HAMD scores). In addition, 5 patients had 50% decreases in NRS for neuropsychiatric symptoms. This preliminary open-label study suggests that bupropion is effective in treating IFN-alpha-induced depressive and somatic symptoms.

Chen, Wei-Chun; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Su, Wen-Pang; Palani, Mahalakshmi

2015-01-01

291

The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs. PMID:12859794

Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

2003-01-01

292

Symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples treated with donated sperm: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART), and to study the relationship of demographic data, pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Design Descriptive, a part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’. Setting All university clinics in Sweden performing gamete donation. Population A consecutive sample of 214 lesbian couples requesting assisted reproduction, 165 of whom participated. Methods Participants individually completed three study-specific questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): time point 1 (T1), at commencement of ART; time point 2 (T2), approximately 2 months after treatment; and time point 3 (T3), 2–5 years after first treatment. Main outcome measures Anxiety and depression (HADS), pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans. Results The vast majority of lesbian women undergoing assisted reproduction reported no symptoms of anxiety and depression at the three assessment points. A higher percentage of the treated women, compared with the partners, reported symptoms of anxiety at T2 (14% versus 5%, P = 0.011) and T3 (10% versus 4%, P = 0.018), as well as symptoms of depression at T2 (4% versus 0%, P = 0.03) and T3 (3% versus 0%, P = 0.035). The overall pregnancy outcome was high; almost three-quarters of lesbian couples gave birth 2–5 years after sperm donation treatments. Open-ended comments illustrated joy and satisfaction about family building. Conclusion Lesbian women in Sweden reported good psychological health before and after treatment with donated sperm. PMID:23489411

Borneskog, C; Sydsjö, G; Lampic, C; Bladh, M; Svanberg, AS

2013-01-01

293

Depressive symptoms and smoking among young Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Although evidence indicates a strong association between depressive symptoms and smoking among host and migrant adults, less is known about this relationship among young ethnic minority groups in Europe. This paper aims to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking among young Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands. Methods Multiple logistic regression analyses was used to analyze cross-sectional data from a sample of 364 Turkish and Moroccan migrants aged 15 to 24 years. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure the presence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Results Of the respondents, 22% were smokers and 33% had depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in smokers (42.9%) than in nonsmokers (29.5%). Respondents with depressive symptoms had increased odds of smoking even after adjusting for socioeconomic and cultural factors (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.45-4.97). Conclusions Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with smoking behavior in young Turkish and Moroccan migrants. In addition to other acknowledged factors, depressive symptoms should also be considered in relation to the smoking behavior of this group. Intervention programs for smoking behavior should take depressive symptoms into account for young Turkish and Moroccan migrants. PMID:21414199

2011-01-01

294

Spousal similarity in depression: a dyadic latent panel analysis of the panel study of Belgian households.  

PubMed

Dyadic latent panel analysis (DLPA) was applied to eight waves of the Panel Study of Belgium Households (N = 954 couples). DLPA decomposes the observed variance of both members of a dyad into variance due to stable factors, factors that gradually change over time, and occasion-specific factors including random error. Total observed similarity between members of a dyad on one occasion is decomposed into stable similarity, similarity in factors that change over time, and occasion-specific similarity. The results show that depressive symptoms are influenced by stable and changing factors and that spousal similarity in both factors contribute to spousal similarity in depression on a single occasion. Spousal similarity in factors that change gradually over time suggests that shared-environmental factors contribute to depressive symptoms. PMID:22022954

Desai, Shaunak; Schimmack, Ulrich; Jidkova, Svetlana; Bracke, Piet

2012-05-01

295

Overcoming barriers to conducting an intervention study of depression in an older African American population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe barriers and strengths of a study testing the effects of reminiscence on depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older African Americans. Primary data sources included debriefing sessions, reflective journals, participant observations, and key informant interviews. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization technique. Mistrust between gatekeepers and universities, recruitment and retention of research assistants and participants, culturally insensitive instruments, and stigma associated with depression were barriers. Successful approaches used to overcome the barriers experienced by the research team are described. Implications for transcultural nursing research and practice are discussed. PMID:20592056

Shellman, Juliette; Mokel, Melissa

2010-10-01

296

A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to Study Soil Runoff  

PubMed Central

Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

Kibet, Leonard C.; Saporito, Louis S.; Allen, Arthur L.; May, Eric B.; Kleinman, Peter J. A.; Hashem, Fawzy M.; Bryant, Ray B.

2014-01-01

297

Preventing Depression Among Early Adolescents in the Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Study of the Penn Resiliency Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the Penn Resiliency Program's effectiveness in preventing depression when delivered by therapists in\\u000a a primary care setting. Two-hundred and seventy-one 11- and 12-year-olds, with elevated depressive symptoms, were randomized\\u000a to PRP or usual care. Over the 2-year follow-up, PRP improved explanatory style for positive events. PRP's effects on depressive\\u000a symptoms and explanatory style for negative events were

Jane E. Gillham; John Hamilton; Derek R. Freres; Ken Patton; Robert Gallop

2006-01-01

298

Depressive symptoms are associated with hospitalization, but not with mortality in the elderly: A population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Subjects with depression might request more healthcare services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with hospitalization and mortality rates in a general unselected older population.Methods: We assessed the association of the 30-items Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) score with one-year hospitalization and mortality in all 344 subjects aged 75+ living in Tuscania (Italy).

Alice Laudisio; Emanuele Marzetti; Francesco Pagano; Gino Pozzi; Roberto Bernabei; Giuseppe Zuccalà

2010-01-01

299

Neuroimaging of Cognitive Dysfunction and Depression in Aging Retired NFL Players: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess for the presence of cognitive impairment and depression in aging former NFL players, and identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. Design Comparison of aging NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression to those without these dysfunctions and with matched healthy controls Setting Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. Patients We performed a cross-sectional study of retired professional football players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region, along with age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. We studied thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age 62) neurologically and neuropsychologically. A subset of 26 also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared to imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. Main Outcome Measures Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging measures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Results Of the 34 participants, 20 were cognitively normal, 4 were diagnosed with a fixed cognitive deficit, 8 with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 2 with dementia; 8 were diagnosed with depression. Of the subgroup in which neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired (CI) participants showed greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in CI players and depressed players compared to their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the CI group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming and word finding). Conclusions Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging NFL players compared to controls. These deficits are correlated with white matter abnormalities and changes in regional CBF. PMID:23303193

Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A.; Womack, Kyle B.; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C. Munro

2013-01-01

300

Fate of biomedical research protocols and publication bias in France: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To describe the fate of protocols approved by the French research ethics committees, a national system created by the French 1988 Huriet-Sérusclat Act; to assess publication bias at a national level. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Representative sample of 25\\/48 French research ethics committees in 1994. Protocols 649 research protocols approved by committees, with follow-up information. Main outcome measures

Evelyne Decullier; Véronique Lhéritier; François Chapuis

2005-01-01

301

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

302

Depression as a risk factor for overall and hormone-related cancer: The Korean cancer prevention study.  

PubMed

Depression has been hypothesized to be a risk factor of cancer, especially hormone-related cancers. However, few studies have been conducted with large enough sample size and sufficient follow-up period to rigorously estimate these associations. We aim to examine the relationship between depression and risk of registry-documented overall and hormone-related cancers. In this 19 year prospective cohort study of general population, 601,775 Koreans aged 30-64 years had a biennial medical evaluation by the National Health Insurance Service in either 1992 or 1994. Major and minor depression was ascertained by a 9-item depression questionnaire. At baseline, major depression was identified in 7.4% and 10.2% and minor depression in 19.3% and 21.4% in men and women, respectively. During the follow-up, 49,744 cancers were identified in men and 7860 in women. Prostate cancer in men was positively related to minor depression (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05, 1.23), and cervical cancer in women was inversely related to major depression (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83, 0.98) after adjusting for potential confounders. Regarding overall cancer, major depression was positively related to overall cancer in men (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00, 1.08) and inversely related in women (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83, 0.98). There was no association between breast cancer and depression. Different direction and magnitude of association among gender and cancer subtypes suggest different psycho-behavioral and biological pathways in which depression may affect later cancer development. Further studies on the association of depression and cancer and the underlying mechanisms should be conducted on specific cancer subtypes. PMID:25462388

Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Keyes, Katherine M; Mok, Yejin; Jung, Keum Ji; Shin, Yee-Jin; Jee, Sun Ha

2015-03-01

303

Depression and Bulimia: The Link Between Depression and Bulimic Cognitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the link between bulimic and depressive cognitions. Twenty-nine bulimics and 16 controls from the general population were first assessed on levels of depression using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia–Change Version and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Bulimics were significantly more depressed than controls. Bulimics differed significantly from controls on all cognitive measures associated with depression

Barbara Schlesier-Carter; Sharon A. Hamilton; Patrick M. ONeil; R. Bruce Lydiard; Robert Malcolm

1989-01-01

304

Analysis of Grooming Behavior and Its Utility in Studying Animal Stress, Anxiety, and Depression  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 Analysis of Grooming Behavior and Its Utility in Studying Animal Stress, Anxiety of grooming activity and its microstructure may serve as a useful measure of stress and anxiety in both wild into the effects of stress, anxiety, and depression on this behavioral domain. The method involves quantification

Kalueff, Allan V.

305

The link between childhood trauma and depression: Insights from HPA axis studies in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Childhood trauma is a potent risk factor for developing depression in adulthood, particularly in response to additional stress. We here summarize results from a series of clinical studies suggesting that childhood trauma in humans is associated with sensitization of the neuroendocrine stress response, glucocorticoid resistance, increased central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) activity, immune activation, and reduced hippocampal volume, closely paralleling

Christine Heim; D. Jeffrey Newport; Tanja Mletzko; Andrew H. Miller; Charles B. Nemeroff

2008-01-01

306

Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

2012-01-01

307

Studying the role of cognition in depression: Well-trodden paths and cul-de-sacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their commentary on our earlier review (Coyne & Gotlib, 1983), Segal and Shaw minimize the problems faced by the cognitive approach to the study of depression. Their repeated references to cognitive processes that are latent and therefore not reported by subjects represent a substantial retreat from empiricism. In general, the notion of schema or schematic processing remains problematic. Published

James C. Coyne; Ian Gotlib

1986-01-01

308

Acculturation, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American…

Juang, Linda P.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.

2009-01-01

309

Economic Pressure, Maternal Depression, and Child Adjustment in Latino Families: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of poverty and economic pressure upon the adjustment of mothers and children in immigrant Latino families. Participants included 56 first generation Latina mothers who completed questionnaires addressing economic difficulties, depression, social support, and behavior problems exhibited by their children (30 boys, 26 girls) who ranged in ages from 4 to

Jessica M. Dennis; Ross D. Parke; Scott Coltrane; Jan Blacher; Sharon A. Borthwick-Duffy

2003-01-01

310

Reward-Related Decision-Making in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although reward processing is considered an important part of affective functioning, few studies have investigated reward-related decisions or responses in young people with affective disorders. Depression is postulated to involve decreased activity in reward-related affective systems. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance…

Forbes, Erika E.; Christopher May, J.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Ryan, Neal D.; Carter, Cameron S.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.

2006-01-01

311

Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

2005-01-01

312

Bioavailable Testosterone and Depressed Mood in Older Men: The Rancho Bernardo Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional population-based study examined the association between endogenous sex hormones and depressed mood in commu- nity-dwelling older men. Participants included 856 men, ages 50 - 89 yr, who attended a clinic visit between 1984 - 87. Total and bioavail- able testosterone, total and bioavailable estradiol, and dihydrotes- tosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in an endocri- nology research laboratory.

ELIZABETH BARRETT-CONNOR; DENISE G. VON MUHLEN; DONNA KRITZ-SILVERSTEIN

2006-01-01

313

Types of Depression More Frequent in Bipolar than in Unipolar Affective Illness: Results of the Polish DEP-BI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relative frequency of various kinds of depression in patients with bipolar and unipolar affective illness. The study was performed in the framework of the DEP-BI project aimed at assessing the prevalence of bipolar disorders among depressive outpatients treated by psychiatrists in Poland. Methods: Eight-hundred and eighty patients (237 male, 643

Janusz K. Rybakowski; Aleksandra Suwalska; Dorota Lojko; Joanna Rymaszewska; Andrzej Kiejna

2007-01-01

314

Self-reported predictors of depressive symptomatology in an elderly population with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression increases among the elderly with chronic medical conditions like diabetes. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine predictors of depressive symptomatology in Medicare enrolled elderly population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted by administrating health risk assessment questionnaire to elderly (?65 years) with type 2 diabetes. Responses

Manjiri D Pawaskar; Roger T Anderson; Rajesh Balkrishnan

2007-01-01

315

Does Social Support Protect against Depression & Psychological Distress? Findings from the RELACHS Study of East London Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few prospective studies have examined the relationship between social support and psychological distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The aims of this study were to test whether social support is protective against psychological distress and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse population of adolescents and whether differences…

Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

316

Practice Patterns for the Outpatient Treatment of Depression in a Case-Managed Delivery System: A Utilization Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have you ever wondered how long it takes the average outpatient provider to treat a patient with a depression-related diagnosis? This article provides baseline data by diagnostic categories for women treated for depression. As a managed behavioral health care company, ValueOptions partnered with the Virginia Academy of Clinical Psychologists to study how providers use various treatment modalities. Furthermore, this study

Karen M. Ledsky; E. Vicar Reynolds; Michael S. Weissman; J. D. Ball; Marc Rabinowitz; Cheryl Collins; James J. James; Paul Mansheim

2000-01-01

317

Practice patterns for the outpatient treatment of depression in a case-managed delivery system: A utilization study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Have you ever wondered how long it takes the average outpatient provider to treat a patient with a depression-related diagnosis? This article provides baseline data by diagnostic categories for women treated for depression. As a managed behavioral health care company, ValueOptions partnered with the Virginia Academy of Clinical Psychologists to study how providers use various treatment modalities. Furthermore, this study

Karen M. Ledsky; Michael S. Weissman; J. D. Ball; Marc Rabinowitz; Cheryl Collins; James J. James; Paul Mansheim

2000-01-01

318

Remission in Depressed Geriatric Primary Care Patients: A Report From the PROSPECT Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compared time to first remission for elderly depressed patients in primary care for practices that implemented a care management model versus those providing usual care. In addition, it sought to identify risk factors for nonremission that could guide treatment planning and referral to care managers or specialists. Method Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial (PROSPECT) data were analyzed. Participants were older patients (?60 years) selected following screening of 9,072 randomly identified primary care patients. The present analysis examined patients with major depression and a 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 18 or greater who were followed for at least 4 months (N=215). Primary care practices were randomly assigned to offer the PROSPECT intervention or usual care. The intervention consisted of services of trained care managers, who offered algorithm-based recommendations to physicians and helped patients with treatment adherence over 18 months. Results First remission occurred earlier and was more common among patients receiving the intervention than among those receiving usual care. For all patients, limitations in physical and emotional functions predicted poor remission rate. Patients experiencing hopelessness were more likely to achieve remission if treated in intervention practices. Similarly, the intervention was more effective in patients with low baseline anxiety. Conclusions Longitudinal assessment of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, and physical and emotional functional limitations in depressed older primary care patients is critical. Patients with prominent symptoms or impairment in these areas may be candidates for care management or mental health care, since they are at risk for remaining depressed and disabled. PMID:15800144

Alexopoulos, George S.; Katz, Ira R.; Bruce, Martha L.; Heo, Moonseong; Have, Thomas Ten; Raue, Patrick; Bogner, Hillary R.; Schulberg, Herbert C.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Reynolds, Charles F.

2009-01-01

319

Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of friend-relative care. Participants consisted of 624 noninstitutionalized elders (mean age = 77.35) from the

Pai-Lin Lee; William Lan; Charles C.-L. Lee

2012-01-01

320

Sociodemographic Correlates of Unipolar Major Depression among the Chinese Elderly in Klang Valley, Malaysia: An Epidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Depression, as one of the most disabling diseases around the world, had caught the global concern with its rising prevalence rate. There is a growing need of detecting depression, particularly in the old age population which is often left being overlooked. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study which included 150 Chinese elderly aged 60 and above within Klang Valley area. We obtained the sociodemographic profiles and assessed the status of well-being, depression, and cognitive function of the participants with the help of instruments: WHO Five-Item Well-Being Index, Major (ICD-10) Depression Inventory, and 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test. Results. We found that the prevalence of depression among the Chinese elderly within Klang Valley region was 10.7%. With multiple logistic regression, decision to consult doctor on depressed mood or memory problem and presence of cognitive impairment were shown to be significantly associated with unipolar major depression, whereas wellbeing status was also found to be statistically correlated with depression in univariate analysis. Conclusion. The prevalence of unipolar depression among Chinese elderly within Klang Valley, Malaysia presented that there was an increased trend compared to the previous studies. PMID:25544962

Verma, Rohit Kumar; Chakravarthy, Srikumar; Barua, Ankur

2014-01-01

321

Depressive Symptoms, Race, and Circulating C-Reactive Protein: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prospective association of depressive symptoms with circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and determine the direction of that association. Methods Using data from 2544 healthy participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (ages 33–45, 55% female, 42% black), we examined the prospective association of depressive symptoms, as measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), with circulating CRP five years later. Results Depressive symptoms at CARDIA Year 15 predicted CRP at Year 20, independent of demographic characteristics, biological and medical risk factors, health behaviors, and Year 15 CRP. This association, however, was conditional upon race such that the increase in CRP with increasing depressive symptoms was present in blacks but not whites. In neither blacks nor whites did Year 15 CRP predict Year 20 depressive symptoms. Among black participants, when examined in separate analyses, higher scores on the depressed affect and somatic symptoms subscales of the CES-D, and lower scores on the positive affect subscale were associated with greater Year 20 CRP. The interpersonal problems subscale was unrelated to CRP. When all four subscale scores were entered simultaneously in the same model, black participants' scores on the positive affect and somatic symptoms subscales emerged as independent predictors of Year 20 CRP whereas the depressed affect and interpersonal problems subscales did not. Conclusions Depressive symptoms may be more closely linked to inflammation in blacks than in whites. PMID:20668285

Cohen, Sheldon; DiLillo, Vicki G.; Lewis, Cora E.; Kiefe, Catarina; Whooley, Mary; Matthews, Karen A.

2011-01-01

322

Personality traits associated with suicidal behaviors in patients with depression: the CRESCEND study.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to identify personality traits associated with suicidal behavior in patients with depression. Of the 1183 patients screened for an observational cohort study of depression, 334 (28.2%) who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were included in these analyses. To minimize the effect of current mood state, the TCI was performed 12 weeks after initiation of treatment, and we adjusted for the severity of depression. Of the 344 participants, 59 had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt, 37 had a lifetime history of multiple suicide attempts, and 5 attempted suicide during the 12-week study period. At baseline, patients with a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt, a lifetime history of multiple suicide attempts, and a suicide attempt during the study period expressed more serious current suicidal ideation than did those without such a history, despite the absence of differences among the groups in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Of the seven personality scales of the TCI, lower scores on the self-directedness scale of the character dimension were associated with a history of at least one suicide attempt (OR [95% CI], 0.91 [0.87-0.96]; p<0.001), a history of multiple suicide attempts (0.91 [0.86-0.97]; p=0.003), and suicide attempts during study period (0.80 [0.69-0.94]; p=0.006). These findings suggest that depressed patients with a history of suicidal behavior differ from non-attempters with regard to personality traits, especially the character dimension of self-directedness. It is noteworthy that this result emerged after controlling for the effect of current mood state. PMID:24794639

Seo, Ho-Jun; Jung, Young-Eun; Jeong, Seunghee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn

2014-07-01

323

Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

2009-01-01

324

From rehabilitation to recovery: protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating a goal-based intervention to reduce depression and facilitate participation post-stroke  

PubMed Central

Background There is much discourse in healthcare about the importance of client-centred rehabilitation, however in the realm of community-based therapy post-stroke there has been little investigation into the efficacy of goal-directed practice that reflects patients' valued activities. In addition, the effect of active involvement of carers in such a rehabilitation process and their subsequent contribution to functional and emotional recovery post-stroke is unclear. In community based rehabilitation, interventions based on patients' perceived needs may be more likely to alter such outcomes. In this paper, we describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial of an integrated approach to facilitating patient goal achievement in the first year post-stroke. The effectiveness of this intervention in reducing the severity of post-stroke depression, improving participation status and health-related quality of life is examined. The impact on carers is also examined. Methods/Design Patients (and their primary carers, if available) are randomly allocated to an intervention or control arm of the study. The intervention is multimodal and aims to screen for adverse stroke sequelae and address ways to enhance participation in patient-valued activities. Intervention methods include: telephone contacts, written information provision, home visitation, and contact with treating health professionals, with further relevant health service referrals as required. The control involves treatment as usual, as determined by inpatient and community rehabilitation treating teams. Formal blinded assessments are conducted at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and at six and twelve months post-stroke. The primary outcome is depression. Secondary outcome measures include participation and activity status, health-related quality of life, and self-efficacy. Discussion The results of this trial will assist with the development of a model for community-based rehabilitation management for stroke patients and their carers, with emphasis on goal-directed practice to enhance home and community participation status. Facilitation of participation in valued activities may be effective in reducing the incidence or severity of post-stroke depression, as well as enhancing the individual's perception of their health-related quality of life. The engagement of carers in the rehabilitation process will enable review of the influence of the broader social context on recovery. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12608000042347 PMID:21682910

2011-01-01

325

[A social study of a group of depressed patients recovering in a private clinic].  

PubMed

Depression is a widespread illness in Sardinia and is treated mainly in private clinics which accept National Health patients. The aim of the present study was to evidence socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of depressed subjects who turn to these clinics. Furthermore we will examine the reason which led to the choice of a private clinic on the basis of services provided by the same, of those available in public hospitals and of patients' psychopathological history and socioeconomic characteristics. We examined 122 depressed patients who had been admitted to a private clinic in Cagliari over a period of six months. By means of a data collection sheet the following parameters were studied: sex, age, place of birth and residence, marital status, family nucleus, profession, level of education, head of the family's occupation, receipt of pension or subsidy, geriatric or other forms of assistance, diagnosis, age at onset of illness, characteristics of current episode, previous hospitalizations, treatment received (public or private), structures usually applied to patients, social welfare aid and reason for the same, psychiatric structures available locally, persons who had requested current and previous hospitalization, reason which had led to choice of clinic. Examination of data collected revealed that females are hospitalized (94.27%) more than males (5.73%); this finding is in agreement with data reported in the literature which evidence a higher incidence of depression among females. The majority of patients were in the over-50 age group (56.5%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8190030

Rachèle, M G; Scamonatti, L; Burrai, C

1994-03-01

326

Prevalence of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms and Related Risk Factors among Physicians in China: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians’ poor mental health not only hinders their professional performance and affects the quality of healthcare provided but also adversely affects patients’ health outcomes. Few studies in China have evaluated the mental health of physicians. The purposes of this study are to quantify Chinese physicians’ anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as evaluate associated risk factors. Methods In our study, 2641 physicians working in public hospitals in Shenzhen in southern China were recruited and interviewed by using a structured questionnaire along with validated scales testing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results An estimated 25.67% of physicians had anxiety symptoms, 28.13% had depressive symptoms, and 19.01% had both anxiety and depressive symptoms. More than 10% of the participants often experienced workplace violence and 63.17% sometimes encountered it. Among our study population, anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with poor self-reported physical health, frequent workplace violence, lengthy working hours (more than 60 hours a week), frequent night shifts (twice or more per week), and lack of regular physical exercise. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that anxiety and depressive symptoms are common among physicians in China, and the doctor-patient relationship issue is particularly stressful. Interventions implemented to minimize workload, improve doctor-patient relationships, and assist physicians in developing healthier lifestyles are essential to combat anxiety and depressive symptoms among physicians, which may improve their professional performance. PMID:25050618

Chen, Wei; Dib, Hassan H.; Yang, Guoan; Zhuang, Runsen; Chen, Yuqi; Tong, Xinyue; Yin, Xiaoxv; Lu, Zuxun

2014-01-01

327

Multigene interactions and the prediction of depression in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Single genetic loci offer little predictive power for the identification of depression. This study examined whether an analysis of gene–gene (G × G) interactions of 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with depression and age-related diseases would identify significant interactions with increased predictive power for depression. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting A survey of participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Participants A total of 4811 persons (2464 women and 2347 men) who provided saliva for genotyping; the group comes from a randomly selected sample of Wisconsin high school graduates from the class of 1957 as well as a randomly selected sibling, almost all of whom are non-Hispanic white. Primary outcome measure Depression as determine by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview–Short-Form. Results Using a classification tree approach (recursive partitioning (RP)), the authors identified a number of candidate G × G interactions associated with depression. The primary SNP splits revealed by RP (ANKK1 rs1800497 (also known as DRD2 Taq1A) in men and DRD2 rs224592 in women) were found to be significant as single factors by logistic regression (LR) after controlling for multiple testing (p=0.001 for both). Without considering interaction effects, only one of the five subsequent RP splits reached nominal significance in LR (FTO rs1421085 in women, p=0.008). However, after controlling for G × G interactions by running LR on RP-specific subsets, every split became significant and grew larger in magnitude (OR (before) ? (after): men: GNRH1 novel SNP: (1.43 ? 1.57); women: APOC3 rs2854116: (1.28 ? 1.55), ACVR2B rs3749386: (1.11 ? 2.17), FTO rs1421085: (1.32 ? 1.65), IL6 rs1800795: (1.12 ? 1.85)). Conclusions The results suggest that examining G × G interactions improves the identification of genetic associations predictive of depression. 4 of the SNPs identified in these interactions were located in two pathways well known to impact depression: neurotransmitter (ANKK1 and DRD2) and neuroendocrine (GNRH1 and ACVR2B) signalling. This study demonstrates the utility of RP analysis as an efficient and powerful exploratory analysis technique for uncovering genetic and molecular pathway interactions associated with disease aetiology. PMID:22761283

Roetker, Nicholas S; Yonker, James A; Lee, Chee; Chang, Vicky; Basson, Jacob J; Roan, Carol L; Hauser, Taissa S; Hauser, Robert M

2012-01-01

328

The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale (MADRS). A psychometric re-analysis of the European genome-based therapeutic drugs for depression study using Rasch analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this re-analysis of the European Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Study (GENDEP) was to psychometrically test the unidimensionality of the full Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS10) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) versus their respective subscales (MADRS5 and HAM-D6) containing the core symptoms of depression severity. Rasch analysis was applied using RUMM 2030 software to assess the overall fit for unidimensionality. Neither the MADRS10 nor the HAM-D17 was found to fit the Rasch model for unidimensionality. The HAM-D6 (containing the items of depressed mood, guilt, work and interests, psychomotor retardation, psychic anxiety, and somatic general) as well as the analogue MADRS5 were tested for unidimensionality by use of the RUMM 2030 programme, and only the HAM-D6 was accepted. When testing for invariance across rating weeks or centres, the RUMM 2030 had to be supplemented with the Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks. The HAM-D6 but not the MADRS5 was accepted. It was therefore concluded that the HAM-D6 is a psychometrically valid outcome scale to measure change in clinical trials of antidepressants. PMID:24746391

Bech, Per; Allerup, Peter; Larsen, Erik Roj; Csillag, Claudio; Licht, Rasmus W

2014-07-30

329

Sleep changes during long-term treatment of depression with fluvoxamine – a home-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: The effects of antidepressants on sleep in depression have been extensively investigated, although to date there have been\\u000a relatively few studies of newer drug classes such as specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). All reported studies\\u000a on SSRIs have been conducted in patients admitted to sleep laboratories and very few longitudinal studies have continued to\\u000a measure sleep beyond 5 weeks

S. J. Wilson; C. Bell; N. J. Coupland; D. J. Nutt

2000-01-01

330

A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution  

E-print Network

by physical constraints and per- formance criteria. Because safety of the aircraft is solely or mostlyA Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu1, Ufuk Topcu2, and Richard M. Murray3 Abstract-- We consider the problem of designing a control protocol for the aircraft

Xu, Huan

331

Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal, family study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. Method 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992–2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Results Parent avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (p=0.083). Parent anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (p=0.961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.034), and in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (p=0.045) and lethality of attempts (p=0.003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.025) and major depressive disorder (p=0.012). Parent avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (p=0.048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (p=0.003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parent attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring, and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. PMID:25098943

MacGregor, Erica K.; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K.; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John

2015-01-01

332

Bio-psycho-socio-demographic and Obstetric Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Pregnancy: A prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: There are various attempts to confirm variables that could predict postpartum depression in advance. This study determined antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression in women at risk of developing this disorder. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 2279 eligible women who attended at Mazandaran province’ primary health centers from 32-42 weeks of pregnancy to eighth postpartum weeks. The women were screened for symptoms of depression using the Iranian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. An Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of > 12 indicated possible postpartum depression. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 2083women during 32-42 weeks of gestation participated in this study and were followed up to 8-week postpartum. Four hundred and three (19.4%) mothers yielded scores above the threshold of 12. Depression and general health state in pregnancy based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.3-1.4) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.04), respectively were significant independent antenatal risk factors of depression symptoms at 8-week postpartum. Mothers who lived in nuclear families (OR = 1.38, CI = 1.04-1.84), whose husbands had lower educational status (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.91-0.99), and with delayed prenatal care (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.001-1.03) were more susceptible to postpartum depression. Conclusion: A comprehensive antenatal assessment focused on psychiatric problems, environmental and obstetric factors would benefit pregnant women in the prevention of postpartum depression. PMID:25053953

Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rohani, Samad; Sazlina, Ghazali Shariff; Zarghami, Mehran; Azhar, Md Zain; Lye, Munn Sann; Rezaiee Abhari, Farideh; Majidi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Soghra

2014-01-01

333

Associations between School-Related Factors and Depressive Symptoms among Children: A Comparative Study, Finland and Norway  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares school-related associations in depressive symptoms among children aged between 9-13 years from four schools in Finland and Norway. A total of 523 pupils participated in the cross-sectional survey. The connections between depressive symptoms and school factors were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses. School…

Minkkinen, Jaana

2014-01-01

334

A Comparison of Life Events in Adolescents with Major Depression, Borderline Personality Disorder and Matched Controls: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study assessed the prevalence of life events (LE) in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 19), borderline personality disorder (BPD, n = 20) and matched controls (n = 20). Methods: Assessment measures included: the Child Suicide Potential Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Life Events Checklist, the Childhood Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

Netta Horesh; Sharon Ratner; Nathaniel Laor; Paz Toren

2008-01-01

335

A Daily Diary Study of Co-Rumination, Stressful Life Events, and Depressed Mood in Late Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to extend the research on co-rumination and depressed mood by examining the impact of co-rumination on depressed mood on a daily basis while controlling for the effects of daily stress events in a sample of late adolescents. Two-hundred and seventy-nine predominantly Caucasian college students (95 male, 184 female)…

White, Megan E.; Shih, Josephine H.

2012-01-01

336

A study of lifetime prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients presenting with chest pain to emergency medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with chest pain presenting to an emergency department. Majority of the patients had coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-three percent of patients with chest pain had a diagnosable psychiatric disorder according to ICD-10 research criteria. Anxiety and depressive disorders were equally distributed among patients with concomitant psychiatric syndrome. The level

Krishnamachari Srinivasan; Willie Joseph

2004-01-01

337

A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Adolescent Conflict Resolution Styles, Depressive Symptoms, and Romantic Relationship Longevity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…

Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2012-01-01

338

Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

339

Preventing Depression among Early Adolescents in the Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Controlled Study of the Penn Resiliency Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the Penn Resiliency Program's effectiveness in preventing depression when delivered by therapists in a primary care setting. Two-hundred and seventy-one 11- and 12-year-olds, with elevated depressive symptoms, were randomized to PRP or usual care. Over the 2-year follow-up, PRP improved explanatory style for positive events.…

Gillham, Jane E.; Hamilton, John; Freres, Derek R.; Patton, Ken; Gallop, Robert

2006-01-01

340

A Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Attributional Style, Life Events, and Depression in Japanese Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates relationships among attributional style, life events, and depression in 143 Japanese undergraduates. Results indicate that negative experiences and depressogenic attributional styles increase the likelihood of depression, while positive experiences and enhancing attributional styles decrease the likelihood of depression. Suggests…

Sakamoto, Shinji; Kambara, Masahiko

1998-01-01

341

Depression Research - The STAR*D Study - Relief in Hours?  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. The STAR*D Study New research reveals that, by working ... Southwestern Medical Center and co-authors of the STAR*D study. Photo courtesy of University of Texas ...

342

Acupuncture for functional dyspepsia: study protocol for a two-center, randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common health problem currently without any optimal treatments. Acupuncture has been traditionally sought as a treatment for FD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether acupuncture treatment helps improve symptoms of FD. Methods/design A two-center, randomized, waitlist-controlled trial will be carried out to evaluate whether acupuncture treatment improves FD symptoms. Seventy six participants aged 18 to 75 years with FD as diagnosed by Rome III criteria will be recruited from August 2013 to January 2014 at two Korean Medicine hospitals. They will be randomly allocated either into eight sessions of partially individualized acupuncture treatment over 4 weeks or a waitlist group. The acupuncture group will then be followed-up for 3 weeks with six telephone visits and a final visit will be paid at 8 weeks. The waitlist group will receive the identical acupuncture treatment after a 4-week waiting period. The primary outcome is the proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief and the secondary outcomes include Nepean dyspepsia index, EQ-5D, FD-related quality of life, Beck’s depression inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire, and level of ghrelin hormone. The protocol was approved by the participating centers’ Institutional Review Boards. Discussion Results of this trial will help clarify not only whether the acupuncture treatment is beneficial for symptom improvement in FD patients but also to elucidate the related mechanisms of how acupuncture might work. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01921504. PMID:24655542

2014-01-01

343

Dissociable Self Effects for Emotion Regulation: A Study of Chinese Major Depressive Outpatients  

PubMed Central

Reappraisal is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy while the role of self-perspective in reappraisal process of depressed patients is largely unknown in terms of goals (valence/arousal) and tactics (detachment/immersion). In this study, 12 depressed individuals and 15 controls were scanned with MRI during which they either attend naturally to emotional stimuli, or adopt detachment/immersion strategy. Behaviorally, no group differences in self-reported emotion regulation effectiveness were found. In addition, we observed that (1) patients were less able to downregulate amygdala activation with recruitment of more dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when adopting detachment strategy regardless of valence, and this preserved ability to regulate emotion was inversely associated with severity of symptoms; (2) patients had deficits in upregulating amygdala activation when adopting immersion strategy, with less inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation and strengthening coupling of dlPFC and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) with amygdala; (3) comparison between groups yielded that patients showed stronger vmPFC activation under either self-detached or self-immersed condition. In conclusion, impaired modulatory effects of amygdala in depressed patients are compensated with strengthening cognitive control resources, with dissociable effects for different self-perspectives in reappraisal. These results may help clarify the role of self-perspective underlying reappraisal in major depression. PMID:24804219

Wang, Xiaoxia; Feng, Zhengzhi; Zhou, Daiquan; Lei, Xu; Liao, Tongquan; Zhang, Li; Ji, Bing; Li, Jing

2014-01-01

344

Aripiprazole adjunct treatment in bipolar I or II disorder, depressed state: a 2-year clinical study.  

PubMed

The symptomatic course of bipolar disorder (BPD) is chronic and dominated by depression. As recurrence rates are high, maintenance therapy is required. Although efficacious, mood stabilizers may be hampered by poor adherence, and second-generation antipsychotic medications may be associated with weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. There is evidence to suggest that aripiprazole is beneficial in major depressive disorder and BPD with depression. We therefore investigated 2-year clinical outcomes with aripiprazole adjunct therapy at 5 to 15 mg once daily alongside a mood stabilizer in 40 patients with BPD. All patients experienced marked improvements in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores by 6 weeks and substantial reductions in Clinical Global Impressions Scale scores by 6 months. All patients were able to return to optimal or premorbid functioning by 6 months to 1 year. By 1 year, all patients made a complete functional recovery on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Improvements were maintained on all measures up to 2 years. There were minimal adverse events, all of which decreased during therapy. Our findings indicate that aripiprazole adjunct treatment is safe and effective as an acute and maintenance therapy for BPD. However, the findings will need to be replicated by larger studies. PMID:25536100

Malempati, Rao N

2015-01-01

345

How Does MBCT for Depression Work? Studying Cognitive and Affective Mediation Pathways  

PubMed Central

Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce current symptoms and to prevent recurrence of major depressive disorder. At present, it is not well understood which underlying mechanisms during MBCT are associated with its efficacy. The current study (n = 130) was designed to examine the roles of mindfulness skills, rumination, worry and affect, and the interplay between those factors, in the mechanisms of change in MBCT for residual depressive symptoms. An exploratory but systematic approach was chosen using Sobel-Goodman mediation analyses to identify mediators on the pathway from MBCT to reduction in depressive symptoms. We replicated earlier findings that therapeutic effects of MBCT are mediated by changes in mindfulness skills and worry. Second, results showed that changes in momentary positive and negative affect significantly mediated the efficacy of MBCT, and also mediated the effect of worry on depressive symptoms. Third, within the group of patients with a prior history of ? 2 episodes of MDD, predominantly changes in cognitive and to a lesser extent affective processes mediated the effect of MBCT. However, within the group of patients with a prior history of ? 3 episodes of MDD, only changes in affect were significant mediators for the effect of MBCT. Trail Registration: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1084 PMID:24009704

Batink, Tim; Peeters, Frenk; Geschwind, Nicole; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

2013-01-01

346

Paternal postnatal depressive symptoms, infant sleeping and feeding behaviors, and rigid parental regulation: a correlational study.  

PubMed

Paternal postnatal depression (PND) is now recognized as a serious and prevalent problem, associated with poorer well-being and functioning of all family members. Aspects of infant temperament, sleeping and feeding perceived by parents as problematic are associated with maternal PND, however, less is known about paternal PND. This study investigated depressive symptoms (Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS)) in 219 fathers of infants aged from 1 to 24 weeks (median 7.0 weeks). Infant predictor variables were sleeping problems, feeding problems and both mother and father reported temperament. Control variables were partner's support, other support and life events. Rigidity of parenting beliefs regarding infant regulation was also measured as a potential moderating factor. Infant feeding difficulties were associated with paternal depressive symptoms, subsuming the variance associated with both sleep problems and temperament. This relationship was not moderated by regulation beliefs. It was concluded that infant feeding is important to fathers. Fathers of infants with feeding difficulties may not be able to fulfill their idealized construction of involved fatherhood. Role incongruence may have an etiological role in paternal PND. PMID:25268282

Cockshaw, Wendell D; Muscat, Tracey; Obst, Patricia L; Thorpe, Karen

2014-12-01

347

A controlled study of fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling in the treatment of postnatal depression.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling in depressive illness in postnatal women: to compare fluoxetine and placebo, six sessions and one session of counselling, and combinations of drugs and counselling. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled treatment trial, double blind in relation to drug treatment, with four treatment cells: fluoxetine or placebo plus one or six sessions of counselling. SUBJECTS: 87 women satisfying criteria for depressive illness 6-8 weeks after childbirth, 61 (70%) of whom completed 12 weeks of treatment. SETTING: Community based study in south Manchester. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychiatric morbidity after 1, 4, and 12 weeks, measured as mean scores and 95% confidence limits on the revised clinical interview schedule, the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and the Hamilton depression scale. RESULTS: Highly significant improvement was seen in all four treatment groups. The improvement in subjects receiving fluoxetine was significantly greater than in those receiving placebo. The improvement after six sessions of counselling was significantly greater than after a single session. Interaction between counselling and fluoxetine was not statistically significant. These differences were evident after one week, and improvement in all groups was complete after four weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Both fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling given as a course of therapy are effective treatments for non-psychotic depression in postnatal women. After an initial session of counselling, additional benefit results from either fluoxetine or further counselling but there seems to be no advantage in receiving both. The choice of treatment may therefore be made by the women themselves. PMID:9099116

Appleby, L.; Warner, R.; Whitton, A.; Faragher, B.

1997-01-01

348

Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP): study protocol and implementation challenges  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension affects 29% of the adult U.S. population and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite numerous effective treatments, only 53% of people with hypertension are at goal blood pressure. The chronic care model suggests that blood pressure control can be achieved by improving how patients and physicians address patient self-care. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol of a nested 2 × 2 randomized controlled trial to test the separate and combined effects on systolic blood pressure of a behavioral intervention for patients and a quality improvement-type intervention for physicians. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the physician intervention or to the physician control condition. Physician randomization occurred at the clinic level. The physician intervention included training and performance monitoring. The training comprised 2 internet-based modules detailing both the JNC-7 hypertension guidelines and lifestyle modifications for hypertension. Performance data were collected for 18 months, and feedback was provided to physicians every 3 months. Patient participants in both intervention and control clinics were individually randomized to the patient intervention or to usual care. The patient intervention consisted of a 6-month behavioral intervention conducted by trained interventionists in 20 group sessions, followed by 12 monthly phone contacts by community health advisors. Follow-up measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diastolic blood pressure and the proportion of patients with adequate blood pressure control at 6 and 18 months. Discussion Overall, 8 practices (4 per treatment group), 32 physicians (4 per practice; 16 per treatment group), and 574 patients (289 control and 285 intervention) were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of patients and providers and the challenges faced during study implementation are presented. The HIP interventions may improve blood pressure control and lower cardiovascular disease risk in a primary care practice setting by addressing key components of the chronic care model. The study design allows an assessment of the effectiveness and cost of physician and patient interventions separately, so that health care organizations can make informed decisions about implementation of 1 or both interventions in the context of local resources. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00201136 PMID:19245692

Dolor, Rowena J; Yancy, William S; Owen, William F; Matchar, David B; Samsa, Gregory P; Pollak, Kathryn I; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Ard, Jamy D; Prempeh, Maxwell; McGuire, Heather L; Batch, Bryan C; Fan, William; Svetkey, Laura P

2009-01-01

349

Prevalence of Undiagnosed Depression among Persons with Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Despite an increasing number of studies exploring prevalence of depression among hypertensive patients in high income countries, limited data is available from low and middle income countries, particularly Nepal. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of undiagnosed (sub clinical) depression and associated risk factors among hypertensive patients attending a tertiary health care clinic in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, with 321 hypertensive patients attending the Out-Patient Department of a central hospital in Nepal. Blood measure was recorded via a mercury column sphygmomanometer. Depression levels were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Ia (BDI) scale. Demographics and risk factors were assessed. Result The proportion of participants with undiagnosed depression was 15%. Multivariable analyses demonstrated an increase in BDI scores with increased aging. Approximately a 1 point increase in the BDI score was observed for each additional decade of aging in hypertensive patients. Additional factors associated with increased risk of depression included being female (4.28 point BDI score increase), smoking (5.61 point BDI score increase), being hypertensive with no hypertensive medication (4.46 point BDI score increase) and being illiterate (4.46 point BDI score increase). Conclusions Among persons with hypertension in outpatient settings in Nepal, demographic (age, sex, education), behavioural (smoking,) and adherence factors (anti-hypertensive medication) were associated with undiagnosed depression. Screening programs in Nepal may assist early intervention in hypertensive patients with sub clinical depression. PMID:25671522

Neupane, Dinesh; Panthi, Bindu; McLachlan, Craig S.; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Kohrt, Brandon A.; Kallestrup, Per

2015-01-01

350

Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study.  

PubMed

Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. PMID:25600920

Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

2015-01-01

351

Self-referential processing and the prefrontal cortex over the course of depression: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDepressed patients exhibit cognitive biases, including maladaptive self-focus. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) activation during self-referential versus semantic processing was unique to patients, as was the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation. The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether this pattern was stable over the course of

Cédric Lemogne; Helen Mayberg; Loretxu Bergouignan; Emmanuelle Volle; Pauline Delaveau; Stéphane Lehéricy; Jean-François Allilaire; Philippe Fossati

2010-01-01

352

Pharmacogenetic studies in depression: a proposal for methodologic guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacogenetic studies in mood disorders are rapidly proliferating after the initial reports linking gene variants to treatment outcomes. However, a considerable range of methodologies has been used, making it difficult to compare results across studies and limiting the representativeness of findings. Specification of sampling source (inpatients vs outpatients, primary vs tertiary settings), standardization of diagnostic systems and treatments, adequate monitoring

A Serretti; M Kato; J L Kennedy

2008-01-01

353

Patients’ Opinions about Knowing Their Risk for Depression and What to Do about It. The PredictD-Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background The predictD study developed and validated a risk algorithm for predicting the onset of major depression in primary care. We aimed to explore the opinion of patients about knowing their risk for depression and the values and criteria upon which these opinions are based. Methods A maximum variation sample of patients was taken, stratified by city, age, gender, immigrant status, socio-economic status and lifetime depression. The study participants were 52 patients belonging to 13 urban health centres in seven different cities around Spain. Seven Focus Groups (FGs) were given held with primary care patients, one for each of the seven participating cities. Results The results showed that patients generally welcomed knowing their risk for depression. Furthermore, in light of available evidence several patients proposed potential changes in their lifestyles to prevent depression. Patients generally preferred to ask their General Practitioners (GPs) for advice, though mental health specialists were also mentioned. They suggested that GPs undertake interventions tailored to each patient, from a “patient-centred” approach, with certain communication skills, and giving advice to help patients cope with the knowledge that they are at risk of becoming depressed. Conclusions Patients are pleased to be informed about their risk for depression. We detected certain beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations and behaviour among the patients that were potentially useful for future primary prevention programmes on depression. PMID:24646951

Bellón, Juan Á.; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Motrico, Emma; Aiarzagüena, José M.; Fernández, Anna; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Rodríguez-Bayón, Antonina; Ballesta-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Rüntel-Geidel, Ariadne; Payo-Gordón, Janire; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Oliván-Blázquez, Bárbara; Araujo, Luz; Muñoz-García, María del Mar; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Amezcua, Manuel

2014-01-01

354

Continuity of Depressive Disorders From Childhood and Adolescence to Adulthood: A Naturalistic Study in Community Mental Health Centers  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine and compare rates of homotypic continuity of childhood- and adolescent-onset depression into adulthood. Method: This was a naturalistic, prospective cohort study of children and adolescents receiving psychiatric care at all community mental health centers in Madrid, Spain, from January 1986 to December 2007. Data were obtained from a regional registry wherein all psychiatric visits to public mental health centers are recorded. Patients received their first diagnosis of an ICD-10 F32 or F33 depressive disorder between 6 and 17 years of age and were at least 20 years old at the time of their last visit. Subjects whose first diagnosis was in childhood (aged 6–12 years: depressed-child group) and subjects whose first diagnosis was in adolescence (aged 13–17 years: depressed-adolescent group) were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and rates of homotypic continuity in adulthood. Results: Five hundred twenty-eight patients with depressive disorders met inclusion criteria. The depressed-adolescent group had a higher proportion of girls (60.3%) compared to the depressed-child group, but did not differ on other demographic or clinical variables. Most subjects who later received treatment in adult mental health facilities (n = 243; 57.2%; 95% CI, 50.9–57.2) continued to be diagnosed with a depressive disorder. High rates of anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, and psychotic disorders in adulthood were observed among subjects from both groups. The absence of psychiatric comorbidity prior to age 18 years was associated with homotypic continuity of depressive disorder into adulthood. Conclusions: Subjects with adolescent-onset depression and subjects without comorbid psychiatric disorders in youth appear to have a higher level of homotypic continuity into adulthood. Both children and adolescents with depressive disorders are at risk for other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. PMID:22295270

Carballo, Juan J.; Muñoz-Lorenzo, Laura; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Dervic, Kanita; Oquendo, Maria A.

2011-01-01

355

Patients’ experiences of acupuncture and counselling for depression and comorbid pain: a qualitative study nested within a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression and pain frequently occur together and impact on outcomes of existing treatment for depression. Additional treatment options are required. This study aimed to explore patients’ experiences of depression, the processes of change within acupuncture and counselling, and the elements that contributed to longer-term change. Methods In a substudy nested within a randomised controlled trial of acupuncture or counselling compared with usual care alone for depression, semistructured interviews of 52 purposively sampled participants were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Results Differences were reported by participants regarding their experience of depression with comorbid pain compared with depression alone. Along with physical symptoms often related to fatigue and sleep, participants with depression and comorbid pain generally had fewer internal and external resources available to manage their depression effectively. Those who had physical symptoms and were receiving acupuncture commonly reported that these were addressed as part of the treatment. For those receiving counselling, there was less emphasis on physical symptoms and more on help with gaining an understanding of themselves and their situation. Over the course of treatment, most participants in both groups reported receiving support to cope with depression and pain independently of treatment, with a focus on relevant lifestyle and behaviour changes. The establishment of a therapeutic relationship and their active engagement as participants were identified as important components of treatment. Conclusions Participants with and without comorbid pain received acupuncture or counselling for depression, and reported specific identifiable treatment effects. The therapeutic relationship and participants’ active engagement in recovery may play distinct roles in driving long-term change. Patients who present with depression and physical symptoms of care may wish to consider a short course of acupuncture to relieve symptoms prior to a referral for counselling if needed. Trial registration number ISRCTN63787732. PMID:24902735

Hopton, Ann; Eldred, Janet; MacPherson, Hugh

2014-01-01

356

Study protocol of the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) etiology study  

PubMed Central

Background People in Appalachia experience some of the worst oral health in the United States. To develop effective intervention and prevention strategies in Appalachia, we must understand the complex relationships among the contributing factors and how they affect the etiology of oral diseases. To date, no such comprehensive analysis has been conducted. This report summarizes the characteristics of the sample and describes the protocol of a study determining contributions of individual, family, and community factors to oral diseases in Appalachian children and their relatives. Methods/Design Families participated in a comprehensive assessment protocol involving interviews, questionnaires, a clinical oral health assessment, a microbiological assessment, and collection of DNA. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Conclusion Due to its multilevel design and large, family-based sample, this study has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of factors that contribute to oral health in Appalachian children. PMID:18522740

Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard J; McNeil, Daniel W; Tarter, Ralph E; Thomas, John G; Marazita, Mary L

2008-01-01

357

Prevalence and Associated Positive Psychological Variables of Depression and Anxiety among Chinese Cervical Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of depression and anxiety and its associated factors in cervical cancer are not well evaluated in China. Meanwhile, with increasing attention given to positive psychological variables in oncology field, there is a need to conduct a study to explore the integrative effects of positive psychological variables on depression/anxiety so as to provide patients a more holistic cancer care. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression/anxiety as well as the integrative effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy on depression/anxiety among Chinese cervical cancer patients. Methods A multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute and the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 224 cervical cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinic variables, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and General Self-Efficacy Scale during February and August 2013. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 52.2% and 65.6% in cervical cancer patients. The anxiety score was significantly higher in patients at the period of 4–6 months after diagnose and at cancer stage II. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope, optimism and general self-efficacy as a whole accounted for 31.3% variance of depression and 35.6% variance of anxiety. Under standardized estimate (?) sequence, hope, optimism and general self-efficacy significantly associated with depression, respectively; hope and optimism were also significant individual predictors of anxiety. Conclusions The high prevalence of depression and anxiety among cervical cancer patients should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. More importantly, efforts to develop the integrated psychosocial interventions are effective and necessary to alleviate depression/anxiety in cervical cancer patients by synthesizing and integrating the individual protective effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy. PMID:24722558

Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

2014-01-01

358

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--LIST OF STUDY DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Region 5 study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis, (3) RTI's trace metals facility, (4) General laboratory pr...

359

Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only “very much overtime”, but also “moderate overtime” (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015. Conclusions The proposed project will be free from hindsight bias, since all hypotheses and statistical models are completely defined, peer-reviewed, and published before we link the exposure data to the outcome data. The results of the project will indicate to what extent and in what direction the national burden of mental ill health in Denmark has been influenced by long working hours. PMID:25239125

Albertsen, Karen

2014-01-01

360

A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

2010-01-01

361

Winter Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A U.K. psychologist has developed a complex mathematical formula using seven variables to predict winter's emotional low point. The good news is the worst day of the year was last week; nonetheless, seasonal depression remains a problem for many. The first link (1) is to an article about the equation worked out by Dr. Cliff Arnall, who specializes in seasonal disorders at the University of Cardiff, Wales. The second link is to a WebMD page (2) about winter depression, often referred to as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). The next link (3) is to a recent news story about the results of a five-year study that found, rather than antidepressant drug therapy or air ionizers, light box therapy is the best remedy for the seasonal condition. The fourth link is to a set of Frequently Asked Questions (4) about SAD offered by Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. The fifth link, to the Winter Depression Research Group at the University of Tromso in Norway(5), explains why Norway is a natural SAD research laboratory. The next link is to a international portal site (6) maintained by medical professionals and researchers in the field of light therapy and biological rhythms. The final webpage(7), from Psychology Today, compares the symptoms of winter depression with summer depression.

362

Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

Woodley, Michael A.

2009-01-01

363

Pilot Feasibility Study of a Brief, Tailored Mobile Health Intervention for Depression among Patients with Chronic Pain.  

PubMed

This pilot feasibility study investigated a brief, tailored mobile health intervention to provide brief treatment and motivate further depression treatment seeking among patients with comorbid chronic pain. The computer tablet intervention was delivered in a hospital clinic using a blended motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy approach. Individuals were at least age 18, and screened positive for depression during a visit for chronic pain. Participants completed assessments before the intervention and at two-week follow-up. The 64 participants were most often over 50 years old, female, and Caucasian. Participant ratings demonstrated an increase in interest to seek depression treatment and willingness to make life changes to mitigate symptoms. A significant reduction in mean depression score and non-significant reductions on both measures of disability were observed. This intervention was feasible and acceptable, demonstrated promise in reducing depression and increasing treatment interest, and should be tested in a trial. PMID:24313728

Ahmedani, Brian K; Crotty, Nuala; Abdulhak, Muwaffak M; Ondersma, Steven J

2015-01-01

364

Study of Depression and Its Associated Factors among Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Coastal South India  

PubMed Central

Background. Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric diagnoses seen in HIV-positive individuals. Women with HIV are about four times more likely to be depressed than those who are not infected. Aims. To assess the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of depression among women living with HIV/AIDS. Setting and Design. One public and one private hospital in Mangalore, Coastal South India, and cross-sectional design. Methods and Materials. Study constituted of 137 HIV-positive women, depression was assessed using BDI (Beck Depression Inventory), and social support was assessed using Lubben Social Network Scale. Statistical Analysis. All analysis was conducted using SPSS version 11.5. Chi-square test with P value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results. Among 137 HIV-positive women, 51.1% were depressed. Around 16% were having moderate to high risk for isolation. Depression was statistically significant in rural women, widowed women, and lower socioeconomic class women. Conclusion. Depression is highly prevalent among women living with HIV which is still underdiagnosed and undertreated, and there is a need to incorporate mental health services as an integral component of HIV care. PMID:24052882

Unnikrishnan, B.; Jagannath, Vinita; Ramapuram, John T.; Achappa, B.; Madi, D.

2012-01-01

365

Heart rate variability and treatment outcome in major depression: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Variations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), but the relationship of baseline HRV to treatment outcome in MDD is unclear. We conducted a pilot study to examine associations between resting baseline HRV and MDD treatment outcome. We retrospectively tested several parameters of HRV in an MDD treatment study with escitalopram (ESC, N=26) to generate a model of how baseline HRV related to treatment outcome, and cross-validated the model in a separate trial of MDD treatment with Iyengar yoga (IY, N=16). Lower relative power of very low frequency (rVLF) HRV at baseline predicted improvement in depressive symptoms when adjusted for age and gender (R2>.43 and p<0.05 for both trials). Although vagal parasympathetic measures were correlated with antidepressant treatment outcome, their predictive power was not significant after adjusting for age and gender. In conclusion, baseline resting rVLF was associated with depression treatment outcome in two independent MDD treatment studies. These results should be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size, but a strength of this study is its validation of the rVLF predictor in an independent sample. rVLF merits prospective confirmation as a candidate biomarker. PMID:24769434

Jain, Felipe A; Cook, Ian A; Leuchter, Andrew F; Hunter, Aimee M; Davydov, Dmitry M; Ottaviani, Cristina; Tartter, Molly; Crump, Caroline; Shapiro, David

2014-08-01

366

Polymer depressants at the talc–water interface: adsorption isotherm, microflotation and electrokinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of polymer depressants at the talc–water interface was investigated as a function of ionic strength and pH. Adsorption isotherms, microflotation and electrokinetic studies were used to examine the surface interactions involved. The polymers examined were carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and two synthetic polyacrylamides (PAM-A and PAM-N).The adsorption of the two anionic polymers, CMC and PAM-A, on talc, and hence,

Gayle E Morris; Daniel Fornasiero; John Ralston

2002-01-01

367

Are You Blue? What Can You Do? A Case Study on Treatment Options for Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study introduces students to treatment alternatives for depression using a jigsaw method in which groups of students are divided up so that each member of the “home group” becomes the “resident expert” in one of five possible treatment options. Designed for a course in abnormal psychology, this case could be adapted for courses in physiological psychology, pharmacy, and neurobiology.

Grossman, Robert W.; Pettigrew, Amy; Walsh, Linda; Boje, Kathleen

2002-01-01

368

Longitudinal study of hormone levels and depression among women transitioning through menopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To address the association between depression and absolute levels of estradiol, and change in estradiol, among women during the menopausal transition.\\u000aMETHODS: This was a prospective, observational study conducted in Massachusetts, USA. Analyses reported here are based on the first three interviews following baseline (T1-T3). The participants were 309 women aged initially 43-53 years, who contributed a total of

Nancy E. Avis; Sybil L. Crawford; R. Stellato; C. Longcope

2001-01-01

369

Relationship between ecstasy use and depression: a study controlling for poly-drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”) causes serotonin neuron damage in laboratory animals. The serotonin system is known to be important in the regulation of mood. Previous research has shown that MDMA users score higher on self-report ratings of depression than controls. However, MDMA users commonly take other illicit substances and many studies do not fully control for poly-drug use. Objectives

Jonathan P. Roiser; Barbara J. Sahakian

2004-01-01

370

Electronic Problem-Solving Treatment: Description and Pilot Study of an Interactive Media Treatment for Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Computer-automated depression interventions rely heavily on users reading text to receive the intervention. However, text-delivered interventions place a burden on persons with depression and convey only verbal content. Objective The primary aim of this project was to develop a computer-automated treatment for depression that is delivered via interactive media technology. By using branching video and audio, the program simulates the experience of being in therapy with a master clinician who provides six sessions of problem-solving therapy. A secondary objective was to conduct a pilot study of the program’s usability, acceptability, and credibility, and to obtain an initial estimate of its efficacy. Methods The program was produced in a professional multimedia production facility and incorporates video, audio, graphics, animation, and text. Failure analyses of patient data are conducted across sessions and across problems to identify ways to help the user improve his or her problem solving. A pilot study was conducted with persons who had minor depression. An experimental group (n = 7) used the program while a waitlist control group (n = 7) was provided with no treatment for 6 weeks. Results All of the experimental group participants completed the trial, whereas 1 from the control was lost to follow-up. Experimental group participants rated the program high on usability, acceptability, and credibility. The study was not powered to detect clinical improvement, although these pilot data are encouraging. Conclusions Although the study was not powered to detect treatment effects, participants did find the program highly usable, acceptable, and credible. This suggests that the highly interactive and immersive nature of the program is beneficial. Further clinical trials are warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00906581; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00906581 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6A5Ni5HUp) PMID:23611902

Locke, Steven E; Buckey, Jay C; Sandoval, Luis; Hegel, Mark T

2012-01-01

371

Does Low Self-Esteem Predict Depression and Anxiety? A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or…

Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich

2013-01-01

372

A Novel Protocol for Streamlined IRB Review of PBRN Card Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose The “card study,” in which clinicians record brief information about patient visits during usual clinical care, has long been a rapid method for conducting descriptive studies in practice-based research networks (PBRNs). Since an increasingly stringent regulatory environment has made conducting card studies difficult, we developed a streamlined method for obtaining card study Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. Methods We developed a protocol for a study of the card study method, allowing new card study proposals of specific research questions to be submitted as addenda to the approved Card Study Protocol. Results Seven card studies were proposed and approved under the Card Study Protocol during the first year post implementation, contrasted with one card study proposed in the previous year. New card study ideas submitted as addenda to an approved protocol appeared to increase IRB comfort with the card study as a minimal risk method while reducing the hurdles to developing new study ideas. Conclusions A Card Study Protocol allowing new study questions to be submitted as addenda decreases time between idea generation and IRB approval. Shortened turn-around times may be useful for translating ideas into action while reducing regulatory burden. PMID:21900445

Hamilton, Michelle D.; Cola, Philip A.; Terchek, Joshua J.; Werner, James J.; Stange, Kurt C.

2014-01-01

373

An Empirical Study of Object Protocols in the Nels E. Beckman, Duri Kim, and Jonathan Aldrich  

E-print Network

An Empirical Study of Object Protocols in the Wild Nels E. Beckman, Duri Kim, and Jonathan Aldrich Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA {nbeckman,aldrich}@cs.cmu.edu, duri.kim@alumni.cmu.edu Abstract

Aldrich, Jonathan

374

No Significant Difference in Depression Rate in Employed and Unemployed in a Pair-Matched Study Design  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design. Method: The cross-sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs) of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level, and profession) were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009–2010. For the screening of depression we used the patient health questionnaire-9. Results: There were no statistical differences (p?=?0.054) between the depression rates in the employed (17.98%) and unemployed (23.80%) samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51–55), marital status (divorced), living in the rural area, with a low level of education and poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education. Conclusion: The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8?months) in men from rural area with medium level of education. PMID:25105113

Mihai, Adriana; Ricean, Alina; Voidazan, Septimiu

2014-01-01

375

Bee venom acupuncture, NSAIDs or combined treatment for chronic neck pain: study protocol for a randomized, assessor-blind trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common painful medical condition with a significant socioeconomic impact. In spite of widespread usage, the effectiveness and safety of combined treatments between conventional and complementary alternative medical treatment modalities has not been fully established in a rigorous randomized clinical trial (RCT). This pilot study will provide the clinical evidence to evaluate the feasibility and refine the protocol for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with CNP. Methods/Design This is a randomized, single-blind clinical trial with three parallel arms. Sixty patients between 18 and 65 years of age with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain lasting for at least three months will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated into the BVA, NSAIDs or combined treatment group. Assessors and statisticians will be blinded to the random allocation. All researchers will receive training to ensure their strict adherence to the study protocol. Patients from the BVA and combined treatment group will be treated with a bee venom increment protocol into predefined acupoints for six sessions over a three week period. BVA intervention is developed through a comprehensive discussion among interdisciplinary spine disorder experts, according to the guidelines of Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA). Patients from the NSAIDs and combined treatment groups will be prescribed loxoprofen (one tablet to be taken orally, three times a day for three weeks). Bothersomeness from CNP measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be the primary outcome assessed at screening, visit two (baseline), four, six, eight (4th week assessment) and nine (8th week assessment) follow-up session. VAS for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI), quality of life, depressive status and adverse experiences will also be analyzed. Discussion Our study results will contribute to feasibility evaluation and to relevant RCT protocol development for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of BVA and NSAIDs for CNP patients. Trial registration This study is registered with the United States (US) National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT01922466. PMID:24746224

2014-01-01

376

Delayed Onset Urticaria in Depressive Patients with Bupropion Prescription: A Nationwide Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Bupropion, which is widely used in patients with depressive disorder, may cause allergic reactions. However, the real prevalence of these side effects may be overlooked and underreported due to the delayed onset phenomenon. Objective This study aimed to estimate the real incidence of bupropion-induced urticaria and clarify the delayed onset phenomenon. Methods We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 2000 and 2009 using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Dataset. Among 65,988 patients with depressive disorders, we identified new users of bupropion with depressive disorders (bupropion cohort, n = 2,839) and matched them at a ratio of 1:4 regarding age and sex (non-bupropion matched cohort, n = 11,356). The risk of urticaria was compared between the two cohorts. Results The risk of urticaria occurrence was higher in bupropion users than in matched controls within 4 weeks of starting the medication (risk ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.28–2.54; p = 0.001). The occurrence of urticaria in the bupropion cohort were more frequent on Days 15–28 than Day 1–14 (p = 0.002). Cox proportional hazards model showed that a history of urticaria was an independent risk factor for developing bupropion-induced urticaria. Conclusions Of the antidepressants, bupropion may pose a higher risk of drug-induced urticaria, and this condition might be ignored due to the delayed onset phenomenon. Depressive patients with a history of urticaria are at higher risk of the adverse drug reaction. This study emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of this adverse outcome to bupropion use. PMID:24244611

Lu, Ti; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Shen, Cheng-Che; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Mu-Hong; Teng, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Wang, Wei-Shu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

2013-01-01

377

Mothers' Own Recollections Of Being Parented And Risk Of Offspring Depression 18 Years Later: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the relationship between maternal bonding and risk of offspring depression has been demonstrated, it is unclear whether this risk exists for subsequent generations. This study examines the association between maternal reports of her own mother's parenting and later risk of depression in offspring at age 18. Method This study is based on data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers enrolled in the study, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument to provide an assessment of how they were parented by their own mothers up to the age of 16. Offspring depression was assessed at age of 18 using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. The sample comprised 10,405 respondents who had completed the Parental Bonding Instrument during the antenatal period. Results were adjusted for grandmother's history of depression, maternal depression, and a range of socioeconomic variables. Results A one standard deviation increase in mothers’ perceived lack of care in their own childhood was associated with a 16% increase in the odds of offspring depression at age 18 (odds ratios = 1.16, 95% confidence intervals = [1.04, 1.30]). This effect remained following adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratios = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals = [1.02, 1.27]). There was no evidence for an association between overprotection and offspring depression. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that sensitive caregiving is important to future risk of depression across generations. Preventative interventions could be aimed at promoting positive parenting practices, which may help to reduce the risk of depression in subsequent generations. PMID:24105778

Mahedy, Liam; Heron, Jon; Stapinski, Lexine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Evans, Jonathan; Joinson, Carol; Bowes, Lucy; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

378

The effects of mesterolone, a male sex hormone in depressed patients (a double blind controlled study).  

PubMed

Based on computer EEG (CEEG) profiles, in high doses, antidepressant properties of mesterolone, a synthetic androgen, were predicted. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, the clinical effects of 300-450 mg daily mesterolone were investigated in 52 relatively young (age range 26-53 years, mean 42.7 years) male depressed outpatients. During 6 weeks of mesterolone treatment, there was a significant improvement of depressive symptomatology. However, since an improvement was also established during the placebo treatment, no statistically appreciable difference in the therapeutic effects of mesterolone was established compared to placebo. Mesterolone treatment significantly decreased both plasma testosterone and protein bound testosterone levels. Patients with high testosterone levels prior to treatment seem to have had more benefit from mesterolone treatment than patients with low testosterone levels. The degree of improvement weakly correlated to the decrease of testosterone levels during mesterolone treatment. PMID:6431212

Itil, T M; Michael, S T; Shapiro, D M; Itil, K Z

1984-06-01

379

The relationship among neuroticism, extraversion, and depression in the HUNT Study: in relation to age and gender.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (2006-2008), a large cross-sectional survey, was used. The sample consists of 35,832 men (16,104) and women (19,728) aged 20-89 years, living in the Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway, with valid ratings on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). This study demonstrates a relationship between depression and both neuroticism and extraversion in a general population. Older people score low more often on Extraversion (E) than younger people. Interactions were observed between neuroticism and age, gender, and extraversion with depression. The interaction term indicates a high score on Neuroticism (N) enhanced by introversion, older age, and being a male with depression. The findings suggest that health professionals may need to put extra effort into the care of patients with low extraversion and high neuroticism, in order to help those patients avoid depression. PMID:23146012

Grav, Siv; Stordal, Eystein; Romild, Ulla Kristina; Hellzen, Ove

2012-11-01

380

Moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis: study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which is a major cause of disability among the elderly, is typically selected from multidisciplinary options, including complementary and alternative medicine. Moxibustion has been used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Korea to reduce pain and improve physical activity. However, there is no sufficient evidence of its effectiveness, and it cannot therefore be widely recommended for treating knee osteoarthritis. We designed a randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and qualitative characteristics of moxibustion treatment of knee osteoarthritis compared to usual care. Methods/designs This is a protocol for a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 212 participants will be assigned to the moxibustion group (n?=?106) and the usual care group (n?=?106) at 4 clinical research centres. The participants assigned to the moxibustion group will receive moxibustion treatment of the affected knee(s) at 6 standard acupuncture points (ST36, ST35, ST34, SP9, Ex-LE04, and SP10) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 sessions). Participants in the usual care group will not receive moxibustion treatment during the study period. Follow-up will be performed on the 5th and 13th weeks after random allocation. Both groups will be allowed to use any type of treatment, including surgery, conventional medication, physical treatment, acupuncture, herbal medicine, over-the-counter drugs, and other active treatments. Educational material that explains knee osteoarthritis, the current management options, and self-exercise will be provided to each group. The global scale of the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (K-WOMAC) will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. Other subscales (pain, stiffness, and function) of the K-WOMAC, the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Physical Function test, Patient Global Assessment, and the Pain Numerical Rating Scale will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of moxibustion. Safety will be assessed at every visit. In addition, an economic evaluation and a qualitative study will be conducted as a mixed-methods approach. Discussion This trial may contribute to developing evidence for the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis. Trial registration Trial registration number: KCT0000130 PMID:23497032

2013-01-01

381

The effect of strategies of personal resilience on depression recovery in an Australian cohort: A mixed methods study.  

PubMed

Strategies of personal resilience enable successful adaptation in adversity. Among patients experiencing depression symptoms, we explored which personal resilience strategies they find most helpful and tested the hypothesis that use of these strategies improves depression recovery. We used interview and survey data from the Diagnosis, Management and Outcomes of Depression in Primary Care 2005 cohort of patients experiencing depression symptoms in Victoria, Australia. A total of 564 participants answered a computer-assisted telephone interview question at 12 months follow-up, about what they found most helpful for their depression, stress or worries. Depressive disorder and severity were measured at annual follow-up using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire self-rating questionnaire. Using interview responses, we categorised participants as users or not of strategies of personal resilience, specifically, drawing primarily on expanding their own inner resources or pre-existing relationships: 316 (56%) were categorised as primarily users of personal resilience strategies. Of these, 193 (61%) reported expanding inner resources, 79 (25%) drawing on relationships and 44 (14%) reported both. There was no association between drawing on relationships and depression outcome. There was evidence supporting an association between expanding inner resources and depression outcome: 25 per cent of users having major depressive disorder 1 year later compared to 38 per cent of non-users (adjusted odds ratio: 0.59, confidence interval: 0.36-0.97). This is the first study to show improved outcome for depression for those who identify as most helpful the use of personal resilience strategies. The difference in outcome is important as expanding inner resources includes a range of low intensity, yet commonly available strategies. PMID:24966226

Griffiths, Frances E; Boardman, Felicity K; Chondros, Patty; Dowrick, Christopher F; Densley, Konstancja; Hegarty, Kelsey L; Gunn, Jane

2015-01-01

382

The built environment and depressive symptoms among urban youth: A spatial regression study  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated spatial relationships between features of the built environment and youth depressive symptoms. Data used in this study came from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset, which includes Boston high school students with complete residential information (n = 1170). Features of the built environment (such as access to walking destinations and community design features) were created for 400- and 800-m street network buffers of the youths’ residences. We computed standard Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and spatial simultaneous autoregressive models. We found significant positive spatial autocorrelation in all of the built environment features at both spatial scales (all p = 0.001), depressive symptoms (p = 0.034) as well as in the OLS regression residuals (all p < 0.001), and, therefore, fit spatial regression models. Findings from the spatial regression models indicate that the built environment can have depressogenic effects, which can vary by spatial scale, gender and race/ethnicity (though sometimes in unexpected directions, i.e. associations opposite to our expectations). While our results overall suggest that the built environment minimally influences youth depressive symptoms, additional research is needed, including to understand our results in the unexpected direction. PMID:23725884

Duncan, Dustin T.; Piras, Gianfranco; Dunn, Erin C.; Johnson, Renee M.; Melly, Steven J.; Molnar, Beth E.

2013-01-01

383

Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws  

PubMed Central

Efficacy of Vitamin D supplements in depression is controversial, awaiting further literature analysis. Biological flaws in primary studies is a possible reason meta-analyses of Vitamin D have failed to demonstrate efficacy. This systematic review and meta-analysis of Vitamin D and depression compared studies with and without biological flaws. The systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature search was undertaken through four databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were critically appraised for methodological quality and biological flaws, in relation to the hypothesis and study design. Meta-analyses were performed for studies according to the presence of biological flaws. The 15 RCTs identified provide a more comprehensive evidence-base than previous systematic reviews; methodological quality of studies was generally good and methodology was diverse. A meta-analysis of all studies without flaws demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression with Vitamin D supplements (+0.78 CI +0.24, +1.27). Studies with biological flaws were mainly inconclusive, with the meta-analysis demonstrating a statistically significant worsening in depression by taking Vitamin D supplements (?1.1 CI ?0.7, ?1.5). Vitamin D supplementation (?800 I.U. daily) was somewhat favorable in the management of depression in studies that demonstrate a change in vitamin levels, and the effect size was comparable to that of anti-depressant medication. PMID:24732019

Spedding, Simon

2014-01-01

384

Agomelatine in the treatment of depressive disorders in clinical practice: multicenter observational CHRONOS study  

PubMed Central

Background CHRONOS was a large naturalistic study designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of agomelatine in the management of patients with major depression in routine clinical practice. Methods Patients (n=6,276) with a moderate or severe major depressive episode without psychotic symptoms were treated initially as outpatients (80.2%) or in psychiatric facilities (19.8%) in 54 regions of the Russian Federation. Patients received a flexible-dosing regimen of agomelatine 25 mg or 50 mg once daily for 8 weeks, with frequent study visits (weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8). Results Patients (mean age 44 years, 72.6% female) showed progressive improvement on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) total score from 22±6.9 at baseline to 4.7±4.7 at week 8 (P<0.0001). The proportion of responders (HAMD-17 decrease of ?50%) was 90.1% and the proportion of remitters (HAMD-17 <7) was 79.1% at week 8. All individual HAMD-17 item scores improved rapidly, and the change relative to baseline was significant (P<0.0001) at week 1 and at each subsequent visit in all cases. There were corresponding rapid improvements in Clinical Global Impression Severity and Improvement scores. In the subgroup of patients with more severe illness (HAMD-17 ?21 at baseline; n=3,478), the proportions of responders and remitters were 92.4% and 72.8%, respectively, at week 8. Conclusion Agomelatine was effective and well tolerated in a large sample of depressed patients in an observational treatment setting, and showed a rapid onset of benefit across all HAMD-17 items. PMID:24790445

Ivanov, Stanislav V; Samushiya, Marina A

2014-01-01

385

Identifying comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders: Comparison of two approaches used in adolescent studies  

PubMed Central

Interest in commonly co-occurring depression and disruptive behavior disorders in children has yielded a small body of research that estimates the prevalence of this comorbid condition and compares children with the comorbid condition and children with depression or disruptive behavior disorders alone with respect to antecedents and outcomes. Prior studies have used one of two different approaches to measure comorbid disorders: 1) meeting criteria for two DSM or ICD diagnoses or 2) scoring .5 SD above the mean or higher on two dimensional scales. This study compares two snapshots of comorbidity taken simultaneously in the same sample with each of the measurement approaches. The Developmental Pathways Project administered structured diagnostic interviews as well as dimensional scales to a community-based sample of 521 11-12 year olds to assess depression and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical caseness indicators of children identified as “comorbid” by each method were examined concurrently and 3-years later. Cross-classification of adolescents via the two approaches revealed low agreement. When other indicators of caseness, including functional impairment, need for services, and clinical elevations on other symptom scales were examined, adolescents identified as comorbid via dimensional scales only were similar to those who were identified as comorbid via DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Findings suggest that when relying solely on DSM diagnostic criteria for comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders, many adolescents with significant impairment will be overlooked. Findings also suggest that lower dimensional scale thresholds can be set when comorbid conditions, rather than single forms of psychopathology, are being identified. PMID:22575333

Stoep, Ann Vander; Adrian, Molly C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Herting, Jerald R.; Kraemer, Helena C.

2013-01-01

386

Conformity and Psychopathology: A Comparative Study of Conformity Behaviors in Manic-depressive, Paranoid Schizophrenic and Normal Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the relationship between conformity and psychopathology in male and female manic-depressive (MD), paranoid schizophrenics (PS), and normals (N) on two conformity tasks under conditions of live social pressure. (Author)

Marsella, Anthony J.

1975-01-01

387

Validation of the Yale Swallow Protocol: a prospective double-blinded videofluoroscopic study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this prospective, double-blinded, multirater, systematic replication study was to investigate agreement for aspiration risk, in the same individual, between videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) and the Yale Swallow Protocol. Participants were 25 consecutive adults referred for dysphagia testing who met the inclusion criteria of completion of a brief cognitive assessment, oral mechanism examination, and no tracheotomy tube. First, all participants were administered the Yale Swallow Protocol by two experienced speech-language pathologists trained in protocol administration. Failure criteria were inability to drink the entire amount, interrupted drinking, or coughing during or immediately after drinking. Second, all participants completed a VFSS within 5-10 min of protocol administration. A speech-language pathologist, blinded to protocol results, reviewed the VFSS to determine aspiration status in a binary (yes/no) manner. Inter-rater agreement between two speech-language pathologists was 100 % for identification of aspiration risk with the Yale Swallow Protocol. Inter-rater agreement between the speech-language pathologist and the radiologist for identification of aspiration status with VFSS was 100 %. Twenty percent of VFSS recordings were viewed again 3-6 months after initial data collection, and intrarater agreement for identification of thin liquid aspiration was 100 %. Sensitivity for the Yale Swallow Protocol = 100 %, specificity = 64 %, positive predictive value = 78 %, and negative predictive value = 100 %. Importantly, all participants who passed the protocol did not aspirate during VFSS. Multiple, double-blinded raters and VFSS as the reference standard agreed with previous research with a single, nonblinded rater and FEES as the reference standard for identification of aspiration risk. The clinical usefulness and validity of the Yale Swallow Protocol for determining aspiration risk in a small sample size of male participants has been confirmed. Future research is needed with a larger and more heterogeneous population sample. PMID:24026519

Suiter, Debra M; Sloggy, Joanna; Leder, Steven B

2014-04-01

388

Is depression severity the sole cause of psychotic symptoms during an episode of unipolar major depression? A study both between and within subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDespite the common clinical assumption that psychosis is an indicator of severity in depression, it is not known what determines the presence of psychotic features in major depression. Our aim was to answer the question: Is depression severity the sole cause of psychotic symptoms during an episode of unipolar major depression?

Liz Forty; Lisa Jones; Ian Jones; Carly Cooper; Elen Russell; Anne Farmer; Peter McGuffin; Nick Craddock

2009-01-01

389

Songwriting and digital video production interventions for pediatric patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation, part I: An analysis of depression and anxiety levels according to phase of treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purposes of this exploratory case study were: (1) to examine how anxiety and depression levels vary with phase of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and (2) to examine the effect of the proposed music therapy treatment protocol on anxiety and depression levels. Six pediatric BMT patients participated in the study. Three participants experienced the music condition and three participants experienced the

Sheri L. Robb; Allison G. Ebberts

2003-01-01

390

Atypical Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Depressive and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Naturalistic Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this naturalistic study was to investigate whether treatment with clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for at least 2 years was associated with a reduction in psychotic and depressive symptoms and an improvement in chronic schizophrenia patients' awareness of their illness. Methods. Twenty-three adult outpatients (15 men and 8 women) treated with clozapine and 23 patients (16 men and 7 women) treated with other atypical antipsychotics were included in the study. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and insight was assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Results. The sample as a whole had a significant reduction in positive, negative, and general symptoms, whereas the reduction in depression was significant only for patients with CDSS scores of 5 and higher at the baseline. At the follow-up, patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics reported a greater reduction in depression than patients treated with clozapine, but not when limiting the analyses to those with clinically relevant depression. Conclusions. Atypical antipsychotics may be effective in reducing psychotic and depressive symptoms and in improving insight in patients with chronic schizophrenia, with no differences in the profiles of efficacy between compounds. PMID:23401771

Baratta, Stefano; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio

2013-01-01