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1

Association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2; a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent conditions throughout the world and have significant impact on health outcomes. It has been estimated that diabetes mellitus type 2 affects about 246 million people in the world; nevertheless, incidence varies among countries. There is evidence that depression is associated with a poor metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that present other health problems (such as hypertension and obesity). The aim of this study protocol is to determine if obesity increases the risk for depression in patient with diabetes type 2. Methods: The analysis will be reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).The studies suitable for inclusion will be assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) to determine their methodological quality. To identify the studies of interest, we will search on PubMed and EBSCO databases. We will use the following keyword combinations: "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND obesity AND depression", "depression AND Diabetes Mellitus type 2", "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND body mass index cross sectional study", "depression AND obesity cross-sectional study". Causes for exclusion will be publications that studied patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1; articles that focused on the treatment and complications of diabetes mellitus type 2; publications that have studied other clinical or psychiatric conditions (for instance, seizure disorder or history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic symptoms or dementia). Conclusion: The results of this study will form the basis for a better understanding of the association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and will allow development of prediction tools and better interventions. It is evident that several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes among population. Currently, evidence for the deleterious effects of diabetes mellitus type 2 are based on cross-sectional or other observational designs. Therefore, this study will have important implications for future research and public health guidance. PMID:25789160

De la Cruz-Cano, Eduardo; Tovilla-Zarate, Carlos Alfonso; Reyes-Ramos, Emilio; Gonzalez-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Juarez-Castro, Isela; López-Narváez, Maria Lilia; Fresan, Ana

2015-01-01

2

Study protocol for the randomised controlled trial: Antiglucocorticoid augmentation of anti-Depressants in Depression (The ADD Study)  

PubMed Central

Background Some patients with depression do not respond to first and second line conventional antidepressants and are therefore characterised as suffering from treatment refractory depression (TRD). On-going psychosocial stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are both associated with an attenuated clinical response to antidepressants. Preclinical data shows that co-administration of corticosteroids leads to a reduction in the ability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to increase forebrain 5-hydroxytryptamine, while co-administration of antiglucocorticoids has the opposite effect. A Cochrane review suggests that antiglucocorticoid augmentation of antidepressants may be effective in treating TRD and includes a pilot study of the cortisol synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone. The Antiglucocorticoid augmentation of anti-Depressants in Depression (The ADD Study) is a multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial of metyrapone augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in a large population of patients with TRD in the UK National Health Service. Methods/design Patients with moderate to severe treatment refractory Major Depression aged 18 to 65 will be randomised to metyrapone 500 mg twice daily or placebo for three weeks, in addition to on-going conventional serotonergic antidepressants. The primary outcome will be improvement in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score five weeks after randomisation (i.e. two weeks after trial medication discontinuation). Secondary outcomes will include the degree of persistence of treatment effect for up to 6 months, improvements in quality of life and also safety and tolerability of metyrapone. The ADD Study will also include a range of sub-studies investigating the potential mechanism of action of metyrapone. Discussion Strengths of the ADD study include broad inclusion criteria meaning that the sample will be representative of patients with TRD treated within the UK National Health Service, longer follow up, which to our knowledge is longer than any previous study of antiglucocorticoid treatments in depression, and the range of mechanistic investigations being carried out. The data set acquired will be a rich resource for a range of research questions relating to both refractory depression and the use of antiglucocorticoid treatments. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN45338259; EudraCT Number: 2009-015165-31. PMID:23914988

2013-01-01

3

Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy augmentation in major depression treatment (ECAM study): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Major depression is a serious mental disorder that causes substantial distress and impairment in individuals and places an enormous burden on society. Although antidepressant treatment is the most common therapy provided in routine practice, there is little evidence to guide second-line therapy for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants. The aim of this paper is to describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial that measures the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an augmentation strategy to treat patients with non-psychotic major depression identified as suboptimal responders to usual depression care. Methods and analysis The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded randomised, parallel-groups superiority trial with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care. Patients aged 20–65?years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder who have experienced at least one failed trial of antidepressants as part of usual depression care, will be randomly assigned to receive CBT plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone. The primary outcome is the change in clinician-rated 17-item GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD) score at 16?weeks, and secondary outcomes include severity and change in scores of subjective depression symptoms, proportion of responders and remitters, safety and quality of life. The primary population will be the intention-to-treat patients. Ethics and dissemination All protocols and the informed consent form comply with the Ethics Guideline for Clinical Research (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). Ethics review committees at the Keio University School of Medicine and the Sakuragaoka Memorial Hospital approved the study protocol. The results of the study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the CONSORT statement. Trial registration number UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001218. PMID:25335963

Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuda, Dai; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Abe, Takayuki; Sato, Yuji; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Ono, Yutaka

2014-01-01

4

International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators. Methods/Design The International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) is a multi-centre, international, randomized, prospective, open-label trial. It is enrolling 2016 MDD outpatients (ages 18-65) from primary or specialty care practices (672 per treatment arm; 672 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls). Study-eligible patients are antidepressant medication (ADM) naïve or willing to undergo a one-week wash-out of any non-protocol ADM, and cannot have had an inadequate response to protocol ADM. Baseline assessments include symptoms; distress; daily function; cognitive performance; electroencephalogram and event-related potentials; heart rate and genetic measures. A subset of these baseline assessments are repeated after eight weeks of treatment. Outcomes include the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (primary) and self-reported depressive symptoms, social functioning, quality of life, emotional regulation, and side-effect burden (secondary). Participants may then enter a naturalistic telephone follow-up at weeks 12, 16, 24 and 52. The first half of the sample will be used to identify potential predictors and moderators, and the second half to replicate and confirm. Discussion First enrolment was in December 2008, and is ongoing. iSPOT-D evaluates clinical and biological predictors of treatment response in the largest known sample of MDD collected worldwide. Trial registration International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00693849 URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00693849?term=International+Study+to+Predict+Optimized+Treatment+for+Depression&rank=1 PMID:21208417

2011-01-01

5

Hygienic-dietary recommendations for major depression treatment: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling mental disorder with an incidence rate which appears to be increasing in the developed world. This fact seems to be at least partially related to lifestyle factors. Some hygienic-dietary measures have shown their efficacy as a coadjuvant of standard treatment. However, their effectiveness has not yet been proved enough in usual clinical practice. Methods Multicenter, randomized, controlled, two arm-parallel, clinical trial involving 300 patients over 18 years old with a diagnosis of Major Depression. Major depression will be diagnosed by means of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The Beck Depression Inventory total score at the end of the study will constitute the main efficacy outcome. Quality of Life and Social and Health Care Services Consumption Scales will be also administered. Patients will be assessed at three different occasions: baseline, 6-month follow-up and 12-month follow-up. Discussion We expect the patients in the active lifestyle recommendations group to experience a greater improvement in their depressive symptoms and quality of life with lower socio-sanitary costs. Trial registration ISRCTN73931675 PMID:23158080

2012-01-01

6

Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite limited effectiveness of short-term psychotherapy for chronic depression, there is a lack of trials of long-term psychotherapy. Our study is the first to determine the effectiveness of controlled long-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments and to assess the effects of preferential vs. randomized assessment. Methods/design Patients are assigned to treatment according to their preference or randomized (if they have no clear preference). Up to 80 sessions of psychodynamic or psychoanalytically oriented treatments (PAT) or up to 60 sessions of CBT are offered during the first year in the study. After the first year, PAT can be continued according to the ‘naturalistic’ usual method of treating such patients within the system of German health care (normally from 240 up to 300 sessions over two to three years). CBT therapists may extend their treatment up to 80 sessions, but focus mainly maintenance and relapse prevention. We plan to recruit a total of 240 patients (60 per arm). A total of 11 assessments are conducted throughout treatment and up to three years after initiation of treatment. The primary outcome measures are the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS, independent clinician rating) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) after the first year. Discussion We combine a naturalistic approach with randomized controlled trials(RCTs)to investigate how effectively chronic depression can be treated on an outpatient basis by the two forms of treatment reimbursed in the German healthcare system and we will determine the effects of treatment preference vs. randomization. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN91956346 PMID:22834725

2012-01-01

7

Psychotherapy for depression in children and adolescents: study protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression is common among children and adolescents and is associated with significantly negative effects. A number of structured psychosocial treatments are administered for depression in children and adolescents; however, evidence of their effectiveness is not clear. We describe the protocol of a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy, quality of life, tolerability and acceptability of the use of psychological intervention for this young population. Methods and analysis We will search PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LiLACS, Dissertation Abstracts, European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation (EAGLE) and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) from inception to July 2014. There will be no restrictions on language, publication year or publication type. Only randomised clinical trials (RCTs) with psychosocial treatments for depression in children and adolescents will be considered. The primary outcome of efficacy will be the mean overall change of the total score in continuous depression severity scales from baseline to end point. Data will be independently extracted by two reviewers. Traditional pairwise meta–analyses will be performed for studies that directly compared different treatment arms. Then we will perform a Bayesian network meta–analyses to compare the relative efficacy, quality of life, tolerability and acceptability of different psychological intervention. Subgroup analyses will be performed by the age of participants and the duration of psychotherapy, and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. The results will be published in a peer–reviewed journal and disseminated electronically and in print. The meta–analysis may be updated to inform and guide management of depression in children and adolescents. Trials registration number PROSPERO CRD42014010014. PMID:25681311

Qin, Bin; Zhou, Xinyu; Michael, Kurt D; Liu, Yiyun; Whittington, Craig; Cohen, David; Zhang, Yuqing; Xie, Peng

2015-01-01

8

The effects of reminiscence therapy on depressive symptoms of Chinese elderly: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders with a high prevalence among the older adults. In recent years, after realizing some side effects of the antidepressants, non-pharmacological psychological treatments begin to attract accruing attention. Reminiscence therapy is one of the psychological treatments that specially designed for the elderly to improve their mental health status by recalling and assessing their existing memory. Though some studies indicate reminiscence therapy can be effective and beneficial for the mental health of elderly, the conclusions are not consistent yet. The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence therapy for Chinese elderly. Methods Sixty older adults (?60 years of age) with mild to moderate depression will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. The participants in the experiment group will receive the reminiscence therapy under the Watt’s protocol with adaptation to Chinese Culture which consists of six weekly sessions of 90 minutes each. The control group will be treated as before. An assessor who is blind to intervention will conduct the measures before treatment, after treatment immediately, and three months after treatment. Discussion This study will provide the evidence whether the reminiscence therapy is effective to treat depressive symptoms of Chinese elderly. This research has been registered in the clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01553669). PMID:23126676

2012-01-01

9

A study protocol to investigate the management of depression and challenging behaviors associated with dementia in aged care settings  

PubMed Central

Background The high occurrence and under-treatment of clinical depression and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) within aged care settings is concerning, yet training programs aimed at improving the detection and management of these problems have generally been ineffective. This article presents a study protocol to evaluate a training intervention for facility managers/registered nurses working in aged care facilities that focuses on organisational processes and culture as well as knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. Methods A Randomised Control Trial (RCT) will be implemented across 18 aged care facilities (divided into three conditions). Participants will be senior registered nurses and personal care attendants employed in the aged care facility. The first condition will receive the training program (Staff as Change Agents – Enhancing and Sustaining Mental Health in Aged Care), the second condition will receive the training program and clinical support, and the third condition will receive no intervention. Results Pre-, post-, 6-month and 12-month follow-up measures of staff and residents will be used to demonstrate how upskilling clinical leaders using our transformational training approach, as well as the use of a structured screening, referral and monitoring protocol, can address the mental health needs of older people in residential care. Conclusions The expected outcome of this study is the validation of an evidence-based training program to improve the management of depression and BPSD among older people in residential care settings by establishing routine practices related to mental health. This relatively brief but highly focussed training package will be readily rolled out to a larger number of residential care facilities at a relatively low cost. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): The Universal Trial Number (UTN) is U1111-1141-0109. PMID:24047236

2013-01-01

10

INtegration of DEPression Treatment into HIV Care in Uganda (INDEPTH-Uganda): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite 10 to% of persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa having clinical depression, and the consequences of depression for key public health outcomes (HIV treatment adherence and condom use), depression treatment is rarely integrated into HIV care programs. Task-shifting, protocolized approaches to depression care have been used to overcome severe shortages of mental health specialists in developing countries, but not in sub-Saharan Africa and not with HIV clients. The aims of this trial are to evaluate the implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a task-shifting, protocolized model of antidepressant care for HIV clinics in Uganda. Methods/Design INDEPTH-Uganda is a cluster randomized controlled trial that compares two task-shifting models of depression care - a protocolized model versus a model that relies on the clinical acumen of trained providers to provide depression care in ten public health HIV clinics in Uganda. In addition to data abstracted from routine data collection mechanisms and supervision logs, survey data will be collected from patient and provider longitudinal cohorts; at each site, a random sample of 150 medically stable patients who are depressed according to the PHQ-2 screening will be followed for 12 months, and providers involved in depression care implementation will be followed over 24 months. These data will be used to assess whether the two models differ on implementation outcomes (proportion screened, diagnosed, treated; provider fidelity to model of care), provider adoption of treatment care knowledge and practices, and depression alleviation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to compare the relative use of resources by each model. Discussion If effective and resource-efficient, the task-shifting, protocolized model will provide an approach to building the capacity for sustainable integration of depression treatment in HIV care settings across sub-Saharan Africa and improving key public health outcomes. Trial registration INDEPTH-Uganda has been registered with the National Institutes of Health sponsored clinical trials registry (3 February 2013) and has been assigned the identifier NCT02056106. PMID:24962086

2014-01-01

11

Homeopathy for Depression - DEP-HOM: study protocol for a randomized, partially double-blind, placebo controlled, four armed study  

PubMed Central

Background Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether individualized homeopathic Q-potencies and/or the type of the homeopathic case history have a specific therapeutical effect in acute depression as this has not yet been investigated. The study aims to assess the two components of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute depression, i.e., to investigate the specific effect of individualized Q-potencies versus placebo and to investigate the effect of different approaches to the homeopathic case history. Methods/Design A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient will be performed. 228 patients diagnosed with major depression (moderate episode) by a psychiatrist will be included. The primary endpoint is the total score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale after six weeks. Secondary end points are: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score after two and four weeks; response and remission rates, Beck Depression inventory total score, quality of life and safety at two, four and six weeks. Statistical analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The main endpoint will be analysed by a two-factorial analysis of covariance. Within this model generalized estimation equations will be used to estimate differences between verum and placebo, and between both types of case history. Discussion For the first time this study evaluates both the specific effect of homeopathic medicines and of a homeopathic case taking in patients with depression. It is an attempt to deal with the challenges of homeopathic research and the results might be useful information in the current discussion about the evidence on homeopathy Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01178255 PMID:21320338

2011-01-01

12

Brain imaging predictors and the international study to predict optimized treatment for depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 50% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond optimally to antidepressant treatments. Given this is a large proportion of the patient population, pretreatment tests that predict which patients will respond to which types of treatment could save time, money and patient burden. Brain imaging offers a means to identify treatment predictors that are grounded in the neurobiology of the treatment and the pathophysiology of MDD. Methods/Design The international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression is a multi-center, parallel model, randomized clinical trial with an embedded imaging sub-study to identify such predictors. We focus on brain circuits implicated in major depressive disorder and its treatment. In the full trial, depressed participants are randomized to receive escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-XR (open-label). They are assessed using standardized multiple clinical, cognitive-emotional behavioral, electroencephalographic and genetic measures at baseline and at eight weeks post-treatment. Overall, 2,016 depressed participants (18 to 65 years old) will enter the study, of whom a target of 10% will be recruited into the brain imaging sub-study (approximately 67 participants in each treatment arm) and 67 controls. The imaging sub-study is conducted at the University of Sydney and at Stanford University. Structural studies include high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor and T2/Proton Density scans. Functional studies include standardized functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three cognitive tasks (auditory oddball, a continuous performance task, and Go-NoGo) and two emotion tasks (unmasked conscious and masked non-conscious emotion processing tasks). After eight weeks of treatment, the functional MRI is repeated with the above tasks. We will establish the methods in the first 30 patients. Then we will identify predictors in the first half (n?=?102), test the findings in the second half, and then extend the analyses to the total sample. Trial registration International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D). ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00693849. PMID:23866851

2013-01-01

13

Morning light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of depression in young people is increasing. The predominant co-morbidities of juvenile depression include sleep disturbances and persistent problems with the sleep-wake rhythm, which have shown to influence treatment outcomes negatively. Severe mood dysregulation is another condition that includes depressive symptoms and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm. Patients with severe mood dysregulation show symptoms of depression, reduced need for sleep, and disturbances in circadian functioning which negatively affect both disorder-specific symptoms and daytime functioning. One approach to treating both depression and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm is the use of light therapy. Light therapy is now a standard therapy for ameliorating symptoms of seasonal affective disorder and depression in adults, but has not yet been investigated in children and adolescents. In this trial, the effects of 2 weeks of morning bright-light therapy on juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation will be evaluated. Methods/design A total of 60 patients with depression, aged between 12 and 18 years, in some cases presenting additional symptoms of affective dysregulation, will be included in this trial. Morning bright-light therapy will be implemented for 2 weeks (10 sessions of 45 minutes each), either with ‘active’ light (10,000 lux) or ‘inactive’ light (100 lux). A comprehensive test battery will be conducted before and after treatment and at follow-up 3 weeks later, to assess depression severity, sleep, and attention parameters. Melatonin levels will be measured by assessing the Dim Light Melatonin Onset. Discussion In this pilot study, the use of morning bright-light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation shall be evaluated and discussed. Trials registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89305231 PMID:23773310

2013-01-01

14

Update to the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM) can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. A recently developed treatment, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), shows potential as a brief group program for people with recurring depression. This trial asks the policy research question; is MBCT with support to taper/discontinue antidepressant medication (MBCT-TS) superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and secondary outcomes of (a) depression free days, (b) residual depressive symptoms, (c) antidepressant medication (ADM) usage, (d) psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e) quality of life, and (f) cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question also asks whether an increase in mindfulness skills is the key mechanism of change. The design is a single-blind, parallel randomized controlled trial examining MBCT-TS versus m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT-TS with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Results Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. Analyses will be conducted following CONSORT standards and overseen by the trial’s Data Monitoring and Safety Committee. Initial analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis, with subsequent analyses being per protocol. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre- and post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users’ views and experiences. Conclusions If the results of our exploratory trial are extended to this definitive trial, MBCT-TS will be established as an alternative approach to maintenance antidepressants for people with a history of recurrent depression. The process studies will provide evidence about the effective components which can be used to improve MBCT and inform theory as well as other therapeutic approaches. Trial registration Trial registered 7 May 2009; ISRCTN26666654. PMID:24916319

2014-01-01

15

The study protocol of the Norwegian randomized controlled trial of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some controversies as to the cognitive side effects. The aim of this study is to compare the effects and side effects of electroconvulsive therapy to pharmacological treatment in treatment resistant bipolar depression. Cognitive changes and quality of life during the treatment will be assessed. Methods/Design A prospective, randomised controlled, multi-centre six- week acute treatment trial with seven clinical assessments. Follow up visit at 26 weeks or until remission (max 52 weeks). A neuropsychological test battery designed to be sensitive to changes in cognitive function will be used. Setting: Nine study centres across Norway, all acute psychiatric departments. Sample: n = 132 patients, aged 18 and over, who fulfil criteria for treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Score of at least 25 at baseline. Intervention: Intervention group: 3 sessions per week for up to 6 weeks, total up to 18 sessions. Control group: algorithm-based pharmacological treatment as usual. Discussion This study is the first randomized controlled trial that aims to investigate whether electroconvulsive therapy is better than pharmacological treatment as usual in treatment resistant bipolar depression. Possible long lasting cognitive side effects will be evaluated. The study is investigator initiated, without support from industry. Trial registration NCT00664976 PMID:20178636

2010-01-01

16

Effectiveness of depression and anxiety prevention in adolescents with high familial risk: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and anxiety disorders during adolescence can have detrimental consequences. Both disorders are related to negative outcome in various areas during adolescence and are also predictive of depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Especially parental psychopathology and being female are risk factors that increase the probability of developing one of these disorders during adolescence. Research has shown that prevention programs have promising results, especially for adolescents who have these risk factors. Therefore, in this study, we will focus on the effectiveness of a prevention program ‘A jump forward’ that has been developed for adolescent girls with a familial risk of depression and/or anxiety. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of an indicated and selective prevention program aimed at depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Adolescents aged between 11 and 15 years old with depressive and/or anxiety symptoms and with parents who show indicators of parental psychopathology will be randomly assigned to the experimental (N?=?80) or control groups (N?=?80). Participants in the experimental group will follow a preventive intervention, consisting of six sessions of 90 minutes each. All participants will complete baseline, intervention phase 1 (after session 2), intervention phase 2 (after session 4), post-intervention, 6 month follow-up, and 12 month follow-up assessments. Furthermore, parents will be asked to complete assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcome will be depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, response style, negative cognitive errors, parental emotional support and parental control, parental psychopathology, parenting stress and adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms according to the parents. Discussion This paper described the study designed to evaluate a program for preventing depression and/or anxiety in high-risk adolescents over a 12-month follow-up period. If the program showed to be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and preventing adolescents from developing clinical levels of these disorders, our results would be relevant to practice. Thus, the intervention could be used on a large scale. Moreover, this study aims to contribute to the evidence-based prevention of depression and anxiety of adolescents. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3720 PMID:24268128

2013-01-01

17

Cognitive-reminiscence therapy and usual care for depression in young adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common affliction for young adults, and is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy is a brief, structured intervention that has been shown to be highly effective for reducing depressive symptoms, yet to date has not been evaluated in young adult populations. Given its basis in theory-guided reminiscence-based therapy, and incorporation of effective therapeutic techniques drawn from cognitive therapy and problem-solving frameworks, it is hypothesized to be effective in treating depression in this age group. Methods and design This article presents the design of a randomized controlled trial implemented in a community-based youth mental health service to compare cognitive-reminiscence therapy with usual care for the treatment of depressive symptoms in young adults. Participants in the cognitive-reminiscence group will receive six sessions of weekly, individual psychotherapy, whilst participants in the usual-care group will receive support from the youth mental health service according to usual procedures. A between-within repeated-measures design will be used to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, psychological wellbeing and anxiety across baseline, three weeks into the intervention, post-intervention, one month post-intervention and three months post-intervention. Interviews will also be conducted with participants from the cognitive-reminiscence group to collect information about their experience receiving the intervention, and the process underlying any changes that occur. Discussion This study will determine whether a therapeutic approach to depression that has been shown to be effective in older adult populations is also effective for young adults. The expected outcome of this study is the validation of a brief, evidence-based, manualized treatment for young adults with depressive symptoms. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000084785. PMID:24143890

2013-01-01

18

Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behaviour therapy for depression (COBRA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. Methods/Design COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. Discussion The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline developers decide on the merits of including BA as a first-line treatment of depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN27473954 PMID:24447460

2014-01-01

19

Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for depressed breast cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20?+?5 sessions) or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendation for counseling center and physician information). We plan to recruit a total of 180 patients (90 per arm) in two centers. Assessments are conducted pretreatment, after 6 (treatment termination) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary outcome measures are reduction of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and remission of depression as assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders by independent, blinded assessors at treatment termination. Secondary outcomes refer to quality of life. Discussion We investigate the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in acute care and we aim to identify predictors for acceptance and success of treatment. Trial registration ISRCTN96793588 PMID:23217093

2012-01-01

20

Efficacy of a dilemma-focused intervention for unipolar depression: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is one of the more severe and serious health problems because of its morbidity, disabling effects and for its societal and economic burden. Despite the variety of existing pharmacological and psychological treatments, most of the cases evolve with only partial remission, relapse and recurrence. Cognitive models have contributed significantly to the understanding of unipolar depression and its psychological treatment. However, success is only partial and many authors affirm the need to improve those models and also the treatment programs derived from them. One of the issues that requires further elaboration is the difficulty these patients experience in responding to treatment and in maintaining therapeutic gains across time without relapse or recurrence. Our research group has been working on the notion of cognitive conflict viewed as personal dilemmas according to personal construct theory. We use a novel method for identifying those conflicts using the repertory grid technique (RGT). Preliminary results with depressive patients show that about 90% of them have one or more of those conflicts. This fact might explain the blockage and the difficult progress of these patients, especially the more severe and/or chronic. These results justify the need for specific interventions focused on the resolution of these internal conflicts. This study aims to empirically test the hypothesis that an intervention focused on the dilemma(s) specifically detected for each patient will enhance the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Design A therapy manual for a dilemma-focused intervention will be tested using a randomized clinical trial by comparing the outcome of two treatment conditions: combined group CBT (eight, 2-hour weekly sessions) plus individual dilemma-focused therapy (eight, 1-hour weekly sessions) and CBT alone (eight, 2-hour group weekly sessions plus eight, 1-hour individual weekly sessions). Method Participants are patients aged over 18 years meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder, with a score of 19 or above on the Beck depression inventory, second edition (BDI-II) and presenting at least one cognitive conflict (implicative dilemma or dilemmatic construct) as assessed using the RGT. The BDI-II is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, at the end of therapy, and at 3- and 12-month follow-up; other secondary measures are also used. Discussion We expect that adding a dilemma-focused intervention to CBT will increase the efficacy of one of the more prestigious therapies for depression, thus resulting in a significant contribution to the psychological treatment of depression. Trial registration ISRCTN92443999; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01542957. PMID:23683841

2013-01-01

21

Cognitive behavioural therapy in elderly type 2 diabetes patients with minor depression or mild major depression: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (MIND-DIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of diabetes among adults will be 6.4% in 2010 and will increase to 7.7% by 2030. Diabetes doubles the odds of depression, and 9% of patients with diabetes are affected by depressive disorders. When subclinical depression is included, the proportion of patients who have clinically relevant depressive symptoms increases to 26%. In patients aged over 65

Frank Petrak; Martin Hautzinger; Kristin Plack; Kai Kronfeld; Christian Ruckes; Stephan Herpertz; Matthias J Müller

2010-01-01

22

RAndomised controlled trial to imProve depressIon and the quality of life of people with Dementia using cognitive bias modification: RAPID study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depressive symptoms are common and undermine the quality of life of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cholinesterase inhibitors and antidepressants have all but no effect on the mood of patients, and their use increases adverse events. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) targets attentional and interpretative biases associated with anxiety, dysphoria and depression and may be useful to treat depression in AD (DAD). This trial aims to determine the effect of CBM on depression scores and the quality of life of people with DAD. Methods and analysis Randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled trial of CBM (1:1 allocation ratio). Participants will be 80 adults with probable AD living in the Western Australian community who score 8 or more on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD). They will have mild to moderate dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination—MMSE score ?15) and will be free of severe sensory impairment or suicidal intent. The intervention will consist of 10 40?min sessions of CBM delivered over 2?weeks using a high-resolution monitor using a local computer station at the Western Australian Centre for Health and Ageing. The primary outcomes of interest are the 2-week change, from baseline, in the severity of CSDD scores and the Quality of Life AD (QoL-AD) scores. Secondary outcomes include changes in the CSDD, QoL-AD after 12?weeks, and changes in MMSE scores, negative attentional and interpretative bias and the proportion of participants with CSDD <8 after 2 and 12?weeks. Ethics and dissemination The study will comply with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and participants will provide written informed consent. The Ethics Committee of the Royal Perth Hospital will approve and oversee the study (REG14-036). The results of this trial will provide level 2 evidence of efficacy for CBM as a treatment of DAD. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN12614000420640, date registered 06/04/2014. PMID:25056981

Almeida, Osvaldo P; MacLeod, Colin; Flicker, Leon; Ford, Andrew; Grafton, Ben; Etherton-Beer, Christopher

2014-01-01

23

Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing community and government recognition of the magnitude and impact of adolescent depression. Family based interventions have significant potential to address known risk factors for adolescent depression and could be an effective way of engaging adolescents in treatment. The evidence for family based treatments of adolescent depression is not well developed. The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether a family based intervention can reduce rates of unipolar depressive disorders in adolescents, improve family functioning and engage adolescents who are reluctant to access mental health services. Methods/Design The Family Options study will determine whether a manualized family based intervention designed to target both individual and family based factors in adolescent depression (BEST MOOD) will be more effective in reducing unipolar depressive disorders than an active (standard practice) control condition consisting of a parenting group using supportive techniques (PAST). The study is a multicenter effectiveness randomized controlled trial. Both interventions are delivered in group format over eight weekly sessions, of two hours per session. We will recruit 160 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) and their families, randomized equally to each treatment condition. Participants will be assessed at baseline, eight weeks and 20 weeks. Assessment of eligibility and primary outcome will be conducted using the KID-SCID structured clinical interview via adolescent and parent self-report. Assessments of family mental health, functioning and therapeutic processes will also be conducted. Data will be analyzed using Multilevel Mixed Modeling accounting for time x treatment effects and random effects for group and family characteristics. This trial is currently recruiting. Challenges in design and implementation to-date are discussed. These include diagnosis and differential diagnosis of mental disorders in the context of adolescent development, non-compliance of adolescents with requirements of assessment, questionnaire completion and treatment attendance, breaking randomization, and measuring the complexity of change in the context of a family-based intervention. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Title: engaging youth with high prevalence mental health problems using family based interventions; number 12612000398808. Prospectively registered on 10 April 2012. PMID:24220547

2013-01-01

24

Tailored interventions to implement recommendations for elderly patients with depression in primary care: a study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of depression is high and the elderly have an increased risk of developing chronic course. International data suggest that depression in the elderly is under-recognised, the latency before clinicians provide a treatment plan is longer and elderly patients with depression are not offered psychotherapy to the same degree as younger patients. Although recommendations for the treatment of elderly patients with depression exist, health-care professionals adhere to these recommendations to a limited degree only. We conducted a systematic review to identify recommendations for managing depression in the elderly and prioritised six recommendations. We identified and prioritised the determinants of practice related to the implementation of these recommendations in primary care, and subsequently discussed and prioritised interventions to address the identified determinants. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these tailored interventions for the six recommendations for the management of elderly patients with depression in primary care. Methods/design We will conduct a pragmatic cluster randomised trial comparing the implementation of the six recommendations using tailored interventions with usual care. We will randomise 80 municipalities into one of two groups: an intervention group, to which we will deliver tailored interventions to implement the six recommendations, and a control group, to which we will not deliver any intervention. We will randomise municipalities rather than patients, individual clinicians or practices, because we will deliver the intervention for the first three recommendations at the municipal level and we want to minimise the risk of contamination across GP practices for the other three recommendations. The primary outcome is the proportion of actions taken by GPs that are consistent with the recommendations. Discussion This trial will investigate whether a tailored implementation approach is an effective strategy for improving collaborative care in the municipalities and health-care professionals’ practice towards elderly patients with depression in primary care. The effectiveness evaluation described in this protocol will be accompanied with a process evaluation exploring why and how the interventions were effective or ineffective. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01913236 PMID:24405891

2014-01-01

25

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating self-help email messages for sub-threshold depression: the Mood Memos study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sub-threshold depression is common, impairs functioning, and increases the risk of developing major depression. Although psychological treatments have been investigated for sub-threshold depression, they are costly. A less costly alternative could be an educational health promotion campaign about effective self-help for depression symptoms. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of a low-cost email-based mental health

Amy J Morgan; Anthony F Jorm; Andrew J Mackinnon

2011-01-01

26

Predictors of remission in depression to individual and combined treatments (PReDICT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Limited controlled data exist to guide treatment choices for clinicians caring for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although many putative predictors of treatment response have been reported, most were identified through retrospective analyses of existing datasets and very few have been replicated in a manner that can impact clinical practice. One major confound in previous studies examining predictors of treatment response is the patient’s treatment history, which may affect both the predictor of interest and treatment outcomes. Moreover, prior treatment history provides an important source of selection bias, thereby limiting generalizability. Consequently, we initiated a randomized clinical trial designed to identify factors that moderate response to three treatments for MDD among patients never treated previously for the condition. Methods/design Treatment-naïve adults aged 18 to 65?years with moderate-to-severe, non-psychotic MDD are randomized equally to one of three 12-week treatment arms: (1) cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, 16 sessions); (2) duloxetine (30–60?mg/d); or (3) escitalopram (10–20?mg/d). Prior to randomization, patients undergo multiple assessments, including resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), immune markers, DNA and gene expression products, and dexamethasone-corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) testing. Prior to or shortly after randomization, patients also complete a comprehensive personality assessment. Repeat assessment of the biological measures (fMRI, immune markers, and gene expression products) occurs at an early time-point in treatment, and upon completion of 12-week treatment, when a second Dex/CRH test is also conducted. Patients remitting by the end of this acute treatment phase are then eligible to enter a 21-month follow-up phase, with quarterly visits to monitor for recurrence. Non-remitters are offered augmentation treatment for a second 12-week course of treatment, during which they receive a combination of CBT and antidepressant medication. Predictors of the primary outcome, remission, will be identified for overall and treatment-specific effects, and a statistical model incorporating multiple predictors will be developed to predict outcomes. Discussion The PReDICT study’s evaluation of biological, psychological, and clinical factors that may differentially impact treatment outcomes represents a sizeable step toward developing personalized treatments for MDD. Identified predictors should help guide the selection of initial treatments, and identify those patients most vulnerable to recurrence, who thus warrant maintenance or combination treatments to achieve and maintain wellness. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00360399. Registered 02 AUG 2006. First patient randomized 09 FEB 2007. PMID:22776534

2012-01-01

27

Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment  

PubMed Central

Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition) or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition). All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female), length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more), and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication). Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post intervention. Participants will also complete weekly self-report measures during the treatment period. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of introducing a computer delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy based co-morbidity treatment program within a residential substance abuse setting. If shown to be effective, this intervention can be disseminated within other residential substance abuse programs. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000618954 PMID:22325594

2012-01-01

28

The efficacy of a behavioral activation intervention among depressed US Latinos with limited English language proficiency: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder is highly prevalent among Latinos with limited English language proficiency in the United States. Although major depressive disorder is highly treatable, barriers to depression treatment have historically prevented Latinos with limited English language proficiency from accessing effective interventions. The project seeks to evaluate the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression, an empirically supported treatment for depression, as an intervention that may address some of the disparities surrounding the receipt of efficacious mental health care for this population. Methods/design Following a pilot study of behavioral activation treatment for depression with 10 participants which yielded very promising results, the current study is a randomized control trial testing behavioral activation treatment for depression versus a supportive counseling treatment for depression. We are in the process of recruiting 60 Latinos with limited English language proficiency meeting criteria for major depressive disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th and 5th Edition for participation in a single-center efficacy trial. Participants are randomized to receive 10 sessions of behavioral activation treatment for depression (n?=?30) or 10 sessions of supportive counseling (n?=?30). Assessments occur prior to each session and at 1 month after completing treatment. Intervention targets include depressive symptomatology and the proposed mechanisms of behavioral activation treatment for depression: activity level and environmental reward. We will also examine other factors related to treatment outcome such as treatment adherence, treatment satisfaction, and therapeutic alliance. Discussion This randomized controlled trial will allow us to determine the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression in a fast-growing, yet highly underserved population in US mental health services. The study is also among the first to examine the effect of the proposed mechanisms of change of behavioral activation treatment for depression (that is, activity level and environmental reward) on depression over time. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to compare an empirical-supported treatment to a control supportive counseling condition in a sample of depressed, Spanish-speaking Latinos in the United States. Trial registration Clinical Trials Register: NCT01958840; registered 8 October 2013. PMID:24938081

2014-01-01

29

Targeted versus tailored multimedia patient engagement to enhance depression recognition and treatment in primary care: randomized controlled trial protocol for the AMEP2 study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in primary care is common, yet this costly and disabling condition remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Persisting gaps in the primary care of depression are due in part to patients’ reluctance to bring depressive symptoms to the attention of their primary care clinician and, when depression is diagnosed, to accept initial treatment for the condition. Both targeted and tailored communication strategies offer promise for fomenting discussion and reducing barriers to appropriate initial treatment of depression. Methods/design The Activating Messages to Enhance Primary Care Practice (AMEP2) Study is a stratified randomized controlled trial comparing two computerized multimedia patient interventions --- one targeted (to patient gender and income level) and one tailored (to level of depressive symptoms, visit agenda, treatment preferences, depression causal attributions, communication self-efficacy and stigma)--- and an attention control. AMEP2 consists of two linked sub-studies, one focusing on patients with significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] scores???5), the other on patients with few or no depressive symptoms (PHQ-9?study examined effectiveness of the interventions; key outcomes included delivery of components of initial depression care (antidepressant prescription or mental health referral). The second sub-study tracked potential hazards (clinical distraction and overtreatment). A telephone interview screening procedure assessed patients for eligibility and oversampled patients with significant depressive symptoms. Sampled, consenting patients used computers to answer survey questions, be randomized, and view assigned interventions just before scheduled primary care office visits. Patient surveys were also collected immediately post-visit and 12 weeks later. Physicians completed brief reporting forms after each patient’s index visit. Additional data were obtained from medical record abstraction and visit audio recordings. Of 6,191 patients assessed, 867 were randomized and included in analysis, with 559 in the first sub-study and 308 in the second. Discussion Based on formative research, we developed two novel multimedia programs for encouraging patients to discuss depressive symptoms with their primary care clinicians. Our computer-based enrollment and randomization procedures ensured that randomization was fully concealed and data missingness minimized. Analyses will focus on the interventions’ potential benefits among depressed persons, and the potential hazards among the non-depressed. Trial registration ClinicialTrials.gov Identifier: http://NCT01144104 PMID:23594572

2013-01-01

30

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus the health-enhancement program (HEP) for adults with treatment-resistant depression: a randomized control trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability in the developed world, yet broadly effective treatments remain elusive. Up to 40% of patients with depression are unresponsive to at least two trials of antidepressant medication and thus have “treatment-resistant depression” (TRD). There is an urgent need for cost-effective, non-pharmacologic, evidence-based treatments for TRD. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an effective treatment for relapse prevention and residual depression in major depression, but has not been previously studied in patients with TRD in a large randomized trial. Methods/Design The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether MBCT is an effective augmentation of antidepressants for adults with MDD who failed to respond to standard pharmacotherapy. MBCT was compared to an active control condition, the Health-Enhancement Program (HEP), which incorporates physical activity, functional movement, music therapy and nutritional advice. HEP was designed as a comparator condition for mindfulness-based interventions to control for non-specific effects. Originally investigated in a non-clinical sample to promote stress reduction, HEP was adapted for a depressed population for this study. Individuals age 18 and older with moderate to severe TRD, who failed to respond to at least two trials of antidepressants in the current episode, were recruited to participate. All participants were taking antidepressants (Treatment as usual; TAU) at the time of enrollment. After signing an informed consent, participants were randomly assigned to either MBCT or HEP condition. Participants were followed for 1 year and assessed at weeks 1–7, 8, 24, 36, and 52. Change in depression severity, rate of treatment response and remission after 8 weeks were the primary outcomes measured by the clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Severity Rating (HAM-D) 17-item scale. The participant-rated Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomology (QIDS-SR) 16-item scale was the secondary outcome measure of depression severity, response, and remission. Discussion Treatment-resistant depression entails significant morbidity and has few effective treatments. We studied the effect of augmenting antidepressant medication with MBCT, compared with a HEP control, for patients with TRD. Analyses will focus on clinician and patient assessment of depression, participants’ clinical global impression change, employment and social functioning scores and quality of life and satisfaction ratings. Trial registration ClincalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01021254 PMID:24612825

2014-01-01

31

Integrated care for comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety and/or depressive disorder: study protocol for an assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A major barrier to successful treatment in alcohol dependence is psychiatric comorbidity. During treatment, the time to relapse is shorter, the drop-out rate is increased, and long-term alcohol consumption is greater for those with comorbid major depression or anxiety disorder than those with an alcohol use disorder with no comorbid mental disorder. The treatment of alcohol dependence and psychological disorders is often the responsibility of different services, and this can hinder the treatment process. Accordingly, there is a need for an effective integrated treatment for alcohol dependence and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. Methods/Design We aim to assess the effectiveness of a specialized, integrated intervention for alcohol dependence with comorbid anxiety and/or mood disorder using a randomized design in an outpatient hospital setting. Following a three-week stabilization period (abstinence or significantly reduced consumption), participants will undergo complete formal assessment for anxiety and depression. Those patients with a diagnosis of an anxiety and/or depressive disorder will be randomized to either 1) integrated intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy) for alcohol, anxiety, and/or depression; or 2) usual counseling care for alcohol problems. Patients will then be followed up at weeks 12, 16, and 24. The primary outcome measure is alcohol consumption (total abstinence, time to lapse, and time to relapse). Secondary outcome measures include changes in alcohol dependence severity, depression, or anxiety symptoms and changes in clinician-rated severity of anxiety and depression. Discussion The study findings will have potential implications for clinical practice by evaluating the implementation of specialized integrated treatment for comorbid anxiety and/or depression in an alcohol outpatient service. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941693 PMID:24245491

2013-01-01

32

A comparison of MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) to education and support (ES) in the treatment of recurrent depression: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a debilitating mental health problem that tends to run a chronic, recurrent course. Even when effectively treated, relapse and recurrence rates remain high. Accordingly, interventions need to focus not only on symptom reduction, but also on reducing the risk of relapse by targeting depression-related disturbances that persist into remission. We are addressing this need by investigating the efficacy, acceptability and feasibility of a MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) programme, which directly targets an enduring cognitive marker of depression - reduced autobiographical memory specificity. Promising pilot data suggest that training memory specificity ameliorates this disturbance and reduces depressive symptoms. A larger, controlled trial is now needed to examine the efficacy of MEST. This trial compares MEST to an education and support (ES) group, with an embedded mechanism study. Methods/Design In a single blind, parallel cluster randomised controlled trial, 60 depressed individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for a current major depressive episode will be recruited from the community and clinical services. Using a block randomisation procedure, groups of 5 to 8 participants will receive five weekly sessions of MEST (n?=?30) or education and support (n?=?30). Participants will be assessed immediately post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-months post-treatment (MEST group only for 6-month follow-up). Depressive symptoms at 3-month follow-up will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes will be change in depressive status and memory specificity at post-treatment and 3-months. The 6-month follow-up of the MEST group will allow us to examine whether treatment gains are maintained. An explanatory question will examine variables mediating improvement in depression symptoms post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Discussion This trial will allow us to investigate the efficacy of MEST, whether treatment gains are maintained, and the mechanisms of change. Evidence will be gathered regarding whether this treatment is feasible and acceptable as a low-intensity intervention. If efficacy can be demonstrated, the results will support MEST as a treatment for depression and provide the foundation for a definitive trial. Trial registration NCT01882452 (ClinicalTrials.gov), registered on 18 June 2013. PMID:25052061

2014-01-01

33

Effect of depression on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in type 2 diabetes mellitus after 3 years follow up. The DIADEMA study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent diseases that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. There is evidence about a bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, prognostic implications of the joint effects of these two diseases on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well-known. Method/design A three-year, observational, prospective, cohort study, carried out in Primary Health Care Centres in Madrid (Spain). The project aims to analyze the effect of depression on cardiovascular events, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to estimate a clinical predictive model of depression in these patients. The number of patients required is 3255, all them with type 2 diabetes mellitus, older than 18?years, who regularly visit their Primary Health Care Centres and agree to participate. They are chosen by simple random sampling from the list of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of each general practitioner. The main outcome measures are all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity; and exposure variable is the major depressive disorder. There will be a comparison between depressed and not depressed patients in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, coronary artery disease and stroke using the Chi-squared test. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. To assess the effect of depression on the mortality, a survival analysis will be used comparing the two groups using the log-rank test. The control of potential confounding variables will be performed by the construction of a Cox regression model. Discussion Our study’s main contribution is to evaluate the increase in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in depressed Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus attended in Primary Health Care Setting. It would also be useful to identify subgroups of patients for which the interventions could be more beneficial. PMID:22846516

2012-01-01

34

Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of guided online treatment for patients with major depressive disorder on a waiting list for psychotherapy: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent and result in negative consequences for both patients and society. It is therefore important that these disorders are treated adequately. However, due to increased demand for mental healthcare and subsequent increased costs, it would be desirable to reduce costs associated with major depressive disorder while maintaining or improving the quality of care within the healthcare system. Introducing evidence-based online self-help interventions in mental healthcare might be the way to maintain clinical effects while minimizing costs by reducing the number of face-to-face sessions. This study aims to evaluate the clinical and economical effects of a guided online self-help intervention when offered to patients with major depressive disorder on a waiting list for psychotherapy in specialized mental health centers (MHCs). Methods Patients at mental health centers identified with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major depression who are awaiting face-to-face treatment are studied in a randomized controlled trial. During this waiting list period, patients are randomized and either (1) receive an internet-based guided self-help treatment or (2) receive a self-help book. The 5-week internet-based guided self-help intervention and the self-help booklet are based on problem solving treatment. After the intervention, patients are allowed to start regular face-to-face treatment at MHCs. Costs and effects are measured at baseline, after the intervention at 6 to 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is symptoms of depression. Secondary outcome measures are diagnosis of depression, number of face-to-face sessions, absence of work and healthcare uptake in general. Additional outcome measures are anxiety, insomnia, quality of life and mastery. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of internet-based guided self-help in patients at specialized mental health centers. The aim is to demonstrate whether the introduction of internet-based self-help interventions in regular mental healthcare for depressive disorders can maintain clinical effects and reduce costs. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2824 PMID:24289099

2013-01-01

35

Effectiveness, relapse prevention and mechanisms of change of cognitive therapy vs. interpersonal therapy for depression: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major depression is a common mental disorder that substantially impairs quality of life and has high societal costs. Although psychotherapies have proven to be effective antidepressant treatments, initial response rates are insufficient and the risk of relapse and recurrence is high. Improvement of treatments is badly needed. Studying the mechanisms of change in treatment might be a good investment for improving everyday mental health care. However, the mechanisms underlying therapeutic change remain largely unknown. The objective of the current study is to assess both the effectiveness of two commonly used psychotherapies for depression in terms of reduction of symptoms and prevention of relapse on short and long term, as well as identifying underlying mechanisms of change. Methods In a randomised trial we will compare (a) Cognitive Therapy (CT) with (b) Interpersonal therapy (IPT), and (c) an 8-week waiting list condition followed by treatment of choice. One hundred eighty depressed patients (aged 18-65) will be recruited in a mental health care centre in Maastricht (the Netherlands). Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three intervention groups. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is depression severity measured by the Beck Depression Intenvory-II (BDI-II). Other outcomes include process variables such as dysfunctional beliefs, negative attributions, and interpersonal problems. All self-report outcome assessments will take place on the internet at baseline, three, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve and twenty-four months. At 24 months a retrospective telephone interview will be administered. Furthermore, a rudimentary analysis of the cost-effectiveness will be embedded. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion By comparing CT and IPT head-to-head and by investigating multiple potential mediators and outcomes at multiple time points during and after therapy, we hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and mechanisms of change of CT and IPT for depression, and contribute to the improvement of mental health care for adults suffering from depression. Trial registration The study has been registered at the Netherlands Trial Register, part of the Dutch Cochrane Centre (ISRCTN67561918) PMID:21672217

2011-01-01

36

The effect of telephone-based interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of postpartum depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial data indicate potential health consequences of untreated postpartum depression (PPD) on the mother, infant, and family. Studies have evaluated interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as treatment for PPD; however, the results are questionable due to methodological limitations. A comprehensive review of maternal treatment preferences suggests that mothers favor ‘talking therapy’ as a form of PPD treatment. Unfortunately, IPT is not widely available, especially in rural and remote areas. To improve access to care, telepsychiatry has been introduced, including the provision of therapy via the telephone. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression) and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care) or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses). Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1) develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2) advance our understanding of training nurses to deliver IPT; (3) provide an economic evaluation of an IPT intervention; (4) investigate the utility of the EPDS in general clinical practice to identify depressed mothers; and (5) present valuable information regarding PPD, along with associated couple adjustment, co-morbid anxiety and self-reported attachment among a mixed rural and urban Canadian population. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials Ltd. ISRCTN88987377. PMID:22515528

2012-01-01

37

Expectations, experiences and attitudes of patients and primary care health professionals regarding online psychotherapeutic interventions for depression: protocol for a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In the year 2020, depression will cause the second highest amount of disability worldwide. One quarter of the population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health services in Western countries are overburdened. Therefore, cost-effective interventions that do not involve mental health services, such as online psychotherapy programs, have been proposed. These programs demonstrate satisfactory outcomes, but the completion rate for patients is low. Health professionals’ attitudes towards this type of psychotherapy are more negative than the attitudes of depressed patients themselves. The aim of this study is to describe the profile of depressed patients who would benefit most from online psychotherapy and to identify expectations, experiences, and attitudes about online psychotherapy among both patients and health professionals that can facilitate or hinder its effects. Methods A parallel qualitative design will be used in a randomised controlled trial on the efficiency of online psychotherapeutic treatment for depression. Through interviews and focus groups, the experiences of treated patients, their reasons for abandoning the program, the expectations of untreated patients, and the attitudes of health professionals will be examined. Questions will be asked about training in new technologies, opinions of online psychotherapy, adjustment to therapy within the daily routine, the virtual and anonymous relationship with the therapist, the process of online communication, information necessary to make progress in therapy, process of working with the program, motivations and attitudes about treatment, expected consequences, normalisation of this type of therapy in primary care, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and resources and risks. A thematic content analysis from the grounded theory for interviews and an analysis of the discursive positions of participants based on the sociological model for focus groups will be performed. Discussion Knowledge of the expectations, experiences, and attitudes of both patients and medical personnel regarding online interventions for depression can facilitate the implementation of this new psychotherapeutic tool. This qualitative investigation will provide thorough knowledge of the perceptions, beliefs, and values of patients and clinicians, which will be very useful for understanding how to implement this intervention method for depression. PMID:23425435

2013-01-01

38

Collaborative Interventions for Circulation and Depression (COINCIDE): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial of collaborative care for depression in people with diabetes and/or coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is up to two to three times as common in people with long-term conditions. It negatively affects medical management of disease and self-care behaviors, and leads to poorer quality of life and high costs in primary care. Screening and treatment of depression is increasingly prioritized, but despite initiatives to improve access and quality of care, depression remains under-detected and under-treated, especially in people with long-term conditions. Collaborative care is known to positively affect the process and outcome of care for people with depression and long-term conditions, but its effectiveness outside the USA is still relatively unknown. Furthermore, collaborative care has yet to be tested in settings that resemble more naturalistic settings that include patient choice and the usual care providers. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a collaborative-care intervention, for people with depression and diabetes/coronary heart disease in National Health Service (NHS) primary care, in which low-intensity psychological treatment services are delivered by the usual care provider - Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. The study also aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention over 6 months, and to assess qualitatively the extent to which collaborative care was implemented in the intervention general practices. Methods This is a cluster randomized controlled trial of 30 general practices allocated to either collaborative care or usual care. Fifteen patients per practice will be recruited after a screening exercise to detect patients with recognized depression (?10 on the nine-symptom Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9). Patients in the collaborative-care arm with recognized depression will be offered a choice of evidence-based low-intensity psychological treatments based on cognitive and behavioral approaches. Patients will be case managed by psychological well-being practitioners employed by IAPT in partnership with a practice nurse and/or general practitioner. The primary outcome will be change in depressive symptoms at 6 months on the 90-item Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90). Secondary outcomes include change in health status, self-care behaviors, and self-efficacy. A qualitative process evaluation will be undertaken with patients and health practitioners to gauge the extent to which the collaborative-care model is implemented, and to explore sustainability beyond the clinical trial. Discussion COINCIDE will assess whether collaborative care can improve patient-centered outcomes, and evaluate access to and quality of care of co-morbid depression of varying intensity in people with diabetes/coronary heart disease. Additionally, by working with usual care providers such as IAPT, and by identifying and evaluating interventions that are effective and appropriate for routine use in the NHS, the COINCIDE trial offers opportunities to address translational gaps between research and implementation. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN80309252 Trial Status Open PMID:22906179

2012-01-01

39

A randomised, feasibility trial of a tele-health intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome patients with depression ('MoodCare'): Study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression\\u000a is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms.\\u000a Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL), decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation\\u000a of health services, lead to increased morbidity

Adrienne O’Neil; Anna L Hawkes; Bianca Chan; Kristy Sanderson; Andrew Forbes; Bruce Hollingsworth; John Atherton; David L Hare; Michael Jelinek; Kathy Eadie; C Barr Taylor; Brian Oldenburg

2011-01-01

40

Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse\\/recurrence: the PREVENT trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM) can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. We need

Willem Kuyken; Sarah Byford; Richard Byng; Tim Dalgleish; Glyn Lewis; Rod Taylor; Edward R Watkins; Rachel Hayes; Paul Lanham; David Kessler; Nicola Morant; Alison Evans

2010-01-01

41

Effects of emotion recognition training on mood among individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

E-print Network

of individuals with depressive symptoms over a 6-week follow-up period. Methods/Design We will recruit 190 adults from the general population who report high levels of depressive symptoms (defined as a score ? 14 on the Beck Depression Inventory...

Adams, Sally; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Harmer, Catherine J; Holmes, Emily A; Munafò, Marcus R

2013-06-01

42

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lay counsellor-delivered psychological treatments for harmful and dependent drinking and moderate to severe depression in primary care in India: PREMIUM study protocol for randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background The leading mental health causes of the global burden of disease are depression in women and alcohol use disorders in men. A major hurdle to the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments in primary care in developing countries is the non-availability of skilled human resources. The aim of these trials is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two psychological treatments developed for the treatment of depression and alcohol use disorders in primary care in India. Methods/design This study protocol is for parallel group, randomized controlled trials (Healthy Activity Program for moderate to severe depression, Counselling for Alcohol Problems for harmful and dependent drinking) in eight primary health centres in Goa, India. Adult primary care attendees will be screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression and, in men only, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for drinking problems. Screen-positive attendees will be invited to participate; men who screen positive for both disorders will be invited to participate in the Counselling for Alcohol Problems trial. Those who consent will be allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the respective psychological treatment plus enhanced usual care or enhanced usual care only using a computer generated allocation sequence, stratified by primary health centre and, for depression, by sex. The enhanced usual care comprises providing primary health centre doctors with contextualized World Health Organization guidelines and screening results. Psychological treatments will be delivered by lay counsellors, over a maximum period of three months. Primary outcomes are severity of disorder and remission rates at three months post-enrolment and, for the Counselling for Alcohol Problems trial, drinking and the impact of drinking on daily lives. Secondary outcomes include severity of disorder and remission rates at 12?months, disability scores, suicidal behaviour and economic impact, and cost-effectiveness at three and 12?months. 500 participants with depression and 400 participants with harmful drinking will be recruited. Primary analyses will be intention-to-treat. Discussion These trials may offer a new approach for the treatment of moderate-severe depression and drinking problems in primary care that is potentially scalable as it relies on delivery by a single pool of lay counsellors. Trial registration Both trials are registered with the International Society for the Registration of Clinical Trials (Healthy Activity Programme registration number ISRCTN95149997; Counselling for Alcohol Problems registration number ISRCTN76465238). PMID:24690184

2014-01-01

43

Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: The PREVENT trial  

E-print Network

. Residual depressive symp- toms will be assessed with the observer-rated inter- viewer administered 17-item HRSD [43] and a well established self-report measure, the [Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition; [44

Kuyken, Willem; Byford, Sarah; Byng, Richard; Dalgleish, Tim; Lewis, Glyn; Taylor, Rod; Watkins, Edward R; Hayes, Rachel; Lanham, Paul; Kessler, David; Morant, Nicola; Evans, Alison

2010-10-20

44

Evolutionary cognitive therapy versus standard cognitive therapy for depression: a protocol for a blinded, randomized, superiority clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is estimated to become the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Despite existing efficacious treatments (both medical and psychotherapeutic), a large proportion of patients do not respond to therapy. Recent insights from evolutionary psychology suggest that, in addition to targeting the proximal causes of depression (for example, targeting dysfunctional beliefs by cognitive behavioral therapy), the distal or evolutionary causes (for example, inclusive fitness) should also be addressed. A randomized superiority trial is conducted to develop and test an evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy protocol for depression, and to compare its efficacy against standard cognitive therapy for depression. Methods/design Romanian-speaking adults (18 years or older) with elevated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores (>13), current diagnosis of major depressive disorder or major depressive episode (MDD or MDE), and MDD with comorbid dysthymia, as evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), are included in the study. Participants are randomized to one of two conditions: 1) evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy (ED-CT) or 2) cognitive therapy (CT). Both groups undergo 12 psychotherapy sessions, and data are collected at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and the 3-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology and a categorical diagnosis of depression post-treatment. Discussion This randomized trial compares the newly proposed ED-CT with a classic CT protocol for depression. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to integrate insights from evolutionary theories of depression into the treatment of this condition in a controlled manner. This study can thus add substantially to the body of knowledge on validated treatments for depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64664414 The trial was registered in June 2013. The first participant was enrolled on October 3, 2012. PMID:24641778

2014-01-01

45

Implementing a knowledge application program for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care: a multiple case study research protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety and depressive disorders are increasingly recognized as a health care policy priority. Reducing the treatment gap for common mental disorders requires strengthening the quality of primary mental health care. We developed a knowledge application program designed to improve the organization and delivery of care for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care teams in Quebec, Canada. The principal objectives of the study are: to implement and evaluate this evidence-based knowledge application program; to examine the contextual factors associated with the selection of local quality improvement strategies; to explore barriers and facilitators associated with the implementation of local quality improvement plans; and to study the implementation of local quality monitoring strategies. Methods The research design is a mixed-methods prospective multiple case study. The main analysis unit (cases) is composed of the six multidisciplinary community-based primary mental health care teams, and each of the cases has identified at least one primary care medical clinic interested in collaborating with the implementation project. The training modules of the program are based on the Chronic Care Model, and the implementation strategies were developed according to the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services conceptual framework. Discussion The implementation of an evidence-based knowledge application program for anxiety and depression in primary care aims to improve the organization and delivery of mental health services. The uptake of evidence to improve the quality of care for common mental disorders in primary care is a complex process that requires careful consideration of the context in which innovations are introduced. The project will provide a close examination of the interplay between evidence, context and facilitation, and contribute to the understanding of factors associated with the process of implementation of interventions in routine care. The implementation of the knowledge application program with a population health perspective is consistent with the priorities set forth in the current mental health care reform in Quebec. Strengthening primary mental health care will lead to a more efficient health care system. PMID:23497399

2013-01-01

46

Recognition of depression and anxiety and their association with quality of life, hospitalization and mortality in primary care patients with heart failure – study protocol of a longitudinal observation study  

PubMed Central

Background International disease management guidelines recommend the regular assessment of depression and anxiety in heart failure patients. Currently there is little data on the effect of screening for depression and anxiety on the quality of life and the prognosis of heart failure (HF). We will investigate the association between the recognition of current depression/anxiety by the general practitioner (GP) and the quality of life and the patients’ prognosis. Methods/Design In this multicenter, prospective, observational study 3,950 patients with HF are recruited by general practices in Germany. The patients fill out questionnaires at baseline and 12-month follow-up. At baseline the GPs are interviewed regarding the somatic and psychological comorbidities of their patients. During the follow-up assessment, data on hospitalization and mortality are provided by the general practice. Based on baseline data, the patients are allocated into three observation groups: HF patients with depression and/or anxiety recognized by their GP (P+/+), those with depression and/or anxiety not recognized (P+/?) and patients without depression and/or anxiety (P?/?). We will perform multivariate regression models to investigate the influence of the recognition of depression and/or anxiety on quality of life at 12 month follow-up, as well as its influences on the prognosis (hospital admission, mortality). Discussion We will display the frequency of GP-acknowledged depression and anxiety and the frequency of installed therapeutic strategies. We will also describe the frequency of depression and anxiety missed by the GP and the resulting treatment gap. Effects of correctly acknowledged and missed depression/anxiety on outcome, also in comparison to the outcome of subjects without depression/anxiety will be addressed. In case results suggest a treatment gap of depression/anxiety in patients with HF, the results of this study will provide methodological advice for the efficient planning of further interventional research. PMID:24279590

2013-01-01

47

Protocol for a collaborative meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR, stress, and depression  

PubMed Central

Background Debate is ongoing about what role, if any, variation in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) plays in depression. Some studies report an interaction between 5-HTTLPR variation and stressful life events affecting the risk for depression, others report a main effect of 5-HTTLPR variation on depression, while others find no evidence for either a main or interaction effect. Meta-analyses of multiple studies have also reached differing conclusions. Methods/Design To improve understanding of the combined roles of 5-HTTLPR variation and stress in the development of depression, we are conducting a meta-analysis of multiple independent datasets. This coordinated approach utilizes new analyses performed with centrally-developed, standardized scripts. This publication documents the protocol for this collaborative, consortium-based meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR variation, stress, and depression. Study eligibility criteria: Our goal is to invite all datasets, published or unpublished, with 5-HTTLPR genotype and assessments of stress and depression for at least 300 subjects. This inclusive approach is to minimize potential impact from publication bias. Data sources: This project currently includes investigators from 35 independent groups, providing data on at least N = 33,761 participants. The analytic plan was determined prior to starting data analysis. Analyses of individual study datasets will be performed by the investigators who collected the data using centrally-developed standardized analysis scripts to ensure a consistent analytical approach across sites. The consortium as a group will review and interpret the meta-analysis results. Discussion Variation in 5-HTTLPR is hypothesized to moderate the response to stress on depression. To test specific hypotheses about the role of 5-HTTLPR variation on depression, we will perform coordinated meta-analyses of de novo results obtained from all available data, using variables and analyses determined a priori. Primary analyses, based on the original 2003 report by Caspi and colleagues of a GxE interaction will be supplemented by secondary analyses to help interpret and clarify issues ranging from the mechanism of effect to heterogeneity among the contributing studies. Publication of this protocol serves to protect this project from biased reporting and to improve the ability of readers to interpret the results of this specific meta-analysis upon its completion. PMID:24219410

2013-01-01

48

Staying well after depression: trial design and protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is often a chronic relapsing condition, with relapse rates of 50-80% in those who have been depressed before. This is particularly problematic for those who become suicidal when depressed since habitual recurrence of suicidal thoughts increases likelihood of further acute suicidal episodes. Therefore the question how to prevent relapse is of particular urgency in this group. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This

J Mark G Williams; Ian T Russell; Catherine Crane; Daphne Russell; Chris J Whitaker; Danielle S Duggan; Thorsten Barnhofer; Melanie JV Fennell; Rebecca Crane; Sarah Silverton

2010-01-01

49

Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

2005-01-01

50

[Comparative study of recurrent and bipolar depression].  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine clinical and diagnostic distinctions between the episodes of recurrent depression and bipolar depression. The subjects of the study were 79 patients meeting ICD-10 criteria for either recurrent depressive disorder or bipolar affective disorder. Patient with recurrent depression presented more prominent HDRS symptoms of depressed mood, psychomotor retardation, somatic anxiety, and gastro-intestinal somatic complains. Bipolar patients had more scores related to middle and late insomnia, agitation and suicide. In addition lower length of remission was observed in bipolar depression. The revealed differences should be taken into account in diagnostic and pharmacological treatment of various types of depression. PMID:19996503

Ismailov, F N

2009-11-01

51

Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of specialist psychotherapy that reduce relapse in unipolar major depression in adolescents and thereby costs of treatment to society. We also anticipate being able to utilise psychotherapy experience, neuroimaging, genetic and hormone measures to reveal what techniques and their protocols may work best for which patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN83033550 PMID:21752257

2011-01-01

52

Staying well after depression: trial design and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is often a chronic relapsing condition, with relapse rates of 50-80% in those who have been depressed before. This is particularly problematic for those who become suicidal when depressed since habitual recurrence of suicidal thoughts increases likelihood of further acute suicidal episodes. Therefore the question how to prevent relapse is of particular urgency in this group. Methods/Design This trial compares Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), a novel form of treatment combining mindfulness meditation and cognitive therapy for depression, with both Cognitive Psycho-Education (CPE), an equally plausible cognitive treatment but without meditation, and treatment as usual (TAU). It will test whether MBCT reduces the risk of relapse in recurrently depressed patients and the incidence of suicidal symptoms in those with a history of suicidality who do relapse. It recruits participants, screens them by telephone for main inclusion and exclusion criteria and, if they are eligible, invites them to a pre-treatment session to assess eligibility in more detail. This trial allocates eligible participants at random between MBCT and TAU, CPE and TAU, and TAU alone in a ratio of 2:2:1, stratified by presence of suicidal ideation or behaviour and current anti-depressant use. We aim to recruit sufficient participants to allow for retention of 300 following attrition. We deliver both active treatments in groups meeting for two hours every week for eight weeks. We shall estimate effects on rates of relapse and suicidal symptoms over 12 months following treatment and assess clinical status immediately after treatment, and three, six, nine and twelve months thereafter. Discussion This will be the first trial of MBCT to investigate whether MCBT is effective in preventing relapse to depression when compared with a control psychological treatment of equal plausibility; and to explore the use of MBCT for the most severe recurrent depression - that in people who become suicidal when depressed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN97185214. PMID:20302615

2010-01-01

53

Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The current randomised controlled trial will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) intervention for depression when compared with an active control condition and help establish the additive benefit of positive imagery CBM when delivered in combination with internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression. Methods and analysis Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for a current major depressive episode will be recruited through the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical and research unit in Australia. The minimum sample size for each group (? set at 0.05, power at 0.80) was identified as 29, but at least 10% more will be recruited to hedge against expected attrition. We will measure the impact of CBM on primary measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—second edition (BDI-II), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9)) and interpretive bias (ambiguous scenarios test-depression), and on a secondary measure of psychological distress (Kessler-10 (K10)) following the 1-week CBM intervention. Secondary outcome measures of psychological distress (K10), as well as disability (WHO disability assessment schedule-II), repetitive negative thinking (repetitive thinking questionnaire), and anxiety (state trait anxiety inventory-trait version) will be evaluated following completion of the 11-week combined intervention, in addition to the BDI-II and PHQ9. Intent-to-treat marginal and mixed effect models using restricted maximum likelihood estimation will be used to evaluate the primary hypotheses. Clinically significant change will be defined as high-end state functioning (a BDI-II score <14) combined with a total score reduction greater than the reliable change index score. Maintenance of gains will be assessed at 3-month follow-up. Ethics and dissemination The current trial protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of St Vincent's Hospital and the University of New South Wales, Sydney. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000139774 and Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01787513. This trial protocol is written in compliance with the Standard Protocol Items: recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines. PMID:24171941

Williams, Alishia D; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A; Andrews, Gavin

2013-01-01

54

Electrophysiological differences between high and low frequency rTMS protocols in depression treatment.  

PubMed

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a rapidly expanding mean in drug resistant depression treatment. Yet, despite vast research in this field, exact neurophysiological mechanism of rTMS therapy still remains unclear. This results in difficulties choosing suitable rTMS parameters in advance and compromises thorough evaluation of efficacy after the treatment. In order to obtain more explicit assessment of rTMS therapy in the psychiatric field, we evaluated and compared the influence of two most widely used antidepressive rTMS protocols on EEG band power spectrum and relation to clinical test scores (MADRS, BDI, HAM-D17). Forty-five patients (12 male, 33 female, mean age 52.16 years) participated in the study. Twenty-three patients received high frequency (10 Hz) stimulation, the rest 22 were stimulated using low frequency (1 Hz) protocol. Both groups received 10 to 15 daily rTMS sessions. EEG recordings and clinical tests were obtained the day before rTMS course and same day after the last session. Majority (57.78%) of patients showed considerable improvement after the treatment. There were no notable differences in clinical test score drop between the two rTMS protocols. However, we found that different protocols resulted in significantly different electrophysiological changes. High frequency (10 Hz) rTMS resulted in widespread changes off EEG band power, including delta power increase on the left hemisphere and alpha power growth on the right. Theta power increase was also obtained in parietal-occipital areas. Low frequency (1 Hz) rTMS showed to have no major effect on basic EEG band power, however, we found a notable shift of frontal alpha power asymmetry towards the right hemisphere, which correlated with the clinical outcome. Our study results suggest that two widely used rTMS protocols strongly differ in their electrophysiological mechanisms. Low frequency stimulation finesse on frontal alpha power asymmetry shift, whereas high frequency protocol acts on wider electrophysiological changes in the brain. PMID:23093015

Valiulis, Vladas; Gerulskis, Giedrius; Dapšys, Kastytis; Vištartaite, Giedre; Šiurkute, Aldona; Ma?iulis, Valentinas

2012-01-01

55

Psychopathological dimensions of depression: a factor study of the 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale in unipolar depressed outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Agreement on the factor structure of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) has not been consistent among studies, and some investigators argued that the scale’s factor structure is not reliable. This study aimed at shedding more light on this debated issue. Methods: We studied 186 adults with unipolar depression (Major Depressive Disorder, n=80; Dysthymic Disorder, n=71; Depressive Disorder Not

P. Pancheri; A. Picardi; M. Pasquini; P. Gaetano; M. Biondi

2002-01-01

56

Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene’s Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Discussion This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment using C-potencies versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. It is an attempt to deal with the obstacles of homeopathic research due to the need for individual prescriptions in one of the most common psychiatric diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01635218. PMID:23782520

2013-01-01

57

Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that all adolescents, but not younger children, be screened for depression in medical settings with integrated depression management services, although no trials of screening were identified. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate in children and adolescents the accuracy of depression screening tools; depression treatment efficacy; whether depression screening improves depression outcomes; and potential harms related to depression interventions and screening. Methods/design Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS and Web of Science, supplemented by reference harvesting of eligible articles, relevant systematic reviews, relevant guidelines and recommendations, and selected journals, and by searches for unpublished studies. Eligible studies will report data for children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years. Eligible diagnostic accuracy studies must compare a depression screening tool to a validated diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and report diagnostic accuracy data. Eligible treatment studies must be randomized controlled trials of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, or other depression treatments commonly available for children and adolescents in pediatric, primary-care, and family medicine settings. Eligible screening studies must be randomized controlled trials that compare depression outcomes between children or adolescents who underwent depression screening versus those who did not. Studies of harms will include randomized controlled trials and observational studies that evaluate harms from depression screening or treatment. Two investigators will independently review titles and abstracts, followed by full article review. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Two investigators will independently extract the data, with discrepancies resolved via consensus. Discussion The proposed systematic review will determine whether there is sufficient evidence of benefits in excess of harms and costs to support screening for depression in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23176742

2012-01-01

58

Studying the emergence of depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special issue on the emergence and maintenance of depression and depressive symptoms is introduced. The special issue considers two typically separate lines of research, one focusing on severe clinical depression and another on depressive symptoms. The biological, social, and cognitive factors contributing to the emergence of depression in adolescence are highlighted in this special issue.

Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Anne C. Petersen

1991-01-01

59

Depression and Cerebrovascular Disease: a phenomenological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main topic of this thesis is the clinical presentation of\\u000adepression in subjects with cerebrovascular disease. It concerns patients with\\u000apost-stroke depression, depression in subjects with vascular risk factors or in\\u000asubjects with vascular lesions on MRI- or CT-scan. Some of the studies presented\\u000ado indicate that there might be a specific symptom profile of depression in\\u000athese subjects.

P. Naarding

2005-01-01

60

Depression.  

PubMed

This is an invited article on how my career as an epidemiologist studying depression unfolded. The role of the Civil Rights movement in opening the PhD doors to women at Yale began my career. The unfolding of depression studies are described. These studies included a clinical trial of medication and what later was known as interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the first community survey of psychiatric disorder, family genetic and brain imaging studies or depression and anxiety disorders. I hope the new generation will have the wonderful opportunities I have had. PMID:19344866

Weissman, Myrna

2009-04-01

61

Depression after CABG: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

2013-01-01

62

Neuroendocrine studies of depressive illness.  

PubMed

Interest in possible neuroendocrine disturbances in endogenous depression is prompted by two lines of evidence: (1) clinical features of the illness suggest hypothalamic dysfunction; (2) the brain neurotransmitters implicated in depression also regulate neuroendocrine function. Our research reveals a marked, sustained hypersecretion in cortisol in severe depressive illness, which is apparently unrelated to stress and sleep disturbance, and which is associated with a distortion of the 24-hour cortisol secretory pattern. The hypersecretion is manifested primarily in the late afternoon, evening, and early morning hours, when cortisol secretion is normally inhibited. Growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia (but not to L-dopa) are also significantly reduced in endogenous depression, even when factors of age and the menopause are controlled. Postmenopausal depressed women appear to secret significantly less LH than normal postmenopausal women. Since all of these hormonal abnormalities can be reproduced by depletion of brain noradrenalin, the findings provide support for the the hypothesis of reduced functional noradrenergic activity in certain forms of depression. PMID:981319

Sachar, E J; Roffwarg, H P; Gruen, P H; Altman, N; Sassin, J

1976-01-01

63

Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression. PMID:21394856

Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Muñoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.

2010-01-01

64

Supported cognitive-behavioural self-help versus treatment-as-usual for depressed informal carers of stroke survivors (CEDArS): study protocol for a feasibility randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Increased life expectancy has resulted in a greater provision of informal care within the community for patients with chronic physical health conditions. Informal carers are at greater risk of poor mental health, with one in three informal carers of stroke survivors experiencing depression. However, currently no psychological treatments tailored to the unique needs of depressed informal carers of stroke survivors exist. Furthermore, informal carers of stroke survivors experience a number of barriers to attending traditional face-to-face psychological services, such as lack of time and the demands of the caring role. The increased flexibility associated with supported cognitive behavioral therapy self-help (CBTsh), such as the ability for support to be provided by telephone, email, or face-to-face, alongside shorter support sessions, may help overcome such barriers to access. CBTsh, tailored to depressed informal carers of stroke survivors may represent an effective and acceptable solution. Methods/Design This study is a Phase II (feasibility) randomized controlled trial (RCT) following guidance in the MRC Complex Interventions Research Methods Framework. We will randomize a sample of depressed informal carers of stroke survivors to receive CBT self-help supported by mental health paraprofessionals, or treatment-as-usual. Consistent with the objectives of assessing the feasibility of trial design and procedures for a potential larger scale trial we will measure the following outcomes: a) feasibility of patient recruitment (recruitment and refusal rates); (b) feasibility and acceptability of data collection procedures; (c) levels of attrition; (d) likely intervention effect size; (e) variability in number, length and frequency of support sessions estimated to bring about recovery; and (f) acceptability of the intervention. Additionally, we will collect data on the diagnosis of depression, symptoms of depression and anxiety, functional impairment, carer burden, quality of life, and stroke survivor mobility skill, self-care and functional ability, measured at four and six months post-randomization. Discussion This study will provide important information for the feasibility and design of a Phase III (effectiveness) trial in the future. If the intervention is identified to be feasible, effective, and acceptable, a written CBTsh intervention for informal carers of stroke survivors, supported by mental health paraprofessionals, could represent a cost-effective model of care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63590486. PMID:24886151

2014-01-01

65

Spreading Depression in Focal Ischemia: A Computational Study  

E-print Network

Spreading Depression in Focal Ischemia: A Computational Study February 27, 1997 Kenneth Revett cortical spreading depression (CSD) waves, i.e., by ischemic depolarizations. We describe here depression, computational models, stroke, ischemic penumbra and post-infarct debilitation. Running title

Ruppin, Eytan

66

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Depression About Depression Click for more information Everyone feels blue or ... disorder," or "clinical depression." Click for more information Depression in Older Adults Important life changes that happen ...

67

Magnetic resonance imaging of a randomized controlled trial investigating predictors of recovery following psychological treatment in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for Magnetic Resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies (MR-IMPACT)  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorders (MDD) are a debilitating and pervasive group of mental illnesses afflicting many millions of people resulting in the loss of 110 million working days and more than 2,500 suicides per annum. Adolescent MDD patients attending NHS clinics show high rates of recurrence into adult life. A meta-analysis of recent research shows that psychological treatments are not as efficacious as previously thought. Modest treatment outcomes of approximately 65% of cases responding suggest that aetiological and clinical heterogeneity may hamper the better use of existing therapies and discovery of more effective treatments. Information with respect to optimal treatment choice for individuals is lacking, with no validated biomarkers to aid therapeutic decision-making. Methods/Design Magnetic resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the MR-IMPACT study, plans to identify brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of depressions and examine whether there are specific behavioural or neural markers predicting remission and/or subsequent relapse in a subsample of depressed adolescents recruited to the IMPACT randomised controlled trial (Registration # ISRCTN83033550). Discussion MR-IMPACT is an investigative biomarker component of the IMPACT pragmatic effectiveness trial. The aim of this investigation is to identify neural markers and regional indicators of the pathophysiology of and treatment response for MDD in adolescents. We anticipate that these data may enable more targeted treatment delivery by identifying those patients who may be optimal candidates for therapeutic response. Trial registration Adjunctive study to IMPACT trial (Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83033550). PMID:24094274

2013-01-01

68

Development and testing of culturally sensitive patient information material for Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migrants with depression or chronic low back pain (KULTINFO): study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many of the approximately 15 million people with a migration background living in Germany (19% of the population) are inadequately reached by existing healthcare provision. In the literature, the necessity for cultural adaptation of information material for patients with a migration background is often cited as a measure for improving healthcare. In this study, culturally sensitive information material will be developed and evaluated for patients with a migration background and depression or chronic low back pain. In this respect, it will be examined whether culturally sensitive information material is judged as more useful by the patients than standard translated patient information without cultural adaptation. Methods/Design The implementation and evaluation of culturally sensitive patient information material will occur in the framework of a double-blind randomized controlled parallel-group study in four study centres in Germany. Primary care patients with a Turkish, Polish, Russian or Italian migration background with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or chronic low back pain will be included and randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. In the intervention group, culturally sensitive patient information will be handed to the patient at the end of the physician consultation, while in the control group, standard translated patient information material will be provided. The patients will be surveyed by means of questionnaires following the consultation as well as after 8 weeks and 6 months. In addition to the primary outcome (subjective usefulness), several patient- and physician-rated secondary outcomes will be considered. Discussion The study will provide an empirical answer to the question of whether persons with a migration background perceive culturally sensitive patient information material as more useful than translated information material without cultural adaptation. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS-ID) DRKS00004241 and Universal Trial Number (UTN) U1111-1135-8043. PMID:24996511

2014-01-01

69

Disrupting the rhythm of depression using Mobile Cognitive Therapy for recurrent depression: randomized controlled trial design and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is projected to rank second on a list of 15 major diseases in terms of burden in 2030. The major contribution of MDD to disability and health care costs is largely due to its highly recurrent nature. Accordingly, efforts to reduce the disabling effects of this chronic condition should shift to preventing recurrence, especially in patients at high risk of recurrence. Given its high prevalence and the fact that interventions are necessary during the remitted phase, new approaches are needed to prevent relapse in depression. Methods/design The best established effective and available psychological intervention is cognitive therapy. However, it is costly and not available for most patients. Therefore, we will compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of self-management supported by online CT accompanied by SMS based tele-monitoring of depressive symptomatology, i.e. Mobile Cognitive Therapy (M-CT) versus treatment as us usual (TAU). Remitted patients (n = 268) with at least two previous depressive episodes will be recruited and randomized over (1) M-CT in addition to TAU versus (2) TAU alone, with follow-ups at 3, 12, and 24 months. Randomization will be stratified for number of previous episodes and type of treatment as usual. Primary outcome is time until relapse/recurrence over 24 months using DSM-IV-TR criteria as assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). For the economic evaluation the balance between costs and health outcomes will be compared across strategies using a societal perspective. Discussion Internet-based interventions might be helpful in empowering patients to become their own disease managers in this lifelong recurrent disorder. This is, as far as we are aware of, the first study that examines the (cost) effectiveness of an E-mental health program using SMS monitoring of symptoms with therapist support to prevent relapse in remitted recurrently depressed patients. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2503 PMID:21235774

2011-01-01

70

Major depressive disorder: A prospective study of residual subthreshold depressive symptoms as predictor of rapid relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study tested whether level of recovery from major depressive episodes (MDEs) predicts duration of recovery in unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Methods: MDD patients seeking treatment at five academic centers were followed naturalistically for 10 years or longer. Patients were divided on the basis of intake MDE recovery into residual depressive symptoms (SSD; N=82) and asymptomatic (N=155)

Lewis L. Judd; Hagop S. Akiskal; Jack D. Maser; Pamela J. Zeller; Jean Endicott; William Coryell; Martin P. Paulus; Jelena L. Kunovac; Andrew C Leon; Timothy I. Mueller; John A. Rice; Martin B. Keller

1998-01-01

71

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... and negative thinking worse. Back Continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

72

A written self-help intervention for depressed adults comparing behavioural activation combined with physical activity promotion with a self-help intervention based upon behavioural activation alone: study protocol for a parallel group pilot randomised controlled trial (BAcPAc)  

PubMed Central

Background Challenges remain to find ways to support patients with depression who have low levels of physical activity (PA) to overcome perceived barriers and enhance the perceived value of PA for preventing future relapse. There is an evidence-base for behavioural activation (BA) for depression, which focuses on supporting patients to restore activities that have been avoided, but practitioners have no specific training in promoting PA. We aimed to design and evaluate an integrated BA and PA (BAcPAc) practitioner-led, written, self-help intervention to enhance both physical and mental health. Methods/design This study is informed by the Medical Research Council Complex Intervention Framework and describes a protocol for a pilot phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the feasibility and acceptability of the trial methods to inform a definitive phase III RCT. Following development of the augmented written self-help intervention (BAcPAc) incorporating behavioural activation with physical activity promotion, depressed adults are randomised to receive up to 12 sessions over a maximum of 4 months of either BAcPAc or behavioural activation alone within a written self-help format, which represents treatment as usual. The study is located within two ‘Improving Access to Psychological Therapies’ services in South West England, with both written self-help interventions supported by mental health paraprofessionals. Measures assessed at 4, 9, and 12 month follow-up include the following: CIS-R, PHQ-9, accelerometer recorded (4 months only) and self-reported PA, body mass index, blood pressure, Insomnia Severity Index, quality of life, and health and social care service use. Process evaluation will include analysis of recorded support sessions and patient and practitioner interviews. At the time of writing the study has recruited 60 patients. Discussion The feasibility outcomes will inform a definitive RCT to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the augmented BAcPAc written self-help intervention to reduce depression and depressive relapse, and bring about improvements across a range of physical health outcomes. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74390532, 26.03.2013. PMID:24886116

2014-01-01

73

An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation  

PubMed Central

Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167

Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

2015-01-01

74

Treatment of Comorbid Conduct Problems and Depression in Youth: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to pilot a cognitive behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with co-occurring conduct problems and depression. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design was used to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. A sample of five adolescents, aged 11 to 14 years, participated; all five families completed the…

Wolff, Jennifer C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

75

Preventing the onset of major depression based on the level and profile of risk of primary care attendees: protocol of a cluster randomised trial (the predictD-CCRT study)  

PubMed Central

Background The ‘predictD algorithm’ provides an estimate of the level and profile of risk of the onset of major depression in primary care attendees. This gives us the opportunity to develop interventions to prevent depression in a personalized way. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a new intervention, personalized and implemented by family physicians (FPs), to prevent the onset of episodes of major depression. Methods/Design This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT), with cluster assignment by health center and two parallel arms. Two interventions will be applied by FPs, usual care versus the new intervention predictD-CCRT. The latter has four components: a training workshop for FPs; communicating the level and profile of risk of depression; building up a tailored bio-psycho-family-social intervention by FPs to prevent depression; offering a booklet to prevent depression; and activating and empowering patients. We will recruit a systematic random sample of 3286 non-depressed adult patients (1643 in each trial arm), nested in 140 FPs and 70 health centers from 7 Spanish cities. All patients will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The level and profile of risk of depression will be communicated to patients by the FPs in the intervention practices at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Our primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of major depression (measured by CIDI each 6 months) over 18 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be health-related quality of life (SF-12 and EuroQol), and measurements of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The inferences will be made at patient level. We shall undertake an intention-to-treat effectiveness analysis and will handle missing data using multiple imputations. We will perform multi-level logistic regressions and will adjust for the probability of the onset of major depression at 12 months measured at baseline as well as for unbalanced variables if appropriate. The economic evaluation will be approached from two perspectives, societal and health system. Discussion To our knowledge, this will be the first RCT of universal primary prevention for depression in adults and the first to test a personalized intervention implemented by FPs. We discuss possible biases as well as other limitations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01151982 PMID:23782553

2013-01-01

76

Easing Depression May Boost Heart Health, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Easing Depression May Boost Heart Health, Study Finds People with moderate to severe depression saw improved circulatory outcomes with antidepressants (*this news ...

77

Biological studies in depressed children and adolescents.  

PubMed

The objective was to review the literature on the biological correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents. A computerized search for articles published during the last 20 years was done and selected studies presented. To date, examination of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and cortisol levels after pharmacological stimulation have shown abnormalities in the secretion of these hormones (e.g. blunted GH secretion after the administration of growth hormone releasing hormone). Identical results have been found in never-depressed children at high risk to develop MDD due to high family loading for MDD suggesting that alteration in certain hormonal systems may be trait markers for MDD. Other biological studies (e.g. the hypothalamic--pituitary axis, sleep electroencephalogram) have yielded more inconsistent results with subjects with melancholic symptoms, severe depressions, and older age showing some abnormalities similar to the ones reported in adults with MDD. Factors such age, sex, maturation, psychiatric family history and exposure to stress need to be considered since they also affect the same biological systems associated with the aetiology of MDD. Considerable biological research has been done in youth with MDD. Further research is needed to investigate whether these markers predict the development of new episodes of MDD, recurrences, and treatment response. Also, these and other studies using more sophisticated methods (e.g. functional MRI) aimed at elucidating the interrelationship between biological and other risk factors are needed. PMID:11466165

Birmaher, B; Heydl, P

2001-06-01

78

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... causes depression? Depression may be caused by an imbalance of chemicals in the brain. Sometimes there aren' ... and dopamine (say: “dope-a-mean”). A chemical imbalance in the brain may be caused by one ...

79

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

Depression is a serious medical illness that involves the brain. It's more than just a feeling of ... million people in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. They persist ...

80

Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

Murberg, Terje A.

2009-01-01

81

Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine\\u000a (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20%\\u000a of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different\\u000a psychological therapies and the moderators

Ian M Goodyer; Sonya Tsancheva; Sarah Byford; Bernadka Dubicka; Jonathan Hill; Raphael Kelvin; Shirley Reynolds; Christopher Roberts; Robert Senior; John Suckling; Paul Wilkinson; Mary Target; Peter Fonagy

2011-01-01

82

The ANU WellBeing study: a protocol for a quasi-factorial randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of an Internet support group and an automated Internet intervention for depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent projections suggest that by the year 2030 depression will be the primary cause of disease burden among developed countries. Delivery of accessible consumer-focused evidenced-based services may be an important element in reducing this burden. Many consumers report a preference for self-help modes of delivery. The Internet offers a promising modality for delivering such services and there is now

Kathleen M Griffiths; Dimity Crisp; Helen Christensen; Andrew J Mackinnon; Kylie Bennett

2010-01-01

83

Relationships between the Underlying Constructs of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck and others, 1979) in 261 college students. Findings suggest the BDI and CES-D measure different aspects of depression and should not be used…

Skorikov, Vladimir B.; Vandervoort, Debra J.

2003-01-01

84

The course of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNegative cognitive styles have been shown to prospectively predict depression onset and recurrence. Research has also begun to suggest that cognitive styles may be associated with the course of depression as well. This study examined whether cognitive risk for depression onset also predicts the course of depression in a prospective design.

Brian M. Iacoviello; Lauren B. Alloy; Lyn Y. Abramson; Wayne G. Whitehouse; Michael E. Hogan

2006-01-01

85

The effect of improvisational music therapy on the treatment of depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other

Jaakko Erkkilä; Christian Gold; Jörg Fachner; Esa Ala-Ruona; Marko Punkanen; Mauno Vanhala

2008-01-01

86

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... go for treatment. Treating Depression Your doctor or mental health expert can often treat your depression successfully. Different therapies seem to work for different people. For instance, support groups can provide new coping skills or social support if you are dealing with a major ...

87

A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.  

PubMed

The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2010-01-01

88

A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs  

PubMed Central

The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2010-01-01

89

Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and  

E-print Network

Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) plus a Comparison Population in Sierra Vista, Arizona The protocol Assessment of Case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) and a Reference

90

Avian study protocols and wind energy development  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

Fisher, K. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-12-01

91

Intervention Study of Exercise for Depressive Symptoms in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: Clinical depression affects millions of women annually. Exercise has been studied as a potential antidepressant, with most studies supporting its efficacy. Ex- ercise also has the potential to reduce the risk for physical comorbidities that occur with de- pression. However, less is known about the types of exercise programs to which women with depressive symptoms will adhere.

Lynette L. Craft; Karen M. Freund; Larry Culpepper; Frank M. Perna

2007-01-01

92

Computerized adaptive measurement of depression: A simulation study  

PubMed Central

Background Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We examined its efficiency and its usefulness in identifying Major Depressive Episodes (MDE) and in measuring depression severity. Methods Subjects were 744 participants in research studies in which each subject completed both the BDI and the SCID. In addition, 285 patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results The adaptive BDI had an AUC as an indicator of a SCID diagnosis of MDE of 88%, equivalent to the full BDI. The adaptive BDI asked fewer questions than the full BDI (5.6 versus 21 items). The adaptive latent depression score correlated r = .92 with the BDI total score and the latent depression score correlated more highly with the Hamilton (r = .74) than the BDI total score did (r = .70). Conclusions Adaptive testing for depression may provide greatly increased efficiency without loss of accuracy in identifying MDE or in measuring depression severity. PMID:15132755

Gardner, William; Shear, Katherine; Kelleher, Kelly J; Pajer, Kathleen A; Mammen, Oommen; Buysse, Daniel; Frank, Ellen

2004-01-01

93

Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P = 0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression. PMID:24744917

Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Swami, Mukesh Kumar

2014-01-01

94

Doctoral Thesis A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags  

E-print Network

Doctoral Thesis RFID A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags ( Dang, Nguyen Duc 2010 #12;RFID A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags #12;A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags Advisor : Professor Kim, Kwangjo by Dang, Nguyen Duc Department of Information

Kim, Kwangjo

95

Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p?=?0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p?depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

2013-01-01

96

Does treatment of subsyndromal depression improve depression and diabetes related outcomes: protocol for a randomised controlled comparison of psycho-education, physical exercise and treatment as usual  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of mood difficulties in persons with diabetes is approximately twice that in the general population, affecting the health outcomes and patients' quality of life in an undesirable way. Although subsyndromal depression is an important predictor of a more serious clinical depression, it is often overlooked. This study aims to compare the effects of two non-pharmacological interventions for subsyndromal depression, psychoeducation and physical exercise, with diabetes treatment as usual on mood- and diabetes-related outcomes. Methods and Design Type 2 diabetic patients aged 18-65 yrs. who report mood difficulties and the related need for help in a mail survey will be potential participants. After giving informed consent, they will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups (psychoeducation, physical activity, treatment as usual). Depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, health-related quality of life and diabetes self-care activities will be assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) will be performed at baseline and at one-year follow-up in order to determine the clinical significance of the patients' depressive symptoms. Disease-related data will be collected from patients' files and from additional physical examinations and laboratory tests. The two interventions will be comparable in terms of format (small group work), duration (six sessions) and approach (interactive learning; supporting the participants' active roles). The group treated as usual will be informed about their screening results and about the importance of treating depression. They will be provided with brief re-education on diabetes and written self-help instructions to cope with mood difficulties. Primary outcomes will be depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be glycaemic control, diabetes-related distress, self-management of diabetes and health-related quality of life. Tertiary outcomes will be biochemical markers reflecting common pathophysiological processes of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative damage that are assumed to be intertwined in both diabetes and depression. The mixed-effect linear model will be used to compare the outcome variables. Power analysis has indicated that the two intervention groups and the control group should comprise 59 patients to enable detection of clinically meaningful differences in depressive symptoms with a power of 80% and alpha = 0.05. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN05673017 PMID:21251307

2011-01-01

97

Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Depression is one of the most common chronic diseases you will see in your clinic. It affects approximately 20 million Americans.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The lifetime prevalence of depression in the general population is 16%.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Depression is more likely to occur in patients who have chronic medical problems. Your patients with diabetes, heart failure,\\u000a osteoarthritis, and stroke have 1 1\\/2

Jim Nuovo

98

Pilot study on depression among secondary school students in Selangor.  

PubMed

A cross sectional descriptive study of 2048 subjects was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and factors influencing depression among students in secondary school from urban and rural areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The children's depression inventory (CDI) developed by Maria Kovacs was used in this study. Students who participated in this study come from two urban schools and three rural schools. It was found that in the yield for scores for five factors were 9.2% have negative mood, 5% have interpersonal problems, 8.3% have ineffectiveness, 9.8% have anhedonia and 10.6% have negative self esteem. Following the interpretive guidelines for the T-scores, it was found that 10.3% of the students were much above average in the depression scale. This study also found that: 1% of students were smoking, 1.6% of students were gum sniffling, 0.9% took drugs, 4.1% took alcohol and 9.9% took things from other people. Females were more depressed than males. The Chinese students were more depressed compared to Indian students. Students whose parents had no formal education or had only primary education were more depressed than students whose parents had secondary, college or university education. Depression increased with increasing number of siblings. Depression contributed to the habit of drug abuse, gum sniffing and stealing but not to smoking and alcohol abuse. Suicidal tendencies were more likely among the depressed students. It is imperative that not only caregivers but also teachers have to be equipped with the knowledge, attitude and skills to assist secondary school children cope with their emotions, handle conflicts and manage stress early so that a more productive society will develop in the future. PMID:18246911

Adlina, S; Suthahar, A; Ramli, M; Edariah, A B; Soe, Soe Aye; Mohd Ariff, F; Narimah, A H H; Nuraliza, A S; Karuthan, C

2007-08-01

99

A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

2010-01-01

100

The Depression-Arkansas scale: A validation study of a new brief depression scale in an HMO.  

PubMed

Recent trends in mental-health care have increased the need for practical depression instruments. The Depression-Arkansas (D-ARK), a brief, economical, multipurpose instrument, has been validated for assessing major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-symptom severity. Psychometric properties of the D-ARK were compared with standard depression scales (Beck Depression Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale) among 294 adult and 193 senior primary-care patients, respectively, and 163 patients enrolled in cognitive-behavioral depression classes. The severity scale displayed adequate internal reliability (coefficient alpha =.81-.86), high correlation with the BDI-2 (r =.78-.83) and GDS (r =.75), and similar factor structure to the BDI-2. The D-ARK was calibrated against the BDI-2 and GDS, providing familiar severity category cutpoints with the new instrument. This study yields further data supporting the reliability, validity, and practical utility of the D-ARK. PMID:12652638

Walter, Lawrence J; Meresman, Joel F; Kramer, Teresa L; Evans, Richard B

2003-04-01

101

Improving medical protocols through formalisation: a case study  

E-print Network

for the management of jaundice in healthy newborns, developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. During the Asbru terms (e.g. "jaundiced" and "clini- cally jaundiced") that appear throughout the jaundice protocol common anomaly in the studied protocols. An example is the use in the jaundice protocol of the abstract

van Harmelen, Frank

102

U-CARE: Internet-based stepped care with interactive support and cognitive behavioral therapy for reduction of anxiety and depressive symptoms in cancer - a clinical trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 20–30% of patients with cancer experience a clinically relevant level of emotional distress in response to disease and treatment. This in itself is alarming but it is even more problematic because it is often difficult for physicians and nurses to identify cancer patients who experience clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. This can result in persistent distress and can cause human suffering as well as costs for individuals and to the community. Methods Applying a multi-disciplinary and design-oriented approach aimed at attaining new evidence-based knowledge in basic and applied psychosocial oncology, this protocol will evaluate an intervention to be implemented in clinical practice to reduce cancer patient anxiety and depression. A prospective randomized design will be used. The overarching goal of the intervention is to promote psychosocial health among patients suffering from cancer by means of self-help programmes delivered via an Internet platform. Another goal is to reduce costs for individuals and society, caused by emotional distress in response to cancer. Following screening to detect levels of patient distress, patients will be randomized to standard care or a stepped care intervention. For patients randomized to the intervention, step 1 will consist of self-help material, a chat forum where participants will be able to communicate with each other, and a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) section where they can ask questions and get answers from an expert. Patients in the intervention group who still report symptoms of anxiety or depression after access to step 1 will be offered step 2, which will consist of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) administered by a personal therapist. The primary end point of the study is patients’ levels of anxiety and depression, evaluated longitudinally during and after the intervention. Discussion There is a lack of controlled studies of the psychological and behavioral processes involved in this type of intervention for anxiety and depressive disorders. Since anxiety and depressive symptoms are relatively common in patients with cancer and the availability of adequate support efforts is limited, there is a need to develop evidence-based stepped care for patients with cancer, to be delivered via the Internet. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01630681 PMID:24024826

2013-01-01

103

Changes in depressive symptoms and social functioning in the sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression study.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) profoundly affects social functioning, including the ability to enjoy social activities with peers, friends, and family members. We sought to compare changes in social functioning and depressive symptoms in the first level of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Adult outpatients (N = 2876) with diagnoses of MDD were treated using flexible doses of citalopram for up to 14 weeks. We compared the change over the course of treatment in the social activities item of the Work and Social Adjustment Scale to the change in individual items of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Rated (QIDS-SR). Improvement in social functioning was modestly positively correlated with improvement in sad mood, concentration/decision making, involvement, and energy/fatigability. Only 16% to 22% of the variance in the change in social functioning was accounted for by these symptoms, and only 32% was accounted for by the total QIDS-SR score. In this large real-world sample of outpatients treated using citalopram, changes in depressive symptoms do not entirely explain improvements in social functioning. PMID:21964277

Denninger, John W; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Luther, James F; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Rush, A John; Gollan, Jackie K; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Fava, Maurizio

2011-10-01

104

The expression of depression among Javanese patients with major depressive disorder: a concept mapping study.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the presentation of clinical depression in Java, Indonesia. Interviews were conducted with 20 Javanese patients (male and female) with major depressive disorder from both lower and higher socioeconomic levels. The recruited participants came from provincial and private mental health hospitals in the cities of Solo, Yogykarta (Jogja), Jakarta, and Malang on the island of Java, Indonesia. Concept mapping methodology using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify underlying themes in the expression of depressive phenomena in this Indonesian population. The results identified themes that grouped into six clusters: interpersonal relationships, hopelessness, physical/somatic, poverty of thought, discourage, and defeat. Findings give support to the view that culture influences the expression of Indonesian depressive phenomenology, which nevertheless has some common roots with Western clinical pictures of the disorder. Cultural influences may mask symptoms of the disorder to clinicians. Diagnostic and assessment tools must be carefully selected to ensure they address culturally specific expressions of depression. PMID:24047957

Brintnell, E Sharon; Sommer, Ryan W; Kuncoro, Bambang; Setiawan, G Pandu; Bailey, Patricia

2013-08-01

105

Obesity effects on depression: systematic review of epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Obesity is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease burden and premature death, but effects on psychological morbidity remain uncertain. This article reports findings following a systematic review of epidemiological studies to determine whether obesity causes depression.Methods:Multiple databases were searched for English-language studies of etiology of obesity (exposure variable, analyzed as an ordered category) on depression outcomes (dependent variables, continuous or

E Atlantis; M Baker

2008-01-01

106

The relationship between cognitive styles and depression: a prospective study  

E-print Network

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COGNITIVE STYLES AND DEPRESSION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY A Thesis by BRIAN NEV ILLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AQ1 University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1983 Ma jor Subject: Psychology THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COGNITIVE STYLES AND DEPRESSION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY A Thesis by BRIAN NEVILLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee Willi . Rholes n H, Riskin Me er Me r...

Neville, Brian

1983-01-01

107

Extreme Thinking in Clinically Depressed Adolescents: Results from the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this report is to examine relations between extreme thinking, as measured by the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, and the maintenance of gains among adolescents who participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). We examine extreme thinking among 327 adolescents (mean age = 14.56, 57% female, 75% White) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), or a combination of CBT and FLX (COMB). Among those who met remission status on the Children's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R ? 28; 56 at week 12, 79 at week 18) extreme thinking did not predict failure to maintain remission. This is in contrast to findings with depressed adults. Treatment influenced level of extreme thinking, and this appeared to be driven by greater endorsement of positively valenced beliefs as opposed to a decrease in negatively valenced beliefs. Developmental or investigation characteristics may account for the discrepancy in findings. PMID:20843506

Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

2010-01-01

108

Extreme thinking in clinically depressed adolescents: Results from the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS).  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to examine relations between extreme thinking, as measured by the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, and the maintenance of gains among adolescents who participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). We examine extreme thinking among 327 adolescents (mean age=14.56, 57% female, 75% White) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), or a combination of CBT and FLX (COMB). Among those who met remission status on the Children's Depression Rating Scale - Revised (CDRS-R?28; 56 at week 12, 79 at week 18) extreme thinking did not predict failure to maintain remission. This is in contrast to findings with depressed adults. Treatment influenced level of extreme thinking, and this appeared to be driven by greater endorsement of positively valenced beliefs as opposed to a decrease in negatively valenced beliefs. Developmental or investigation characteristics may account for the discrepancy in findings. PMID:20843506

Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Gollan, Jackie K; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

2010-11-01

109

[Study of response styles and a causal model of depression].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the link between response styles and depression in university students. Ninety-two university students participated in a questionnaire survey, withi a follows-up survey administered 4 weeks later. Structural equation modeling was conducted with analysis of moment structures. The model describing the causal relation from response style to depression fit the data best. These results indicate that the likelihood of future depression is increased by negative rumination response and decreased by distraction response for mood changing. PMID:25486846

Shimazu, Naomi; Koshikawa, Fusako

2014-10-01

110

[Study of response styles and a causal model of depression].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the link between response styles and depression in university students. Ninety-two university students participated in a questionnaire survey, withi a follows-up survey administered 4 weeks later. Structural equation modeling was conducted with analysis of moment structures. The model describing the causal relation from response style to depression fit the data best. These results indicate that the likelihood of future depression is increased by negative rumination response and decreased by distraction response for mood changing. PMID:25508977

Shimazu, Naomi; Koshikawa, Fusako

2014-10-01

111

Managing Depression Among Ethnic Communities: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Clinical care for depression in primary care negotiates a path between contrasting views of depression as a universal natural phenomenon and as a socially constructed category. This study explores the complexities of this work through a study of how family physicians experience working with different ethnic minority communities in recognizing, understanding, and caring for patients with depression. METHODS We undertook an analysis of in-depth interviews with 8 family physicians who had extensive experience in depression care in 3 refugee patient groups in metropolitan Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. RESULTS Although different cultural beliefs about depression were acknowledged, the physicians saw these beliefs as deeply rooted in the recent historical and social context of patients from these communities. Traumatic refugee experiences, dislocation, and isolation affected the whole of communities, as well as individuals. Physicians nevertheless often offered medication simply because of the impossibility of addressing structural issues. Interpreters were critical to the work of depression care, but their involvement highlighted that much of this clinical work lies beyond words. CONCLUSIONS The family physicians perceived working across cultural differences, working with biomedical and social models of depression, and working at both community and individual levels, not as a barrier to providing high-quality depression care, but rather as a central element of that care. Negotiating the phenomenon rather than diagnosing depression may be an important way that family physicians continue to work with multiple, contested views of emotional distress. Future observational research could more clearly characterize and measure the process of negotiation and explore its effect on outcomes. PMID:20458106

Furler, John; Kokanovic, Renata; Dowrick, Christopher; Newton, Danielle; Gunn, Jane; May, Carl

2010-01-01

112

The stress systems in depression: a postmortem study  

PubMed Central

After trauma, depressive disorders are among the most frequent emerging diagnoses. However, although the symptoms of depression are well characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown. Factors involved in the heterogeneous pathogenesis of depression include polymorphisms in stress-related genes, gender, age, developmental history, and environmental (traumatic) stressors such as epigenetic factors. These factors may make different parts of the stress-related brain systems more vulnerable to different stressful or traumatic life events or psychological stresses, causing alterations in a network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators including amines, amino acids, nitric oxide (NO), and neuropeptides, and finally make individuals at risk for depression. The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis has a prominent position in this network. With the postmortem brain material obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank, we have carried on a series of studies with the aim to elucidate the specific changes in these systems in relation to special subtypes of depression. Our final destination is to set up tailor-made treatment for depressive patients on the basis of his/her developmental history, genetic and epigenetic background, and the vulnerability in particular neurobiological systems. This presentation is a review of our findings of changes in systems of sex steroids, receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, orexin, ?-aminobutyric acid, and NO in the etiology of depression, in relation to HPA activity, sex differences, and suicide. PMID:25511726

Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

2014-01-01

113

The development of a brief psychodynamic protocol for depression: Dynamic Interpersonal Therapy (DIT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the development of a manualized, brief (16-session) psychodynamic intervention – Dynamic Interpersonal Therapy (DIT) – for the treatment of depression. DIT is based on a distillation of the evidence-based brief psychoanalytic\\/psychodynamic treatments pooled together from manualized approaches that were reviewed as part of the competence framework for psychological therapies first commissioned by Skills for Health. DIT has

Alessandra Lemma; Mary Target; Peter Fonagy

2010-01-01

114

Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains depression, the symptoms, causes and available treatment options. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

115

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP)  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population Abstract Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), FLX and CBT combined (COMB), and clinical management with placebo (PBO). We previously

JOHN MARCH; SUSAN SILVA; BENEDETTO VITIELLO

2006-01-01

117

Family study of subthreshold depressive symptoms: risk factor for MDD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Family study data from a large community sample of young adults and their first-degree relatives were used to examine three questions regarding the relation between subthreshold depression (SubD) and major depressive disorder (MDD): (a) is there an elevated rate of MDD in the relatives of probands with SubD? (b) does SubD aggregate in the families of probands with MDD

Peter M Lewinsohn; Daniel N Klein; Emily C Durbin; John R Seeley; Paul Rohde

2003-01-01

118

Does family history of depression predict major depression in midlife women? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS).  

PubMed

This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR?=?3.22, 95% CI?=?1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR?=?2.67, 95% CI?=?1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069

Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T

2014-08-01

119

Distinctive Clinical Correlates of Psychotic Major Depression: The CRESCEND Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this investigation was to identify distinctive clinical correlates of psychotic major depression (PMD) as compared with non-psychotic major depression (NPMD) in a large cohort of Korean patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods We recruited 966 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea (CRESCEND) study. Diagnoses of PMD (n=24) and NPMD (n=942) were made with the DSM-IV definitions and confirmed with SCID. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (HAMD), anxiety (HAMA), global severity (CGI-S), suicidal ideation (SSI-Beck), functioning (SOFAS), and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Using independent t-tests and ?2 tests, we compared clinical characteristics of patients with PMD and NPMD. A binary logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with increased likelihood of PMD. Results PMD subjects were characterized by a higher rate of inpatient enrollment, and higher scores on many items on BPRS (somatic concern, anxiety, emotional withdrawal, guilt feelings, tension, depression, suspiciousness, hallucination, motor retardation, blunted affect and excitement) global severity (CGI-s), and suicidal ideation (SSI-Beck). The explanatory factor model revealed that high levels of tension, excitement, and suicidal ideation were associated with increased likelihood of PMD. Conclusion Our findings partly support the view that PMD has its own distinctive clinical manifestation and course, and may be considered a diagnostic entity separate from NPMD. PMID:25110501

Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Hwa-Young; Sakong, Jeong-Kyu; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

2014-01-01

120

Psychosocial, Physical, and Autonomic Correlates of Depression in Korean Adults: Results from a County-Based Depression Screening Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial and neurophysiological correlates of depression in a large county-based cohort of Korean adults. Methods We recruited 2355 adults from a rural county-based health promotion program. The following psychometric scales were used: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to evaluate stress, and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) was used to determine perceived social support. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess neurophysiological properties. The psychosocial and neurophysiological variables of adults with depression (CES-D score ?25) and without depression (CES-D score <25) were statistically compared. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with depression. Results We estimated that 17.7% of the subjects had depression, which was associated with old age, being female, being single, less religious affiliation, high education, low body mass index (BMI), low levels of aerobic exercise, low social support, and a low HRV triangular index. The explanatory factors of depression included high education, less religious affiliation, low levels of current aerobic exercise, low BMI, and low social support. Conclusion Given the relatively high prevalence of overall depression, subsyndromal depression should also be regarded as an important issue in screening. The independent factors associated with depression suggest that practical psychosocial intervention, including brief psychotherapy, aerobic exercise, and other self-help methods should be considered. In addition, the HRV results suggest that further depression screening accompanied by neurophysiological features would require fine methodological modifications with proactive efforts to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:25395971

Kim, Ki Won; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Shin, Jin Ho; Choi, Bo Yul; Nam, Jung Hyun

2014-01-01

121

Talking about depression: a qualitative study of barriers to managing depression in people with long term conditions in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The risk of depression is increased in people with long term conditions (LTCs) and is associated with poorer patient outcomes\\u000a for both the depressive illness and the LTC, but often remains undetected and poorly managed. The aim of this study was to\\u000a identify and explore barriers to detecting and managing depression in primary care in people with two exemplar LTCs:

Peter A Coventry; Rebecca Hays; Chris Dickens; Christine Bundy; Charlotte Garrett; Andrea Cherrington; Carolyn Chew-Graham

2011-01-01

122

Linkage study between manic-depressive illness and chromosome 21  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome 21, of interest as potentially containing a disease gene for manic-depressive illness as possible evidence for a gene predisposing to affective disorder, has recently been reported in a single large family as well as samples of families. The present study investigates for linkage between manic-depressive illness and markers covering the long arm of chromosome 21 in two manic-depressive families, using ten microsatellite polymorphisms as markers. No conclusive evidence for a disease gene on the long arm of chromosome 21 was found. Assuming either a dominant or recessive mode of inheritance, close linkage to the marker PFKL, which has been reported as possibly linked to affective disorder, seems unlikely in the families studied here. PFKL and more telomeric markers yielded small positive lod scores at higher recombination fractions in the largest family, and small positive lod scores at lower recombination fractions in the affecteds-only analyses in the smallest family. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Ewald, H.; Mors, O.; Flint, T. [Psychiatric Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others] [Psychiatric Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); and others

1996-04-09

123

The use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of depression in children and adolescents is well established, but debate remains about the phenomenology of the depressive syndrome in the young. In order to discover possible age differences in rates and etiology, the definition and measurement of depression must be comparable across the ages to be studied. A widely used self-report depression symptom scale, the Center for

Lenore Sawyer Radloff

1991-01-01

124

Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression among adults in Japanese clinical settings: a single-group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating Japanese patients with major depression is lacking, therefore, a feasibility study of CBT for depression in Japanese clinical settings is urgently required. FINDINGS: A culturally adapted, 16-week manualized individual CBT program for Japanese patients with major depressive disorder was developed. A total of 27 patients with major depression were enrolled

Daisuke Fujisawa; Atsuo Nakagawa; Miyuki Tajima; Mitsuhiro Sado; Toshiaki Kikuchi; Motomi Hanaoka; Yutaka Ono

2010-01-01

125

The Role of Parent and Peer Support in Predicting Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Community Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…

Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia

2005-01-01

126

ECOSYSTEM FOCUSED THERAPY IN POST STROKE DEPRESSION: A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

PubMed Central

Objective Post stroke depression (PSD) occurs in the context of abrupt, often catastrophic disability that finds the patient and his/her family unprepared. We developed Ecosystem Focused Therapy (EFT), a systematic intervention aimed to increase the PSD patient’s and his/her ecosystem’s ability to address the “psychosocial storm” of PSD and utilize available treatments effectively and efficiently. This is a preliminary study of its efficacy. Design A total of 24 PSD patients were randomly assigned to receive weekly sessions of EFT or a comparison condition consisting of systematic Education on Stroke and Depression and their treatment (ESD) for 12 weeks. Results EFT may be more efficacious than ESD in reducing depressive symptoms and signs, in leading to a higher remission rate, and in ameliorating disability in PSD. Reduction of disability in the early part of the trial mediated later improvement in depressive symptomatology. Similarly, reduction in depressive symptoms and signs early on mediated later improvement in disability. Conclusion These encouraging findings require replication. Beyond its potential direct benefits in PSD, EFT may provide an appropriate context for efficient and timely administration of pharmacotherapy and of physical, speech, and occupational therapy thus maximizing their efficacy. PMID:22249997

Alexopoulos, George S.; Wilkins, Victoria; Marino, Patricia; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Reding, Michael; Sirey, Jo Anne; Raue, Patrick; Ghosh, Samiran; O’Dell, Michael W.; Kiosses, Dimitris N.

2012-01-01

127

Depression and anxiety: Associations with biological and perceived stress reactivity to a psychological stress protocol in a middle-aged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men and women, aged 55-60 years, from a population-based cohort, who filled out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We performed

Susanne R. de Rooij; Aart H. Schene; David I. Phillips; Tessa J. Roseboom

2010-01-01

128

Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on cognitive functioning in patients with depression: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting approximately 350 million people. Evidence indicates that only 60–70% of persons with major depressive disorder who tolerate antidepressants respond to first-line drug treatment; the remainder become treatment resistant. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective therapy in persons with treatment-resistant depression. The use of ECT is controversial due to concerns about temporary cognitive impairment in the acute post-treatment period. We will conduct a meta-analysis to examine the effects of ECT on cognition in persons with depression. Methods This systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42014009100). We developed our methods following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. We are searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane from the date of database inception to the end of October 2014. We are also searching the reference lists of published reviews and evidence reports for additional citations. Comparative studies (randomised controlled trials, cohort and case–control) published in English will be included in the meta-analysis. Three clinical neuropsychologists will group the cognitive tests in each included article into a set of mutually exclusive cognitive subdomains. The risk of bias of randomised controlled trials will be assessed using the Jadad scale. We will supplement the Jadad scale with additional questions based on the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The risk of bias of cohort and case–control studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We will employ the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess the strength of evidence. Statistical analysis Separate meta-analyses will be conducted for each ECT treatment modality and cognitive subdomain using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V.2.0. PMID:25762234

McNeely, Heather; Losier, Bruno; Parlar, Melissa; King, Matthew; Hasey, Gary; Fervaha, Gagan; Graham, Allyson C; Gregory, Caitlin; Hanford, Lindsay; Nazarov, Anthony; Restivo, Maria; Tatham, Erica; Truong, Wanda; Hall, Geoffrey B C; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret

2015-01-01

129

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Transmission of Parental Depression to Children's Depression and Conduct Disturbance: An Extended Children of Twins Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children's behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental…

Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon J.

2010-01-01

130

Is sertraline treatment or depression remission in depressed Alzheimer’s patients associated with improved caregiver wellbeing? The Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease Study 2 (DIADS-2)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess if sertraline treatment (vs. placebo) or remission of depression at 12 weeks (vs. non-remission) in Alzheimer’s patients is associated with improved caregiver wellbeing. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of sertraline for the treatment of depression in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. Setting Five clinical research sites across the United States. Participants Caregivers of patients enrolled in the Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease Study 2 (N=131). Intervention All caregivers received standardized psychosocial support throughout the study. Measurements Caregiver outcome measures included depression (Beck Depression Inventory), distress (Neuropsychiatric Inventory), burden (Zarit Burden Interview), and quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey). Results Fifty-nine percent of caregivers were spouses, 63.4% were female, and 64.1% were white. Caregivers of patients in both treatment groups had significant reductions in distress scores over the 24 week study period, but there was not a greater benefit for caregivers of patients taking sertraline. However, caregivers of patients whose depression was in remission at week 12 had greater declines in distress scores over the 24 weeks than caregivers of patients whose depression did not remit by week 12. Conclusions Patient treatment with sertraline was not associated with significantly greater reductions in caregiver distress than placebo treatment. Distress but not level of depression or burden lessened for all caregivers regardless of remission status and even more so for those who cared for patients whose depression remitted. Results imply an interrelationship between caregiver distress and patient psychiatric outcomes. PMID:24314887

Longmire, Crystal V. Flynn; Drye, Lea T.; Frangakis, Constantine E.; Martin, Barbara K.; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Weintraub, Daniel; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2014-01-01

131

Physical activity, exercise coping, and depression in a 10-year cohort study of depressed patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological research examining the relationship between physical activity and depression has been conducted almost exclusively with community samples. We examined associations between physical activity, exercise coping, and depression in a sample of initially depressed patients, using four waves of data spanning 10 years.

Alex H. S. Harris; Ruth Cronkite; Rudolf Moos

2006-01-01

132

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Open versus laparoscopically-assisted  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Open versus laparoscopically-assisted oesophagectomy for cancer%, respectively, for both the abdominal and thoracic approaches. The worldwide popularity of laparoscopic to the reduced postoperative trauma. We hypothesise that the laparoscopic abdominal approach (laparoscopic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

133

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treating Depression in a Patient With Right Hemispheric Dominance: A Case Study.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with major depressive disorder for the last 6 months. The patient had been diagnosed with dyslexia during childhood and was left-handed. The intervention protocol consisted in 10 consecutive daily transcranial direct current stimulation sessions. However, after 5 days of stimulation, the patient presented with intensification of depressive symptoms and panic attacks. It was hypothetized that the intensification of symptoms may have been due to stimulation protocol itself. Considering the patient was left-handed and presented comorbidity with dyslexia, there was a plausible hypothesis of right hemispheric dominance. This was corroborated by the Edinburgh Handedness Scale. In fact, dyslexic patients present right hemisphere dominance more frequently. The patient also presented a single photon emission computed tomography with a hypoperfusion area over the left posterior parietal lobe. After the patients agreement, a 10-day experimental repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation low-frequency protocol over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was started to inhibit the area, which was hypothetically hyperactivated following the rationale of right dominance. The patient presented amelioration of depressive and anxious symptoms. Given the hemispheric reversal we show in the present case study, however, it seems that therapies that are beneficial to right-handers could be detrimental to left-handers. PMID:25203287

Shiozawa, Pedro; da Silva, Mailu Enokibara; Cordeiro, Quirino

2014-09-01

134

DATE: Depressed adolescents treated with exercise: Study rationale and design for a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an important need for non-medication interventions for depressed youth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a standardized aerobic exercise regime to treat non-medicated clinically depressed adolescents based on adherence and completion rates, including 1) establishing effect sizes for the primary outcomes including the Chidren's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) and Actical

Carroll W. Hughes; Madhukar H. Trivedi; Joseph Cleaver; Tracy L. Greer; Graham J. Emslie; Beth Kennard; Shauna Dorman; Tyson Bain; Judy Dubreuil; Conrad Barnes

2009-01-01

135

Sex differences in clinical predictors of depression: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Estimating the likelihood of future major depressive episodes (MDEs) would assist clinicians in decision-making regarding the optimal length of treatment for MDE. Unfortunately, little data are available to guide clinical practice. Methods We followed 200 females and 152 males who responded to treatment for a MDE for 2 years to determine risk factors for future MDE. Cox Proportional Hazard Regression modeled time to first relapse into MDE and mixed effect logistic regression modeled monthly depression status. Results Females were more likely than males to experience a MDE in any month of the study, and marginally more likely to experience a relapse. By 12 months, 60% of females had relapsed compared to 51% of males (median time to relapse 8 vs 13 months, respectively). Several factors predicted worse outcome for both men and women: reported childhood abuse, earlier age of onset of first MDE, Bipolar Disorder, unemployment, and more years of education. For females, but not males, suicidal ideation predicted MDE relapse and both suicidal ideation and prior suicide attempts were associated with more time in a MDE. Limitations The naturalistic treatment of participants, exclusion of individuals with current comorbid alcohol or substance use disorder, and a follow up period of two years are limitations. Conclusions Women are more vulnerable to relapse and spend more time depressed compared to men. Identification of general and sex-specific risk factors for future depression may provide clinicians with useful tools to estimate need for ongoing pharmacotherapy in MDE. PMID:23735213

Oquendo, Maria A.; Turret, Jason; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Poh, Ernest; Stevenson, Ellen; Mann, J. John; Galfalvy, Hanga

2013-01-01

136

The persistence of depressive symptomatology among prepaid group practice enrollees: an exploratory study.  

PubMed Central

This exploratory study examines the persistence of depressive symptomatology as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D). Over as 12-month period, half of the group of 309 prepaid group practice enrollees reporting depressive symptoms at the beginning of the interval also had high scores on the CES-D at the end of the interval. Sociodemographic characteristics did not predict persistence of depression. Persistence of depression was positively associated with initially reporting cognitive and affective types of depressive symptoms, the presence of physical illness, the seeking of psychiatric treatment, and the receipt of psychotropic drug prescriptions. PMID:7102848

Hankin, J R; Locke, B Z

1982-01-01

137

IPS multicentric study: Functional somatic symptoms in depression  

PubMed Central

Background: As a pilot project, Indian Psychiatric Society conducted the first multicentric study involving diverse settings from teaching institutions in public and private sectors and even privately run psychiatric clinics. Aim of the Study: To study the typology of functional somatic complaints (FSC) in patients with first episode depression. Materials and Methods: A total of 741 patients from 16 centers across the country participated in the study. They were assessed on Bradford Somatic Symptom inventory for FSC, Beck Depression Inventory for severity of depression, and Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale- anxiety index (CPRS-AI) for anxiety symptoms. Results: The mean age of the study sample was 38.23 years (SD-11.52). There was equal gender distribution (male - 49.8% vs. females 50.2%). Majority of the patients were married (74.5%), Hindus (57%), and from nuclear family (68.2%). A little over half of the patients were from urban background (52.9%). The mean duration of illness at the time of assessment was 25.55 months. Most of the patients (77%) had more than 10 FSCs, with 39.7% having more than 20 FSCs as assessed on Bradford Somatic Inventory. The more common FSC as assessed on Bradford Somatic Inventory were lack of energy (weakness) much of the time (76.2%), severe headache (74%) and feeling tired when not working (71%), pain in legs (64%), aware of palpitations (59.5%), head feeling heavy (59.4%), aches and pains all over the body (55.5%), mouth or throat getting dry (55.2%), pain or tension in neck and shoulder (54%), head feeling hot or burning (54%), and darkness or mist in front of the eyes (49.1%). The prevalence and typology of FSCs is to a certain extent influenced by the sociodemographic variables and severity of depression. Conclusion: Functional somatic symptoms are highly prevalent in Indian depressed patients and hence deserve more attention while diagnosing depression in Indian setting. PMID:23441051

Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Kalita, Kamal; Dalal, P. K.; Rao, G. P.; Chadda, R. K.; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Bang, Govind; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, P. K.; Kathuria, Puneet; Thirunavukarasu, M; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Harish, T.; Shah, Nilesh; Deka, Kamla

2013-01-01

138

Parental Major Depression and the Risk of Depression and Other Mental Disorders in Offspring: A Prospective-Longitudinal Community Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This article examines associations between DSM-IV depressive disorders, their natural course, other psychopathology, and parental major depression in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Methods: Baseline and 4-year follow-up data were used from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopa- thology Study, a prospective-longitudinal community study of adolescents and young adults. Results are based on 2427 subjects who

Roselind Lieb; Barbara Isensee; Michael Hofler; Hildegard Pfister; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen

2002-01-01

139

Cost-effectiveness analysis of cognitive behaviour therapy for treatment of minor or mild-major depression in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for the economic evaluation alongside the MIND-DIA randomized controlled trial (MIND-DIA CEA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression and elevated depression symptoms are more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes than in those without diabetes and are associated with adverse health outcomes and increased total healthcare utilization. This suggests that more effective depression treatment might not only improve health outcome, but also reduce costs. However, there is a lack of evidence on (cost-) effectiveness of

Nadja Chernyak; Frank Petrak; Kristin Plack; Martin Hautzinger; Matthias J Müller; Guido Giani; Andrea Icks

2009-01-01

140

DATE: Depressed adolescents treated with exercise: Study rationale and design for a pilot study  

PubMed Central

There is an important need for non-medication interventions for depressed youth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a standardized aerobic exercise regime to treat non-medicated clinically depressed adolescents based on adherence and completion rates, including 1) establishing effect sizes for the primary outcomes including the Chidren’s Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) and Actical (energy expenditure data) as well as selected secondary outcomes; (e.g., Clinical Global Improvement, depression rating scales, exercise logs, attitudes), and 2) determining whether moderate to strenuous exercise (12 kcal/kg/week [KKW]) versus a control stretching activity (<4 KKW) for 12 weeks leads to a clinically meaningful reduction in depressive symptoms and/or improved psychosocial functioning. The challenge is to develop an exercise intervention that can motivate a typically sedentary depressed adolescent to exercise on a regular basis. The goal is to demonstrate that exercise alone can provide an important and effective non-medication intervention for adolescent depression. This paper reports on the rationale and design of a pilot study which aims to inform the design of a larger trial to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic exercise to treat adolescent depression. After describing the case for exercise within the broader context of the prevalence of adolescent depression and other treatments, the paper describes the intervention and procedures for data collection. PMID:20454641

Hughes, Carroll W.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Cleaver, Joseph; Greer, Tracy L.; Emslie, Graham J.; Kennard, Beth; Dorman, Shauna; Bain, Tyson; Dubreuil, Judy; Barnes, Conrad

2010-01-01

141

Personality and depressive symptoms: Stress generation and cognitive vulnerabilities to depression in a prospective daily diary study  

PubMed Central

Personality and psychopathology have long been associated, however the mechanisms that account for this link are less understood. Stress generation was examined as a potential mechanism to explain the association between personality traits, especially negative emotionality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, the moderating influence of cognitive vulnerabilities to potentiate the relation between stressors and depressive symptoms was investigated. These hypothesized processes were evaluated in a prospective daily diary study in which young adults (N=210) completed baseline measures of personality, dysfunctional attitudes, negative cognitive style, and depressive symptoms. The participants then recorded their levels of depressive symptoms and the occurrence of stressors daily for 35 days. Negative Emotionality-Stress Reaction (NEM-SR) predicted initial levels and trajectories of depressive symptoms and stressors over time. Daily stressors partially mediated the longitudinal association between baseline NEM-SR and trajectories of daily depressive symptoms. Both dysfunctional attitudes and negative cognitive style interacted with these additional stressors to predict prospective fluctuations of daily depressive symptoms. PMID:25435650

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2014-01-01

142

Cognitive group therapy for depressive students: The case study  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to assess whether a course of cognitive group therapy could help depressed students and to assess whether assimilation analysis offers a useful way of analysing students' progress through therapy. “Johanna” was a patient in a group that was designed for depressive students who had difficulties with their studies. The assimilation of Johanna's problematic experience progressed as the meetings continued from level one (unpleasant thoughts) to level six (solving the problem). Johanna's problematic experience manifested itself as severe and excessive criticism towards herself and her study performance. As the group meetings progressed, Johanna found a new kind of tolerance that increased her determination and assertiveness regarding the studies. The dialogical structure of Johanna's problematic experience changed: she found hope and she was more assertive after the process. The results indicated that this kind of psycho-educational group therapy was an effective method for treating depression. The assimilation analysis offered a useful way of analysing the therapy process. PMID:20523883

Tiuraniemi, Juhani; Korhola, Jarno

2009-01-01

143

Functional brain imaging studies of youth depression: A systematic review?  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) in youth, particularly in the context of neuroimaging studies. This systematic review provides a timely comprehensive account of the available functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature in youth MDD. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMED, PsycINFO and Science Direct databases, to identify fMRI studies in younger and older youth with MDD, spanning 13–18 and 19–25 years of age, respectively. Results Twenty-eight studies focusing on 5 functional imaging domains were identified, namely emotion processing, cognitive control, affective cognition, reward processing and resting-state functional connectivity. Elevated activity in “extended medial network” regions including the anterior cingulate, ventromedial and orbitofrontal cortices, as well as the amygdala was most consistently implicated across these five domains. For the most part, findings in younger adolescents did not differ from those in older youth; however a general comparison of findings in both groups compared to adults indicated differences in the domains of cognitive control and affective cognition. Conclusions Youth MDD is characterized by abnormal activations in ventromedial frontal regions, the anterior cingulate and amygdala, which are broadly consistent with the implicated role of medial network regions in the pathophysiology of depression. Future longitudinal studies examining the effects of neurodevelopmental changes and pubertal maturation on brain systems implicated in youth MDD will provide a more comprehensive neurobiological model of youth depression. PMID:24455472

Kerestes, Rebecca; Davey, Christopher G.; Stephanou, Katerina; Whittle, Sarah; Harrison, Ben J.

2013-01-01

144

Genetic studies of bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression in a large Scottish family   

E-print Network

Bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression are complex psychiatric illnesses with a substantial, yet unknown genetic component. Genetic studies have identified linkage of bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression ...

Houlihan, Lorna M.

2008-01-01

145

Relation between depressive symptoms and treadmill exercise capacity in the Heart and Soul Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the association between depressive symptoms and exercise capacity, we performed a cross-sectional study of 944 outpatients with stable coronary artery disease and found that the presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with poor exercise capacity (

Bernice Ruo; John S Rumsfeld; Sharon Pipkin; Mary A Whooley

2004-01-01

146

Mindfulness-Based Therapy as Good as Meds for Depression, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... Mindfulness-Based Therapy as Good as Meds for Depression, Study Says Results suggest possible alternative to long- ... Tuesday, April 21, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Antidepressants Depression TUESDAY, April 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Mindfulness-based ...

147

Screening depressive symptoms in Jordanian women: evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D).  

PubMed

This study examined the psychometric qualities of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) in Jordanian women. Cronbach's alpha for the 20-item CES-D was .90. Factor analysis yielded three components. Four of the items had poor factor loadings and, therefore, were dropped. Cronbach's alpha for the remaining 16 items was .85. Validity testing using independent samples t-test provided evidence of discriminant validity for the 20-item and the 16-item CES-D. Attributes of the CES-D items indicated that depression status can be easily identified by clinicians. Co morbidity of depressive symptoms with physical and mental problems necessitates routine screening for depressed mood. PMID:20624023

Al-Modallal, Hanan

2010-08-01

148

A Prospective 12Year Study of Subsyndromal and Syndromal Depressive Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

9 of 10 patients spent weeks at 3 or 4 different levels during follow-up. The MinD (27%) and SSD (17%) symptom levels were more common than the MDD (15%) symptom level. Patients with double depression and recurrent depression had more chronic symptoms than patients with their first lifetime major depressive episode (72% and 65%, respectively, vs 46% of fol- low-up

Lewis L. Judd; Hagop S. Akiskal; Jack D. Maser; Pamela J. Zeller; Jean Endicott; William Coryell; Martin P. Paulus; Jelena L. Kunovac; Andrew C. Leon; Timothy I. Mueller; John A. Rice; Martin B. Keller

1998-01-01

149

Metabolic syndrome and onset of depressive symptoms in elderly: Finding from the Three-City Study  

E-print Network

for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score16 and use of antidepressant treatment) was assessed at 21 Metabolic syndrome and onset of depressive symptoms in elderly: Finding from the Three-City Study Running title: Metabolic Syndrome and depression in elderly Tasnime N. Akbaraly PhD1,2 , Marie

Boyer, Edmond

150

Focused crawling in depression portal search: A feasibility study Thanh Tin Tang  

E-print Network

concurrent study. Keywords focused crawler, hypertext classification, mental health, depression, domainFocused crawling in depression portal search: A feasibility study Thanh Tin Tang Department@cs.anu.edu.au Abstract Previous work on domain specific search services in the area of depressive illness has documented

Hawking, David

151

Do you have depression? Stanford University is conducting a research study on the  

E-print Network

Do you have depression? Stanford University is conducting a research study on the interaction between depression and pre-diabetes. Study participants receive a comprehensive assessment on behavior and role in brain function in men and women with depression. Who can participate? The researchers

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

152

Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: A Prospective Study of Expressive Suppression and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to…

Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Geenen, Rinie; van Middendorp, Henriet; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Ha, Thao; Evers, Catharine; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2013-01-01

153

Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

2012-01-01

154

Depression among Swedish adolescents measured by the self rating scale Center for Epidemiology Studies - Depression Child (CES-DC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-report questionnaire Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Child (CESDC) was used for screening depression in Swedish 16–17 year olds during their first year in high school. Completed questionnaires were produced by 2272 students (92% of the population). The mean score was 13.2 (boys 9.9; girls 16.5). Factor analysis gave the same factors for boys and girls with a

G. Olsson; A.-L. Knotting

1997-01-01

155

Post-stroke depression and functional outcome: a cohort study investigating the influence of depression on functional recovery from stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the influence of depression on functional recovery after stroke.Design: Multicentre cohort study of 85 patients admitted for clinical rehabilitation. A two-stage case-finding procedure was used to identify patients with depression. For the control group, consecutive nondepressed stroke patients were enrolled. Patients were interviewed at 3–6 weeks and six months after stroke onset.Setting: Three rehabilitation centres in the

F B van de Weg; D J Kuik; G J Lankhorst

1999-01-01

156

Two prospective studies of changes in stress generation across depressive episodes in adolescents and emerging adults.  

PubMed

The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6-12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed. PMID:25422968

Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

2014-11-01

157

Low intensity vs. self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for major depression: a multicenter, controlled, randomized study  

PubMed Central

Background Major depression will become the second most important cause of disability in 2020. Computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy could be an efficacious and cost-effective option for its treatment. No studies on cost-effectiveness of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy has been carried out. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy for major depression in the Spanish health system. Methods The study is made up of 3 phases: 1.- Development of a computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy for depression tailored to Spanish health system. 2.- Multicenter controlled, randomized study: A sample (N=450 patients) with mild/moderate depression recruited in primary care. They should have internet availability at home, not receive any previous psychological treatment, and not suffer from any other severe somatic or psychological disorder. They will be allocated to one of 3 treatments: a) Low intensity Internet-delivered psychotherapy + improved treatment as usual (ITAU) by GP, b) Self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy + ITAU or c) ITAU. Patients will be diagnosed with MINI psychiatric interview. Main outcome variable will be Beck Depression Inventory. It will be also administered EuroQol 5D (quality of life) and Client Service Receipt Inventory (consume of health and social services). Patients will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. An intention to treat and a per protocol analysis will be performed. Discussion The comparisons between low intensity and self-guided are infrequent, and also a comparative economic evaluation between them and compared with usual treatment in primary. The strength of the study is that it is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of low intensity and self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for depression in primary care, being the treatment completely integrated in primary care setting. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01611818 PMID:23312003

2013-01-01

158

Does Age at Onset of First Major Depressive Episode Indicate the Subtype of Major Depressive Disorder?: The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. Materials and Methods We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages <18), early adult onset (ages 18-44), middle adult onset (ages 45-59), and late onset (ages 60+). Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and ordinal logistic regression analysis with adjusting the effect of age, the relationships between clinical features and age at onset of MDD were evaluated. Results There was an apparent, but inconsistent correlation between clinical features and age at onset. Earlier onset MDD was significantly associated with higher proportion of female gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.570, p=0.022], more previous suicide attempts (AOR=0.635, p=0.038), greater number of previous depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, p<0.0001), and the alcohol use disorder identification test (F=7.061, p<0.0001). Conclusion Early age at onset may increase the likelihood of distinguishable MDD subtype, and age at onset of the first major depressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD. PMID:25323911

Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

2014-01-01

159

Work-related depression in the hotel industry: a study in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to develop and test a model, which examines work-related depression among frontline hotel employees. Specifically, the model examines emotional exhaustion as a full mediator of the effects of positive affectivity and intrinsic motivation on depression. The model also investigates the interaction of intrinsic motivation and positive affectivity on emotional exhaustion and depression.

Osman M. Karatepe; Ladan Zargar Tizabi

2011-01-01

160

Mouse Models for Studying Depression-Like States and Antidepressant Drugs  

E-print Network

Chapter 16 Mouse Models for Studying Depression-Like States and Antidepressant Drugs Carisa L-like symptoms in mice and their utility in screening antidepressant drugs. Key words: Depression, animal models-based antidepressants has promoted various neuro- transmitter system-based models of depression (1), little is known

Kalueff, Allan V.

161

Depression-Related Stress Generation: A Longitudinal Study of Black Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined Hammen's (1991) model of stress generation in depression in a Black adolescent population. The longitudinal sample of 1,766 participants entered the study at ages 13 to 18. Stressful events and depressive and other symptom occurrence over a 1-year period were analyzed. Results supported the stress generation model. Depressive

Wingate, LaRicka R.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

2004-01-01

162

Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

2012-01-01

163

J Clin Psychiatry . Author manuscript A prospective study of hormone therapy and depression in  

E-print Network

and depression in community-dwelling elderly women: the Three City Study Jacqueline Scali 1 , Joanne Ryan 1-laure.ancelin@inserm.fr > Abstract Background The potential benefits of hormone therapy in treating depressed postmenopausal women are controversial and data on depression (re)emergence in the context of HT discontinuation are lacking. Objective

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Functional Connectivity in Apathy of Late-life Depression: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Background Apathy is common in late-life depression and is associated with disability and poor antidepressant response. This study examined whether resting functional connectivity (FC) of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) with other structures can distinguish apathetic depressed older patients from nonapathetic depressed patients and normal subjects. PMID:23261142

Alexopoulos, George S.; Hoptman, Matthew J.; Yuen, Genevieve; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Seirup, Joanna; Lim, Kelvin O.; Gunning, Faith M.

2012-01-01

165

Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Depression in Adolescents with Diabetes: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to adapt and pilot test a group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model which has been proven to be effective in treating depression in Puerto Rican adolescents, to treat depressive symptoms and improve glycemic control in adolescents with diabetes. Eleven adolescents aged 13-16 participated in a 12 session group CBT intervention. Indicators of outcome effects (depressive

Jeannette M. Rosselló; María I. Jiménez-Chafey

166

Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

2006-01-01

167

Prevalence of depression among older Americans: the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have attempted to provide estimates of depression prevalence in older adults. The Aging, Demographics and Memory Study (ADAMS) is a population-representative study that included a depression assessment, providing an opportunity to estimate the prevalence of depression in late life in the U.S.A. Methods The ADAMS sample was drawn from the larger Health and Retirement Study. A total of 851 of 856 ADAMS participants aged 71 and older had available depression data. Depression was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview – Short Form (CIDI-SF) and the informant depression section of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). We estimated the national prevalence of depression, stratified by age, race, sex, and cognitive status. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of depression and previously reported risk factors for the condition. Results When combining symptoms of major or minor depression with reported treatment for depression, we found an overall depression prevalence of 11.19%. Prevalence was similar for men (10.19%) and women (11.44%). Whites and Hispanics had nearly three times the prevalence of depression found in African-Americans. Dementia diagnosis and pain severity were associated with increased depression prevalence, while black race was associated with lower rates of depression. Conclusions The finding of similar prevalence estimates for depression in men and women was not consistent with prior research that has shown a female predominance. Given the population-representativeness of our sample, similar depression rates between the sexes in ADAMS may result from racial, ethnic and socioeconomic diversity. PMID:19519984

Steffens, David C.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Potter, Guy G.; Plassman, Brenda L.

2009-01-01

168

Validation of the Spanish Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales: A Comparative Validation Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are leading contributors to burden of disease in developing countries. Research aiming to improve their diagnosis and treatment is fundamental in these settings, and psychometric tools are widely used instruments to support mental health research. Our aim is to validate and compare the psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Methodology/Principal Findings A Spanish version of the CES-D was revised by 5 native Spanish speaking psychiatrists using as reference the English version. A locally standardized Spanish version of the ZSDS was used. These Spanish versions were administered to 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode (MDE), 63 without major depression but with clinical diagnosis of other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 61 with no evidence of psychiatric disorders (NEP). For both scales, Cronbach's alpha (C-?) and Hierarchical McDonald Omega for polychoric variables (MD-?) were estimated; and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis performed. For the CES-D and ZSDS scales, C-? was 0.93 and 0.89 respectively, while MD-? was 0.90 and 0.75 respectively. The area under the ROC curve in MDE+OPD was 0.83 for CES-D and 0.84 for ZSDS; and in MDE+NEP was 0.98 for CES-D and 0.96 for ZSDS. Cut-off scores (co) for the highest proportions of correctly classified (cc) individuals among MDE+OPD were ?29 for CES-D (sensitivity (ss)?=?77.1/specificity (sp)?=?79.4%/(cc)?=?78.2%) and ?47 for ZSDS (ss?=?85.7%/sp?=?71.4%/cc?=?78.9%). In the MDE+NEP, co were ?24 for the CES-D (ss?=?91.4%/sp?=?96.7%/cc?=?93.9%) and ?45 for the ZSDS (ss?=?91.4%/sp?=?91.8%/cc?=?91.6%). Conclusion Spanish versions of the CES-D and ZSDS are valid instruments to detect depression in clinical settings and could be useful for both epidemiological research and primary clinical settings in settings similar as those of public hospitals in Lima, Peru. PMID:23056202

Arevalo, Jorge M.; Chavez, Kristhy; Vilela, Ana; Lazo, Maria; Huapaya, Julio

2012-01-01

169

The Gastric Emptying Study: Protocol Design Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the intrapatient correlation for gastric emp- tying times with instant oatmeal and scrambled egg meals. In addition, this study evaluated the degree of overlap between the stomach and the colon or jejunum in the anterior (AP) and left anterior oblique (LAO) projections in CT studies of the abdomen. Methods: Fifteen patients were studied twice, 1 d apart,

William C. Klingensmith; Steven P. Lawrence

2008-01-01

170

Concurrent trajectories of change in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the TORDIA study.  

PubMed

Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers. PMID:23975354

Perloe, Alexandra; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W; Renshaw, Keith D

2014-04-01

171

Depressive Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) in school children and adolescents in Iran. The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 1,984 children and…

Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane

2013-01-01

172

The Impact of Staff Initiated Referral and Intervention Protocols on Symptoms of Depression in People with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been estimated that people with ID experience the same and possibly higher levels of depression than the general population. Referral to a General Medical Practitioner (GP) for primary care is recommended practice for people with depression and cognitive behavioural (CB) therapy is now an accepted evidence based intervention. A growing body…

McGillivray, Jane A.; Kershaw, Mavis M.

2013-01-01

173

Affective bias and current, past and future adolescent depression: A familial high risk study  

PubMed Central

Background Affective bias is a common feature of depressive disorder. However, a lack of longitudinal studies means that the temporal relationship between affective bias and depression is not well understood. One group where studies of affective bias may be particularly warranted is the adolescent offspring of depressed parents, given observations of high rates of depression and a severe and impairing course of disorder in this group. Methods A two wave panel design was used in which adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent depression completed a behavioural task assessing affective bias (The Affective Go/No Go Task) and a psychiatric interview. The affective processing of adolescents with current, prior and future depressive disorder was compared to that of adolescents free from disorder. Results Adolescents with current depression and those who developed depression at follow-up made more commission errors for sad than happy targets compared to adolescents free from disorder. There was no effect of prior depression on later affective processing. Limitations Small cell sizes meant we were unable to separately compare those with new onset and recurrent depressive disorder. Conclusions Valence-specific errors in behavioural inhibition index future vulnerability to depression in adolescents already at increased risk and may represent a measure of affective control. Currently depressed adolescents show a similar pattern of affective bias or deficits in affective control. PMID:25527997

Kilford, Emma J.; Foulkes, Lucy; Potter, Robert; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

2015-01-01

174

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures guidelines, the cognitive-behavioral

Corinne David-Ferdon; Nadine J. Kaslow

2008-01-01

175

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

176

Stability and Change in Levels of Depression and Personality: A Follow-up Study of Postpartum Depressed Mothers That Were Hospitalized in a Mother-Infant Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective longitudinal study investigated the role of the personality dimensions of dependency and self-criticism in the course of depressive symptoms in a sample of inpatient severely postpartum depressed mothers (n 55). Depressive symptoms and personality were measured during hospitalization and on average 3 1\\/2 years later. In line with previous research, a considerable subgroup of mothers (39%) reported moderate

Nicole Vliegen; Patrick Luyten; Avi Besser; Sara Casalin; Stefan Kempke; Eileen Tang

2010-01-01

177

Online screening and referral for postpartum depression: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

The fear and stigma associated with postpartum depression (PPD) is a major challenge in the treatment of this disease. Our goal is to develop innovative methods of screening women for the symptoms of PPD to facilitate referral and treatment. This study explores the efficacy of the Internet in reaching out to postpartum women in the convenience and privacy of their own homes, particularly those in rural and underserved areas. An exploratory study design was used to explore the feasibility and acceptability of online screening for PPD with postpartum women in the first 2-3 months after delivery (N = 18). In the first phase, a focus group was conducted with a small group of postpartum women; the second phase consisted of individual interviews of postpartum women in their homes; and in phase three, 10 women participated in the on-line screening intervention. PPD was measured using an online version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) a well-established instrument with reported alpha reliabilities (0.81-0.88) across studies and concurrent validity demonstrated using the gold standard, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for depression interview. Qualitative data collected from all the participants were also analyzed. The sample included women age 18-29; 70 % White/Caucasian, 50 % low income, and the majority living in rural areas. The EPDS scores ranged from 0 to 13 (mean 8.0; SD 4.76). Participants described the online PPD screening process as easy, straightforward and personalized and provided additional suggestions for improvement. PMID:23283485

Drake, Emily; Howard, Erica; Kinsey, Emily

2014-04-01

178

Study on Cloud Security Based on Trust Spanning Tree Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attacks executed on Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) expose the weakness of link layer protocols and put the higher layers in jeopardy. Although the problems have been studied for many years and various solutions have been proposed, many security issues remain. To enhance the security and credibility of layer-2 network, we propose a trust-based spanning tree protocol aiming at achieving a higher credibility of LAN switch with a simple and lightweight authentication mechanism. If correctly implemented in each trusted switch, the authentication of trust-based STP can guarantee the credibility of topology information that is announced to other switch in the LAN. To verify the enforcement of the trusted protocol, we present a new trust evaluation method of the STP using a specification-based state model. We implement a prototype of trust-based STP to investigate its practicality. Experiment shows that the trusted protocol can achieve security goals and effectively avoid STP attacks with a lower computation overhead and good convergence performance.

Lai, Yingxu; Liu, Zenghui; Pan, Qiuyue; Liu, Jing

2015-02-01

179

A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

2005-01-01

180

An international study exploring levels of postpartum depressive symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Differences in postpartum depressive symptomatology (PPDS) among an international sample of 892 women from nine countries representing five continents were explored.Method: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess PPDS among a convenience sample that completed the two questionnaires twice, yielding a total of four sets of scores per subject. Women sampled were

Dyanne D. Affonso; Anindya K. De; June Andrews Horowitz; Linda J. Mayberry

2000-01-01

181

Prospective study of postpartum depression: Prevalence, course, and predictive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

99 women (mean age 26.5 yrs) were followed from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until about 6 mo postpartum. Depression diagnostic and severity assessments were conducted during pregnancy and after delivery. Instruments included the Beck Depression Inventory and an interview adapted from the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Depression severity decreased steadily from the 2nd trimester until 9 wks

Michael W. OHara; Danny J. Neunaber; Ellen M. Zekoski

1984-01-01

182

Talking about depression: a qualitative study of barriers to managing depression in people with long term conditions in primary care  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of depression is increased in people with long term conditions (LTCs) and is associated with poorer patient outcomes for both the depressive illness and the LTC, but often remains undetected and poorly managed. The aim of this study was to identify and explore barriers to detecting and managing depression in primary care in people with two exemplar LTCs: diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 healthcare professionals drawn predominately from primary care, along with 7 service users and 3 carers (n = 29). One focus group was then held with a set of 6 healthcare professionals and a set of 7 service users and 1 carer (n = 14). Interviews and the focus group were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed independently. The two data sets were then inspected for commonalities using a constant comparative method, leading to a final thematic framework used in this paper. Results Barriers to detecting and managing depression in people with LTCs in primary care exist: i) when practitioners in partnership with patients conceptualise depression as a common and understandable response to the losses associated with LTCs - depression in the presence of LTCs is normalised, militating against its recognition and treatment; ii) where highly performanced managed consultations under the terms of the Quality and Outcomes Framework encourage reductionist approaches to case-finding in people with CHD and diabetes, and iii) where there is uncertainty among practitioners about how to negotiate labels for depression in people with LTCs in ways that might facilitate shared understanding and future management. Conclusion Depression was often normalised in the presence of LTCs, obviating rather than facilitating further assessment and management. Furthermore, structural constraints imposed by the QOF encouraged reductionist approaches to case-finding for depression in consultations for CHD and diabetes. Future work might focus on how interventions that draw on the principles of the chronic care model, such as collaborative care, could support primary care practitioners to better recognise and manage depression in patients with LTCs. PMID:21426542

2011-01-01

183

Predictors of postpartum depression: prospective study of 264 women followed during pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

The prevalence of postpartum depression is approximately 13%. Postpartum depression is associated with a higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and also with pervasive effects on the emotional, cognitive and behavioral development of the child. The aim of our study was to identify socio-demographic, psychosocial and obstetrical risk factors of postpartum depression in a middle class community sample, using a prospective design. We enrolled consecutively 312 pregnant outpatients in a single maternity unit. The first assessment was conducted between 32 and 41 weeks gestation, and a second time between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the French version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A cut-off score of 12/30 or above was considered as indicative of Major Depression. Of the initial sample of 312 women, 264 (84.6%) were followed-up between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery and considered for analysis. Depression during pregnancy, migrant status, and physical abuse by the partner were independently associated with postpartum depression when considered together, whereas physical complications were significantly associated with postpartum depression only when adjusting for antenatal depression. Depression during pregnancy, history of physical abuse, migrant status and postpartum physical complications are four major risk factors for postpartum depression. PMID:24370337

Gaillard, Adeline; Le Strat, Yann; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Keïta, Hawa; Dubertret, Caroline

2014-02-28

184

Postpartum Depression, Marital Dysfunction, and Infant Outcome: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study explores the relationship of postpartum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on infant outcomes from birth to 2 1/2 years of age among middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were recruited during the prenatal period. Twelve mothers completed the study throughout a 2 1/2-year period. Questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and observations were used to collect data. Content analysis of the interviews (Morse & Field, 1995) was conducted and thematic patterns were identified. Clinical PPD and marital dysfunction (defined as little or no support or closeness, or verbal, emotional or physical abuse) characterized nearly one in three mothers. Four themes describing the women's postpartum progression were identified: stress, isolation, resentment, and eventual adjustment by creating a new normal. No major developmental delays or behavioral problems were found among the infants. Eight of the 12 mothers who were initially identified as breastfeeding nursed their infants for 6–18 months. Regardless of financial and educational advantages, mothers in the study experienced depression and marital dysfunction. These findings support other studies that confirm the lack of association of PPD with social class or marital status. Childbirth educators and other health care professionals are encouraged to continue providing expectant families with anticipatory education and community resources in order to increase awareness of mental health and marital risks during the postpartum transition. PMID:17273318

Roux, Gayle; Anderson, Cheryl; Roan, Chris

2002-01-01

185

The Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS) Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The molecular basis for the genetic risk of ischemic stroke is likely to be multigenic and influenced by environmental factors. Several small case-control studies have suggested associations between ischemic stroke and polymorphisms of genes that code for coagulation cascade proteins and platelet receptors. Our aim is to investigate potential associations between hemostatic gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, with particular emphasis on detailed characterization of the phenotype. Methods/Design The Ischemic Stroke Genetic Study is a prospective, multicenter genetic association study in adults with recent first-ever ischemic stroke confirmed with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients are evaluated at academic medical centers in the United States and compared with sex- and age-matched controls. Stroke subtypes are determined by central blinded adjudication using standardized, validated mechanistic and syndromic classification systems. The panel of genes to be tested for polymorphisms includes ?-fibrinogen and platelet glycoprotein Ia, Iba, and IIb/IIIa. Immortalized cell lines are created to allow for time- and cost-efficient testing of additional candidate genes in the future. Discussion The study is designed to minimize survival bias and to allow for exploring associations between specific polymorphisms and individual subtypes of ischemic stroke. The data set will also permit the study of genetic determinants of stroke outcome. Having cell lines will permit testing of future candidate risk factor genes. PMID:12848902

Meschia, James F; Brott, Thomas G; Brown, Robert D; Crook, Richard JP; Frankel, Michael; Hardy, John; Merino, José G; Rich, Stephen S; Silliman, Scott; Worrall, Bradford Burke

2003-01-01

186

Internet-delivered treatment: its potential as a low-intensity community intervention for adults with symptoms of depression: protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a high prevalence disorder, displaying high rates of lifetime incidence, early age onset, high chronicity, and role impairment. In Ireland 12-month prevalence of depression has been reported to be 10.3%. A large percentage of affected individuals have no medical diagnosis nor seek treatment. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) has established itself as an option for the treatment of depression. Many Irish adults with depression find it difficult to access evidence-based CBT, this is due to several factors, like stigma and costs. However, systematic factors including the shortage of trained professionals and the relative underdevelopment of services also make access difficult. Stepped-care can increase access to evidence-based CBT. One option is tailored internet-delivered treatment programs. Preliminary research from Ireland needs now to include large-scale studies on effectiveness. Thus the current study seeks to examine the potential of an internet-delivered low-intensity treatment for symptoms of depression in an Irish adult community sample. Method/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial of an online CBT (iCBT) program for the treatment of adults with depressive symptoms. The trial will include an active treatment group and a waiting-list control group. The active condition will consist of 8 weekly modules of iCBT, with post-session feedback support. Participants in the waiting list will receive access to the treatment at week 8. Participants will complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and eligibility criteria will also apply. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include quality of life indicators, significant events and satisfaction with online treatment. Data will be collected at baseline and at post-treatment, week 8, and at follow-up week 20 (3-months) and week 32 (6-months). Analysis will be conducted on the intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of an online delivered treatment for depression in a community sample of Irish adults with symptoms of depression. The study will be a first contribution and depending on the sample recruited the results may be generalizable to people with similar difficulties in Ireland and may therefore give insight into the potential of low-intensity interventions for Irish people with depressive symptoms. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03704676. DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN03704676 PMID:24886179

2014-01-01

187

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EMPIRICUS micafungin versus placebo during  

E-print Network

risk of candidemia with recovery of the same Candida species or genotypes in the colonized sitesSTUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EMPIRICUS micafungin versus placebo during nosocomial sepsis in Candida of antifungal treatment of non-immunocompromized patients with sepsis, extra-digestive Candida colonization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Incidence and economical effects of pneumonia  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Incidence and economical effects of pneumonia in the older population are particularly relevant. In fact, the onset of pneumonias is associated with a significant worsening negative consequences of pneumonia may be particularly evident among the frailest groups of elders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Dependency and self-criticism in post-partum depression and anxiety: a case control study.  

PubMed

This study investigates the role of self-criticism and dependency in inpatient post-partum depressed women (n = 55) and non-depressed controls (n = 37) as well as the relationship between both personality dimensions and severity of depression and anxiety. As expected, mothers with post-partum depression showed not only increased levels of depression but also anxiety compared with non-depressed mothers. Furthermore, they had significantly higher levels of self-criticism, but not of dependency. In the post-partum depressed mothers, both personality dimensions were positively associated with severity of depression. However, in non-depressed mothers, self-criticism was positively associated with depression, while there was an inverse relationship between dependency and severity of depression. In both samples, self-criticism, but not dependency, was related to state anxiety. The cross-sectional nature of this study limits the ability to draw causal conclusions. The study was based on self-report and conducted in relatively small samples. PMID:19170038

Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick

2009-01-01

190

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study 1 EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol Summary Few studies have examined in detail the nature of tomato handling policies and practices in food service establishments. The purpose of this study

191

Adrenal gland enlargement in major depression. A computed tomographic study.  

PubMed

To determine whether the well-documented hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in depressed patients includes adrenal gland hypertrophy, adrenal gland size was evaluated by computed tomography. Assessments consisted of (1) global ratings by two radiologists ignorant of the diagnostic identity of the subjects and (2) calculation of adrenal volume. Of the 38 patients with major depression, 12 were rated as exhibiting adrenal hypertrophy. Adrenal volumes in the depressed patients were significantly increased when compared with those of normal controls. Adrenal gland size was not correlated with dexamethasone suppression test results, patient age, duration of the depressive episode, or depression severity. These results are concordant with the hypothesis that chronic corticotropin hypersecretion in depression results in adrenocortical hypertrophy. Adrenal gland enlargement may be a measure of cumulative lifetime depression. PMID:1586274

Nemeroff, C B; Krishnan, K R; Reed, D; Leder, R; Beam, C; Dunnick, N R

1992-05-01

192

‘Third wave’ cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based therapy for major depressive disorder. A protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Most interventions for depression have shown small or no effects. ‘Third wave‘ cognitive therapy and mentalization-based therapy have both gained some ground as treatments of psychological problems. No randomised trial has compared the effects of these two interventions for patients with major depression. Methods/ design We plan a randomised, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority clinical trial. During two years we will include 84 consecutive adult participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The participants will be randomised to either ‘third wave‘ cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based therapy. The primary outcome will be the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at cessation of treatment at 18 weeks. Secondary outcomes will be the proportion of patients with remission, Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, Beck’s Depression Inventory, and The World Health Organisation-Five Well-being Index 1999. Discussion Interventions for depression have until now shown relatively small effects. Our trial results will provide knowledge about the effects of two modern psychotherapeutic interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01070134 PMID:23253305

2012-01-01

193

Is depression the past tense of anxiety? An empirical study of the temporal distinction.  

PubMed

It has long been recognised that depression and anxiety share a common core of negative affect, but research on similarities and differences between these two emotions is growing. The focus of the current study was on whether the timing of a triggering event can determine whether the dominant emotional reaction is depression or anxiety. It was hypothesised that aversive events in the past would elicit more depression than anxiety, whereas the same aversive events in the future would elicit more anxiety than depression. We created temporally varied versions of vignettes describing aversive events occurring at either time, and asked participants to rate the extent to which the events would elicit feelings of depression or anxiety. Results indicated that adverse past events elicited much higher ratings of anticipated depression and adverse future events elicited much higher ratings of anticipated anxiety. Implications for understanding these two emotions and depressive and anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:25355667

Pomerantz, Andrew M; Rose, Paul

2014-12-01

194

An improved protocol to study the plant cell wall proteome  

PubMed Central

Cell wall proteins were extracted from alfalfa stems according to a three-steps extraction procedure using sequentially CaCl2, EGTA, and LiCl-complemented buffers. The efficiency of this protocol for extracting cell wall proteins was compared with the two previously published methods optimized for alfalfa stem cell wall protein analysis. Following LC-MS/MS analysis the three-steps extraction procedure resulted in the identification of the highest number of cell wall proteins (242 NCBInr identifiers) and gave the lowest percentage of non-cell wall proteins (about 30%). However, the three protocols are rather complementary than substitutive since 43% of the identified proteins were specific to one protocol. This three-step protocol was therefore selected for a more detailed proteomic characterization using 2D-gel electrophoresis. With this technique, 75% of the identified proteins were shown to be fraction-specific and 72.7% were predicted as belonging to the cell wall compartment. Although, being less sensitive than LC-MS/MS approaches in detecting and identifying low-abundant proteins, gel-based approaches are valuable tools for the differentiation and relative quantification of protein isoforms and/or modified proteins. In particular isoforms, having variations in their amino-acid sequence and/or carrying different N-linked glycan chains were detected and characterized. This study highlights how the extracting protocols as well as the analytical techniques devoted to the study of the plant cell wall proteome are complementary and how they may be combined to elucidate the dynamism of the plant cell wall proteome in biological studies. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001927.

Printz, Bruno; Dos Santos Morais, Raphaël; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Sergeant, Kjell; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Renaut, Jenny

2015-01-01

195

Genetic and environmental influences on the transmission of parental depression to children’s depression and conduct disturbance: An extended Children of Twins study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children’s behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental risk factor in children’s psychopathology, or whether children’s depression/conduct can be explained as a secondary consequence of the genetic liability transmitted from parents to their offspring. Methods Children of Twins (COT) data collected on 2,674 adult female and male twins, their spouses, and 2,940 of their children were used to address whether genetic and/or family environmental factors best account for the association between depression in parents and depression and conduct problems in their children. Data collected on juvenile twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) were also included to estimate child-specific genetic and environmental influences apart from those effects arising from the transmission of the parental depression itself. The fit of alternative Children of Twin models were evaluated using the statistical program Mx. Results The most compelling model for the association between parental and juvenile depression was a model of direct environmental risk. Both family environmental and genetic factors accounted for the association between parental depression and child conduct disturbance. Conclusions These findings illustrate how a genetically mediated behavior such as parental depression can have both an environmental and genetic impact on children’s behavior. We find developmentally specific genetic factors underlying risk to juvenile and adult depression. A shared genetic liability influence both parental depression and juvenile conduct disturbance, implicating child CD as an early indicator of genetic risk for depression in adulthood. In summary, our analyses demonstrate differences in the impact of parental depression on different forms of child psychopathology, and at various stages of development. PMID:20163497

Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon J.

2010-01-01

196

Combined MI + CBT for Depressive Symptoms and Binge Drinking Among Young Adults: Two Case Studies  

PubMed Central

There are high rates of comorbidity between heavy drinking and depressive symptoms among college students, often resulting in severe alcohol-related consequences. No empirically supported treatment exists that concurrently addresses both of these problems in this population. Research with college students has demonstrated that brief motivational interventions (BMIs) reduce heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and that cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D) is effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Thus, a program combining BMI and CBT-D appears ideal for college students with co-occurring binge drinking and depressive symptoms. This manuscript presents the rationale and format of a BMI + CBT-D treatment protocol for this population, and provides a case example of a female college student who received the protocol and experienced improvement in depressive symptoms, a reduction in alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences, and an increase in readiness to change alcohol consumption. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of these findings, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25170188

Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Palm, Kathleen M.; Dalton, Elizabeth; Fava, Maurizio

2014-01-01

197

Beyond normality in the study of bereavement: heterogeneity in depression outcomes following loss in older adults.  

PubMed

Studies of individual differences in bereavement have revealed prototypical patterns of outcome. However, many of these studies were conducted prior to the advent of sophisticated contemporary data analytic techniques. For example, Bonanno et al. (2002) used rudimentary categorization procedures to identify unique trajectories of depression symptomatology from approximately 3 years prior to 4 years following conjugal loss in a representative sample of older American adults. In the current study, we revisited these same data using Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) to derive trajectories and test predictors. LCGA is a technique well-suited for modeling empirically- and conceptually-derived heterogeneous longitudinal patterns while simultaneously modeling predictors of those longitudinal patterns. We uncovered four discrete trajectories similar in shape and proportion to the previous analyses: Resilience (characterized by little or no depression; 66.3%), Chronic Grief (characterized by depression following loss, alleviated by 4 years post-loss; 9.1%), _Pre-existing Chronic Depression (ongoing high pre- through post-loss depression; 14.5%), and Depressed-Improved (characterized by high pre-loss depression that decreases following loss; 10.1%). Using this analytic strategy, we were able to examine multiple hypotheses about bereavement simultaneously. Health, financial stress, and emotional stability emerged as strong predictors of variability in depression only for some trajectories, indicating that depression levels do not have a common etiology across all the bereaved. As such, we find that identifying distinct patterns informs both the course and etiology of depression in response to bereavement. PMID:22472274

Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bonanno, George A

2012-06-01

198

Depression and guilt: A study at an Arab psychiatric clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 157 depressed patients seen at Kasr-El-Aini psychiatric clinic, Cairo, 97 (62.8%) had guilt feelings. Comparison of depressed patients who had guilt feelings to those who had no guilt feelings revealed an association of the former with an over-representation of the literate and psychotic patients. Guilty patients had longer depressive histories with an early age of onset, and in females

M. Fakhr El-Islam

1969-01-01

199

Effects of adjunctive reboxetine in patients with duloxetine-resistant depression: a 12-week prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of the combination therapy with two antidepressants from different pharmacological families in patients with treatment-resistant depression has been reported in multiple studies. In this prospective 12-weeks open-label study, we assessed the effectiveness of the addition of reboxetine to 79 depressive outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) according to the DSM-IV criteria who had previously not responded, or

J. Seguí; F. López-Muñoz; C. Álamo; X. Camarasa; P. García-García; A. Pardo

2010-01-01

200

Farmers are at risk for anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To examine whether, and why, farmers and non-farmers differ regarding levels of anxiety and depression. Methods The study encompassed 17 295 workers age 40-49 years, including 917 farmers, from the population-based Hordaland Health Study 1997-99 (HUSK). Levels of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively). Self-reported information on various work-related

B. Sanne; A. Mykletun; B. E. Moen; A. A. Dahl; G. S. Tell

2004-01-01

201

Can physical activity be used as a tool to reduce depression in patients after a cardiac event? What is the evidence? A systematic literature study.  

PubMed

A reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been reported in the Western world, but post-infarction depression often occurs and is related to poor medical outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the scientific literature by a systematic review, in order to find evidence for whether physical activity can be a tool to reduce depression in patients who have suffered a cardiac event. Three databases were systematically searched (PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane), and the GRADE protocol was used in combination with a revised Amstar-protocol for the systematic review. Scientific reports fitting the area were scarce. Finally, ten studies were included in this study: one meta-analysis, five randomized controlled trials, and four clinical trials. The results showed low to moderate evidence for the use of low to moderate levels of exercise as a tool to reduce depression in post-coronary artery event patients. This study concluded positive effects of physical activity as a tool to reduce depression in post-coronary artery event patients. Physiotherapists could be further involved in increasing physical activity after cardiac events. More studies are needed in the area. PMID:25756318

Janzon, Ellis; Abidi, Taha; Bahtsevani, Christel

2015-04-01

202

Personality traits in subjects at risk for unipolar major depression: a family study perspective.  

PubMed

Particular patterns of personality (e.g., introversion, neuroticism, obsessionality) have been found to be associated with unipolar depression by a large number of investigators; recent prospective studies have stressed neuroticism as a premorbid risk factor for depression. This study examines whether similar patterns of personality are found in relatives of affective disorder patients and of controls. First-degree relatives of normal controls and of subjects with primary unipolar depression were studied using the Munich Personality Test. Relatives in remission from an episode of unipolar depression had clearly higher levels of neuroticism and rigidity and lower levels of extraversion than controls; healthy relatives of controls had higher levels of rigidity (both sexes) and of neuroticism (males only) than controls. It is proposed that these traits are either risk factors for depression or attenuated forms of depression. PMID:1573124

Maier, W; Lichtermann, D; Minges, J; Heun, R

1992-03-01

203

Listening to mothers: qualitative studies on motherhood and depression from Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little qualitative research on depression in motherhood from non-Western societies. The objective of the study described in this paper was to use qualitative methods to investigate the cultural validity of the construct of post-natal depression (PND) and its social and cultural contexts. The study was nested in a cohort of mothers recruited to study the risk factors and

Merlyn Rodrigues; Vikram Patel; Surinder Jaswal; Nandita de Souza

2003-01-01

204

The Association of Depression and Anxiety with Pain: A Study from NESDA  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR?=?6.67; P<.001), anxiety (OR?=?4.84; P<.001), or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR?=?30.26; P<.001) was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR?=?3.53; P<.001) as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR?=?2.96; p<.001) and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR?=?5.15; P<.001) were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research. PMID:25330004

de Heer, Eric W.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Dekker, Jack; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.

2014-01-01

205

The Longitudinal Relationship Between Depression and Walking Behavior in Older Latinos: The “!Caminemos!” Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to evaluate the relationship between baseline depression and prospective engagement in walking and exercise behavior after enrollment in an exercise intervention. Methods The study used baseline, 1-month, 12-month, and 24-month in-person interview and pedometer data collected from Latinos aged ?60 years participating in an exercise intervention (¡Caminemos!) at 27 senior centers (n=572). Results After joining an exercise intervention, and when using continuous pedometer data and scores from the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) as the outcomes of interest, older adults with baseline depression exhibited comparable levels of physical activity across time when compared to their non-depressed counterparts. Significant difference in physical activity levels between the depressed and non-depressed subgroups no longer existed within one month of initiating the exercise intervention. Discussion Among sedentary older Latino adults, having depression may not delay exercise initiation nor does it appear to prevent achievement or maintenance of an exercise program. PMID:23264440

Hernandez, Rosalba; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

206

Depression status as a predictor of quit success in a real-world effectiveness study of nicotine replacement therapy.  

PubMed

To provide population-level evidence of the role of current depression on smoking cessation treatment success, we conducted a secondary analysis of data obtained from a large cessation study conducted in over 13,000 smokers. On the basis of self-reported history of depression diagnoses at baseline, participants were divided into four mutually exclusive groups: current/recent depression, recurrent depression, past depression and no depression history. Cessation outcomes were compared among the four groups at 6-month follow-up. Of the 6261 individuals who were consented and attempted to be contacted for follow-up, 4648 (74.2%) had no diagnostic history of depression, 591 (9.4%) had a past history of depression, 759 (12.1%) had a current/recent depression diagnoses, and 263 (4.2%) had recurrent depression (both current and history). Those with recurrent depression were significantly less likely to quit smoking compared to those with no history of depression. In unadjusted analyses, recurrent depression was associated with significantly lower odds of quitting compared to those with either no history or a past history of depression. Current/recent depression was also associated with poorer quit outcomes compared to those with no history of depression. Depressed smokers may benefit from more individualized, in-person approaches to smoking cessation. PMID:25618468

Zawertailo, Laurie; Voci, Sabrina; Selby, Peter

2015-03-30

207

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--LIST OF STUDY DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Region 5 study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis, (3) RTI's trace metals facility, (4) General laboratory pr...

208

Formally modeling, analyzing, and designing network protocols : a case study on retransmission-based reliable multicast protocols  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we conduct an extensive case study on formally modeling, analyzing, and designing retransmission-based reliable multicast protocols. We first present an abstract model of the communication service that ...

Livadas, Carolos

2003-01-01

209

Changes in Depression Following Divorce: A Panel Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined changes in depressive affect in adults divorced during the four years between interviews, and compared them with people who have remained married. Those who would subsequently divorce were not significantly more depressed at the first time point than those who would remain married. Four years later, however, the newly divorced had become…

Menaghan, Elizabeth G.; Lieberman, Morton A.

1986-01-01

210

Incidence of depression in early adolescence: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors wished to determine whether depression was present in an early adolescent nonpatient identified school population. Questionnaires were administered to seventh and eighth grade students in a parochial extended elementary school. The findings indicated that 33.3% of this school population were experiencing moderate to severe depression and 35% of the sample acknowledged current suicidal ideation. A comparison of mean

Nina Albert; Aaron T. Beck

1975-01-01

211

Adaptive Inferential Feedback Partner Training for Depression: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive inferential feedback (AIF) partner training is a cognitive technique that teaches the friends and family members of depressed patients to respond to the patients' dysfunctional thoughts in a targeted manner. These dysfunctional attributions, which AIF addresses, are a common residual feature of depression amongst remitted patients, and…

Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Allen, Lesley A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Menza, Matthew; Gara, Michael A.; Panzarella, Catherine

2007-01-01

212

A prospective study of predictors of poststroke depression  

E-print Network

of depressed mood than apathy. In patients with first-ever stroke, crying behaviors soon after stroke of PSD within the first year after stroke onset and lesion location, cognitive changes, and affective behaviors displayed during the first days after an uncomplicated stroke. We hy- pothesized that depressive

Iaria, Giuseppe

213

Studies on a depressed egg production syndrome in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A syndrome causing depressed egg production is described. It is characterised either by a failure to attain predicted production targets or by a fall in egg numbers. The depression in production can reach 30% and it may or may not return to normal. For a short period the eggs produced are smaller, lose colour, have poor egg shell strength and

J. B. McFerran; R. M. McCracken; Eileen R. McKillop; M. S. McNulty; D. S. Collins

1978-01-01

214

Proton spectroscopy study of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in pediatric depressed patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an essential role in mood regulation and integration of cognitive functions that are abnormal in major depressive disorder (MDD). Few neuroimaging studies have evaluated the still maturing DLPFC in depressed children and adolescents. We conducted single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of the left DLPFC in 14 depressed children and adolescents (13.3±2.3

Sheila C. Caetano; Manoela Fonseca; Rene L. Olvera; Mark Nicoletti; John P. Hatch; Jeffrey A. Stanley; Kristina Hunter; Beny Lafer; Steven R. Pliszka; Jair C. Soares

2005-01-01

215

Neurological complications of breast cancer: study protocol of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The improvement in breast cancer survival rates, along with the expected overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with breast cancer screening, requires a comprehensive assessment of its burden. Neurological complications can have a devastating impact on these patients; neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are among the most frequently reported. This project aims to understand the burden of neurological complications of breast cancer treatment in Northern Portugal, and their role as mediator of the impact of the treatment in different dimensions of the patients’ quality of life. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study was designed to include 500 patients with breast cancer, to be followed for 3?years. The patients were recruited at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and evaluations were planned at different stages: pretreatment, after surgery, after chemotherapy (whenever applicable) and at 1 and 3?years after enrolment. Patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain or chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (subcohorts), were also evaluated at the moment of confirmation of clinical diagnosis of the neurological complication and 6?months later. In each of the follow-up periods, a neurological examination has been performed by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression. Between January and December 2012, we recruited and conducted the baseline evaluation of 506 participants. The end of the follow-up period is scheduled for December 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and all patients provided written informed consent. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality. Results from this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in relevant conferences. PMID:25351600

Pereira, Susana; Fontes, Filipa; Sonin, Teresa; Dias, Teresa; Fragoso, Maria; Castro-Lopes, José; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

216

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

217

Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

2005-01-01

218

Depression in the elderly: Does family system play a role? A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The most common geriatric psychiatric disorder is depression. The role of family systems in depression among the elderly has not been studied extensively. It has been suggested that urbanization promotes nucleation of family systems and a decrease in care and support for the elderly. We conducted this study in Karachi, a large urban city of Pakistan, to determine the

Ather M Taqui; Ahmed Itrat; Waris Qidwai; Zeeshan Qadri

2007-01-01

219

Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

2014-01-01

220

Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…

Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

2006-01-01

221

The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

n/a; n/a

2005-01-01

222

Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

2004-01-01

223

A prospective study to compare three depression screening tools in patients who are terminally ill.  

PubMed

Depression is a significant symptom for approximately one in four palliative care patients. This study investigates the performance of three screening tools. Patients were asked to verbally rate their mood on a scale of 0-10; to respond "yes" or "no" to the question "Are you depressed?," and to complete the Edinburgh depression scale. They were also interviewed using a semi-structured clinical interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Complete data was available for 74 patients. For the single question, a "yes" answer had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity 74%. The Edinburgh depression scale at a cut-off point of > or =13 had a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 80%. The verbal mood item with a cut-off point of > or =3 had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 43%. The Edinburgh depression scale proved to be the most reliable instrument for detecting clinical depression in palliative care patients. PMID:15474638

Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Dennis, Mick; Taylor, Fiona

2004-01-01

224

Depression Training in Nursing Homes: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Late-life depression is common among nursing home residents, but often is not addressed by nurses. Using a self-directed, CD-based depression training program, this pilot study used mixed methods to assess feasibility issues, determine nurse perceptions of training, and evaluate depression-related outcomes among residents in usual care and training conditions. Of 58 nurses enrolled, 24 completed the training and gave it high ratings. Outcomes for 50 residents include statistically significant reductions in depression severity over time (p<0.001) among all groups. Depression training is an important vehicle to improve depression recognition and daily nursing care, but diverse factors must be addressed to assure optimal outcomes. PMID:23369120

Smith, Marianne; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Jaggers, Benjamin; Liu, Megan; Haedke, Chris

2014-01-01

225

Prevalence of depressive symptoms in a Japanese occupational setting: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

We measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms in 2,190 Japanese tax office workers using the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Score distribution by sex was more symmetrical and the mean score of each sex was higher than in the United States population. A high level of depressive symptoms was found in 15.2 percent of males and 10.6 percent of females by controlling for age and marital status. Males aged 50 years and over had more depressive symptoms than other male age groups. Perceived stress, related both to family life and the workplace, was associated with a high level of depressive symptoms. "Long-distance marriage" ("business bachelorhood"), peculiar to Japanese occupations, had little influence on depressive symptomatology. PMID:2817157

Iwata, N; Okuyama, Y; Kawakami, Y; Saito, K

1989-11-01

226

Depression training in nursing homes: lessons learned from a pilot study.  

PubMed

Late-life depression is common among nursing home residents, but often is not addressed by nurses. Using a self-directed CD-based depression training program, this pilot study used mixed methods to assess feasibility issues, determine nurse perceptions of training, and evaluate depression-related outcomes among residents in usual care and training conditions. Of 58 nurses enrolled, 24 completed the training and gave it high ratings. Outcomes for 50 residents include statistically significant reductions in depression severity over time (p < 0.001) among all groups. Depression training is an important vehicle to improve depression recognition and daily nursing care, but diverse factors must be addressed to assure optimal outcomes. PMID:23369120

Smith, Marianne; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Jaggers, Benjamin; Liu, Megan Fang; Haedtke, Chris

2013-02-01

227

Dysfunctional Attitudes and Early Maladaptive Schemas as Predictors of Depression: A 9Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) have been suggested as vulnerability markers\\u000a for depression and entrenched psychological disorders, respectively. One-hundred-and-fifteen clinically depressed (CDs), previously\\u000a depressed (PDs), and never depressed individuals completed the DAS, the YSQ, and the Beck Depression Inventory in the index\\u000a study, and were followed up 9 years later in relation to diagnostic status,

Marianne Halvorsen; Catharina E. Wang; Martin Eisemann; Knut Waterloo

2010-01-01

228

Stability of dysfunctional attitudes and early maladaptive schemas: A 9-year follow-up study of clinically depressed subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) have been suggested as relatively stable vulnerability markers for depression and entrenched psychological disorders, respectively. One-hundred-and-forty-nine clinically depressed (CDs), previously depressed (PDs) and never-depressed subjects (NDs) completed the DAS, the YSQ and the Beck Depression Inventory in the index study and were followed-up nine years later. Results showed: (1)

Catharina E. A. Wang; Marianne Halvorsen; Martin Eisemann; Knut Waterloo

2010-01-01

229

A one-year follow-up study into the course of depression after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Stroke patients commonly suffer from neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, that negatively influence stroke outcome.\\u000a Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of post-stroke psychiatric disorders including depression are under debate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To study the course of depression after stroke.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred and ninety first-ever stroke patients were screened for depressive symptoms at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after\\u000a stroke. Diagnosis of

A. Bour; S. Rasquin; I. Aben; A. Boreas; M. Limburg; F. Verhey

2010-01-01

230

Interpersonal Theory and Adolescents with Depression: Clinical Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides mental health counselors with information about the prevalence and course of adolescent depression, other empirically tested treatments for adolescent depression, an explanation of Interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A) treatment protocol, and results of outcome studies on the effectiveness of IPT-A. Suggestions…

Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Beamish, Patricia M.

2002-01-01

231

Boosting Bioluminescence Neuroimaging: An Optimized Protocol for Brain Studies  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (iv, ip, sc), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000–300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23405190

Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias

2013-01-01

232

Prophylactic onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with chronic migraine and comorbid depression: An open-label, multicenter, pilot study of efficacy, safety and effect on headache-related disability, depression, and anxiety  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic migraine is associated with significant headache-related disability and psychiatric comorbidity. OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) is effective and well tolerated in the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine. This study aimed to provide preliminary data on the efficacy and safety of prophylactic onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with chronic migraine and comorbid depressive symptoms. Methods This was a prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot study. Eligible patients met International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd edition Revision criteria for chronic migraine and had associated depressive symptoms, including Patient Health Questionnaire depression module scores of 5–19. Eligible participants received 155 units of onabotulinumtoxinA, according to the PREEMPT protocol, at baseline and week 12. Assessments included headache frequency, the Headache Impact Test™, the Migraine Disability Assessment, the Beck Depression Inventory®-II, the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression module, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire. Adverse events were also monitored. Results Overall, 32 participants received treatment. At week 24, there were statistically significant mean (standard deviation [SD]) improvements relative to baseline in the number of headache/migraine-free days (+8.2 [5.8]) (P<0.0001) and in the number of headache/migraine days (?8.2 [5.8]) (P<0.0001) per 30-day period. In addition, there were significant improvements in Headache Impact Test scores (?6.3 [6.9]) (P=0.0001) and Migraine Disability Assessment scores (?44.2 [67.5]) (P=0.0058). From baseline to week 24, statistically significant improvements were also seen in Beck Depression Inventory-II (?7.9 [6.0]) (P<0.0001), Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (?4.3 [4.7]) (P<0.0001), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (?3.5 [5.0]) (P=0.0002) scores. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events considered related to treatment occurred in 30% of patients and were mild or moderate. Conclusion Prophylactic onabotulinumtoxinA was well tolerated in patients with chronic migraine and comorbid depression, and was effective in reducing headache frequency, impact, and related disability, which led to statistically significant improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:25733924

Boudreau, Guy P; Grosberg, Brian M; McAllister, Peter J; Lipton, Richard B; Buse, Dawn C

2015-01-01

233

No Association between Fish Intake and Depression in over 15,000 Older Adults from Seven Low and Middle Income Countries–The 10/66 Study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence on the association between fish consumption and depression is inconsistent and virtually non-existent from low- and middle-income countries. Using a standard protocol, we aim to assess the association of fish consumption and late-life depression in seven low- and middle-income countries. Methodology/Findings We used cross-sectional data from the 10/66 cohort study and applied two diagnostic criteria for late-life depression to assess the association between categories of weekly fish consumption and depression according to ICD-10 and the EURO-D depression symptoms scale scores, adjusting for relevant confounders. All-catchment area surveys were carried out in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India, and over 15,000 community-dwelling older adults (65+) were sampled. Using Poisson models the adjusted association between categories of fish consumption and ICD-10 depression was positive in India (p for trend?=?0.001), inverse in Peru (p?=?0.025), and not significant in all other countries. We found a linear inverse association between fish consumption categories and EURO-D scores only in Cuba (p for trend ?=?0.039) and China (p<0.001); associations were not significant in all other countries. Between-country heterogeneity was marked for both ICD-10 (I2>61%) and EURO-D criteria (I2>66%). Conclusions The associations of fish consumption with depression in large samples of older adults varied markedly across countries and by depression diagnosis and were explained by socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Experimental studies in these settings are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:22723900

Albanese, Emiliano; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Dangour, Alan D.; Guerra, Mariella; Acosta, Daisy; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan de Jesus; Salas, Aquiles; Schönborn, Claudia; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.

2012-01-01

234

Religiosity and Major Depression in Adults at High Risk: A Ten-Year Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Previously the authors found that personal importance of religion or spirituality was associated with a lower risk for major depression in a study of adults with and without a history of depression. Here the authors examine the association of personal importance of religion or spirituality with major depression in the adult offspring of the original sample using a 10-year prospective longitudinal design. Method Participants were 114 adult offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents, followed longitudinally. The analysis covers the period from the 10-year to the 20-year follow-up assessments. Diagnosis was assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia–Lifetime Version. Religiosity measures included personal importance of religion or spirituality, frequency of attendance at religious services, and denomination (all participants were Catholic or Protestant). In a logistic regression analysis, major depression at 20 years was used as the outcome measure and the three religiosity variables at 10 years as predictors. Results Offspring who reported at year 10 that religion or spirituality was highly important to them had about one-fourth the risk of experiencing major depression between years 10 and 20 compared with other participants. Religious attendance and denomination did not significantly predict this outcome. The effect was most pronounced among offspring at high risk for depression by virtue of having a depressed parent; in this group, those who reported a high importance of religion or spirituality had about one-tenth the risk of experiencing major depression between years 10 and 20 compared with those who did not. The protective effect was found primarily against recurrence rather than onset of depression. Conclusions A high self-report rating of the importance of religion or spirituality may have a protective effect against recurrence of depression, particularly in adults with a history of parental depression. PMID:21865527

Miller, Lisa; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gameroff, Marc J.; Sage, Mia; Tenke, Craig E.; Weissman, Myrna M.

2013-01-01

235

Genome-wide Association Study of Suicidal Ideation Emerging During Citalopram Treatment of Depressed Outpatients  

PubMed Central

Suicidal ideation is an uncommon but worrisome symptom than can emerge during antidepressant treatment. We have previously described association between treatment emergent suicidal ideation (TESI) and markers in genes encoding the glutamate receptors GRIK2 and GRIA3. The present genome-wide association study was conducted to identify additional genetic markers associated with TESI that may help identify individuals at high-risk who may benefit from closer monitoring, alternative treatments, and/or specialty care. A clinically-representative cohort of outpatients with non-psychotic major depressive disorder enrolled in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial were treated with citalopram under a standard protocol for up to 14 weeks. DNA samples from 90 white participants who developed TESI and a gender and race matched equal number of treated participants who denied any suicidal ideas were genotyped with 109,365 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Illumina's Human-1 BeadChip. One marker was found to be associated with TESI in this sample at the experiment-wide adjusted p<0.05 level (marker rs11628713, allelic p= 6.2 × 10-7, OR = 4.7, permutation p=0.01). A second marker was associated at the experiment-wide adjusted p=0.06 level (rs10903034, allelic p = 3.02× 10-6, OR = 2.7, permutation p=0.06). These markers reside within the genes PAPLN and IL28RA, respectively. PAPLN encodes papilin, a protoglycan-like sulfated glycoprotein. IL28RA encodes an interleukin receptor. Together with our previous report, these findings may shed light on the biological basis of TESI and may help identify patients at increased risk of this potentially serious adverse event. PMID:19724244

Laje, Gonzalo; Allen, Andrew S.; Akula, Nirmala; Manji, Husseini; Rush, A. John; McMahon, Francis J.

2010-01-01

236

Does resilience 'buffer' against depression in prostate cancer patients? A multi-site replication study.  

PubMed

Although psychological resilience has been shown to 'buffer' against depression following major stressors, no studies have reported on this relationship within the prostate cancer (PCa) population, many of whom are at elevated risk of depression, health problems and suicide. To investigate the effects of resilience upon anxiety and depression in the PCa population, postal surveys of 425 PCa patients were collected from two sites: 189 PCa patients at site 1 and 236 at site 2. Background data plus responses to depression and resilience scales were collected. Results indicated that total resilience score was a significant buffer against depression across both sites. Resilience had different underlying component factor structures across sites, but only one (common) factor significantly (inversely) predicted depression. Within that factor, only some specific items significantly predicted depression scores, suggesting a focused relationship between resilience and depression. It may be concluded that measures of resilience may be used to screen depression at-risk PCa patients. These patients might benefit from resilience training to enhance their ability to cope effectively with the stress of their diagnosis and treatment. A focus upon specific aspects of overall resilience may be of further benefit in both these processes. PMID:24506500

Sharpley, C F; Bitsika, V; Wootten, A C; Christie, D R H

2014-07-01

237

Untreated depression in the first trimester of pregnancy leads to postpartum depression: high rates from a natural follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background This is a natural follow-up study that presents the postpartum results of women who experienced depression during pregnancy. Methods This study involved 78 women diagnosed with depression in the first trimester of pregnancy. All patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) in the first trimester and all were referred to a psychiatric center for treatment. Of the 78, 73 were contacted postpartum and reassessed by SCID-I. Treatment anamnesis was evaluated retrospectively. Results The women were divided into two groups at the postpartum evaluation according to anamnesis of psychiatric treatment. Twenty-one of the 73 (28.7%) had received treatment during pregnancy (treated group). Fifty-two women had not been treated (untreated group). In the treated group, no postpartum depression was determined (0%). In the untreated group, 92% (n=48) of women had a depressive disorder postpartum (P<0.01). In addition, scores regarding depression, functionality, and perceived social support were worse postpartum for the untreated group. Conclusion Untreated depression during pregnancy is an important predictor of postpartum depression. This natural follow-up study is important because it presents very striking rates of postpartum depression. Referral of patients with depression during pregnancy to psychiatric treatment should be provided and is strongly encouraged. PMID:25737636

Yazici, Esra; Kirkan, Tulay Sati; Aslan, Puren Akcali; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

2015-01-01

238

Divided Visual Field Study of Depression, Cognition, and Mood  

E-print Network

such as the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, DAS, Weissman & Beck, 1988), and automatic thoughts (e.g., Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, Hollon & Kendall, 1980) often fail to detect these dysfunctional cognitions in previously depressed, euthymic individuals (reviewed...

Garratt, Genevieve

2007-11-26

239

Depression and Work Performance: The Work and Health Initiative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Depression, a chronic, episodic condition affecting at least 4.9% of the working age population (Blazer et al.1994), causes\\u000a substantial functional limitation and social role disability (Wells 1985, 1997; Wells et al. 1991). Since Wells et al. (1989)\\u000a first reported on the disabling impact of depression in the 1980s, evidence of its human and economic burdens has continued\\u000a to accumulate (Druss

Debra Lerner; David Adler; Richard C. Hermann; William H. Rogers; Hong Chang; Pamella Thomas; Annabel Greenhill; Katherine Perch

240

Cognitive evolutionary therapy for depression: a case study  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message We present an evolutionary-driven cognitive–behavioral intervention for a moderately depressed patient. Standard cognitive and behavioral therapy techniques focused on the patient's perfectionistic and self-downing beliefs, while novel, evolutionary-informed techniques were used to guide behavioral activation and conceptualize secondary emotional problems related to anger. The treatment reduced depressive symptomatology and increased evolutionary fitness. PMID:25614817

Giosan, Cezar; Muresan, Vlad; Moldovan, Ramona

2014-01-01

241

School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

2009-01-01

242

Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS).

JOHN CURRY; PAUL ROHDE; ANNE SIMONS; SUSAN SILVA; BENEDETTO VITIELLO; CHRISTOPHER KRATOCHVIL; MARK REINECKE; NORAH FEENY; KAREN WELLS; SANJEEV PATHAK; ELIZABETH WELLER; DAVID ROSENBERG; BETSY KENNARD; MICHELE ROBINS; GOLDA GINSBURG; JOHN MARCH

2006-01-01

243

A prospective study of the association between endogenous hormones and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women  

E-print Network

SECTION 1 A prospective study of the association between endogenous hormones and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women Running Title: Postmenopausal hormone levels and depression Joanne Ryan of Melbourne. Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research received grants from Organon Pty Ltd for the hormone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

2010-01-01

245

School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

2009-01-01

246

A Randomised Study Comparing Escitalopram with Venlafaxine XR in Primary Care Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 8-week, randomised, double-blind study compared the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram to that of venlafaxine XR in primary care patients with major depressive disorder. The efficacy of escitalopram (10– 20 mg; n = 148) was similar to venlafaxine XR (75– 150 mg; n = 145), based on mean change from baseline to week 8 in Montgomery and Åsberg Depression

S. A. Montgomery; A. K. T. Huusom; J. Bothmer

2004-01-01

247

A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

2011-01-01

248

Prefrontal white matter abnormalities in young adult with major depressive disorder: A diffusion tensor imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prefrontal impairments have been hypothesized to be most strongly associated with the cognitive and emotional dysfunction in depression. Recently, white matter microstructural abnormalities in prefrontal lobe have been reported in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, it is still unclear whether the same changes exist in younger patients. In the present study, we

Lingjiang Li; Ning Ma; Zexuan Li; Liwen Tan; Jun Liu; Gaolang Gong; Ni Shu; Zhong He; Tianzi Jiang; Lin Xu

2007-01-01

249

Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

2006-01-01

250

Assessing the Saskatchewan database for outcomes research studies of depression and its treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of using the Saskatchewan Health administrative claims databases for conducting depression research. To develop a claims-based definition of depression, we identified a cohort of individuals who began a “new” period of antidepressant use (no use 180 days prior) from which we selected a stratified random sample (n = 600) for medical record

Suzanne L West; Anke Richter; Catherine A Melfi; Mary McNutt; Marianne E Nennstiel; Josephine A Mauskopf

2000-01-01

251

Anemia Is Associated With Depression in Older Adults: Results From the InCHIANTI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Depression is a common disorder among older adults, and it has been associated with adverse outcomes, including increased risk of morbidity and mortality as well as incomplete or delayed recovery from illness and disability. The objective of this study was to examine whether depressive symptoms and anemia are associated among older adults living in the community. Methods. We used

Graziano Onder; Brenda W. J. H. Penninx; Matteo Cesari; Stefania Bandinelli; Fulvio Lauretani; Benedetta Bartali; Anna Maria Gori; Marco Pahor; Luigi Ferrucci

2005-01-01

252

Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

2010-01-01

253

Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

2006-01-01

254

The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

2006-01-01

255

Depression and Dementia in Aging Adults with Down Syndrome: A Case Study Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of three adults (ages 46-47) with Down syndrome investigated the patterns of symptoms associated with depression and dementia. Characteristics that distinguish between dementia and depression in adults with Down syndrome are described. Periodic comprehensive assessment of adults with Down syndrome to detect functioning changes is…

Sung, Hyunsook; And Others

1997-01-01

256

Rumination and Depression in Adolescence: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multiwave Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted…

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2008-01-01

257

Validation study of a Portuguese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to develop and assess metric proprieties of the Portuguese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A sequential sample includes 1322 participants diagnosed with cancer, stroke, epilepsy, coronary heart disease, diabetes, myotonic dystrophy, obstructive sleep apnoea, depression and a non-disease group, which completed the HADS. The first step includes translation, retroversion, inspection for lexical equivalence and

J. Pais-Ribeiro; I. Silva; T. Ferreira; A. Martins; R. Meneses; M. Baltar

2007-01-01

258

A Study of Autobiographical Memories in Depressed and Nondepressed Elderly Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used autobiographical memory task to study memory processes and depression in 27 nondepressed and 27 depressed older adults who each recalled 30 memories. Results were consistent with mood congruence hypothesis, in that participants recalled more memories affectively consistent with current mood, and self-enhancement view of reminiscing, such that…

Yang, Janet Anderson; Rehm, Lynn P.

1993-01-01

259

School-Based Prevention of Depression: A Randomised Controlled Study of the "beyondblue" Schools Research Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressive disorders are experienced by 3-5% of the adolescent population at any point of time. They adversely affect adolescent development in a range of areas and greatly increase risk for suicide. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a universal intervention designed to reduce depressive symptoms among students…

Sawyer, Michael G.; Pfeiffer, Sara; Spence, Susan H.; Bond, Lyndal; Graetz, Brian; Kay, Debra; Patton, George; Sheffield, Jeanie

2010-01-01

260

Neurasthenia and depression: A study of somatization and culture in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews conceptual and empirical issues regarding the interaction of neurasthenia, somatization and depression in Chinese culture and in the West. The historical background of neurasthenia and its current status are discussed, along with the epidemiology and phenomenology of somatization and depression. Findings are presented from a combined clinical and anthropological field study of 100 patients with neurasthenia in

Arthur Kleinman

1982-01-01

261

Age-related differences in suicidality between young people and older adults with depression: data from a nationwide depression cohort study in Korea (the CRESCEND study).  

PubMed

This study compared young people and older adults with depression to identify differences in suicidality between these groups. A total of 1003 patients with moderate to severe depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] score ?14) were recruited from a national sample of 18 hospitals. Of the patients included in this study, 103 (10.3%) were placed in the younger group (age <25years) and 900 (89.7%) were placed in the older group (age ?25years). Suicide-related variables and predictive factors associated with significant suicidal ideation were compared between the two groups. Regardless of the severity of depression, subjects in the younger group were more likely than were those in the older group to report significant suicidal ideation (scores ?6 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [SSI-B], 79.6 vs. 53.7%, respectively; p<0.001), have had a suicide attempt at the current episode (4.9 vs. 1.6%, respectively; p=0.037), and have a history of suicide attempts (43.7 vs. 19.4%, respectively; p<0.001). Logistic regression models revealed that, in contrast to the predictive factors in the older group, subjects in the younger group were more affected by their history of suicide attempts (OR [95% CI]: 12.4, [1.5-99.1]; p=0.018) and depressive episodes (OR [95% CI]: 13.0, [1.6-104.0]; p=0.016). Also in contrast to the older group, an increase in HDRS score was not identified as a possible precipitating factor of significant suicidal ideation in younger subjects. The present findings demonstrate that suicidality in depressed young people was more severe than in older adults, but that suicidality was not correlated with the severity of depression. These data suggest that close attention should be paid to young people even in mild or moderate depression. PMID:25459419

Seo, Ho-Jun; Song, Hoo Rim; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn

2015-01-01

262

Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.  

PubMed

Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ?10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ?8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

2015-02-01

263

Childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood: the 1970 British Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Sleeping difficulties in childhood have been associated with an increased risk of depression in adult life, but existing studies have not accounted for comorbid maternal sleeping difficulties and depression. This study aimed to determine the association between childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood after adjusting for the potential confounding influences of maternal depression and sleeping difficulties. Data from the British Cohort Study 1970, a prospective birth cohort with 30 years of follow-up (1975-2005) were used. At 5 years of age, 7437 parents of participants recorded information on whether their child had sleeping difficulties, the frequency of bed-wetting, nightmares, maternal depression and sleep difficulties. At 34 years of age, participants reported whether or not they had received medical treatment for depression in the past year. Parental reports of severe sleeping difficulties at 5 years were associated with an increased risk of depression at age 34 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 3.2] whereas moderate sleeping difficulties were not (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.3). In conclusion, severe sleeping problems in childhood may be associated with increased susceptibility to depression in adult life. PMID:25178397

Greene, Giles; Gregory, Alice M; Fone, David; White, James

2015-02-01

264

Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Healthy couple relationships are fundamental to a healthy society, whereas relationship breakdown and discord are linked to a wide range of negative health and wellbeing outcomes. Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education) have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind. This study protocol describes an effectiveness evaluation of the two types of community-based relationship services. The aims of the Evaluation of Couple Counselling study are to: map the profiles of clients seeking agency-based couple counselling and relationship enhancement programs in terms of socio-demographic, relationship, health, and health service use indicators; to determine 3 and 12-month outcomes for relationship satisfaction, commitment, and depression; and determine relative contributions of client and therapy factors to outcomes. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental pre-post-post evaluation design is used to assess outcomes for couples presenting for the two types of community-based relationship services. The longitudinal design involves a pre-treatment survey and two follow-up surveys at 3- and 12-months post-intervention. The study is set in eight Relationships Australia Victoria centres, across metropolitan, outer suburbs, and regional/rural sites. Relationships Australia, a non-government organisation, is the largest provider of couple counselling and relationship services in Australia. The key outcomes are couple satisfaction, relationship commitment, and depression measured by the CESD-10. Multi-level modelling will be used to account for the dyadic nature of couple data. Discussion The study protocol describes the first large scale investigation of the effectiveness of two types of relationship services to be conducted in Australia. Its significance lies in providing more detailed profiles of couples who seek relationship services, in evaluating both 3 and 12-month relationship and health outcomes, and in determining factors that best predict improvements. It builds on prior research by using a naturalistic sample, an effectiveness research design, a more robust measure of relationship satisfaction, robust health indicators, a 12-month follow-up period, and a more rigorous statistical procedure suitable for dyadic data. Findings will provide a more precise description of those seeking relationship services and factors associated with improved relationship and health outcomes. PMID:22943742

2012-01-01

265

Vitamin D status in chronic dialysis patients with depression: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is the most widely acknowledged psychological problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Depression may be associated with VD deficiency. The aims of this study are to (a) elucidate the prospective association between HsCRP, VD contents and depressive symptoms in the dialyzed population, and (b) find the effect of calcitriol supplementation on depression in dialyzed patients. Methods In this prospective study, 484 dialysis patients (382 hemodialysis [HD] cases and 102 peritoneal dialysis [PD] cases; aged 18–60 years) from two hospitals in southeast China were included. The depression in these patients was evaluated using the Chinese version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). All subjects answered the BDI-I questionnaire for assessment of depression levels in summer. A cut-off value of 16 was set to include dialysis patients with depression. All patients were divided into two groups depending on the absence (Group1) or presence (Group 2) of depression. The two groups took 0.5 ?g/day 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D orally for one year. BDI Scores were recalculated for all patients. Sociodemographic, clinical data, and serum VD contents were also collected. Results A total of 484 participants (247 men [51.0%] and 237 women [49.0%]) were surveyed. Depressive symptoms were found in 213 (44.0%) patients. The baseline serum VD level (VD2?+?VD3) was 17.6?±?7.7 nmol/L. Patients with depressive symptoms have significantly higher serum HsCRP level and significantly lower serum VD level compared with the control group. After one-year follow-up, the supplementation of 0.5 ?g/day calcitriol slightly improved the microinflammatory state such as lowering mean serum HsCRP level and improving serum VD level, but not in significantly enhancing the depressive symptoms. Conclusions Calcitriol supplementation did not significantly enhance the depressive symptoms in our dialyzed population although patients with low levels of serum VD were more depressed. Therefore, more prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to reveal the exact cause-and-effect relationship between VD status and depressive symptoms or VD status related to some specific subtypes in dialyzed patients. PMID:24774860

2014-01-01

266

Depression in childhood and adolescence. A prospective study of six cases.  

PubMed

Two cases of recurrent major depression, three cases of dysthymic disorder (depressive neurosis), and one of adjustment disorder with depressed mood beginning in childhood or adolescence have been identified in the 133 subjects of the New York Longitudinal Study. The prospective behavioral data from early infancy to early adult life in each of the six cases are summarized. Differences in etiology are emphasized and the implications for treatment indicated. There was no evidence for a separate clinical entity of depression for the childhood period. Review of the longitudinal data did not show a significant earlier life tendency to negative mood temperamentally. The dysthymic and adjustment disorder cases also did not show significant differences in environmental stresses or parental functioning from other clinical cases in the longitudinal study without depressive symptoms. PMID:6864198

Chess, S; Thomas, A; Hassibi, M

1983-07-01

267

Prevalence of Depression among Infertile Couples in Iran: A Meta-Analysis Study  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have been conducted in Iran in order to investigate the prevalence of depression among infertile couples. However, there is a remarkable diversity among the results. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate an overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran. Methods: International and national electronic databases were searched up to June 2011 including MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, SID, MagIran, and IranMedex as well as conference databases. Furthermore, reference lists of articles were screened and the studies’ authors were contacted for additional references. Cross-sectional studies addressing the prevalence of depression among infertile couples were included in this meta-analysis. We assessed 12 separate studies involving overall 2818 participants of which 1251 had depression. Results: Overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.55). The prevalence rate of depression was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.56) during 2000 to 2005 and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.57 during 2006 to 2011. The prevalence rate of depression was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.53) among women and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.54) among men. Conclusion: Not only the prevalence of depression in infertile couples was high but also had increasing growth in recent years. Furthermore, despite many studies conducted addressing the prevalence of depression in infertile couples, there is however a remarkable diversity between the results. Thus, one can hardly give a precise estimation of the prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran now. PMID:23802102

MASOUMI, Seyyedeh Zahra; POOROLAJAL, Jalal; KERAMAT, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Seyyed Abbas

2013-01-01

268

An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method, and was capable of removing virtually all S0 from the pyrite grains. As pyrite oxidation and dissolution processes are surface-dependent, and even the slightest coating by Fe2+ or sulfide oxidation products can sharply decrease pyrite reactivity, the improved removal of S0 prevents such decreases and allows clearer insights into pyrite reaction mechanisms to be gained from experimental studies. In addition to S0 removal, the suggested method was shown not to introduce any biases in the particle size distribution. The main difference observed between the two protocols is the removal of larger amounts of surface-attached fine particles in the proposed method along with S0. This also removes a potential bias, associated with the surface area of pyrite available for chemical reaction. The suggested pyrite pretreatment protocol is more efficient in removal of S0 contamination from pyrite grains and provides multiple advantages for both kinetic and isotopic investigations of pyrite transformations under various environmental conditions.

Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

2014-05-01

269

Gender differences in depression: an ethological study of nonverbal behavior during interviews.  

PubMed

Previous studies of gender differences in the phenomenology of depression have focused mostly on symptoms as measured by self-report questionnaires or clinician-rated scales. In this study, we examined gender differences in the interpersonal behavior of depressed patients by using ethological techniques which involve direct observation of behavior. The nonverbal behavior of 72 nondepressed volunteers and 68 patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of nonpsychotic unipolar depression was videorecorded during clinical interviews and scored according to an ethological scoring system including 37 behavior patterns, mostly facial expressions and hand movements. Both male and female depressed patients showed a global restriction of nonverbal expressiveness reflecting a tendency towards social withdrawal. Nonverbal expression of hostility was the only behavioral category on which depressed patients scored higher than nondepressed volunteers. Even though clinical status exerted marked effects on the ethological profile, depression did not obscure some important differences in the nonverbal behavior of males and females. As a group, depressed women showed more socially interactive behaviors than depressed men. Their modality of interacting included higher levels both of nonverbal hostility and of submissive and affiliative behaviors. These results are discussed in view of clinical data indicating a relationship between gender, style of social interaction and response to antidepressant drugs. PMID:10367990

Troisi, A; Moles, A

1999-01-01

270

Hippocampal neurometabolite changes in depression treatment: a (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

Previous studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy have related abnormalities in hippocampal metabolism to depression. Current evidence is consistent with the conclusion that the hippocampal formation plays an important role in the presentation of depressive symptoms. Eighteen adult patients with major depressive disorder, aged 20 to 60 years, underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus during a period of depressive symptomatology and after 7-11 weeks of antidepressant medication with at least 50% reduction in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale ()MADRS score. During therapy, we found a significantly decreased Lac/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus. The Ins/Cr ratio showed a significant negative correlation with the severity of depression as assessed by the MADRS at baseline. Moreover, we found a negative association of NAA/Cho with age and a positive association of Cho/Cr with age, both on the left and right sides at baseline. In light of our findings and previous studies results we hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction leading to predominantly anaerobic glycolysis in connection with the intracellular signaling pathways disturbances and decreased astrocytic function/number might subsequently lead to decreased brain neuroplasticity in depression. These mechanisms could be positively influenced by antidepressant treatment with selective serotonin or norepineprine reuptake inhibitors, with potential effects on untimely neuronal aging in depression. PMID:22507761

Husarova, Veronika; Bittsansky, Michal; Ondrejka, Igor; Kerna, Valeria; Dobrota, Dusan

2012-03-31

271

Predictors of Dementia Caregiver Depressive Symptoms in a Population: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Previous research has consistently reported elevated rates of depressive symptoms in dementia caregivers, but mostly with convenience samples. This study examined rates and correlates of depression at the baseline visit of a population sample of dementia caregivers (N = 256). Method. Using a modified version of Williams (Williams, I. C. [2005]. Emotional health of black and white dementia caregivers: A contextual examination. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, P287–P295) ecological contextual model, we examined 5 contexts that have contributed to dementia caregiver depression. A series of linear regressions were performed to determine correlates of depression. Results. Rates of depressive symptoms were lower than those reported in most convenience studies. We found fewer depressive symptoms in caregivers with higher levels of education and larger social support networks, fewer health problems, greater likelihood of using problem-focused coping, and less likelihood of wishful thinking and with fewer behavioral disturbances in the persons with dementia. Discussion. These results suggest that depression may be less prevalent in populations of dementia caregivers than in clinic-based samples, but that the correlates of depression are similar for both population and convenience samples. Interventions targeting individuals with small support networks, emotion-focused coping styles, poorer health, low quality of life, and those caring for persons with higher numbers of behavioral problems need development and testing. PMID:23241850

2013-01-01

272

Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens  

PubMed Central

A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic interpersonal events (physical/sexual abuse or witnessing domestic violence). First, we provide an empirical rationale for targeting executive function deficits and trauma-related cognitions in the mCBT protocol. Second, we present promising results from 2 community clinic cases. PMID:25598651

DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

273

Clinical characteristics of depression among adolescent females: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents rarely seek psychiatric help; they even hesitate to disclose their feelings to their parents. However; the adolescents especially the females experience depressive symptoms more frequently than general population. Do they experience classic depressive symptoms? Are there symptoms specific to this subpopulation? Aim of the study Through this study, the authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive disorders in Egyptian adolescent female students. They also expected a characteristic profile of symptoms for the adolescent females. However available literature provides no guidance in the description of this profile of symptoms. Methods A number of 602 adolescent females were interviewed, and subjected to General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); Children Depression Inventory (CDI), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I), then Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D). Results were analyzed by the use of SPSS-15. Results The study revealed the prevalence of depression in the sample of the study to be 15.3% (measured by CDI), and 13.3% (measured by SCID-I). Fatigue was the most common presenting depressive symptom (81.3%), in addition to other emotional, cognitive and physiological symptoms. Suicidal ideations were the most common suicidal symptoms in depressed adolescent females (20%), with 2.5% serious suicidal attempts. Conclusions The somatic symptoms were by far the most common presenting symptom for female adolescents suffering from depressive disorders. Depressive phenomena including unexplained fatigue, decreased energy, psychomotor changes, lack of concentration, weight changes and suicidal ideations may be the presenting complaints instead of the classic sad mood. PMID:20932340

2010-01-01

274

Children of Treatment-Seeking Depressed Mothers: A Comparison with the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Child Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study ancillary…

Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.

2012-01-01

275

Internet-based treatment of major depression for patients on a waiting list for inpatient psychotherapy: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and severe disorder. Although effective treatments for MDD are available, many patients remain untreated, mainly because of insufficient treatment capacities in the health care system. Resulting waiting periods are often associated with prolonged suffering and impairment as well as a higher risk of chronification. Web-based interventions may help to alleviate these problems. Numerous studies provided evidence for the efficacy of web-based interventions for depression. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new web-based guided self-help intervention (GET.ON-Mood Enhancer-WL) specifically developed for patients waiting to commence inpatient therapy for MDD. Methods In a two-armed randomised controlled trial (n?=?200), the web-based guided intervention GET.ON-Mood Enhancer-WL in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) will be compared with TAU alone. The intervention contains six modules (psycho education, behavioural activation I & II, problem solving I & II, and preparation for subsequent inpatient depression therapy). The participants will be supported by an e-coach, who will provide written feedback after each module. Inclusion criteria include a diagnosis of MDD assessed with a structured clinical interview [SCID] and a waiting period of at least three weeks before start of inpatient treatment. The primary outcome is observer-rated depressive symptom severity (HRSD24). Further (explorative) questions include whether remission will be achieved earlier and by more patients during inpatient therapy because of the web-based preparatory intervention. Discussion If GET.ON-Mood Enhancer-WL is proven to be effective, patients may start inpatient therapy with reduced depressive symptom severity, ideally leading to higher remission rates, shortened inpatient therapy, reduced costs, and decreased waiting times. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00004708. PMID:24279841

2013-01-01

276

Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

2015-01-01

277

Neural Changes following Behavioral Activation for a Depressed Breast Cancer Patient: A Functional MRI Case Study.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007). A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsiveness at pre- and posttreatment. Following treatment, the patient exhibited attenuated depression and changes in blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) response in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the subgenual cingulate cortex. These preliminary findings outline a novel means to assess psychotherapy efficacy and suggest that BATD elicits functional brain changes in areas implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Further research is necessary to explore neurobiological mechanisms of change in BATD, particularly the potential mediating effects of reward responsiveness and associated brain functioning. PMID:22953146

Gawrysiak, Michael J; Carvalho, John P; Rogers, Baxter P; Nicholas, Christopher R N; Dougherty, John H; Hopko, Derek R

2012-01-01

278

Distinguishing between level and impact of rumination as predictors of depressive symptoms: An experience sampling study.  

PubMed

Rumination-repetitively thinking about one's emotional state, its causes and consequences-exacerbates negative mood and plays an important role in the aetiology and maintenance of depression. Yet, it is unclear whether increased vulnerability to depression is associated with simply how much a person ruminates, or the short-term impact rumination has on a person's negative mood. In the current study, we distinguish between the level versus the impact of rumination, and we examine how each uniquely predicts changes in depressive symptoms over time in an undergraduate sample. Using experience sampling, we assessed students' (N = 101) subjective experiences of positive and negative affect and their use of rumination and distraction in daily life for seven days. Participants also reported their depressive symptoms before and after the experience sampling. Increases in depressive symptoms over the week were predicted by how much people ruminated, but not by its impact on negative mood. PMID:24979309

Pasyugina, Irina; Koval, Peter; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kuppens, Peter

2015-06-01

279

Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Insomnia in Depressive Disorders: The CRESCEND Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and clinical correlates of insomnia in a large cohort of Korean patients with depressive disorders. Methods We recruited 944 patients with depressive disorders from the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea (CRESCEND) study. Psychometric scales were used to assess depression (HAMD), anxiety (HAMA), psychotic symptoms (BPRS), global severity (CGI-S), and functioning (SOFAS). Insomnia levels were determined by adding the scores for all items on the HAMD insomnia subscale. The clinical characteristics of the patients with 'low insomnia' (summed score ?3 on the HAMD subscale) and 'high insomnia' (score ?4) were compared using statistical analyses. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with 'high insomnia' status. Results Symptoms of insomnia were present in 93% of patients, while simultaneous early, middle, and late insomnia affected 64.1%. The high insomnia patients were characterized by significantly greater age, higher symptom levels (including core, gastrointestinal somatic and anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation), higher global severity and incidence of physical disorders, and greater insight. Explanatory factors of 'high insomnia' status were older age, higher gastrointestinal somatic and anxiety symptom levels, higher global severity, and greater insight. Conclusion In clinical psychiatry, insomnia has been significantly underdiagnosed and undertreated. It affects most patients with depressive disorders, and is indicative of the global severity of depression. Active efforts to diagnose and treat insomnia in patients with depressive disorders should be strongly encouraged. Further research is needed to improve the diagnosis and treatment of insomnia in depressive patients. PMID:24474986

Park, Seon-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Hee

2013-01-01

280

Patients understanding of depression associated with chronic physical illness: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of depression can be difficult in primary care, particularly when associated with chronic illness. Patient beliefs may affect detection and subsequent engagement with management. We explored patient beliefs about the nature of depression associated with physical illness. Methods A qualitative interview study of patients registered with general practices in Leeds, UK. We invited patients with coronary heart disease or diabetes from primary care to participate in semi-structured interviews exploring their beliefs and experiences. We analysed transcripts using a thematic approach, extended to consider narratives as important contextual elements. Results We interviewed 26 patients, including 17 with personal experience of depression. We developed six themes: recognising a problem, complex causality, the role of the primary care, responsibility, resilience, and the role of their life story. Participants did not consistently talk about depression as an illness-like disorder. They described a change in their sense of self against the background of their life stories. Participants were unsure about seeking help from general practitioners (GPs) and felt a personal responsibility to overcome depression themselves. Chronic illness, as opposed to other life pressures, was seen as a justifiable cause of depression. Conclusions People with chronic illness do not necessarily regard depression as an easily defined illness, especially outside of the context of their life stories. Efforts to engage patients with chronic illness in the detection and management of depression may need further tailoring to accommodate beliefs about how people view themselves, responsibility and negative views of treatment. PMID:24555886

2014-01-01

281

Childhood loneliness as a predictor of adolescent depressive symptoms: an 8-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Childhood loneliness is characterised by children's perceived dissatisfaction with aspects of their social relationships. This 8-year prospective study investigates whether loneliness in childhood predicts depressive symptoms in adolescence, controlling for early childhood indicators of emotional problems and a sociometric measure of peer social preference. 296 children were tested in the infant years of primary school (T1 5 years of age), in the upper primary school (T2 9 years of age) and in secondary school (T3 13 years of age). At T1, children completed the loneliness assessment and sociometric interview. Their teachers completed externalisation and internalisation rating scales for each child. At T2, children completed a loneliness assessment, a measure of depressive symptoms, and the sociometric interview. At T3, children completed the depressive symptom assessment. An SEM analysis showed that depressive symptoms in early adolescence (age 13) were predicted by reports of depressive symptoms at age 8, which were themselves predicted by internalisation in the infant school (5 years). The interactive effect of loneliness at 5 and 9, indicative of prolonged loneliness in childhood, also predicted depressive symptoms at age 13. Parent and peer-related loneliness at age 5 and 9, peer acceptance variables, and duration of parent loneliness did not predict depression. Our results suggest that enduring peer-related loneliness during childhood constitutes an interpersonal stressor that predisposes children to adolescent depressive symptoms. Possible mediators are discussed. PMID:19777287

Qualter, Pamela; Brown, Stephen L; Munn, Penny; Rotenberg, Ken J

2010-06-01

282

An Ethnographic Study of Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing John H. Gennari Ph.D.1  

E-print Network

Behavior, Group Processes, Collaborative Writing Introduction Protocol documents are essential for carryingAn Ethnographic Study of Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing John H. Gennari Ph.D.1 documents play an important role in clinical research. However, clinical protocol writing remains a complex

McDonald, David W.

283

A Performance Study of Context Transfer Protocol for QoS Support  

E-print Network

A Performance Study of Context Transfer Protocol for QoS Support Novella Bartolini1 , Paolo Protocol can improve the QoS perceived by mobile nodes that access context dependent services protocol run on top of IPv6 with fast handover mechanisms. 1 Introduction Nowadays internet services

Bartolini, Novella

284

Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

Tanaka, Fumihiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Systems Engineering; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

1996-12-31

285

Consequences of major and minor depression in later life: a study of diability, well-being and service utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The consequences of major depression for disability, impaired well-being and service utilization have been studied primarily in younger adults. In all age groups the consequences of minor depression are virtually unknown. In later life, the increased co-morbidity with physical illness may modify the consequences of depression, warranting special study of the elderly. With rising numbers of elderly people, excess

D. J. H. Deeg; A. W. Braam; J. H. Smit; Tilburg van W; W. VAN TILBURG

1997-01-01

286

Adjunctive triple chronotherapy (combined total sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy) rapidly improves mood and suicidality in suicidal depressed inpatients: an open label pilot study.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N = 10, Mean age = 44 ± 16.4 SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33-36 h), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-min sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7 ± 4.2 SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4 ± 7.3 SD on day five (p = .002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5 ± 8.5 SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2 ± 5.5 SD on day five (p = .01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed. PMID:25231629

Sahlem, Gregory L; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S; Uhde, Thomas W; George, Mark S; Short, E Baron

2014-12-01

287

Body-Image and Eating Disturbances Predict Onset of Depression Among Female Adolescents A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined data from a 4-year school-based longitudinal study ( n = 1,124), to test whether the increase in major depression that occurs among girls during adolescence may be partially explained by the body-image and eating disturbances that emerge after puberty. Elevated body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms at study entry predicted onset of subsequent depression among initially

Eric Stice; Rebecca P. Cameron; Joel D. Killen; C. Barr Taylor

2001-01-01

288

MD Anderson study finds depression and shortened telomeres increase bladder cancer mortality  

Cancer.gov

The combination of shortened telomeres, a biological marker of aging associated with cancer development, and elevated depression significantly impacted bladder cancer mortality, according to data presented at the 11th Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research. As part of an ongoing, large-scale epidemiologic study of bladder cancer, researchers from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston collected clinical and mental health information on 464 patients with bladder cancer. They assessed patients' depression levels with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

289

Hazardous drinking-related characteristics of depressive disorders in Korea: the CRESCEND study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify clinical correlates of hazardous drinking in a large cohort of Korean patients with depression. We recruited a total of 402 depressed patients aged > 18 yr from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea. Patients' drinking habits were assessed using the Korean Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-K). Psychometric scales, including the HAMD, HAMA, BPRS, CGI-S, SSI-Beck, SOFAS, and WHOQOL-BREF, were used to assess depression, anxiety, overall psychiatric symptoms, global severity, suicidal ideation, social functioning, and quality of life, respectively. We compared demographic and clinical features and psychometric scores between patients with and without hazardous drinking behavior after adjusting for the effects of age and sex. We then performed binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent correlates of hazardous drinking in the study population. Our results revealed that hazardous drinking was associated with current smoking status, history of attempted suicide, greater psychomotor retardation, suicidal ideation, weight loss, and lower hypochondriasis than non-hazardous drinking. The regression model also demonstrated that more frequent smoking, higher levels of suicidal ideation, and lower levels of hypochondriasis were independently correlates for hazardous drinking in depressed patients. In conclusion, depressed patients who are hazardous drinkers experience severer symptoms and a greater burden of illness than non-hazardous drinkers. In Korea, screening depressed patients for signs of hazardous drinking could help identify subjects who may benefit from comprehensive therapeutic approaches. PMID:25552886

Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Kyu; Oh, Hong Seok; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

2015-01-01

290

Prevalence of Depression among University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Depression is one of the four major diseases in the world and is the most common cause of disability from diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression among Iranian university students using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods. Keyword depression was searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MAGIran, Medlib, and SID. Data was analyzed using meta-analysis (random-effects model). Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data was analyzed using STATA software Ver.10. Results. In 35 studies conducted in Iran from 1995 to 2012 with sample size of 9743, prevalence of depression in the university students was estimated to be 33% (95% CI: 32–34). The prevalence of depression among boys was estimated to be 28% (95% CI: 26–30), among girls 23% (95% CI: 22–24), single students 39% (95% CI: 37–41), and married students 20% (95% CI: 17–24). Metaregression model showed that the trend of depression among Iranian students was flat. Conclusions. On the whole, depression is common in university students with no preponderance between males and females and in single students is higher than married ones. PMID:24187615

Sarokhani, Diana; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Sarokhani, Mohamad Taher; Manesh, Rohollah Esmaeli; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

2013-01-01

291

Evaluating a Brief, Internet-Based Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and alcohol misuse represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this co-occurrence is associated with increased risks and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective, however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it, particularly in young people. The increased availability of Internet-based programs to complement health care presents a unique opportunity in the treatment of these conditions. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate whether a brief, Internet-based, self-help intervention (the DEAL [DEpression-ALcohol] Project) can be effective in treating co-occurring depression and problematic alcohol use in young people (18-25 years old). Methods The evaluation will take the form of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing the DEAL Project with an attention-control condition (HealthWatch). The RCT will consist of a four-week intervention phase and a 24-week follow-up. It will be entirely Internet-based and open Australia-wide to young people 18 to 25 years old. The primary outcomes will be change in depression symptoms and alcohol use at 5, 12, and 24 weeks post baseline. Secondary outcomes include change in general functioning and quality of life, anxiety/stress symptomatology, and a number of other depression/alcohol related outcomes. Process analysis will also measure engagement across the conditions. Results This study is currently ongoing with preliminary results expected in late 2014. Conclusions This study, to our knowledge, will be the first RCT of a Internet-based treatment for comorbid depression and problematic alcohol use in any age group. If successful, the program represents a novel and innovative approach to addressing the significant harms associated with these conditions and will be an invaluable resource to those not receiving help elsewhere. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; ACTRN12613000033741; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=363461 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Mrg9VFX4). PMID:24583824

Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Mills, Katherine L

2014-01-01

292

Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group). Results The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46) and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74). Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7%) had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001). Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal malignancies, chest tumors and breast cancer. Conclusions This study highlights high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Younger age was associated with a higher likelihood of meeting criteria for psychological morbidity. The findings support screening patients for symptoms of depression and anxiety as part of standard cancer care and referring those at a higher risk of developing psychological morbidity for appropriate care. PMID:21034465

2010-01-01

293

Depressive Symptoms, HIV Medication Adherence, and HIV Clinical Outcomes in Tanzania: A Prospective, Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Depressive symptoms have been shown to independently affect both antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV clinical outcomes in high-income countries. We examined the prospective relationship between depressive symptoms and adherence, virologic failure, and suppressed immune function in people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. Data from 403 study participants who were on stable ART and engaged in HIV clinical care were analyzed. We assessed crude and adjusted associations of depressive symptoms and ART adherence, both at baseline and at 12 months, using logistic regression. We used logistic generalized estimating equations to assess the association and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between depressive symptoms and both virologic failure and suppressed immune function. Ten percent of participants reported moderate or severe depressive symptoms at baseline and 31% of participants experienced virologic failure (>150 copies/ml) over two years. Depressive symptoms were associated with greater odds of reported medication nonadherence at both baseline (Odds Ratio [OR] per 1-unit increase ?=?1.18, 95% CI [1.12, 1.24]) and 12 months (OR ?=?1.08, 95% CI [1.03, 1.14]). By contrast, increases in depressive symptom score were inversely related to both virologic failure (OR?=?0.93, 95% CI [0.87, 1.00]) and immune system suppression (OR?=?0.88, 95% CI [0.79, 0.99]), though the association between depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes was less precise than for the association with nonadherence. Findings indicate a positive association between depressive symptoms and nonadherence, and also an inverse relationship between depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes, possibly due to informative loss to follow-up. PMID:24798428

Belenky, Nadya M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Pence, Brian W.; Itemba, Dafrosa; Maro, Venance; Whetten, Kathryn

2014-01-01

294

Patients' views of physical activity as treatment for depression: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical guidance recommends physical activity to manage patients with persistent subthreshold depressive symptoms or mild-to-moderate depression. However, little is known regarding the acceptability of physical activity as a treatment for depression from patients' perspective. Aim To explore patients' views of physical activity for the treatment of depression in the context of primary care. Design of study In-depth interviews were held with 33 participants taking part in a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of physical activity for the management of depression. Setting Primary care. Results Most participants perceived physical activity to be an acceptable treatment for depression. The mechanisms by which physical activity could enhance mood were attributed to a number of subjective benefits including biochemical pathways, providing a source of distraction from negative thoughts, and a sense of purpose. Participants who expressed a belief that their depression was caused by biochemical mechanisms reported activity that ‘raised the heartbeat’ as most beneficial, while those who believed depression was situational in origin tended to state the benefits of less-aerobic activities, such as walking. Many participants reported low motivation and a lack of confidence as barriers to undertaking physical activity. These patients suggested that medication could be helpful for initiating and maintaining activity. Conclusion Patients view physical activity as an effective treatment for depression. However, they vary in their views about how physical activity might impact on depression, what intensity and form of activity is necessary to enhance mood, and the barriers to undertaking activity. This variation suggests the need for GPs to elicit patients' views on physical activity as a treatment, and offer interventions that are tailored to the needs and expectations of individual patients. PMID:21439172

Searle, Aidan; Calnan, Michael; Lewis, Glyn; Campbell, John; Taylor, Adrian; Turner, Katrina

2011-01-01

295

[A clinical psychiatric study about post-stroke depression].  

PubMed

We examined the clinical characteristics of post stroke depression (PSD) patients in a rehabilitation hospital. The subjects were inpatients at the Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences Hospital who had been diagnosed with stroke and admitted between May 2002 and January 2004. Of 123 patients enrolled, 18 were diagnosed with PSD. We investigated the clinical differences between PSD patients and non-depressed (ND) patients. There were no significant differences between PSD and ND groups in terms of sex, age, past psychiatric history, family psychiatric history, stroke diagnosis, or neurological symptoms. The scores of PSD patients on Zung's self-rating depression scale and the Hamilton depression rating scale were significantly higher than those of ND patients. Furthermore, the Activities of Daily Living measured by the Functional Independence Measure and cognitive function evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination of ND patients were significantly better than those of PSD subjects. These results suggest that the detection of PSD in stroke patients is important for promoting their rehabilitation and improving their Activities of Daily Living and cognitive function. PMID:17137194

Sato, Shinji; Yamakawa, Yuriko; Terashimai, Yasushi; Asada, Takashi

2006-01-01

296

Postnatal Depression and Faltering Growth: A Community Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. To investigate the association between faltering growth in children and maternal post- natal depression. Methods. Children aged <2 years were identified from community child health surveillance records if their weights fell across 2 centile channels on standardized growth charts or fell below the second centile. Mothers of these index children were invited to complete the Edin- burgh Postnatal

John Lee Cox; Louise Margaret O'Brien; Elizabeth Gardner Heycock; Mariam Hanna; Peter Watts

2010-01-01

297

Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale as a Suicide Screening Instrument in Depressed Primary Care Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the suicide item on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) when compared to a structured interview (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV; SCID-I mood module) in primary care patients with elevated depression symptoms. Method: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 166 patients from 2 primary care clinics, 1 in Rhode Island and 1 in Massachusetts, who were enrolled in studies that focused on depression in primary care. Of the total participants, 101 were enrolled in the survey study, and 65 were screened for or enrolled in either an open trial or a pilot randomized controlled trial. Data were collected between May 2004 and May 2009. Results: We found that the specificity of the PHQ-9 suicide screening item was 0.84 and sensitivity was 0.69 for the sample as a whole. Conclusions: This study suggests that the routine use of the PHQ-9 may be useful in primary care practice in that it may identify individuals at risk for suicide who would not otherwise have been identified. However, denial of suicidality on the PHQ-9 should be probed further if there are other risk factors for suicide present. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00541957 PMID:21731830

Uebelacker, Lisa A.; German, Nicole M; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.

2011-01-01

298

Depression and Osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that thins and weakens ... due to osteoporosis. 3 How are depression and osteoporosis linked? Studies show that older people with depression ...

299

A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET  

E-print Network

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper concludes by a tabular comparison of the various routing protocols for VANET.

Kumar, Rakesh

2011-01-01

300

A study of arc force, pool depression and weld penetration during gas tungsten arc welding  

SciTech Connect

Weld pool depression, arc force, weld penetration, and their interrelations have been studied as a function of welding current. Pool depression and welding arc force have been measured simultaneously using a recently developed technique. The authors found quadratic dependence of arc force on current, confirming similar findings in previous studies. Pool depression is essentially zero below a threshold level of current (200 A in this experiment) and then increases quadratically with current. A perfectly linear relation between arc force and pool depression was found in the current range from 200 to 350 A, with pool depression onset at about 0.35 g force (0.34 [center dot] 10[sup [minus]2]N). The total surface tension and gravitational forces were calculated, from the measured surface topography, and found to be about five times that required to balance the arc force at 300 A. Thus electromagnetic and hydrodynamic forces must be taken into account to explain the measured levels of pool depression. The relation between weld penetration and pool depression for different welding currents has been established. Three distinct regimes of weld penetration on weld current were found.

Rokhlin, S.I.; Guu, A.C. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Welding Engineering)

1993-08-01

301

Course of Depressive Symptoms and Treatment in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS-2) Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine changes in depressive symptoms and treatment in the first three years following bariatric surgery. Design and Methods The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study of adults (n=2,458) who underwent a bariatric surgical procedure at one of ten US hospitals between 2006–9. This study includes 2,148 participants who completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and ? one follow-up visit in years 1–3. Results At baseline, 40.4% self-reported treatment for depression. At least mild depressive symptoms (BDI score?10) were reported by 28.3%; moderate (BDI score 19–29) and severe (BDI score ?30) symptoms were uncommon (4.2% and 0.5%, respectively). Mild-to-severe depressive symptoms independently increased the odds (OR=1.75; p=.03) of a major adverse event within 30 days of surgery. Compared with baseline, symptom severity was significantly lower at all follow-up time points (e.g., mild-to-severe symptomatology was 8.9%, 6 months; 8.4%, 1yr; 12.2%, 2yrs; 15.6%, 3yrs; ps<.001), but increased between 1 and 3 years postoperatively (p<.01). Change in depressive symptoms was significantly related to change in body mass index (r=.42; p<0001). Conclusion Bariatric surgery has a positive impact on depressive features. However, data suggest some deterioration in improvement after the first postoperative year. PMID:24634371

Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Devlin, Michael J.; Flum, David; Garcia, Luis; Pender, John R.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Marcus, Marsha D.; Schrope, Beth; Strain, Gladys; Wolfe, Bruce; Yanovski, Susan

2014-01-01

302

Remission in major depression with two antidepressant mechanisms: results from a naturalistic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since remission should be the goal of the treatment of depression, the aims of this study were to evaluate the rate of remission obtained with SSRIs in routine clinical practice and to assess alternative treatments with a combined mechanism of action. Methods: The study involved a prospective naturalistic 6-month follow-up of 44 consecutive unipolar depressed (DSM-IV) outpatients. After 6

José Manuel Montes; Laura Ferrando; Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz

2004-01-01

303

Peer relations and depressed mood in normal children: a prospective study  

E-print Network

PEER RELATIONS AND DEPRESSED MOOD IN NORMAL CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY A Thesis by WAYNE EDGAR HOYE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 19S5 Major Subject: Psychology PEER RELATIONS AND DEPRESSED MOOD IN NORMAL CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY A Thesis by WAYNE EDGAR HOYE Approved as to style and content by: William S. Rholes (Chairman of Committee) Charlene Mu hlenhard...

Hoye, Wayne Edgar

1985-01-01

304

Ropinirole in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A 16Week Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study aimed to assess the antidepressant efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive ropinirole in outpatients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Method: The study sample consisted of patients with a major depressive episode (diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria) and TRD. Ropinirole 0.25 to 1.5 mg daily was added to tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. We conducted assessments at baseline

Paolo Cassano; Lorenzo Lattanzi; Maurizio Fava; Serena Navari; Giulia Battistini; Marianna Abelli; Giovanni B Cassano

2005-01-01

305

Disclosure of symptoms of postnatal depression, the perspectives of health professionals and women: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In the UK, 8–15% of women suffer from postnatal depression with long term consequences for maternal mood and child development. Current guidelines state that health visitors and GPs should continue to have a major role in the detection and management of postnatal depression. Previous literature suggests that women are reluctant to disclose symptoms of postnatal depression. This study aimed to explore general practitioners' (GPs), health visitors' and women's views on the disclosure of symptoms which may indicate postnatal depression in primary care. Methods In-depth interviews with GPs, health visitors and women who were participating in a randomised controlled trial of anti-depressants versus health visitor delivered non-directive counselling for the treatment of postnatal depression. Interviews were audio-taped and fully transcribed. Thematic analysis with an iterative approach was used, allowing the views of practitioners and patients to be explored and then compared. Results Nineteen GPs, 14 health visitors and 28 women were interviewed. A number of common themes were identified across all three data sets: understanding and negotiating the diagnosis of postnatal depression, hindering and facilitating disclosure, and the system of care. Both women and health professionals described postnatal depression in psychosocial terms: an adjustment reaction to change in life circumstances and the reality of motherhood not meeting personal expectations. Women described making a conscious decision about whether or not to disclose their feelings to their GP or health visitor. Health professionals described strategies used to hinder disclosure and described a reluctance to make a diagnosis of postnatal depression, as they had few personal resources to manage women with postnatal depression themselves, and no services to which to refer women for further treatment. Conclusion To improve disclosure of symptoms in primary care, there should be a move away from questioning why health professionals do not make the diagnosis of depression and in response suggesting that education and training will improve skills and thus improve detection of depression. Improving the detection and management of postnatal depression in primary care requires recognition of the context in which women consult, and system changes that ensure health professionals work in an environment that can facilitate disclosure and that the necessary resources for management are available. Trail Registration ISRCTN 16479417 PMID:19159478

Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Sharp, Deborah; Chamberlain, Elizabeth; Folkes, Liz; Turner, Katrina M

2009-01-01

306

Adherence to Healthy Dietary Guidelines and Future Depressive Symptoms: Evidence for Gender Differentials in the Whitehall II Study  

E-print Network

a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score16 or self-reported use of10 antidepressants1 Adherence to Healthy Dietary Guidelines and Future Depressive Symptoms: Evidence for Gender of the manuscript. Short Running Title: Overall Diet and Future Depressive Symptoms The present research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Dimensions of mental health: life satisfaction, anxiety and depression: a preventive mental health study in Ankara University students population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to investigate the interrelation between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness among Ankara University students. 364 university students completed a test battery including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Hopelessness Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Life satisfaction was negatively and significantly correlated with the scores from depression, anxiety

Sevgi Guney; Temel Kalafat; Murat Boysan

2010-01-01

308

Does Depression Predict Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease Equally Well? The HeSSup Prospective Cohort Study  

E-print Network

Does Depression Predict Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease Equally Well? The HeSSup Prospective Cohort Study Running Head: Depression, Coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases Hermann Nabi depression and cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) continues to be debated although little research has compared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

Depression is a serious public-health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies have shown neighbourhood  

E-print Network

Abstract MOTIVATION Depression is a serious public-health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies have shown neighbourhood characteristics to be associated with depression, but it is not clear which neighbourhood features matter most for depression, for whom this effect is most relevant

Kambhampati, Patanjali

310

Remission and Residual Symptoms after Short-Term Treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John

2006-01-01

311

Prevalence of Students with Symptoms of Depression among High School Students in a District of Western Turkey: An Epidemiological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of depression and also to present some pertinent comments concerning prevention of depression among high school students. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of depression among high school students. Methods: A sample of students aged 14-19…

Unsal, Alaaddin; Ayranci, Unal

2008-01-01

312

Feasibility of Providing Culturally Relevant, Brief Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Antenatal Depression in an Obstetrics Clinic: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen

2004-01-01

313

Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: results from the Whitehall II study  

E-print Network

Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: results from is associated with the onset of depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged British civil servants. Research symptoms ; Prospective study ; Middle-aged population Evidence of an association between depression

Boyer, Edmond

314

Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: Results from the Whitehall II study  

E-print Network

1 Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: Results symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged British civil servants. Research Design and Methods: Analyses included of depressive symptoms. Keyword: Metabolic syndrome, Depressive symptoms, Prospective study, Middle-aged

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered “cohort” study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719 PMID:25429244

Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

2014-01-01

316

Immigrant women’s experiences of postpartum depression in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Literature documents that immigrant women in Canada have a higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptomatology than Canadian-born women. There exists a need to synthesize information on the contextual factors and social determinants of health that influence immigrant women’s reception of and behavior in accessing existing mental health services. Our research question is: what are the ethnoculturally defined patterns of help-seeking behaviors and decision-making and other predictive factors for therapeutic mental health care access and outcomes with respect to postpartum depression for immigrant women in Canada? Methods/design Our synthesis incorporates a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports (peer- and non-peer reviewed) of empirical research and aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on postpartum mental health care services as experienced by immigrant women. To reach this goal we are using integrated knowledge translation, thus partnering with key stakeholders throughout the planning, implementation and dissemination stages to ensure topic relevancy and impact on future practice and policy. The search and selection strategies draw upon established systematic review methodologies as outlined by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and also incorporate guidelines for selection and appraisal of gray literature. Two search phases (a database and a gray literature phase) will identify literature for screening and final selection based on an inclusion/exclusion checklist. Quality appraisal will be performed using the tools produced by the Centre for Evidence Based Management. The narrative synthesis will be informed by Popay et al. (2006) framework using identified tools for each of its four elements. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their impact on policy and practice change throughout health service, public health, immigration and community sectors. Discussion The narrative synthesis methodology will facilitate understandings and acknowledgement of the broader influences of theoretical and contextual variables, such as race, gender, socio-economic status, pre-migration history and geographical location. Our review aims to have a substantive and sustainable impact on health outcomes, practice, programs and/or policy in the context of postpartum mental health of immigrant women. PROSPERO registration number CRD42012003020. PMID:23965183

2013-01-01

317

Effectiveness of lithium in subjects with treatment-resistant depression and suicide risk: a protocol for a randomised, independent, pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-group, superiority clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Data on therapeutic interventions following deliberate self harm (DSH) in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) are very scant and there is no unanimous consensus on the best pharmacological option for these patients. There is some evidence that lithium treatment might be effective in reducing the risk of completed suicide in adult patients with unipolar affective disorders, however no clear cut results have been found so far. The primary aim of the present study is to assess whether adding lithium to standard therapy is an effective treatment strategy to reduce the risk of suicidal behaviour in long term treatment of people with TRD and previous history of DSH. Methods/Design We will carry out a randomised, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority clinical trial. Adults with a diagnosis of major depression, an episode of DSH in the previous 12 months and inadequate response to at least two antidepressants given sequentially at an adequate dose for an adequate time for the current depressive episode will be allocated to add lithium to current therapy (intervention arm) or not (control arm). Following randomisation, treatment is to be taken daily for 1 year unless some clear reason to stop develops. Suicide completion and acts of DSH during the 12 months of follow-up will constitute the composite primary outcome. To preserve outcome assessor blindness, an independent adjudicating committee, blind to treatment allocation, will anonymously review all outcome events. Discussion The results of this study should indicate whether lithium treatment is associated with lower risk of completed suicide and DSH in adult patients with treatment resistant unipolar depression, who recently attempted suicide. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00927550 PMID:23941474

2013-01-01

318

Protocol and Rationale-The Efficacy of Minocycline as an Adjunctive Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder: A Double Blind, Randomised, Placebo Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

While current pharmacotherapies are efficacious, there remain a clear shortfall between symptom remission and functional recovery. With the explosion in our understanding of the biology of these disorders, the time is ripe for the investigation of novel therapies. Recently depression is conceptualized as an immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative stress related disorder. Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has anti-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, glutamatergic, neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties that make it a viable target to explore as a new therapy. This double blind, randomised, placebo controlled adjunctive trial will investigate the benefits of 200 mg/day of minocycline treatment, in addition to any usual treatment, as an adjunctive treatment for moderate-severe major depressive disorder. Sixty adults are being randomised to 12 weeks of treatment (with a 4 week follow-up post-discontinuation). The primary outcome measure for the study is mean change on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), with secondary outcomes including the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), Patient Global Impression (PGI), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Biomarker analyses will also be conducted at baseline and week 12. The study has the potential to provide new treatment targets, both by showing efficacy with a new class of 'antidepressant' but also through the analysis of biomarkers that may further inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of unipolar depression. PMID:25598820

Maes, Michael; Ashton, Melanie; Berk, Lesley; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sughondhabirom, Atapol; Tangwongchai, Sookjareon; Ng, Chee; Dowling, Nathan; Malhi, Gin S.; Berk, MIchael

2014-01-01

319

EHS-Net Cooling Study EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Cooling Study 1 EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol 1. Title EHS-Net Cooling Study 2. Research of foodborne illness in foodservice establishments. Improper cooling significantly contributes to the overall temperature abuse opportunities. The purpose of this study is to collect descriptive data on cooling policies

320

Unilateral and bilateral ECT: a study of memory disturbance and relief from depression  

PubMed Central

Fifty-one endogenous and reactive female depressives were given a course of either unilateral non-dominant, unilateral dominant, or bilateral ECT. Visual and verbal memory tests and confusion ratings were administered at frequent intervals during the treatment course. Pre-and post-treatment assessments of depression were made. Comparisons of the therapeutic effect of six and of eight ECTs were studied separately. One month after the last ECT the patients were again assessed on the memory and the depression tests. The results of the memory tests indicate that unilateral non-dominant ECT produced least memory disturbance (particularly of a verbal kind) and also less immediate confusion within 40 minutes of each ECT. This observation applies more to the reactive than the endogenous group. Comparisons of the depression tests reveal that unilateral non-dominant ECT is as effective in relieving depression as bilateral ECT, though progress may be less rapid. The observation holds true only for the reactive depressives. Endogenous depressives benefit more from bilateral ECT. Caution is advised against the administration of unilateral dominant ECT, since this group does not respond to treatment as well as the other two groups. Degree of improvement as a whole does not appear to be related to the degree of confusion experienced. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:5478954

Cronin, D.; Bodley, P.; Potts, L.; Mather, Marcia D.; Gardner, R. K.; Tobin, Jean C.

1970-01-01

321

Antenatal Depression is Not Associated with Low-Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Low-birth weight (LBW) (<2500?g) is considered to be a leading cause of cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in children. Incidence of LBW in South Asia has been reported to be as high as 33%. We investigated the association between antenatal depression and LBW in an urban community, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1357 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited into the study. They were screened for antenatal depression with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Self-reporting questionnaire was also used to measure psychological distress. Birth weights of 763 newborns were obtained from the hospital records. Results: We did not find a significant association between antenatal depression and LBW (odds ratio 0.881, 95%CI 0.732–1.060) in mothers attending a charity run hospital in an urban setting in Pakistan. Conclusion: Antenatal depression is not associated with LBW in this urban population in Pakistan. However, the prevalence of depression is high during pregnancy. There is a need to develop culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to address the high rates of depression for this population group. PMID:25540627

Husain, Nusrat; Munshi, Tariq; Jafri, Farhat; Husain, Meher; Parveen, Asia; Saeed, Qamar; Tomenson, Barbara; Naeem, Farooq; Chaudhry, Nasim

2014-01-01

322

Anxiety, depression and behavioral problems among adolescents with recurrent headache: the Young-HUNT study  

PubMed Central

Background It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties. Results In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12–14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p?depressive symptoms was evident for all headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15–17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p?depressive symptoms and attention difficulties, while tension-type headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are associated with recurrent headache, and should accordingly be considered a part of the clinical assessment of children and adolescents with headache. Identification of these associated factors and addressing them in interventions may improve headache management. PMID:24925252

2014-01-01

323

A twin-study of genetic contributions to morningness-eveningness and depression.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms are associated with the preference for sleep-wake timing, also known as morningness-eveningness (ME). Both circadian rhythms and ME are influenced by genetic factors. Studies show an association between eveningness and depression. This study investigates the heritability of ME and whether ME and depression share common genetic influences. Study participants (n?=?1237) were from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of aging with a baseline in midlife. Participants received the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale as part of an extensive neurocognitive and psychosocial assessment. MEQ correlations between members of twin pairs were 0.41 (95% CI 0.31-0.49) for monozygotic (MZ) twins and 0.28 for dizygotic (DZ) twins (95% CI 0.19-0.41). CES-D correlations were 0.38 (95% CI 0.28-0.46) for MZ twins and 0.24 (95% CI 0.14-0.36) for DZ twins. Greater eveningness (i.e. lower MEQ scores) was significantly related to more depression symptoms (phenotypic correlation?=?-0.15 (95% CI -0.21 to -0.09). In the best fitting model, the heritability estimates are 0.42 for the MEQ and 0.37 for the CES-D. A significant genetic correlation of -0.21 indicated that ME and depression share a significant amount of their underlying genetic variance. The genetic covariance between ME and depression accounted for 59.1% of the phenotypic correlation. Of the CES-D sub-scales, Depressed Mood and Interpersonal Difficulties were significantly heritable, while only Well-Being had a significant genetic correlation with ME. ME and depression are both heritable (ME 0.42, depression 0.37) and share common genetic factors, suggesting an overlap in etiology and the relevance of circadian rhythms to depression. Further study of this relationship may help elucidate etiological factors in depression and targets for treatment. PMID:25347156

Toomey, Rosemary; Panizzon, Matthew S; Kremen, William S; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J

2015-04-01

324

Oral mucosal diseases in anxiety and depression patients: Hospital based observational study from south India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different Oral Mucosal diseases in Anxiety and Depression patients. Material and Methods: A hospital based observational Study was conducted in the department of Psychiatry and department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patients who were diagnosed with Anxiety or Depression by the psychiatrists using Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scale were subjected to complete oral examination to check for oral diseases like Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS), and Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Equal number of control group subjects were also included. Results: In this study statistically significant increase in the oral diseases in patients with anxiety and depression than the control group was recorded. Oral diseases were significantly higher in anxiety patients (20.86%) than in depression (9.04%) and control group patients (5.17%). In anxiety patients, the prevalence of RAS was 12%, OLP was 5.7%, and BMS was 2.87%. In depression patients, the prevalence of RAS was 4.02%, OLP was 2.01% and BMS was 3.01%. In control group the prevalence was 2.2%, 1.33% and 1.62% in RAS, OLP and BMS respectively. RAS and OLP were significantly higher in the younger age group (18-49) and BMS was seen between the age group of 50-77 years in both study and control groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed a positive association between psychological alterations and changes in the oral mucosa, particularly conditions like OLP, RAS and BMS. Thus psychogenic factors like anxiety and depression may act as a risk factor that could influence the initiation and development of oral mucosal diseases. Hence psychological management should be taken into consideration when treating patients with these oral diseases. Key words:Lichen planus, anxiety, depression, burning mouth syndrome, recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

Shenai, Prashanth; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Ronad, Yusuf-Ahammed A.; Bilahari, Naduvakattu; Pramod, Redder C.; Kumar, Sreeja P.

2015-01-01

325

Change in hippocampal volume on magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive decline among older depressed and non-depressed subjects in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have linked hippocampal volume change and cognitive decline in older adults with dementia. We examined hippocampal volume change and cognitive change in older non-demented adults with and without major depression. Methods The sample consisted of 90 depressed individuals and 72 healthy, non-depressed individuals age 60 and older who completed at least two years of follow-up data. All patients underwent periodic clinical evaluation by a geriatric psychiatrist as well as baseline and two-year magnetic resonance imaging. Results Over two years, the depressed group showed a greater reduction in left hippocampal volume (normalized for total cerebral volume) compared with the non-depressed group (mean difference = 0.013 ± 0.0059, t = 2.18, df = 160, p < 0.0305). The difference remained significant after controlling for age, sex and baseline normalized left hippocampal volume. We also found that hippocampal change from baseline to two years was associated with subsequent change in MMSE score from two years to two-and-a-half years (left t = 2.81, df = 66, p = 0.0066; right t = 2.40, df = 66, p = 0.0193) among the depressed group. Conclusions These findings add to the literature linking hippocampal volume loss and late-life depression. Depressed patients with hippocampal volume loss are at greater risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20808107

Steffens, David C.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Payne, Martha E.; Potter, Guy G.

2010-01-01

326

STUDY OF CORRELATION OF INTENSITY OF SYMPTOMS WITH STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS IN DEPRESSED PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY 60 patients suffering from “Depression” attending the Psychiatry outpatient clinic in a general hospital were studied. The intensity of symptoms, and life stress events for 12 months prior to episode were obtained and compared on the basis of sex of patient. The findings of the study indicate that, the depressed patients had the severity of symptomatology positively correlated with the severity of stress. Thus with the increase in stress, the severity of symptoms would be on increase. The findings also indicated the distribution of more physical and affective symptoms in depressed females and more of behavioural symptoms in depressed males. It was seen that occurrence of undesirable life events which could be specific for Indian culture were perceived more than desirable events by the sample. PMID:21927402

Mahatme, S.S.; Dhavale, H.S.; Patkar, A.P.

1989-01-01

327

Basolateral amygdala volume and cell numbers in major depressive disorder: a postmortem stereological study.  

PubMed

Functional imaging studies consistently report abnormal amygdala activity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Neuroanatomical correlates are less clear: imaging studies have produced mixed results on amygdala volume, and postmortem neuroanatomic studies have only examined cell densities in portions of the amygdala or its subregions in MDD. Here, we present a stereological analysis of the volume of, and the total number of, neurons, glia, and neurovascular (pericyte and endothelial) cells in the basolateral amygdala in MDD. Postmortem tissues from 13 subjects with MDD and 10 controls were examined. Sections (~15/subject) taken throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) were stained for Nissl substance and utilized for stereological estimation of volume and cell numbers. Results indicate that depressed subjects had a larger lateral nucleus than controls and a greater number of total BLA neurovascular cells than controls. There were no differences in the number or density of neurons or glia between depressed and control subjects. These findings present a more detailed picture of BLA cellular anatomy in depression than has previously been available. Further studies are needed to determine whether the greater number of neurovascular cells in depressed subjects may be related to increased amygdala activity in depression. PMID:25287512

Rubinow, Marisa J; Mahajan, Gouri; May, Warren; Overholser, James C; Jurjus, George J; Dieter, Lesa; Herbst, Nicole; Steffens, David C; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A

2014-10-01

328

Effects of Depression on the Subsequent Year's Healthcare Expenditures Among Older Adults: Two-Year Panel Study.  

PubMed

This study investigated changes in depression status over 2 years and examined whether having depression in Year 1 is associated with greater healthcare expenditures in Year 2 among community-dwelling older adults. This study analyzed the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (Panel 13, 2008-2009) for a nationally representative sample of 1,740 older adults (65+). The two self-reported depression measures used were the ICD-9-CM (depression) and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (potential depression, scores 3 or higher). Using the combined two-part models, additional healthcare costs at Year 2 associated with the Year 1 depression status were calculated by the service type after adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need covariates assessed at Year 2. Over 7.9 % of older adults reported depression and an additional 6.5 % presented with potential depression. The ICD-9 depression status was relatively stable; 84 % continued reporting depression during Year 2. Those with depression at Year 1 spent $3,855 more on total healthcare, $1,053 more on office-based visits, and $929 more on prescription drugs during Year 2 compared with non-depressed people after controlling for other covariates, including healthcare needs (p < .05). While potential depression was less persistent (31.1 % remained potentially depressed at Year 2), potential depression was associated with lower socio-economic status and greater healthcare expenditures from home health services and emergency department visits during Year 2. These results indicate the importance of monitoring depression in older adults, considering its impacts on the increases in healthcare expenditures in the following year even after controlling for co-occurring health conditions. PMID:25262007

Choi, Sunha; Hasche, Leslie; Nguyen, Duy

2015-06-01

329

Prevalence, incidence, and persistence of major depressive symptoms in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore the association of major depressive symptoms with advancing age, sex, and self-rated health among older adults.Design and methods: We analyzed 10 years of annual assessments in a longitudinal cohort of 5888 Medicare recipients in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Self-rated health was assessed with a single question, and subjects categorized as healthy or sick. Major depressive symptoms were

Stephen M. Thielke; Paula Diehr; Jürgen Unützer

2010-01-01

330

Rearing style and depressive disorder in adulthood: a controlled study in a Spanish clinical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the style of rearing in a sample of depressive patients and compare it with a control\\u000a group of normal subjects of similar age, sex, and civil status. The hypothesis to verify was that among the depressives the\\u000a style of rearing is characterised by a deficit in Emotional Warmth and an excess

L. Rojo-Moreno; L. Livianos-Aldana; G. Cervera-Martínez; J. A. Dominguez-Carabantes

1999-01-01

331

Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although reward processing is considered an important part of affective functioning, few studies have investigated reward-related decisions or responses in young people with affective dis- orders. Depression is postulated to involve decreased activity in reward-related affective sys- tems. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined behavioral and neural responses to reward in young people with depressive disorders

Erika E. Forbes; J. Christopher May; Greg J. Siegle; Cecile D. Ladouceur; Neal D. Ryan; Cameron S. Carter; Boris Birmaher; David A. Axelson; Ronald E. Dahl

2006-01-01

332

Depression and psychosocial adjustment in adolescent anorexia nervosa. A controlled 3-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated depressive psychopathology and psychosocial functioning in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients at a three year follow-up in comparison to healthy age-matched controls. Three standardized rating instruments (HRSD, SDS, BDI) were used for assessing depression and the Morgan-Russell scales for defining the outcome of the eating disorder. Our findings suggest 1) a highly positive correlation between eating disorder and

Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Helmut Remschmidt

1993-01-01

333

Hypomethylation of MAOA?s first exon region in depression: A replication study.  

PubMed

We recently showed that depression in females is associated with hypomethylation in the first exon region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene. Here we report on a small-scale (n=44) replication study of MAOA methylation which (a) confirms that female subjects with a history of depression are hypomethylated compared to controls and (b) shows that females are hypermethylated in the same region compared to males. PMID:25623016

Melas, Philippe A; Forsell, Yvonne

2015-03-30

334

A Study of Shared-Memory Mutual Exclusion Protocols Using CADP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual exclusion protocols are an essential building block of concurrent systems: indeed, such a protocol is required whenever a shared resource has to be protected against concurrent non-atomic accesses. Hence, many variants of mutual exclusion protocols exist in the shared-memory setting, such as Peterson's or Dekker's well-known protocols. Although the functional correctness of these protocols has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been paid to their non-functional aspects, such as their performance in the long run. In this paper, we report on experiments with the performance evaluation of mutual exclusion protocols using Interactive Markov Chains. Steady-state analysis provides an additional criterion for comparing protocols, which complements the verification of their functional properties. We also carefully re-examined the functional properties, whose accurate formulation as temporal logic formulas in the action-based setting turns out to be quite involved.

Mateescu, Radu; Serwe, Wendelin

335

Using research to establish protocols for practice: a statewide study of acute care agencies.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to examine research utilization practices relative to developing and revising practice protocols in acute care agencies in Delaware. Nurse leaders in 13 acute care agencies identified resource nurses most familiar with the development and revision of agency protocols. Thirty-two resource nurses from 11 agencies, representing critical care, emergency, general medical, general surgical, obstetric, and psychiatric nursing, were interviewed. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. Examples of research-based protocols, defined as those supported by research citations, were obtained. The authors found that the majority of protocols submitted, although referenced, were not research-based. Most institutions used textbooks and standards to support nursing practice protocols. The authors concluded that nurses who are responsible for developing and revising agency protocols were not familiar with the use of research findings to guide the development or revision of protocols and were unsure what constituted the "use of research." PMID:10382404

Morin, K H; Bucher, L; Plowfield, L; Hayes, E; Mahoney, P; Armiger, L

1999-03-01

336

Associations between Depression and Diabetes in the Community: Do Symptom Dimensions Matter? Results from the Gutenberg Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives While a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression has been established, there is little knowledge if the associations are due to somatic-affective or cognitive-affective dimensions of depression. Research Design and Methods In a population-based, representative survey of 15.010 participants we therefore studied the associations of the two dimensions of depression with diabetes and health care utilization among depressed and diabetic participants. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9. Results We found a linear and consistent association between the intensity of depression and the presence of diabetes increasing from 6.9% in no or minimal depression to 7.6% in mild, 9% in moderate and 10.5% in severe depression. There was a strong positive association between somatic-affective symptoms but not with cognitive-affective symptoms and diabetes. Depression and diabetes were both independently related to somatic health care utilisation. Conclusions Diabetes and depression are associated, and the association is primarily driven by the somatic-affective component of depression. The main limitation of our study pertains to the cross-sectional data acquisition. Further longitudinal work on the relationship of obesity and diabetes should differentiate the somatic and the cognitive symptoms of depression. PMID:25127227

Wiltink, Jörg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S.; Schneider, Astrid; König, Jochem; Blettner, Maria; Münzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Weber, Matthias; Fottner, Christian; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl; Beutel, Manfred E.

2014-01-01

337

A study of autobiographical memories in depressed and nondepressed elderly individuals.  

PubMed

An autobiographical memory task was used to study memory processes and depression in elderly individuals. Twenty-seven nondepressed and twenty-seven depressed elderly participants recalled thirty memories. Each memory was self-rated for happiness versus sadness and the degree of importance of the event at the time the event occurred (i.e., "then") and looking back on the event ("now"). Nondepressed participants perceived greater positive change in affective tone between "then" and "now" ratings. Depressed participants recalled more memories rated as sad "now" than nondepressed, and perceived negative and positive memories to become more neutral than nondepressed participants. These results are consistent with a mood congruence hypothesis, in that participants recalled more memories affectively consistent with current mood, and a self-enhancement view of reminiscing, such that recalling memories evaluated as happier was associated with less depression. PMID:8425746

Yang, J A; Rehm, L P

1993-01-01

338

Early Risk Factors for Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: A 6-to-8 Year Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms. PMID:24265533

Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

2013-01-01

339

A controlled study on the cognitive effect of alpha neurofeedback training in patients with major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits are core symptoms of depression. This study aims to investigate whether neurofeedback (NF) training can improve working memory (WM) performance in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The NF group (n = 40) underwent eight NF sessions and was compared to a non-interventional control group (n = 20). The NF protocol aimed to increase the individual upper alpha power in the parieto-occipital area of the scalp. Main cognitive variable was WM, which was measured pre- and post- training along with other variables such as attention and executive functions. EEG was recorded in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity, pre- and post- NF training, and pre- and post- the NF trials within each session. A power EEG analysis and an alpha asymmetry analysis were conducted at the sensor level. Frequency domain standardized low resolution tomography (sLORETA) was used to assess the effect at brain source level. Correlation analysis between the clinical/cognitive and EEG measurements was conducted at both the sensor and brain source level. The NF group showed increased performance as well as improved processing speed in a WM test after the training. The NF group showed pre-post enhancement in the upper alpha power after the training, better visible in task-related activity as compared to resting state. A current density increase appeared in the alpha band (8–12 Hz) for the NF group, localized in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC, BA 25). A positive correlation was found for the NF group between the improvement in processing speed and the increase of beta power at both the sensor and brain source level. These results show the effectiveness of this NF protocol in improving WM performance in patients with MDD. PMID:25228864

Escolano, Carlos; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Congedo, Marco; De Ridder, Dirk; Minguez, Javier

2014-01-01

340

Study protocol: the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS)  

PubMed Central

Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in children’s health and development. PMID:24103080

2013-01-01

341

A study of cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to test the validity of the integrated cognitive model of depression proposed by Kwon and Oei (1994) with a Chinese adolescent sample. A two-wave panel design was used. We hypothesized that the interaction between dysfunctional attitudes measured at time 1 and adolescents' negative life events experienced between times 1 and 2 would predict changes in the frequency of automatic thoughts between times 1 and 2. We further hypothesized that changes in the frequency of automatic thoughts would, in turn, predict changes in the severity of depressive symptoms. Participants were 329 Chinese adolescents. As a comparison, we tested three other competing models: linear mediation, alternative aetiologies and symptom models. All participants completed the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale on two occasions-5?months apart. Path analysis was used to test all models. Results of the path analysis indicated that the integrated cognitive model showed an adequate fit for the Chinese adolescent data. During phases of increased depression, dysfunctional attitudes were common cognitive moderators of depression, whereas automatic thoughts were specific cognitive mediators of depression. PMID:23389904

Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; Oei, Tian P S

2013-12-01

342

The Relationship Between Alopecia Areata and Alexithymia, Anxiety and Depression: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness. PMID:25071275

Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A

2014-01-01

343

Quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression of patients receiving cancer chemotherapy: longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The overall survival gain of cancer chemotherapy is estimated to be small, and some claim that it rarely improves quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL and symptoms of anxiety and depression, over time, in a group of Icelandic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Quality of life was measured with the Icelandic version of Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System, Short Form (CARES-SF), and symptoms of anxiety and depression, with the Icelandic version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Enrolled into the study were 144 patients, 90 women and 54 men; mean (SD) age was 55 (12.1) years. Although QOL was found relatively good during the period of chemotherapy, it was significantly worse after 3 and 6 months compared to baseline. Quality of life was found worst in the sexual and physical domains. At all time points, a significant association was found between symptoms of anxiety and depression and QOL with those reporting symptoms of either anxiety or depression experiencing worse QOL. The good QOL found during the period of chemotherapy is a positive finding. The results, however, call for an intense assessment, over time, of physical symptoms, anxiety, and depression, as well as sexuality issues. PMID:20010331

Saevarsdottir, Thorunn; Fridriksdottir, Nanna; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur

2010-01-01

344

Selenium exposure and depressive symptoms: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Trace Element Study.  

PubMed

Selenium is an essential trace element important to neurotransmission, but toxic at high levels. Some studies suggest beneficial effects on mood. We assessed the association of selenium exposure with presence of depressive symptoms. Selenium exposure was measured in toenail samples collected in 1987 from 3735 US participants (age 20-32 years) and depressive symptoms assessed in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Binary and polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of log2(selenium) and selenium quintiles with presence of depressive symptoms (CES-D score?27 or on antidepressant medication). Relative to selenium quintile 1, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having depressive symptoms in 1990 for quintile 5 was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.51) and a unit increase in log2(selenium), which represents a doubling of the selenium level, was associated with an OR=2.03 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.70). When examining 1, 2 or 3+ exams vs. no exams with symptoms, the OR for quintile 5 was 1.73 (1.04, 2.89) for 3+ exams and for one exam and two exams, there were no associations. In a generalized estimating equations longitudinal model, a doubling of the selenium level was associated with a 56% higher odds of having depressive symptoms at an exam. Contrary to previously reported findings related to mood, higher level of selenium exposure was associated with presence of elevated depressive symptoms. More research is needed to elucidate the role of selenium in depressive disorders. PMID:24560993

Colangelo, Laura A; He, Ka; Whooley, Mary A; Daviglus, Martha L; Morris, Steven; Liu, Kiang

2014-03-01

345

TRAJECTORIES OF DEPRESSIVE EPISODES AND HYPERTENSION OVER 24 YEARS: THE WHITEHALL II PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Prospective data on depressive symptoms and blood pressure (BP) are scarce, and the impact of age on this association is poorly understood. The present study examines longitudinal trajectories of depressive episodes and the probability of hypertension associated with these trajectories over time. Participants were 6,889 men and 3,413 women London based civil servants, aged 35–55 years at baseline, followed for 24 years between 1985 and 2009. Depressive episode (defined as scoring 4 or more on the General Health Questionnaire-Depression subscale or using prescribed antidepressant medication) and hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ? 140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication) were assessed concurrently at five medical examinations. In the fully adjusted longitudinal logistic regression analyses based on Generalized-Estimating-Equations using age as the time scale, participants in the “increasing depression” group had a 24% (p<0.05) lower risk of hypertension at ages 35–39, compared to those in the “low/transient depression” group. However, there was a faster age-related increase in hypertension in the “increasing depression” group, corresponding to a 7% (p<0.01) greater increase in the odds of hypertension for every each five-year increase in age. A higher risk of hypertension in the first group of participants was not evident before age 55. A similar pattern of association was observed in men and women although it was stronger in men. This study suggests that the risk of hypertension increases with repeated experience of depressive episodes over time and becomes evident in later adulthood. PMID:21339474

Nabi, Hermann; Chastang, Jean-François; Lefèvre, Thomas; Dugravot, Aline; Melchior, Maria; Marmot, Michael G.; Shipley, Martin J.; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

2011-01-01

346

Individual empowerment in overweight and obese patients: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem in Europe and it causes many diseases. Many weight-reducing methods are reported in medical literature, but none of them proved to be effective in maintaining the results achieved over time. Self-empowerment can be an important innovative method, but an effectiveness study is necessary. In order to standardise the procedures for a randomised controlled study, a pilot study will be run to observe, measure and evaluate the effects of a period of self-empowerment group treatment on overweight/obese patients. Methods and analysis Non-controlled, experimental, pilot study. A selected group of patients with body mass index >25, with no severe psychiatric disorders, with no aesthetic or therapeutic motivation will be included in the study. A set of quantitative and qualitative measures will be utilised to evaluate the effects of a self-empowerment course in a 12?month time. Group therapy and medical examinations will also complete this observational phase. At the end of this pilot study, a set of appropriate measures and procedures to determine the effectiveness of individual empowerment will be identified and agreed among the different professional figures. Results will be recorded and analysed to start a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Udine in March 2012. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events involving the local administrations of the towns where the trial participants are resident. Trial Registration http://www.clinicalstrials.gov identifier NCT01644708. PMID:23676799

Struzzo, Pierluigi; Fumato, Raffaella; Tillati, Silvia; Cacitti, Anita; Gangi, Fabrizio; Stefani, Alessia; Torcutti, Alessia; Crapesi, Lucia; Tubaro, Gianni; Balestrieri, Matteo

2013-01-01

347

A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks  

SciTech Connect

We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2) Performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack need to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. The results suggest that in order to improve the performance of a communication network, it will be important to study the entire protocol stuck as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the 7 layer OSI stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point.

Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

2001-05-24

348

Empirically Derived Subtypes of Adolescent Depression: Latent Profile Analysis of Co-Occurring Symptoms in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A latent profile analysis was conducted on the co-occurring symptoms of 423 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder as part of the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), a multisite, randomized treatment trial. The participants had a mean (SD) age of 14.6 (1.5) years; of the sample, 45.6% was male and 73.8% was white.…

Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick; Walkup, John T.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

2007-01-01

349

Impact of Depression on Health Care Utilization and Costs among Multimorbid Patients – Results from the MultiCare Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the effects of depression on health care utilization and costs in a sample of multimorbid elderly patients. Method This cross-sectional analysis used data of a prospective cohort study, consisting of 1,050 randomly selected multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85 years. Depression was defined as a score of six points or more on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization. The impact of depression on health care costs was analyzed using multiple linear regression models. A societal perspective was adopted. Results Prevalence of depression was 10.7%. Mean total costs per six-month period were €8,144 (95% CI: €6,199-€10,090) in patients with depression as compared to €3,137 (95% CI: €2,735-€3,538; p<0.001) in patients without depression. The positive association between depression and total costs persisted after controlling for socio-economic variables, functional status and level of multimorbidity. In particular, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive association between depression and pharmaceutical costs. Conclusion Among multimorbid elderly patients, depression was associated with significantly higher health care utilization and costs. The effect of depression on costs was even greater than reported by previous studies conducted in less morbid patients. PMID:24638040

Bock, Jens-Oliver; Luppa, Melanie; Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Bickel, Horst; Fuchs, Angela; Gensichen, Jochen; Maier, Wolfgang; Mergenthal, Karola; Schäfer, Ingmar; Schön, Gerhard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; König, Hans-Helmut

2014-01-01

350

Qualitative study of depression management in primary care: GP and patient goals, and the value of listening  

PubMed Central

Background Guidelines for depression management have been developed but little is known about GP and patient goals, which are likely to influence treatment offers, uptake, and adherence. Aim To identify issues of importance to GPs, patients, and patients' supporters regarding depression management. GP and patient goals for depression management became a focus of the study. Design of study Grounded theory-based qualitative study. Setting GPs were drawn from 28 practices. The majority of patients and supporters were recruited from 10 of these practices. Method Sixty-one patients (28 depressed, 18 previously depressed, 15 never depressed), 18 supporters, and 32 GPs were interviewed. Results GPs described encouraging patients to view depression as separate from the self and ‘normal’ sadness. Patients and supporters often questioned such boundaries, rejecting the notion of a medical cure and emphasising self-management. The majority of participants who were considering depression-management strategies wanted to ‘get out’ of their depression. However, a quarter did not see this as immediately relevant or achievable. They focused on getting by from day to day, which had the potential to clash with GP priorities. GP frustration and uncertainty could occur when depression was resistant to cure. Participants identified the importance of GPs listening to patients, but often felt that this did not happen. Conclusion Physicians need greater awareness of the extent to which their goals for the management of depression are perceived as relevant or achievable by patients. Future research should explore methods of negotiating agreed strategies for management. PMID:17976282

Johnston, Olwyn; Kumar, Satinder; Kendall, Kathleen; Peveler, Robert; Gabbay, John; Kendrick, Tony

2007-01-01

351

Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. METHODS: In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for

Ji-Yeon Park; Jeong-Soon You; Kyung-Ja Chang

2010-01-01

352

Neurofeedback As a Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder – A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in neurofeedback as a treatment for major depressive disorder. Reduction of asymmetry of alpha-activity between left and right prefrontal areas with neurofeedback has been postulated as effective in earlier studies. Unfortunately, methodological shortcomings limit conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. In a pilot-study, we investigated the effectiveness of reduction of asymmetry of alpha-activity with neurofeedback in depressed participants with the use of a stringent methodological approach. Methods Nine participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were treated with a maximum of 30 neurofeedback-sessions, aimed at reducing asymmetry of alpha-activity, over a 10-week period. No changes in the use of antidepressants were allowed 6 weeks before and during the intervention. Changes in depressive symptomatology were assessed with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, self-report version. Results We observed response in 1 and remission in 4 out of a total of 9 participants. The effectiveness appeared largest in female participants. The mean asymmetry of alpha-activity decreased significantly over sessions in a quadratic fashion. This decrease was associated with clinical response. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that neurofeedback aimed at a reduction of frontal asymmetry of alpha-activity may be effective as a treatment for depression. However, this was an open label pilot study. Non-specific effects of the procedure and/or a beneficial natural course may have confounded the results. Randomized controlled trials will have to establish the efficacy of neurofeedback for depression. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR1629 PMID:24642756

Peeters, Frenk; Oehlen, Mare; Ronner, Jacco; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

2014-01-01

353

Positive antidepressant effects of generic yoga in depressive out-patients: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Context: Therapeutic effects in depression of yoga adopted from different schools have been demonstrated. The efficacy of a generic module of yoga on depressed patients has not yet been tested in the literature. Aims: The study was aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of a generic yoga module with antidepressant drugs in non-suicidal out-patients of major depression attending a psychiatric hospital. Settings and Design: The study was outpatient-based using an open-labeled design. Materials and Methods: A total of 137 out-patients of depressive disorders received one of the three treatments as they chose – yoga-only, drugs-only or both. The yoga was taught by a trained yoga physician for over a month in spaced sessions totaling at least 12. Patients were assessed before treatment, after 1 and 3 months on depression and Clinical Global Impression Scales. Out of 137, 58 patients completed the study period with all assessments. Results: Patients in the three arms of treatment were comparable on demographic and clinical variables. Patients in all three arms of treatment obtained a reduction in depression scores as well as clinical severity. However, both yoga groups (with or without drugs) were significantly better than the drugs-only group. Higher proportion of patients remitted in the yoga groups compared with the drugs-only group. No untoward events were spontaneously reported in the yoga-treated patients. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the findings support a case for prescribing yoga as taught in the study in depressive non-suicidal out-patients. PMID:24049201

Gangadhar, B. N.; Naveen, G. H.; Rao, M. G.; Thirthalli, J.; Varambally, S.

2013-01-01

354

The Postpartum Depressive State in Relation to Perceived Rearing: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between perceived rearing and the postpartum depressive state remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether perceived rearing is a risk factor for postpartum depression as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and whether the score of perceived rearing is affected by depressive mood (the state dependency of perceived rearing). Methods Pregnant women (n?=?448, mean age 31.8±4.2 years) completed the EPDS as a measure of depressive state in early pregnancy (T1), late pregnancy (around 36 weeks), and at 1 month postpartum (T2), and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) at T1 as a measure of perceived rearing. Changes in the EPDS and the PBI scores from T1 to T2 were compared between the non depressive (ND) group and the postpartum depressive (PD) group. Results There were no significant differences in any PBI category for perceived rearing between the ND and PD groups at T1. EPDS scores did not change significantly from T1 to T2 in the ND group but increased significantly in the PD group. The PBI maternal care score increased significantly in the ND group (p<0.01), while decreasing in the PD group (p<0.05). Additionally, in both the ND and PD groups, significant negative correlation was observed regarding change in the EPDS and PBI maternal care scores from T1 to T2 (r?=??0.28, p?=?0.013). Conclusions The present study suggests that perceived rearing is not a strong risk factor for postpartum depression as measured by the EPDS. Furthermore, the results indicated the state dependency of the PBI maternal care score. PMID:23185582

Okada, Takashi; Murase, Satomi; Aleksic, Branko; Furumura, Kaori; Shiino, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukako; Tamaji, Ai; Ishikawa, Naoko; Ohoka, Harue; Usui, Hinako; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

2012-01-01

355

Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking previously examined determinants into account. Methods: Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.0), we established comorbid anxiety disorders (social phobia (SP), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and agoraphobia (AGO)) in 350 patients (aged ?60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria within the past six months. Adjusted for age, sex, and level of education, we first examined previously identified determinants of anxious depression: depression severity, suicidality, partner status, loneliness, chronic diseases, and gait speed in multiple logistic regression models. Subsequently, associations were explored with the big five personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events. First, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the presence of any anxiety disorder (yes/no) as dependent variable, where after analyses were repeated for each anxiety disorder, separately. Results: In our sample, the prevalence rate of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression was 38.6%. Determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders were a lower age, female sex, less education, higher depression severity, early traumatization, neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Nonetheless, determinants differed across the specific anxiety disorders and lumping all anxiety disorder together masked some determinants (education, personality). Conclusions: Our findings stress the need to examine determinants of comorbid anxiety disorder for specific anxiety disorders separately, enabling the development of targeted interventions within subgroups of depressed patients. PMID:25370017

van der Veen, D C; van Zelst, W H; Schoevers, R A; Comijs, H C; Voshaar, R C Oude

2014-11-01

356

Personality as a predictor of depression symptoms in burn patients: a follow-up study.  

PubMed

There is empirical evidence that having some personality characteristics increases the risk of developing depression. This is the first study which analyses the role of personality dimensions, assessed by the Alternative Five Factor Model, in the development of depressive symptoms in adult burn survivors across time. Participants were 109 adult burn survivors admitted to a Burns Unit. Personality was assessed by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and depression symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory. After adjusting by age, gender and burn size, results showed that high Neuroticism-Anxiety (N-Anx) and Aggression-Hostility (Agg-Host) were related to higher depression scores when compared with low N-Anx and Agg-Host groups along the six months follow-up. Moreover, Activity and Impulsive-Sensation Seeking factors were involved in statistically significant different depressive symptom development trajectories during the six months after burn. These findings suggest that personality factors could be used to identify the most vulnerable patients, who could develop severe mood symptoms at different points in their recovery. PMID:25145874

Giannoni-Pastor, A; Gomà-i-Freixanet, M; Valero, S; Fidel Kinori, S G; Tasqué-Cebrián, R; Arguello, J M; Casas, M

2015-02-01

357

Depression is associated with increased sensitivity to signals of disgust: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study  

PubMed Central

Emotions of fear and disgust are related to core symptoms of depression. The neurobiological mechanisms of these associations are poorly understood. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at examining the Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response to facial expressions of fear and disgust in patients with major depressive disorder. Nine patients in an episode of major depression and nine healthy controls underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments where they judged the gender of facial identities displaying different degrees (mild, strong) of fear or disgust, intermixed with non-emotional faces. Compared with healthy controls, patients with depression demonstrated greater activation in left insula, left orbito-frontal gyrus, left middle/inferior temporal gyrus, and right middle/inferior temporal gyrus to expressions of strong disgust. Depressed patients also demonstrated reduced activation in left inferior parietal lobe to mildly fearful faces. Enhanced activation to facial expressions of disgust may reflect an emotion processing bias that suggests high relevance of emotion of disgust to depression. PMID:20307892

Surguladze, Simon A.; El-Hage, Wissam; Dalgleish, Tim; Radua, Joaquim; Gohier, Benedicte; Phillips, Mary L.

2014-01-01

358

A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to Study Soil Runoff  

PubMed Central

Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

Kibet, Leonard C.; Saporito, Louis S.; Allen, Arthur L.; May, Eric B.; Kleinman, Peter J. A.; Hashem, Fawzy M.; Bryant, Ray B.

2014-01-01

359

A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.  

PubMed

Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

2014-01-01

360

Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

2012-01-01

361

A multicenter cross-sectional study of mental and physical health depression in MHD patients.  

PubMed

Depression is ranked fourth among the disabling diseases affecting people worldwide and is the most common psychological problem in patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The aim of this study is to assess the physical and emotional health status of renal dialysis patients, based on the SF-36 scale in relation to their economic status. Sixty maintenance hemodialysis patients, with a mean age of 40±13 years were included in this cross-sectional study using the SF-36 scale. It comprises 36 questions regarding physical and mental functions, body pain, vitality, etc. An SF-36 score of 50 or less was considered as moderate to severe depression and 51-100 as mild depression to good health. 56.81% of the patients who are below poverty line under dialysis had moderate to severe depression with regard to their health status. A physical health score of up to 50 was seen in 63.63% of patients below poverty line 63.63% (P= 0.16). A mental health score of 0-50 was observed in 61.63% of the cohort studied (P = 0.22). Among the patient with diabetes (28.33%) 55.56% had depression. Dialysis duration was directly associated with deteriorating physical health status and inversely proportional to their mental health status (P<0.05). There are problems in other regular activities due to depressed physical and mental health. The factors that were identified in this study that influence depression such as poverty status, increasing age, vintage and frequency of dialysis and treatment with erythropoietin dosage should be addressed and treated accordingly to improve the quality of life. Improving self-esteem with fruitful employment opportunities, concerted rehabilitation by professionals and easing of economic burden by private-public partnership is an achievable goal. PMID:23162267

Vettath, R E; Reddy, Y N V; Reddy, Y N V; Dutta, S; Singh, Z; Mathew, M; Abraham, G

2012-07-01

362

Tinnitus severity is reduced with reduction of depressive mood--a prospective population study in Sweden.  

PubMed

Tinnitus, the perception of sound without external source, is a highly prevalent public health problem with about 8% of the population having frequently occurring tinnitus, and about 1-2% experiencing significant distress from it. Population studies, as well as studies on self-selected samples, have reported poor psychological well-being in individuals with tinnitus. However, no study has examined the long-term co-variation between mood and tinnitus prevalence or tinnitus severity. In this study, the relationship between depression and tinnitus prevalence and severity over a 2-year period was examined in a representative sample of the general Swedish working population. Results show that a decrease in depression is associated with a decrease in tinnitus prevalence, and even more markedly with tinnitus severity. Hearing loss was a more potent predictor than depression for tinnitus prevalence, but was a weaker predictor than depression for tinnitus severity. In addition, there were sex differences for tinnitus prevalence, but not for tinnitus severity. This study shows a direct and long-term association between tinnitus severity and depression. PMID:22629449

Hébert, Sylvie; Canlon, Barbara; Hasson, Dan; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

2012-01-01

363

Efficacy, quality of life, and acceptability outcomes of atypical antipsychotic augmentation treatment for treatment-resistant depression: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating and costly mental disorder. Although commercially available antidepressants have proliferated over the last 20 years, a substantial number of patients either do not respond adequately to these drugs or are unable to tolerate their adverse effects. One common approach has been to augment conventional antidepressants with an adjunctive agent, but the optimal selection of atypical antipsychotic agents for adjunctive treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains controversial. Methods/Design An electronic literature search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, LiLACS, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for studies will be conducted with no restrictions on language, publication year, or publication type. Several clinical trial registry agencies, pharmaceutical company websites, and FDA reports will also be reviewed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with atypical antipsychotic augmentation treatment for treatment-resistant depression will be considered. Data will be independently extracted by two reviewers. Traditional pairwise meta-analyses will be performed for RCTs that directly compare different treatment arms. Then, Bayesian network meta-analyses will be performed to compare the relative efficacy and acceptability of different atypical antipsychotic agents (and doses). A sensitivity analysis will be performed by excluding studies classified as a small sample size, having a high placebo effect. Discussion This systematic review and network meta-analysis will comparatively analyze the efficacy, quality of life, and acceptability profiles of atypical antipsychotic medications used for the adjunctive treatment of TRD. The findings should provide clinically relevant implications for comprehensively understanding the risk–benefit profiles of these adjunctive treatments. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD 42014009666. PMID:25373601

2014-01-01

364

Patients’ perceptions of depression and coronary heart disease: a qualitative UPBEAT-UK study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of depression in people with coronary heart disease (CHD) is high but little is known about patients’ own perceptions and experiences of this. This study aimed to explore (i) primary care (PC) patients’ perceptions of links between their physical condition and mental health, (ii) their experiences of living with depression and CHD and (iii) their own self-help strategies and attitudes to current PC interventions for depression. Method Qualitative study using consecutive sampling, in-depth interviews and thematic analysis using a process of constant comparison. 30 participants from the UPBEAT-UK cohort study, with CHD and symptoms of depression. All participants were registered on the General Practitioner (GP) primary care, coronary register. Results A personal and social story of loss underpinned participants’ accounts of their lives, both before and after their experience of having CHD. This theme included two interrelated domains: interpersonal loss and loss centred upon health/control issues. Strong links were made between CHD and depression by men who felt emasculated by CHD. Weaker links were made by participants who had experienced distressing life events such as divorce and bereavement or were living with additional chronic health conditions (i.e. multimorbidity). Participants also felt ‘depressed’ by the ‘medicalisation’ of their lives, loneliness and the experience of ageing and ill health. Just under half the sample had consulted their GP about their low mood and participants were somewhat ambivalent about accessing primary care interventions for depression believing the GP would not be able to help them with complex health and social issues. Talking therapies and interventions providing the opportunity for social interaction, support and exercise, such as Cardiac Rehabilitation, were thought to be helpful whereas anti-depressants were not favoured. Conclusions The experiences and needs of patients with CHD and depression are diverse and include psycho-social issues involving interpersonal and health/control losses. In view of the varying social and health needs of patients with CHD and depression the adoption of a holistic, case management approach to care is recommended together with personalised support providing the opportunity for patients to develop and achieve life and health goals, where appropriate. PMID:23509869

2013-01-01

365

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

366

Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model of Depression during Adolescence: Investigating Depressive Symptom Specificity in a Multi-Wave Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression commonly co-occurs with anxiety and externalizing problems. Etiological factors from a central cognitive theory of depression, the Hopelessness Theory (Abramson et al. "Psychological Review," 96, 358-372, 1989), were examined to evaluate whether a negative inferential style about cause, consequence, and self interacted with stressors…

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2008-01-01

367

Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: a 5-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed. PMID:23379297

Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C

2013-11-01

368

Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

2007-01-01

369

Simulation of the RPL Routing Protocol for IPv6 Sensor Networks: two cases studies Leila Ben Saad  

E-print Network

Simulation of the RPL Routing Protocol for IPv6 Sensor Networks: two cases studies Leila Ben Saad.Tourancheau@INRIA.fr Abstract--The routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL) was recently designed in the ROLL power and Lossy networks (ROLL) designed a routing protocol named IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power

Boyer, Edmond

370

Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of acute myocardial infarction: the HUNT 2 study  

PubMed Central

Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status including cardiovascular risk factors and common chronic disorders were registered for 57 953 adult men and women free of cardiovascular disease. The cohort was followed up during a mean (SD) 11.4 (2.9) years for a first AMI from baseline through 2008. A total of 2111 incident AMIs occurred, either identified at hospitals or by the National Cause of Death Registry. The multi-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.31 (95% CI 1.03–1.66) for symptoms of depression and 1.25 (CI 0.99–1.57) for anxiety. Two episodes of mixed symptoms of anxiety and depression (MSAD), reported 10 years apart, increased the risk for AMI by 52% (11–108%). After exclusion of the first 5 years of follow-up, the association of depression symptoms with AMI risk was attenuated. Relative risk for AMI with anxiety symptoms and MSAD weakened when participants with chronic disorders were excluded. Conclusion Self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety, especially if recurrent, were moderately associated with the risk of incident AMI. We had some indications that these associations might partly reflect reverse causation or confounding from common chronic diseases. PMID:24057077

Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar

2014-01-01

371

Anxiety, Depression, Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes Mellitus; An Association Study in Ghaem Hospital, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an increasing trend in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Iran. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of anxiety, depression, diabetes and coronary artery disease among patients undergoing angiography in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted between September 2011 and August 2012 among 200 patients undergoing coronary angiography for symptoms of coronary disease at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The control group consisted of 697 healthy adults recruited from the individuals who attended the clinic for routine medical checkups or pre-employment examinations. The Beck anxiety and depression inventory scores and fasting blood glucose results were assessed in all the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of patients was 57.52 ± 9.33 years old and for the control group it was 55.35 ± 8.45 years; there was no significant difference between the subjects (P = 0.647) regarding age. There was also no significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and control groups (P = 0.205). There was however a significant difference in anxiety and depression scores between the patients and healthy controls (P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety score and depression score in both groups when data were analyzed by Pearson test. (P < 0.001, r = 0.604 and r = 0.521). Moreover, there was a significant positive linear correlation between the depression/anxiety scores and fasting blood glucose concentrations in the patients group (r = 0.3, P < 0.001) and a weak negative correlation in the healthy controls (r = -0.096, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Depression and anxiety are potentially important factors among patients with angiographically-defined CAD. There appear to be significant associations between glucose tolerance and anxiety and depression in these patients. PMID:25593715

Tajfard, Mohammad; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Mouhebati, Mohsen; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Ferns, Gordon A; Latiff, Latiffah A; Taghipour, Ali; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Abdul-Aziz, Ahmad Fazli

2014-01-01

372

Perinatal depression and omega-3 fatty acids: A Mendelian randomisation study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been numerous studies investigating the association between omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and depression, with mixed findings. We propose an approach which is largely free from issues such as confounding or reverse causality, to investigate this relationship using observational data from a pregnancy cohort. Methods The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort collected information on FA levels from antenatal blood samples and depressive symptoms at several time points during pregnancy and the postnatal period. Conventional epidemiological analyses were used in addition to a Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach to investigate the association between levels of two omega-3 FAs (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and perinatal onset depression, antenatal depression (AND) and postnatal depression (PND). Results Weak evidence of a positive association with both EPA (OR=1.07; 95% CI: 0.99–1.15) and DHA (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 0.98–1.19) with perinatal onset depression was found using a multivariable logistic regression adjusting for social class and maternal age. However, the strength of association was found to attenuate when using an MR analysis to investigate DHA. Limitations Pleiotropy is a potential limitation in MR analyses; we assume that the genetic variants included in the instrumental variable are associated only with our trait of interest (FAs) and thus cannot influence the outcome via any other pathway. Conclusions We found weak evidence of a positive association between omega-3 FAs and perinatal onset depression. However, without confirmation from the MR analysis, we are unable to draw conclusions regarding causality. PMID:25012420

Sallis, Hannah; Steer, Colin; Paternoster, Lavinia; Davey Smith, George; Evans, Jonathan

2014-01-01

373

Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.  

PubMed

Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)=2.6 in 2003; OR=4.4 in 2006; OR=4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR=2.4 in 2006; OR=2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health. PMID:24647705

Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

2014-06-01

374

Predictors of early post ischemic stroke apathy and depression: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Apathy and depression are important neuropsychiatric disorders that can occur after a stroke but the etiology and risk factors are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for apathy and depression following a stroke. Methods Patients with an acute stroke who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from our hospital, and general information was recorded from patient charts. The Apathy Evaluation Scale, Clinician Version (AES-C) was used to evaluate these patients within 2 weeks after the stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale Initiation/Perseveration subset (MDRS I/P), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Stroop Color-Word Association Test were employed to evaluate emotion, cognitive function and executive function. The patients were divided into two groups: the apathy group and the non-apathy group. We also divided the patients into two groups based on whether or not they had post-stroke depression. The clinical characteristics and scores on the MoCA, MMSE, HAMD and MDRS I/P were compared between the apathy and non-apathy groups as well as between patients with and without depression. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for apathy and depression following a stroke. Results A total of 75 patients with acute stroke were recruited. Of these, 25 (33.3%) developed apathy and 12 (16%) developed depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of cerebrovascular disease (OR: 6.45, 95% CI: 1.48-28.05, P?=?0.013), low HbA1c (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81, P?=?0.017) and a low MDRS I/P score (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.96, P?=?0.010) were risk factors for post-stroke apathy. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression indicated that a low MDRS I/P (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.97, P?=?0.015) was associated with post-stroke depression. Conclusions Three risk factors for post-stroke apathy were identified as a history of cerebrovascular disease, low HbA1c and lower MDRS I/P scores. A low MDRS I/P score was also identified as a risk factor for post-stroke depression. These results may be useful to clinicians in recognizing and treating apathy and depression in patients after a stroke. PMID:23738569

2013-01-01

375

Validation of the depression item bank from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in a three-month observational study.  

PubMed

The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is an NIH Roadmap initiative devoted to developing better measurement tools for assessing constructs relevant to the clinical investigation and treatment of all diseases-constructs such as pain, fatigue, emotional distress, sleep, physical functioning, and social participation. Following creation of item banks for these constructs, our priority has been to validate them, most often in short-term observational studies. We report here on a three-month prospective observational study with depressed outpatients in the early stages of a new treatment episode (with assessments at intake, one-month follow-up, and three-month follow-up). The protocol was designed to compare the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression item bank (administered as a computerized adaptive test, CAT) with two legacy self-report instruments: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD; Radloff, 1977) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999). PROMIS depression demonstrated strong convergent validity with the CESD and the PHQ-9 (with correlations in a range from .72 to .84 across all time points), as well as responsiveness to change when characterizing symptom severity in a clinical outpatient sample. Identification of patients as "recovered" varied across the measures, with the PHQ-9 being the most conservative. The use of calibrations based on models from item response theory (IRT) provides advantages for PROMIS depression both psychometrically (creating the possibility of adaptive testing, providing a broader effective range of measurement, and generating greater precision) and practically (these psychometric advantages can be achieved with fewer items-a median of 4 items administered by CAT-resulting in less patient burden). PMID:24931848

Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Maihoefer, Catherine C; Lawrence, Suzanne M

2014-09-01

376

Characterization of depression in prodromal Huntington disease in the neurobiological predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) study.  

PubMed

Depression causes significant morbidity and mortality, and this also occurs in Huntington Disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative illness with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. The presentation of depression in this population remains poorly understood, particularly in the prodromal period before development of significant motor symptoms. In this study, we assessed depressive symptoms in a sample of 803 individuals with the HD mutation in the prodromal stage and 223 mutation-negative participants at the time of entry in the Neurobiological Predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) study. Clinical and biological HD variables potentially related to severity of depression were analyzed. A factor analysis was conducted to characterize the symptom domains of depression in a subset (n=168) with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found to be more prevalent in HD mutation carriers but did not increase with proximity to HD diagnosis and were not associated with length of the HD mutation. Increased depressive symptoms were significantly associated with female gender, self-report of past history of depression, and a slight decrease in functioning, but not with time since genetic testing. The factor analysis identified symptom domains similar to prior studies in other populations. These results show that individuals with the HD mutation are at increased risk to develop depressive symptoms at any time during the HD prodrome. The clinical presentation appears to be similar to other populations. Severity and progression are not related to the HD mutation. PMID:23790259

Epping, Eric A; Mills, James A; Beglinger, Leigh J; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Craufurd, David; Smith, Megan M; Groves, Mark; Bijanki, Kelly R; Downing, Nancy; Williams, Janet K; Long, Jeffrey D; Paulsen, Jane S

2013-10-01

377

A study of sociodemographic clinical and glycemic control factors associated with co-morbid depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Context: Diabetes affects 9.2% of adults in India. About 8–16% of its population also suffer from depression. Both diseases pose a serious health challenge at individual and system level. The prevalence of depression in diabetes is much higher than in the general population. Undiagnosed and untreated depression puts people at higher morbidity and mortality risk. Aim: To study the prevalence of depression in diabetes and to identify associated risk factors. Settings and Design: Case control study carried out in an outpatient setting of a tertiary hospital in central India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and nine type 2 diabetes patients and 91 healthy controls formed the subjects of the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained on seven parameters. Comprehensive clinical data were obtained by means of standard procedures. Blood sugar levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were measured to assess glycemic control. Data of diabetic patients and controls as well as that of depressed and nondepressed diabetics were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: About 42.2% of diabetes patients and only 4.39% of controls had depression. About 19% of diabetics had peripheral neuropathy but had much higher neuropathic symptoms. Depression was not related to any sociodemographic or clinical factors but was strongly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent in diabetes. Physical symptoms mask depression. Special attention needs to be paid to diagnose depression in diabetes and treat it appropriately along with effective glycemic control. Diabetes patients need to be treated collaboratively by physicians and psychiatrists. PMID:25788803

Singh, Hritu; Raju, M. S. V. K.; Dubey, Vaibhav; Kurrey, Ravindra; Bansal, Shaifali; Malik, Mustafa

2014-01-01

378

The Great Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the personal impact of the depression on the lives of Americans. We will follow Utah\\'s Social Studies core curriculum Standard 6: Students will understand how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected the United States. Objective 1 Investigate the impact of the Great Depression on the United States. * Analyze the major causes of the Great Depression. ...

RandyandAmber

2007-11-30

379

Nutritional Interventions in Depression and Perinatal Depression  

PubMed Central

Depression is the leading cause of mental disability worldwide. Women who are depressed during pregnancy are at a higher risk for preterm delivery, preeclampsia, birth difficulties, and postpartum depression. The treatment of depression in conventional medicine has focused on physiological factors that lead to impaired neurotransmitter function and treatments to improve neurotransmitter function. Pharmaceutical substances pose risks for pregnant and lactating women, and lower risk options are preferred. Micronutrients, including certain B vitamins, folate, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in the synthesis and absorption of neurotransmitters. Experimental studies suggest that supplementation with specific micronutrients may alleviate depressive symptoms and improve birth outcomes in patients with perinatal depression. Alternative treatments for depression, including nutritional supplements, are an important treatment option for depressive symptoms while limiting potential side effects and treatment costs. This article explores the biological basis of perinatal depression and reviews the potential benefits of non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:23766734

Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Humphries, Debbie

2013-01-01

380

Cultural Dimensions of Depression in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Study in Two Villages of Matlab  

PubMed Central

This article reports the results of a qualitative study conducted in two villages of Matlab to explore the cultural dimensions of depression. Participants included adult men and women with and without a history of depressive episode (n=42), formal and informal healthcare providers (n=6), and caregivers (n=2). Adults (n=10) with a history of depressive episode were selected from a 2005 survey conducted by ICDDR,B. A case vignette was used for eliciting local terms for depression, perceived causes, impact, and treatments. Hardly anyone recognized the term bishonnota (literal translation of depression) used in the past survey. The participants thought that the vignette was about chinta rog (worry illness), and they spoke of somatic symptoms in relation to this condition. When explored further, they mentioned sadness and psychological complaints. Men felt that it affected them more while women felt the opposite. They associated chinta rog with poverty and social issues with impacts on marriage, work, and education. From their responses, it seemed that they preferred a psychosocial framework attributing the cause to thoughts and emotions, resulting from social causes. Commonly-suggested treatments were more income, better relationships, and tablets. Former health providers were often the first choice for help-seeking. The study hopes to ‘culturally inform’ the formal healthcare providers and programme planners. PMID:20214091

2010-01-01

381

Web-Based Depression Screening and Psychiatric Consultation for College Students: A Feasibility and Acceptability Study  

PubMed Central

Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9???10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895

Williams, Aya; LaRocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio

2014-01-01

382

Poststroke fatigue and depression are related to mortality in young adults: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the relationship between poststroke fatigue and depression and subsequent mortality in young ischaemic stroke patients in a population-based study. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting All surviving young ischaemic stroke patients living in Hordaland County. Participants Young ischaemic stroke patients aged 15–50?years at the time of the stroke were invited to a follow-up on an average 6?years after the index stroke. Psychosocial factors and risk factors were registered. Fatigue was self-assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Depression was measured by Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Intervention No intervention was performed. Primary and secondary outcome measure Mortality on follow-up. Results In total, 190 patients were included. The mean age on follow-up was 48?years and subsequent follow-up period was 12?years. Cox regression analysis showed that mortality was associated with FSS score (p=0.005) after adjusting for age (p=0.06) and sex (p=0.19). Cox regression analysis showed that mortality was associated with MADRS score (p=0.006) after adjusting for age (p=0.10) and sex (p=0.11). Conclusions Both fatigue and depression are associated with long-term mortality in young adults with ischaemic stroke. Depression may be linked to higher mortality because of psychosocial factors and unhealthy lifestyles whereas the link between fatigue and mortality is broader including connection to diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and psychosocial factors. PMID:23457330

Naess, Halvor; Nyland, Harald

2013-01-01

383

Web-based depression screening and psychiatric consultation for college students: a feasibility and acceptability study.  

PubMed

Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9???10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895

Williams, Aya; Larocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio; Kvedar, Joseph; Yeung, Albert

2014-01-01

384

A study of Internet instant messaging and chat protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instant messaging (IM) and network chat communication have seen an enormous rise in popularity over the last several years. However, since many of these systems are proprietary, little has been described about the network technology behind them. This analysis helps bridge this gap by providing an overview of the available features, functions, system architectures, and protocol specifications of the three

Raymond B. Jennings III; Erich M. Nahum; David P. Olshefski; Debanjan Saha; Zon-yin Shae; Chris Waters

2006-01-01

385

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Effectiveness of two antifolate prophylactic  

E-print Network

that it has significant activity against malaria. As the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTSTUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Effectiveness of two antifolate prophylactic strategies against malaria , Lenaig Le-Fouler2 , Mirdad Kazanji1 and Muriel Vray2 Abstract Background: Co-infection with malaria

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution  

E-print Network

by physical constraints and per- formance criteria. Because safety of the aircraft is solely or mostlyA Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu1, Ufuk Topcu2, and Richard M. Murray3 Abstract-- We consider the problem of designing a control protocol for the aircraft

Xu, Huan

387

Interoception in insula subregions as a possible state marker for depression—an exploratory fMRI study investigating healthy, depressed and remitted participants  

PubMed Central

Background: Interoceptive awareness (iA), the awareness of stimuli originating inside the body, plays an important role in human emotions and psychopathology. The insula is particularly involved in neural processes underlying iA. However, iA-related neural activity in the insula during the acute state of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in remission from depression has not been explored. Methods: A well-established fMRI paradigm for studying (iA; heartbeat counting) and exteroceptive awareness (eA; tone counting) was used. Study participants formed three independent groups: patients suffering from MDD, patients in remission from MDD or healthy controls. Task-induced neural activity in three functional subdivisions of the insula was compared between these groups. Results: Depressed participants showed neural hypo-responses during iA in anterior insula regions, as compared to both healthy and remitted participants. The right dorsal anterior insula showed the strongest response to iA across all participant groups. In depressed participants there was no differentiation between different stimuli types in this region (i.e., between iA, eA and noTask). Healthy and remitted participants in contrast showed clear activity differences. Conclusions: This is the first study comparing iA and eA-related activity in the insula in depressed participants to that in healthy and remitted individuals. The preliminary results suggest that these groups differ in there being hypo-responses across insula regions in the depressed participants, whilst non-psychiatric participants and patients in remission from MDD show the same neural activity during iA in insula subregions implying a possible state marker for MDD. The lack of activity differences between different stimulus types in the depressed group may account for their symptoms of altered external and internal focus.

Wiebking, Christine; de Greck, Moritz; Duncan, Niall W.; Tempelmann, Claus; Bajbouj, Malek; Northoff, Georg

2015-01-01

388