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1

Melancholic versus non-melancholic depression: differences on cognitive function. A longitudinal study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common among depressed patients. However, the pattern and magnitude of impairment during episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) through to clinical remission remains unclear. Heterogeneity of depressive patients and the lack of longitudinal studies may account for contradictory results in previous research. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This longitudinal study will analyze cognitive differences between CORE-defined melancholic depressed patients (n

Saray Monzón; Margalida Gili; Margalida Vives; Maria Jesus Serrano; Natalia Bauza; Rosa Molina; Mauro García-Toro; Joan Salvà; Joan Llobera; Miquel Roca

2010-01-01

2

Acupuncture, Counseling, and Usual care for Depression (ACUDep): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence on the effect of acupuncture or counseling for depression is not conclusive yet is sufficient to warrant further research. Our aim is to conduct a full-scale RCT to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of acupuncture and counseling compared to usual care alone. We will explore the experiences and perspectives of patients and practitioners. Methods/Design Randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms: acupuncture plus usual care, counseling plus usual care, and usual care alone, in conjunction with a nested qualitative study using in-depth interviews with purposive samples of trial participants. Participants: Patients aged over 18 years diagnosed with depression or mood disorder by their GP and with a score of 20 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Randomization: Computer randomization by York Trials Unit to acupuncture, counseling, and usual care alone in proportions of 2:2:1, respectively, with secure allocation concealment. Interventions: Patients allocated to acupuncture and counseling groups receive the offer of up to 12 weekly sessions. Both interventions allow flexibility to address patient variation, yet are constrained within defined protocols. Acupuncture is based on traditional Chinese medicine and counseling is non-directive within the humanistic tradition. Outcome: The PHQ-9 is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Also measured is BDI-II, SF-36 Bodily pain subscale, and EQ-5D. Texted mood scores are collected weekly over the first 15 weeks. Health-related resource use is collected over 12 months. Analysis: The sample size target was for 640 participants, calculated for an effect size of 0.32 on the PHQ-9 when comparing acupuncture with counseling given 90% power, 5% significance, and 20% loss to follow-up. Analysis of covariance will be used on an intention-to-treat basis. Thematic analysis will be used for qualitative data. We will compare incremental cost-effectiveness of the three treatment options at 12 months. Discussion Ethical approval was obtained in October 2009. There were six subsequent protocol amendments, the last of which was approved in January 2012. Recruitment of 755 participants took place over 18 months. Data collection will be completed by June 2012. No interim analyses have been conducted. Trial registration ISRCTN63787732

2012-01-01

3

Hygienic-dietary recommendations for major depression treatment: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling mental disorder with an incidence rate which appears to be increasing in the developed world. This fact seems to be at least partially related to lifestyle factors. Some hygienic-dietary measures have shown their efficacy as a coadjuvant of standard treatment. However, their effectiveness has not yet been proved enough in usual clinical practice. Methods Multicenter, randomized, controlled, two arm-parallel, clinical trial involving 300 patients over 18 years old with a diagnosis of Major Depression. Major depression will be diagnosed by means of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The Beck Depression Inventory total score at the end of the study will constitute the main efficacy outcome. Quality of Life and Social and Health Care Services Consumption Scales will be also administered. Patients will be assessed at three different occasions: baseline, 6-month follow-up and 12-month follow-up. Discussion We expect the patients in the active lifestyle recommendations group to experience a greater improvement in their depressive symptoms and quality of life with lower socio-sanitary costs. Trial registration ISRCTN73931675

2012-01-01

4

Community pharmacist intervention in depressed primary care patients (PRODEFAR study): randomized controlled trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of depression, the most prevalent and costly mental disorder, needs to be improved. Non-concordance with clinical guidelines and non-adherence can limit the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of depression. Through pharmaceutical care, pharmacists can improve patients' compliance and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention developed to improve adherence and outcomes of primary care patients with depression. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial, with 6-month follow-up, comparing patients receiving a pharmaceutical care support programme in primary care with patients receiving usual care. The total sample comprises 194 patients (aged between 18 and 75) diagnosed with depressive disorder in a primary care health centre in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Subjects will be asked for written informed consent in order to participate in the study. Diagnosis will be confirmed using the SCID-I. The intervention consists of an educational programme focused on improving knowledge about medication, making patients aware of the importance of compliance, reducing stigma, reassuring patients about side-effects and stressing the importance of carrying out general practitioners' advice. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Main outcome measure is compliance with antidepressants. Secondary outcomes include; clinical severity of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (STAI-S), health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D), satisfaction with the treatment received, side-effects, chronic physical conditions and socio-demographics. The use of healthcare and social care services will be assessed with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). Discussion This trial will provide valuable information for health professionals and policy makers on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention programme in the context of primary care. Trial registration NCT00794196

Rubio-Valera, Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Trave, Pere; Penarrubia-Maria, M Teresa; Ruiz, Mar; Pujol, Marian March

2009-01-01

5

Intervention for depression among palliative care patients and their families: A study protocol for evaluation of a training program for professional care staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Clinical depression is highly prevalent yet under-detected and under-treated in palliative care settings and is associated\\u000a with a number of adverse medical and psychological outcomes for patients and their family members. This article presents a\\u000a study protocol to evaluate a training intervention for non-physician palliative care staff to improve the recognition of depression\\u000a and provide support for depressed patients and

David J Hallford; Marita P McCabe; David Mellor; Tanya E Davison; Denisa L Goldhammer; Kuruvilla George; Shane Storer

2011-01-01

6

A randomised, controlled trial of a dietary intervention for adults with major depression (the "SMILES" trial): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Despite increased investment in its recognition and treatment, depression remains a substantial health and economic burden worldwide. Current treatment strategies generally focus on biological and psychological pathways, largely neglecting the role of lifestyle. There is emerging evidence to suggest that diet and nutrition play an important role in the risk, and the genesis, of depression. However, there are limited data regarding the therapeutic impact of dietary changes on existing mental illness. Using a randomised controlled trial design, we aim to investigate the efficacy and cost-efficacy of a dietary program for the treatment of Major Depressive Episodes (MDE). Methods/Design One hundred and seventy six eligible participants suffering from current MDE are being randomised into a dietary intervention group or a social support group. Depression status is assessed using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Non Patient Edition) (SCID-I/NP). The intervention consists of 7 individual nutrition consulting sessions (of approximately 60 minutes), delivered by an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD). Sessions commence within one week of baseline assessment. The intervention focuses on advocating a healthy diet based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Guidelines for Adults in Greece. The control condition comprises a befriending protocol using the same visit schedule and length as the diet intervention. The study is being conducted at two locations in Victoria, Australia (a metropolitan and regional centre). Data collection occurs at baseline (pre-intervention), 3-months (post-intervention) and 6– months. The primary endpoint is MADRS scores at 3 months. A cost consequences analysis will determine the economic value of the intervention. Discussion If efficacious, this program could provide an alternative or adjunct treatment strategy for the management of this highly prevalent mental disorder; the benefits of which could extend to the management of common co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Trial registration NCT01523561

2013-01-01

7

Collaborative Depression Trial (CADET): multi-centre randomised controlled trial of collaborative care for depression - study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Comprising of both organisational and patient level components, collaborative care is a potentially powerful intervention for improving depression treatment in UK primary Care. However, as previous models have been developed and evaluated in the United States, it is necessary to establish the effect of collaborative care in the UK in order to determine whether this innovative treatment model can

David A Richards; Adwoa Hughes-Morley; Rachel A Hayes; Ricardo Araya; Michael Barkham; John M Bland; Peter Bower; John Cape; Carolyn A Chew-Graham; Linda Gask; Simon Gilbody; Colin Green; David Kessler; Glyn Lewis; Karina Lovell; Chris Manning; Stephen Pilling

2009-01-01

8

Strategic use of new generation antidepressants for depression: SUN(^_^)D study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  After more than half a century of modern psychopharmacology, with billions of dollars spent on antidepressants annually world-wide,\\u000a we lack good evidence to guide our everyday decisions in conducting antidepressant treatment of patients with major depression.\\u000a First we did not know which antidepressant to use as first line treatment. Second we do not know which dosage we should be\\u000a aiming

Toshi A Furukawa; Tatsuo Akechi; Shinji Shimodera; Mitsuhiko Yamada; Kazuhira Miki; Norio Watanabe; Masatoshi Inagaki; Naohiro Yonemoto

2011-01-01

9

Homeopathy for Depression - DEP-HOM: study protocol for a randomized, partially double-blind, placebo controlled, four armed study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether

Ubiratan C Adler; Stephanie Krüger; Michael Teut; Rainer Lüdtke; Iris Bartsch; Lena Schützler; Friedericke Melcher; Stefan N Willich; Klaus Linde; Claudia M Witt

2011-01-01

10

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of depression: a study protocol for a double blinded randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are the most common form of mental disorders in community and health care settings. Unfortunately, the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is far from satisfactory. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a relatively new and promising physical treatment for depressive disorders. One particularly appealing element of VNS is the long-term benefit in mood regulation. However, because this intervention involves surgery, perioperative risks, and potentially significant side effects, this treatment has been limited to those patients with treatment-resistant depression who have failed medication trials and exhausted established somatic treatments for major depression, due to intolerance or lack of response. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aims to overcome these limitations by introducing a novel method of stimulating superficial branches of the vagus nerve on the ear to treat MDD. The rationale is that direct stimulation of the afferent nerve fibers on the ear area with afferent vagus nerve distribution should produce a similar effect as classic VNS in reducing depressive symptoms without the burden of surgical intervention. Design One hundred twenty cases (60 males) of volunteer patients with mild and moderate depression will be randomly divided into transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation group (tVNS) and sham tVNS group. The treatment period lasts 4 months and all clinical and physiological measurements are acquired at the beginning and the end of the treatment period. Discussion This study has the potential to significantly extend the application of VNS treatment for MDD and other disorders (including epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and morbid obesity), resulting in direct benefit to the patients suffering from these highly prevalent disorders. In addition, the results of this double-blinded clinical trial will shed new light on our understanding of acupuncture point specificity, and development of methodologies in clinical trials of acupuncture treatment. Trials registration Clinical Trials. ChiCTR-TRC-11001201 http://www.chictr.org/cn/

2012-01-01

11

Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for depressed breast cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20?+?5 sessions) or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendation for counseling center and physician information). We plan to recruit a total of 180 patients (90 per arm) in two centers. Assessments are conducted pretreatment, after 6 (treatment termination) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary outcome measures are reduction of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and remission of depression as assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders by independent, blinded assessors at treatment termination. Secondary outcomes refer to quality of life. Discussion We investigate the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in acute care and we aim to identify predictors for acceptance and success of treatment. Trial registration ISRCTN96793588

2012-01-01

12

Cognitive behavioural therapy in elderly type 2 diabetes patients with minor depression or mild major depression: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (MIND-DIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of diabetes among adults will be 6.4% in 2010 and will increase to 7.7% by 2030. Diabetes doubles the odds of depression, and 9% of patients with diabetes are affected by depressive disorders. When subclinical depression is included, the proportion of patients who have clinically relevant depressive symptoms increases to 26%. In patients aged over 65

Frank Petrak; Martin Hautzinger; Kristin Plack; Kai Kronfeld; Christian Ruckes; Stephan Herpertz; Matthias J Müller

2010-01-01

13

Cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy for preventing winter depression recurrence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depression involving major depressive episodes during the fall and/or winter months that remit in the spring. The central public health challenge in the management of SAD is prevention of winter depression recurrence. Light therapy (LT) is the established and best available acute SAD treatment. However, long-term compliance with daily LT from first symptom through spontaneous springtime remission every fall/winter season is poor. Time-limited alternative treatments with effects that endure beyond the cessation of acute treatment are needed to prevent the annual recurrence of SAD. Methods/design This is an NIMH-funded R01-level randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a novel, SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT) against LT in a head-to-head comparison on next winter outcomes. This project is designed to test for a clinically meaningful difference between CBT and LT on depression recurrence in the next winter (the primary outcome). This is a concurrent two-arm study that will randomize 160 currently symptomatic community adults with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, to CBT or LT. After 6 weeks of treatment in the initial winter, participants are followed in the subsequent summer, the next winter, and two winters later. Key methodological issues surround timing study procedures for a predictably recurrent and time-limited disorder with a focus on long-term outcomes. Discussion The chosen design answers the primary question of whether prior exposure to CBT is associated with a substantially lower likelihood of depression recurrence the next winter than LT. This design does not test the relative contributions of the cognitive-behavioral treatment components vs. nonspecific factors to CBT’s outcomes and is not adequately powered to test for differences or equivalence between cells at treatment endpoint. Alternative designs addressing these limitations would have required more patients, increased costs, and reduced power to detect a difference in the primary outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01714050

2013-01-01

14

The study protocol of the Norwegian randomized controlled trial of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some

Ute Kessler; Arne E Vaaler; Helle Schøyen; Ketil J Oedegaard; Per Bergsholm; Ole A Andreassen; Ulrik F Malt; Gunnar Morken

2010-01-01

15

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating self-help email messages for sub-threshold depression: the Mood Memos study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sub-threshold depression is common, impairs functioning, and increases the risk of developing major depression. Although psychological treatments have been investigated for sub-threshold depression, they are costly. A less costly alternative could be an educational health promotion campaign about effective self-help for depression symptoms. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of a low-cost email-based mental health

Amy J Morgan; Anthony F Jorm; Andrew J Mackinnon

2011-01-01

16

Predictors of remission in depression to individual and combined treatments (PReDICT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Limited controlled data exist to guide treatment choices for clinicians caring for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although many putative predictors of treatment response have been reported, most were identified through retrospective analyses of existing datasets and very few have been replicated in a manner that can impact clinical practice. One major confound in previous studies examining predictors of treatment response is the patient’s treatment history, which may affect both the predictor of interest and treatment outcomes. Moreover, prior treatment history provides an important source of selection bias, thereby limiting generalizability. Consequently, we initiated a randomized clinical trial designed to identify factors that moderate response to three treatments for MDD among patients never treated previously for the condition. Methods/design Treatment-naïve adults aged 18 to 65?years with moderate-to-severe, non-psychotic MDD are randomized equally to one of three 12-week treatment arms: (1) cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, 16 sessions); (2) duloxetine (30–60?mg/d); or (3) escitalopram (10–20?mg/d). Prior to randomization, patients undergo multiple assessments, including resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), immune markers, DNA and gene expression products, and dexamethasone-corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) testing. Prior to or shortly after randomization, patients also complete a comprehensive personality assessment. Repeat assessment of the biological measures (fMRI, immune markers, and gene expression products) occurs at an early time-point in treatment, and upon completion of 12-week treatment, when a second Dex/CRH test is also conducted. Patients remitting by the end of this acute treatment phase are then eligible to enter a 21-month follow-up phase, with quarterly visits to monitor for recurrence. Non-remitters are offered augmentation treatment for a second 12-week course of treatment, during which they receive a combination of CBT and antidepressant medication. Predictors of the primary outcome, remission, will be identified for overall and treatment-specific effects, and a statistical model incorporating multiple predictors will be developed to predict outcomes. Discussion The PReDICT study’s evaluation of biological, psychological, and clinical factors that may differentially impact treatment outcomes represents a sizeable step toward developing personalized treatments for MDD. Identified predictors should help guide the selection of initial treatments, and identify those patients most vulnerable to recurrence, who thus warrant maintenance or combination treatments to achieve and maintain wellness. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00360399. Registered 02 AUG 2006. First patient randomized 09 FEB 2007.

2012-01-01

17

International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: rationale and protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The

Leanne M Williams; A John Rush; Stephen H Koslow; Stephen R Wisniewski; Nicholas J Cooper; Charles B Nemeroff; Alan F Schatzberg; Evian Gordon

2011-01-01

18

Study protocol: a dissemination trial of computerized psychological treatment for depression and alcohol/other drug use comorbidity in an Australian clinical service  

PubMed Central

Background The rise of the internet and related technologies has significant implications for the treatment of complex health problems, including the combination of depression and alcohol/other drug (AOD) misuse. To date, no research exists to test the real world uptake of internet and computer-delivered treatment programs in clinical practice. This study is important, as it is the first to examine the adoption of the SHADE treatment program, a DVD-based psychological treatment for depression and AOD use comorbidity, by clinicians working in a publicly-funded AOD clinical service. The study protocol that follows describes the methodology of this dissemination trial. Methods/design 19 clinicians within an AOD service on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia, will be recruited to the trial. Consenting clinicians will participate in a baseline focus group discussion designed to explore their experiences and perceived barriers to adopting innovation in their clinical practice. Computer comfort and openness to innovation will also be assessed. Throughout the trial, current, new and wait-list clients will be referred to the research program via the clinical service, which will involve clients completing a baseline and 15-week follow-up clinical assessment with independent research assistants, comprising a range of mental health and AOD measures. Clinicians will also complete session checklists following each clinical session with a client, outlining the extent to which the SHADE computer program was used. Therapeutic alliance will be measured at intake and discharge from both the clinician and client perspectives. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the factors associated with the adoption of an innovative, computer-delivered evidence-based treatment program, SHADE, by clinicians working in an AOD service. The results will contribute to the development of a model of dissemination of SHADE, which could be applied to a range of technological innovations. Clinical trials registry Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976.

2012-01-01

19

Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment  

PubMed Central

Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition) or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition). All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female), length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more), and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication). Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post intervention. Participants will also complete weekly self-report measures during the treatment period. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of introducing a computer delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy based co-morbidity treatment program within a residential substance abuse setting. If shown to be effective, this intervention can be disseminated within other residential substance abuse programs. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000618954

2012-01-01

20

Managing co-morbid depression and anxiety in primary care patients with asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma are common chronic diseases that are frequently accompanied by depression and/or anxiety. However, symptoms of depression and anxiety are often not recognized and therefore not treated. Currently, only a few studies have tested new clinical approaches that could improve the treatment of co-morbid depression and anxiety in these groups of patients. Methods/design The present randomized controlled study will be conducted within the framework of PoZoB (Praktijk Ondersteuning Zuid-Oost Brabant), a large primary care organization in the Netherlands. Patients with asthma/COPD and co-morbid anxiety/depression will be included in order to test the effectiveness of a disease management approach to treat these co-morbid disorders. Important elements of this approach are: 1) systematic screening to improve detection of anxiety and depression 2) treatment in case of positive screening 3) monitoring of anxiety and depression 4) intensified treatment in case of non-remission (stepped care). Discussion The present study is a large primary care study on the treatment of co-morbid depression and anxiety in patients with asthma and COPD. Strengths of this study are its randomized design, the focus on implementation in primary care and the fact that it applies the latest findings on the treatment of depression and anxiety. First results are expected in 2012/2013. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2626

2012-01-01

21

The InterHerz project - a web-based psychological treatment for cardiac patients with depression: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with heart disease often suffer from difficulties in psychological adaptation during cardiac rehabilitation. Mood disorders such as depression are known to be highly prevalent in cardiac patients and to have a negative impact on the progression of coronary heart disease. However, cardiac patients have difficulties to get psychological treatments due to low availability and motivational difficulties. Web-based interventions have been proven to be effective in treating depressive symptoms. Deprexis is a promising web-based psychological treatment which was devised for depressed patients. The aim of the study InterHerz is to examine if Deprexis is an effective psychological treatment to reduce stress and depression in cardiac patients. Methods/Design The sample will consist of 80 depressed patients randomized to an intervention group or a waitlist (10 weeks). Patients are recruited via cardiologists, cardiac rehabilitation units and the website of the Swiss Heart Foundation. Patients have access to a guided self-help program in which they work themselves through several modules and receive feedback from a clinical psychologist. Pre- and post-assessments, and a six-month follow-up, are conducted using online questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Discussion Deprexis is a new web-based treatment which has the potential to help depressed cardiac patients with limited access to psychological treatment to increase their mental health. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45945396

2012-01-01

22

Evaluation of a Dutch school-based depression prevention program for youths in highrisk neighborhoods: study protocol of a two-armed randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Research has indicated that depression prevention programs attenuate the development of symptoms of depression in adolescents. To implement these programs on a large scale, implementation in a school setting with teachers providing the programs is needed. In the present study, the effectiveness of the Dutch depression prevention program Op Volle Kracht (OVK) provided by school teachers during school hours with adolescents from high risk neighborhoods will be tested. The mediating effects of cognitive distortions and alexithymia will be evaluated as well. We hypothesize that the OVK program will prevent or decrease reported depressive symptoms, and that this association will be mediated by cognitive distortions and alexithymia. Methods/Design Schools with at least 30% of their pupils living in low income areas in the Netherlands are invited to participate in the study. Classes from vocational training up to pre-university level are eligible and 1324 adolescents (11-14 years) will be participating in the study. Randomisation will be done at class level, randomly assigning participants to an intervention group (OVK) and a control group (care as usual), stratifying by school level (high versus low). Trained school teachers will be delivering the program, which covers cognitive-behavioral and social problem-solving skills. Longitudinal data will be collected with self-report measurements administered in the school setting at baseline, post intervention and at two follow ups (at 6 and 12 months). Primary outcome is the level of depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes include: cognitive errors, response style, attributional style, alexithymia, stressful life events, substance use, happiness, and school grades. Discussion If the OVK program proves to be effective when it is provided by school teachers, a structural implementation of the program in the school curriculum will enhance the quality of the lives of adolescents and their families and will reduce costs in health care. In addition, the results of the study advances current knowledge on the underlying mechanisms of the development of depression and may aid the improvement of depression prevention programs in general. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3110

2012-01-01

23

Effectiveness, relapse prevention and mechanisms of change of cognitive therapy vs. interpersonal therapy for depression: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major depression is a common mental disorder that substantially impairs quality of life and has high societal costs. Although psychotherapies have proven to be effective antidepressant treatments, initial response rates are insufficient and the risk of relapse and recurrence is high. Improvement of treatments is badly needed. Studying the mechanisms of change in treatment might be a good investment for improving everyday mental health care. However, the mechanisms underlying therapeutic change remain largely unknown. The objective of the current study is to assess both the effectiveness of two commonly used psychotherapies for depression in terms of reduction of symptoms and prevention of relapse on short and long term, as well as identifying underlying mechanisms of change. Methods In a randomised trial we will compare (a) Cognitive Therapy (CT) with (b) Interpersonal therapy (IPT), and (c) an 8-week waiting list condition followed by treatment of choice. One hundred eighty depressed patients (aged 18-65) will be recruited in a mental health care centre in Maastricht (the Netherlands). Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three intervention groups. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is depression severity measured by the Beck Depression Intenvory-II (BDI-II). Other outcomes include process variables such as dysfunctional beliefs, negative attributions, and interpersonal problems. All self-report outcome assessments will take place on the internet at baseline, three, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve and twenty-four months. At 24 months a retrospective telephone interview will be administered. Furthermore, a rudimentary analysis of the cost-effectiveness will be embedded. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion By comparing CT and IPT head-to-head and by investigating multiple potential mediators and outcomes at multiple time points during and after therapy, we hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and mechanisms of change of CT and IPT for depression, and contribute to the improvement of mental health care for adults suffering from depression. Trial registration The study has been registered at the Netherlands Trial Register, part of the Dutch Cochrane Centre (ISRCTN67561918)

2011-01-01

24

The effect of telephone-based interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of postpartum depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial data indicate potential health consequences of untreated postpartum depression (PPD) on the mother, infant, and family. Studies have evaluated interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as treatment for PPD; however, the results are questionable due to methodological limitations. A comprehensive review of maternal treatment preferences suggests that mothers favor ‘talking therapy’ as a form of PPD treatment. Unfortunately, IPT is not widely available, especially in rural and remote areas. To improve access to care, telepsychiatry has been introduced, including the provision of therapy via the telephone. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression) and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care) or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses). Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1) develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2) advance our understanding of training nurses to deliver IPT; (3) provide an economic evaluation of an IPT intervention; (4) investigate the utility of the EPDS in general clinical practice to identify depressed mothers; and (5) present valuable information regarding PPD, along with associated couple adjustment, co-morbid anxiety and self-reported attachment among a mixed rural and urban Canadian population. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials Ltd. ISRCTN88987377.

2012-01-01

25

The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3) behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4) behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930

2013-01-01

26

A randomised, feasibility trial of a tele-health intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome patients with depression ('MoodCare'): Study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression\\u000a is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms.\\u000a Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL), decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation\\u000a of health services, lead to increased morbidity

Adrienne O’Neil; Anna L Hawkes; Bianca Chan; Kristy Sanderson; Andrew Forbes; Bruce Hollingsworth; John Atherton; David L Hare; Michael Jelinek; Kathy Eadie; C Barr Taylor; Brian Oldenburg

2011-01-01

27

Computerised therapy for depression with clinician vs. assistant and brief vs. extended phone support: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) involves standardised, automated, interactive self-help programmes delivered via a computer. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies have shown than cCBT reduces depressive symptoms as much as face-to-face therapy and more than waiting lists or treatment as usual. cCBT’s efficacy and acceptability may be influenced by the “human” support offered as an adjunct to it, which can vary in duration and can be offered by people with different levels of training and expertise. Methods/design This is a two-by-two factorial RCT investigating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of cCBT supplemented with 12 weekly phone support sessions are either brief (5–10 min) or extended (20–30 min) and are offered by either an expert clinician or an assistant with no clinical training. Adults with non-suicidal depression in primary care can self-refer into the study by completing and posting to the research team a standardised questionnaire. Following an assessment interview, eligible referrals have access to an 8-session cCBT programme called Beating the Blues and are randomised to one of four types of support: brief-assistant, extended-assistant, brief-clinician or extended-clinician. A sample size of 35 per group (total 140) is sufficient to detect a moderate effect size with 90% power on our primary outcome measure (Work and Social Adjustment Scale); assuming a 30% attrition rate, 200 patients will be randomised. Secondary outcome measures include the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Data on clinical outcomes, treatment usage and patient experiences are collected in three ways: by post via self-report questionnaires at week 0 (randomisation) and at weeks 12 and 24 post-randomisation; electronically by the cCBT system every time patients log-in; by phone during assessments, support sessions and exit interviews. Discussion The study’s factorial design increases its efficiency by allowing the concurrent investigation of two types of adjunct support for cCBT with a single sample of participants. Difficulties in recruitment, uptake and retention of participants are anticipated because of the nature of the targeted clinical problem (depression impairs motivation) and of the studied interventions (lack of face-to-face contact because referrals, assessments, interventions and data collection are completed by phone, computer or post). Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN98677176

2012-01-01

28

P01-49 - The study protocol of the Norwegian randomized controlled trial of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some

Ute Kessler; H. Schøyen; A. Vaaler; K. Ødegaard; Per Bergsholm; Ole A Andreassen; Ulrik F Malt; Gunnar Morken

2010-01-01

29

Transdiagnostic, affect-focused, psychodynamic, guided self-help for depression and anxiety through the internet: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cognitive behaviour therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the internet has been found to be effective for a range of conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders. Recent results indicate that guided self-help via the internet is a promising treatment format also for psychodynamic therapy. However, to date and to our knowledge, no study has evaluated internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy as a transdiagnostic treatment. The affect-phobia model of psychopathology by McCullough et al provides a psychodynamic conceptualisation of a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a transdiagnostic guided self-help treatment based on the affect-phobia model in a sample of clients with depression and anxiety. Methods and analysis This study will be a randomised controlled trial with a total sample size of 100 participants. The treatment group receives a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on the transdiagnostic affect-phobia model of psychopathology. The treatment consists of eight text-based treatment modules and includes therapist contact in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group receive similar online therapist support without any treatment modules. Outcome measures are the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale and the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures that concerns emotional processing and mindfulness are included. All outcome and process measures will be administered weekly via the internet and at 6-month follow-up. Discussion This trial will add to the body of knowledge on internet-delivered psychological treatments in general and to psychodynamic treatments in particular. We also hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and working mechanisms of psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model.

Johansson, Robert; Hesser, Hugo; Ljotsson, Brjann; Frederick, Ronald J; Andersson, Gerhard

2012-01-01

30

Collaborative Interventions for Circulation and Depression (COINCIDE): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial of collaborative care for depression in people with diabetes and/or coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is up to two to three times as common in people with long-term conditions. It negatively affects medical management of disease and self-care behaviors, and leads to poorer quality of life and high costs in primary care. Screening and treatment of depression is increasingly prioritized, but despite initiatives to improve access and quality of care, depression remains under-detected and under-treated, especially in people with long-term conditions. Collaborative care is known to positively affect the process and outcome of care for people with depression and long-term conditions, but its effectiveness outside the USA is still relatively unknown. Furthermore, collaborative care has yet to be tested in settings that resemble more naturalistic settings that include patient choice and the usual care providers. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a collaborative-care intervention, for people with depression and diabetes/coronary heart disease in National Health Service (NHS) primary care, in which low-intensity psychological treatment services are delivered by the usual care provider - Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. The study also aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention over 6 months, and to assess qualitatively the extent to which collaborative care was implemented in the intervention general practices. Methods This is a cluster randomized controlled trial of 30 general practices allocated to either collaborative care or usual care. Fifteen patients per practice will be recruited after a screening exercise to detect patients with recognized depression (?10 on the nine-symptom Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9). Patients in the collaborative-care arm with recognized depression will be offered a choice of evidence-based low-intensity psychological treatments based on cognitive and behavioral approaches. Patients will be case managed by psychological well-being practitioners employed by IAPT in partnership with a practice nurse and/or general practitioner. The primary outcome will be change in depressive symptoms at 6 months on the 90-item Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90). Secondary outcomes include change in health status, self-care behaviors, and self-efficacy. A qualitative process evaluation will be undertaken with patients and health practitioners to gauge the extent to which the collaborative-care model is implemented, and to explore sustainability beyond the clinical trial. Discussion COINCIDE will assess whether collaborative care can improve patient-centered outcomes, and evaluate access to and quality of care of co-morbid depression of varying intensity in people with diabetes/coronary heart disease. Additionally, by working with usual care providers such as IAPT, and by identifying and evaluating interventions that are effective and appropriate for routine use in the NHS, the COINCIDE trial offers opportunities to address translational gaps between research and implementation. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN80309252 Trial Status Open

2012-01-01

31

Health coaching to promote healthier lifestyle among older people at moderate risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and depression: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background The challenge of an aging population in the society makes it important to find strategies to promote health for all. The aim of this study is to evaluate if repeated health coaching in terms of motivational interviewing, and an offer of wide range of activities, will contribute to positive lifestyle modifications and health among persons aged 60–75 years, with moderately elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or mild depression. Methods/Design Men and women between 60 and 75 are recruited in four regions in Sweden if they fulfill one or more of the four inclusion criteria. •Current reading of blood pressure (140-159/90-99) without medication. •Current reading of blood sugar (Hba1c 42–52 mmol/mol) without medication. •A current waist-circumference of ?94 cm for men and ?80 for women. •A minor/mild depression (12–20 points) according to Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale without medication. Individuals with a worse result than inclusion criteria are treated according to regular guidelines at the PHCs and therefore not included. Exclusion criteria for the study are dementia, mental illness or other condition deemed unsuitable for participation. All participants fill out a questionnaire at baseline, and at the 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-ups containing questions on demographic characteristics, social life, HRQoL, lifestyle habits, general health/medication, self-rated mental health, and sense of coherence. At the 12-month follow-up, the health coach will give each participant a second questionnaire to capture attitudes and perceptions related to health coaching and venues/activities offered. Qualitative data will be collected twice to obtain a deeper understanding of perceptions and attitudes related to health and lifestyle/lifestyle modifications. A health economic assessment will be performed. Individual costs for health care utilisation will be collected and QALY-scores will be estimated. Discussion Several drawbacks can be identified when conducting research in real life. However, many of the identified problems can diminish the positive results of the intervention and if the intervention shows positive effects they might be underestimated. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01396033.

2013-01-01

32

Preventing relapse in recurrent depression using mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, antidepressant medication or the combination: trial design and protocol of the MOMENT study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse and recurrence. The most commonly used strategy to prevent relapse/recurrence is maintenance treatment with antidepressant medication (mADM). Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is at least as effective as mADM in reducing the relapse/recurrence risk. However, it is not yet known whether combination treatment of MBCT and mADM is more effective than either of these treatments alone. Given the fact that most patients have a preference for either mADM or for MBCT, the aim of the present study is to answer the following questions. First, what is the effectiveness of MBCT in addition to mADM? Second, how large is the risk of relapse/recurrence in patients withdrawing from mADM after participating in MBCT, compared to those who continue to use mADM after MBCT? Methods/design Two parallel-group, multi-center randomized controlled trials are conducted. Adult patients with a history of depression (3 or more episodes), currently either in full or partial remission and currently treated with mADM (6?months or longer) are recruited. In the first trial, we compare mADM on its own with mADM plus MBCT. In the second trial, we compare MBCT on its own, including tapering of mADM, with mADM plus MBCT. Follow-up assessments are administered at 3-month intervals for 15?months. Primary outcome is relapse/recurrence. Secondary outcomes are time to, duration and severity of relapse/recurrence, quality of life, personality, several process variables, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Discussion Taking into account patient preferences, this study will provide information about a) the clinical and cost-effectiveness of mADM only compared with mADM plus MBCT, in patients with a preference for mADM, and b) the clinical and cost-effectiveness of withdrawing from mADM after MBCT, compared with mADM plus MBCT, in patients with a preference for MBCT. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00928980

2012-01-01

33

Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions). Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol's independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

2012-01-01

34

Staying well after depression: trial design and protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is often a chronic relapsing condition, with relapse rates of 50-80% in those who have been depressed before. This is particularly problematic for those who become suicidal when depressed since habitual recurrence of suicidal thoughts increases likelihood of further acute suicidal episodes. Therefore the question how to prevent relapse is of particular urgency in this group. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This

J Mark G Williams; Ian T Russell; Catherine Crane; Daphne Russell; Chris J Whitaker; Danielle S Duggan; Thorsten Barnhofer; Melanie JV Fennell; Rebecca Crane; Sarah Silverton

2010-01-01

35

Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is

Cate Bearsley-Smith; Mark Oakley Browne; Ken Sellick; Elmer V Villanueva; Janice Chesters; Karen Francis; Prasuna Reddy

2007-01-01

36

Case management for the treatment of patients with major depression in general practices – rationale, design and conduct of a cluster randomized controlled trial – PRoMPT (Primary care Monitoring for depressive Patient's Trial) [ISRCTN66386086] – Study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is a disorder with high prevalence in primary health care and a significant burden of illness. The delivery of health care for depression, as well as other chronic illnesses, has been criticized for several reasons and new strategies to address the needs of these illnesses have been advocated. Case management is a patient-centered approach which has shown efficacy

Jochen Gensichen; Marion Torge; Monika Peitz; Heike Wendt-Hermainski; Martin Beyer; Thomas Rosemann; Christian Krauth; Heiner Raspe; Josef B Aldenhoff; Ferdinand M Gerlach

2005-01-01

37

Using standardized fMRI protocols to identify patterns of prefrontal circuit dysregulation that are common and specific to cognitive and emotional tasks in major depressive disorder: first wave results from the iSPOT-D study.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD. PMID:23303059

Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M

2012-12-05

38

Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of specialist psychotherapy that reduce relapse in unipolar major depression in adolescents and thereby costs of treatment to society. We also anticipate being able to utilise psychotherapy experience, neuroimaging, genetic and hormone measures to reveal what techniques and their protocols may work best for which patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN83033550

2011-01-01

39

A cluster randomized trial of standard quality improvement versus patient-centered interventions to enhance depression care for African Americans in the primary care setting: study protocol NCT00243425  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies document disparities in access to care and quality of care for depression for African Americans. Research suggests that patient attitudes and clinician communication behaviors may contribute to these disparities. Evidence links patient-centered care to improvements in mental health outcomes; therefore, quality improvement interventions that enhance this dimension of care are promising strategies to improve treatment and outcomes of depression among African Americans. This paper describes the design of the BRIDGE (Blacks Receiving Interventions for Depression and Gaining Empowerment) Study. The goal of the study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions for African-American patients with depression--a standard quality improvement program and a patient-centered quality improvement program. The main hypothesis is that patients in the patient-centered group will have a greater reduction in their depression symptoms, higher rates of depression remission, and greater improvements in mental health functioning at six, twelve, and eighteen months than patients in the standard group. The study also examines patient ratings of care and receipt of guideline-concordant treatment for depression. Methods/Design A total of 36 primary care clinicians and 132 of their African-American patients with major depressive disorder were recruited into a cluster randomized trial. The study uses intent-to-treat analyses to compare the effectiveness of standard quality improvement interventions (academic detailing about depression guidelines for clinicians and disease-oriented care management for their patients) and patient-centered quality improvement interventions (communication skills training to enhance participatory decision-making for clinicians and care management focused on explanatory models, socio-cultural barriers, and treatment preferences for their patients) for improving outcomes over 12 months of follow-up. Discussion The BRIDGE Study includes clinicians and African-American patients in under-resourced community-based practices who have not been well-represented in clinical trials to improve depression care. The patient-centered and culturally targeted approach to depression care is a relatively new one that has not been tested in most previous studies. The study will provide evidence about whether patient-centered accommodations improve quality of care and outcomes to a greater extent than standard quality improvement strategies for African Americans with depression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00243425

2010-01-01

40

Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to…

Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

2005-01-01

41

Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

2005-01-01

42

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in an Older Gay Man: A Clinical Case Study  

PubMed Central

Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were deduced from the late-life depression literature, culturally adapted CBT protocols for racial minorities, and the emerging social and developmental psychological theories for lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. Specific treatment interventions, processes, and outcomes are described to illustrate how these literatures may be used to provide more culturally appropriate and effective health care for the growing, older sexual minority population.

Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca

2012-01-01

43

A randomised evaluation of CollAborative care and active surveillance for Screen-Positive EldeRs with sub-threshold depression (CASPER): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression accounts for the greatest burden of disease among all mental health problems, and is expected to become the second-highest amongst all general health problems by 2020. By the age of 75, 1 in 7 older people meet formal diagnostic criteria for depression. Efforts to ameliorate the burden of illness and personal suffering associated with depression in older people have focussed on those with more severe depressive syndromes. Less attention has been paid to those with mild disorders/sub-threshold depressive syndromes but these patients also suffer impairments in their quality of life and level of functioning. Methods/Design The CASPER study has been designed to assemble an epidemiological cohort of people over 75 years of age (the CASPER cohort), from which we will identify those eligible to participate in a trial of collaborative care for sub-threshold depression (the CASPER trial). We aim to undertake a pragmatic randomised controlled multi-centre trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of collaborative care; a low intensity psychological intervention in addition to usual general practitioner care versus usual general practitioner care alone. General practitioners from practices based in the North of England will be asked to identify potentially eligible patients over the age of 75 years. Patients will be sent a letter inviting them to participate in the study. We aim to recruit approximately 540 participants for the CASPER trial. A diagnostic interview will be carried out to ascertain trial eligibility with the major depressive episode module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.), eligible participants randomised to either the intervention or usual care. The primary outcome will be measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and additional quality of life measures will be collected. Data will be collected at baseline, 4 and 12 months for both trial and cohort participants. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN02202951

2011-01-01

44

Evaluation of collaborative models of care in the management of patients with depression: protocol and progress.  

PubMed

Introduction Depression is highly prevalent and has a considerable impact on the quality of life of affected individuals, and on healthcare resources. Evidence indicates that collaborative care models can improve patient outcomes within a primary care setting. The Primary Care Services Improvement Project (PCSIP) aims to investigate the costs and outcomes of different models of care for the management of patients with depression. These models have been defined based on the level of involvement of practice nurses in management processes within the primary care setting in Australia. This paper describes our study protocol and its progress. Methods PCSIP is an observational study that will link retrospective data from a range of sources to estimate costs and intermediate outcomes (such as relapse rate) over a 3-year time horizon. The main sources of primary data include the medical records of patients held at participating practices and Medicare Australia. Initial report We recruited 15 practices from a metropolitan area and allocated them to three models of care. Two hundred and sixty-one patients agreed to participate. Appropriate regression-based analyses will be used to evaluate the association between different models of care and patient-level outcomes while controlling for several covariates such as age and gender. Discussion/conclusions This project will generate the knowledge required to promote investment in the most cost-effective initiatives, and to ensure that waste of resources due to the implementation of comparatively inefficient interventions is minimised. Given the scarcity of resources, the increasing costs of providing healthcare and the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such research is essential. PMID:23730333

Ali Afzali, Hossein Haji; Karnon, Jonathan; Gray, Jodi; Beilby, Justin

2012-06-01

45

Internet-based treatment for adults with depressive symptoms: the protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is a highly prevalent condition, affecting more than 15% of the adult population at least once in their lives. Guided self-help is effective in the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of two Internet-based guided self-help treatments with adults reporting elevated depressive symptoms. Other research questions concern the identification of potential

Lisanne Warmerdam; Annemieke van Straten; Pim Cuijpers

2007-01-01

46

The Depression in Visual Impairment Trial (DEPVIT): trial design and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of depression in people with a visual disability is high but screening for depression and referral for treatment is not yet an integral part of visual rehabilitation service provision. One reason for this may be that there is no good evidence about the effectiveness of treatments in this patient group. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of depression treatments on people with a visual impairment and co morbid depression. Methods /design The study is an exploratory, multicentre, individually randomised waiting list controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to receive Problem Solving Therapy (PST), a ‘referral to the GP’ requesting treatment according to the NICE’s ‘stepped care’ recommendations or the waiting list arm of the trial. The primary outcome measure is change (from randomisation) in depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) at 6?months. Secondary outcomes include change in depressive symptoms at 3?months, change in visual function as measured with the near vision subscale of the VFQ-48 and 7 item NEI-VFQ at 3 and 6?months, change in generic health related quality of life (EQ5D), the costs associated with PST, estimates of incremental cost effectiveness, and recruitment rate estimation. Discussion Depression is prevalent in people with disabling visual impairment. This exploratory study will establish depression screening and referral for treatment in visual rehabilitation clinics in the UK. It will be the first to explore the efficacy of PST and the effectiveness of NICE’s ‘stepped care’ approach to the treatment of depression in people with a visual impairment. Trial registration ISRCTN46824140

2012-01-01

47

Implementing the hypothermia protocol: a case study.  

PubMed

This case study describes a 72-year-old man who complained of epigastric abdominal pain, indigestion, fatigue, and shortness of breath for 2 days. He subsequently sustained a witnessed cardiac arrest with resuscitation and return of circulation. The patient was then placed on therapeutic hypothermia postresuscitation. The following case study incorporates an evidence-based practice protocol supporting the use of therapeutic hypothermia postresuscitation. This article discusses the pathophysiology, use of the hypothermia protocol and also inclusion and exclusion criteria. Educational information within the article provides guidelines for the advanced practice nurse regarding the use of therapeutic hypothermia in resuscitated patients. PMID:21543909

Heise, Lynn

48

Remitted depression studies as tests of the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of cognitive patterns among individuals who have recovered from a depressive episode (i.e., remitted depressives) have figured importantly in evaluations of the validity of the vulnerability hypotheses of the cognitive theories of depression. However, we suggest that remitted depression studies as typically conducted and interpreted are inadequate tests of the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression onset for four reasons:

Nancy Just; Lyn Y. Abramson; Lauren B. Alloy

2001-01-01

49

[Depression and dementia: perspectives from clinical studies].  

PubMed

In this review, we present an overview of clinical studies that addressed the relationship between depression and dementia or cognitive decline. Cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses have repeatedly shown an association between late-life depression (LLD) and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia; however, the findings of cohort studies have been inconsistent. Furthermore, studies on the association between depression with a younger age of onset and dementia have yielded inconsistent results. Regarding cognitive decline associated with LLD, several studies have reported an association between LLD and mild cognitive impairment, suggesting that depression itself can cause persistent cognitive impairment. Other studies have compared the cognitive profile between LLD and depression with a younger age of onset, but their results have been inconclusive, especially regarding the association between memory impairment and the age of onset of depression. LLD is associated with vascular change and white matter degeneration of the brain, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, several studies reported an association between gray matter change and LLD. Studies currently in progress employ functional brain imaging methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography, functional MRI, and positron emission tomography. Clinically, it is important to understand how subtypes of depression can be defined in terms of risk of developing dementia, and to devise effective treatments. One paper explored the possibility of detecting depression associated with AD by measuring the blood A?40/A?42 levels, and other studies have suggested that symptoms of apathy and loss of interest are associated with conversion of depression to AD. Unfortunately, current antidepressants may have limited efficacy on depression with dementia; therefore, further investigation for devising methods of predicting conversion of depression to dementia and subsequent treatment is required. PMID:23209065

Nozaki, Shoko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Mimura, Masaru

2012-12-01

50

Is atypical depression a moderate severity depression? A 536-case study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine if atypical depression is less common among outpatients with severe depression than among those with nonsevere depression. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Private practice. PATIENTS: Five hundred and thirty-six consecutive outpatients presenting for treatment of unipolar or bipolar II depression. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of atypical depression among patients with severe depression (Global Assessment of Functioning Scale [GAF] score of 50 or less) and nonsevere depression. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of atypical depression between patients with severe and nonsevere depression. CONCLUSIONS: Results do not support previous studies that atypical depression is usually of moderate severity. A rating scale like the GAF, which assesses both symptom severity and impairment of functioning, may give a more complete assessment of depression severity than a symptoms rating scale (used in previous studies), which does not cover atypical features and does not assess functioning.

Benazzi, F

1999-01-01

51

Atypical depression in private practice depressed outpatients: a 203-case study.  

PubMed

The prevalence of DSM-IV atypical depression and comparisons between atypical and typical depression were studied in 203 consecutive unipolar and bipolar depressed outpatients presenting for treatment of depression in private practice. The prevalence of atypical depression was 31%. Of the variables investigated (unipolar/bipolar diagnosis, age at baseline/onset of first major depressive episode, gender, psychosis, comorbidity, chronicity, duration of illness, recurrence, and severity), a bipolar II diagnosis was significantly more common, the age at baseline and duration of illness were significantly lower, and the proportion of females and psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher in atypical versus typical depression. Secondary analysis showed that bipolar II atypical depression had a significantly earlier age at baseline/onset and affected more females, but there were no other significant differences versus typical depression. The findings suggest important clinical differences between atypical and typical depression, and a bipolar II subtype may be separated from the broad category of atypical depression. PMID:9924882

Benazzi, F

52

Folate Augmentation of Treatment - Evaluation for Depression (FolATED): protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical depression is common, debilitating and treatable; one in four people experience it during their lives. The majority of sufferers are treated in primary care and only half respond well to active treatment. Evidence suggests that folate may be a useful adjunct to antidepressant treatment: 1) patients with depression often have a functional folate deficiency; 2) the severity of such deficiency, indicated by elevated homocysteine, correlates with depression severity, 3) low folate is associated with poor antidepressant response, and 4) folate is required for the synthesis of neurotransmitters implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods/Design The primary objective of this trial is to estimate the effect of folate augmentation in new or continuing treatment of depressive disorder in primary and secondary care. Secondary objectives are to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of folate augmentation of antidepressant treatment, investigate how the response to antidepressant treatment depends on genetic polymorphisms relevant to folate metabolism and antidepressant response, and explore whether baseline folate status can predict response to antidepressant treatment. Seven hundred and thirty patients will be recruited from North East Wales, North West Wales and Swansea. Patients with moderate to severe depression will be referred to the trial by their GP or Psychiatrist. If patients consent they will be assessed for eligibility and baseline measures will be undertaken. Blood samples will be taken to exclude patients with folate and B12 deficiency. Some of the blood taken will be used to measure homocysteine levels and for genetic analysis (with additional consent). Eligible participants will be randomised to receive 5 mg of folic acid or placebo. Patients with B12 deficiency or folate deficiency will be given appropriate treatment and will be monitored in the 'comprehensive cohort study'. Assessments will be at screening, randomisation and 3 subsequent follow-ups. Discussion If folic acid is shown to improve the efficacy of antidepressants, then it will provide a safe, simple and cheap way of improving the treatment of depression in primary and secondary care. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN37558856

Roberts, Seren Haf; Bedson, Emma; Hughes, Dyfrig; Lloyd, Keith; Moat, Stuart; Pirmohamed, Munir; Slegg, Gary; Tranter, Richard; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Wilkinson, Clare; Russell, Ian

2007-01-01

53

Multicentre prospective study of perinatal depression in Japan: incidence and correlates of antenatal and postnatal depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A multicentre study on the epidemiology of perinatal depression was conducted among Japanese women expecting the first baby\\u000a (N = 290). The incidence rate of the onset of the DSM-III-R Major Depressive Episode during pregnancy (antenatal depression)\\u000a and within 3 months after delivery (postnatal depression) were 5.6% and 5.0%, respectively. Women with antenatal depression\\u000a were characterised by young age and

T. Kitamura; K. Yoshida; T. Okano; K. Kinoshita; M. Hayashi; N. Toyoda; M. Ito; N. Kudo; K. Tada; K. Kanazawa; K. Sakumoto; S. Satoh; T. Furukawa; H. Nakano

2006-01-01

54

Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine\\u000a (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20%\\u000a of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different\\u000a psychological therapies and the moderators

Ian M Goodyer; Sonya Tsancheva; Sarah Byford; Bernadka Dubicka; Jonathan Hill; Raphael Kelvin; Shirley Reynolds; Christopher Roberts; Robert Senior; John Suckling; Paul Wilkinson; Mary Target; Peter Fonagy

2011-01-01

55

Does treatment of subsyndromal depression improve depression and diabetes related outcomes: protocol for a randomised controlled comparison of psycho-education, physical exercise and treatment as usual  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mood difficulties in persons with diabetes is approximately twice that in the general population, affecting the health outcomes and patients' quality of life in an undesirable way. Although subsyndromal depression is an important predictor of a more serious clinical depression, it is often overlooked. This study aims to compare the effects of two non-pharmacological interventions for

Mirjana Pibernik-Okanovi?; Dea Ajdukovi?; Marijana Vu?i? Lovren?i?; Norbert Hermanns

2011-01-01

56

Depression care management for late-life depression in China primary care: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  As a major public health issue in China and worldwide, late-life depression is associated with physical limitations, greater\\u000a functional impairment, increased utilization and cost of health care, and suicide. Like other chronic diseases in elders such\\u000a as hypertension and diabetes, depression is a chronic disease that the new National Health Policy of China indicates should\\u000a be managed in primary care

Shulin Chen; Yeates Conwell; Baihua Xu; Helen Chiu; Xin Tu; Yan Ma

2011-01-01

57

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Depression About Depression Click image for description Everyone feels blue or ... disorder," or "clinical depression." Click image for description Depression in Older Adults Important life changes that happen ...

58

A 2Year Longitudinal Study of Depression Among Alzheimer's Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a 2-year (4 waves) longitudinal study show strong evidence for patient decline and high levels of depressive symptomatology among caregivers. Female caregivers reported high, stable rates of depressive symptomatology throughout the study, whereas male caregivers exhibited significant increases in depression over time. Cross-sectional multivariate analyses revealed significant positive relationships between depression and number of patient problem behaviors, negative

Richard Schulz; Gail M. Williamson

1991-01-01

59

Depressive symptoms and risk of stroke: the Rotterdam Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Previous studies that have assessed whether the presence of depressive symptoms predisposes to stroke in the general elderly population have been contradictory. Moreover, they did not distinguish between men and women and did not perform psychiatric workups in those with depressive symptoms. This study examines the association between depressive symptoms, depressive disorder and the risk of stroke in the general

M J Bos; T Lindén; P J Koudstaal; A Hofman; I Skoog; M M B Breteler; H Tiemeier

2008-01-01

60

Cerebrovascular Disease and Depression Symptoms in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Evidence is mounting linking cerebrovascular disease with depressive symptoms in the elderly. Lesions in both white and gray matter have been associated with depressive symptoms and major depression. We sought to investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms and white and gray matter lesions in subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Methods—In a sample of 3660 men and

David C. Steffens; Michael J. Helms; K. Ranga Rama Krishnan; Gregory L. Burke

2010-01-01

61

Disrupting the rhythm of depression using Mobile Cognitive Therapy for recurrent depression: randomized controlled trial design and protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is projected to rank second on a list of 15 major diseases in terms of burden in 2030. The major contribution of MDD to disability and health care costs is largely due to its highly recurrent nature. Accordingly, efforts to reduce the disabling effects of this chronic condition should shift to preventing recurrence, especially in

Claudi LH Bockting; Gemma D Kok; Lillian van der Kamp; Filip Smit; Evelien van Valen; Robert Schoevers; Harm van Marwijk; Pim Cuijpers; Heleen Riper; Jack Dekker; Aaron T Beck

2011-01-01

62

Antenatal depression predicts depression in adolescent offspring: Prospective longitudinal community-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background: Depression is familial. Evidence shows,that untreated postnatal depression is associated with adverse outcomes,for the child. Few studies have traced prospectively the course of maternal depression through pregnancy, the postnatal period and the following 16 years in relation to adolescent offspring depression. Method: The sample was recruited from two general practice antenatal clinics. Of 151 mother–child dyads followed from

Susan Pawlby; D. J. Sharp; D. F. Hay; V. O'Keane

2008-01-01

63

Major depressive disorder: A prospective study of residual subthreshold depressive symptoms as predictor of rapid relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study tested whether level of recovery from major depressive episodes (MDEs) predicts duration of recovery in unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Methods: MDD patients seeking treatment at five academic centers were followed naturalistically for 10 years or longer. Patients were divided on the basis of intake MDE recovery into residual depressive symptoms (SSD; N=82) and asymptomatic (N=155)

Lewis L. Judd; Hagop S. Akiskal; Jack D. Maser; Pamela J. Zeller; Jean Endicott; William Coryell; Martin P. Paulus; Jelena L. Kunovac; Andrew C Leon; Timothy I. Mueller; John A. Rice; Martin B. Keller

1998-01-01

64

Lithium and Sodium Transport Studies in Depression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of lithium and sodium transport in erythrocytes (RBCs) from 23 drug-free depressed patients and 23 matched control subjects was conducted. Lithium efflux was calculated from the fraction of the total intracellular lithium released from cells per h...

A. G. Mallinger

1982-01-01

65

Folate augmentation of treatment - evaluation for depression (FolATED): protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical depression is common, debilitating and treatable; one in four people experience it during their lives. The majority of sufferers are treated in primary care and only half respond well to active treatment. Evidence suggests that folate may be a useful adjunct to antidepressant treatment: 1) patients with depression often have a functional folate deficiency; 2) the severity of such

Seren Haf Roberts; Emma Bedson; Dyfrig Hughes; Keith Lloyd; David B Menkes; Stuart Moat; Munir Pirmohamed; Gary Slegg; Johannes Thome; Richard Tranter; Rhiannon Whitaker; Clare Wilkinson; Ian Russell

2007-01-01

66

Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. KEY FINDINGS: Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women,

Donna E. Stewart; Enza Gucciardi; Sherry L. Grace

2004-01-01

67

Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

2011-01-01

68

Does treatment of subsyndromal depression improve depression and diabetes related outcomes: protocol for a randomised controlled comparison of psycho-education, physical exercise and treatment as usual  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of mood difficulties in persons with diabetes is approximately twice that in the general population, affecting the health outcomes and patients' quality of life in an undesirable way. Although subsyndromal depression is an important predictor of a more serious clinical depression, it is often overlooked. This study aims to compare the effects of two non-pharmacological interventions for subsyndromal depression, psychoeducation and physical exercise, with diabetes treatment as usual on mood- and diabetes-related outcomes. Methods and Design Type 2 diabetic patients aged 18-65 yrs. who report mood difficulties and the related need for help in a mail survey will be potential participants. After giving informed consent, they will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups (psychoeducation, physical activity, treatment as usual). Depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, health-related quality of life and diabetes self-care activities will be assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) will be performed at baseline and at one-year follow-up in order to determine the clinical significance of the patients' depressive symptoms. Disease-related data will be collected from patients' files and from additional physical examinations and laboratory tests. The two interventions will be comparable in terms of format (small group work), duration (six sessions) and approach (interactive learning; supporting the participants' active roles). The group treated as usual will be informed about their screening results and about the importance of treating depression. They will be provided with brief re-education on diabetes and written self-help instructions to cope with mood difficulties. Primary outcomes will be depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be glycaemic control, diabetes-related distress, self-management of diabetes and health-related quality of life. Tertiary outcomes will be biochemical markers reflecting common pathophysiological processes of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative damage that are assumed to be intertwined in both diabetes and depression. The mixed-effect linear model will be used to compare the outcome variables. Power analysis has indicated that the two intervention groups and the control group should comprise 59 patients to enable detection of clinically meaningful differences in depressive symptoms with a power of 80% and alpha = 0.05. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN05673017

2011-01-01

69

Studies of Self-Control Treatment of Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses three functional classes of assessment of depression: (1) global measures for comparability; (2) specific measures of depression components; and (3) measures of model-related dimensions. Attempts at assessing depression in two psychotherapy studies are presented. This research has been organized around a model which assumes…

Rehm, Lynn P.

70

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

Depression is a serious medical illness that involves the brain. It's more than just a feeling of ... million people in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. They persist ...

71

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... to enjoy (including sex) Thinking about death or suicide Physical symptoms Changes in appetite (eating more than ... help prevent depression from coming back. Thoughts of suicide are common in people with depression. The risk ...

72

Depression  

PubMed Central

Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in men. The highest rates of depression are seen among women of reproductive age. Predictive factors for depression include previous depression, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, chronic health problems, traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood, lack of emotional support, lone parenthood, and low sense of mastery. Although depression is treatable, only 43% of depressed women had consulted a health professional in 1998/99 and only 32.4% were taking antidepressant medication. People with lower education, inadequate income, and fewer contacts with a health professional were less likely to receive depression treatment. Data Gaps and Recommendations A better understanding of factors that increase vulnerability and resilience to depression is needed. There is also a need for the collection and analysis of data pertaining to: prevalence of clinical anxiety; the prevalence of depression band 12 months after childbirth factors contributing to suicide contemplation and attempts among adolescent girls, current treatments for depression and their efficacy in depressed women at different life stages; interprovincial variation in depression rates and hospitalizations and the impact and costs of depression on work, family, individuals, and society.

Stewart, Donna E; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L

2004-01-01

73

'Justifiable depression': how primary care professionals and patients view late-life depression? a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

two district nurses and one community nurse; twenty patients who were over the age of 60 and who were participating in a feasibility study of a new model of care for late-life depression (PRIDE Trial: PRimary care Intervention for Depression in the Elderly (a feasibility study in Central Manchester funded by the Department of Health)). Results. Primary care practitioners conceptualized

Heather Burroughs; Karina Lovell; Mike Morley; Robert Baldwin; Alistair Burns; Carolyn Chew-Graham

74

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... smaller jobs that are easy to finish. Regular exercise may also help prevent depression or lift your mood if you are somewhat depressed. Older people who are depressed can gain mental as well as physical benefits from mild forms of exercise like walking outdoors or in shopping malls. Gardening, ...

75

The development of a brief psychodynamic protocol for depression: Dynamic Interpersonal Therapy (DIT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the development of a manualized, brief (16-session) psychodynamic intervention – Dynamic Interpersonal Therapy (DIT) – for the treatment of depression. DIT is based on a distillation of the evidence-based brief psychoanalytic\\/psychodynamic treatments pooled together from manualized approaches that were reviewed as part of the competence framework for psychological therapies first commissioned by Skills for Health. DIT has

Alessandra Lemma; Mary Target; Peter Fonagy

2010-01-01

76

Depressive symptoms in early rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Our objective was to investigate symptoms of depression in early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) patients, and follow them longitudinally during a 3-year prospective study of 73 Hungarian and 45 Austrian early rheumatoid arthritis patients. Compared to validated national population data, mild symptoms of depression were detected in Hungarian early rheumatoid arthritis patients, which were independent of corticosteroid use. In the Hungarian subgroup, the Beck Depression Inventory scores were found to be stable during follow-up. Except at the baseline visit, depressive symptoms and functional status, as measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire, were correlated. Significant differences were detected between Austrian and Hungarian patients despite of their geographical and cultural proximity. The mean depression score was higher in the Hungarian when compared to the Austrian patients. Depression is an important feature of early rheumatoid arthritis. Studies assessing depression in rheumatoid arthritis patients must be based on validated national data of normal population. PMID:17332982

Palkonyai, Eva; Kolarz, Gernot; Kopp, Maria; Bogye, Gabor; Temesvari, Peter; Palkonyay, Laszlo; Ratko, Istvan; Meszaros, Eszter

2007-02-28

77

The effect of improvisational music therapy on the treatment of depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other health-related outcomes. In particular, attention will be given to mediator agents, such as musical expression and interaction in the sessions, as well as to the explanatory potential of EEG recordings in investigating emotion related music perception of individuals with depression. Methods 85 adults (18–50 years of age) with depression (ICD-10: F 32 or F33) will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. All participants will receive standard care, but the experimental group will be offered biweekly sessions of improvisational music therapy over a period of 3 months. A blind assessor will measure outcomes before testing, after 3 months, and after 6 months. Discussion This study aims to fill a gap in knowledge as to whether active (improvisational) music therapy applied to people with depression improves their condition. For the first time in this context, the mediating processes, such as changes in musical expression and interaction during the course of therapy, will be objectively investigated, and it is expected that the results will provide new insights into these processes. Furthermore, the findings are expected to reveal whether music related emotional experiences, as measured by EEG, can be utilized in assessing a depressive client's improvement in the therapy. The size and the comprehensiveness of the study are sufficient for generalizing its findings to clinical practice as well as to further music therapy research. Trial registration ISRCTN84185937

Erkkila, Jaakko; Gold, Christian; Fachner, Jorg; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Punkanen, Marko; Vanhala, Mauno

2008-01-01

78

Does Depression Cause Obesity?A Meta-analysis of Longitudinal Studies of Depression and Weight Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the causal effects of depression on obesity, longitudinal tests of the effect of depression on follow-up obesity status were meta-analyzed. Combining data from 16 studies the results confirmed that, after controlling for potential confounding variables, depressed compared to nondepressed people were at significantly higher risk for developing obesity. The risk among depressed people for later obesity was particularly

Bruce Blaine

2008-01-01

79

Relationships between the Underlying Constructs of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck and others, 1979) in 261 college students. Findings suggest the BDI and CES-D measure different aspects of depression and should not be used…

Skorikov, Vladimir B.; Vandervoort, Debra J.

2003-01-01

80

Relationships between the Underlying Constructs of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck and others, 1979) in 261 college students. Findings suggest the BDI and CES-D measure different aspects of depression and should not be used…

Skorikov, Vladimir B.; Vandervoort, Debra J.

2003-01-01

81

An Experimental Study on Security Protocols in Wlans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are vulnerable to malicious attacks due to their open shared medium. Consequently, provisioning\\u000a enhanced security with strong cryptographic features and low performance overhead becomes exceedingly necessary to actualize\\u000a real-time services in WLANs. In order to exploit full advantage of existing security protocols at various layers, we study\\u000a the cross-layer interactions of security protocols in WLANs

Avesh Kumar Agarwal; Wenye Wang

82

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... or suicide. Depression treatment usually includes a thorough evaluation, patient education, and self-help instructions, individual or group talk therapy and, when appropriate, the prescription of anti-depressant ... with a thorough evaluation to rule out an underlying medical condition or ...

83

Maternal postnatal depression and child growth: a European cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported postpartum depression to be associated with both positive and negative effects on early infant growth. This study examined the hypothesis that maternal postnatal depression may be a risk factor for later child growth faltering or overweight. METHODS: A total of 929 women and their children participating in a European multicenter study were included at a

Veit Grote; Torstein Vik; Rüdiger von Kries; Veronica Luque; Jerzy Socha; Elvira Verduci; Clotilde Carlier; Berthold Koletzko

2010-01-01

84

The Gastric Emptying Study: Protocol Design Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the intrapatient correlation for gastric emp- tying times with instant oatmeal and scrambled egg meals. In addition, this study evaluated the degree of overlap between the stomach and the colon or jejunum in the anterior (AP) and left anterior oblique (LAO) projections in CT studies of the abdomen. Methods: Fifteen patients were studied twice, 1 d apart,

William C. Klingensmith; Steven P. Lawrence

2008-01-01

85

Linkage study between manic-depressive illness and chromosome 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome 21, of interest as potentially containing a disease gene for manic-depressive illness as possible evidence for a gene predisposing to affective disorder, has recently been reported in a single large family as well as samples of families. The present study investigates for linkage between manic-depressive illness and markers covering the long arm of chromosome 21 in two manic-depressive families,

H. Ewald; O. Mors; T. Flint

1996-01-01

86

Physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The frequency of mental illness amongst adolescents and its potential long-term consequences make it an important topic to research in relation to risk and protective factors. Research on the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents is limited. There is a particular lack of evidence from longitudinal studies. This study examines the relationship between depression and physical

Catherine Rothon; Phil Edwards; Kamaldeep Bhui; Russell M Viner; Stephanie Taylor; Stephen A Stansfeld

2010-01-01

87

Depression  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... doctor can diagnose depression. The diagnosis includes a physical examination, a complete history of symptoms, and a ... history is essential. This is followed by a physical examination to help rule out other diseases that ...

88

The Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS) Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The molecular basis for the genetic risk of ischemic stroke is likely to be multigenic and influenced by environmental factors. Several small case-control studies have suggested associations between ischemic stroke and polymorphisms of genes that code for coagulation cascade proteins and platelet receptors. Our aim is to investigate potential associations between hemostatic gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, with particular

James F Meschia; Thomas G Brott; Robert D Brown Jr; Richard JP Crook; Michael Frankel; John Hardy; José G Merino; Stephen S Rich; Scott Silliman; Bradford Burke Worrall

2003-01-01

89

The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) occurs in about 20,000 people per year in the U.S. annually and nearly half of the affected persons are dead within the first 30 days. Survivors of ruptured IAs are often left with substantial disability. Thus, primary prevention of aneurysm formation and rupture is of paramount importance. Prior studies indicate

Joseph P Broderick; Laura R Sauerbeck; Tatiana Foroud; John Huston; Nathan Pankratz; Irene Meissner; Robert D Brown Jr

2005-01-01

90

Computerized adaptive measurement of depression: A simulation study  

PubMed Central

Background Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We examined its efficiency and its usefulness in identifying Major Depressive Episodes (MDE) and in measuring depression severity. Methods Subjects were 744 participants in research studies in which each subject completed both the BDI and the SCID. In addition, 285 patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results The adaptive BDI had an AUC as an indicator of a SCID diagnosis of MDE of 88%, equivalent to the full BDI. The adaptive BDI asked fewer questions than the full BDI (5.6 versus 21 items). The adaptive latent depression score correlated r = .92 with the BDI total score and the latent depression score correlated more highly with the Hamilton (r = .74) than the BDI total score did (r = .70). Conclusions Adaptive testing for depression may provide greatly increased efficiency without loss of accuracy in identifying MDE or in measuring depression severity.

Gardner, William; Shear, Katherine; Kelleher, Kelly J; Pajer, Kathleen A; Mammen, Oommen; Buysse, Daniel; Frank, Ellen

2004-01-01

91

Dissociation in Major Depressive Disorder: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of various dissociative phenomena in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their possible implications in manifestation and course of depression. We administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and a self-questionnaire of life events to 27 patients with MDD and to 40 healthy participants in order to collect information

Almudena Molina-Serrano; Sylvie Linotte; Marie Amat; Daniel Souery; Mara Barreto

2008-01-01

92

Personality disorder, depression and functioning: results from the ODIN study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is little information of the prevalence of personality disorder (PD) in those with depressive disorder in community samples; neither is there any data on the impact of PD on service utilisation or outcome in this setting. Methods: A two stage screening study to identify cases of depressive disorder using SCAN in five European countries. Personality assessed 6 months

Patricia Casey; Gail Birbeck; Catherine McDonagh; Ann Horgan; Chris Dowrick; Odd Dalgard; Ville Lethinen; Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos; Graham Dunn; Helen Page; Claire Wilkinson; Greg Wilkinson; Jose Luis Vazquez-Barquero

2004-01-01

93

Depression in the community: findings from the Stirling County Study.  

PubMed

Depression and anxiety disorders were studied in a longitudinal investigation of a general population. These disorders were identified through responses given in a structured psychiatric interview carried out as part of the Stirling County Study. A 16 year follow-up indicated that depression carried a significantly worse prognosis than anxiety, as measured in terms of mortality risk and the likelihood of becoming a chronic or recurrent illness. When morbidity and mortality information were brought together, it was found that 82% of those who were depressed at the beginning of the study had a poor outcome. This suggests that depressions found in the community, where most of them remain untreated, are similar in seriousness to those seen by psychiatrists in outpatient clinics and mental hospitals. It seems likely that general physicians can play a useful role in caring for such depressions, especially if physicians become alerted to the risks associated with these illnesses. PMID:2372748

Murphy, J M

1990-06-01

94

Relationships Between The Underlying Constructs Of The Beck Depression Inventory And The Center For Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in a sample of 261 college students. The two scales were found to have a moderately high correlation and a similar pattern of relationships to measures of anxiety, hostility, self-esteem, hypochondriasis, and

Vladimir B. Skorikov; Debra J. VanderVoort

2003-01-01

95

Depression and anxiety: Associations with biological and perceived stress reactivity to a psychological stress protocol in a middle-aged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men and women, aged 55-60 years, from a population-based cohort, who filled out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We performed

Susanne R. de Rooij; Aart H. Schene; David I. Phillips; Tessa J. Roseboom

2010-01-01

96

Attachment orientations and depression: a longitudinal study of new parents.  

PubMed

In this longitudinal study, we followed a large sample of first-time parents (both partners) across the first 2 years of the transition to parenthood. Guided by attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), we tested several predictions about how attachment anxiety and avoidance are related to the incidence, maintenance, increase, and decline of depressive symptoms in both sexes across the first 2 years of the transition. We found that (a) the association between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to the marital and/or romantic relationship; (b) the association between avoidance and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to family responsibilities; (c) styles of caregiving provided by romantic partners affected depressive symptoms differently among anxious and avoidant persons; and (d) in certain predictable situations, depressive symptoms persisted at higher levels or increased to higher levels in anxious or avoidant persons across the 2-year transition period. Important implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21443372

Rholes, W Steven; Simpson, Jeffry A; Kohn, Jamie L; Wilson, Carol L; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, Sisi; Kashy, Deborah A

2011-04-01

97

Tryptophan depletion and risk of depression relapse: a prospective study of tryptophan depletion as a potential predictor of depressive episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study investigated the relationship between depressive symptom response during tryptophan depletion and future depressive episodes.Methods: Twelve subjects with prior major depressive episodes in remission and medication-free for ?3 months (patients), and 12 matched healthy (control) subjects received two tryptophan depletion tests 1 week apart. During follow-up the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered weekly for 1 month, monthly

Francisco A Moreno; George R Heninger; Cynthia A McGahuey; Pedro L Delgado

2000-01-01

98

A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

2010-01-01

99

Depression and the nature of Trinidadian family practice: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common mental disorder; in an ambulatory-care setting 5 to 10% of patients meet the criteria for major depression. Despite extensive documentation in primary care internationally, Trinidadian studies published on depression have been primarily hospital-based and focussed on suicide. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of depression, the variables associated with depression

Rohan G Maharaj

2007-01-01

100

Dopaminergic activity in depressed smokers: a positron emission tomography study.  

PubMed

Tobacco dependence is highly prevalent in depressed patients. We assessed changes in [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential (BP) using positron emission tomography (PET) before and after the oral administration of d-amphetamine in healthy controls and unmedicated patients with current depression with and without current tobacco dependence. Over a single study day 2 [(11)C]-raclopride positron emission tomography scans were taken in 38 subjects: at baseline and 2 h following oral d-amphetamine 30 mg. Twenty controls (9 smokers, 11 nonsmokers) and 18 subjects with current major depressive episode (8 smokers, 10 non-smokers). Striatal [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential was measured before and after d-amphetamine administration. Depressed smokers had a lower baseline [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential compared with both control non-smokers (P < 0.007) and depressed non-smokers (P < 0.001). There was a main effect of smoking status on amphetamine-induced change in [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential (P < 0.02), but no main effect of depression. This may be due to a floor effect because of the low BP at baseline. Depressed subjects reported significant increase of positive mood after d-amphetamine administration compared with controls (depressed smokers vs. control smokers: P < 0.05; depressed non-smokers vs. controls: P < 0.055). Tobacco dependence appears to decrease d-amphetamine-induced changes in [(11)C]-raclopride binding potential as measured by positron emission tomography. Comorbid major depression and tobacco dependence exacerbates this effect, suggesting an altered dopamine system in comorbid patients. PMID:19360907

Busto, Usoa E; Redden, Laura; Mayberg, Helen; Kapur, Shitij; Houle, Sylvain; Zawertailo, Laurie A

2009-08-01

101

[Depression and anxiety--a study for validating subtypes of depression].  

PubMed

Psychopathological analysis of the patterns of symptoms in 176 depressive in-patients disclosed in 73.3% of all patients the presence of anxiety symptoms: of these, 38.6% merely had diffuse anxiety, whereas 34.7% showed either additionally or alone specific anxiety symptoms such as phobias and panic attacks. Similar to the results obtained by dividing the patients into an "endogenous" and "neurotic" group, namely, that there was no difference between the subtypes in respect of triggering the depressive episodes by life events, or in respect of the suicide rate 30 months after discharge and in respect of a chronic course developing during the 2 years following the discharge, there was likewise no difference with regard to these criteria if the patients were subdivided into depressive patients without anxiety and those with anxiety symptoms. However, a subdivision of the depressive patients with anxiety symptoms into a group having only free-floating anxiety and a group with specific anxiety symptoms, resulted in a clear association with these criteria: If a phobia or panic attacks were present, triggering by life events was far more frequent than if there was only free-floating was more often chronic in the first group, but there was no difference in suicidality. The results indicate that it will be necessary to provide for a more differentiated classification of anxiety symptoms before deciding in clinical routine what steps to take wherever depression and anxiety symptoms are present side by side. The same applies to treatment studies. PMID:2395938

Katschnig, H; Nutzinger, D O; Nouzak, A; Schanda, H; David, H

1990-07-01

102

The expression of depression among Javanese patients with major depressive disorder: A concept mapping study.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the presentation of clinical depression in Java, Indonesia. Interviews were conducted with 20 Javanese patients (male and female) with major depressive disorder from both lower and higher socioeconomic levels. The recruited participants came from provincial and private mental health hospitals in the cities of Solo, Yogykarta (Jogja), Jakarta, and Malang on the island of Java, Indonesia. Concept mapping methodology using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify underlying themes in the expression of depressive phenomena in this Indonesian population. The results identified themes that grouped into six clusters: interpersonal relationships, hopelessness, physical/somatic, poverty of thought, discourage, and defeat. Findings give support to the view that culture influences the expression of Indonesian depressive phenomenology, which nevertheless has some common roots with Western clinical pictures of the disorder. Cultural influences may mask symptoms of the disorder to clinicians. Diagnostic and assessment tools must be carefully selected to ensure they address culturally specific expressions of depression. PMID:24047957

Brintnell, E Sharon; Sommer, Ryan W; Kuncoro, Bambang; Setiawan, G Pandu; Bailey, Patricia

2013-09-18

103

A prospective study of the responsiveness of depression and suicidal ideation in acne patients to different phases of isotretinoin therapy.  

PubMed

The degree and manner to which isotretinoin affects the mental health of acne patients has not been extensively researched, despite reports of possible associations between isotretinoin and depression. In this study, 33 patients with acne were prescribed a standard 16-week treatment regime with isotretinoin. At the initiation of isotretinoin treatment, week 8 review and termination of treatment, patients completed validated measures of depression, hopelessness and self-rated dermatological severity and were also assessed dermatologically using an acne grading protocol. When the first phase of isotretinoin treatment (week 1 to week 8) was compared to the second phase (week 9 to week 16), patients reported significant improvements in the cognitive-affective features of depression during the first phase of treatment, but not during the second phase. Corresponding improvements in the somatic symptoms of depression and hopelessness were not found. The implications of the research are discussed in relation to methodological design issues in this area. PMID:16280305

Kellett, S C; Gawkrodger, D J

104

The experience of young people with depression: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

People who develop depression experience a maelstrom of emotions as they struggle to understand what is happening to them. While the experience has been comparatively well documented in older adults, much less is known about the depression experience and responses of young people. In this study, we aimed to explore the experience of young people diagnosed with depression. Twenty-six young people were recruited from a youth mental health service. A qualitative interpretative design was used, incorporating semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews. Results provided four overlapping themes, reflecting the young people's difficulties in coming to terms with, and responding in self-protective, harmful and at times life-threatening ways to their depression: (1) struggling to make sense of their situation; (2) spiralling down; (3) withdrawing; and (4) contemplating self-harm or suicide. Study conclusions are that young people faced considerable difficulties coming to terms with, and responding to, depression. Improving young people's understanding of depression and its treatment, reducing community stigma and providing accessible and youth-focused services remain important targets for intervention. It is also important to improve mental health literacy in the community to increase awareness of depression and how mental health professionals, including nurses, respond effectively to the young person. PMID:22070382

McCann, T V; Lubman, D I; Clark, E

2011-08-22

105

Cost-effectiveness analysis of cognitive behaviour therapy for treatment of minor or mild-major depression in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for the economic evaluation alongside the MIND-DIA randomized controlled trial (MIND-DIA CEA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression and elevated depression symptoms are more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes than in those without diabetes and are associated with adverse health outcomes and increased total healthcare utilization. This suggests that more effective depression treatment might not only improve health outcome, but also reduce costs. However, there is a lack of evidence on (cost-) effectiveness of

Nadja Chernyak; Frank Petrak; Kristin Plack; Martin Hautzinger; Matthias J Müller; Guido Giani; Andrea Icks

2009-01-01

106

Studies on long-term depression in area CA1 of the anesthetized and freely moving rat.  

PubMed

Homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) is reported to occur in field CA1 of hippocampal slices collected from immature brains. Because the effect has been postulated to be a memory storage mechanism, it is of interest to test for its presence in adult, awake animals. Unfortunately, not only has hippocampal LTD proved difficult to obtain reliably in vivo, but the few successful studies vary with respect to protocols and evidence that the depression is input-specific. The present study tested for input-specific (homosynaptic) LTD in field CA1 after application of various stimulation protocols to the Schaffer collateral/commissural projections in freely moving, adult rats. The results indicate that although low-frequency trains do induce decrements in synaptic transmission lasting for hours to several days, the success rate of eliciting input-specific LTD in the awake rat is very modest compared with the ease with which stable potentiation is obtained in the same synapses. Moreover, it is questionable that the effective protocols represent patterns of activity likely to occur during behavior. The stronger the afferent activation during low-frequency stimulation, the greater was the probability of eliciting LTD accompanied by persistent heterosynaptic depression. Clear evidence for the occurrence of LTD, irrespective of stimulation protocol and current intensity, could not be obtained in rats under barbiturate anesthesia. In all, the results do not accord with the suggestion that LTD occurs routinely in the hippocampus in vivo as part of memory encoding. PMID:9169540

Staubli, U; Scafidi, J

1997-06-15

107

Internet-based treatment for older adults with depression and co-morbid cardiovascular disease: protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and cognitive impairment are important causes of disability and poor health outcomes. In combination they lead to an even worse prognosis. Internet or web-based interventions have been shown to deliver efficacious psychological intervention programs for depression on a large scale, yet no published studies have evaluated their impact among patients with co-existing physical

Nicole L Cockayne; Nick Glozier; Sharon L Naismith; Helen Christensen; Bruce Neal; Ian B Hickie

2011-01-01

108

Cognitive Reactivity, Implicit Associations, and the Incidence of Depression: A Two-Year Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is a vulnerability marker of depression. Implicit self-depressed associations are related to depression status and reduced remission probability. It is unknown whether these cognitive vulnerabilities precede the first onset of depression. Aim To test the predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the incidence of depressive disorders. Methods Prospective cohort study of 834 never-depressed individuals, followed over a two-year period. The predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the onset of depressive disorders was assessed using binomial logistic regression. The multivariate model corrected for baseline levels of subclinical depressive symptoms, neuroticism, for the presence of a history of anxiety disorders, for family history of depressive or anxiety disorders, and for the incidence of negative life events. Results As single predictors, both cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations were significantly associated with depression incidence. In the multivariate model, cognitive reactivity was significantly associated with depression incidence, together with baseline depressive symptoms and the number of negative life events, whereas implicit self-depressed associations were not. Conclusion Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is associated with the incidence of depressive disorders, also when various other depression-related variables are controlled for. Implicit self-depressed associations predicted depression incidence in a bivariate test, but not when controlling for other predictors.

Kruijt, Anne-Wil; Antypa, Niki; Booij, Linda; de Jong, Peter J.; Glashouwer, Klaske; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Van der Does, Willem

2013-01-01

109

Think-aloud protocols: Analyzing three different think-aloud protocols with counts of verbalized frustrations in a usability study of an information-rich Web site  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an empirical, between-subjects study on the use of think-aloud protocols in usability testing of an information-rich Web site. This double-blind study used three different types of think-aloud protocols: a traditional protocol, a speech-communication protocol, and a coaching protocol. A silent condition served as the control. Eighty participants were recruited and randomly pre-assigned to one of four conditions. With

Erica L. Olmsted-Hawala; Elizabeth D. Murphy; Sam Hawala; Kathleen T. Ashenfelter

2010-01-01

110

Boosting bioluminescence neuroimaging: an optimized protocol for brain studies.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (i.v., i.p., s.c.), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000-300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23405190

Aswendt, Markus; Adamczak, Joanna; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias

2013-02-06

111

Boosting Bioluminescence Neuroimaging: An Optimized Protocol for Brain Studies  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (iv, ip, sc), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000–300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio.

Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias

2013-01-01

112

Validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale as a screening instrument of major depressive disorder among Japanese workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is used at workplaces to screen depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the CES-D for depression in a workplace. Methods The CES-D was administered to 2,219 workers (84.2% men; age 21-68 years) at a manufacturing company in Japan. Concomitantly all workers had an interview

Koji Wada; Katsutoshi Tanaka; Gilles Theriault; Toshihiko Satoh; Masaru Mimura; Hitoshi Miyaoka; Yoshiharu Aizawa

2007-01-01

113

An experimental study of psychoanalytic theories of depression.  

PubMed

This study involves an application of a new methodology, subliminal psychodynamic activation, which can be used to experimentally test psychoanalytic "dynamic" propositions. It was found that with a sample of neurotically depressed female patients, there was a significant decrease in depression-related responses following the stimulation of a symbiotic gratification fantasy ("Mommy and I are one"). Subliminal symbiotic stimulation had been shown previously in studies with different populations (schizophrenics, homosexuals, phobics, alcoholics and overeaters) to have similar ameliorative effects. The current results point to the importance of symbiotic dynamics and the relationship dependent on a dominant other, rather than to the retroflexion of aggression in neurotic depression. This is in keeping with the formulations of Arieti (1959), Bemporad (1953), Horowitz (1980), and the senior author (Slipp, 1977). Hypotheses regarding the effects of stimulating fantasies involving success were not supported by the primary data, although secondary data (from correlational analyses) did provide some indirect support for the senior author's hypothesis. The "Autonomous Succeed" message ("Succeed for myself") did not reverse the depressive mood, possibly because autonomy was equated with abandonment. Relatively differentiated depressives tended to respond to the "Exploitative Succeed" ("Succeed for Father or Mother") messages with a decrease in depression, while depressives with a low level of self-object differentiation tended to respond with an increase in depression. For more differentiated depressives, performing for and giving over a part of the self to another is an adaptive style that insures the dependent relationship and bolsters the patient's weak self-image. However, with poorly differentiated depressives, giving over to another raises the threat of total annihilation, since the self is already diminished. These secondary data can be viewed, however, as only suggestive and need to be pursued in future studies. The results on symbiosis in this study add to the growing literature (summarized in Silverman, 1976, 1980) indicating that subliminal psychodynamic activation is a useful technique for investigating psychoanalytic formulations in the laboratory. It was Freud's overriding hope that psychoanalysis be firmly rooted as a behavioral science and this technique seems most promising as contributing toward that end. PMID:7298411

Slipp, S; Nissenfeld, S

1981-10-01

114

Computerized protocol for anatomical and functional studies of joints.  

PubMed

This chapter describes a new methodology for the acquisition and computer elaboration of joint anatomy and motion data and the study of their correlation. The method uses a commercial industrial electrogoniometer, custom tools, and software designed and developed by the authors for interactive display of the anatomical structures during joint motion, numerical interpolations of the articular geometries, and kinematic analysis of motion. The original data acquisition protocol and computer elaboration software are described in detail, and a final subheading describes briefly previous studies and future developments. PMID:15299223

Martelli, Sandra; Zaffagnini, Stefano

2004-01-01

115

The Impact of Staff Initiated Referral and Intervention Protocols on Symptoms of Depression in People with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been estimated that people with ID experience the same and possibly higher levels of depression than the general population. Referral to a General Medical Practitioner (GP) for primary care is recommended practice for people with depression and cognitive behavioural (CB) therapy is now an accepted evidence based intervention. A growing…

McGillivray, Jane A.; Kershaw, Mavis M.

2013-01-01

116

Improving medical protocols through formalisation: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical practice protocols or guidelines contain more or less precise recommendations to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific circumstances. In order to reach their po- tential benefits, protocols must fulfill strong quality require- ments. Medical bodies worldwide have made efforts in this direction, but mostly using informal methods such as peer review of protocols. In

Mar Marcos; Hugo Roomans; Frank van Harmelen

2002-01-01

117

The relationship between students' study habits, happiness and depression  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: One of the important requirements for cultural, social and even economic development is having a book-loving nation. In order to achieve this, there is a need for purposeful and continuous programming. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression in Isfahan University of Medical Science. METHODS: This research was a kind of descriptive and correlation survey. Statistical population included all MSc and PhD students in the second semester of the Isfahan University of Medical Science (263 students). In this research, stratified and random sampling was used in which a sample of 100 students was selected. Data collection instruments were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Oxford Happiness Inventory and a researcher-made questionnaire to determine the amount of students’ study. Validity of this questionnaires was determined by structure and content related validity and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the first (r = 0.94), second (r = 0.91) and third (r = 0.85) questionnaire. Analysis of research findings was done through descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Findings showed that 68.8 percent of students study less than 5 hours and only 2.5 percent of students study more than 10 hours. 65 percent of students had high amount of happiness and 35 percent had medium amount of happiness. In 60 percent of students there was no symptom of depression and 7.5 had depression symptoms. Also, there was no significant relationship between happiness and studying but there was a significant and negative relationship between studying and depression and happiness and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of study and tendency for reading are among the most important indices of human growth in terms of potential abilities for achieving a perfect human life and to prevent one-dimensional thinking. Thus, finding ways to encourage students to study is considered essential to achieve a healthy and developed society.

Bahrami, Susan; Rajaeepour, Saeed; Rizi, Hasan Ashrafi; Zahmatkesh, Monereh; Nematolahi, Zahra

2011-01-01

118

Study protocol: The DOse REsponse Multicentre International collaborative initiative (DOREMI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Current practices for renal replacement therapy in intensive care units (ICUs) remain poorly defined. The DOse REsponse Multicentre\\u000a International collaborative initiative (DO-RE-MI) will address the issue of how the different modes of renal replacement therapy\\u000a are currently chosen and performed. Here, we describe the study protocol, which was approved by the Scientific and Steering\\u000a Committees.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  DO-RE-MI is an observational, multicentre

Detlef Kindgen-Milles; Didier Journois; Roberto Fumagalli; Sergio Vesconi; Javier Maynar; Anibal Marinho; Irene Bolgan; Alessandra Brendolan; Marco Formica; Sergio Livigni; Mariella Maio; Mariano Marchesi; Filippo Mariano; Gianpaola Monti; Elena Moretti; Daniela Silengo; Claudio Ronco

2005-01-01

119

Patients with Major Depression and Healthy Controls: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serotonergic system may play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Few imaging studies have examined serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in patients with MDD. We hypothesized that SERT binding activity may be altered in patients with MDD. This study compared SERT binding in patients with MDD with that in healthy controls. Methods: We studied SERT

Andrew B. Newberg; Jay D. Amsterdam; Nancy Wintering; Karl Ploessl; Randel L. Swanson; Justine Shults; Abass Alavi

120

Assessment of Depression in Adolescents Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating characteristics of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were examined by using data from 4 samples of students in Grades 9–12. The CES-D was found to have good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Dimensionality was comparable to that found for adults. Structure varied little by order of assessment (Trial 1 or Trial 2), age, or gender. Salience

Robert E. Roberts; Judy A. Andrews; Peter M. Lewinsohn; Hyman Hops

1990-01-01

121

Depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis: a one-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive symptoms are common in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) and have serious consequences for them. The main aims of this study were to examine the course of depression in FEP patients and explore whether any patient characteristics at baseline predicts depressive symptoms after one year. Method A total of 198 FEP patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed for depressive symptoms with Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) at baseline and 127 were followed for one year. A CDSS score [greater than or equal to] 6 was used as a cut-off score for depression. Results Approximately 50% of the patients were depressed (CDSS[greater than or equal to]6) at baseline. At follow-up approximately 35% had depression. The course of depressive symptoms varied, 26% was depressed at both baseline and follow-up, 9% became depressed during the follow-up, 22% remitted from depression during the 12 months and 43% was neither depressed at baseline nor at follow-up. Poor childhood social functioning, long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and depressive symptoms at baseline predicted depression at 12 months follow-up. Conclusion Depressive symptoms are frequent in the first year after onset of psychosis. Patients with poor social functioning in childhood, long DUP and depressive symptoms at baseline are more prone to have depressive symptoms after one year. These patients should be identified and proper treatment provided.

2013-01-01

122

Prevalence and clinical features of atypical depression in depressed outpatients: a 467-case study.  

PubMed

The prevalence of DSM-IV atypical depression and differences between atypical versus non-atypical depression were investigated in 467 unipolar and bipolar depressed outpatients in private practice. Consecutive outpatients presenting for treatment of a major depressive episode were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History following DSM-IV criteria, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. The prevalence of atypical depression was 38.1%. Of the variables investigated (unipolar and bipolar diagnoses, age at onset, gender, psychosis, comorbidity, chronicity, duration of illness, recurrences, and severity), age at onset was significantly lower, and female gender, comorbidity, and bipolar II disorder were significantly more common in atypical than nonatypical depression. Comparisons between bipolar II atypical depression and unipolar atypical depression did not show significant differences, apart from age at onset. Findings suggest that there are important clinical differences between atypical and non-atypical depression in private practice outpatients. PMID:10482345

Benazzi, F

1999-06-30

123

Depressive Symptoms among Korean Immigrants: Assessment of a Translation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The utility of a Korean version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for identifying depression was studied for 860 Korean immigrants in Canada. Evidence supports the Korean version, although it is recommended that Positive Affect items be deleted to avoid overstating psychological distress. (SLD)|

Noh, Samuel; And Others

1992-01-01

124

Linkage study between manic-depressive illness and chromosome 21  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome 21, of interest as potentially containing a disease gene for manic-depressive illness as possible evidence for a gene predisposing to affective disorder, has recently been reported in a single large family as well as samples of families. The present study investigates for linkage between manic-depressive illness and markers covering the long arm of chromosome 21 in two manic-depressive families, using ten microsatellite polymorphisms as markers. No conclusive evidence for a disease gene on the long arm of chromosome 21 was found. Assuming either a dominant or recessive mode of inheritance, close linkage to the marker PFKL, which has been reported as possibly linked to affective disorder, seems unlikely in the families studied here. PFKL and more telomeric markers yielded small positive lod scores at higher recombination fractions in the largest family, and small positive lod scores at lower recombination fractions in the affecteds-only analyses in the smallest family. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Ewald, H.; Mors, O.; Flint, T. [Psychiatric Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others

1996-04-09

125

Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

2009-01-01

126

Netherlands twin family study of anxious depression (NETSAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescent and young adult twins, their parents and their siblings, questionnaire data were collected on depression, anxiety and correlated personality traits, such as neuroticism. Data were collected by mailed surveys in 1991, 1993, 1995 and 1997. A total of 13 717 individuals from 3344 families were included in the study. To localise quantitative trait

D. I. Boomsma; A. L. Beem; Berg van den M; C. V. Dolan; J. R. Koopmans; J. M. Vink; Geus de E. J. C; P. E. Slagboom

2000-01-01

127

'Third wave' cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based therapy for major depressive disorder. A protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Most interventions for depression have shown small or no effects. ‘Third wave‘ cognitive therapy and mentalization-based therapy have both gained some ground as treatments of psychological problems. No randomised trial has compared the effects of these two interventions for patients with major depression. Methods/ design We plan a randomised, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority clinical trial. During two years we will include 84 consecutive adult participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The participants will be randomised to either ‘third wave‘ cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based therapy. The primary outcome will be the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at cessation of treatment at 18 weeks. Secondary outcomes will be the proportion of patients with remission, Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, Beck’s Depression Inventory, and The World Health Organisation-Five Well-being Index 1999. Discussion Interventions for depression have until now shown relatively small effects. Our trial results will provide knowledge about the effects of two modern psychotherapeutic interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01070134

2012-01-01

128

Depression and Social Networks in Community Dwelling Elders: A Descriptive Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social isolation and inadequate social support have been identified as correlates of depression in older adults, although the relationship between depression and social isolation is not entirely understood (Dorfman et al., 1995). This study was conducted to describe the social networks of depressed older adults living in the community and to compare the social networks of depressed and nondepressed individuals,

Frances Wilby

2011-01-01

129

Toward validation of atypical depression in the community: results of the Zurich cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This paper (1) examines the validity of the atypical subtype of depression in a community-based longitudinal cohort study, (2) presents estimates of the prevalence and sex differences of DSM-IV atypical depression and a newly more broadly defined atypical syndrome in the community and (3) compares the clinical correlates and treatment patterns of those with atypical depression with other depressives.

Jules Angst; Alex Gamma; Robert Sellaro; Heping Zhang; Kathleen Merikangas

2002-01-01

130

The use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of depression in children and adolescents is well established, but debate remains about the phenomenology of the depressive syndrome in the young. In order to discover possible age differences in rates and etiology, the definition and measurement of depression must be comparable across the ages to be studied. A widely used self-report depression symptom scale, the Center for

Lenore Sawyer Radloff

1991-01-01

131

The Role of Parent and Peer Support in Predicting Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Community Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…

Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia

2005-01-01

132

A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Studies suggest early-onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late-onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume

Natalie Sachs-Ericsson; Elizabeth Corsentino; Jerad Moxley; Jennifer L. Hames; Nicole C. Rushing; Kathryn Sawyer; Thomas Joiner; Edward A. Selby; Steven Zarit; Ian H. Gotlib; David C. Steffens

2012-01-01

133

A 35-Year Longitudinal Assessment of Cognition and Midlife Depression Symptoms: The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether early adult cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms in midlife and how genetic and environmental influences explain the association; to examine cross-sectional relationships between depressive symptoms and specific cognitive abilities at midlife. Methods Design 35-year longitudinal and cross-sectional twin study of cognitive aging. Setting Large multicenter study in the United States. Participants 1237 male twins ages 51 to 60. Measurements At age 20 and midlife, participants completed the same version of a general cognitive ability test (Armed Forces Qualification Test [AFQT]). Midlife testing included an extensive neurocognitive protocol assessing processing speed, verbal memory, visual-spatial memory, working memory, executive function, and visual-spatial ability. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale prior to cognitive testing and provided health and lifestyle information during a medical history interview. Results Lower age 20 AFQT scores predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms at age 55 (r=?.16, p<.001). In bivariate twin modeling, 77% of the correlation between early cognitive ability and midlife depressive symptoms was due to shared genetic influences. Controlling for current age, age 20 AFQT, and non-independence of observations, depressive symptoms were associated with worse midlife AFQT scores and poorer performance in all cognitive domains except verbal memory Conclusion Results suggest that low cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms; this association is partly due to shared genetic influences. Cross-sectional analyses indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and performance is not linked to specific cognitive domains.

Franz, Carol E.; Lyons, Michael J.; O'Brien, Robert; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Kim, Kathleen; Bhat, Reshma; Grant, Michael D.; Toomey, Rosemary; Eisen, Seth; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.

2010-01-01

134

Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

2012-01-01

135

Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

2012-01-01

136

Adoption study supporting genetic transmission in manic-depressive illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

COMPARISON of adoptive parents of persons with a psychiatric disorder with their biological parents provides a unique opportunity to separate the interacting aetiological roles of heredity and environment. We have conducted such a study in manic-depressive illness; the results strongly support the importance of genetic factors in the transmission of this disorder.

Julien Mendlewicz; JOHN D. RAINER

1977-01-01

137

Postpartum Depression, Marital Dysfunction, and Infant Outcome: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study explores the relationship of post- GAYLE ROUX is an assistant professor in the Maternal Child partum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on Nursing Department of the School of Nursing at Virginia infant outcomes from birth to 2 1\\/2 years of age among Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia. She is middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were re- also a

Gayle Roux

138

A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for Unipolar Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify variables that are antecedents for unipolar depression. Information regarding a number of sociodemographic and psychosocial variables was collected on a community sample of adults (N = 998), 562 of whom were interviewed and diagnosed according to Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Research Diagnostic Criteria procedures and received a second assessment on most

Peter M. Lewinsohn; Harry M. Hoberman; Michael Rosenbaum

1988-01-01

139

Molecular studies of major depressive disorder: the epigenetic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder encompassing a spectrum of symptoms involving deficits to a range of cognitive, psychomotor and emotional processes. As is the norm for aetiological studies into the majority of psychiatric phenotypes, particular focus has fallen on the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. There are, however, several epidemiological, clinical and

J Mill; A Petronis

2007-01-01

140

Structural Neuroimaging of Concomitant Depressive Symptoms in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) can both denote prodromal Alzheimer's disease. While the two concepts share common clinical features, differential diagnosis between them is crucial. The objective of this pilot study was to explore differences in terms of the hippocampal (HC) and entorhinal cortex (EC) volume reduction between LLD and aMCI patients with (aMCI/D+ group) or without (aMCI group) depressive symptoms. Six LLD, 6 aMCI, and 6 aMCI/D+ participants were assessed using a structural magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Manual segmentation of HC and EC was carried out. The results of volumetric comparisons suggest that the HC was larger in aMCI/D+ and LLD subjects compared to aMCI participants. The left EC mean volume was slightly lower in aMCI/D+ subjects. Power analyses revealed that 36 participants per group would suffice to confirm these findings. Overall, these pilot findings suggest that aMCI can be distinguished from LLD based on cerebral atrophy measures, and that HC and EC atrophy in aMCI varies according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms.

Morin, Jean-Francois; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol

2012-01-01

141

Structural neuroimaging of concomitant depressive symptoms in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) can both denote prodromal Alzheimer's disease. While the two concepts share common clinical features, differential diagnosis between them is crucial. The objective of this pilot study was to explore differences in terms of the hippocampal (HC) and entorhinal cortex (EC) volume reduction between LLD and aMCI patients with (aMCI/D+ group) or without (aMCI group) depressive symptoms. Six LLD, 6 aMCI, and 6 aMCI/D+ participants were assessed using a structural magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Manual segmentation of HC and EC was carried out. The results of volumetric comparisons suggest that the HC was larger in aMCI/D+ and LLD subjects compared to aMCI participants. The left EC mean volume was slightly lower in aMCI/D+ subjects. Power analyses revealed that 36 participants per group would suffice to confirm these findings. Overall, these pilot findings suggest that aMCI can be distinguished from LLD based on cerebral atrophy measures, and that HC and EC atrophy in aMCI varies according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms. PMID:23277788

Morin, Jean-François; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol

2012-11-30

142

Acupuncture for depression and myalgia in patients with hepatitis: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDepressive symptoms and myalgia are commonly seen in patients with chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C.ObjectiveTo investigate the efficacy of acupuncture treatment on depressive symptoms and myalgia in patients with hepatitis.MethodsOf 44 patients with hepatitis screened for depression and myalgia, 28 were enrolled and included in the study. The main outcome measure for depressive symptoms was Beck's Depression Inventory

Zeliha Kocak Tufan; Hüseyin Arslan; Fatih Yildiz; Cemal Bulut; Hasan Irmak; Sami Kinikli; Ali Pekcan Demiroz

2010-01-01

143

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Transmission of Parental Depression to Children's Depression and Conduct Disturbance: An Extended Children of Twins Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children's behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental…

Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon J.

2010-01-01

144

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Transmission of Parental Depression to Children's Depression and Conduct Disturbance: An Extended Children of Twins Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children's behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental…

Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon J.

2010-01-01

145

Physical activity, exercise coping, and depression in a 10-year cohort study of depressed patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological research examining the relationship between physical activity and depression has been conducted almost exclusively with community samples. We examined associations between physical activity, exercise coping, and depression in a sample of initially depressed patients, using four waves of data spanning 10 years.

Alex H. S. Harris; Ruth Cronkite; Rudolf Moos

2006-01-01

146

Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Healthy couple relationships are fundamental to a healthy society, whereas relationship breakdown and discord are linked to a wide range of negative health and wellbeing outcomes. Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education) have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind. This study protocol describes an effectiveness evaluation of the two types of community-based relationship services. The aims of the Evaluation of Couple Counselling study are to: map the profiles of clients seeking agency-based couple counselling and relationship enhancement programs in terms of socio-demographic, relationship, health, and health service use indicators; to determine 3 and 12-month outcomes for relationship satisfaction, commitment, and depression; and determine relative contributions of client and therapy factors to outcomes. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental pre-post-post evaluation design is used to assess outcomes for couples presenting for the two types of community-based relationship services. The longitudinal design involves a pre-treatment survey and two follow-up surveys at 3- and 12-months post-intervention. The study is set in eight Relationships Australia Victoria centres, across metropolitan, outer suburbs, and regional/rural sites. Relationships Australia, a non-government organisation, is the largest provider of couple counselling and relationship services in Australia. The key outcomes are couple satisfaction, relationship commitment, and depression measured by the CESD-10. Multi-level modelling will be used to account for the dyadic nature of couple data. Discussion The study protocol describes the first large scale investigation of the effectiveness of two types of relationship services to be conducted in Australia. Its significance lies in providing more detailed profiles of couples who seek relationship services, in evaluating both 3 and 12-month relationship and health outcomes, and in determining factors that best predict improvements. It builds on prior research by using a naturalistic sample, an effectiveness research design, a more robust measure of relationship satisfaction, robust health indicators, a 12-month follow-up period, and a more rigorous statistical procedure suitable for dyadic data. Findings will provide a more precise description of those seeking relationship services and factors associated with improved relationship and health outcomes.

2012-01-01

147

A Performance Comparison Study of Ad Hoc Wireless Multicast Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

óIn this paper we investigate the performance of multicast rout- ing protocols in wireless mobile ad hoc networks. An ad hoc network is composed of mobile nodes without the presence of a wired support infras- tructure. In this environment, routing\\/multicasting protocols are faced with the challenge of producing multihop routes under host mobility and band- width constraints. In recent years,

Sung-ju Lee; William Su; Julian Hsu; Mario Gerla; Rajive Bagrodia

2000-01-01

148

The Internet Backplane Protocol: A Study in Resource Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP), a middleware created to allow the sharing of storage resources, implemented as part of the network fabric. IBP allows an application to control intermediate data staging operations explicitly. As IBP follows a very simple philosophy, very similar to the Internet Protocol, and the resulting semantic might be too weak for

Alessandro Bassi; Micah Beck; Graham E. Fagg; Terry Moore; James S. Plank; D. Martin Swany; Richard Wolski

2002-01-01

149

Cholesterol and suicide attempts: A prospective study of depressed inpatients  

PubMed Central

Low cholesterol levels have commonly been associated with various suicide measures. We sought to examine suicide attempts in a prospective sample of depressed patients that on prior analysis demonstrated an association between low cholesterol and subsequent suicide completions. Seventy-four inpatients with Research Diagnostic Criteria unipolar major depression, bipolar depression or schizoaffective depression entered a prospective follow-up study from 1978 - 1981. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were utilized to elucidate the relationship between cholesterol levels and subsequent severe suicide attempts as well as all suicide attempts regardless of severity. Attempts preceding index hospitalization and other lifetime attempts were evaluated cross-sectionally. Low serum cholesterol levels did not predict subsequent suicide attempts. Contrary to our hypothesis, the high cholesterol group was associated with increased risk of suicide attempts on survival analysis in those less than median age. Nonetheless, in cross-sectional analysis, the low cholesterol group had more suicide attempts preceding index hospitalization and more remote lifetime attempts. The results from this prospective dataset do not support an association between low cholesterol and subsequent suicide attempts despite replicating the retrospective findings of previous case-control and cross-sectional studies.

Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Coryell, William H.

2007-01-01

150

DATE: Depressed adolescents treated with exercise: Study rationale and design for a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an important need for non-medication interventions for depressed youth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a standardized aerobic exercise regime to treat non-medicated clinically depressed adolescents based on adherence and completion rates, including 1) establishing effect sizes for the primary outcomes including the Chidren's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) and Actical

Carroll W. Hughes; Madhukar H. Trivedi; Joseph Cleaver; Tracy L. Greer; Graham J. Emslie; Beth Kennard; Shauna Dorman; Tyson Bain; Judy Dubreuil; Conrad Barnes

2009-01-01

151

Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Regression Comparison of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background To compare response to antidepressants between randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational trials. Methods and Findings Published and unpublished studies (from 1989 to 2009) were searched for by 2 reviewers on Medline, the Cochrane library, Embase, clinicaltrials.gov, Current Controlled Trial, bibliographies and by mailing key organisations and researchers. RCTs and observational studies on fluoxetine or venlafaxine in first-line treatment for major depressive disorder reported in English, French or Spanish language were included in the main analysis. Studies including patients from a wider spectrum of depressive disorders (anxious depression, minor depressive episode, dysthymia) were added in a second analysis. The main outcome was the pre-/post-treatment difference on depression scales standardised to 100 (17-item or 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression or Montgomery and Åsberg Rating Scale) in each study arm. A meta-regression was conducted to adjust the comparison between observational studies and RCTs on treatment type, study characteristics and average patient characteristics. 12 observational studies and 109 RCTs involving 6757 and 11035 patients in 12 and 149 arms were included in the main analysis. Meta-regression showed that the standardised treatment response in RCTs is greater by a magnitude of 4.59 (2.61 to 6.56). Study characteristics were related to standardised treatment response, positively (study duration, number of follow-up assessments, outpatients versus inpatients, per protocol analysis versus intention to treat analysis) or negatively (blinded design, placebo design). At patient level, response increased with baseline severity and decreased with age. Results of the second analysis were consistent with this. Conclusions Response to antidepressants is greater in RCTs than in observational studies. Observational studies should be considered as a necessary complement to RCTs.

Naudet, Florian; Maria, Anne Solene; Falissard, Bruno

2011-01-01

152

Guilt and depression: a cross-cultural comparative study.  

PubMed

Although nearly a century has passed since Kraepelin's investigations in Java [Cbl Nervenheilk Psychiatr 1904; 27:468-469], one crucial question regarding guilt in the course of depression has still not been decided: Is there a more or less stable connection independent of culture, or is guilt confined to certain civilisations? This study investigated this issue in 100 Pakistani and 100 Austrian out-patients diagnosed with 'major depression' according to DSM-IV by means of standardised instruments (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Life Time Version, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 21-item version). The experiences of guilt were subdivided into ethical feelings (ethical anxiety and feelings of guilt) and delusions of guilt. It turned out that ethical feelings could be found in both cultures regardless of age and sex. They seem to be primarily related to the extent of depressive retardation. However, the distribution of the two subsets of ethical feelings was culture dependent. Delusions of guilt were confined to patients of the Austrian sample. So, our data qualify the exclusivity of the aforementioned two points of view and support the need for a psychopathologically differentiated approach. PMID:11847488

Stompe, T; Ortwein-Swoboda, G; Chaudhry, H R; Friedmann, A; Wenzel, T; Schanda, H

153

Glass of Wine a Day May Ward Off Depression, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Glass of Wine a Day May Ward Off Depression, Study Suggests But, moderate ... health, the study authors contend. "One drink a day, preferentially wine, may help prevent depression," said lead ...

154

Study on the network protocol of the IP-based storage area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the requirement of the application and the development of the technology have promoted the research of the new network protocols in network storage, and currently IP-based SAN has become new focus of study. The main network protocols used in IP-based SAN are: iSCSI, FCIP, iFCP and mFCP. They all implement the transmitting of block level storage data over TCP/IP. To understand and master the protocols deeply, this paper elaborates the latest development of these protocols, and analyzes and compares them intensively in regards of protocol stack, implementation model, naming, addressing, discovery and routing etc.

Fu, Xianglin; Liu, ZhaoBin; Cao, Qiang; Xie, Changsheng

2003-04-01

155

The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists.

2012-01-01

156

Protocol matters: which methylome are you actually studying?  

PubMed Central

The field of epigenetics is now capitalizing on the vast number of emerging technologies, largely based on second-generation sequencing, which interrogate DNA methylation status and histone modifications genome-wide. However, getting an exhaustive and unbiased view of a methylome at a reasonable cost is proving to be a significant challenge. In this article, we take a closer look at the impact of the DNA sequence and bias effects introduced to datasets by genome-wide DNA methylation technologies and where possible, explore the bioinformatics tools that deconvolve them. There remains much to be learned about the performance of genome-wide technologies, the data we mine from these assays and how it reflects the actual biology. While there are several methods to interrogate the DNA methylation status genome-wide, our opinion is that no single technique suitably covers the minimum criteria of high coverage and, high resolution at a reasonable cost. In fact, the fraction of the methylome that is studied currently depends entirely on the inherent biases of the protocol employed. There is promise for this to change, as the third generation of sequencing technologies is expected to again ‘revolutionize’ the way that we study genomes and epigenomes.

Robinson, Mark D; Statham, Aaron L; Speed, Terence P; Clark, Susan J

2011-01-01

157

A Study of Shared-Memory Mutual Exclusion Protocols Using CADP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual exclusion protocols are an essential building block of concurrent systems: indeed, such a protocol is required whenever a shared resource has to be protected against concurrent non-atomic accesses. Hence, many variants of mutual exclusion protocols exist in the shared-memory setting, such as Peterson's or Dekker's well-known protocols. Although the functional correctness of these protocols has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been paid to their non-functional aspects, such as their performance in the long run. In this paper, we report on experiments with the performance evaluation of mutual exclusion protocols using Interactive Markov Chains. Steady-state analysis provides an additional criterion for comparing protocols, which complements the verification of their functional properties. We also carefully re-examined the functional properties, whose accurate formulation as temporal logic formulas in the action-based setting turns out to be quite involved.

Mateescu, Radu; Serwe, Wendelin

158

Depression and suicide risks in older adults: a case study.  

PubMed

Depression and suicide are significant problems encountered by home health clinicians caring for older, homebound individuals. Mr. F. was an 85-year-old retired police officer who was assessed to be at significant risk for suicide after his wife's death. The following case study outlines the Home Based Primary Care team's successful interdisciplinary treatment plan to reduce Mr. F.'s suicide risk. PMID:19745622

Hicks, Lou Etta; Wood, Norma

2009-09-01

159

Computer diagnosis of depression and anxiety: the Stirling County Study.  

PubMed

A computer programme (DPAX) was constructed for a longitudinal study of psychiatric epidemiology in Stirling County (Canada). It identifies disorders involving the syndromes of depression and anxiety based on responses given in structured questionnaire interviews. The programme follows a diagnostic algorithm that uses criteria for: (1) essential features; (2) number, frequency, and pattern of associated symptoms; (3) impairment; and (4) duration. The programme reproduces case evaluations provided by psychiatrists, as conveyed by a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 98%. PMID:3887448

Murphy, J M; Neff, R K; Sobol, A M; Rice, J X; Olivier, D C

1985-02-01

160

Maternal depression and filicide—case study of ten mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes ten cases of filicides committed by mothers who intentionally killed one or more of their children within\\u000a 12 months after delivery. The data were collected from police and court records, forensic psychiatric records, autopsy reports,\\u000a and other medical records. The mean age of the mothers was 28.5 years and of the victims 4 months. The symptoms of depression\\u000a were clear:

Anne Kauppi; Kirsti Kumpulainen; Tuija Vanamo; Juhani Merikanto; Kari Karkola

2008-01-01

161

A Prospective 12Year Study of Subsyndromal and Syndromal Depressive Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

9 of 10 patients spent weeks at 3 or 4 different levels during follow-up. The MinD (27%) and SSD (17%) symptom levels were more common than the MDD (15%) symptom level. Patients with double depression and recurrent depression had more chronic symptoms than patients with their first lifetime major depressive episode (72% and 65%, respectively, vs 46% of fol- low-up

Lewis L. Judd; Hagop S. Akiskal; Jack D. Maser; Pamela J. Zeller; Jean Endicott; William Coryell; Martin P. Paulus; Jelena L. Kunovac; Andrew C. Leon; Timothy I. Mueller; John A. Rice; Martin B. Keller

1998-01-01

162

Relation between depressive symptoms and treadmill exercise capacity in the Heart and Soul Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the association between depressive symptoms and exercise capacity, we performed a cross-sectional study of 944 outpatients with stable coronary artery disease and found that the presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with poor exercise capacity (

Bernice Ruo; John S Rumsfeld; Sharon Pipkin; Mary A Whooley

2004-01-01

163

Sterilization and depression: A study of Puerto Rican women living in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research on the relationship of sterilization to depression has lacked a conceptual framework and been limited to hospital samples. The framework used in this study to explain the development of depression is comprised of two major groups of factors, \\

Luz E Leon

1996-01-01

164

Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients: the AGED study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce.

K. Jongenelis; A. M. Pot; A. M. H. Eisses; A. T. F. Beekman; H. Kluiter; M. W. Ribbe

2004-01-01

165

Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents With and Without Co-Morbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective In the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), fluoxetine (FLX) and the combination of fluoxetine with cognitive-behavioral therapy (COMB) had superior improvement trajectories compared to pill placebo (PBO), whereas cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) was not significantly different from PBO. Because attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-exist, we examined whether ADHD moderated these outcomes in TADS. Method A total of 439 adolescents with MDD, 12–17 years old, were randomized to FLX, CBT, COMB, or PBO. Random coefficients regression models examined depression improvement in 377 depressed youths without ADHD and 62 with ADHD, including 20 who were treated with a psychostimulant. Results Within the ADHD group, the improvement trajectories of the three active treatments were similar, all with rates of improvement greater than PBO. For those without ADHD, only COMB had a rate of improvement that was superior to PBO. Conclusions Co-morbid ADHD moderated treatment of MDD. CBT alone or FLX alone may offer benefits similar to COMB in the treatment of MDD in youths with co-morbid MDD and ADHD, whereas monotherapy may not match the benefits of COMB for those without ADHD. The ADHD subgroup analysis presented in this paper is exploratory in nature because of the small number of youths with ADHD in the sample. Clinical Trial Registry www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006286. The TADS protocol and all of the TADS manuals are available on the Internet at https://trialweb.dcri.duke.edu/tads/index.html.

May, Diane E.; Silva, Susan G.; Madaan, Vishal; Puumala, Susan E.; Curry, John F.; Walkup, John; Kepley, Hayden; Vitiello, Benedetto; March, John S.

2009-01-01

166

Low intensity vs. self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for major depression: a multicenter, controlled, randomized study  

PubMed Central

Background Major depression will become the second most important cause of disability in 2020. Computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy could be an efficacious and cost-effective option for its treatment. No studies on cost-effectiveness of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy has been carried out. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy for major depression in the Spanish health system. Methods The study is made up of 3 phases: 1.- Development of a computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy for depression tailored to Spanish health system. 2.- Multicenter controlled, randomized study: A sample (N=450 patients) with mild/moderate depression recruited in primary care. They should have internet availability at home, not receive any previous psychological treatment, and not suffer from any other severe somatic or psychological disorder. They will be allocated to one of 3 treatments: a) Low intensity Internet-delivered psychotherapy + improved treatment as usual (ITAU) by GP, b) Self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy + ITAU or c) ITAU. Patients will be diagnosed with MINI psychiatric interview. Main outcome variable will be Beck Depression Inventory. It will be also administered EuroQol 5D (quality of life) and Client Service Receipt Inventory (consume of health and social services). Patients will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. An intention to treat and a per protocol analysis will be performed. Discussion The comparisons between low intensity and self-guided are infrequent, and also a comparative economic evaluation between them and compared with usual treatment in primary. The strength of the study is that it is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of low intensity and self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for depression in primary care, being the treatment completely integrated in primary care setting. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01611818

2013-01-01

167

The detection of depression in medical setting: A study with PRIME-MD  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStudies investigating the performance of instruments to detect major depressive disorder (MDD) have reported inconsistent results. Subsyndromal depression (SD) has also been associated to increased morbidity, and little is known about its detection in primary care setting. This study aimed to investigate the performance of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) to detect MDD and any depression (threshold

Renerio Fraguas; Sergio Gonsalves Henriques; Mara S. De Lucia; Dan V. Iosifescu; Faye H. Schwartz; Paulo Rossi Menezes; Wagner Farid Gattaz; Milton Arruda Martins

2006-01-01

168

An open-label study of citalopram for major depression following traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depression is associated with substantial psychosocial dysfunction and post-concussive symptomatology following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Studies to date of anti—depressant treatment for major depression post-TBI have been limited by small sample size. The goal of the present study is to examine the rates of response and remission associated with citalopram treatment for major depression following traumatic brain injury. Subjects

MJ Rapoport; F. Chan; K. Lanctot; N. Herrmann; S. McCullagh; A. Feinstein

2008-01-01

169

Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

2012-01-01

170

A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks  

SciTech Connect

We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2) Performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack need to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. The results suggest that in order to improve the performance of a communication network, it will be important to study the entire protocol stuck as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the 7 layer OSI stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point.

Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

2001-05-24

171

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

172

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

173

Evaluation of cognitive behavioural treatment for depression after stroke: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of depressed stroke patients.Design: A series of AB single case experimental design studies.Subjects: Stroke patients who had been admitted to hospital.Methods: Patients were identified from a hospital register of stroke patients and sent the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to determine whether they were depressed. Those

NB Lincoln; T. Flannaghan; L. Sutcliffe; L. Rother

1997-01-01

174

Late life depression: Challenge or curse for the general practitioner (GP). A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine specificity of GP's care for elderly depressed patients. Among 17,000 examinees (10 GP-Offices) were extracted 231 patients with diagnosis of depressive episode (F32) and 152 with diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder (F33) classified according to ICD-10. Older than 65 years were 134 depressed patients. Data were tracked longitudinally and obtained retrospectively for

Stanislava Stojanovi?-Špehar; Luka Ozreti?; Sanja Blažekovi?-Milakovi?; Biserka Bergman-Markovi?

2011-01-01

175

The Natural History of Late-Life Depression: A 6Year Prospective Study in the Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Accurate assessment of the natural his- tory of late-life depression requires frequent observa- tion over time. In later life, depressive disorders fulfill- ing rigorous diagnostic criteria are relatively rare, while subthreshold disorders are common. The primary aim was to study the natural history of late-life depression, systematically comparing those who did with those who did not fulfill rigorous diagnostic

Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Sandra W. Geerlings; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Jan H. Smit; Robert S. Schoevers; Edwin de Beurs; Arjan W. Braam; Brenda W. J. H. Penninx; Willem van Tilburg

2002-01-01

176

Depressive illness and behavioral modifications in children. The study of head and trunk mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of behavioral activity in depressed adults has given rise to many publications. On the other hand, there is currently no published research on behavioral modifications in child depression. This work uses the ‘Berner system’ to quantify the head and trunk mobility of children aged 7–13 years, hospitalized for a major depressive episode, during a standardized interview recorded on

Gérard Brand

1996-01-01

177

Increased amygdala volumes in female and depressed humans. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amygdala are thought to play an important role in emotional information processing. First studies indicate a link between amygdala atrophy, fear and aggression and between amygdala hypertrophy and depression. To investigate a possible relationship between amygdala volumes, aggression and depression, we measured the amygdala of 62 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without aggressive behavior or depression

L. Tebartz van Elst; F. Woermann; L. Lemieux; M. R. Trimble

2000-01-01

178

The discriminant validity of burnout and depression: A confirmatory factor analytic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care workers (N=307) completed measures of burnout and depression as part of a study of personal and occupational sources of distress. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for differentiating burnout and depression. The analysis confirmed the three-factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and s multiple factor structure for depression measures. The analysis also provided support for the existence

Michael P. Leiter; Josette Durup

1994-01-01

179

Temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age: prospective population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age. Design Prospective, population based study with four years of follow up. Setting City of Leiden, the Netherlands. Participants 500 people aged 85 years at recruitment. Main outcome measures Annual assessments of depressive symptoms (15 item geriatric depression scale), global cognitive function (mini-mental state examination), attention (Stroop

David J Vinkers; Jacobijn Gussekloo; Max L Stek; Rudi G J Westendorp; Roos C van der Mast

2004-01-01

180

Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

2012-01-01

181

Importance of Studying the Contributions of Early Adverse Experience to Neurobiological Findings in Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost four decades of intensive research have sought to elucidate the neurobiological bases of depression. Epidemiological studies have revealed that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for depression. Adverse early-life experiences influence neurobiological systems within genetic limits, leading to the neurobiological and behavioral manifestations of depression. We summarize the burgeoning evidence concerning a pre-eminent role of early

Christine Heim; Paul M Plotsky; Charles B Nemeroff

2004-01-01

182

Work-related depression in the hotel industry: a study in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to develop and test a model, which examines work-related depression among frontline hotel employees. Specifically, the model examines emotional exhaustion as a full mediator of the effects of positive affectivity and intrinsic motivation on depression. The model also investigates the interaction of intrinsic motivation and positive affectivity on emotional exhaustion and depression.

Osman M. Karatepe; Ladan Zargar Tizabi

2011-01-01

183

Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

2009-01-01

184

Anthroposophic therapy for chronic depression: a four-year prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common, cause considerable disability, and do not always respond to standard therapy (psychotherapy, antidepressants). Anthroposophic treatment for depression differs from ordinary treatment in the use of artistic and physical therapies and special medication. We studied clinical outcomes of anthroposophic therapy for depression. METHODS: 97 outpatients from 42 medical practices in Germany participated in a prospective cohort

Harald J Hamre; Claudia M Witt; Anja Glockmann; Renatus Ziegler; Stefan N Willich; Helmut Kiene

2006-01-01

185

Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

2006-01-01

186

Treatment of minor depression in older adults: A pilot study comparing sertraline and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot clinical trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of an exercise program and anti-depressant treatment compared with usual care in improving the emotional and physical functioning of older adults with minor depression. Participants were 37 older adults with minor depression who were randomized to exercise, sertraline, or usual care; 32

G. A. Brenes; J. D. Williamson; S. P. Messier; W. J. Rejeski; M. Pahor; E. Ip; B. W. J. H. Penninx

2007-01-01

187

The relationship between pain intensity and severity and depression in older people: exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pain and depression are known to be associated in later life, and both have a negative effect on physical performance both separately and in combination. The nature of the relationships between pain intensity and depression in elderly persons experiencing pain is less clear. The objectives of this study were to explore which factors are associated with depressed mood in

Steve Iliffe; Kalpa Kharicha; Claudia Carmaciu; Danielle Harari; Cameron Swift; Gerhard Gillman; Andreas E Stuck

2009-01-01

188

Challenges and Implications of Routine Depression Screening for Depression in Chronic Disease and Multimorbidity: A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression screening in chronic disease is advocated but its impact on routine practice is uncertain. We examine the effects of a programme of incentivised depression screening in chronic disease within a UK primary care setting. Methods and Findings Cross sectional analysis of anonymised, routinely collected data (2008-9) from family practices in Scotland serving a population of circa 1.8 million. Primary care registered patients with at least one of three chronic diseases, coronary heart disease, diabetes and stroke, underwent incentivised depression screening using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS). 125143 patients were identified with at least one chronic disease. 10670 (8.5%) were under treatment for depression and exempt from screening. Of remaining, HADS were recorded for 35537 (31.1%) patients. 7080 (19.9% of screened) had raised HADS (?8); majority had indications of mild depression with HADS between 8 and 10. Over 6 months, 572 (8%) of those with raised HADS (?8) were initiated on antidepressants, while 696 (2.4%) patients with normal HADS (<8) were also initiated on antidepressants (relative risk of antidepressant initiation with raised HADS 3.3 (CI 2.97-3.67), p value <0.0001). Of those with multimorbidity who were screened, 24.3% had raised HADS (?8). A raised HADS was more likely in females, socioeconomically deprived, multimorbid or younger (18-44) individuals. Females and 45-64 years old were more likely to receive antidepressants. Limitations retrospective study of routinely collected data. Conclusions Despite incentivisation, only a minority of patients underwent depression screening, suggesting that systematic depression screening in chronic disease can be difficult to achieve in routine practice. Targeting those at greatest risk such as the multimorbid or using simpler screening methods may be more effective. Raised HADS was associated with higher number of new antidepressant prescriptions which has significant resource implications. The clinical benefits of such screening remain uncertain and merits investigation.

Jani, Bhautesh Dinesh; Purves, David; Barry, Sarah; Cavanagh, Jonathan; McLean, Gary; Mair, Frances S.

2013-01-01

189

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--LIST OF AVAILABLE DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Maryland study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis and general laboratory procedures, (3) Data Analysis Proced...

190

Depressive Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) in school children and adolescents in Iran. The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 1,984 children and…

Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane

2013-01-01

191

Childhood depression: A 6-month follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the stability of depressive symptoms in 436 4th and 5th graders as measured by peer, self, and teacher ratings over a 6-mo period. The stability of the contemporaneous relationships between depression and certain variables (e.g., self-esteem, locus of control, and popularity) shown to be concomitants of depression were also examined. Tests administered included a modification of the Children's Depression

Edward P. Tesiny; Monroe M. Lefkowitz

1982-01-01

192

Coping behavior in depressed patients: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of coping behavior to outcome in depressed patients was examined. Subjects (n=105) with major depressive disorder (n=85), depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=7) or major depressive disorder with axis I comorbidity (n=13) were followed for 6 months. Their coping behavior (i.e. rumination, active distraction, cognitive distraction and dangerous activities) was defined using the Comprehensive Assessment List for Affective

Kumiko Yamada; Haruo Nagayama; Kounosuke Tsutiyama; Tosinori Kitamura; Toshiaki Furukawa

2003-01-01

193

Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP): study protocol and implementation challenges  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension affects 29% of the adult U.S. population and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite numerous effective treatments, only 53% of people with hypertension are at goal blood pressure. The chronic care model suggests that blood pressure control can be achieved by improving how patients and physicians address patient self-care. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol of a nested 2 × 2 randomized controlled trial to test the separate and combined effects on systolic blood pressure of a behavioral intervention for patients and a quality improvement-type intervention for physicians. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the physician intervention or to the physician control condition. Physician randomization occurred at the clinic level. The physician intervention included training and performance monitoring. The training comprised 2 internet-based modules detailing both the JNC-7 hypertension guidelines and lifestyle modifications for hypertension. Performance data were collected for 18 months, and feedback was provided to physicians every 3 months. Patient participants in both intervention and control clinics were individually randomized to the patient intervention or to usual care. The patient intervention consisted of a 6-month behavioral intervention conducted by trained interventionists in 20 group sessions, followed by 12 monthly phone contacts by community health advisors. Follow-up measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diastolic blood pressure and the proportion of patients with adequate blood pressure control at 6 and 18 months. Discussion Overall, 8 practices (4 per treatment group), 32 physicians (4 per practice; 16 per treatment group), and 574 patients (289 control and 285 intervention) were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of patients and providers and the challenges faced during study implementation are presented. The HIP interventions may improve blood pressure control and lower cardiovascular disease risk in a primary care practice setting by addressing key components of the chronic care model. The study design allows an assessment of the effectiveness and cost of physician and patient interventions separately, so that health care organizations can make informed decisions about implementation of 1 or both interventions in the context of local resources. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00201136

Dolor, Rowena J; Yancy, William S; Owen, William F; Matchar, David B; Samsa, Gregory P; Pollak, Kathryn I; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Ard, Jamy D; Prempeh, Maxwell; McGuire, Heather L; Batch, Bryan C; Fan, William; Svetkey, Laura P

2009-01-01

194

A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression.…

Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

2005-01-01

195

Rumination and executive function in depression: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Major depression is associated with cognitive deficits, particularly those requiring central executive functioning. Depressed patients also tend to focus on and think about their symptoms and problems (“ruminate”) more than non-depressed controls. Although an association has been found between rumination and impaired performance on a central executive processing task, the causal relation between impaired executive functioning and rumination has

E Watkins; R G Brown

2002-01-01

196

Online Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression: An Exploratory Study.  

PubMed

The fear and stigma associated with postpartum depression (PPD) is a major challenge in the treatment of this disease. Our goal is to develop innovative methods of screening women for the symptoms of PPD to facilitate referral and treatment. This study explores the efficacy of the Internet in reaching out to postpartum women in the convenience and privacy of their own homes, particularly those in rural and underserved areas. An exploratory study design was used to explore the feasibility and acceptability of online screening for PPD with postpartum women in the first 2-3 months after delivery (N = 18). In the first phase, a focus group was conducted with a small group of postpartum women; the second phase consisted of individual interviews of postpartum women in their homes; and in phase three, 10 women participated in the on-line screening intervention. PPD was measured using an online version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) a well-established instrument with reported alpha reliabilities (0.81-0.88) across studies and concurrent validity demonstrated using the gold standard, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for depression interview. Qualitative data collected from all the participants were also analyzed. The sample included women age 18-29; 70 % White/Caucasian, 50 % low income, and the majority living in rural areas. The EPDS scores ranged from 0 to 13 (mean 8.0; SD 4.76). Participants described the online PPD screening process as easy, straightforward and personalized and provided additional suggestions for improvement. PMID:23283485

Drake, Emily; Howard, Erica; Kinsey, Emily

2013-01-01

197

Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care.\\u000a However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the\\u000a halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored\\u000a in health services research. We describe a protocol to

Christian D Helfrich; Dean Blevins; Jeffrey L Smith; P Adam Kelly; Timothy P Hogan; Hildi Hagedorn; Patricia M Dubbert; Anne E Sales

2011-01-01

198

STUDY ON THE PROTOCOL OF E-COMMERCE FOR CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains small-sum payments should have a high priority is second-best solution to China's conditions where business services and management systems are comparatively immature. Moreover, it demonstrates that mobile payment is to be promising in the development of China's small-sum payment services. The conclusion is that the SET protocol does not fit China's situation, though it has been the

GAO Cong; KAN Kaili

199

Do treatment effects vary among differing baseline depression criteria in Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Study - 2 (DIADS-2)?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine if the effect of sertraline in the Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease Study – 2 (DIADS-2) differed in subgroups of patients defined by baseline depression criteria. METHODS DIADS-2 was a randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sertraline (target dose of 100mg/day) for the treatment of depression in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. DIADS-2 enrolled 131 patients who met criteria for depression of Alzheimer’s disease (dAD). Analyses reported here examined if the effect of sertraline differed in various subgroups, including those meeting criteria for major depressive episode (MaD), minor depressive episode (MiD) and Alzheimer’s-associated affective disorder (AAAD) at baseline. RESULTS At baseline, 52 of 131 participants (39.7%) met criteria for MaD, 54 (41.2%) for MiD and 90 (68.7%) for AAAD. For the primary outcome of modified Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) scores at 12 weeks of follow-up, the odds of being at or better than a given mADCS-CGIC category did not significantly differ between the two treatment groups for those patients with MaD at baseline (ORsertraline = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.82], p = 0.42); tests for interactions between treatment group and baseline depression diagnostic subgroup were not significant for MaD vs. MiD vs. neither (?2 = 1.05 (2df), p = 0.59) or AAAD vs. no AAAD (?2 = 0.06 (1df), p = 0.81). CONCLUSIONS There was no evidence that sertraline treatment was more efficacious in those patients meeting baseline criteria for MaD compared to MiD or to neither. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00086138

Drye, Lea T.; Martin, Barbara K.; Frangakis, Constantine E.; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Weintraub, Daniel; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2012-01-01

200

Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants). The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18) who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants) and at 4 month follow-up to see if improvements persist. Measures of treatment adherence, pain, disability, and anxiety and depression will be assessed throughout study participation. Qualitative interviews for mentors, mentored participants, and control subjects will also be administered. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01118988.

2011-01-01

201

Unipolar depression across cultures: A Delphi analysis of the methodological and conceptual issues confronting the cross-cultural study of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research is to investigate the epistemological and methodological discrepancies involved in the cross-cultural study of unipolar depression. These discrepancies include the methodological design and measurement of depression and culture, and the epistemological variation in researchers as to whether depression is a universal or socially constructed phenomenon. A Delphi procedure was utilised which enabled a group of

Melinda Redmond; Rosanna Rooney; Brian Bishop

2006-01-01

202

Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1) effective use of controller medications, 2) effective use of rescue medications and 3) monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1) the child's asthma control score, 2) the parent's quality of life score, and 3) the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications, having maintenance care visits at least twice a year, and an asthma action plan. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention was also measured. Discussion Twenty-two practices (66 physicians) were randomized (11 per treatment group), and 950 families with a child 3-12 years old with persistent asthma were enrolled. A description of the coaching intervention is presented. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00860834.

2012-01-01

203

Postpartum Depression, Marital Dysfunction, and Infant Outcome: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study explores the relationship of postpartum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on infant outcomes from birth to 2 1/2 years of age among middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were recruited during the prenatal period. Twelve mothers completed the study throughout a 2 1/2-year period. Questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and observations were used to collect data. Content analysis of the interviews (Morse & Field, 1995) was conducted and thematic patterns were identified. Clinical PPD and marital dysfunction (defined as little or no support or closeness, or verbal, emotional or physical abuse) characterized nearly one in three mothers. Four themes describing the women's postpartum progression were identified: stress, isolation, resentment, and eventual adjustment by creating a new normal. No major developmental delays or behavioral problems were found among the infants. Eight of the 12 mothers who were initially identified as breastfeeding nursed their infants for 6–18 months. Regardless of financial and educational advantages, mothers in the study experienced depression and marital dysfunction. These findings support other studies that confirm the lack of association of PPD with social class or marital status. Childbirth educators and other health care professionals are encouraged to continue providing expectant families with anticipatory education and community resources in order to increase awareness of mental health and marital risks during the postpartum transition.

Roux, Gayle; Anderson, Cheryl; Roan, Chris

2002-01-01

204

Obesity and Weight Gain in Relation to Depression: Findings from the Stirling County Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study concerns the question of whether obese subjects in a community sample experience depression in a different way from the non-obese, especially whether they over-eat to the point of gaining weight during periods of depression. Design A representative sample of adults was interviewed regarding depression and obesity. Subjects The sample consisted of 1396 subjects whose interviews were studied regarding relationships between obesity and depression and among whom 114 had experienced a Major Depressive Episode at some point in their lives and provided information about the symptoms experienced during the worst or only episode of Major Depression. Measurements The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was used to identify Major Depressive Episodes. Information was also derived from the section on Depression and Anxiety (DPAX) of the Stirling Study Schedule. Obesity was calculated as a Body Mass Index (BMI) >30. Logistic regressions were employed to assess relationships, controlling for age and gender, by means of Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals. Results In the sample as a whole, obesity was not related to depression although it was associated with the symptom of hopelessness. Among those who had ever experienced a Major Depressive Episode, obese persons were 5 times more likely than the non-obese to over-eat leading to weight gain during a period of depression (p <0.002). These obese subjects, compared to the non-obese, also experienced longer episodes of depression, a larger number of episodes, and were more preoccupied with death during such episodes. Conclusions Depression among obese subjects in a community sample tends to be more severe than among the non-obese. Gaining weight while depressed is an important marker of that severity. Further research is needed to understand and possibly prevent the associations, sequences, and outcomes among depression, obesity, weight gain, and other adversities.

Murphy, Jane M.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Burke, Jack D.; Monson, Richard R.; Laird, Nan M.; Lesage, Alain; Sobol, Arthur M.

2008-01-01

205

Changes in Depression Following Gastric Banding: A 5- to 7-year Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Long-term outcomes of gastric banding regarding depression and predictors of change in depression are still unclear. This\\u000a prospective, controlled study investigated depression and self-acceptance in morbidly obese patients before and after gastric\\u000a banding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 248 morbidly obese patients (mean body mass index [BMI]?=?46.4, SD?=?6.9) seeking gastric banding completed questionnaires\\u000a for symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and self-acceptance.

Marion Schowalter; Andrea Benecke; Caroline Lager; Johannes Heimbucher; Marco Bueter; Andreas Thalheimer; Martin Fein; Matthias Richard; Hermann Faller

2008-01-01

206

A Longitudinal Study of the Relation Between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study examined whether mothers’ depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6 years old. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were also related to increases in overreactivity across the preschool years. Moreover, depression and parenting practices (overreactivity and laxness) covaried over time within mothers. These results provide evidence of a strong link between maternal depression and parenting during the preschool years.

Errazuriz, Paula A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

2011-01-01

207

Promotoras Across the Border: A Pilot Study Addressing Depression in Mexican Women Impacted by Migration.  

PubMed

The migration of working-aged men from Mexico to the United States fractures the family-centered support structures typical of Latin America and contributes to high levels of depression in women left behind in migratory sending communities in Mexico. Mujeres en Solidaridad Apoyandose (MESA) was developed to improve depression in women through social support in a resource poor setting. MESA is a promotora intervention that trains women in the community to lead social support groups over a five-week period. The MESA curriculum uses a combination of cognitive behavioral theory techniques, psychoeducation, and social support activities aimed at alleviating or preventing depression in women. Results from this pilot efficacy study (n = 39) show that depressed participants at baseline experienced declines in depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at follow-up. Other findings demonstrate the complexity behind addressing social support and depression for women impacted by migration in different ways. PMID:23440449

Edelblute, Heather B; Clark, Sandra; Mann, Lilli; McKenney, Kathryn M; Bischof, Jason J; Kistler, Christine

2013-02-26

208

The Effects of Developing a Dual Sensory Loss on Depression in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Determine the effect of developing a dual sensory loss (DSL) on depression over time and evaluate the impact of pre-existing single sensory loss on this effect. Methods Multilevel modeling was used to analyze data (N=2689) from the Health and Retirement Study. Results A significant increase in depression at the first report of DSL occurred, and depression increased at a significantly faster rate following DSL, in a curvilinear pattern. In addition, persons who eventually developed DSL began the study with a depression score significantly higher than persons who did not experience sensory loss. A pre-existing single sensory loss did not alter the effect of DSL on depression. Discussion Two sources of disparity in depression between persons with and without DSL were identified: pre-existing differences and differences that occur due to the DSL. The relationship exhibited between depression and developing a DSL is indicative of an adjustment process.

McDonnall, Michele Capella

2009-01-01

209

Incidence of depression and anxiety: the Stirling County Study.  

PubMed

Prevalence studies in psychiatric epidemiology out-number incidence investigations by a wide margin. This report gives descriptive information about the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in a general population. Using data gathered in a 16-year follow-up of an adult sample selected as part of the Stirling County Study (Canada), the incidence of these types of disorders was found to be approximately nine cases per 1,000 persons per year. The data suggest that for every man who became ill for the first time with one of these disorders, three women became ill. Incidence tended to be higher among relatively young persons. These incidence rates are consistent with prevalence rates of approximately 10 per cent to 15 per cent for depression and anxiety disorders aggregated together, given an estimated average duration of illness of about 10 years. It is concluded that these incidence rates are fairly realistic in view of evidence that disorders of these types tend to be chronic. PMID:3258479

Murphy, J M; Olivier, D C; Monson, R R; Sobol, A M; Leighton, A H

1988-05-01

210

Incidence of depression and anxiety: the Stirling County Study.  

PubMed Central

Prevalence studies in psychiatric epidemiology out-number incidence investigations by a wide margin. This report gives descriptive information about the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in a general population. Using data gathered in a 16-year follow-up of an adult sample selected as part of the Stirling County Study (Canada), the incidence of these types of disorders was found to be approximately nine cases per 1,000 persons per year. The data suggest that for every man who became ill for the first time with one of these disorders, three women became ill. Incidence tended to be higher among relatively young persons. These incidence rates are consistent with prevalence rates of approximately 10 per cent to 15 per cent for depression and anxiety disorders aggregated together, given an estimated average duration of illness of about 10 years. It is concluded that these incidence rates are fairly realistic in view of evidence that disorders of these types tend to be chronic.

Murphy, J M; Olivier, D C; Monson, R R; Sobol, A M; Leighton, A H

1988-01-01

211

Depression and Inflammation in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and inflammation independently predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Depression has been associated with elevated levels of inflammation in otherwise healthy patients without known CHD. However, studies investigating the link between depression and inflammation in patients with established CHD have produced inconclusive results. Methods We sought to examine the association of major depression with inflammation in 984 outpatients with established CHD from the Heart and Soul Study. We assessed current major depression with the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule and collected venous blood samples for measurement of five inflammatory biomarkers (white blood cell count, CD40 ligand, C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, and interleukin-6 [IL-6]). We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine the association of current depression with inflammatory markers, adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results Of the 984 participants, 217 (22%) had current major depression. Depression was not associated with increased levels of any inflammatory marker. Contrary to our hypothesis, depression was associated with lower levels of CRP (p = .09), fibrinogen (p = .006), and IL-6 (p = .007) in both unadjusted and adjusted models. Conclusions We found no evidence that current depression is associated with greater inflammation in outpatients with CHD. Inflammation is unlikely to explain the adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with depression in patients with established CHD.

Whooley, Mary A.; Caska, Catherine M.; Hendrickson, Bethany E.; Rourke, Meghan A.; Ho, Joseph; Ali, Sadia

2009-01-01

212

Associations between unemployment and major depressive disorder: evidence from an international, prospective study (the predict cohort).  

PubMed

Unemployment is known to be associated with poor mental health, but it is not clear how strongly unemployment leads to onset of diagnosed clinical depression (causation), or if depression raises the risks of becoming unemployed (health selection), or indeed if both pathways operate. We therefore investigate the direction of associations between clinical depression and unemployment in a cross-cultural prospective cohort study. 10,059 consecutive general practice attendees (18-75 years) were recruited from six European countries and Chile between 2003 and 2004 and followed up at six, 12 and (in a subset) 24 months. The analysis sample was restricted to 3969 men and women who were employed or unemployed and seeking employment and had data on depression measures. The outcomes were depressive episodes, assessed using the Depression Section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and self-reported employment status. Among 3969 men and women with complete data on depression and unemployment, 10% (n = 393) had depression symptoms and a further 6% (n = 221) had major depression at 12 months. 11% (n = 423) of the sample were unemployed by 6 months. Participants who became unemployed between baseline and 6 months compared to those employed at both times had an adjusted relative risk ratio for 12-month depression of 1.58 (95% Confidence Interval 0.76, 3.27). Participants with depression at baseline and 6 months compared to neither time had an odds ratio for 6-month unemployment of 1.58 (95% Confidence Interval 0.97, 2.58). We found evidence that causation and (to a lesser extent) health selection raise the prevalence of depression in the unemployed. Unemployed adults are at particular risk for onset of major clinical depression and should be offered extra services or screened. Given the trend for adults with depression to perhaps be at greater risk of subsequent unemployment, employees with depressive symptoms should also be supported at work as a precautionary principle. PMID:22019370

Jefferis, Barbara J; Nazareth, Irwin; Marston, Louise; Moreno-Kustner, Berta; Bellón, Juan Ángel; Svab, Igor; Rotar, Danica; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Xavier, Miguel; Goncalves-Pereira, Manuel; Vicente, Benjamin; Saldivia, Sandra; Aluoja, Anu; Kalda, Ruth; King, Michael

2011-10-10

213

A population-based association study of candidate genes for depression and sleep disturbance.  

PubMed

The clinical manifestation of depression comprises a variety of symptoms, including early morning awakenings and fatigue, features also indicating disturbed sleep. The presence or absence of these symptoms may reflect differences in neurobiological processes leading to prolonged depression. Several neurobiological mechanisms have been indicated in the induction of depression, including disturbances in serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission and in the action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The same transmitters have also been linked to sleep regulation. We hypothesized that depression without simultaneous symptoms of disturbed sleep would partly have a different genetic background than depression with symptoms of disturbed sleep. We tested this hypothesis using a systematic population-based association study of 14 candidate genes related to depression and disturbed sleep. Association of genetic variants with either depression alone, depression with early morning awakenings, or depression with fatigue was investigated using permutation-based allelic association analysis of a sample of 1,654 adults recruited from Finland's population-based program. The major findings were associations of TPH2 (rs12229394) with depression accompanied by fatigue in women and CREB1 (rs11904814) with depression alone in men. We also found suggestive associations in women for GAD1, GRIA3, and BDNF with depression accompanied by fatigue, and for CRHR1 with depression accompanied by early morning awakenings. The results indicate sex-dependent and symptom-specific differences in the genetic background of depression. These differences may partially explain the broad spectrum of depressive symptoms, and their systematic monitoring could potentially be used for diagnostic purposes. PMID:19548263

Utge, Siddheshwar; Soronen, Pia; Partonen, Timo; Loukola, Anu; Kronholm, Erkki; Pirkola, Sami; Nyman, Emma; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina

2010-03-01

214

Content and Cross Validity of the Todai Health Index Depression Scale In Relation to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Content and Cross Validity of the Todai Health Index Depression Scale in Relation to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and,the Zung Self-rating Depression ,Scale: Tomoyuki KAWADA, et al. Department of Public Health, Gunma University School of Medicine—The validity of the Todai Health Index (THI) depression scale was tested with outpatient data by comparing with a clinical diagnosis

Tomoyuki KAWADA; Shosuke SUZUKI; Fumio KUBOTA; Naoki OHNISHI; KOUJI SATOH

1999-01-01

215

Maternal depression and filicide-case study of ten mothers.  

PubMed

This study describes ten cases of filicides committed by mothers who intentionally killed one or more of their children within 12 months after delivery. The data were collected from police and court records, forensic psychiatric records, autopsy reports, and other medical records. The mean age of the mothers was 28.5 years and of the victims 4 months. The symptoms of depression were clear: an irritable, severely depressed mood with crying spells, insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, preoccupation with worries about the baby's well-being and the mother's caring abilities, suicidal ideation, or even psychotic thoughts. Most mothers had had house calls from the public health nurse or psychologist. The mothers' conditions deteriorated rapidly, and the filicide was committed when the mother was left alone with the baby against her will. The babies were well taken care of, not neglected or abused. The majority of the mothers had felt that their own parents, especially their mothers, were very demanding, rejecting, and emotionally unsupportive. All the mothers had also had traumatic experiences in their childhood or in adulthood. PMID:18587626

Kauppi, Anne; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Vanamo, Tuija; Merikanto, Juhani; Karkola, Kari

2008-06-28

216

Prospective Study of Restless Legs Syndrome and Risk of Depression in Women  

PubMed Central

Most research on the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression has involved cross-sectional data. The objective of the present study was to evaluate this issue prospectively among Nurses' Health Study participants. A total of 56,399 women (mean age = 68 years) who were free of depression symptoms at baseline (2002) were followed until 2008. Physician-diagnosed RLS was self-reported. During 300,155 person-years of follow-up, the authors identified 1,268 incident cases of clinical depression (regular use of antidepressant medication and physician-diagnosed depression). Women with RLS at baseline were more likely to develop clinical depression (multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.1; P = 0.02) than those without RLS. The presence of RLS at baseline was also associated with higher scores on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) thereafter. Multivariable-adjusted mean differences were 1.00 (standard error, 0.12) for CESD-10 score and 0.47 (standard error, 0.07) for GDS-15 score between women with RLS and those without RLS (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, women with physician-diagnosed RLS had an increased risk of developing clinical depression and clinically relevant depression symptoms. Further prospective studies using refined approaches to ascertainment of RLS and depression are warranted.

Li, Yanping; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Eilis J.; Winkelman, John; Malhotra, Atul; Okereke, Olivia Ifeoma; Ascherio, Alberto; Gao, Xiang

2012-01-01

217

Obesity and Depression Symptoms in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study Population  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and obesity are both important public health problems. However, it is not clear whether obesity contributes to depression. Our study aims to evaluate the association between obesity and possible depression. Methods During the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS) examination, participants’ body weight and height were measured with a Detecto 758C digital scale with height bar, and depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Other relevant information (such as demographic factors, lifestyle factors, comorbidities and use of anti-depressants) was also collected during the examination. There were 2641 participants included in the analyses. Results Obesity was associated with possible depression measured by CES-D scale (OR =1.6, 95% CI: 1.3–2.0) after controlling for age and gender. The association remained similar after further adjustments. Obesity was significantly associated with all four domains measured by CES-D scale after controlling for age and sex, with the largest effect on “Somatic complaints” domain (beta 0.15, 95% CI: 0.0836–0.223). The association with “Interpersonal difficulties” was not significant after further adjustments. Conclusions Obesity was associated with a higher risk of possible depression, and had different influences on specific domains of depression symptoms measured by CES-D scale. These findings suggest the need for longitudinal studies on the effects of obesity on specific depression symptoms.

Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Nieto, F. Javier; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald

2010-01-01

218

Study protocol of the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) etiology study  

PubMed Central

Background People in Appalachia experience some of the worst oral health in the United States. To develop effective intervention and prevention strategies in Appalachia, we must understand the complex relationships among the contributing factors and how they affect the etiology of oral diseases. To date, no such comprehensive analysis has been conducted. This report summarizes the characteristics of the sample and describes the protocol of a study determining contributions of individual, family, and community factors to oral diseases in Appalachian children and their relatives. Methods/Design Families participated in a comprehensive assessment protocol involving interviews, questionnaires, a clinical oral health assessment, a microbiological assessment, and collection of DNA. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Conclusion Due to its multilevel design and large, family-based sample, this study has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of factors that contribute to oral health in Appalachian children.

Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard J; McNeil, Daniel W; Tarter, Ralph E; Thomas, John G; Marazita, Mary L

2008-01-01

219

Prodromes of depression and anxiety. The Stirling County study.  

PubMed

A longitudinal investigation of psychiatric epidemiology in a general population (the Stirling County study) has indicated that the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders is low relative to prevalence, because these disorders have long durations. In an average year approximately nine adults among 1,000 experience a first-ever episode of one of these disorders. Incident cases over the course of a 16-year follow-up were more likely to have had premonitory symptoms than to have been asymptomatic at the beginning of the study. Among the relatively small number of people who exhibited the clearest prodromal manifestations, incidence was 20 per 1,000 annually. It might be possible to intervene before such disorders become fully formed and persistent if the precursors are given attention. PMID:2611572

Murphy, J M; Sobol, A M; Olivier, D C; Monson, R R; Leighton, A H; Pratt, L A

1989-10-01

220

Prevalence of postpartum depression in Nuuk, Greenland - a cross-sectional study using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of postnatal depression in Nuuk, Greenland. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods The primary health care system in Nuuk initiated a project aiming to screen new mothers for depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). EPDS has a range on a scale from 0 to 30. All mothers residing in Nuuk who had given birth in 2011 were included in the study group. The screening was performed by health care visitors approximately 3 months following birth. Mothers who scored 13 points or above were defined as having possible postpartum depression (PPD). These mothers were then referred to a physician. A score at or less than 8 was defined as normal, whereas an intermediate score from 9 to 12 indicated a need for an extra visit. Results During 2011, a total of 217 mothers gave birth in Nuuk. Of them, 80.2% (174) were screened for PPD using EPDS. Fifteen mothers scored 13 points or above corresponding to a prevalence of possible PPD at 8.6% (15/174). Seventy-nine percentage scored less than 9 points (137/174), whereas 15% (22/174) scored from 9 to 12 points. Conclusion PPD seems to be a common problem in Nuuk, Greenland. EPDS seems to be a valuable tool in identifying women with PPD and vulnerable mothers with extra needs for support in a Greenlandic context. Continual routine screening is recommended.

Motzfeldt, Iben; Andreasen, Sabina; Pedersen, Amalia Lynge; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

2013-01-01

221

Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

2005-01-01

222

Website Experience Analysis: A New Research Protocol for Studying Relationship Building on Corporate Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new research protocol for studying organization-public relationship building on organizational websites. The research protocol, Website Experience Analysis (WEA), and the experience-centered perspective it has emerged from are explained. Data from a study grounded in the experience-centered perspective is presented to illustrate this novel approach to the study of online relationship building. Nine corporate websites were examined

Mihaela Vorvoreanu

2008-01-01

223

Beyond normality in the study of bereavement: heterogeneity in depression outcomes following loss in older adults.  

PubMed

Studies of individual differences in bereavement have revealed prototypical patterns of outcome. However, many of these studies were conducted prior to the advent of sophisticated contemporary data analytic techniques. For example, Bonanno et al. (2002) used rudimentary categorization procedures to identify unique trajectories of depression symptomatology from approximately 3 years prior to 4 years following conjugal loss in a representative sample of older American adults. In the current study, we revisited these same data using Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) to derive trajectories and test predictors. LCGA is a technique well-suited for modeling empirically- and conceptually-derived heterogeneous longitudinal patterns while simultaneously modeling predictors of those longitudinal patterns. We uncovered four discrete trajectories similar in shape and proportion to the previous analyses: Resilience (characterized by little or no depression; 66.3%), Chronic Grief (characterized by depression following loss, alleviated by 4 years post-loss; 9.1%), _Pre-existing Chronic Depression (ongoing high pre- through post-loss depression; 14.5%), and Depressed-Improved (characterized by high pre-loss depression that decreases following loss; 10.1%). Using this analytic strategy, we were able to examine multiple hypotheses about bereavement simultaneously. Health, financial stress, and emotional stability emerged as strong predictors of variability in depression only for some trajectories, indicating that depression levels do not have a common etiology across all the bereaved. As such, we find that identifying distinct patterns informs both the course and etiology of depression in response to bereavement. PMID:22472274

Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bonanno, George A

2012-03-20

224

Longitudinal study of depressive symptoms and social support in adolescent mothers.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that adolescent mothers with higher social support have lower depressive symptoms. This is a longitudinal study of adolescent mothers to examine the association of social support and depressive symptoms over one year postpartum. This was a prospective study of adolescent mothers (N at baseline = 120, N at 1 year = 89; age < 19 years) enrolled in a teen tot program. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for children (CES-DC) and the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire at baseline, 12 weeks, and 1 year. A score of ? 16 on the CES-DC was suggestive of major depression. The mean CES-DC scores of the adolescent mothers were ? 16 points at all three time points (baseline: mean = 18.7 ± 10.3; 53% ? 16; 12 weeks: mean = 18.4 ± 11.4, 57% ? 16; one year: mean = 20.0 ± 11.4; 57% ? 16). Social support had a significant, inverse association with depressive symptoms for all participants from baseline to 12 weeks with a stronger association for those with more depressive symptoms (score ? 16) at baseline (beta = -0.030 ± 0.007; P < 0.001) than for those with fewer depressive symptoms (score < 16) at baseline (beta = -0.013 ± 0.006; P = 0.021). From 12 weeks to one year, increased social support was only significantly associated with decreased depressive symptoms for those with a higher baseline level of depressive symptoms (beta = - 0.039 ± 0.009; P < 0.001). Depressive symptoms were prevalent among adolescent mothers. For more depressed adolescent mothers, higher levels of social support were associated with less depressive symptoms over the 1 year follow-up. Effective long-term interventions are needed to lessen depression and enhance social support. PMID:21556696

Brown, Joanna D; Harris, Sion Kim; Woods, Elizabeth R; Buman, Matthew P; Cox, Joanne E

2012-05-01

225

Children of Depressed Mothers 1 Year After Remission of Maternal Depression: Findings From the StAR*D-Child Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Maternal major depressive disorder is an established risk factor for child psychopathology. The authors previously reported that 1 year after initiation of treatment for maternal depression, children of mothers whose depression remitted had significantly improved functioning and psychiatric symptoms. This study extends these findings by examining changes in psychiatric symptoms, behavioral problems, and functioning among children of depressed mothers during the first year after the mothers' remission from depression. Method Children were assessed at baseline and at 3-month intervals with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale for 1 year after their mothers' remission or for 2 years if the mothers did not remit. The authors compared children of early remitters (0–3 months; N=36), late remitters (3–12 months; N=28), and nonremitters (N=16). Results During the postremission year, children of early-remitting mothers showed significant improvement on all outcomes. Externalizing behavioral problems decreased in children of early- and late-remitting mothers but increased in children of nonremitting mothers. Psychiatric symptoms decreased significantly only in children of mothers who remitted, and functioning improved only in children of early-remitting mothers. Conclusions Remission of mothers' depression, regardless of its timing, appears to be related to decreases in problem behaviors and symptoms in their children over the year after remission. The favorable effect of mothers' remission on children's functioning was observed only in children of early-remitting mothers.

Wickramaratne, Priya; Gameroff, Marc J.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; King, Cheryl; Cerda, Gabrielle; Sood, A. Bela; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, A. John; Wisniewski, Stephen; Weissman, Myrna M.

2012-01-01

226

Counselling of postnatal depression: A controlled study on a population based Swedish sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a two-stage screening procedure, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 8 and 12 weeks postpartum and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and DSM-III-R at about 13 weeks postpartum, 41 women identified as depressed were randomly allocated to a study and a control group. The women in the study group received 6 weekly, counselling visits by the

Birgitta Wickberg; C. Philip Hwang

1996-01-01

227

A pilot study of group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in substance-abusing female prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high rates of depression among substance-abusing female prisoners, no study has tested the efficacy of treatment for this underserved population with complex treatment needs to date. This feasibility study tested group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression adapted for women in prison substance use treatment programs. Twenty-six female prisoners with current diagnoses of major depression and\\/or dysthymic disorder plus at

Jennifer E. Johnson; Caron Zlotnick

2008-01-01

228

Prevalence and characteristics of Postpartum Depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aims to look at the prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology (PPDS) among Canadian\\u000a women. Studies have found that in developed countries, 10-15% of new mothers were affected by major postpartum depression.\\u000a Mothers who suffer from postpartum depression may endure difficulties regarding their ability to cope with life events, as\\u000a well as negative clinical implications for maternal-infant

Andrea Lanes; Jennifer L Kuk; Hala Tamim

2011-01-01

229

Depressive symptoms and C-reactive protein: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We tested the hypothesis that depressive symptoms in healthy young adults would be associated with elevated levels of C-reactive proteins (CRP). Method. We studied the association between depressive symptoms and CRP in 1201 young adults, as a part of the on-going population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Depressive symptoms were determined by responses to a revised version of

MARKO ELOVAINIO; LIISA KELTIKANGAS-JÄRVINEN; LAURA PULKKI-RÅBACK; MIKA KIVIMÄKI; SAMPSA PUTTONEN; LIISA VIIKARI; LEENA RÄSÄNEN; KRISTIINA MANSIKKANIEMI; JORMA VIIKARI; OLLI T RAITAKARI

2006-01-01

230

A phase II study of methylphenidate for depression in advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the use of methylphenidate for depression in advanced cancer.Design:Phase II open-label prospective study.Eligibility criteria:No previous use of methylphenidate or current use of other antidepressants.Evaluation:Depression and response to treatment were determined by asking the patient: “are you depressed?” Patients were assessed at baseline and at days 3, 5, and 7.Treatment:Starting dose was 5 mg at 8:00 a.m. and

Jade Homsi; Kristine A. Nelson; Nabeel Sarhill; Lisa Rybicki; Susan B. LeGrand; Mellar P. Davis; Declan Walsh

2001-01-01

231

Physical activity and depressive symptoms among pregnant women: the PIN3 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal depression confers health risks for both mother and family. Physical activity may promote better mental health; however,\\u000a few studies have examined the influence of physical activity on prenatal depression. Data from 1,220 women enrolled in the\\u000a third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001–2005) were used to examine the associations between overall and domain-specific\\u000a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive

Zewditu Demissie; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Kelly R. Evenson; Amy H. Herring; Nancy Dole; Bradley N. Gaynes

2011-01-01

232

Evening salivary alpha-amylase, major depressive disorder, and antidepressant use in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).  

PubMed

Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) may be a suitable index for sympathetic activity and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The relationship between antidepressants and depression with sAA levels was studied, since antidepressants were previously shown to have a profound impact on heart rate variability as an ANS indicator. Data are from 1692 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) who were recruited from the community, general practice, and specialized mental health care. Differences in evening sAA levels were examined between patient groups (i.e., 752 current major depressive disorder [MDD], 611 remitted MDD, and 329 healthy controls) and between 46 tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users, 307 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) users, 97 users of another antidepressant, and 1242 non-users. Each participant sampled twice at 22.00h and 23.00h. In multivariable analysis, there was a trend over the three groups with increasing sAA levels from controls to remitted MDD to current MDD that approached significance. Furthermore, in comparison to non-users of antidepressants, TCA rather than SSRI users showed higher sAA levels, that persisted after multivariable adjustment. The present study shows that higher evening sAA levels in depressed patients, indicative of an increased sympathetic activity, may be induced by TCAs. PMID:23587658

Veen, Gerthe; Giltay, Erik J; Licht, Carmilla M M; Vreeburg, Sophie A; Cobbaert, Christa M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

2013-04-12

233

Potential link between caffeine consumption and pediatric depression: A case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Early-onset depressive disorders can have severe consequences both from developmental and functional aspects. The etiology of depressive disorders is complex and multi-factorial, with an intricate interaction among environmental factors and genetic predisposition. While data from studies on adults suggest that caffeine is fairly safe, effects of caffeine in children, who are in period of rapid brain development, are currently unknown. Furthermore, systematic research addressing the relationship between depressive symptoms in children and caffeine consumption is lacking. The present study examined the effects of caffeine consumption on depressed mood in children with depression and non-depressed participants. Methods Children and adolescents (n = 51) already enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal study, aged 9-12 years, were assessed for depressive symptoms with the Children Depressive Inventory (CDI). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed with the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) and eating habits were assessed with the Nutrition-Behavior Inventory (NBI) [1]. The children were compared to control children without psychopathology attending public schools in a Southern Brazilian city. Results Participants with CDI scores ? 15 (mean = 19; S.D. = 4) also had high NBI scores (mean = 52; S.D. = 19, p < 0.001) suggestive of a relationship between depressive symptoms and environmental factors, in this case nutrition/behavior. Additional linear regression adjusted statistical analysis, considering the factors of consumption of sweets and caffeine individually, showed that caffeine, but not sweets, was associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions These findings indicate that depressed children consume more caffeinated drinks than non-depressed children. Nonetheless while a strong association between depressive symptoms and caffeine consumption among children was found, further research should investigate whether or not this association is due to a cause and effect relationship.

2011-01-01

234

Longitudinal Course of Depression Scores with and without Insomnia in Non-Depressed Individuals: A 6-Year Follow-Up Longitudinal Study in a Korean Cohort  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: This is a population-based longitudinal study that followed insomnia symptoms over a 6-year period in non-depressed individuals. The purpose of the study was to (1) investigate the longitudinal course of depression based on number of insomnia episodes; and (2) describe longitudinal associations between insomnia and depression, and insomnia and suicidal ideation. Design: Population-based longitudinal study. Setting: Community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Participants: 1,282 non-depressed individuals (44% male, mean age 52.3 ± 7.14 years) Measurements and Results: This study prospectively assessed insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation with 4 time points. Individuals were classified into no insomnia (NI), single episode insomnia (SEI), and persistent insomnia (PI; ? insomnia at 2+ time points) groups based on number of times insomnia was indicated. Mixed effects modeling indicated that depression scores increased significantly faster in the PI group compared to the NI (P < 0.001) and SEI (P = 0.02) groups. Additionally, the PI group had significantly increased odds of depression as compared to NI or SEI (OR 2.44, P = 0.001) groups, with 18.7% meeting criteria for depression compared to the NI (5.3%) and SEI (11.6%) groups at end point. The PI group also had significantly increased odds of suicidal ideation as compared to NI or SEI (OR 1.86, P = 0.002) groups. Conclusions: Persistent insomnia significantly increases the rate in which depression occurs over time in non-depressed individuals, which ultimately leads to higher risk for depression. Additionally, having persistent insomnia also increased the risk of suicidal ideation. Citation: Suh S; Kim H; Yang HC; Cho ER; Lee SK; Shin C. Longitudinal course of depression scores with and without insomnia in non-depressed individuals: a 6-year follow-up longitudinal study in a Korean cohort. SLEEP 2013;36(3):369-376.

Suh, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyun; Yang, Hae-Chung; Cho, Eo Rin; Lee, Seung Ku; Shin, Chol

2013-01-01

235

Studies on a depressed egg production syndrome in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A syndrome causing depressed egg production is described. It is characterised either by a failure to attain predicted production targets or by a fall in egg numbers. The depression in production can reach 30% and it may or may not return to normal. For a short period the eggs produced are smaller, lose colour, have poor egg shell strength and

J. B. McFerran; R. M. McCracken; Eileen R. McKillop; M. S. McNulty; D. S. Collins

1978-01-01

236

Studying chaotic microwave oscillations in a TWO with depressed collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband chaotic oscillations were monitored in a depressed potential collector of a traveling-wave oscillator (TWO). This signal appears due to the oscillations of a virtual cathode, which is formed in the spent electron beam under the action of retarding fields existing in the multistage depressed collector.

Kalinin, Yu. A.; Mushtakov, A. V.; Hramov, A. E.

2007-08-01

237

Adaptive Inferential Feedback Partner Training for Depression: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive inferential feedback (AIF) partner training is a cognitive technique that teaches the friends and family members of depressed patients to respond to the patients' dysfunctional thoughts in a targeted manner. These dysfunctional attributions, which AIF addresses, are a common residual feature of depression amongst remitted patients, and…

Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Allen, Lesley A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Menza, Matthew; Gara, Michael A.; Panzarella, Catherine

2007-01-01

238

Sleep and depression — results from psychobiological studies: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances of sleep are typical for most depressed patients and belong to the core symptoms of the disorder. Polysomnographic sleep research has demonstrated that besides disturbances of sleep continuity, in depression sleep is characterized by a reduction of slow wave sleep and a disinhibition of REM sleep, with a shortening of REM latency, a prolongation of the first REM period

Dieter Riemann; Mathias Berger; Ulrich Voderholzer

2001-01-01

239

Effect of sunlight exposure on cognitive function among depressed and non-depressed participants: a REGARDS cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Possible physiological causes for the effect of sunlight on mood are through the suprachiasmatic nuclei and evidenced by serotonin and melatonin regulation and its associations with depression. Cognitive function involved in these same pathways may potentially be affected by sunlight exposure. We evaluated whether the amount of sunlight exposure (i.e. insolation) affects cognitive function and examined the effect of season on this relationship. Methods We obtained insolation data for residential regions of 16,800 participants from a national cohort study of blacks and whites, aged 45+. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a validated six-item screener questionnaire and depression status was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression was used to find whether same-day or two-week average sunlight exposure was related to cognitive function and whether this relationship differed by depression status. Results Among depressed participants, a dose-response relationship was found between sunlight exposure and cognitive function, with lower levels of sunlight associated with impaired cognitive status (odds ratio = 2.58; 95% CI 1.43–6.69). While both season and sunlight were correlated with cognitive function, a significant relation remained between each of them and cognitive impairment after controlling for their joint effects. Conclusion The study found an association between decreased exposure to sunlight and increased probability of cognitive impairment using a novel data source. We are the first to examine the effects of two-week exposure to sunlight on cognition, as well as the first to look at sunlight's effects on cognition in a large cohort study.

2009-01-01

240

Interpersonal Theory and Adolescents with Depression: Clinical Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides mental health counselors with information about the prevalence and course of adolescent depression, other empirically tested treatments for adolescent depression, an explanation of Interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A) treatment protocol, and results of outcome studies on the effectiveness of IPT-A. Suggestions…

Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Beamish, Patricia M.

2002-01-01

241

Thought suppression and treatment outcome in late-life depression.  

PubMed

This study examined severity of depression, age of onset, and thought suppression as predictors of treatment outcome. Measures were taken pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at six-month follow-up in 34 depressed older adults receiving the treatment protocol described in Lynch, Morse, Mendelson & Robins (Dialectical behavior therapy for depressed older adults, American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 33-45, 2003). Severity and chronicity of depression and higher levels of thought suppression were associated with higher depressive symptoms six months after treatment. Findings are consistent with research suggesting that severity and chronicity of depression predict poor clinical outcome. In addition, these results provide preliminary evidence that the tendency to cope with unwanted thoughts by deliberate attempts to not experience such thoughts may be an important pre-treatment predictor of outcome among depressed older adults. Larger studies are needed to explore whether thought suppression mediates long-term recovery from depression. PMID:15841830

Rosenthal, M Z; Cheavens, J S; Compton, J S; Thorp, S R; Lynch, T R

2005-01-01

242

Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities), and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities). Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and different aspects of job satisfaction: satisfaction with leadership, which should be highly correlated with readiness, versus satisfaction with salary, which should be less correlated with readiness. Content validity will be assessed using an expert panel and modified Delphi technique. Discussion We propose a comprehensive protocol for validating a survey instrument for assessing organizational readiness to change that specifically addresses key threats of bias related to halo effect, method bias and questions of construct validity that often go unexplored in research using measures of organizational constructs.

2011-01-01

243

Observational studies of depression in primary care: what do we know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We undertook a systematic review of observational studies of depression in primary care to determine 1) the nature and scope of the published studies 2) the methodological quality of the studies; 3) the identified recovery and risk factors for persistent depression and 3) the treatment and health service use patterns among patients. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL

Gail Gilchrist; Jane Gunn

2007-01-01

244

Psychological treatment of depression: A meta-analytic database of randomized studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A large number of randomized controlled studies have clearly demonstrated that psychological interventions are effective in the treatment of depression. The number of studies in this area is increasing rapidly. In this paper, we present a database of controlled and comparative outcome studies on psychological treatments of depression, based on a series of meta-analyses published by our group. The

Pim Cuijpers; Annemieke van Straten; Lisanne Warmerdam; Gerhard Andersson

2008-01-01

245

Reliability Generalization of Responses by Care Providers to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale is among the most commonly used measures of depressive symptomatology. Despite this, a paucity of research has been undertaken to examine the psychometric properties of responses to this scale. This meta-analytic study examined previously published studies of caregiving to identify…

O'Rourke, Norm

2004-01-01

246

Listening to mothers: qualitative studies on motherhood and depression from Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little qualitative research on depression in motherhood from non-Western societies. The objective of the study described in this paper was to use qualitative methods to investigate the cultural validity of the construct of post-natal depression (PND) and its social and cultural contexts. The study was nested in a cohort of mothers recruited to study the risk factors and

Merlyn Rodrigues; Vikram Patel; Surinder Jaswal; Nandita de Souza

2003-01-01

247

Insomnia and Depressive Symptoms in Late Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based questionnaire study of 2,816 women was conducted in week 32 of pregnancy to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for insomnia and depressive symptoms. The Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS) measured insomnia. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) measured depressive symptoms. The prevalence of insomnia (DSM-IV-TR criteria) was 61.9%, and mean BIS score 17.5 (SD = 10.5), significantly

Malin Eberhard-Gran

2012-01-01

248

Insomnia and depressive symptoms in late pregnancy - a population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population based questionnaire study of 2816 women was conducted in week 32 of pregnancy to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for insomnia and depressive symptoms. The Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS) measured insomnia. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) measured depressive symptoms. The prevalence of insomnia (DSM-IV-TR criteria) was 61.9%, and mean BIS score 17.5 (SD 10.5), significantly

Malin Eberhard-Gran

2012-01-01

249

Similarity in depressive symptom profile in a population-based study of migrants in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Depression is a clinical syndrome developed in Western Europe and North-America. The expression of symptoms and the impact\\u000a of symptoms on functioning may therefore be expected to vary across cultures and languages. Our first aim was to study differences\\u000a in depressive symptom profile between indigenous and non-Western immigrant populations in the Netherlands. We hypothesized\\u000a that differences in expression of depressive

Agnes C. Schrier; Matty A. S. de Wit; Frank Rijmen; Wilco C. Tuinebreijer; Arnoud P. Verhoeff; Ralph W. Kupka; Jack Dekker; Aartjan T. F. Beekman

2010-01-01

250

A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Report Depressive Symptoms among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of self-report depressive symptoms as measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was conducted in three Asian countries-Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan - and in the United States. Mean scores for the 966 college students varied significantly across countries, with Korean students reporting high levels of depressive symptoms. Further, there are marked differences between countries in symptomatic

Kathleen S. Crittenden; Stephen S. Fugita; Hyunjung Bae; Corazon B. Lamug; Chien Un

1992-01-01

251

Acute effects of mirtazapine on sleep continuity and sleep architecture in depressed patients: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mirtazapine, a clinically effective antidepressant, acts by antagonizing central ?2-adrenergic and 5-HT2\\/5-HT3 receptors. No data are available regarding mirtazapine’s effects on sleep architecture in patients with major depressive disorder.Methods: Six patients meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and scoring ?4 on the three Hamilton Depression Rating Scale sleep items were studied. Polysomnographic evaluations were performed at baseline and after

Andrew Winokur; Michael J Sateia; J. Boyd Hayes; Wendy Bayles-Dazet; Mary M MacDonald; Keith A Gary

2000-01-01

252

Proton spectroscopy study of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in pediatric depressed patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an essential role in mood regulation and integration of cognitive functions that are abnormal in major depressive disorder (MDD). Few neuroimaging studies have evaluated the still maturing DLPFC in depressed children and adolescents. We conducted single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of the left DLPFC in 14 depressed children and adolescents (13.3±2.3

Sheila C. Caetano; Manoela Fonseca; Rene L. Olvera; Mark Nicoletti; John P. Hatch; Jeffrey A. Stanley; Kristina Hunter; Beny Lafer; Steven R. Pliszka; Jair C. Soares

2005-01-01

253

No Association between Fish Intake and Depression in over 15,000 Older Adults from Seven Low and Middle Income Countries-The 10/66 Study  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence on the association between fish consumption and depression is inconsistent and virtually non-existent from low- and middle-income countries. Using a standard protocol, we aim to assess the association of fish consumption and late-life depression in seven low- and middle-income countries. Methodology/Findings We used cross-sectional data from the 10/66 cohort study and applied two diagnostic criteria for late-life depression to assess the association between categories of weekly fish consumption and depression according to ICD-10 and the EURO-D depression symptoms scale scores, adjusting for relevant confounders. All-catchment area surveys were carried out in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India, and over 15,000 community-dwelling older adults (65+) were sampled. Using Poisson models the adjusted association between categories of fish consumption and ICD-10 depression was positive in India (p for trend?=?0.001), inverse in Peru (p?=?0.025), and not significant in all other countries. We found a linear inverse association between fish consumption categories and EURO-D scores only in Cuba (p for trend ?=?0.039) and China (p<0.001); associations were not significant in all other countries. Between-country heterogeneity was marked for both ICD-10 (I2>61%) and EURO-D criteria (I2>66%). Conclusions The associations of fish consumption with depression in large samples of older adults varied markedly across countries and by depression diagnosis and were explained by socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Experimental studies in these settings are needed to confirm our findings.

Albanese, Emiliano; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Dangour, Alan D.; Guerra, Mariella; Acosta, Daisy; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan de Jesus; Salas, Aquiles; Schonborn, Claudia; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.

2012-01-01

254

Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

2010-01-01

255

Thought suppression and treatment outcome in late-life depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined severity of depression, age of onset, and thought suppression as predictors of treatment outcome. Measures were taken pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at six-month follow-up in 34 depressed older adults receiving the treatment protocol described in Lynch, Morse, Mendelson & Robins (Dialectical behavior therapy for depressed older adults, American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 33–45, 2003). Severity and chronicity

M. Z Rosenthal; J. S. Cheavens; J. S. Compton; S. R. Thorp; T. R. Lynch

2005-01-01

256

Gray Matter Differences Between Healthy and Depressed Adolescents: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently begins during adolescence and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the neurobiology of adolescent depression. A better understanding of the neurobiology will be helpful in developing more effective preventive and treatment interventions for this highly disabling illness. Methods Using a voxel-based morphometric method, the study compared gray matter and white matter volumes in 22 adolescents with MDD and 22 age- and gender-matched normal controls. Results Compared with controls, depressed adolescents had smaller gray matter volume in the frontal lobe and caudate nucleus bilaterally and right superior and middle temporal gyri. However, the groups did not differ significantly on white matter volume. Conclusions These findings in depressed adolescents are consistent with the previous findings of gray matter abnormalities in frontolimbic areas and the striatum in depressed adults and suggest the presence of these structural changes at the onset of depressive illness.

Muddasani, Srirangam; Rao, Uma

2012-01-01

257

Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents.  

PubMed

Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

Chaplin, Tara M; Gillham, Jane E; Seligman, Martin E P

2009-04-01

258

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used instrument to measure postnatal depression. This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS in Iran. METHODS: The English language version of the EPDS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive

Ali Montazeri; Behnaz Torkan; Sepideh Omidvari

2007-01-01

259

Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

2009-01-01

260

The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

n/a; n/a

2005-01-01

261

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

262

Depression in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Related Factors in Turkey: A Controlled Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary objective of the study was to determine whether there was any difference, with respect to depression, between mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and mothers of healthy children. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether some additional factors had an impact on the depression of the mothers. The study included 49…

Unsal-Delialioglu, Sibel; Kaya, Kurtulus; Ozel, Sumru; Gorgulu, Gulderen

2009-01-01

263

A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptomology and Self-Concept in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptomology and self-concept in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 and to determine whether primary school teacher ratings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior predict self-reported depressive symptoms and self-concept in adolescence. This study is part of an…

Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha; Dixon, Jennifer; Cavendish, Wendy Morrison

2008-01-01

264

Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…

Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

2006-01-01

265

Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

2004-01-01

266

The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a Young Adolescent Population: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was developed to assess the population prevalence of depression. The CES-D was developed and normed on an adult population. Since the CES-D's publication, various studies have both used and psychometrically assessed the scale for older adolescent populations. However, we found no…

Phillips, Glenn A.; Shadish, William R.; Murray, David M.; Kubik, Martha; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.

2006-01-01

267

The development of children of postnatally depressed mothers: Evidence from the Cambridge longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with a parent who suffers from depression are at raised risk for the disorder themselves. Relatively little is known about the development of psychological vulnerability to depression through childhood, particularly during infancy and early childhood. This paper describes results from a longitudinal prospective study of the development of children, studied from birth to 16 years, of mothers who experienced

Lynne Murray

2009-01-01

268

Multiple measurements of depression predict mortality in a longitudinal study of chronic hemodialysis outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple measurements of depression predict mortality in a longitudinal study of chronic hemodialysis outpatients.BackgroundThe medical risk factors associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients are well known, but the psychosocial factors that may affect outcome have not been clearly defined. One key psychosocial factor, depression, has been considered a predictor of mortality, but previous studies have provided equivocal results

Paul L. Kimmel; Rolf A. Peterson; Karen L. Weihs; Samuel J. Simmens; Sylvan Alleyne; Illuminado Cruz; Judith H. Veis

2000-01-01

269

Cerebrovascular Disease and Evolution of Depressive Symptoms in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Previous studies have reported an association between cerebrovascular disease and depressive symptoms. The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) provides an opportunity to examine the relationship between vascular brain pathology seen on neuroimaging and changes in depressive symptoms. Methods—The sample included 3236 CHS participants who had an MRI brain scan. Demographic variables, medical history, functional status, and apolipoprotein E genotype

David C. Steffens; K. Ranga Rama Krishnan; Casey Crump; Gregory L. Burke

270

Is Alpha Wave Neurofeedback Effective with Randomized Clinical Trials in Depression? A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal asymmetric activation has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism for depression. Some case studies have reported that the enhancement of a relative right frontal alpha activity by an asymmetry neurofeedback training leads to improvement in depressive symptoms. In the present study, we examined whether a neurofeedback training designed to increase the relative activity of the right frontal alpha

Sung Won Choi; Sang Eun Chi; Sun Yong Chung; Jong Woo Kim; Chang Yil Ahn; Hyun Taek Kim

2011-01-01

271

Gender, Poverty, and Postnatal Depression: A Study of Mothers in Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study described the nat- ural history of depression in mothers who recently gave birth in a low-income coun- try and to investigate the effect of risk fac- tors, particularly related to infant gender bias, on the occurrence and outcome of depression. Method: The authors studied a group of pregnant mothers recruited during their third trimester of pregnancy from

Vikram Patel; M. R. C. Psych; Merlyn Rodrigues; M. A. Nandita DeSouza

2002-01-01

272

The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

n/a; n/a

2005-01-01

273

Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

2005-01-01

274

Inter-hemispheric asymmetry of motor corticospinal excitability in major depression studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundImaging and electroencephalographic studies have reported inter-hemispheric asymmetries in frontal cortical regions associated with depression. This study aimed at comparing motor corticospinal excitability assessed by methods of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) between the right and left hemispheres in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

J. P. Lefaucheur; B. Lucas; F. Andraud; J. Y. Hogrel; F. Bellivier; A. Del Cul; A. Rousseva; M. Leboyer; M. L. Paillère-Martinot

2008-01-01

275

A longitudinal study of family conflicts, social support, and antenatal depressive symptoms among Chinese women.  

PubMed

Little is known about the causal factors of antenatal depressive symptomatology in the Chinese population. A total of 1,527 pregnant women were recruited to investigate the predictors of antenatal depressive symptoms using a stress process model in a prospective longitudinal study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Stryker Adjustment Checklist, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were used. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that marital conflict, parent-in-law conflict, and social support predicted antenatal depressive symptoms. Psychiatric nurses can identify predictors to help initiate preventive intervention. PMID:21621734

Lau, Ying

2010-10-02

276

Women's perspectives on postpartum depression screening in pediatric settings: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

This preliminary study is the first to identify mothers' perspectives on barriers and facilitators to addressing postpartum depression (PPD) in pediatric settings. We conducted four 90-min focus groups with women (n?=?27) who self-identified a history of perinatal depression and/or emotional complications. Barriers reported included stigma and fear among women and lack of provider knowledge/skills regarding depression. Participants recommended non-stigmatizing approaches to depression screening/referral. Future PPD screening efforts should leverage the pediatrician-mother relationship to mitigate mothers' fears and encourage help-seeking. PMID:23812739

Byatt, Nancy; Biebel, Kathleen; Friedman, Liz; Debordes-Jackson, Gifty; Ziedonis, Douglas

2013-06-29

277

Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The associations of vitamin B(12), folate, and homocysteine\\u000a with depression were examined in a population-based study. METHOD: The\\u000a authors screened 3,884 elderly people for depressive symptoms. Subjects\\u000a with positive screening results had psychiatric workups. Folate, vitamin\\u000a B(12), and homocysteine blood levels were compared in 278 persons with\\u000a depressive symptoms, including 112 with depressive disorders, and 416\\u000a randomly selected reference

Henning Tiemeier; Tuijl van H. R; J. Meijer; A. J. Kiliaan; M. M. B. Breteler; A. Hofman

2002-01-01

278

Linking Depressed Earnings to Adolescent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I analyze empirically the ways in which adolescent depression depresses earnings in young adulthood. I test the prominent assertions that adolescent depression is predictive of young adult depression and of lower educational attainment, both of which are, in turn, predictive of lower earnings. I then expand upon the current literature by testing the assumption that those depressed

Emily Sands

2008-01-01

279

A longitudinal study of students' depression at one medical school  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Using a standardized measure of depression at three assessment points, to examine depression in medical students during their training.\\u000aMETHOD: Students entering the University of Massachusetts Medical School in the fall in 1987, 1988, and 1989 were mailed a recruitment letter and baseline questionnaire four weeks prior to the start of classes. Subsequent assessments took place in the middles

Milagros C. Rosal; Ira S. Ockene; Judith K. Ockene; Susan V. Barrett; Yunsheng Ma; James R. Hebert

1997-01-01

280

A Pilot Study Investigating Behavioral Prescriptions for Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a prevalent and expensive condition. Many patients are seeking and receiving treatment for depression in the\\u000a primary care setting where pharmaceutical interventions prevail as the predominant treatment. While psychotropic medications\\u000a can certainly help ameliorate mental and behavioral problems, all medical interventions carry with them certain risks and\\u000a side effects. A natural multiple-baseline (across participants), single-case experimental design was

Elizabeth V. Naylor; David O. Antonuccio; Gary Johnson; Daniel Spogen; William O’Donohue

2007-01-01

281

Vulnerability to psychosis increases the risk of depression. Results of the RADEP study.  

PubMed

We studied prevalence of depressive symptoms in primary care (PrC) and in psychiatric outpatient care (PsC), and how psychotic and manic symptoms are associated with current depressive symptoms. Altogether 563 patients attending PrC and 163 patients attending PsC filled in a questionnaire including the Depression Scale (DEPS), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and questions on psychotic symptoms from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Patients with depressive symptoms (DEPS score > 8) were interviewed by phone using the same checklist 6 months after baseline examination. From the PrC sample, 19.5% and from the PsC sample 73.0% were DEPS positive. In the PrC but not in the PsC sample, patients' background associated strongly with occurrence of depressive symptoms. Both at baseline and at follow-up, depressive symptoms correlated significantly with psychotic and manic symptoms. In multivariate analyses, when the effects of background, health and functioning were taken into account, baseline depressive symptoms associated significantly with lifetime psychotic symptoms. Depressive symptoms at follow-up associated significantly with psychotic symptoms during the follow-up period. In the PrC sample, this association was significant even when the effect of baseline depressive symptoms was controlled. About one-fifth of patients attending primary care and about three-quarters of patients attending psychiatric outpatient patient care suffer from depressive symptoms. Vulnerability to psychosis, indicated by occurrence of psychotic symptoms, increases the risk of and slower recovery from depressive symptoms in the patients attending primary care. Therefore, vulnerability to psychosis should be evaluated when treatment intervention for patients with depressive symptoms is planned. PMID:17990202

Salokangas, Raimo K R; Luutonen, Sinikka; Nieminen, Mervi; Huttunen, Jukka; Karlsson, Hasse

2007-01-01

282

The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as measure of depression in Swedish adolescents. A normative study.  

PubMed

Self-rating scales are an economical and practical aid in the diagnostic work-up. However, normative data from the general population are needed to interpret scores. Four hundred and five adolescents selected to be fairly representative of the general population (both ethnical Swedes and born abroad) filled in a questionnaire containing the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and background data (including socio-economic status (SES). The CDI was reliable in terms of internal consistency (0.86) with a mean inter-item correlation of 0.18 and item-total score correlations ranging from 0.26 to 0.57. The CDI sub-scales (Negative Mood, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia and Negative Self-esteem had good internal consistency values slightly above 0.60, except for sub-scale Interpersonal Problems with poor internal consistency (0.36). The 90th and 95th percentiles respectively were defined by scores 15 and 18 and above for boys and by scores 20 and 23 and above for girls. Common correlates of high scores were female gender, broken family but not SES, nor ethnicity. Also, some estimates of the convergent validity of the CDI were found in a Pearson correlation of 0.40 with the MASC total score and in the capacity of the CDI (predictive validity); OR = 1.1 in predicting suicidal ideation. The CDI has some, but as of yet not sufficient indications of being a valid and reliable measure of depression in adolescence and scores can be used to indicate, though not prove the absence or presence of, depression. PMID:16720513

Ivarsson, Tord; Svalander, Per; Litlere, Oeystein

2006-01-01

283

Personality traits, depression and migraine in women: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to examine the association between personality traits, depression and migraine in the long term. In 56 women with migraine a psychological assessment was carried out to assess the presence of major depression, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered at baseline (T0) and after 6-7 years (T2). Frequency, severity and duration of migraine were recorded at T0, after treatment (T1) and at T2, and their relation to the prevalence of depression and to the MMPI and STAI data was examined (ANOVA, Student's t-test, chi2 analysis, and multiple regression analysis). Pain parameters improved in all patients in T0-T1, but at T2 were higher in patients with depression at T0. The patients whose migraine improved at T2 had, at T0 and T2, significantly lower MMPI and STAI scores. Multiple regression analysis showed a correlation of the MMPI depression score and STAI 1,2 scores at T0 with headache frequency at T2. We conclude that the co-occurrence of migraine, personality changes and depression in women does not appear to influence the results of treatment at short-term, but it seems to be influential on headache history in the long term. PMID:12662185

Mongini, F; Keller, R; Deregibus, A; Raviola, F; Mongini, T; Sancarlo, M

2003-04-01

284

Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: A Study in a Tertiary Hospital  

PubMed Central

Anxiety and depression could reduce the quality of life, and exacerbate physical symptoms and even mortality amongst patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of anxiety and depression in patients with acute CHD. In a period from March to December 2008, the views of 108 CHD patients, hospitalized in a tertiary hospital, were solicited using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and sociodemographic questionnaires. Patients with CHD had a low level anxiety and depression scores. There was significant differences in the total HADS score of participants stratified for marital status (P=0.027) or co-morbidity of diseases (P=0.012). Also, there were significant differences in the scores of depression subscale stratified for marital status (P=0.021) or co-morbidity of disease (P=0.007). However, there was no significant difference between the total HADS score or depression subscale score of the participants stratified based on age, gender, race, education, or income. Moreover, unmarried CHD respondents possessed higher depression level compared to the married respondents, and CHD respondents with co-morbid diseases showed a high level of depression. The findings might be taken as evidence to suggest that CHD patients should be evaluated early for the detection of anxiety and depression for appropriate referral and support.

Eng, Ho Siew; Yean, Loo Chee; Das, Srijit; Letchmi, Santhna; Yee, Khor Sin; Bakar, Rohayu A; Hung, Jeliha; Choy, Choy Yin

2011-01-01

285

Plasma dopamine and norepinephrine correlations with psychomotor retardation, anxiety, and depression in non-psychotic depressed patients: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of plasma catecholamine levels to severity of depression and psychomotor retardation was examined in 12 male inpatients who met criteria for major depressive episode. Psychomotor retardation was measured with the Psychomotor Retardation Rating Scale (PRRS), and depression was assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). Blood samples for biochemical measurements were obtained from drug-free patients at

Mark B. Hamner; Bruce I. Diamond

1996-01-01

286

Are Old People More Depressed? Cross-Sectional Data on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age differences on the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were examined for 4 age–cohort groups: 20–39 years (n = 548) , 40–54 years (n = 218) , 55–69 years (n = 352) , and 70–98 years (n = 212) . On total CES-D, there was a significant age effect and quadratic trend, with means for the middle

Margaret Gatz; Margo-Lea Hurwicz

1990-01-01

287

Measuring depressive symptoms in illness populations: Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale were examined among five groups that vaned in physical health and illness. Participants included 175 healthy undergraduates, 176 individuals attending family physicians, 107 progressive renal disease, 135 end-stage renal disease, and 120 cancer patients. Individual item and total CES-D scores were relatively symmetrically distributed and varied across the entire

Gerald M. Devins; Carolee M. Orme; Charles G. Costello; Yitzchak M. Binik; Beverly Frizzell; Henderikus J. Stam; Wendy M. Pullin

1988-01-01

288

A Study of Autobiographical Memories in Depressed and Nondepressed Elderly Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Used autobiographical memory task to study memory processes and depression in 27 nondepressed and 27 depressed older adults who each recalled 30 memories. Results were consistent with mood congruence hypothesis, in that participants recalled more memories affectively consistent with current mood, and self-enhancement view of reminiscing, such…

Yang, Janet Anderson; Rehm, Lynn P.

1993-01-01

289

The Relationship between Body Image and Depressed Mood in Adolescence: A 5-year Longitudinal Panel Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research interest has been devoted to reveal the psychosocial processes associated with the development of depressive symptoms during adolescence. One of the important factors that has been studied is body image. In a 5-year longitudinal investigation, we revealed and discussed the relationship between body image and depressed mood in a cohort of adolescents at ages 13, 15 and 18.

Ingrid Holsen; Pål Kraft; Espen Røysamb

2001-01-01

290

A preliminary study of sleep-disordered breathing in major depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose : Individuals with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (OSDB) commonly report symptoms of depression; however, the percentage of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who experience OSDB is less clear. This study aimed to examine OSDB in a sample of individuals with MDD, unselected for sleep-related complaints, along a continuum of ventilatory and hypoxic abnormalities. Patients and methods :

Patricia J. Deldin; Laura K. Phillips; Robert J. Thomas

291

An open-label dosing study of paroxetine in depressed children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression is a common disorder in children and adolescents. It is often associated with psychologic distress, academic dysfunction, intrafamilial conflict, and the risk for suicide. For these reasons, safe and effective treatments are needed for depression in pediatric patients.Objective: This study considered the effectiveness of initiating the antidepressant paroxetine at a low dose and explored clinical and biochemical factors

Robert L. Findling; Carolyn Myers; Mary Ann O'Riordan; Lisa A. Branicky; Anita Pettigrew; Michael D. Reed; Jeffrey L. Blumer

2002-01-01

292

A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

2008-01-01

293

The Interference of Introversion-Extraversion and Depressive Symptomatology with Reasoning Performance: A Behavioural Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was to investigate the link between the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) scores and depressive symptomatology with reasoning performance induced by a task including valid and invalid Aristotelian syllogisms. The EPQ and the Zung Depressive Scale (ZDS) were completed by 48 healthy subjects (27 male, 21 female)…

Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rabavilas, Andreas D.; Stachtea, Xanthy; Giannakakis, Giorgos A.; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Papadimitriou, George N.; Stefanis, Costas N.

2012-01-01

294

Early experience and depressive disorders: human and non-human primate studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews evidence from both human and non-human primate studies concerning the role of early adverse experiences in the onset and course of adult depressive disorders. Despite accumulating evidence that stressful life events can play a major role in precipitating the onset of depressive episodes in humans, the mechanisms by which early experiences mediate and moderate the risk for

William S Gilmer; William T McKinney

2003-01-01

295

A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

2012-01-01

296

The Interference of Introversion-Extraversion and Depressive Symptomatology with Reasoning Performance: A Behavioural Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the link between the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) scores and depressive symptomatology with reasoning performance induced by a task including valid and invalid Aristotelian syllogisms. The EPQ and the Zung Depressive Scale (ZDS) were completed by 48 healthy subjects (27 male, 21 female)…

Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rabavilas, Andreas D.; Stachtea, Xanthy; Giannakakis, Giorgos A.; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Papadimitriou, George N.; Stefanis, Costas N.

2012-01-01

297

Anemia Is Associated With Depression in Older Adults: Results From the InCHIANTI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Depression is a common disorder among older adults, and it has been associated with adverse outcomes, including increased risk of morbidity and mortality as well as incomplete or delayed recovery from illness and disability. The objective of this study was to examine whether depressive symptoms and anemia are associated among older adults living in the community. Methods. We used

Graziano Onder; Brenda W. J. H. Penninx; Matteo Cesari; Stefania Bandinelli; Fulvio Lauretani; Benedetta Bartali; Anna Maria Gori; Marco Pahor; Luigi Ferrucci

2005-01-01

298

Depressive symptoms during childhood and adult obesity: the Zurich Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and obesity have become major health problems with increasing prevalence. Given the limited effectiveness of treatment for weight problems, the identification of novel, potentially modifiable risk factors may provide insights on new preventive approaches to obesity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that depressive symptoms during childhood are associated with weight gain and obesity during

G Hasler; D S Pine; D G Kleinbaum; A Gamma; D Luckenbaugh; V Ajdacic; D Eich; W Rössler; J Angst

2005-01-01

299

Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression in Older Adults Delivered via Videoconferencing: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression affects up to 25% of older adults. Underdetection and subsequent undertreatment of depression in older adults has been attributed in part to difficulties in older adults being able to access treatment. This uncontrolled pilot study, N = 3, explored the acceptability and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation treatment delivered via…

Lazzari, Claudia; Egan, Sarah J.; Rees, Clare S.

2011-01-01

300

Depression and Cardiac Mortality: Results From a Community-Based Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression may be a potential risk fac- tor for subsequent cardiac death. The impact of depres- sion on cardiac mortality has been suggested to depend on cardiac disease status, and to be stronger among car- diac patients. This study examined and compared the ef- fect of depression on cardiac mortality in community- dwelling persons with and without cardiac disease.

Brenda W. J. H. Penninx; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Adriaan Honig; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Robert A. Schoevers; Jacques T. M. van Eijk; Willem van Tilburg

2001-01-01

301

Therapeutic Group Programme for Women with Postnatal Depression in Rural Victoria: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a therapeutic group programme, provided by community health workers, in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms associated with postnatal depression (PND) among women living in a rural setting.Method: A prospective repeated measures design was used. Women reporting difficulties in the postnatal period were recruited through community health services. Training

Elizabeth Craig; Fiona Judd; Gene Hodgins

2005-01-01

302

A Prospective Study of Stress Autonomy Versus Stress Sensitization in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study investigated the stress autonomy, stress sensitization, and depression vulnerability hypotheses in adolescents across 6 years (i.e., Grades 6 through 12). Participants were 240 children (Time 1 mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.57) who varied in risk for depression on the basis of their mother's history of mood disorders. All analyses were conducted as multilevel models to

Matthew C. Morris; Jeffrey A. Ciesla; Judy Garber

2010-01-01

303

A Randomised Study Comparing Escitalopram with Venlafaxine XR in Primary Care Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 8-week, randomised, double-blind study compared the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram to that of venlafaxine XR in primary care patients with major depressive disorder. The efficacy of escitalopram (10– 20 mg; n = 148) was similar to venlafaxine XR (75– 150 mg; n = 145), based on mean change from baseline to week 8 in Montgomery and Åsberg Depression

S. A. Montgomery; A. K. T. Huusom; J. Bothmer

2004-01-01

304

Timing of Mother and Child Depression in a Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal associations of diagnoses in mothers and children were examined in a 3-year longitudinal study of unipolar, bipolar, and comparison women and their 8- to 16-year-old offspring. There was a significant temporal association between mother and child diagnoses, especially in unipolar families, and most children who experienced a major depressive episode did so in close proximity to maternal depression. Regression

Constance Hammen; Dorli Burge; Cheri Adrian

1991-01-01

305

The Clinical Interview for Depression: A Comprehensive Review of Studies and Clinimetric Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A comprehensive assessment of the wide spectrum of depressive symptomatology, particularly in its subclinical forms, is lacking in standard rating scales. There is also an emerging need for instruments that can detect small differences in therapeutic studies and have good sensitivity. The purpose of this paper is to review the clinimetric characteristics of Paykel’s Clinical Interview for Depression (CID)

Jenny Guidi; Giovanni A. Fava; Per Bech; Eugene Paykel

2011-01-01

306

Neurasthenia and depression: A study of somatization and culture in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews conceptual and empirical issues regarding the interaction of neurasthenia, somatization and depression in Chinese culture and in the West. The historical background of neurasthenia and its current status are discussed, along with the epidemiology and phenomenology of somatization and depression. Findings are presented from a combined clinical and anthropological field study of 100 patients with neurasthenia in

Arthur Kleinman

1982-01-01

307

Associations between lifestyle and depressed mood: longitudinal results from the Maastricht Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We examined whether healthy lifestyles are associated with ab- sence of depressed mood. Methods. A sample of 1169 adult participants in the Maastricht Aging Study pro- vided baseline and 6-year follow-up data on smoking, alcohol use, physical ex- ercise, body mass index, and mood. We examined associations between lifestyles and depressed mood using longitudinal analyses controlling for baseline de-

Gool van Coen H; Gertrudis I. J. M. Kempen; Hans Bosma; Boxtel van Martin P. J; Jelle Jolles

2006-01-01

308

Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

2010-01-01

309

School-Based Prevention of Depression: A Randomised Controlled Study of the "beyondblue" Schools Research Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressive disorders are experienced by 3-5% of the adolescent population at any point of time. They adversely affect adolescent development in a range of areas and greatly increase risk for suicide. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a universal intervention designed to reduce depressive symptoms among students…

Sawyer, Michael G.; Pfeiffer, Sara; Spence, Susan H.; Bond, Lyndal; Graetz, Brian; Kay, Debra; Patton, George; Sheffield, Jeanie

2010-01-01

310

A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

2011-01-01

311

Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

2006-01-01

312

Effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy for Depression in a Community Mental Health Center: A Benchmarking Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the feasibility and effectiveness of transporting an empirically supported treatment for depression, cognitive therapy (CT), to a community mental health center setting. CT was delivered to 192 adult outpatients with major depression, and a benchmarking strategy compared results with those of 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The 3 samples were largely similar in terms of initial

Kari A. Merrill; Valerie E. Tolbert; Wendy A. Wade

2003-01-01

313

Omega3 Treatment of Childhood Depression: A Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depressive disorder is a common and recur- rent disorder in children. It is frequently accompanied by poor psychosocial outcome, comorbid conditions, and high risk of suicide and substance abuse, indicating the need for treatment. The prevalence of major depressive disorder is estimated to be approximately 2%-4% in chil- dren (1). Several randomized, controlled studies have shown a 50% to

Hanah Nemets; Boris Nemets; Alan Apter; Ziva Bracha; R. H. Belmaker

2006-01-01

314

The Relationships Among Grief Experience, Problem-Solving Appraisal, and Depression: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has consistently shown a relationship between problem-solving appraisal and depressive symptoms. This study expands that research by including grief symptomatology as a variable. A college student sample completed the Problem-Solving inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Revised Grief Experience Inventory. Consistent with hypotheses, those individuals who had experienced the death of a close loved one within the previous

Jon K. Reid; Wayne A. Dixon

2000-01-01

315

A Prospective Study of Stressful Cicumstances, Illness Symptoms, and Depressed Mood among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study on commonly experienced stress-provoking circumstances in adolescence found that accumulation of negatively rated circumstances was associated with illness symptoms and depressed mood. Prospective analyses showed that positively rated circumstances moderated the impact of negative circumstances on both illness symptoms and depressed

Siegel, Judith M.; Brown, Jonathon D.

1988-01-01

316

Pain and Depression in Injured Workers and Their Return to Work: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the long-term relationships between depression, pain, and return to work in injured workers with chronic pain. Clients (N = 185) completing the Pain Disability Prevention Program were evaluated for pain and depression at three points in time: on admission to the treatment program, at mid-treatment, and at the end of treatment. The return to work (RTW) was

Marc Corbière; Michael J. L. Sullivan; William D. Stanish; Heather Adams

2007-01-01

317

The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

2006-01-01

318

Reboxetine in the Treatment of Depression in the Elderly: Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elderly patients are particularly susceptible to the potential side effects of current antidepressants due to age- related physiologic changes. We report a pilot study to examine the tolerability of increasing doses of reboxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (selective NRI), in elderly depressed patients. Twelve elderly female patients (75-87 years) with either major depression or dysthymia received reboxetine titrated to

Vittorino Andreoli; Giorgio Carbognin; Alberto Abati; Giovanni Vantini

1999-01-01

319

Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination…

Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

2010-01-01

320

School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

2009-01-01

321

School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

2009-01-01

322

Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS).

JOHN CURRY; PAUL ROHDE; ANNE SIMONS; SUSAN SILVA; BENEDETTO VITIELLO; CHRISTOPHER KRATOCHVIL; MARK REINECKE; NORAH FEENY; KAREN WELLS; SANJEEV PATHAK; ELIZABETH WELLER; DAVID ROSENBERG; BETSY KENNARD; MICHELE ROBINS; GOLDA GINSBURG; JOHN MARCH

2006-01-01

323

Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

2006-01-01

324

Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Method: Potential baseline…

Curry, John; Rohde, Paul; Simons, Anne; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher; Reinecke, Mark; Feeny, Norah; Wells, Karen; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, David; Kennard, Betsy; Robins, Michele; Ginsburg, Golda; March, John

2006-01-01

325

A STUDY OF AUTOBIOGRAPIIICAL MEMORIES IN DEPRESSED AND NONDEPRESSED ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autobiographical memory task was used to study memory processes and depression in elderly individuals. Twenty-seven nondepressed and twenty- seven depressed elderly participants recalled thirty memories. Each memory was self-rated for happiness versus sadness and the degree of importance of the event at the time the event occurred (i.e., \\

JANET ANDERSON YANG; LYNN P. REHM

1993-01-01

326

Recognition of depression in people of different cultures: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and

Arja Lehti; Anne Hammarström; Bengt Mattsson

2009-01-01

327

LAN (Local Area Network) interoperability study of protocols needed for distributed command and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examined distrubuted processing requirements for strategic and tactical C3I systems, reviewed the characteristics and architectural issues for distributed processing global operating systems, compared the DoD and ISO networking protocol architecture models, the protocols for LAN's developed by the IEEE and ANSI, reviewed and conducted performance evaluation of Ethernet, DoD's Internet Protocal and Transmission Control Protocol and reported characteristics of CSMA/CD, Token Bus and Token Ring LAN's, reviewed three alternatives to using TCP for an intra-LAN protocol and examined the methods for employing gateway elements to interconnect LAN-based system elements. A comprehensive discussion of the results is given followed by a set of concise conclusions. Ten recommendations are given, providing a roadmap to guide the Air Force in developing C3I systems and LAN-based protocols. Three major areas are identified where future work is needed. A set of protocols and design approaches for internetworking is contained in a set of appendices.

Elden, W. L.; Miller, A. L.; Morgan, S. L.; Romanzo, B. A.

1985-03-01

328

Cohort study of depressive moods in Thai women during late pregnancy and 6–8 weeks of postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Objective: To identify depressive moods as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in late pregnancy and postpartum, explore\\u000a associated factors and assess changes in depressive moods.\\u000a \\u000a Methods: A cohort study of 610 pregnant Thai women was conducted. The self-reporting EPDS was completed at 36–40 weeks and at 6–8\\u000a weeks postpartum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Result: The prevalence of depressive moods (scores of 10

N. Limlomwongse; T. Liabsuetrakul

2006-01-01

329

Home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) for Depressed, Cognitively Impaired, Disabled Elders: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This preliminary study examines the efficacy of 12-week home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) vs. home-delivered Supportive Therapy (ST) in reducing depression and disability in 30 depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled older adults. Design A 12-week randomized clinical trial. Research assistants were unaware of the participants' randomization status. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Setting Weill Cornell - Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research (ACISR). Participants Thirty elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability were recruited through advertisement and the Home-Delivered Meals Program of the Westchester County Department of Senior Programs and Services. Intervention PATH is a home-delivered intervention designed to reduce depression and disability in depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled elders. PATH is based on Problem Solving Therapy (PST) and integrates environmental adaptation and caregiver participation. PATH is consistent with Lawton's ecological model of adaptive functioning in aging. Measurements Depression and disability were measured with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale – 24 items and Sheehan Disability Scale, respectively. Client Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction with treatment. Results Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that PATH was more efficacious than ST in reducing depression and disability at 12 weeks. Participants in both treatment groups were satisfied with treatment. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that PATH is well accepted and efficacious in depressed elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. Because this population may not adequately respond to antidepressant medication treatment, PATH may provide relief to many patients who would otherwise remain depressed and suffer.

Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Arean, Patricia A.; Teri, Linda; Alexopoulos, George S.

2010-01-01

330

Physical activity and depressive symptoms among pregnant women: the PIN3 study.  

PubMed

Prenatal depression confers health risks for both mother and family. Physical activity may promote better mental health; however, few studies have examined the influence of physical activity on prenatal depression. Data from 1,220 women enrolled in the third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005) were used to examine the associations between overall and domain-specific moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Self-reported, past week physical activity assessed at 17-22 weeks' gestation was modeled in logistic regression with self-reported depressive symptoms assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale at 24-29 weeks' gestation. Active women with ?2.67 h/week of total MVPA had almost half the odds of having high depressive symptoms as compared to women with no MVPA (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.38, 0.83). Increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms were found for women participating in some but ?2.25 h/week of adult and child care MVPA (OR?=?1.84; 95% CI?=?1.08, 3.11) and >1 h of indoor household MVPA (OR?=?1.63, 95% CI?=?0.99, 2.70) when compared to women with no MVPA. While overall MVPA may play a role in reducing the odds of developing elevated depressive symptoms, adult and child care and indoor household activities may increase it. PMID:21107623

Demissie, Zewditu; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Evenson, Kelly R; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy; Gaynes, Bradley N

2010-11-24

331

Conceptual Models of Depression in Primary Care Patients: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Conventional psychiatric treatment models are based on a biopsychiatric model of depression. A plausible explanation for low rates of depression treatment utilization among ethnic minorities and the poor is that members of these communities do not share the cultural assumptions underlying the biopsychiatric model. The study examined conceptual models of depression among depressed patients from various ethnic groups, focusing on the degree to which patients’ conceptual models ‘matched’ a biopsychiatric model of depression. The sample included 74 primary care patients from three ethnic groups screening positive for depression. We administered qualitative interviews assessing patients’ conceptual representations of depression. The analysis proceeded in two phases. The first phase involved a strategy called ‘quantitizing’ the qualitative data. A rating scheme was developed and applied to the data by a rater blind to study hypotheses. The data was subjected to statistical analyses. The second phase of the analysis involved the analysis of thematic data using standard qualitative techniques. Study hypotheses were largely supported. The qualitative analysis provided a detailed picture of primary care patients’ conceptual models of depression and suggested interesting directions for future research.

Karasz, Alison; Garcia, Nerina; Ferri, Lucia

2009-01-01

332

The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through

James F Meschia; Robert D Brown Jr; Thomas G Brott; Felix E Chukwudelunzu; John Hardy; Stephen S Rich

2002-01-01

333

INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)/AMES/SALMONELLA TEST PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate a proposed EPA standard protocol for the Ames test. The study utilized Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with three metabolic activation levels (0, 2, and coded unknowns. The three primary study goal...

334

Predictors of Dementia Caregiver Depressive Symptoms in a Population: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study.  

PubMed

Objectives. Previous research has consistently reported elevated rates of depressive symptoms in dementia caregivers, but mostly with convenience samples. This study examined rates and correlates of depression at the baseline visit of a population sample of dementia caregivers (N = 256).Method. Using a modified version of Williams (Williams, I. C. [2005]. Emotional health of black and white dementia caregivers: A contextual examination. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, P287-P295) ecological contextual model, we examined 5 contexts that have contributed to dementia caregiver depression. A series of linear regressions were performed to determine correlates of depression. RESULTS: Rates of depressive symptoms were lower than those reported in most convenience studies. We found fewer depressive symptoms in caregivers with higher levels of education and larger social support networks, fewer health problems, greater likelihood of using problem-focused coping, and less likelihood of wishful thinking and with fewer behavioral disturbances in the persons with dementia.Discussion.These results suggest that depression may be less prevalent in populations of dementia caregivers than in clinic-based samples, but that the correlates of depression are similar for both population and convenience samples. Interventions targeting individuals with small support networks, emotion-focused coping styles, poorer health, low quality of life, and those caring for persons with higher numbers of behavioral problems need development and testing. PMID:23241850

Piercy, Kathleen W; Fauth, Elizabeth B; Norton, Maria C; Pfister, Roxane; Corcoran, Chris D; Rabins, Peter V; Lyketsos, Constantine; Tschanz, Joann T

2012-12-14

335

Factors accounting for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema: the Hordaland health study (HUSK)  

PubMed Central

Background The association between anxiety and depression, and eczema is well known in the literature, but factors underlying this association remain unclear. Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and female gender have been found to be associated with both depression and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety are known to be associated with anxiety and depression, further, somatization symptoms and health anxiety have also been found in several dermatological conditions. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, somatization and health anxiety are possible contributing factors in the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema. The aim of the study is to examine the relevance of proposed contributing factors for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema, including, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, health anxiety and somatization. Methods Anxiety and depression was measured in the general population (n = 15715) employing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Information on eczema, female gender, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, health anxiety and somatization was obtained by self-report. Results Somatization and health anxiety accounted for more than half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, while the other factors examined were of minor relevance for the association of interest. Conclusions We found no support for female gender and omega-3 fatty acid supplement as contributing factors in the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety accounted for about half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, somatization contributed most. The association between anxiety/depression, and eczema was insignificant after adjustment for somatization and health anxiety. Biological mechanisms underlying the mediating effect of somatization are yet to be revealed.

2010-01-01

336

TRIPPD: A Practice-Based Network Effectiveness Study of Postpartum Depression Screening and Management  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Postpartum depression is common but inadequately recognized and undertreated. Continuing depressive symptoms are associated with adverse outcomes for the woman, her infant, and family. We wanted to determine the effect of a practice-based training program for screening, diagnosis, and management of depression in postpartum mothers. METHODS In this practice-based effectiveness study, 28 practices were randomized to usual care (n = 14) or intervention (n = 14), and 2,343 women were enrolled between 5 and 12 weeks’ postpartum. The intervention sites received education and tools for postpartum depression screening, diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and follow-up within their practices. Usual-care practices received a 30-minute presentation about postpartum depression. Screening information for the usual care was obtained from baseline surveys sent directly to the central site but was not available for patient care. Outcomes were based on patient-reported outcomes (level of depressive symptoms) from surveys at 6 and 12 months, plus medical record review (diagnosis and therapy initiation). RESULTS Among the 2,343 women enrolled, 1,897 (80.1%) provided outcome information, and were included in the analysis. Overall, 654 (34.5% of 1,897) women had elevated screening scores indicative of depression, with comparable rates in the intervention and usual-care groups. Among the 654 women with elevated postpartum depression screening scores, those in the intervention practices were more likely to receive a diagnosis (P = .0006) and therapy for postpartum depression (P = .002). They also had lower depressive symptom levels at 6 (P = .07) and 12 months’ (P=.001) postpartum. CONCLUSIONS Primary care–based screening, diagnosis, and management improved mother’s depression outcomes at 12 months. This practical approach could be implemented widely with modest resources.

Yawn, Barbara P.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Wollan, Peter; Bertram, Susan; Graham, Debbie; Huff, Jessica; Kurland, Margary; Madison, Suzanne; Pace, Wilson D.

2012-01-01

337

Systemic inflammation, depression and obstructive pulmonary function: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the association between pulmonary function and depressive symptoms in healthy individuals with no known history of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods In a population-based sample (n?=?2077) of individuals aged 55 and above with no known history of obstructive pulmonary disease in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS), we analyzed the relationships between IL-6 and CRP, depressive symptoms (GDS-15 ?5) and obstructive pulmonary function (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted). Results High serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (p?depressive symptoms were independently associated with decreased FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted after adjusting for smoking status, BMI and number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Increasing grades of combination of inflammatory markers and/or depressive symptoms was associated with progressive increases in pulmonary obstruction. In hierarchical models, the significant association of depressive symptoms with pulmonary obstruction was reduced by the presence of IL-6 and CRP. Conclusions This study found for the first time an association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in older adults which appeared to be partly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies should be conducted to investigate proinflammatory immune markers and depressive symptoms as potential phenotypic indicators for chronic obstructive airway disorders in older adults.

2013-01-01

338

Adjunctive Sleep Medications and Depression Outcome in the Treatment of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Resistant Depression in Adolescents Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective In the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents, study participants who received medication for sleep had a lower response rate. This report sought to clarify this finding. Method Depressed adolescents who had not responded to a previous adequate serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) trial were randomly assigned to another SSRI, venlafaxine, another SSRI+cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), or venlafaxine+CBT. Augmentation with sleep medication was permitted as clinically indicated. Results Youth who received trazodone were six times less likely to respond than those with no sleep medication (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05–0.50, p=0.001) and were three times more likely to experience self-harm (OR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–7.9, p=0.03), even after adjusting for baseline differences associated with trazodone use. None (0/13) of those cotreated with trazodone and either paroxetine or fluoxetine responded. In contrast, those treated with other sleep medications had similar rates of response (60.0% vs. 50.4%, ?2=0.85, p=0.36) and of self-harm events (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.1–2.6, p=0.53) as those who received no sleep medication. Conclusions These findings should be interpreted cautiously because these sleep agents were not assigned randomly, but at clinician discretion. Nevertheless, they suggest that the use of trazodone for the management of sleep difficulties in adolescent depression should be re-evaluated and that future research on the management of sleep disturbance in adolescent depression is needed. The very low response rate of participants cotreated with trazodone and either fluoxetine or paroxetine could be due to inhibition of CYP 2D6 by these antidepressants.

Shamseddeen, Wael; Clarke, Gregory; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Emslie, Graham J.; Ryan, Neal; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna

2012-01-01

339

Case-control study on analgesics and nephropathy (SAN): protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The association between intake of non-phenacetin-containing analgesics and the occurrence of chronic renal failure is still controversially discussed. A new epidemiologic study was planned and conducted in Germany and Austria. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The objective of the international, multicenter case-control study was to evaluate the association between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and use of non-phenacetin-containing analgesics with particular emphasis on combined

Lothar AJ Heinemann; Edeltraut Garbe; Michael Lewis; Fokko van der Woude; Helmut Graf

2005-01-01

340

Older Persons' Transitions in Care (OPTIC): a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH) residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs). During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS), and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual) and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases). Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and researchers to participate equally in developing study goals, design, data collection, analysis and implications of findings. As preliminary and ongoing study findings are developed, their implications for practice and policy in study settings will be discussed by the research team and shared with study site administrators and staff. The study is designed to investigate the complexities of transitions and to enhance the potential for successful and sustained improvement of these transitions.

2012-01-01

341

Prospective Study of Depression Following Combat Deployment in Support of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background: Previous studies have reported an association between deployment and depression; however, these studies have been limited by small sample size or lack of longitudinal design. Results: Deployed men and women with combat exposures had the highes...

B. Smith C. A. LeardMann S. O. Fortuna T. C. Smith T. S. Wells

2010-01-01

342

Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. Methods/design The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. Discussion This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel prevention strategy for PTSD among traumatized people. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00671099

2013-01-01

343

Children of Treatment-Seeking Depressed Mothers: A Comparison with the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Child Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study

Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.

2012-01-01

344

Empirically Derived Subtypes of Adolescent Depression: Latent Profile Analysis of Co-Occurring Symptoms in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A latent profile analysis was conducted on the co-occurring symptoms of 423 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder as part of the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), a multisite, randomized treatment trial. The participants had a mean (SD) age of 14.6 (1.5) years; of the sample, 45.6% was male and 73.8% was…

Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick; Walkup, John T.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

2007-01-01

345

Design of a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies in individual sports: the Swedish Athletics injury study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological studies have mainly been performed on team sports. The authors set out to develop a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies of injuries among elite athletics athletes.MethodsAn argument-based method for investigation of complex design problems was used to structure the collection and analysis of data. Specification of the protocol was preceded by an examination of requirements on injury surveillance in

Jenny Jacobsson; Toomas Timpka; Joakim Ekberg; Jan Kowalski; Sverker Nilsson; Per Renström

2010-01-01

346

A longitudinal study of children's depressive symptoms, self-perceptions, and cognitive distortions about the self.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined how depressive symptoms relate to children's self-perceptions and to estimates of children's cognitive distortions about the self in a nonclinical sample of children who were followed from 4th grade (n = 248) through 6th grade (n = 227). Report card grades measured children's academic competence, and teachers' ratings of children's level of peer acceptance at school indicated social acceptance. Self-reported depressive symptoms predicted a change in children's negative views of the self. Moreover, the self-perceptions of children who exhibited more symptoms of depression appeared to reflect an underestimation of their actual competence. Children's negative self-perceptions and underestimations about the self were not associated with a subsequent change in depressive symptoms. The implications of the findings for cognitive theories of depression and future research with this population are discussed. PMID:11866181

McGrath, Emily P; Repetti, Rena L

2002-02-01

347

Neural Changes following Behavioral Activation for a Depressed Breast Cancer Patient: A Functional MRI Case Study  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007). A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsiveness at pre- and posttreatment. Following treatment, the patient exhibited attenuated depression and changes in blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) response in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the subgenual cingulate cortex. These preliminary findings outline a novel means to assess psychotherapy efficacy and suggest that BATD elicits functional brain changes in areas implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Further research is necessary to explore neurobiological mechanisms of change in BATD, particularly the potential mediating effects of reward responsiveness and associated brain functioning.

Gawrysiak, Michael J.; Carvalho, John P.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Nicholas, Christopher R. N.; Dougherty, John H.; Hopko, Derek R.

2012-01-01

348

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) May Have Antidepressant Activity in Anxious Depressed Humans - An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Objective As part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the antidepressant action of oral chamomile (Matricaria recutita) extract in subjects with co-morbid anxiety and depression symptoms. We hypothesized that chamomile may demonstrate a clinically meaningful antidepressant activity versus placebo. Methods 57 subjects received either chamomile extract or placebo therapy. Nineteen subjects had anxiety with co-morbid depression, 16 had anxiety with past history of depression, and 22 had anxiety with no current or past depression. Generalized estimating equations analysis was used to identify clinically meaningful changes over time in Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D) rating outcome measures among treatment groups. Results We observed a significantly greater reduction in mean total HAM-D scores (p<0.05) and HAM-D core depression item score (p<0.05) for chamomile versus placebo in all subjects, and a non-significant trend for a greater reduction in HAM-D core depression score for chamomile versus placebo in subjects with anxiety with current co-morbid depression (p=0.062). Conclusion Chamomile may have clinically meaningful antidepressant activity that occurs in addition to its previously observed anxiolytic activity.

Amsterdam, Jay D.; Shults, Justine; Soeller, Irene; Mao, Jun James; Rockwell, Kenneth; Newberg, Andrew B.

2013-01-01

349

Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.

2012-01-01

350

Recovery of hand function through mental practice: A study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aims to assess the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery training in stroke patients with persistent motor weakness. There is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement can produce effects normally attributed to practising the actual movements. Imagining hand movements could stimulate the redistribution of brain activity, which accompanies recovery of hand function, thus resulting in a

Magdalena Ietswaart; Marie Johnston; H Chris Dijkerman; Clare L Scott; Sara A Joice; Steven Hamilton; Ronald S MacWalter

2006-01-01

351

Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Perez-Lopez, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

2010-01-01

352

Addressing the Limitations of Protocol Analysis in the Study of Complex Human Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commentators have argued that the protocol analysis method (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) has considerable utility in the study of complex human behavior. In particular, it has recently been suggested that this method allows for detailed analyses of human language and cognition from a behavioral perspective. Despite this utility, however, relatively few behavioral studies have employed this technique. In the

Francisco Cabello; Denis OHora

2002-01-01

353

Association between vitamin b12 levels and melancholic depressive symptoms: a Finnish population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background An association between vitamin B12 levels and depressive symptoms (DS) has been reported in several epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vitamin B12 levels in population-based samples with melancholic or non-melancholic DS as the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and different subtypes of DS has not been evaluated in previous studies. Methods Subjects without previously known type 2 diabetes, aged 45–74 years were randomly selected from the National Population Register as a part of the Finnish diabetes prevention programme (FIN-D2D). The study population (N?=?2806, participation rate 62%) consisted of 1328 men and 1478 women. The health examinations were carried out between October and December 2007 according to the WHO MONICA protocol. The assessment of DS was based on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, cut-off ?10 points). A DSM-IV- criteria based summary score of melancholic items in the BDI was used in dividing the participants with DS (N?=?429) into melancholic (N?=?138) and non-melancholic DS (N?=?291) subgroups. In the statistical analysis we used chi-squared test, t-test, permutation test, analysis of covariance, multivariate logistic regression analysis and multinomial regression model. Results The mean vitamin B12 level was 331±176 pmol/L in those without DS while the subjects with non-melancholic DS had a mean vitamin B12 level of 324 ± 135 pmol/L, and those with melancholic DS had the lowest mean vitamin B12 level of 292±112 pmol/L (p?

2013-01-01

354

From rehabilitation to recovery: protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating a goal-based intervention to reduce depression and facilitate participation post-stroke  

PubMed Central

Background There is much discourse in healthcare about the importance of client-centred rehabilitation, however in the realm of community-based therapy post-stroke there has been little investigation into the efficacy of goal-directed practice that reflects patients' valued activities. In addition, the effect of active involvement of carers in such a rehabilitation process and their subsequent contribution to functional and emotional recovery post-stroke is unclear. In community based rehabilitation, interventions based on patients' perceived needs may be more likely to alter such outcomes. In this paper, we describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial of an integrated approach to facilitating patient goal achievement in the first year post-stroke. The effectiveness of this intervention in reducing the severity of post-stroke depression, improving participation status and health-related quality of life is examined. The impact on carers is also examined. Methods/Design Patients (and their primary carers, if available) are randomly allocated to an intervention or control arm of the study. The intervention is multimodal and aims to screen for adverse stroke sequelae and address ways to enhance participation in patient-valued activities. Intervention methods include: telephone contacts, written information provision, home visitation, and contact with treating health professionals, with further relevant health service referrals as required. The control involves treatment as usual, as determined by inpatient and community rehabilitation treating teams. Formal blinded assessments are conducted at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and at six and twelve months post-stroke. The primary outcome is depression. Secondary outcome measures include participation and activity status, health-related quality of life, and self-efficacy. Discussion The results of this trial will assist with the development of a model for community-based rehabilitation management for stroke patients and their carers, with emphasis on goal-directed practice to enhance home and community participation status. Facilitation of participation in valued activities may be effective in reducing the incidence or severity of post-stroke depression, as well as enhancing the individual's perception of their health-related quality of life. The engagement of carers in the rehabilitation process will enable review of the influence of the broader social context on recovery. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12608000042347

2011-01-01

355

Study protocol: a systematic review of pediatric shared decision making  

PubMed Central

Background Shared decision making in pediatrics is unique because it often involves active participation of both the child or adolescent patient and his or her caregiver(s) in the decision making process with the clinician or care team, and the extent to which the patient is involved is commensurate with their developmental level. However, little is known about the nature of pediatric-specific shared decision making interventions and their impact. Methods/Design We will perform a systematic review with the objective of summarizing the nature of shared decision making practices, tools, techniques and technologies in the pediatric setting as well as their effects. A literature search will include Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and Ovid PsycInfo databases in addition to consultation of a group of shared decision making experts to identify unpublished or in-progress works. We will include original research studies involving patients <18 years, their caregivers, or both, and summarize methods and approaches designed to engage participants in the health care decision making process with clinicians. Perinatal and research participation decisions will be excluded. Descriptions of participants involved, interventions used and the measured outcomes will be reported. Quality assessment will be performed according to the design of each study, where possible. Discussion We anticipate that the paucity of published quantitative data and the heterogeneous nature of the reported results will preclude quantitative analysis. In this event, a meta-narrative approach will be undertaken. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004761

2013-01-01

356

Depression care management for Chinese Americans in primary care: a feasibility pilot study.  

PubMed

This study describes a culturally relevant intervention using a collaborative depression care model to integrate mental health and primary care services for depressed low income Chinese-Americans at a community health center. A total of 6,065 patients were screened for depression. Of the 341 who screened positive, 57 participated and were randomly assigned to receive either enhanced physician care with care management (32) or enhanced physician care only (25). All enrolled participants were assessed at baseline and 4 monthly follow-up visits for depression, physical and mental health functioning, and perceived stigma toward receiving depression care, to determine the impact, if any, of their mental health treatment. Both groups reported significant reduction of depressive symptoms and improved mental health functioning from baseline to follow-up assessments although there was no significant difference between the two groups. Although the study found no advantage to adding the care management component in the treatment of depression, screening and assertive treatment of immigrant Chinese Americans who tend to underutilize mental health services is important and consistent with the increased adoption of team based care models in patient centered medical homes. High refusal rates for enrollment in the study have implications for future study designs for this group. PMID:22015960

Kwong, Kenny; Chung, Henry; Cheal, Karen; Chou, Jolene C; Chen, Teddy

2011-10-21

357

Serological studies on flocks showing depressed egg production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serological investigation was undertaken of flocks with depressed egg production. No obvious correlation was found between antibody to ade?novirus, infectious bronchitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus and this syndrome. No antibody was detected to Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum or in most cases to Mycoplasma synoviae. A relationship was found between the development of antibody to a haemagglutinating

J. B. McFerran; Helen M. Rowley; M. S. McNulty; Linda J. Montgomery

1977-01-01

358

Atypical depression is more common than melancholic in fibromyalgia: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been postulated that atypical and melancholic depression subtypes exist in depressed fibromyalgia (FM) patients, yet no study has empirically tested this hypothesis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical features and MDD with melancholic features occurs in a FM sample and to describe their demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics. Methods An observational cohort study using a descriptive cross-sectional design recruited a convenience sample of 76 outpatients with FM from an academic Rheumatology clinic and a community mental health practice. Diagnoses of FM were confirmed using the 1990 ACR classification guidelines. Diagnoses of MDD and diagnostic subtypes were determined using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Clinical characteristics were measured using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with Atypical Depression Supplement and other standardized instruments. Odds ratios were computed on subtype-specific diagnostic criteria. Correlations assessed associations between subtype diagnoses and diagnostic criteria. Results Of the 76 subjects with FM, 11.8% (n = 9) were euthymic, 52.6% (n = 40) met diagnostic criteria for MDD with atypical features and 35.6% (n = 27) for MDD with melancholic features. Groups did not differ on demographic characteristics except for gender (p = 0.01). The non-depressed and atypical groups trended toward having a longer duration of FM symptoms (18.05 yrs. ± 12.83; 20.36 yrs. ± 15.07) compared to the melancholic group (14.11 yrs. ± 8.82; p = 0.09). The two depressed groups experienced greater severity on all clinical features compared to the non-depressed group. The atypical group did not differ clinically from the melancholic group except the latter experienced greater depression severity (p = 0.001). The atypical group demonstrated the highest prevalence and correlations with atypical-specific diagnostic criteria: (e.g., weight gain/ increased appetite: OR = 3.5, p = 0.02), as did the melancholic group for melancholic-specific criteria: (e.g., anhedonia: OR = 20, p < 0.001). Conclusion Depressed fibromyalgia patients commonly experience both atypical and melancholic depressive features; however, in this study, atypical depression was 1.5 times more common than melancholic depression. This finding may have significant research and clinical implications.

2010-01-01

359

Depression, Physical Health and Somatic Complaints in the Elderly: A Study of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|No relationship was found between health ratings and depression scores, but a significant association emerged between a somatic symptom subscale and depression scores. Results indicated a factor structure based on the positioning of the positively and negatively worded items. (Author)|

Steuer, Joanne; And Others

1980-01-01

360

Variation in the Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the association between race and depressive symptoms over a 16?year study period. The analysis is based on the responses of 3,485 African-American and White respondents from four waves of the Americans' Changing Lives Panel Study. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify latent trajectory classes based on the reported levels of depressive symptoms over 16 years. Four

Karen D. Lincoln; David T. Takeuchi

2010-01-01

361

Body-Image and Eating Disturbances Predict Onset of Depression Among Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined data from a 4-year school-based longitudinal study (n = 1,124), to test whether the increase in major depression that occurs among girls during adolescence may be partially explained by the body-image and eating disturbances that emerge after puberty. Elevated body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms at study entry predicted onset of subsequent depression among initially nondepressed

Eric Stice; Chris Hayward; Rebecca P. Cameron; Joel D. Killen; C. Barr Taylor

2000-01-01

362

Association of Symptoms of Depression and Obesity With Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is growing evidence that symptoms of depression influence the development of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect relationships between symptoms of depression, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a biracial (African American–white) rural population.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with 1017 study participants (aged 12 to 62 years, 60%

Azad Alamgir Kabir; Paul K. Whelton; M. Mahmud Khan; Jeanette Gustat; Wei Chen

2006-01-01

363

Depression and obesity: A meta-analysis of community-based studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the nature of the association between depression and obesity and to determine possible underlying (demographic) factors, we conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies in the general population. We searched in major bibliographical databases (PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo) for studies examining the association between obesity and depression in the adult, general population. Seventeen studies were included with a total

Leonore de Wit; Floriana Luppino; Annemieke van Straten; Brenda Penninx; Frans Zitman; Pim Cuijpers

2010-01-01

364

The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in order to examine (interaction between) predictors of the long-term course and consequences.Its design is an eight-year longitudinal cohort study

Brenda W. J. H. Penninx; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Johannes H. Smit; Frans G. Zitman; Willem A. Nolen; Philip Spinhoven; Pim Cuijpers; Peter J. De Jong; Harm W. J. Van Marwijk; Willem J. J. Assendelft; Klaas Van Der Meer; Peter Verhaak; Michel Wensing; Ron De Graaf; Witte J. Hoogendijk; Johan Ormel; Richard Van Dyck

2008-01-01

365

Neighbourhood characteristics, individual level socioeconomic factors, and depressive symptoms in young adults: the CARDIA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between neighbourhood socioeconomic and ethnic characteristics with depressive symptoms in a population based sample.\\u000aDESIGN: Cross sectional data from the CARDIA study, including the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale score (CES-D). Neighbourhoods were 1990 US census blocks of 1000 people; six census variables reflecting wealth\\/income, education, and occupation investigated separately and as a

Claire Henderson; Ana V. Diez-Roux; David R. Jacobs; Catarina I. Kiefe; Delia West; David R. Williams

2005-01-01

366

Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Social Support in Adolescent Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that adolescent mothers with higher social support have lower depressive symptoms. This is\\u000a a longitudinal study of adolescent mothers to examine the association of social support and depressive symptoms over one year\\u000a postpartum. This was a prospective study of adolescent mothers (N at baseline = 120, N at 1 year = 89; age < 19 years) enrolled\\u000a in a teen tot program. Participants completed

Joanna D. Brown; Sion Kim Harris; Elizabeth R. Woods; Matthew P. Buman; Joanne E. Cox

367

Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children's diets?  

PubMed Central

Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as “Partner Schools” and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as “Associate Schools”. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention “Associate Schools” or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children’s knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school’s gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children’s diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528

2012-01-01

368

Patients' views of physical activity as treatment for depression: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical guidance recommends physical activity to manage patients with persistent subthreshold depressive symptoms or mild-to-moderate depression. However, little is known regarding the acceptability of physical activity as a treatment for depression from patients' perspective. Aim To explore patients' views of physical activity for the treatment of depression in the context of primary care. Design of study In-depth interviews were held with 33 participants taking part in a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of physical activity for the management of depression. Setting Primary care. Results Most participants perceived physical activity to be an acceptable treatment for depression. The mechanisms by which physical activity could enhance mood were attributed to a number of subjective benefits including biochemical pathways, providing a source of distraction from negative thoughts, and a sense of purpose. Participants who expressed a belief that their depression was caused by biochemical mechanisms reported activity that ‘raised the heartbeat’ as most beneficial, while those who believed depression was situational in origin tended to state the benefits of less-aerobic activities, such as walking. Many participants reported low motivation and a lack of confidence as barriers to undertaking physical activity. These patients suggested that medication could be helpful for initiating and maintaining activity. Conclusion Patients view physical activity as an effective treatment for depression. However, they vary in their views about how physical activity might impact on depression, what intensity and form of activity is necessary to enhance mood, and the barriers to undertaking activity. This variation suggests the need for GPs to elicit patients' views on physical activity as a treatment, and offer interventions that are tailored to the needs and expectations of individual patients.

Searle, Aidan; Calnan, Michael; Lewis, Glyn; Campbell, John; Taylor, Adrian; Turner, Katrina

2011-01-01

369

Prevalence of Depression among University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Depression is one of the four major diseases in the world and is the most common cause of disability from diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression among Iranian university students using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods. Keyword depression was searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MAGIran, Medlib, and SID. Data was analyzed using meta-analysis (random-effects model). Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data was analyzed using STATA software Ver.10. Results. In 35 studies conducted in Iran from 1995 to 2012 with sample size of 9743, prevalence of depression in the university students was estimated to be 33% (95% CI: 32–34). The prevalence of depression among boys was estimated to be 28% (95% CI: 26–30), among girls 23% (95% CI: 22–24), single students 39% (95% CI: 37–41), and married students 20% (95% CI: 17–24). Metaregression model showed that the trend of depression among Iranian students was flat. Conclusions. On the whole, depression is common in university students with no preponderance between males and females and in single students is higher than married ones.

Sarokhani, Diana; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Sarokhani, Mohamad Taher; Manesh, Rohollah Esmaeli; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

2013-01-01

370

A test-retest study of cerebral blood flow during somatosensory stimulation in depressed patients with schizophrenia and major depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Six depressed patients with schizophrenia and 6 depressed patients with major depression were investigated before and during somatosensory stimulation (SS) with Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. 8 controls were investigated only under resting conditions. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Both psychiatric patient groups were hypofrontal (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) compared to controls. 2. Hypofrontality was further enhanced by SS,

D. Ebert; H. Feistel; A. Barocka; W. Kaschka; T. Mokrusch

1993-01-01

371

A study of arc force, pool depression and weld penetration during gas tungsten arc welding  

SciTech Connect

Weld pool depression, arc force, weld penetration, and their interrelations have been studied as a function of welding current. Pool depression and welding arc force have been measured simultaneously using a recently developed technique. The authors found quadratic dependence of arc force on current, confirming similar findings in previous studies. Pool depression is essentially zero below a threshold level of current (200 A in this experiment) and then increases quadratically with current. A perfectly linear relation between arc force and pool depression was found in the current range from 200 to 350 A, with pool depression onset at about 0.35 g force (0.34 [center dot] 10[sup [minus]2]N). The total surface tension and gravitational forces were calculated, from the measured surface topography, and found to be about five times that required to balance the arc force at 300 A. Thus electromagnetic and hydrodynamic forces must be taken into account to explain the measured levels of pool depression. The relation between weld penetration and pool depression for different welding currents has been established. Three distinct regimes of weld penetration on weld current were found.

Rokhlin, S.I.; Guu, A.C. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Welding Engineering)

1993-08-01

372

A prospective study of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in patients with essential hypertension.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to examine the relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in essential hypertension patients. Both cross-sectional and prospective relationships were studied in a sample of 650 essential hypertension patients. The cognitive emotion regulation strategies accounted for considerable amounts of variance in depressive symptoms. The following subscales were significantly positively correlated with first-time measurement and follow-up measurement of depressive symptoms: self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others. Positive reappraisal was significantly and positively correlated with first-time measurement of depressive symptoms. In contrast, the following subscales were significantly negatively correlated with follow-up measurement of depressive symptoms: acceptance, positive refocus, refocus on planning, positive reappraisal. Results of multiple regression analyses shows that elevated levels of self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others predicted increases in follow-up measurement of depressive symptoms, while elevated levels of acceptance and refocus on planning predicted decreases follow-up measurement of depressive symptoms. These findings provide us with important targets for intervention programs. PMID:21166601

Xiao, Jing; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Abela, John R Z; Chen, Xiaogang; Duan, Shu; Zhao, Shuiping

2010-12-19

373

Design Cognition: Results From Protocol And Other Empirical Studies Of Design Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews protocol and other empirical studies of design activity, and summarises results relevant to understanding the nature of design cognition from an interdisciplinary, domain-independent overview. Results are presented in three major aspects of design cognition - the formulation of problems, the generation of solutions, and the utilisation of design process strategies. Parallels and comparisons between results are drawn,

Nigel Cross

2001-01-01

374

From Informal Knowledge to Formal Logic: A Realistic Case Study in Medical Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our experience in a case study with constructing fully for- malised knowledge models of realistic, specialised medical knowledge. We have taken a medical protocol in daily use by medical specialists, modelled this knowl- edge in a specific-purpose knowledge representation language, and finally for- malised this knowledge representation in terms of temporal logic and parallel programs. The value of

Mar Marcos; Michael Balser; Annette Ten Teije; Frank Van Harmelen

2002-01-01

375

Associations between anxious-depressed symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in a longitudinal childhood study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.To examine the influence of anxious\\/depressed scores on cardiovascular risk factors throughout childhood.\\u000aMethods. Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a study of 2900 pregnancies recruited between 1989 and 1991, were used. Anxious-depressed scores (derived from the Childhood Behavior Checklist), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured at 5 (n=1681), 8 (n=1697), 10 (n=1575) and

Sandra Louise; Nicole Warrington; Pamela McCuskie; Wendy Oddy; Stephen Zubrick; Beth P Hands; Trevor Mori; Laurent Briollais; Sven Silburn; Lyle Palmer; Eugene Mattes; Lawrence Beilin

2012-01-01

376

Depression-like deficits in rats improved by subchronic modafinil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Attentional and sensorimotor gating deficits in human depression are observed as residual symptoms irrespective of antidepressant\\u000a treatment. Clinical studies point to a benefit of modafinil in depression. No data are available on modafinil effects in depression-like\\u000a animal models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We investigated effects of modafinil on attention and sensorimotor gating after subchronic treatment during a restraint stress\\u000a protocol inducing depression-like changes in

Ralf Regenthal; Holger Koch; Christian Köhler; Rainer Preiss; Ute Krügel

2009-01-01

377

Compounded effect of early adolescence depressive symptoms and impulsivity on late adolescence gambling: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Depression and impulsivity have been positively correlated to problem gambling, but no study has focused on the combined effects of both on the onset of problem gambling. This study examined the possible synergistic effect of depressive symptoms and impulsivity in early adolescence on late adolescence gambling behaviors among a longitudinal cohort of 678 students from Baltimore, MD. Methods The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Revised (TOCA-R), and Baltimore How I Feel-Adolescent Version (BHIF-AY), were used to assess late adolescence gambling behaviors, early adolescence impulsivity and depressive symptoms, respectively. Data analyses were conducted using ANOVA and binary logistic regression models. Results Twelve percent of the sample were problem gamblers (includes at-risk and problem gamblers), 87.5% of whom were males and 12.5% were females (p<0.001). Among males, there appeared to be a slight association between early adolescence depressive symptoms and late adolescence problem gambling. Compared to nongambling (NG) and social gambling (SG), depressive symptoms increased the odds of problem gambling by four-fold (PG vs. NG: OR=4.1, 95% CI=0.73–22.47, p=0.11; PG vs. SG: OR=3.9, 95% CI=0.78–19.31, p=0.10). Among those with high depressive symptoms, increases in impulsivity decreased the odds of problem gambling while among those with high impulsivity, increases in depressive symptoms decreased the odds of problem gambling. Conclusions Early adolescence depressive symptoms appear to be more positively associated with late adolescence problem gambling than early adolescence impulsivity, there seems to be a divisive interaction between depressive symptoms and impulsivity on problem gambling.

Lee, Grace P.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

2010-01-01

378

Neuroactive Steroids in Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain neuroactive steroids modulate ligand-gated ion channels via non-genomic mechanisms. Especially 3?-reduced pregnane steroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor. During major depression, there is a disequilibrium of 3?-reduced neuroactive steroids, which is corrected by clinically effective pharmacological treatment. To investigate whether these alterations are a general principle of successful antidepressant treatment, we

Daniela Eser; Cornelius Schüle; Thomas C. Baghai; Elena Romeo; Rainer Rupprecht

2006-01-01

379

Rumination and depression in adolescence: investigating symptom specificity in a multiwave prospective study.  

PubMed

A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted prospective elevations in depressive symptoms specifically. Rumination was assessed at baseline in a sample of early and middle adolescents (N = 350, 6-10th graders). Symptom measures of depression, anxious arousal, general internalizing, and conduct/externalizing problems with good discriminant validity were assessed at four time points over a 5-month period. Results using hierarchical linear modeling show that rumination predicted prospective fluctuations in symptoms of depression and general internalizing problems specifically but not anxious arousal or externalizing problems. Rumination predicted increasing prospective trajectories of general internalizing symptoms. Baseline rumination interacted with prospective co-occurring fluctuations of anxious arousal and externalizing behaviors over time to predict the highest levels of prospective depressive symptoms. Rumination partly mediated the sex difference (girls > boys) in depressive and internalizing symptoms. PMID:18991122

Hankin, Benjamin L

2008-10-01

380

Prevalence of Students with Symptoms of Depression among High School Students in a District of Western Turkey: An Epidemiological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of depression and also to present some pertinent comments concerning prevention of depression among high school students. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of depression among high school students. Methods: A sample of students aged 14-19…

Unsal, Alaaddin; Ayranci, Unal

2008-01-01

381

Bright star — black sky a phenomenological study of depression as a window into the psyche of the gifted adolescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study investigated the lived experience of the depressive state of ten gifted adolescents. In?depth unstructured interviews were conducted, transcribed and analyzed to reveal the essence, structure and meaning of the depressive state for each of the subjects. The analysis revealed a complex stratum of influences fueling the depressive experience. At the core of the experience is the gifted

P. Susan Jackson

1998-01-01

382

Feasibility of Providing Culturally Relevant, Brief Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Antenatal Depression in an Obstetrics Clinic: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen

2004-01-01

383

Remission and Residual Symptoms after Short-Term Treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or…

Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John

2006-01-01

384

Depression and Epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS

Depression You are here: Home About Epilepsy Related Conditions Depression Email Print Twitter Facebook MySpace Delicous Stumble ... susceptible to mood disorders. People with Epilepsy and Depression The results of studies to find out how ...

385

Vulnerability for Depression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vulnerability to depression and the antecedents for depression were collected and analyzed for an epidemiological pilot study of depression. Results of one test showed those categorized as 'invulnerables' as having a more positive opinion of their soc...

P. M. Lewinsohn

1980-01-01

386

A comparative study of the SIP and IAX VoIP protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a strong focus on the development of scalable voice over IP (VoIP) protocols, which are suitable for wide scale deployment. SIP (session initiation protocol) is one such protocol which has been the subject of extensive research over the past few years. More recently, IAX (interasterisk exchange protocol) has emerged as a new VoIP protocol which is

Taemoor Abbasi; Shekhar Prasad; Nabil Seddigh; Ioannis Lambadaris

2005-01-01

387

Optimism and depression as predictors of physical and mental health functioning: the Normative Aging Study.  

PubMed

Dispositional optimism has been linked in previous studies to better health outcomes. We sought to examine the independent associations of dispositional optimism and depressive symptoms with physical and mental functioning in a cohort of healthy middle-aged and older men. The study was conducted among 659 subjects in the Veterans Administration (VA) Normative Aging Study. Dispositional optimism and depressive symptomatology were measured in 1991 and 1990, respectively, by the Life Orientation Test and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D). The dependent variables, functioning and well-being, were measured in 1992 by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate regression models, optimism was associated with higher levels of general health perceptions, vitality, and mental health, and lower levels of bodily pain, but not to physical functioning, social functioning, or role limitations due to physical or emotional problems. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced levels of functioning across all SF-36 domains. The findings for optimism and depression were statistically significant after mutual adjustment in multivariate regression models. Optimism and depression are independent predictors of functional status among aging men. PMID:10962705

Achat, H; Kawachi, I; Spiro, A; DeMolles, D A; Sparrow, D

2000-01-01

388

Pathway for inpatients with depressive episode in Flemish psychiatric hospitals: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Within the context of a biopsychosocial model of the treatment of depressive episodes, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Clinical pathways have been developed and implemented in hospitals to support multidisciplinary teamwork. The aim of this study is to explore current practice for the treatment of depressive episodes in Flemish psychiatric hospitals. Current practice in different hospitals is studied to get an idea of the similarities (outlined as a pathway) and the differences in the treatment of depressive episodes. Methods A convenience sample of 11 Flemish psychiatric hospitals participated in this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with different types of health care professionals (n = 43). The websites of the hospitals were searched for information on their approach to treating depressive episodes. Results A flow chart was made including the identified stages of the pathway: pre-admission, admission (observation and treatment), discharge and follow-up care. The characteristics of each stage are described. Although the stages are identified in all hospitals, differences between hospitals on various levels of the pathway exist. Hospitals emphasized the individual approach of each patient. The results point to a biopsychosocial approach to treating depressive episodes. Conclusion This study outlined current practice as a pathway for Flemish inpatients with depressive episodes. Within the context of surveillance of quality and quantity of care, this study may encourage hospitals to consider developing clinical pathways.

Desplenter, Franciska A; Laekeman, Gert M; Simoens, Steven R

2009-01-01

389

Bioindicators in the MIDUS National Study: Protocol, Measures, Sample, and Comparative Context  

PubMed Central

Objectives MIDUS is a national study of health and aging among individuals aged 25 to 74 at baseline(1995/96). Longitudinal survey assessments (2004/05), were followed by biological assessments on a subsample aged 35–85. To facilitate public use, we describe the protocol, measures, and sample. Methods Respondents traveled to clinics for a two-day data collection protocol that included fasting blood specimens, 12-hour urine specimen, medical history, physical exam, bone densitometry, a laboratory challenge (heart rate variability, blood pressure, respiration, salivary cortisol). Results Response rates for the biological protocol (N = 1,255) were 39.3%, or 43.1% (adjusting for those who could not be located or contacted). Reasons for non-participation were travel, family obligations, and being too busy. Respondents were comparable to the recruitment pool on most demographic characteristics and health assessments. Discussion Strengths of the protocol vis-à-vis other similar studies include opportunities to link biological factors with diverse content from other MIDUS projects.

Love, Gayle Dienberg; Seeman, Teresa E.; Weinstein, Maxine; Ryff, Carol D.

2010-01-01

390

Diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression: improvement of both diseases with milnacipran. A replication study (results of the Austrian Major Depression Diabetes Mellitus study group)  

PubMed Central

Comorbid depression is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with greater mortality risk and a higher incidence of diabetic complications and decreased quality of life. In an earlier pilot study, we found that treatment with the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, milnacipran, significantly improved metabolic parameters in diabetic patients with comorbid depression who had an antidepressant response. We sought to replicate these results in a larger cohort (n = 135). Patients received milnacipran and metformin for 6 months and metabolic parameters and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. At the end of the study, 72.6% of patients had an antidepressant response (?50% reduction of baseline Beck Depression Inventory score). Overall, there was significant improvement in the metabolic and anthropometric parameters measured. The number of patients with glycated hemoglobin > 8% (>63.9 mmol/mol), an indicator of poor metabolic control requiring intensive therapeutic intervention, decreased from 31.9% at baseline to 11.9% during the study. As found in the pilot study, levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were only significantly decreased in antidepressant responders. Body weight was significantly reduced in both responders and nonresponders but the effect size was significantly greater in the responder group. In contrast to the pilot study, fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin were significantly decreased to a similar extent in both antidepressant-responders and nonresponders. The present study thus replicates some of the original findings. The main difference between the present and the pilot study is that in the larger cohort significant reductions in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin were found in all patients irrespective of whether or not they responded to antidepressant treatment. The present data underline the importance of diagnosis and treatment of comorbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with milnacipran.

Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Hofmann, Peter; Kinzl, Johann; Toplak, Hermann

2012-01-01

391

Depression and Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States: a phenomenological study.  

PubMed

This phenomenological study, using the Husserlian philosophy, explored the perceptions of Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States and their portrayal of depression. Through face-to-face, semi-structured, audio-taped interviews incorporating open-ended questions and probes to facilitate discussion, the study examined a purposive sample of 19 Nigerian-born immigrant women's perception of depression. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven step method of data analysis. The findings from the study uncovered six themes: (1) craziness and madness; (2) curse and evil spirit possession; (3) denial and secrecy; (4) isolation and rejection; (5) spirituality and religion; and (6) need for education. Findings indicated that Nigerian-born women were not able to differentiate depression from other types of mental illnesses. The women described depression as something that affects others and not them. The women's perception provided insight into why the clergy was preferred for treatment of depression rather than health care professionals. The findings of the study should increase the awareness of nurses and other health care professionals of the need to focus on evidence-based, culturally specific research, and illuminate issues surrounding depression in this population. PMID:20465767

Ezeobele, I; Malecha, A; Landrum, P; Symes, L

2010-04-01

392

Chronic ?-3 fatty acids supplementation promotes beneficial effects on anxiety, cognitive and depressive-like behaviors in rats subjected to a restraint stress protocol.  

PubMed

Recent evidence has demonstrated dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behaviors induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the impact of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation in an early phase of the brain development with the goal of preventing or even attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors such as depressive-like behaviors, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions in male rats subjected to restraint stress. Our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the anxiogenic effects of stress as evidenced by the rats' increased exploration time in the aversive arms of the elevated plus maze. The forced swimming test indicated that immobility and swimming were more deeply influenced by PUFAs supplementation, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by restraint stress, but the effects were surprisingly counteracted by the PUFAs supplementation. Lastly, plasmatic corticosterone levels were demonstrated to be drastically increased by the restraint stress; however, PUFAs supplementation promoted a reduction of this stress-related hormone to levels that were comparable to those observed in the control group. Our results suggested that the mechanisms underlying these effects are possibly associated with the reduction of corticosterone levels promoted by the PUFAs supplementation in the stress-induced animals. Further studies to examine the participation of PUFAs in mediating different behaviors in rats subjected to restraint stress are warranted. PMID:21192985

Ferraz, Anete Curte; Delattre, Ana Marcia; Almendra, Rhiana G; Sonagli, Marina; Borges, Conrado; Araujo, Paula; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Lima, Marcelo M S

2010-12-27

393

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), a treatment combining mindfulness meditation and interventions taken from cognitive therapy, in patients suffering from chronic-recurrent depression. Currently symptomatic patients with at least three previous episodes of depression and a history of suicidal ideation were randomly allocated to receive either MBCT delivered in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU; N=14 completers)

Thorsten Barnhofer; Catherine Crane; Emily Hargus; Myanthi Amarasinghe; Rosie Winder; J. Mark G. Williams

2009-01-01

394

Measurement Properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale in a Homeless Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale (CES–D; L. S. Radloff, 1977) were evaluated in a probability sample of homeless adults residing in a large and demographically diverse community. The findings from this investigation suggest that the CES–D is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms among homeless adults and that the factor structure of the scale replicates

Yin-Ling Irene Wong

2000-01-01

395

Prevalence, incidence, and persistence of major depressive symptoms in the Cardiovascular Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore the association of major depressive symptoms with advancing age, sex, and self-rated health among older adults.Design and methods: We analyzed 10 years of annual assessments in a longitudinal cohort of 5888 Medicare recipients in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Self-rated health was assessed with a single question, and subjects categorized as healthy or sick. Major depressive symptoms were

Stephen M. Thielke; Paula Diehr; Jürgen Unützer

2010-01-01

396

A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Negative Expectations and Perceptions of Child Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of children’s problems. One hundred and nineteen mother–child dyads were followed from the third trimester of pregnancy for almost 10 years. Depressive symptoms and background factors of the mothers and the anticipated\\/perceived problems of their firstborn were assessed prenatally, postnatally, and when the

Ilona Luoma; Pälvi Kaukonen; Mirjami Mäntymaa; Kaija Puura; Tuula Tamminen; Raili Salmelin

2004-01-01

397

1 H-MRS study of a depressive animal model for assessment of antidepressant effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a the purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic alterations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of depressive\\u000a rats using proton MRS before and after antidepressant treatment. The acute depressive state was induced by a forced swimming\\u000a test (FST), which composed of two swimming session. The tricylic antidepressant (TCA) treatment was administered with a subchronic\\u000a pattern before last swimming

Sang-Young Kim; Chi-Bong Choi; Sung-Ho Lee; Dong-Cheol Woo; Hyun-Sung Lee; Sung-Tak Hong; Hwi-Yool Kim; Bo-Young Choe

398

Cognition and Depression in a Cohort of Aging Men: Results From the Western Collaborative Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between cognitive performance and self-ratings of depression on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES–D; L. S. Radloff, 1977) were examined for 1,217 older men. After controlling for demographic variables and both objective and subjective measures of health, significant associations were observed between several CES–D variables and measures of cognitive mental status, memory, and psychomotor speed. The Well-Being

Asenath La Rue; Gary E. Swan; Dorit Carmelli

1995-01-01

399

Measurement Properties of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D) in Older Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cross-sectional samples of adults were administered the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale (CES–D). Confirmatory item factor analysis showed that Radloff's (1977) four factor model fit the data well, but that the four factors were highly intercorrelated. A simultaneous second-order factor model fitting a single second-order Depression factor also fit well. Multiple group analyses of the first-order solution yielded

Christopher Hertzog; Judith Van Alstine; Paul D. Usala; David F. Hultsch; Roger Dixon

1990-01-01

400

Preadolescent antecedents of depressive symptomatology at age 18: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to summarize the theoretical frame-work, methodological orientation, and gender-differentiated findings of our ongoing study of the personality context, prospective and concurrent, for depressive symptoms at age 18; and (2) to report new longitudinal relations between preadolescent play constructions (at age 11) and depressive tendencies reported seven years later. Eighty-seven 18-year-olds completed the

Per F. Gjerde; Jack Block

1991-01-01

401

Distress and Depression in Men Who Have Sex With Men: The Urban Men's Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study estimates the prev- alence of depression and describes the correlates and independent associations of distress and depression among U.S. men who have sex with men. Method: A household-based probability sample of men who have sex with men (N=2,881) was interviewed between 1996 and 1998 in four large American cities. With cutoff points of 15 and 22 for

Thomas C. Mills; Jay Paul; Ron Stall; M. P. H. Lance Pollack; D. Jesse Canchola; Jason Chang; M. S. Judith; T. Moskowitz; Joseph A. Catania

2004-01-01

402

Suicidal Events in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives—We analyzed the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) database to determine whether suicidal events (attempts and ideation) occurred early in treatment, could be predicted by severity of depression or other clinical characteristics, and were preceded by clinical deterioration or symptoms of increased irritability, akathisia, sleep disruption, or mania. Methods—TADS was a 36-week randomized controlled clinical trial of pharmacological

Benedetto Vitiello; Susan G. Silva; Paul Rohde; Christopher J. Kratochvil; Betsy D. Kennard; Mark A. Reinecke; Taryn L. Mayes; Kelly Posner; Diane E. May; John S. March

2009-01-01

403

The heritability of hedonic capacity and perceived stress: a twin study evaluation of candidate depressive phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Anhedonia and stress sensitivity have been identified as promising depressive phenotypes. Research suggests that stress-induced anhedonia is a possible mechanism underlying the association between stress and depression. The present proof-of-concept study assessed whether hedonic capacity and stress perception are heritable and whether their genetic and environmental contributions are shared. Method. Twenty monozygotic (MZ) and 15 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs

R. Bogdan; D. A. Pizzagalli

2008-01-01

404

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treating Medication-resistant Depression in Taiwan: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We conducted an open trial to evaluate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in medication-resistant depression. This is the first study in Taiwan of rTMS for the treatment of depression. Methods: A 2-week regimen of rTMS (100% of motor threshold, 5 Hz, 8 sec, 40 trains\\/20 min\\/day, 10 weekdays) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was

Chih-Chia Huang; Tung-Ping Su; I-Hua Wei

2005-01-01

405

A Prospective Naturalistic Study of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Late-Life Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a prospective, naturalistic study using standardized clinical rating scales to characterize the effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on mood, cognition, and medical status in late-life depression. Over a 16-month period, 40 patients aged 60 years and over who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for a major depressive episode received a total of 42 ECT courses. Three patients (7%) developed significant

Benoit H. Mulsant; Jules Rosen; Joe E. Thornton; George S. Zubenko

1991-01-01

406

Prospective Study of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Depressive Symptoms in Women and Men  

PubMed Central

Most studies of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and depression have been limited to cross-sectional designs. The objective of this study was to follow individuals over time to examine whether those with higher levels of CRF have lower risk of developing depressive symptoms. Participants were 11,258 men and 3,085 women enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study in Dallas, TX. All participants completed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline (1970–1995) and a follow-up health survey in 1990 and/or 1995. Individuals with a history of a mental disorder, cardiovascular disease, or cancer were excluded. CRF was quantified by exercise test duration, and categorized into age-stratified groups as low (lowest 20%), moderate (middle 40%), or high (upper 40%). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Those who scored 16 or more on the CES-D were considered to have depressive symptoms. After an average of 12 years of follow-up, 282 women and 740 men reported depressive symptoms. After adjusting for age, baseline examination year, and survey response year, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 31% lower for men with moderate CRF (odds ratio, OR 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.56–0.85) and 51% lower for men with high CRF (OR 0.49, CI 0.39–0.60), compared to men with low CRF. Corresponding ORs for women were 0.56 (CI 0.40–0.80) and 0.46 (CI 0.32–0.65). Higher CRF is associated with lower risk of incident depressive symptoms independent of other clinical risk predictors.

Sui, Xuemei; Laditka, James N.; Church, Timothy S.; Hardin, James W.; Chase, Nancy; Davis, Keith; Blair, Steven N.

2009-01-01

407

Measuring Depression in African American Cancer Survivors: The Reliability and Validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Study—Depression (CES-D) Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Epidemiologic Study—Depression (CES-D) Scale has been used to assess levels of depressive symptomatology in cancer survivors but has not been validated in African American cancer survivors. The current study assessed the reliability and validity of the CES-D in 216 African American cancer survivors. A Cronbach alpha was calculated to determine internal consistency reliability, and correlations were computed

Rhonda C. Conerly; Frank Baker; Joseph Dye; Charlene Y. Douglas; James Zabora

2002-01-01

408

Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Psoriasis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case) referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control) who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45%) were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (P < 0.05). Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men.

Golpour, Masoud; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Khademloo, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ebadi, Aghdas; Koohkan, Fatemeh; Shahmohammadi, Soheila

2012-01-01

409

Do Centenarians Show Higher Levels of Depression? Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Depressive symptoms are often reported to be higher in very old populations when compared to younger age groups. However, it is unclear whether the differences are due to age differences in dysphoria or in other components of depression. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine age differences for specific items and subscales of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). DESIGN The current study compared specific items, subscales, and the total score from the GDS among three age groups. SETTING Community-dwelling older adults were tested. PARTICIPANTS One hundred and thirty-nine centenarians were compared to 93 octogenarians and 91 sexagenarians. MEASUREMENTS The GDS (Brink et al., 1982) was used in this study. RESULTS Results indicated age-group differences in the overall depression score and in the withdrawal-apathy-vigor (WAV), mental impairment, and hopelessness subscale scores, as well as on the item level with significant age group differences on 12 of the 30 items. Centenarians rated higher on all subscales, but there was no difference in dysphoria. CONCLUSION It is important to distinguish different dimensions of depression when assessing very old populations because some of the questions on the GDS are associated with fatigue, mild cognitive decline, and decline in physical functioning which increase with aging. Future research should revisit the concept of depression in very late life.

Scheetz, Laura Temple; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

2011-01-01

410

Explanatory models in patients with first episode depression: a study from north India.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to study the explanatory models of patients with first episode depression presenting to a tertiary care hospital located in North-western India. One hundred sixty four consecutive patients with diagnosis of first episode depression (except severe depression with psychotic symptoms) according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) and ?18 years of age were evaluated for their explanatory models using the causal models section of Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). The most common explanations given were categorized into Karma-deed-heredity category (77.4%), followed by psychological explanations (62.2%), weakness (50%) and social causes (40.2%). Among the various specific causes the commonly reported explanations by at least one-fourth of the sample in decreasing order were: will of god (51.2%), fate/chance (40.9%), weakness of nerves (37.8%), general weakness (34.7%), bad deeds (26.2%), evil eye (24.4%) and family problems (21.9%). There was some influence of sociodemographic features on the explanations given by the patients. From the study, it can be concluded that patients with first episode depression have multiple explanatory models for their symptoms of depression which are slightly different than those reported in previous studies done from other parts of India. Understanding the multiple explanatory models for their symptoms of depression can have important treatment implications. PMID:22981054

Grover, Sandeep; Kumar, Vineet; Chakrabarti, Subho; Hollikatti, Prabhakar; Singh, Pritpal; Tyagi, Shikha; Kulhara, Parmanand; Avasthi, Ajit

2012-08-21

411

Neurofeedback for insomnia: a pilot study of Z-score SMR and individualized protocols.  

PubMed

Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols used instantaneous Z scores to determine reward condition administered when awake. Twelve adults with insomnia, free of other mental and uncontrolled physical illnesses, were randomly assigned to the SMR or IND group. Eight completed this randomized, parallel group, single-blind study. Both groups received fifteen 20-min sessions of Z-Score NFB. Pre-post assessments included sQEEG, mental health, quality of life, and insomnia status. ANOVA yielded significant post-treatment improvement for the combined group on all primary insomnia scores: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI p<.005), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI p<.0001), PSQI Sleep Efficiency (p<.007), and Quality of Life Inventory (p<.02). Binomial tests of baseline EEGs indicated a significant proportion of excessively high levels of Delta and Beta power (p<.001) which were lowered post-treatment (paired z-tests p<.001). Baseline EEGs showed excessive sleepiness and hyperarousal, which improved post-treatment. Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol. PMID:21789650

Hammer, Barbara U; Colbert, Agatha P; Brown, Kimberly A; Ilioi, Elena C

2011-12-01

412

Measurement properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale in a homeless population.  

PubMed

The measurement properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D; L. S. Radloff, 1977) were evaluated in a probability sample of homeless adults residing in a large and demographically diverse community. The findings from this investigation suggest that the CES-D is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms among homeless adults and that the factor structure of the scale replicates the factor structure found in the general population. Change in the CES-D scores was associated with change in residential status, with participants who had made a transition from homelessness to regular domicile, reporting significantly lower levels of depressive symptomatology. This result indicates the scale's sensitivity to current depressive mood, as affected by significant life events encountered by homeless persons. PMID:10752365

Wong, Y L

2000-03-01

413

Escitalopram for Major Depression in Parkinson's Disease: An Open-Label, Flexible-Dosage Study  

PubMed Central

Depression and antidepressant use are common in Parkinson’s disease, but the benefit of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in this population has not been established. The authors treated 14 Parkinson’s disease patients with major depression with escitalopram in an open-label study. Although treatment was well tolerated and correlated with a significant decrease in Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology score, response and remission rates were only 21% and 14%, respectively. However, half of the subjects met Clinical Global Impression-Improvement criteria for response. In Parkinson’s disease, either SSRIs may have limited antidepressant effects, or the use of existing depression diagnostic and rating instruments may be problematic.

Weintraub, Daniel; Taraborelli, Donna; Morales, Knashawn H.; Duda, John E.; Katz, Ira R.; Stern, Matthew B.

2006-01-01

414

Antenatal depression and suicidal ideation among rural Bangladeshi women: a community-based study.  

PubMed

Depression during pregnancy is a significant public health problem because of its negative effects on the health of both mother and infant. Data on its prevalence and determinants are lacking in Bangladesh. To estimate the prevalence of depression during pregnancy and to identify potential contributory factors among rural Bangladeshi women, a community-based study was conducted during 2005 in Matlab sub-district, a rural area of eastern Bangladesh. Three hundred and sixty-one pregnant women were identified through an existing health and demographic surveillance system covering a population of 110,000 people. The women were interviewed at home at 34-35 weeks of pregnancy. Information on risk factors was collected through structured questionnaires, with the Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) used to measure their psychological status. Both univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were applied using the SPSS 15.0 statistical software. The prevalence of depression at 34-35 weeks pregnancy was 33% (95% CI, 27.6-37.5). After adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression model, a history of being beaten by her husband either during or before the current pregnancy had the highest association with depression followed by having an unhelpful or unsupportive mother-in-law or husband, and family preference for a male child. Of the antenatally depressed women, 17 (14%) admitted to thoughts of self-harm during the pregnancy. This paper further explores the reasons why women have considered some form of self-harm during pregnancy. Depression during pregnancy is common among Bangladeshi women, with about a third being affected. The study highlights the need to allocate resources and develop strategies to address depression in pregnancy. PMID:19468825

Gausia, Kaniz; Fisher, Colleen; Ali, Mohammed; Oosthuizen, Jacques

2009-05-26

415

Agomelatine versus venlafaxine XR in the treatment of anhedonia in major depressive disorder: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the present study was to compare the effects of agomelatine (AGO) and venlafaxine XR (VLX) on anhedonia in patients with major depressive disorder. Secondary end points were to test its antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy.Sixty patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to two different treatments: AGO (25-50 mg/d; n = 30 subjects) or VLX (75-150 mg/d, n = 30 subjects). Psychopathological assessment was performed at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment with the Snaith Hamilton Rating Scale (SHAPS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression for anhedonia, depression, anxiety, and global improvement, respectively.Both groups showed a significant reduction in time for the SHAPS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. A significant between-group difference was observed for SHAPS scores: patients treated with AGO showed a more relevant reduction compared with that in VLX-treated patients. Moreover, only patients treated with AGO showed a statistically significant improvement in Clinical Global Impression scores.In this study, AGO showed significantly greater efficacy on anhedonia and similar antidepressant efficacy to the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor VLX in patients with major depressive disorder during an 8-week treatment period. Anhedonia has been considered a potential trait marker related to vulnerability for depression. Therefore, the efficacy of AGO on this dimension holds particular importance in the treatment of patients with anhedonic features. PMID:22722509

Martinotti, Giovanni; Sepede, Gianna; Gambi, Francesco; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; De Berardis, Domenico; Di Nicola, Marco; Onofrj, Marco; Janiri, Luigi; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2012-08-01

416

Temporomandibular pain and depression in adolescents--a case-control study.  

PubMed

This study compared the depression status of adolescents with temporomandibular (TM) pain to those without, considering the influence of age, sex, and other pain conditions. From a general population sample of 455 adolescents, 29 cases (mean age, 15.3 years) with current TM pain were compared with 44 age-matched controls without such pain. Study participants were examined for general health status, additional pain sites (back, abdomen, and head) in the previous month, and depression, using a 15-item German-language depression questionnaire. Cases had a statistically significant higher average depression score than controls (14.2 +/- 7.1 vs. 9.7 +/- 6.3; t test, p < 0.01), and they reported more often additional pain. The more pain sites were mentioned, the higher was the depression score [no pain, 4.0 +/- 2.8; four pains, 17.3 +/- 8.0; analysis of variance (ANOVA), p < 0.001]. We conclude that TM pain assessment among adolescents should include a whole-body pain drawing as well as a screening questionnaire to identify pain-related depressive symptoms. PMID:19337762

Hirsch, C; Türp, J C

2009-04-01

417

Naturalistically Observed Sighing and Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study tested the degree to which naturalistically observed sighing in daily life is a behavioral indicator of depression and reported physical symptoms (i.e. experienced pain and flare days) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Design Thirteen RA patients wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), an observational ambulatory assessment tool, for two weekends (Friday through Sunday) approximately one month apart. The EAR periodically recorded snippets of ambient sounds from participants’ momentary environments (50 sec every 18 min). Sighs were coded from the sampled ambient sounds. Main Outcome Measures Depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Pain during the past month was assessed with a 10-cm visual-analog scale, and number of flare days during the prior 6 months was reported. Results Sighing was significantly and strongly related to patients’ levels of depression and non-significantly and less strongly to their reported pain and number of flare days. Conclusion The findings suggest that sighing can serve as an observable marker of depression in RA patients. Because of the small sample size, the findings should be considered preliminary.

Robbins, Megan L.; Mehl, Matthias R.; Holleran, Shannon E.; Kasle, Shelley

2010-01-01

418

Postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of postpartum depression among the Middle Eastern women living in Sydney, Australia. A phenomenologic research design was used to conduct in-depth, unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of 45 mothers who had experienced postpartum depression. The interviews were conducted in the mothers’ homes. Transcriptions of these interviews were analyzed

Violeta Lopez Nahas; Sharon Hillege; Nawal Amasheh

1999-01-01

419

Association between Depressive Symptoms and Fibrosis Markers: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Fibrosis plays an important role in heart failure (HF) and other diseases that occur more frequently with increasing age. Depression is associated with an increased risk of heart failure and other age-related diseases. This study examined the association between depressive symptoms and fibrosis markers in adults aged 65 years and above. Methods Fibrosis markers and depressive symptoms were assessed in 870 participants (age=80.9±5.9, 49% women) using a case-control design based on heart failure status (307 HF patients and 563 age- and sex-matched controls, of whom 284 with CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or hypercholesterolemia) and 279 controls without these CVD risk factors). Fibrosis markers were procollagen type I (PIP), type I collagen (CITP), and procollagen type III (PIIINP). Inflammation markers included C-reactive protein, white blood cell counts and fibrinogen. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale using a previously validated cut-off point for depression (CES-D ? 8). Covariates included: demographic and clinical variables. Results Depression was associated with higher levels of PIP (median=411.0, inter quartile range (IQR)=324.4–472.7 ng/mL vs. 387.6, IQR=342.0–512.5 ng/mL, p=0.006) and CITP (4.99, IQR=3.53–6.85, vs. 4.53, IQR=3.26–6.22 ?g/L, p=0.024), but not PIIIINP (4.07, IQR = 2.75–5.54 ?g/mL vs. 3.58, IQR=2.71–5.01 ?g/mL, p=0.29) compared to individuals without depression. Inflammation markers were also elevated in depressed participants (CRP, p=0.014; WBC, p=0.075; fibrinogen, p=0.074), but these inflammation markers did not account for the relationship between depression and fibrosis markers. Conclusions Depression is associated with elevated fibrosis markers and may therefore adversely affect heart failure and other age-related diseases in which extra-cellular matrix formation plays a pathophysiological role.

Kop, Willem J.; Kuhl, Emily A.; Barasch, Eddy; Jenny, Nancy S.; Gottlieb, Stephen; Gottdiener, John S.

2009-01-01

420

Image data transfer over the Internet protocol for air quality studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern digital technology allows image data transfer over the internet protocol, which provides real time observation and more frequent air quality studies can be carried at multi locational simultaneously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of using internet protocol camera to transfer image data, and then these data were analysed using a developed algorithm to determine air quality information. The concentrations of particulate matter of size less than 10 micron (PM10) were collected simultaneously with the image data acquisitions. The atmospheric reflectance components were subtracted from their corresponding recorded radiance values for algorithm regression analysis. The proposed algorithm produced high correlation coefficient (R) and low root-mean square error (RMS) values. The efficiency of the present algorithm, in comparison to other forms of algorithm, was also investigated. Based on the values of the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square deviation, the proposed algorithm is considered superior. The accuracy of using IP camera data was compared with a normal digital camera, Kodak DC290 data in this study. This preliminary study gave promising results of air quality studies over USM campus by using internet protocol data.

Wong, C. J.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

2006-06-01

421

Tranylcypromine vs nortriptyline vs placebo in depressed outpatients: a controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and adverse effects of tranylcypromine (a monoamine oxidase inhibitor), nortriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant), and placebo. A total of 122 depressed outpatients randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with one of these agents completed the 4-week protocol. Treatment groups were balanced for proportions of endogenous versus nonendogenous depressions, defined according to the Research Diagnostic

Kerrin White; Javad Razani; Barbara Cadow; Ronald Gelfand; Ruby Palmer; George Simpson; R. Bruce Sloane

1984-01-01

422

An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

2012-01-01

423

Qualitative study of depression management in primary care: GP and patient goals, and the value of listening  

PubMed Central

Background Guidelines for depression management have been developed but little is known about GP and patient goals, which are likely to influence treatment offers, uptake, and adherence. Aim To identify issues of importance to GPs, patients, and patients' supporters regarding depression management. GP and patient goals for depression management became a focus of the study. Design of study Grounded theory-based qualitative study. Setting GPs were drawn from 28 practices. The majority of patients and supporters were recruited from 10 of these practices. Method Sixty-one patients (28 depressed, 18 previously depressed, 15 never depressed), 18 supporters, and 32 GPs were interviewed. Results GPs described encouraging patients to view depression as separate from the self and ‘normal’ sadness. Patients and supporters often questioned such boundaries, rejecting the notion of a medical cure and emphasising self-management. The majority of participants who were considering depression-management strategies wanted to ‘get out’ of their depression. However, a quarter did not see this as immediately relevant or achievable. They focused on getting by from day to day, which had the potential to clash with GP priorities. GP frustration and uncertainty could occur when depression was resistant to cure. Participants identified the importance of GPs listening to patients, but often felt that this did not happen. Conclusion Physicians need greater awareness of the extent to which their goals for the management of depression are perceived as relevant or achievable by patients. Future research should explore methods of negotiating agreed strategies for management.

Johnston, Olwyn; Kumar, Satinder; Kendall, Kathleen; Peveler, Robert; Gabbay, John; Kendrick, Tony

2007-01-01

424

The Postpartum Depressive State in Relation to Perceived Rearing: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between perceived rearing and the postpartum depressive state remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether perceived rearing is a risk factor for postpartum depression as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and whether the score of perceived rearing is affected by depressive mood (the state dependency of perceived rearing). Methods Pregnant women (n?=?448, mean age 31.8±4.2 years) completed the EPDS as a measure of depressive state in early pregnancy (T1), late pregnancy (around 36 weeks), and at 1 month postpartum (T2), and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) at T1 as a measure of perceived rearing. Changes in the EPDS and the PBI scores from T1 to T2 were compared between the non depressive (ND) group and the postpartum depressive (PD) group. Results There were no significant differences in any PBI category for perceived rearing between the ND and PD groups at T1. EPDS scores did not change significantly from T1 to T2 in the ND group but increased significantly in the PD group. The PBI maternal care score increased significantly in the ND group (p<0.01), while decreasing in the PD group (p<0.05). Additionally, in both the ND and PD groups, significant negative correlation was observed regarding change in the EPDS and PBI maternal care scores from T1 to T2 (r?=??0.28, p?=?0.013). Conclusions The present study suggests that perceived rearing is not a strong risk factor for postpartum depression as measured by the EPDS. Furthermore, the results indicated the state dependency of the PBI maternal care score.

Okada, Takashi; Murase, Satomi; Aleksic, Branko; Furumura, Kaori; Shiino, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukako; Tamaji, Ai; Ishikawa, Naoko; Ohoka, Harue; Usui, Hinako; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

2012-01-01

425

Towards the study of functional brain development in depression: an Interactive Specialization approach.  

PubMed

Depression is a significant and impairing mood disorder with onset possible as early as age 3 and into adulthood. Given this varying pattern of age of onset, identifying the relationship between brain development and depression across the lifespan has proven elusive. This review identifies some of the factors that may have limited the advancement of our knowledge in this area and discusses how synthesizing established models of depression and normative brain development may help to overcome them. More specifically, it is suggested that current neurobiological models of depression fail to account for the developmental variance associated with early neural network development and the potential influence of experience on this process. The utility of applying an established framework of normative brain development to this topic is described and its potential utility for conceptualizing the inf