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1

Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy augmentation in major depression treatment (ECAM study): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Major depression is a serious mental disorder that causes substantial distress and impairment in individuals and places an enormous burden on society. Although antidepressant treatment is the most common therapy provided in routine practice, there is little evidence to guide second-line therapy for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants. The aim of this paper is to describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial that measures the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an augmentation strategy to treat patients with non-psychotic major depression identified as suboptimal responders to usual depression care. Methods and analysis The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded randomised, parallel-groups superiority trial with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care. Patients aged 20–65?years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder who have experienced at least one failed trial of antidepressants as part of usual depression care, will be randomly assigned to receive CBT plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone. The primary outcome is the change in clinician-rated 17-item GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD) score at 16?weeks, and secondary outcomes include severity and change in scores of subjective depression symptoms, proportion of responders and remitters, safety and quality of life. The primary population will be the intention-to-treat patients. Ethics and dissemination All protocols and the informed consent form comply with the Ethics Guideline for Clinical Research (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). Ethics review committees at the Keio University School of Medicine and the Sakuragaoka Memorial Hospital approved the study protocol. The results of the study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the CONSORT statement. Trial registration number UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001218. PMID:25335963

Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuda, Dai; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Abe, Takayuki; Sato, Yuji; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Ono, Yutaka

2014-01-01

2

Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in adolescents: study protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The 1?year prevalence of depression in adolescents is about 2%. Treatment with antidepressant medication is not recommended for initial treatment in young people due to concerns over high side effects, poor efficacy and addictive potential. Evidence suggests that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression and is currently one of the main treatment options recommended in adolescents. Given the affinity young people have with information technology they may be treated effectively, more widely and earlier in their illness evolution using computer-administered CBT (CCBT). Currently little is known about the clinical and resource implications of implementing CCBT within the National Health Service for adolescents with low mood/depression. We aim to establish the feasibility of running a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods and analysis Adolescents aged 12–18 with low mood/depression, (scoring ?20 on the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ)), will be approached to participate. Consenting participants will be randomised to either a CCBT programme (Stressbusters) or accessing selected websites providing information about low mood/depression. The primary outcome measure will be the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Participants will also complete generic health measures (EQ5D-Y, HUI2) and resource use questionnaires to examine the feasibility of cost-effectiveness analysis. Questionnaires will be completed at baseline, 4 and 12-month follow-ups. Progress and risk will be monitored via the MFQ administered at each treatment session. The acceptability of a CCBT programme to adolescents; and the willingness of clinicians to recruit participants and of participants to be randomised, recruitment rates, attrition rates and questionnaire completion rates will be collected for feasibility analysis. We will estimate ‘numbers needed’ to plan a fully powered RCT of clinical and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The current trial protocol received a favourable ethical opinion from Leeds (West) Research and Ethics Committee. (Reference: 10/H1307/137). Trial registration number ISRCTN31219579. PMID:25361841

Wright, Barry; Tindall, Lucy; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Adamson, Joy; Allgar, Victoria; Bennett, Sophie; Gilbody, Simon; Verduyn, Chrissie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Dyson, Lisa; Trépel, Dominic; Ali, Shehzad

2014-01-01

3

International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators. Methods/Design The International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) is a multi-centre, international, randomized, prospective, open-label trial. It is enrolling 2016 MDD outpatients (ages 18-65) from primary or specialty care practices (672 per treatment arm; 672 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls). Study-eligible patients are antidepressant medication (ADM) naïve or willing to undergo a one-week wash-out of any non-protocol ADM, and cannot have had an inadequate response to protocol ADM. Baseline assessments include symptoms; distress; daily function; cognitive performance; electroencephalogram and event-related potentials; heart rate and genetic measures. A subset of these baseline assessments are repeated after eight weeks of treatment. Outcomes include the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (primary) and self-reported depressive symptoms, social functioning, quality of life, emotional regulation, and side-effect burden (secondary). Participants may then enter a naturalistic telephone follow-up at weeks 12, 16, 24 and 52. The first half of the sample will be used to identify potential predictors and moderators, and the second half to replicate and confirm. Discussion First enrolment was in December 2008, and is ongoing. iSPOT-D evaluates clinical and biological predictors of treatment response in the largest known sample of MDD collected worldwide. Trial registration International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00693849 URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00693849?term=International+Study+to+Predict+Optimized+Treatment+for+Depression&rank=1 PMID:21208417

2011-01-01

4

Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite limited effectiveness of short-term psychotherapy for chronic depression, there is a lack of trials of long-term psychotherapy. Our study is the first to determine the effectiveness of controlled long-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments and to assess the effects of preferential vs. randomized assessment. Methods/design Patients are assigned to treatment according to their preference or randomized (if they have no clear preference). Up to 80 sessions of psychodynamic or psychoanalytically oriented treatments (PAT) or up to 60 sessions of CBT are offered during the first year in the study. After the first year, PAT can be continued according to the ‘naturalistic’ usual method of treating such patients within the system of German health care (normally from 240 up to 300 sessions over two to three years). CBT therapists may extend their treatment up to 80 sessions, but focus mainly maintenance and relapse prevention. We plan to recruit a total of 240 patients (60 per arm). A total of 11 assessments are conducted throughout treatment and up to three years after initiation of treatment. The primary outcome measures are the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS, independent clinician rating) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) after the first year. Discussion We combine a naturalistic approach with randomized controlled trials(RCTs)to investigate how effectively chronic depression can be treated on an outpatient basis by the two forms of treatment reimbursed in the German healthcare system and we will determine the effects of treatment preference vs. randomization. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN91956346 PMID:22834725

2012-01-01

5

A randomised, controlled trial of a dietary intervention for adults with major depression (the "SMILES" trial): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Despite increased investment in its recognition and treatment, depression remains a substantial health and economic burden worldwide. Current treatment strategies generally focus on biological and psychological pathways, largely neglecting the role of lifestyle. There is emerging evidence to suggest that diet and nutrition play an important role in the risk, and the genesis, of depression. However, there are limited data regarding the therapeutic impact of dietary changes on existing mental illness. Using a randomised controlled trial design, we aim to investigate the efficacy and cost-efficacy of a dietary program for the treatment of Major Depressive Episodes (MDE). Methods/Design One hundred and seventy six eligible participants suffering from current MDE are being randomised into a dietary intervention group or a social support group. Depression status is assessed using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Non Patient Edition) (SCID-I/NP). The intervention consists of 7 individual nutrition consulting sessions (of approximately 60 minutes), delivered by an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD). Sessions commence within one week of baseline assessment. The intervention focuses on advocating a healthy diet based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Guidelines for Adults in Greece. The control condition comprises a befriending protocol using the same visit schedule and length as the diet intervention. The study is being conducted at two locations in Victoria, Australia (a metropolitan and regional centre). Data collection occurs at baseline (pre-intervention), 3-months (post-intervention) and 6– months. The primary endpoint is MADRS scores at 3 months. A cost consequences analysis will determine the economic value of the intervention. Discussion If efficacious, this program could provide an alternative or adjunct treatment strategy for the management of this highly prevalent mental disorder; the benefits of which could extend to the management of common co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Trial registration NCT01523561 PMID:23587364

2013-01-01

6

Collaborative Depression Trial (CADET): multi-centre randomised controlled trial of collaborative care for depression - study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Comprising of both organisational and patient level components, collaborative care is a potentially powerful intervention for improving depression treatment in UK primary Care. However, as previous models have been developed and evaluated in the United States, it is necessary to establish the effect of collaborative care in the UK in order to determine whether this innovative treatment model can

David A Richards; Adwoa Hughes-Morley; Rachel A Hayes; Ricardo Araya; Michael Barkham; John M Bland; Peter Bower; John Cape; Carolyn A Chew-Graham; Linda Gask; Simon Gilbody; Colin Green; David Kessler; Glyn Lewis; Karina Lovell; Chris Manning; Stephen Pilling

2009-01-01

7

Cognitive bias modification to prevent depression (COPE): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and, although efficacious treatments are available, their efficacy is suboptimal and recurrence of symptoms is common. Effective preventive strategies could reduce disability and the long term social and health complications associated with the disorder, but current options are limited. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel, simple, and safe intervention that addresses attentional and interpretive biases associated with anxiety, dysphoria, and depression. The primary aim of this trial is to determine if CBM decreases the one-year onset of a major depressive episode among adults with subsyndromal depression. Design and methods This randomised controlled trial will recruit 532 adults with subsyndromal symptoms of depression living in the Australian community (parallel design, 1:1 allocation ratio). Participants will be free of clinically significant symptoms of depression and of psychotic disorders, sensory and cognitive impairment, and risky alcohol use. The CBM intervention will target attentional and interpretive biases associated with depressive symptoms. The sessions will be delivered via the internet over a period of 52 weeks. The primary outcome of interest is the onset of a major depressive episode according the DSM-IV-TR criteria over a 12-month period. Secondary outcomes of interest include change in the severity of depressive symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), use of antidepressants or benzodiazepines, and changes in attention and interpretive biases. The assessment of outcomes will take place 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomisation and will occur via the internet. Discussion We propose to test the efficacy of an innovative intervention that is well grounded in theory and for which increasing empirical evidence for an effect on mood is available. The intervention is simple, inexpensive, easy to access, and could be easily rolled out into practice if our findings confirm a role for CBM in the prevention of depression. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001334796. Date: 5th December 2013. PMID:25012399

2014-01-01

8

INtegration of DEPression Treatment into HIV Care in Uganda (INDEPTH-Uganda): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite 10 to% of persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa having clinical depression, and the consequences of depression for key public health outcomes (HIV treatment adherence and condom use), depression treatment is rarely integrated into HIV care programs. Task-shifting, protocolized approaches to depression care have been used to overcome severe shortages of mental health specialists in developing countries, but not in sub-Saharan Africa and not with HIV clients. The aims of this trial are to evaluate the implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a task-shifting, protocolized model of antidepressant care for HIV clinics in Uganda. Methods/Design INDEPTH-Uganda is a cluster randomized controlled trial that compares two task-shifting models of depression care - a protocolized model versus a model that relies on the clinical acumen of trained providers to provide depression care in ten public health HIV clinics in Uganda. In addition to data abstracted from routine data collection mechanisms and supervision logs, survey data will be collected from patient and provider longitudinal cohorts; at each site, a random sample of 150 medically stable patients who are depressed according to the PHQ-2 screening will be followed for 12 months, and providers involved in depression care implementation will be followed over 24 months. These data will be used to assess whether the two models differ on implementation outcomes (proportion screened, diagnosed, treated; provider fidelity to model of care), provider adoption of treatment care knowledge and practices, and depression alleviation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to compare the relative use of resources by each model. Discussion If effective and resource-efficient, the task-shifting, protocolized model will provide an approach to building the capacity for sustainable integration of depression treatment in HIV care settings across sub-Saharan Africa and improving key public health outcomes. Trial registration INDEPTH-Uganda has been registered with the National Institutes of Health sponsored clinical trials registry (3 February 2013) and has been assigned the identifier NCT02056106. PMID:24962086

2014-01-01

9

The postcard intervention against depression among community-dwelling older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in older adults deteriorates quality of life and increases morbidity, mortality, and medical expenses. Medicine and social policy should work together to decrease this burden. Existing prevention studies are often based on time-consuming psychotherapies, which therefore are not feasible for a wide application at the community level. Postcard interventions have been shown to be effective for patients after hospitalization for major depression, drug overdose, or self-harm. This paper describes the protocol of a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the efficacy of a postcard intervention for depression among community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, non-blinded, parallel comparison, randomized controlled trial using Zelen’s design in a community setting. Participants will include community-dwelling older adults (aged 65 years or older) with limited social support (indicated by eating meals alone) and with symptoms of depression (scoring 4 or higher on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)). The intervention will consist of sending postcards with handwritten messages and seasonal reports from a historical city to participants once a month for eight consecutive months. Self-addressed, stamped envelopes will be enclosed to facilitate non-obligatory replies. Primary outcomes will be changes in the GDS scores that are administered to all elderly inhabitants of the community every year as part of annual health checks. Secondary outcomes include quality of life as measured by a visual analogue scale, and self-rated basic and advanced activities of daily living. We will also examine the subjective sense of effectiveness of the intervention, recollection of the number of intervention mailings received, and the number of mailed replies as the index of the acceptability of the postcard intervention. The time × group interaction for two consecutive years will be analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. To detect an effect size of 0.5 at alpha error of 0.05 and statistical power of 0.80, 63 participants per group are required. Based on an estimated consent and dropout rate of 70%, a total of 180 subjects will be recruited. Trial registration UMIN000010529 PMID:23837527

2013-01-01

10

Strategic use of new generation antidepressants for depression: SUN(^_^)D study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background After more than half a century of modern psychopharmacology, with billions of dollars spent on antidepressants annually world-wide, we lack good evidence to guide our everyday decisions in conducting antidepressant treatment of patients with major depression. First we did not know which antidepressant to use as first line treatment. Second we do not know which dosage we should be aiming at with that antidepressant. Because more than half of the patients with major depression starting treatment do not remit after adequate trial with the first agent, they will need a second line treatment. Dose escalation, augmentation and switching are the three often recommended second line strategies but we do not know which is better than the others. Moreover, we do not know when to start considering this second line treatment. The recently published multiple-treatments meta-analysis of 12 new generation antidepressants has provided some partial answers to the first question. Starting with these findings, this proposed trial aims to establish the optimum 1st line and 2nd line antidepressant treatment strategy among adult patients with a non-psychotic unipolar major depressive episode. Methods SUN(^_^)D, the Strategic Use of New generation antidepressants for Depression, is an assessor-blinded, parallel-group, multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Step I is a cluster-randomised trial comparing titration up to the minimum vs maximum of the recommended dose range among patients starting with sertraline. The primary outcome is the change in the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 scores administered by a blinded rater via telephone at week 1 through 3. Step II is an individually randomised trial comparing staying on sertraline, augmentation of sertraline with mirtazapine, and switching to mirtazapine among patients who have not remitted on the first line treatment by week 3. The primary outcome is the change in the PHQ-9 scores at week 4 through 9. Step III represents a continuation phase to Steps I and II and aims to establish longer-term effectiveness and acceptability of the above-examined treatment strategies up to week 25. The trial is supported by the Grant-in-Aid by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. Discussion SUN(^_^)D promises to be a pragmatic large trial to answer important clinical questions that every clinician treating patients with major depression faces in his/her daily practices concerning its first- and second-line treatments. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01109693 PMID:21569309

2011-01-01

11

Morning light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of depression in young people is increasing. The predominant co-morbidities of juvenile depression include sleep disturbances and persistent problems with the sleep-wake rhythm, which have shown to influence treatment outcomes negatively. Severe mood dysregulation is another condition that includes depressive symptoms and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm. Patients with severe mood dysregulation show symptoms of depression, reduced need for sleep, and disturbances in circadian functioning which negatively affect both disorder-specific symptoms and daytime functioning. One approach to treating both depression and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm is the use of light therapy. Light therapy is now a standard therapy for ameliorating symptoms of seasonal affective disorder and depression in adults, but has not yet been investigated in children and adolescents. In this trial, the effects of 2 weeks of morning bright-light therapy on juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation will be evaluated. Methods/design A total of 60 patients with depression, aged between 12 and 18 years, in some cases presenting additional symptoms of affective dysregulation, will be included in this trial. Morning bright-light therapy will be implemented for 2 weeks (10 sessions of 45 minutes each), either with ‘active’ light (10,000 lux) or ‘inactive’ light (100 lux). A comprehensive test battery will be conducted before and after treatment and at follow-up 3 weeks later, to assess depression severity, sleep, and attention parameters. Melatonin levels will be measured by assessing the Dim Light Melatonin Onset. Discussion In this pilot study, the use of morning bright-light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation shall be evaluated and discussed. Trials registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89305231 PMID:23773310

2013-01-01

12

Effects of emotion recognition training on mood among individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

E-print Network

. Our primary study outcome will be depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory- II (rated over the past two weeks). Our secondary outcomes are: depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; anxiety symptoms, Beck Anxiety Inventory (rated...

Adams, Sally; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Harmer, Catherine J; Holmes, Emily A; Munafò, Marcus R

2013-06-01

13

Translating comparative effectiveness of depression medications into practice by comparing the depression medication choice decision aid to usual care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative effectiveness research (CER) documents important differences in antidepressants in terms of efficacy, safety, cost, and burden to the patient. Decision aids can adapt this evidence to help patients participate in making informed choices. In turn, antidepressant therapy will more likely reflect patients’ values and context, leading to improved adherence and mood outcomes. Methods/Design The objective of this study is to develop the Depression Medication Choice decision aid for use during primary care encounters, and to test its efficacy by conducting a clustered practical randomized trial comparing the decision aid to usual depression care in primary care practices. We will use a novel practice-based, patient-centered approach based on participatory action research that involves a multidisciplinary team of designers, investigators, clinicians, patient representatives, and other stakeholders for the development of the decision aid. We will then conduct a clustered practical randomized trial enrolling clinicians and their patients (n = 300) with moderate to severe depression from rural, suburban and inner city primary care practices (n = 10). The intervention will consist of the use of the depression medication choice decision aid during the clinical encounter. This trial will generate preliminary evidence of the relative impact of the decision aid on patient involvement in decision making, decision making quality, patient knowledge, and 6-month measures of medication adherence and mental health compared to usual depression care. Discussion Upon completion of the proposed research, we will have developed and evaluated the efficacy of the decision aid depression medication choice as a novel translational tool for CER in depression treatment, engaged patients with depression in their care, and refined the process by which we conduct practice-based trials with limited research footprint. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01502891 PMID:23782672

2013-01-01

14

The study protocol of the Norwegian randomized controlled trial of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some controversies as to the cognitive side effects. The aim of this study is to compare the effects and side effects of electroconvulsive therapy to pharmacological treatment in treatment resistant bipolar depression. Cognitive changes and quality of life during the treatment will be assessed. Methods/Design A prospective, randomised controlled, multi-centre six- week acute treatment trial with seven clinical assessments. Follow up visit at 26 weeks or until remission (max 52 weeks). A neuropsychological test battery designed to be sensitive to changes in cognitive function will be used. Setting: Nine study centres across Norway, all acute psychiatric departments. Sample: n = 132 patients, aged 18 and over, who fulfil criteria for treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Score of at least 25 at baseline. Intervention: Intervention group: 3 sessions per week for up to 6 weeks, total up to 18 sessions. Control group: algorithm-based pharmacological treatment as usual. Discussion This study is the first randomized controlled trial that aims to investigate whether electroconvulsive therapy is better than pharmacological treatment as usual in treatment resistant bipolar depression. Possible long lasting cognitive side effects will be evaluated. The study is investigator initiated, without support from industry. Trial registration NCT00664976 PMID:20178636

2010-01-01

15

Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behaviour therapy for depression (COBRA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. Methods/Design COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. Discussion The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline developers decide on the merits of including BA as a first-line treatment of depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN27473954 PMID:24447460

2014-01-01

16

Update to the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM) can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. A recently developed treatment, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), shows potential as a brief group program for people with recurring depression. This trial asks the policy research question; is MBCT with support to taper/discontinue antidepressant medication (MBCT-TS) superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and secondary outcomes of (a) depression free days, (b) residual depressive symptoms, (c) antidepressant medication (ADM) usage, (d) psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e) quality of life, and (f) cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question also asks whether an increase in mindfulness skills is the key mechanism of change. The design is a single-blind, parallel randomized controlled trial examining MBCT-TS versus m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT-TS with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Results Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. Analyses will be conducted following CONSORT standards and overseen by the trial’s Data Monitoring and Safety Committee. Initial analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis, with subsequent analyses being per protocol. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre- and post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users’ views and experiences. Conclusions If the results of our exploratory trial are extended to this definitive trial, MBCT-TS will be established as an alternative approach to maintenance antidepressants for people with a history of recurrent depression. The process studies will provide evidence about the effective components which can be used to improve MBCT and inform theory as well as other therapeutic approaches. Trial registration Trial registered 7 May 2009; ISRCTN26666654. PMID:24916319

2014-01-01

17

Efficacy of a dilemma-focused intervention for unipolar depression: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is one of the more severe and serious health problems because of its morbidity, disabling effects and for its societal and economic burden. Despite the variety of existing pharmacological and psychological treatments, most of the cases evolve with only partial remission, relapse and recurrence. Cognitive models have contributed significantly to the understanding of unipolar depression and its psychological treatment. However, success is only partial and many authors affirm the need to improve those models and also the treatment programs derived from them. One of the issues that requires further elaboration is the difficulty these patients experience in responding to treatment and in maintaining therapeutic gains across time without relapse or recurrence. Our research group has been working on the notion of cognitive conflict viewed as personal dilemmas according to personal construct theory. We use a novel method for identifying those conflicts using the repertory grid technique (RGT). Preliminary results with depressive patients show that about 90% of them have one or more of those conflicts. This fact might explain the blockage and the difficult progress of these patients, especially the more severe and/or chronic. These results justify the need for specific interventions focused on the resolution of these internal conflicts. This study aims to empirically test the hypothesis that an intervention focused on the dilemma(s) specifically detected for each patient will enhance the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Design A therapy manual for a dilemma-focused intervention will be tested using a randomized clinical trial by comparing the outcome of two treatment conditions: combined group CBT (eight, 2-hour weekly sessions) plus individual dilemma-focused therapy (eight, 1-hour weekly sessions) and CBT alone (eight, 2-hour group weekly sessions plus eight, 1-hour individual weekly sessions). Method Participants are patients aged over 18 years meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder, with a score of 19 or above on the Beck depression inventory, second edition (BDI-II) and presenting at least one cognitive conflict (implicative dilemma or dilemmatic construct) as assessed using the RGT. The BDI-II is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, at the end of therapy, and at 3- and 12-month follow-up; other secondary measures are also used. Discussion We expect that adding a dilemma-focused intervention to CBT will increase the efficacy of one of the more prestigious therapies for depression, thus resulting in a significant contribution to the psychological treatment of depression. Trial registration ISRCTN92443999; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01542957. PMID:23683841

2013-01-01

18

The SCIentinel study - prospective multicenter study to define the spinal cord injury-induced immune depression syndrome (SCI-IDS) - study protocol and interim feasibility data  

PubMed Central

Background Infections are the leading cause of death in the acute phase following spinal cord injury and qualify as independent risk factor for poor neurological outcome (“disease modifying factor”). The enhanced susceptibility for infections is not stringently explained by the increased risk of aspiration in tetraplegic patients, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, or by high-dose methylprednisolone treatment. Experimental and clinical pilot data suggest that spinal cord injury disrupts the balanced interplay between the central nervous system and the immune system. The primary hypothesis is that the Spinal Cord Injury-induced Immune Depression Syndrome (SCI-IDS) is 'neurogenic’ including deactivation of adaptive and innate immunity with decreased HLA-DR expression on monocytes as a key surrogate parameter. Secondary hypotheses are that the Immune Depression Syndrome is i) injury level- and ii) severity-dependent, iii) triggers transient lymphopenia, and iv) causes qualitative functional leukocyte deficits, which may endure the post-acute phase after spinal cord injury. Methods/Design SCIentinel is a prospective, international, multicenter study aiming to recruit about 118 patients with acute spinal cord injury or control patients with acute vertebral fracture without neurological deficits scheduled for spinal surgery. The assessment points are: i) <31 hours, ii) 31–55 hours, iii) 7 days, iv) 14 days, and v) 10 weeks post-trauma. Assessment includes infections, concomitant injury, medication and neurological classification using American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS) and neurological level. Laboratory analyses comprise haematological profiling, immunophenotyping, including HLA-DR expression on monocytes, cytokines and gene expression of immune modulators. We provide an administrative interim analysis of the recruitment schedule of the trial. Discussion The objectives are to characterize the dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune system after spinal cord injury and to explore its proposed 'neurogenic’ origin by analyzing its correlation with lesion height and severity. The trial protocol considers difficulties of enrolment in an acute setting, and loss to follow up. The administrative interim analysis confirmed the feasibility of the protocol. Better understanding of the SCI-IDS is crucial to reduce co-morbidities and thereby to attenuate the impact of disease modifying factors to protect neurological “outcome at risk”. This putatively results in improved spinal cord injury medical care. Trial registration DRKS-ID: DRKS00000122 (German Clinical Trials Registry) PMID:24206943

2013-01-01

19

Cognitive behavioural therapy in elderly type 2 diabetes patients with minor depression or mild major depression: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (MIND-DIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of diabetes among adults will be 6.4% in 2010 and will increase to 7.7% by 2030. Diabetes doubles the odds of depression, and 9% of patients with diabetes are affected by depressive disorders. When subclinical depression is included, the proportion of patients who have clinically relevant depressive symptoms increases to 26%. In patients aged over 65

Frank Petrak; Martin Hautzinger; Kristin Plack; Kai Kronfeld; Christian Ruckes; Stephan Herpertz; Matthias J Müller

2010-01-01

20

Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing community and government recognition of the magnitude and impact of adolescent depression. Family based interventions have significant potential to address known risk factors for adolescent depression and could be an effective way of engaging adolescents in treatment. The evidence for family based treatments of adolescent depression is not well developed. The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether a family based intervention can reduce rates of unipolar depressive disorders in adolescents, improve family functioning and engage adolescents who are reluctant to access mental health services. Methods/Design The Family Options study will determine whether a manualized family based intervention designed to target both individual and family based factors in adolescent depression (BEST MOOD) will be more effective in reducing unipolar depressive disorders than an active (standard practice) control condition consisting of a parenting group using supportive techniques (PAST). The study is a multicenter effectiveness randomized controlled trial. Both interventions are delivered in group format over eight weekly sessions, of two hours per session. We will recruit 160 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) and their families, randomized equally to each treatment condition. Participants will be assessed at baseline, eight weeks and 20 weeks. Assessment of eligibility and primary outcome will be conducted using the KID-SCID structured clinical interview via adolescent and parent self-report. Assessments of family mental health, functioning and therapeutic processes will also be conducted. Data will be analyzed using Multilevel Mixed Modeling accounting for time x treatment effects and random effects for group and family characteristics. This trial is currently recruiting. Challenges in design and implementation to-date are discussed. These include diagnosis and differential diagnosis of mental disorders in the context of adolescent development, non-compliance of adolescents with requirements of assessment, questionnaire completion and treatment attendance, breaking randomization, and measuring the complexity of change in the context of a family-based intervention. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Title: engaging youth with high prevalence mental health problems using family based interventions; number 12612000398808. Prospectively registered on 10 April 2012. PMID:24220547

2013-01-01

21

The study protocol of the Norwegian randomized controlled trial of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some

Ute Kessler; Arne E Vaaler; Helle Schøyen; Ketil J Oedegaard; Per Bergsholm; Ole A Andreassen; Ulrik F Malt; Gunnar Morken

2010-01-01

22

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating self-help email messages for sub-threshold depression: the Mood Memos study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sub-threshold depression is common, impairs functioning, and increases the risk of developing major depression. Although psychological treatments have been investigated for sub-threshold depression, they are costly. A less costly alternative could be an educational health promotion campaign about effective self-help for depression symptoms. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of a low-cost email-based mental health

Amy J Morgan; Anthony F Jorm; Andrew J Mackinnon

2011-01-01

23

Predictors of remission in depression to individual and combined treatments (PReDICT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Limited controlled data exist to guide treatment choices for clinicians caring for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although many putative predictors of treatment response have been reported, most were identified through retrospective analyses of existing datasets and very few have been replicated in a manner that can impact clinical practice. One major confound in previous studies examining predictors of treatment response is the patient’s treatment history, which may affect both the predictor of interest and treatment outcomes. Moreover, prior treatment history provides an important source of selection bias, thereby limiting generalizability. Consequently, we initiated a randomized clinical trial designed to identify factors that moderate response to three treatments for MDD among patients never treated previously for the condition. Methods/design Treatment-naïve adults aged 18 to 65?years with moderate-to-severe, non-psychotic MDD are randomized equally to one of three 12-week treatment arms: (1) cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, 16 sessions); (2) duloxetine (30–60?mg/d); or (3) escitalopram (10–20?mg/d). Prior to randomization, patients undergo multiple assessments, including resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), immune markers, DNA and gene expression products, and dexamethasone-corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) testing. Prior to or shortly after randomization, patients also complete a comprehensive personality assessment. Repeat assessment of the biological measures (fMRI, immune markers, and gene expression products) occurs at an early time-point in treatment, and upon completion of 12-week treatment, when a second Dex/CRH test is also conducted. Patients remitting by the end of this acute treatment phase are then eligible to enter a 21-month follow-up phase, with quarterly visits to monitor for recurrence. Non-remitters are offered augmentation treatment for a second 12-week course of treatment, during which they receive a combination of CBT and antidepressant medication. Predictors of the primary outcome, remission, will be identified for overall and treatment-specific effects, and a statistical model incorporating multiple predictors will be developed to predict outcomes. Discussion The PReDICT study’s evaluation of biological, psychological, and clinical factors that may differentially impact treatment outcomes represents a sizeable step toward developing personalized treatments for MDD. Identified predictors should help guide the selection of initial treatments, and identify those patients most vulnerable to recurrence, who thus warrant maintenance or combination treatments to achieve and maintain wellness. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00360399. Registered 02 AUG 2006. First patient randomized 09 FEB 2007. PMID:22776534

2012-01-01

24

Study protocol: a dissemination trial of computerized psychological treatment for depression and alcohol/other drug use comorbidity in an Australian clinical service  

PubMed Central

Background The rise of the internet and related technologies has significant implications for the treatment of complex health problems, including the combination of depression and alcohol/other drug (AOD) misuse. To date, no research exists to test the real world uptake of internet and computer-delivered treatment programs in clinical practice. This study is important, as it is the first to examine the adoption of the SHADE treatment program, a DVD-based psychological treatment for depression and AOD use comorbidity, by clinicians working in a publicly-funded AOD clinical service. The study protocol that follows describes the methodology of this dissemination trial. Methods/design 19 clinicians within an AOD service on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia, will be recruited to the trial. Consenting clinicians will participate in a baseline focus group discussion designed to explore their experiences and perceived barriers to adopting innovation in their clinical practice. Computer comfort and openness to innovation will also be assessed. Throughout the trial, current, new and wait-list clients will be referred to the research program via the clinical service, which will involve clients completing a baseline and 15-week follow-up clinical assessment with independent research assistants, comprising a range of mental health and AOD measures. Clinicians will also complete session checklists following each clinical session with a client, outlining the extent to which the SHADE computer program was used. Therapeutic alliance will be measured at intake and discharge from both the clinician and client perspectives. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the factors associated with the adoption of an innovative, computer-delivered evidence-based treatment program, SHADE, by clinicians working in an AOD service. The results will contribute to the development of a model of dissemination of SHADE, which could be applied to a range of technological innovations. Clinical trials registry Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976. PMID:22770390

2012-01-01

25

The efficacy of a behavioral activation intervention among depressed US Latinos with limited English language proficiency: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder is highly prevalent among Latinos with limited English language proficiency in the United States. Although major depressive disorder is highly treatable, barriers to depression treatment have historically prevented Latinos with limited English language proficiency from accessing effective interventions. The project seeks to evaluate the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression, an empirically supported treatment for depression, as an intervention that may address some of the disparities surrounding the receipt of efficacious mental health care for this population. Methods/design Following a pilot study of behavioral activation treatment for depression with 10 participants which yielded very promising results, the current study is a randomized control trial testing behavioral activation treatment for depression versus a supportive counseling treatment for depression. We are in the process of recruiting 60 Latinos with limited English language proficiency meeting criteria for major depressive disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th and 5th Edition for participation in a single-center efficacy trial. Participants are randomized to receive 10 sessions of behavioral activation treatment for depression (n?=?30) or 10 sessions of supportive counseling (n?=?30). Assessments occur prior to each session and at 1 month after completing treatment. Intervention targets include depressive symptomatology and the proposed mechanisms of behavioral activation treatment for depression: activity level and environmental reward. We will also examine other factors related to treatment outcome such as treatment adherence, treatment satisfaction, and therapeutic alliance. Discussion This randomized controlled trial will allow us to determine the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression in a fast-growing, yet highly underserved population in US mental health services. The study is also among the first to examine the effect of the proposed mechanisms of change of behavioral activation treatment for depression (that is, activity level and environmental reward) on depression over time. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to compare an empirical-supported treatment to a control supportive counseling condition in a sample of depressed, Spanish-speaking Latinos in the United States. Trial registration Clinical Trials Register: NCT01958840; registered 8 October 2013. PMID:24938081

2014-01-01

26

Targeted versus tailored multimedia patient engagement to enhance depression recognition and treatment in primary care: randomized controlled trial protocol for the AMEP2 study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in primary care is common, yet this costly and disabling condition remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Persisting gaps in the primary care of depression are due in part to patients’ reluctance to bring depressive symptoms to the attention of their primary care clinician and, when depression is diagnosed, to accept initial treatment for the condition. Both targeted and tailored communication strategies offer promise for fomenting discussion and reducing barriers to appropriate initial treatment of depression. Methods/design The Activating Messages to Enhance Primary Care Practice (AMEP2) Study is a stratified randomized controlled trial comparing two computerized multimedia patient interventions --- one targeted (to patient gender and income level) and one tailored (to level of depressive symptoms, visit agenda, treatment preferences, depression causal attributions, communication self-efficacy and stigma)--- and an attention control. AMEP2 consists of two linked sub-studies, one focusing on patients with significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] scores???5), the other on patients with few or no depressive symptoms (PHQ-9?study examined effectiveness of the interventions; key outcomes included delivery of components of initial depression care (antidepressant prescription or mental health referral). The second sub-study tracked potential hazards (clinical distraction and overtreatment). A telephone interview screening procedure assessed patients for eligibility and oversampled patients with significant depressive symptoms. Sampled, consenting patients used computers to answer survey questions, be randomized, and view assigned interventions just before scheduled primary care office visits. Patient surveys were also collected immediately post-visit and 12 weeks later. Physicians completed brief reporting forms after each patient’s index visit. Additional data were obtained from medical record abstraction and visit audio recordings. Of 6,191 patients assessed, 867 were randomized and included in analysis, with 559 in the first sub-study and 308 in the second. Discussion Based on formative research, we developed two novel multimedia programs for encouraging patients to discuss depressive symptoms with their primary care clinicians. Our computer-based enrollment and randomization procedures ensured that randomization was fully concealed and data missingness minimized. Analyses will focus on the interventions’ potential benefits among depressed persons, and the potential hazards among the non-depressed. Trial registration ClinicialTrials.gov Identifier: http://NCT01144104 PMID:23594572

2013-01-01

27

Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM) can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. We need to develop psychological therapies that prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. A recently developed treatment, Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, see http://www.mbct.co.uk) shows potential as a brief group programme for people with recurring depression. In two studies it has been shown to halve the rates of depression recurring compared to usual care. This trial asks the policy research question, is MBCT superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and, secondary outcomes of (a) depression free days, (b) residual depressive symptoms, (c) antidepressant (ADM) usage, (d) psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e) quality of life, and (f) cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question asks is an increase in mindfulness skills the key mechanism of change? Methods/Design The design is a single blind, parallel RCT examining MBCT vs. m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT plus ADM-tapering with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre/post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users' views and experiences. Discussion If the results of our exploratory trial are extended to this definitive trial, MBCT will be established as an alternative approach to maintenance anti-depressants for people with a history of recurrent depression. The process studies will provide evidence about the effective components which can be used to improve MBCT and inform theory as well as other therapeutic approaches. Trial registration number ISRCTN26666654 PMID:20961444

2010-01-01

28

Integrated care for comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety and/or depressive disorder: study protocol for an assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A major barrier to successful treatment in alcohol dependence is psychiatric comorbidity. During treatment, the time to relapse is shorter, the drop-out rate is increased, and long-term alcohol consumption is greater for those with comorbid major depression or anxiety disorder than those with an alcohol use disorder with no comorbid mental disorder. The treatment of alcohol dependence and psychological disorders is often the responsibility of different services, and this can hinder the treatment process. Accordingly, there is a need for an effective integrated treatment for alcohol dependence and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. Methods/Design We aim to assess the effectiveness of a specialized, integrated intervention for alcohol dependence with comorbid anxiety and/or mood disorder using a randomized design in an outpatient hospital setting. Following a three-week stabilization period (abstinence or significantly reduced consumption), participants will undergo complete formal assessment for anxiety and depression. Those patients with a diagnosis of an anxiety and/or depressive disorder will be randomized to either 1) integrated intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy) for alcohol, anxiety, and/or depression; or 2) usual counseling care for alcohol problems. Patients will then be followed up at weeks 12, 16, and 24. The primary outcome measure is alcohol consumption (total abstinence, time to lapse, and time to relapse). Secondary outcome measures include changes in alcohol dependence severity, depression, or anxiety symptoms and changes in clinician-rated severity of anxiety and depression. Discussion The study findings will have potential implications for clinical practice by evaluating the implementation of specialized integrated treatment for comorbid anxiety and/or depression in an alcohol outpatient service. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941693 PMID:24245491

2013-01-01

29

A comparison of MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) to education and support (ES) in the treatment of recurrent depression: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a debilitating mental health problem that tends to run a chronic, recurrent course. Even when effectively treated, relapse and recurrence rates remain high. Accordingly, interventions need to focus not only on symptom reduction, but also on reducing the risk of relapse by targeting depression-related disturbances that persist into remission. We are addressing this need by investigating the efficacy, acceptability and feasibility of a MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) programme, which directly targets an enduring cognitive marker of depression - reduced autobiographical memory specificity. Promising pilot data suggest that training memory specificity ameliorates this disturbance and reduces depressive symptoms. A larger, controlled trial is now needed to examine the efficacy of MEST. This trial compares MEST to an education and support (ES) group, with an embedded mechanism study. Methods/Design In a single blind, parallel cluster randomised controlled trial, 60 depressed individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for a current major depressive episode will be recruited from the community and clinical services. Using a block randomisation procedure, groups of 5 to 8 participants will receive five weekly sessions of MEST (n?=?30) or education and support (n?=?30). Participants will be assessed immediately post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-months post-treatment (MEST group only for 6-month follow-up). Depressive symptoms at 3-month follow-up will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes will be change in depressive status and memory specificity at post-treatment and 3-months. The 6-month follow-up of the MEST group will allow us to examine whether treatment gains are maintained. An explanatory question will examine variables mediating improvement in depression symptoms post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Discussion This trial will allow us to investigate the efficacy of MEST, whether treatment gains are maintained, and the mechanisms of change. Evidence will be gathered regarding whether this treatment is feasible and acceptable as a low-intensity intervention. If efficacy can be demonstrated, the results will support MEST as a treatment for depression and provide the foundation for a definitive trial. Trial registration NCT01882452 (ClinicalTrials.gov), registered on 18 June 2013. PMID:25052061

2014-01-01

30

Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of guided online treatment for patients with major depressive disorder on a waiting list for psychotherapy: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent and result in negative consequences for both patients and society. It is therefore important that these disorders are treated adequately. However, due to increased demand for mental healthcare and subsequent increased costs, it would be desirable to reduce costs associated with major depressive disorder while maintaining or improving the quality of care within the healthcare system. Introducing evidence-based online self-help interventions in mental healthcare might be the way to maintain clinical effects while minimizing costs by reducing the number of face-to-face sessions. This study aims to evaluate the clinical and economical effects of a guided online self-help intervention when offered to patients with major depressive disorder on a waiting list for psychotherapy in specialized mental health centers (MHCs). Methods Patients at mental health centers identified with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major depression who are awaiting face-to-face treatment are studied in a randomized controlled trial. During this waiting list period, patients are randomized and either (1) receive an internet-based guided self-help treatment or (2) receive a self-help book. The 5-week internet-based guided self-help intervention and the self-help booklet are based on problem solving treatment. After the intervention, patients are allowed to start regular face-to-face treatment at MHCs. Costs and effects are measured at baseline, after the intervention at 6 to 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is symptoms of depression. Secondary outcome measures are diagnosis of depression, number of face-to-face sessions, absence of work and healthcare uptake in general. Additional outcome measures are anxiety, insomnia, quality of life and mastery. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of internet-based guided self-help in patients at specialized mental health centers. The aim is to demonstrate whether the introduction of internet-based self-help interventions in regular mental healthcare for depressive disorders can maintain clinical effects and reduce costs. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2824 PMID:24289099

2013-01-01

31

Effectiveness, relapse prevention and mechanisms of change of cognitive therapy vs. interpersonal therapy for depression: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major depression is a common mental disorder that substantially impairs quality of life and has high societal costs. Although psychotherapies have proven to be effective antidepressant treatments, initial response rates are insufficient and the risk of relapse and recurrence is high. Improvement of treatments is badly needed. Studying the mechanisms of change in treatment might be a good investment for improving everyday mental health care. However, the mechanisms underlying therapeutic change remain largely unknown. The objective of the current study is to assess both the effectiveness of two commonly used psychotherapies for depression in terms of reduction of symptoms and prevention of relapse on short and long term, as well as identifying underlying mechanisms of change. Methods In a randomised trial we will compare (a) Cognitive Therapy (CT) with (b) Interpersonal therapy (IPT), and (c) an 8-week waiting list condition followed by treatment of choice. One hundred eighty depressed patients (aged 18-65) will be recruited in a mental health care centre in Maastricht (the Netherlands). Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three intervention groups. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is depression severity measured by the Beck Depression Intenvory-II (BDI-II). Other outcomes include process variables such as dysfunctional beliefs, negative attributions, and interpersonal problems. All self-report outcome assessments will take place on the internet at baseline, three, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve and twenty-four months. At 24 months a retrospective telephone interview will be administered. Furthermore, a rudimentary analysis of the cost-effectiveness will be embedded. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion By comparing CT and IPT head-to-head and by investigating multiple potential mediators and outcomes at multiple time points during and after therapy, we hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and mechanisms of change of CT and IPT for depression, and contribute to the improvement of mental health care for adults suffering from depression. Trial registration The study has been registered at the Netherlands Trial Register, part of the Dutch Cochrane Centre (ISRCTN67561918) PMID:21672217

2011-01-01

32

Tailoring screening protocols for perinatal depression: prevalence of high risk across obstetric services in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Given what appears to be an ever-increasing list of concerning consequences of perinatal depression, longitudinal studies have much to offer when considering the timing and efficacy of prevention and intervention strategies. The course of depressive symptomatology across the perinatal period at four obstetric services was investigated utilising Western Australian data collected as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program. Pregnant women completed one or two Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) assessments during pregnancy and a demographic and psychosocial risk factors questionnaire. One or two EPDS assessments were administered within 12 months postpartum. Prevalence of high risk scores across gestational ages ranged from 14% to 5% during pregnancy and 6% to 9% in the postnatal period. For women who were screened twice, the prevalence of high risk scores appeared earlier and decreased with advancing gestation (p = 0.026). The prevalence of postnatal high risk increased after 12 weeks postpartum (p = 0.029). Screening protocols for depressive symptomatology during pregnancy may need to be fine-tuned across individual hospitals, and take into account gestational ages, in order to be most effective. As depressive symptomatology persists postnatally, screening protocols may need to extend beyond 12 weeks postpartum. PMID:19221864

Brooks, Janette; Nathan, Elizabeth; Speelman, Craig; Swalm, Delphin; Jacques, Angela; Doherty, Dorota

2009-04-01

33

The effect of telephone-based interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of postpartum depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial data indicate potential health consequences of untreated postpartum depression (PPD) on the mother, infant, and family. Studies have evaluated interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as treatment for PPD; however, the results are questionable due to methodological limitations. A comprehensive review of maternal treatment preferences suggests that mothers favor ‘talking therapy’ as a form of PPD treatment. Unfortunately, IPT is not widely available, especially in rural and remote areas. To improve access to care, telepsychiatry has been introduced, including the provision of therapy via the telephone. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression) and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care) or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses). Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1) develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2) advance our understanding of training nurses to deliver IPT; (3) provide an economic evaluation of an IPT intervention; (4) investigate the utility of the EPDS in general clinical practice to identify depressed mothers; and (5) present valuable information regarding PPD, along with associated couple adjustment, co-morbid anxiety and self-reported attachment among a mixed rural and urban Canadian population. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials Ltd. ISRCTN88987377. PMID:22515528

2012-01-01

34

Expectations, experiences and attitudes of patients and primary care health professionals regarding online psychotherapeutic interventions for depression: protocol for a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In the year 2020, depression will cause the second highest amount of disability worldwide. One quarter of the population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health services in Western countries are overburdened. Therefore, cost-effective interventions that do not involve mental health services, such as online psychotherapy programs, have been proposed. These programs demonstrate satisfactory outcomes, but the completion rate for patients is low. Health professionals’ attitudes towards this type of psychotherapy are more negative than the attitudes of depressed patients themselves. The aim of this study is to describe the profile of depressed patients who would benefit most from online psychotherapy and to identify expectations, experiences, and attitudes about online psychotherapy among both patients and health professionals that can facilitate or hinder its effects. Methods A parallel qualitative design will be used in a randomised controlled trial on the efficiency of online psychotherapeutic treatment for depression. Through interviews and focus groups, the experiences of treated patients, their reasons for abandoning the program, the expectations of untreated patients, and the attitudes of health professionals will be examined. Questions will be asked about training in new technologies, opinions of online psychotherapy, adjustment to therapy within the daily routine, the virtual and anonymous relationship with the therapist, the process of online communication, information necessary to make progress in therapy, process of working with the program, motivations and attitudes about treatment, expected consequences, normalisation of this type of therapy in primary care, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and resources and risks. A thematic content analysis from the grounded theory for interviews and an analysis of the discursive positions of participants based on the sociological model for focus groups will be performed. Discussion Knowledge of the expectations, experiences, and attitudes of both patients and medical personnel regarding online interventions for depression can facilitate the implementation of this new psychotherapeutic tool. This qualitative investigation will provide thorough knowledge of the perceptions, beliefs, and values of patients and clinicians, which will be very useful for understanding how to implement this intervention method for depression. PMID:23425435

2013-01-01

35

Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged?>?21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in moderating these associations. Findings from the study have the potential to inform more effective pharmacological, psychological and behavioural interventions and better guide health policy on the use of health care resources. PMID:24237848

2013-01-01

36

Effectiveness, relapse prevention and mechanisms of change of cognitive therapy vs. interpersonal therapy for depression: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Major depression is a common mental disorder that substantially impairs quality of life and has high societal costs. Although\\u000a psychotherapies have proven to be effective antidepressant treatments, initial response rates are insufficient and the risk\\u000a of relapse and recurrence is high. Improvement of treatments is badly needed. Studying the mechanisms of change in treatment\\u000a might be a good investment for

Lotte HJM Lemmens; Arnoud Arntz; Frenk PML Peeters; Steven D Hollon; Anne Roefs; Marcus JH Huibers

2011-01-01

37

The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3) behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4) behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930 PMID:23374879

2013-01-01

38

Collaborative Interventions for Circulation and Depression (COINCIDE): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial of collaborative care for depression in people with diabetes and/or coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is up to two to three times as common in people with long-term conditions. It negatively affects medical management of disease and self-care behaviors, and leads to poorer quality of life and high costs in primary care. Screening and treatment of depression is increasingly prioritized, but despite initiatives to improve access and quality of care, depression remains under-detected and under-treated, especially in people with long-term conditions. Collaborative care is known to positively affect the process and outcome of care for people with depression and long-term conditions, but its effectiveness outside the USA is still relatively unknown. Furthermore, collaborative care has yet to be tested in settings that resemble more naturalistic settings that include patient choice and the usual care providers. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a collaborative-care intervention, for people with depression and diabetes/coronary heart disease in National Health Service (NHS) primary care, in which low-intensity psychological treatment services are delivered by the usual care provider - Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. The study also aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention over 6 months, and to assess qualitatively the extent to which collaborative care was implemented in the intervention general practices. Methods This is a cluster randomized controlled trial of 30 general practices allocated to either collaborative care or usual care. Fifteen patients per practice will be recruited after a screening exercise to detect patients with recognized depression (?10 on the nine-symptom Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9). Patients in the collaborative-care arm with recognized depression will be offered a choice of evidence-based low-intensity psychological treatments based on cognitive and behavioral approaches. Patients will be case managed by psychological well-being practitioners employed by IAPT in partnership with a practice nurse and/or general practitioner. The primary outcome will be change in depressive symptoms at 6 months on the 90-item Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90). Secondary outcomes include change in health status, self-care behaviors, and self-efficacy. A qualitative process evaluation will be undertaken with patients and health practitioners to gauge the extent to which the collaborative-care model is implemented, and to explore sustainability beyond the clinical trial. Discussion COINCIDE will assess whether collaborative care can improve patient-centered outcomes, and evaluate access to and quality of care of co-morbid depression of varying intensity in people with diabetes/coronary heart disease. Additionally, by working with usual care providers such as IAPT, and by identifying and evaluating interventions that are effective and appropriate for routine use in the NHS, the COINCIDE trial offers opportunities to address translational gaps between research and implementation. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN80309252 Trial Status Open PMID:22906179

2012-01-01

39

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lay counsellor-delivered psychological treatments for harmful and dependent drinking and moderate to severe depression in primary care in India: PREMIUM study protocol for randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background The leading mental health causes of the global burden of disease are depression in women and alcohol use disorders in men. A major hurdle to the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments in primary care in developing countries is the non-availability of skilled human resources. The aim of these trials is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two psychological treatments developed for the treatment of depression and alcohol use disorders in primary care in India. Methods/design This study protocol is for parallel group, randomized controlled trials (Healthy Activity Program for moderate to severe depression, Counselling for Alcohol Problems for harmful and dependent drinking) in eight primary health centres in Goa, India. Adult primary care attendees will be screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression and, in men only, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for drinking problems. Screen-positive attendees will be invited to participate; men who screen positive for both disorders will be invited to participate in the Counselling for Alcohol Problems trial. Those who consent will be allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the respective psychological treatment plus enhanced usual care or enhanced usual care only using a computer generated allocation sequence, stratified by primary health centre and, for depression, by sex. The enhanced usual care comprises providing primary health centre doctors with contextualized World Health Organization guidelines and screening results. Psychological treatments will be delivered by lay counsellors, over a maximum period of three months. Primary outcomes are severity of disorder and remission rates at three months post-enrolment and, for the Counselling for Alcohol Problems trial, drinking and the impact of drinking on daily lives. Secondary outcomes include severity of disorder and remission rates at 12?months, disability scores, suicidal behaviour and economic impact, and cost-effectiveness at three and 12?months. 500 participants with depression and 400 participants with harmful drinking will be recruited. Primary analyses will be intention-to-treat. Discussion These trials may offer a new approach for the treatment of moderate-severe depression and drinking problems in primary care that is potentially scalable as it relies on delivery by a single pool of lay counsellors. Trial registration Both trials are registered with the International Society for the Registration of Clinical Trials (Healthy Activity Programme registration number ISRCTN95149997; Counselling for Alcohol Problems registration number ISRCTN76465238). PMID:24690184

2014-01-01

40

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access  

E-print Network

controlled trial of improvisational music therapy’s effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol Monika Geretsegger 1,2, Ulla Holck 1 and Christian Gold 3* Background: Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design: Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion: Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study’s results will also provide information on the relevance of session frequency for therapy outcome.

unknown authors

41

Recognition of depression and anxiety and their association with quality of life, hospitalization and mortality in primary care patients with heart failure - study protocol of a longitudinal observation study  

PubMed Central

Background International disease management guidelines recommend the regular assessment of depression and anxiety in heart failure patients. Currently there is little data on the effect of screening for depression and anxiety on the quality of life and the prognosis of heart failure (HF). We will investigate the association between the recognition of current depression/anxiety by the general practitioner (GP) and the quality of life and the patients’ prognosis. Methods/Design In this multicenter, prospective, observational study 3,950 patients with HF are recruited by general practices in Germany. The patients fill out questionnaires at baseline and 12-month follow-up. At baseline the GPs are interviewed regarding the somatic and psychological comorbidities of their patients. During the follow-up assessment, data on hospitalization and mortality are provided by the general practice. Based on baseline data, the patients are allocated into three observation groups: HF patients with depression and/or anxiety recognized by their GP (P+/+), those with depression and/or anxiety not recognized (P+/?) and patients without depression and/or anxiety (P?/?). We will perform multivariate regression models to investigate the influence of the recognition of depression and/or anxiety on quality of life at 12 month follow-up, as well as its influences on the prognosis (hospital admission, mortality). Discussion We will display the frequency of GP-acknowledged depression and anxiety and the frequency of installed therapeutic strategies. We will also describe the frequency of depression and anxiety missed by the GP and the resulting treatment gap. Effects of correctly acknowledged and missed depression/anxiety on outcome, also in comparison to the outcome of subjects without depression/anxiety will be addressed. In case results suggest a treatment gap of depression/anxiety in patients with HF, the results of this study will provide methodological advice for the efficient planning of further interventional research. PMID:24279590

2013-01-01

42

Protocol for a collaborative meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR, stress, and depression  

PubMed Central

Background Debate is ongoing about what role, if any, variation in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) plays in depression. Some studies report an interaction between 5-HTTLPR variation and stressful life events affecting the risk for depression, others report a main effect of 5-HTTLPR variation on depression, while others find no evidence for either a main or interaction effect. Meta-analyses of multiple studies have also reached differing conclusions. Methods/Design To improve understanding of the combined roles of 5-HTTLPR variation and stress in the development of depression, we are conducting a meta-analysis of multiple independent datasets. This coordinated approach utilizes new analyses performed with centrally-developed, standardized scripts. This publication documents the protocol for this collaborative, consortium-based meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR variation, stress, and depression. Study eligibility criteria: Our goal is to invite all datasets, published or unpublished, with 5-HTTLPR genotype and assessments of stress and depression for at least 300 subjects. This inclusive approach is to minimize potential impact from publication bias. Data sources: This project currently includes investigators from 35 independent groups, providing data on at least N = 33,761 participants. The analytic plan was determined prior to starting data analysis. Analyses of individual study datasets will be performed by the investigators who collected the data using centrally-developed standardized analysis scripts to ensure a consistent analytical approach across sites. The consortium as a group will review and interpret the meta-analysis results. Discussion Variation in 5-HTTLPR is hypothesized to moderate the response to stress on depression. To test specific hypotheses about the role of 5-HTTLPR variation on depression, we will perform coordinated meta-analyses of de novo results obtained from all available data, using variables and analyses determined a priori. Primary analyses, based on the original 2003 report by Caspi and colleagues of a GxE interaction will be supplemented by secondary analyses to help interpret and clarify issues ranging from the mechanism of effect to heterogeneity among the contributing studies. Publication of this protocol serves to protect this project from biased reporting and to improve the ability of readers to interpret the results of this specific meta-analysis upon its completion. PMID:24219410

2013-01-01

43

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in an Older Gay Man: A Clinical Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…

Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca

2010-01-01

44

Preventing relapse in recurrent depression using mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, antidepressant medication or the combination: trial design and protocol of the MOMENT study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse and recurrence. The most commonly used strategy to prevent relapse/recurrence is maintenance treatment with antidepressant medication (mADM). Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is at least as effective as mADM in reducing the relapse/recurrence risk. However, it is not yet known whether combination treatment of MBCT and mADM is more effective than either of these treatments alone. Given the fact that most patients have a preference for either mADM or for MBCT, the aim of the present study is to answer the following questions. First, what is the effectiveness of MBCT in addition to mADM? Second, how large is the risk of relapse/recurrence in patients withdrawing from mADM after participating in MBCT, compared to those who continue to use mADM after MBCT? Methods/design Two parallel-group, multi-center randomized controlled trials are conducted. Adult patients with a history of depression (3 or more episodes), currently either in full or partial remission and currently treated with mADM (6?months or longer) are recruited. In the first trial, we compare mADM on its own with mADM plus MBCT. In the second trial, we compare MBCT on its own, including tapering of mADM, with mADM plus MBCT. Follow-up assessments are administered at 3-month intervals for 15?months. Primary outcome is relapse/recurrence. Secondary outcomes are time to, duration and severity of relapse/recurrence, quality of life, personality, several process variables, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Discussion Taking into account patient preferences, this study will provide information about a) the clinical and cost-effectiveness of mADM only compared with mADM plus MBCT, in patients with a preference for mADM, and b) the clinical and cost-effectiveness of withdrawing from mADM after MBCT, compared with mADM plus MBCT, in patients with a preference for MBCT. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00928980 PMID:22925198

2012-01-01

45

Case management for the treatment of patients with major depression in general practices – rationale, design and conduct of a cluster randomized controlled trial – PRoMPT (Primary care Monitoring for depressive Patient's Trial) [ISRCTN66386086] – Study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depression is a disorder with high prevalence in primary health care and a significant burden of illness. The delivery of health care for depression, as well as other chronic illnesses, has been criticized for several reasons and new strategies to address the needs of these illnesses have been advocated. Case management is a patient-centered approach which has shown efficacy

Jochen Gensichen; Marion Torge; Monika Peitz; Heike Wendt-Hermainski; Martin Beyer; Thomas Rosemann; Christian Krauth; Heiner Raspe; Josef B Aldenhoff; Ferdinand M Gerlach

2005-01-01

46

Using Standardized fMRI Protocols to Identify Patterns of Prefrontal Circuit Dysregulation that are Common and Specific to Cognitive and Emotional Tasks in Major Depressive Disorder: First Wave Results from the iSPOT-D Study  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD. PMID:23303059

Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M

2013-01-01

47

Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene’s Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Discussion This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment using C-potencies versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. It is an attempt to deal with the obstacles of homeopathic research due to the need for individual prescriptions in one of the most common psychiatric diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01635218. PMID:23782520

2013-01-01

48

Study protocol of the Diabetes and Depression Study (DAD): a multi-center randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of a diabetes-specific cognitive behavioral group therapy versus sertraline in patients with major depression and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is common in diabetes and associated with hyperglycemia, diabetes related complications and mortality. No single intervention has been identified that consistently leads to simultaneous improvement of depression and glycemic control. Our aim is to analyze the efficacy of a diabetes-specific cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) compared to sertraline (SER) in adults with depression and poorly controlled diabetes. Methods/Design This study is a multi-center parallel arm randomized controlled trial currently in its data analysis phase. We included 251 patients in 70 secondary care centers across Germany. Key inclusion criteria were: type 1 or 2 diabetes, major depression (diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, SCID) and hemoglobin A1C >7.5% despite current insulin therapy. During the initial phase, patients received either 50–200 mg/d sertraline or 10 CBT sessions aiming at the remission of depression and enhanced adherence to diabetes treatment and coping with diabetes. Both groups received diabetes treatment as usual. After 12 weeks of this initial open-label therapy, only the treatment-responders (50% depression symptoms reduction, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version [HAMD]) were included in the subsequent one year study phase and represented the primary analysis population. CBT-responders received no further treatment, while SER-responders obtained a continuous, flexible-dose SER regimen as relapse prevention. Adherence to treatment was analyzed using therapeutic drug monitoring (measurement of sertraline and N-desmethylsertraline concentrations in blood serum) and by counting the numbers of CBT sessions received. Outcome assessments were conducted by trained psychologists blinded to group assignment. Group differences in HbA1c (primary outcome) and depression (HAMD, secondary outcome) between 1-year follow-up and baseline will be analyzed by ANCOVA controlling for baseline values. As primary hypothesis we expect that CBT leads to significantly greater improvement of glycemic control in the one year follow-up in treatment responders of the short term phase. Discussion The DAD study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing antidepressants to a psychological treatment in diabetes patients with depression. The study is investigator initiated and was supported by the ‘Förderprogramm Klinische Studien (Clinical Trials)’ and the ‘Competence Network for Diabetes mellitus’ funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (FKZ 01KG0505). Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN89333241. PMID:23915015

2013-01-01

49

Supported cognitive-behavioural self-help versus treatment-as-usual for depressed informal carers of stroke survivors (CEDArS): study protocol for a feasibility randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Increased life expectancy has resulted in a greater provision of informal care within the community for patients with chronic physical health conditions. Informal carers are at greater risk of poor mental health, with one in three informal carers of stroke survivors experiencing depression. However, currently no psychological treatments tailored to the unique needs of depressed informal carers of stroke survivors exist. Furthermore, informal carers of stroke survivors experience a number of barriers to attending traditional face-to-face psychological services, such as lack of time and the demands of the caring role. The increased flexibility associated with supported cognitive behavioral therapy self-help (CBTsh), such as the ability for support to be provided by telephone, email, or face-to-face, alongside shorter support sessions, may help overcome such barriers to access. CBTsh, tailored to depressed informal carers of stroke survivors may represent an effective and acceptable solution. Methods/Design This study is a Phase II (feasibility) randomized controlled trial (RCT) following guidance in the MRC Complex Interventions Research Methods Framework. We will randomize a sample of depressed informal carers of stroke survivors to receive CBT self-help supported by mental health paraprofessionals, or treatment-as-usual. Consistent with the objectives of assessing the feasibility of trial design and procedures for a potential larger scale trial we will measure the following outcomes: a) feasibility of patient recruitment (recruitment and refusal rates); (b) feasibility and acceptability of data collection procedures; (c) levels of attrition; (d) likely intervention effect size; (e) variability in number, length and frequency of support sessions estimated to bring about recovery; and (f) acceptability of the intervention. Additionally, we will collect data on the diagnosis of depression, symptoms of depression and anxiety, functional impairment, carer burden, quality of life, and stroke survivor mobility skill, self-care and functional ability, measured at four and six months post-randomization. Discussion This study will provide important information for the feasibility and design of a Phase III (effectiveness) trial in the future. If the intervention is identified to be feasible, effective, and acceptable, a written CBTsh intervention for informal carers of stroke survivors, supported by mental health paraprofessionals, could represent a cost-effective model of care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63590486. PMID:24886151

2014-01-01

50

Studying the emergence of depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special issue on the emergence and maintenance of depression and depressive symptoms is introduced. The special issue considers two typically separate lines of research, one focusing on severe clinical depression and another on depressive symptoms. The biological, social, and cognitive factors contributing to the emergence of depression in adolescence are highlighted in this special issue.

Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Anne C. Petersen

1991-01-01

51

Depression.  

PubMed

This is an invited article on how my career as an epidemiologist studying depression unfolded. The role of the Civil Rights movement in opening the PhD doors to women at Yale began my career. The unfolding of depression studies are described. These studies included a clinical trial of medication and what later was known as interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the first community survey of psychiatric disorder, family genetic and brain imaging studies or depression and anxiety disorders. I hope the new generation will have the wonderful opportunities I have had. PMID:19344866

Weissman, Myrna

2009-04-01

52

Depressive Symptoms, Major Depressive Episode and Cognition in the Elderly: The Three-City Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The relationship between depression and dementia in the elderly has been extensively studied but the tools used to define depressed subjects are heterogeneous between studies. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between depression and cognitive performances by using multiple measures of depressive state. Methods: A sample of 7,869 nondemented community-dwelling persons aged ?65 years participated

Ophélia Godin; Carole Dufouil; Karen Ritchie; Jean-François Dartigues; Christophe Tzourio; Karine Pérès; Sylvaine Artero; Annick Alpérovitch

2007-01-01

53

Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression. PMID:21394856

Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Munoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.

2010-01-01

54

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in an Older Gay Man: A Clinical Case Study  

PubMed Central

Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were deduced from the late-life depression literature, culturally adapted CBT protocols for racial minorities, and the emerging social and developmental psychological theories for lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. Specific treatment interventions, processes, and outcomes are described to illustrate how these literatures may be used to provide more culturally appropriate and effective health care for the growing, older sexual minority population. PMID:23144559

Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca

2012-01-01

55

Development and testing of culturally sensitive patient information material for Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migrants with depression or chronic low back pain (KULTINFO): study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many of the approximately 15 million people with a migration background living in Germany (19% of the population) are inadequately reached by existing healthcare provision. In the literature, the necessity for cultural adaptation of information material for patients with a migration background is often cited as a measure for improving healthcare. In this study, culturally sensitive information material will be developed and evaluated for patients with a migration background and depression or chronic low back pain. In this respect, it will be examined whether culturally sensitive information material is judged as more useful by the patients than standard translated patient information without cultural adaptation. Methods/Design The implementation and evaluation of culturally sensitive patient information material will occur in the framework of a double-blind randomized controlled parallel-group study in four study centres in Germany. Primary care patients with a Turkish, Polish, Russian or Italian migration background with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or chronic low back pain will be included and randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. In the intervention group, culturally sensitive patient information will be handed to the patient at the end of the physician consultation, while in the control group, standard translated patient information material will be provided. The patients will be surveyed by means of questionnaires following the consultation as well as after 8 weeks and 6 months. In addition to the primary outcome (subjective usefulness), several patient- and physician-rated secondary outcomes will be considered. Discussion The study will provide an empirical answer to the question of whether persons with a migration background perceive culturally sensitive patient information material as more useful than translated information material without cultural adaptation. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS-ID) DRKS00004241 and Universal Trial Number (UTN) U1111-1135-8043. PMID:24996511

2014-01-01

56

Bipolar II versus unipolar chronic depression: A 312-case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between bipolar II depression and unipolar depression have been reported, such as a lower age at onset and more atypical features in bipolar II depression. The aim of the present study was to compare chronic\\/nonchronic bipolar II depression with chronic\\/nonchronic unipolar depression to determine whether the reported differences are present when chronicity is taken into account. Three hundred twelve

Franco Benazzi

1999-01-01

57

Spreading Depression in Focal Ischemia: A Computational Study  

E-print Network

Spreading Depression in Focal Ischemia: A Computational Study February 27, 1997 Kenneth Revett cortical spreading depression (CSD) waves, i.e., by ischemic depolarizations. We describe here depression, computational models, stroke, ischemic penumbra and post-infarct debilitation. Running title

Ruppin, Eytan

58

Obesity and Depression Often Twin Ills, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity and Depression Often Twin Ills, Study Finds Nature ... 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Health Disparities Obesity THURSDAY, Oct. 16, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Depression and ...

59

Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in depression in adults: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The role of vitamin D in management of depression is unclear. Results from observational and emerging randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of vitamin D in depression lack consistency - with some suggesting a positive association while others show a negative or inconclusive association. Methods/Design The primary aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of RCTs to assess the effect of oral vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on depression symptoms measured by scales and the proportion of patients with symptomatic improvement according to the authors’ original definition. Secondary aims include assessing the change in quality of life, adverse events and treatment discontinuation. We will conduct the systematic review and meta-analysis according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We will search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1966 to present), EMBASE (1980 to present), CINAHL (1982 to present), PsychINFO (1967 to present) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Unpublished work will be identified by searching two major conferences: the International Vitamin Conference, the Anxiety Disorders and Depression Conference, while grey literature will be acquired by contacting authors of included studies. We will use the random-effects meta-analysis to synthesize the data by pooling the results of included studies. Discussion The results of this systematic review will be helpful in clarifying the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation and providing evidence to establish guidelines for implementation of vitamin D for depression in general practice and other relevant settings. Study registration Unique identifier: CRD42013003849. PMID:23927040

2013-01-01

60

Efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in depression: naturalistic study.  

PubMed

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique is which the evidence has been confirming its efficacy. Repetitive stimulation (rTMS) of the left prefrontal dorsolateral (LPFDL) area with frequencies between 10 and 20 Hz has been shown to be effective in major depression. This article presents the prospective analysis of the treatments performed using TMS on LPFDL at 20 Hz with an intensity of 70% in a protocol of 10 sessions on 107 patients (41 male and 61 female) due to drug treatment resistant depressive symptoms in different conditions. The patients had previously undergone two psychopharmacological attempts with adequate dosage and time, who had been considered candidates for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) if they did not respond to any conventional treatment. A total of 62.7% had mood disorder, 13.1% obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCT), 7.5% cognitive disorders, 4.7% personality disorders and 3.7% were psychiatric disorders. Mean age of the group was 49.98 years (SD = 17.09). The global results showed that the TMS provided some degree of improvement in 48.6%, although only half, that is 24.3%, maintained it beyond week 12. Efficacy by diagnoses showed a significant difference in favor of affective disorders. In the case of bipolar disorders in the depressive phase, there was improvement in 88.9%, which was maintained in 66.7% of the patients treated. No differences in efficacy were found within each one of the groups diagnosed based on gender, age or presence of personality disorders. The efficacy of the ECT was similar to the TMS in the group in which it had to be applied in comparison with the general group. New studies are proposed with the inclusion of the TMS for resistant-depression treatment protocols in a step prior to the ECT and even before all the drug treatments had been attempted, combining it with them for their potentiation. PMID:20976637

Aliño, Juan José López-Ibor; Jiménez, J L Pastrana; Flores, S Cisneros; Alcocer, M I López-Ibor

2010-01-01

61

Folate Augmentation of Treatment – Evaluation for Depression (FolATED): protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical depression is common, debilitating and treatable; one in four people experience it during their lives. The majority of sufferers are treated in primary care and only half respond well to active treatment. Evidence suggests that folate may be a useful adjunct to antidepressant treatment: 1) patients with depression often have a functional folate deficiency; 2) the severity of such deficiency, indicated by elevated homocysteine, correlates with depression severity, 3) low folate is associated with poor antidepressant response, and 4) folate is required for the synthesis of neurotransmitters implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods/Design The primary objective of this trial is to estimate the effect of folate augmentation in new or continuing treatment of depressive disorder in primary and secondary care. Secondary objectives are to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of folate augmentation of antidepressant treatment, investigate how the response to antidepressant treatment depends on genetic polymorphisms relevant to folate metabolism and antidepressant response, and explore whether baseline folate status can predict response to antidepressant treatment. Seven hundred and thirty patients will be recruited from North East Wales, North West Wales and Swansea. Patients with moderate to severe depression will be referred to the trial by their GP or Psychiatrist. If patients consent they will be assessed for eligibility and baseline measures will be undertaken. Blood samples will be taken to exclude patients with folate and B12 deficiency. Some of the blood taken will be used to measure homocysteine levels and for genetic analysis (with additional consent). Eligible participants will be randomised to receive 5 mg of folic acid or placebo. Patients with B12 deficiency or folate deficiency will be given appropriate treatment and will be monitored in the 'comprehensive cohort study'. Assessments will be at screening, randomisation and 3 subsequent follow-ups. Discussion If folic acid is shown to improve the efficacy of antidepressants, then it will provide a safe, simple and cheap way of improving the treatment of depression in primary and secondary care. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN37558856 PMID:18005429

Roberts, Seren Haf; Bedson, Emma; Hughes, Dyfrig; Lloyd, Keith; Moat, Stuart; Pirmohamed, Munir; Slegg, Gary; Tranter, Richard; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Wilkinson, Clare; Russell, Ian

2007-01-01

62

Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and  

E-print Network

Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) plus a Comparison Population in Sierra Vista, Arizona The protocol Assessment of Case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) and a Reference

63

Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine\\u000a (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20%\\u000a of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different\\u000a psychological therapies and the moderators

Ian M Goodyer; Sonya Tsancheva; Sarah Byford; Bernadka Dubicka; Jonathan Hill; Raphael Kelvin; Shirley Reynolds; Christopher Roberts; Robert Senior; John Suckling; Paul Wilkinson; Mary Target; Peter Fonagy

2011-01-01

64

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... the patient is under anesthesia. Healthy Minds TV - Depression Suicide Prevention Lifeline Depression education campaign from the Partnership ... from The Joint Commission: Let's Talk Facts Brochures: Depression Teen Suicide ECT

65

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... usually feel better with the right treatment. What Causes Depression? There is no one cause of depression. For ... changes in the brain can affect mood and cause depression. Sometimes, those under a lot of stress, like ...

66

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... com mh010106 Last reviewed: 07/28/2013 2 Causes of Depression Combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors can cause depression. Major depression is often associated with changes in ...

67

Depression care management for late-life depression in China primary care: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  As a major public health issue in China and worldwide, late-life depression is associated with physical limitations, greater\\u000a functional impairment, increased utilization and cost of health care, and suicide. Like other chronic diseases in elders such\\u000a as hypertension and diabetes, depression is a chronic disease that the new National Health Policy of China indicates should\\u000a be managed in primary care

Shulin Chen; Yeates Conwell; Baihua Xu; Helen Chiu; Xin Tu; Yan Ma

2011-01-01

68

[Validation study of the Depressive Experience Questionnaire].  

PubMed

Sidney Blatt, considering as being insufficient the categorical-symptomatic approach of depression, has worked out a theory of depression and psychopathology that integrates the contributions of psychoanalysis as well as cognitive and developmental psychology. Within a broad psychoanalytic framework, Blatt's formulation focus on the quality of interpersonal relationship, the nature of object representation and early life experiences. Personality development is viewed as the consequence of the interaction of 2 basic developmental tasks: the establishment of the capacity to form stable, enduring, mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships and the achievement of a differentiated, realistic, essentially positive identity. The relationship between these 2 developmental lines involves a complex dialectical process during which progress in each line is essential for progress in the other and which contributes to the development of both a sense of identity and the capacity for interpersonal relatedness. These developmental lines permit not only to define an during individual's primary personality configuration but also enable to identify cognitive structures that are inherent in various forms of psychopathology, including depression. Disruptions at different developmental stages create vulnerability to different subsequent psychological disturbances. Blatt characterised as anaclitic or dependent the axis concerned with interpersonal relationship and as introjective or self-critical the axis concerned with development of the sense of self and identity. Depressive Experience Questionnaire was developed by Blatt et al. to determine the validity of this model of psychopathology which emphazises continuities between normal and pathological forms of depression. The instrument was developed by Blatt et al. by assembling a pool of items describing experiences frequently reported by depressed individual. Sixty-six items were selected and administered to a large nonclinical sample (500 female and 160 male undergraduates). Principal component analysis within sex performed on the answers to DEQ confirmed his assumption in identifying two principal depressive dimensions. The first factor involved items that are primarily externally directed and refer to a disturbance of interpersonal relationships (anaclitism); the second factor consists of items that are more internally directed and reflect concerns about self-identity (self-criticism). A third factor emerged, assessing the good functioning of subject and confidence in his resources and capacities (efficacy). Scales derived from these factors have high internal consistency and substantial test-retest reliability. The solutions for men and women were highly congruent. Factor structure has been replicated in several nonclinical and clinical samples, supporting considerable evidence to the construct validity of the DEQ Dependency and Self-criticism scales. An adolescent form of DEQ (DEQ-A) has successively been developed. Factor analysis revealed three factors that were highly congruent in female and male students and with the three factors of the original DEQ. The reliability, internal consistency and validity of DEQ-A indicate that the DEQ-A closely parallels the DEQ, especially in the articulation of Dependency and Self-criticism as two factors in depression. These formulations and clinical observations about the importance of differentiating a depression focused on issues of self-criticism from issues of dependency are consistent with the formulations of others theorists which, from very different theoretical perspectives, posit 2 types of depression, one in which either perceived loss or rejection in social relationships is central and the other in which perceived failure in achievement, guilt or lack of control serves as the precipitant of depression. These 2 types of experiences have been characterized as dominant other and dominant goal , as anxiously attached and compulsively self-reliant and as sociotropic and autonomous . Our work presents the results of a validation study of b

Atger, F; Frasson, G; Loas, G; Guibourgé, S; Corcos, M; Perez Diaz, F; Speranza, M; Venisse, J-L; Lang, F; Stephan, Ph; Bizouard, P; Flament, M; Jeammet, Ph

2003-01-01

69

Is Depression Related to Study Habits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a 1992 survey showed that up to 39% of adolescents and colleges students may be affected by nonclinical depression. While research shows that depression is related to achievement, it is not yet clear how depression and achievement are related. However, current data do indicate that depressed individuals may show a general malaise about…

Drozd, Glenda P.; And Others

70

The effect of improvisational music therapy on the treatment of depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other

Jaakko Erkkilä; Christian Gold; Jörg Fachner; Esa Ala-Ruona; Marko Punkanen; Mauno Vanhala

2008-01-01

71

Stress, Depression May Boost Stroke Risk, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stress, Depression May Boost Stroke Risk, Study Finds Anger didn' ... 2014) Thursday, July 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Stress Stroke THURSDAY, July 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

72

The relationship between cognitive styles and depression: a prospective study  

E-print Network

number of studies have been conducted in which the causal role of cogniti ons in postpartum depression was investigated. O' Hara, Rehm, and Campbell (1982) assessed depression and cognitive style during the second trimester of pregnancy in a sample... number of studies have been conducted in which the causal role of cogniti ons in postpartum depression was investigated. O' Hara, Rehm, and Campbell (1982) assessed depression and cognitive style during the second trimester of pregnancy in a sample...

Neville, Brian

2012-06-07

73

Depressants  

MedlinePLUS

... illicit market. Teens can obtain depressants from the family medicine cabinet, friends, family members, the Internet, doctors, and ... illicit market. Teens can obtain depressants from the family medicine cabinet, friends, family members, the Internet, doctors, and ...

74

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... loss Feelings of worthlessness Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of causes, including genetic, environmental, psychological, and biochemical factors. Depression ...

75

Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

Murberg, Terje A.

2009-01-01

76

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... long time following a loss may require treatment. Depression and Suicide Though it is widely believed that suicide more ... men age 85 and older have the highest suicide rate in the United States. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

77

The impact of staff initiated referral and intervention protocols on symptoms of depression in people with mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

It has been estimated that people with ID experience the same and possibly higher levels of depression than the general population. Referral to a General Medical Practitioner (GP) for primary care is recommended practice for people with depression and cognitive behavioural (CB) therapy is now an accepted evidence based intervention. A growing body of literature indicates that people with ID and depression may benefit from CB strategies. The aim of the current study was to compare (i) CB group intervention strategies with referral to a GP; (ii) CB group intervention strategies only; and (iii) referral to a GP only on symptoms of depression among people with mild ID. Staff from six participating agencies received training in (a) how to identify and screen individuals with mild ID for depressive symptoms and risk factors for depression, and (b) supportive referral of identified individuals to GPs for mental health services. In addition, staff from four of the agencies undertook (c) training on how to deliver group CB intervention strategies. Eighty-two participants were allocated to one of the three intervention groups. Depressive symptoms and negative automatic thoughts were assessed prior to the intervention, at the conclusion of the intervention, and at eight months follow-up. Compared to GP referral alone, those participants who received CB strategies both with and without GP referral displayed significant reductions in depressive symptoms. The use of CB strategies only also resulted in a significant reduction in frequency of negative automatic thoughts. The findings of this study support routine screening of individuals with mild ID for depression and the delivery of group CB intervention programmes by trained staff within community-based disability agencies. PMID:23220049

McGillivray, Jane A; Kershaw, Mavis M

2013-02-01

78

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP)  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population Abstract Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Relationships between the Underlying Constructs of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck and others, 1979) in 261 college students. Findings suggest the BDI and CES-D measure different aspects of depression and should not be used…

Skorikov, Vladimir B.; Vandervoort, Debra J.

2003-01-01

80

Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

Strock, Margaret

81

A Genome-Wide Association Study of Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. Methods In this genome-wide association study, we combined the results of 17 population-based studies assessing depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Replication of the independent top hits (p < 1 × 10?5) was performed in five studies assessing depressive symptoms with other instruments. In addition, we performed a combined meta-analysis of all 22 discovery and replication studies. Results The discovery sample comprised 34,549 individuals (mean age of 66.5) and no loci reached genome-wide significance (lowest p = 1.05 × 10?7). Seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for replication. In the replication set (n = 16,709), we found suggestive association of one single nucleotide polymorphism with depressive symptoms (rs161645, 5q21, p = 9.19 × 10?3). This 5q21 region reached genome-wide significance (p = 4.78 × 10?8) in the overall meta-analysis combining discovery and replication studies (n = 51,258). Conclusions The results suggest that only a large sample comprising more than 50,000 subjects may be sufficiently powered to detect genes for depressive symptoms. PMID:23290196

Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshis, Erin; Baumert, Jens; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Marciante, Kristin; Meirelles, Osorio; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Yu, Lei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, David A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Cannas, Alessandra; Coker, Laura H.; de Geus, Eco; De Jager, Philip L.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Purcell, Shaun; Hu, Frank B.; Rimma, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary; Rice, Kenneth; Penman, Alan D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Emeny, Rebecca; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Kardia, Sharon; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Koenen, Karestan; Kraft, Peter; Kuningas, Maris; Massaro, Joseph M.; Melzer, David; Mulas, Antonella; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Murray, Anna; Oostra, Ben A.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Petersmann, Astrid; Pilling, Luke C.; Psaty, Bruce; Rawal, Rajesh; Reiman, Eric M.; Schulz, Andrea; Shulman, Joshua M.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Volzke, Henry; Widen, Elisabeth; Yaffe, Kristine; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cucca, Francesco; Harris, Tamara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Llewellyn, David J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Tanaka, Toshiko

2013-01-01

82

U-CARE: Internet-based stepped care with interactive support and cognitive behavioral therapy for reduction of anxiety and depressive symptoms in cancer - a clinical trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 20–30% of patients with cancer experience a clinically relevant level of emotional distress in response to disease and treatment. This in itself is alarming but it is even more problematic because it is often difficult for physicians and nurses to identify cancer patients who experience clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. This can result in persistent distress and can cause human suffering as well as costs for individuals and to the community. Methods Applying a multi-disciplinary and design-oriented approach aimed at attaining new evidence-based knowledge in basic and applied psychosocial oncology, this protocol will evaluate an intervention to be implemented in clinical practice to reduce cancer patient anxiety and depression. A prospective randomized design will be used. The overarching goal of the intervention is to promote psychosocial health among patients suffering from cancer by means of self-help programmes delivered via an Internet platform. Another goal is to reduce costs for individuals and society, caused by emotional distress in response to cancer. Following screening to detect levels of patient distress, patients will be randomized to standard care or a stepped care intervention. For patients randomized to the intervention, step 1 will consist of self-help material, a chat forum where participants will be able to communicate with each other, and a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) section where they can ask questions and get answers from an expert. Patients in the intervention group who still report symptoms of anxiety or depression after access to step 1 will be offered step 2, which will consist of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) administered by a personal therapist. The primary end point of the study is patients’ levels of anxiety and depression, evaluated longitudinally during and after the intervention. Discussion There is a lack of controlled studies of the psychological and behavioral processes involved in this type of intervention for anxiety and depressive disorders. Since anxiety and depressive symptoms are relatively common in patients with cancer and the availability of adequate support efforts is limited, there is a need to develop evidence-based stepped care for patients with cancer, to be delivered via the Internet. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01630681 PMID:24024826

2013-01-01

83

Collaborative care for the treatment of comorbid depression and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and coronary heart disease (CHD) are frequently comorbid and portend higher morbidity, mortality and poorer quality of life. Prior systematic reviews of depression treatment randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the population with CHD have not assessed the efficacy of collaborative care. This systematic review aims to bring together the contemporary research on the effectiveness of collaborative care interventions for depression in comorbid CHD populations. Methods/Design Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL) will be searched using a sensitive search strategy exploding the topics CHD, depression and RCT. Full text inspection and bibliography searching will be conducted, and authors of included studies will be contacted to identify unpublished studies. Eligibility criteria are: population, depression comorbid with CHD; intervention, RCT of collaborative care defined as a coordinated model of care involving multidisciplinary health care providers, including: (a) primary physician and at least one other health professional (e.g. nurse, psychiatrist, psychologist), (b) a structured patient management plan that delivers either pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention, (c) scheduled patient follow-up and (d) enhanced inter-professional communication between the multiprofessional team; comparison, either usual care, enhanced usual care, wait-list control group or no further treatment; and outcome, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), standardized measure of depression, anxiety, quality of life, cost-effectiveness. Screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion. Meta-analytic methods will be used to synthesize the data collected relating to the outcomes. Discussion This review will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in populations primarily with CHD. The results will facilitate integration of evidence-based practice for this precarious population. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014013653. PMID:25351999

2014-01-01

84

Physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The frequency of mental illness amongst adolescents and its potential long-term consequences make it an important topic to research in relation to risk and protective factors. Research on the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescents is limited. There is a particular lack of evidence from longitudinal studies. This study examines the relationship between depression and physical

Catherine Rothon; Phil Edwards; Kamaldeep Bhui; Russell M Viner; Stephanie Taylor; Stephen A Stansfeld

2010-01-01

85

Intervention Study of Exercise for Depressive Symptoms in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: Clinical depression affects millions of women annually. Exercise has been studied as a potential antidepressant, with most studies supporting its efficacy. Ex- ercise also has the potential to reduce the risk for physical comorbidities that occur with de- pression. However, less is known about the types of exercise programs to which women with depressive symptoms will adhere.

Lynette L. Craft; Karen M. Freund; Larry Culpepper; Frank M. Perna

2007-01-01

86

At risk for depression: a study of young mothers.  

PubMed

A sample of 75 mothers between 15 and 19 years of age was used to investigate the relationship between depression and the maternal behavior of young mothers. Depression, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D) Scale, varied with marital status, education, and maternal age and was related to hostile, indifferent and rejecting patterns of mother-child interaction. Levels of depression increased in relation to the amount of stress faced by the young mother and decreased when the mother was involved in a supportive social network. PMID:6875527

Colletta, N D

1983-06-01

87

The effect of improvisational music therapy on the treatment of depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other health-related outcomes. In particular, attention will be given to mediator agents, such as musical expression and interaction in the sessions, as well as to the explanatory potential of EEG recordings in investigating emotion related music perception of individuals with depression. Methods 85 adults (18–50 years of age) with depression (ICD-10: F 32 or F33) will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. All participants will receive standard care, but the experimental group will be offered biweekly sessions of improvisational music therapy over a period of 3 months. A blind assessor will measure outcomes before testing, after 3 months, and after 6 months. Discussion This study aims to fill a gap in knowledge as to whether active (improvisational) music therapy applied to people with depression improves their condition. For the first time in this context, the mediating processes, such as changes in musical expression and interaction during the course of therapy, will be objectively investigated, and it is expected that the results will provide new insights into these processes. Furthermore, the findings are expected to reveal whether music related emotional experiences, as measured by EEG, can be utilized in assessing a depressive client's improvement in the therapy. The size and the comprehensiveness of the study are sufficient for generalizing its findings to clinical practice as well as to further music therapy research. Trial registration ISRCTN84185937 PMID:18588701

Erkkila, Jaakko; Gold, Christian; Fachner, Jorg; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Punkanen, Marko; Vanhala, Mauno

2008-01-01

88

Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P = 0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression. PMID:24744917

Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Swami, Mukesh Kumar

2014-01-01

89

A prospective study of predictors of poststroke depression  

E-print Network

CME A prospective study of predictors of poststroke depression A. Carota, MD; A. Berney, MD; S. Aybek, MD; G. Iaria, PhD; F. Staub; F. Ghika-Schmid, MD; L. Annable, Dip Stat; P. Guex, MD; and J. Bogousslavsky, MD Abstract--Objective: To investigate the association between early depressive behavior after

Iaria, Giuseppe

90

Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p?=?0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p?depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

2013-01-01

91

Neuroimaging studies of depressive disorders in China since 2000  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper reviews neuroimaging studies of depressive disorders conducted in Chinese populations since 2000. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using structural and functional imaging techniques have compared different types of depressed individuals, with and without specific genotypes, and the characteristics of depressed individuals before and after treatment with antidepressants. Many of the findings are unstable – probably because most of the studies are underpowered – but there have been some important contributions to the international literature. Future studies in China need to use standardized methods, longitudinal designs, and joint application of both structural and functional MRI. PMID:25114485

YIN, Yingying; YUAN, Yonggui

2014-01-01

92

Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... care provider will find out how severe your depression is (mild, moderate, or severe) and look for the cause by doing a: Health history Mental health interview Physical examination If there is a risk of suicide, you may need to stay in the hospital ...

93

A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

2010-01-01

94

Cost-effectiveness analysis of cognitive behaviour therapy for treatment of minor or mild-major depression in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for the economic evaluation alongside the MIND-DIA randomized controlled trial (MIND-DIA CEA)  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and elevated depression symptoms are more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes than in those without diabetes and are associated with adverse health outcomes and increased total healthcare utilization. This suggests that more effective depression treatment might not only improve health outcome, but also reduce costs. However, there is a lack of evidence on (cost-) effectiveness of treatment options for minor and mild-major depression in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this paper we describe the design and methods of the economic evaluation, which will be conducted alongside the MIND-DIA trial (Cognitive behaviour therapy in elderly type 2 diabetes patients with minor or mild-major depression). The objective of the economic evaluation (MIND-DIA CEA) is to examine incremental cost-effectiveness of a diabetes specific cognitive behaviour group therapy (CBT) as compared to intensified treatment as usual (TAU) and to a guided self-help group intervention (SH). Methods/Design Patients will be followed for 15 months. During this period data on health sector costs, patient costs and societal productivity/time costs will be collected in addition to clinical data. Person-years free of moderate/severe major depression, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and cumulative costs will be estimated for each arm of the trial (CBT, TAU and SH). To determine cost-effectiveness of the CBT, differences in costs and effects between the CBT group and TAU/SH group will be calculated. Discussion CBT is a potentially effective treatment option to improve quality of life and to avoid the onset of a moderate/severe major depression in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes and minor or mild-major depression. This hypothesis will be evaluated in the MIND-DIA trial. Based on these results the associated economic evaluation will provide additional evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CBT in this target population. Methodological strengths and weaknesses of the planned economic evaluation are discussed. Trial registration The MIND-DIA study has been registered at the Current Controlled Trials Register (ISRCTN58007098). PMID:19570236

Chernyak, Nadja; Petrak, Frank; Plack, Kristin; Hautzinger, Martin; Muller, Matthias J; Giani, Guido; Icks, Andrea

2009-01-01

95

A controlled study of postpartum depression in adult women.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the study was to examine the hypothesis that the postpartum period represents a time of increased risk for depression. The other psychosocial variables on stress, social support and self-esteem were also measured. Adult women, ranging in age from 22 to 45 years, comprised two samples: 148 postnatal women (22 to 44 years) and 148 controls (22 to 45 years). Five sets of instruments were used to collect data: the Demographic Data Form, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, the Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Although the postnatal group tended to have a higher rate of depression, the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences in stress, social support, self-esteem or depression were found between these two groups. However, postnatal women reported significantly higher somatic symptoms of depression than controls. Results of the stepwise multiple regression indicated that the best subset to predict postpartum depression was self-esteem, stress, postnatal complication and work status. The best subset to predict depression of controls included self-esteem, social support, socioeconomic status and stress. Our data indicate that the psychosocial health status of postnatal women is not significantly different from the controls, although the postnatal women complain more about the loss of bodily functions. The possible explanations deserve further research. PMID:10846352

Chen, C H; Wang, S Y; Hwu, H G; Chou, F H

2000-03-01

96

Hostility and Depression: Longitudinal Study of Data from the National Survey of Families and Households  

E-print Network

Hostility is thought by some researchers to be a correlate of depressive symptoms and by others to be a risk factor for depression. Previous studies of longitudinal trends in depression and hostility suggest that hostility ...

Gaddy, Melinda Ann

2013-08-31

97

Depression and anxiety: Associations with biological and perceived stress reactivity to a psychological stress protocol in a middle-aged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men and women, aged 55-60 years, from a population-based cohort, who filled out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We performed

Susanne R. de Rooij; Aart H. Schene; David I. Phillips; Tessa J. Roseboom

2010-01-01

98

Different patterns of cortical excitability in major depression and vascular depression: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical and functional studies consider major depression (MD) and vascular depression (VD) as different neurobiological processes. Hypoexcitability of the left frontal cortex to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is frequently reported in MD, whereas little is known about the effects of TMS in VD. Thus, we aimed to assess and compare motor cortex excitability in patients with VD and MD. Methods Eleven VD patients, 11 recurrent drug-resistant MD patients, and 11 healthy controls underwent clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluations in addition to bilateral resting motor threshold, cortical silent period, and paired-pulse TMS curves of intracortical excitability. All patients continued on psychotropic drugs, which were unchanged throughout the study. Results Scores on one of the tests evaluating frontal lobe abilities (Stroop Color-Word interference test) were worse in patients compared with controls. The resting motor threshold in patients with MD was significantly higher in the left hemisphere compared with the right (p?study showed distinctive patterns of motor cortex excitability between late-onset depression with subcortical vascular disease and early-onset recurrent drug resistant MD. The data provide a TMS model of the different processes underlying VD and MD. Additionally, our results support the “Vascular depression hypothesis” at the neurophysiological level, and confirm the inter-hemispheric asymmetry to TMS in patients with MD. We were unable to support previous findings of impaired intracortical inhibitory mechanisms to TMS in patients with MD, although a drug-induced effect on our results cannot be excluded. This study may aid the understanding of the pathogenetic differences underlying the clinical spectrum of depressive disorders. PMID:24206945

2013-01-01

99

Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N?=?12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p’s?depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being. PMID:24656048

2014-01-01

100

Cortisol awakening response and subsequent depression: prospective longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. Aims To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Method Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. Results We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. PMID:24311550

Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

101

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy. PMID:16257993

Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe

2005-01-01

102

Validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale as a screening instrument of major depressive disorder among Japanese workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is used at workplaces to screen depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the CES-D for depression in a workplace. Methods The CES-D was administered to 2,219 workers (84.2% men; age 21-68 years) at a manufacturing company in Japan. Concomitantly all workers had an interview

Koji Wada; Katsutoshi Tanaka; Gilles Theriault; Toshihiko Satoh; Masaru Mimura; Hitoshi Miyaoka; Yoshiharu Aizawa

2007-01-01

103

A longitudinal study of differences in late and early onset geriatric depression: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning  

PubMed Central

Objectives Studies suggest early onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. Method At regular intervals over a four year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). They were also assessed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Results Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. Conclusions EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression. PMID:22934752

Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L.; Collins, Nicole; Sawyer, Kathryn; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H.; Steffens, David C.

2012-01-01

104

Does family history of depression predict major depression in midlife women? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS).  

PubMed

This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR?=?3.22, 95% CI?=?1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR?=?2.67, 95% CI?=?1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069

Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T

2014-08-01

105

Psychosocial, Physical, and Autonomic Correlates of Depression in Korean Adults: Results from a County-Based Depression Screening Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial and neurophysiological correlates of depression in a large county-based cohort of Korean adults. Methods We recruited 2355 adults from a rural county-based health promotion program. The following psychometric scales were used: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to evaluate stress, and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) was used to determine perceived social support. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess neurophysiological properties. The psychosocial and neurophysiological variables of adults with depression (CES-D score ?25) and without depression (CES-D score <25) were statistically compared. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with depression. Results We estimated that 17.7% of the subjects had depression, which was associated with old age, being female, being single, less religious affiliation, high education, low body mass index (BMI), low levels of aerobic exercise, low social support, and a low HRV triangular index. The explanatory factors of depression included high education, less religious affiliation, low levels of current aerobic exercise, low BMI, and low social support. Conclusion Given the relatively high prevalence of overall depression, subsyndromal depression should also be regarded as an important issue in screening. The independent factors associated with depression suggest that practical psychosocial intervention, including brief psychotherapy, aerobic exercise, and other self-help methods should be considered. In addition, the HRV results suggest that further depression screening accompanied by neurophysiological features would require fine methodological modifications with proactive efforts to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:25395971

Kim, Ki Won; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Shin, Jin Ho; Choi, Bo Yul; Nam, Jung Hyun

2014-01-01

106

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Methadone induction in primary care  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Methadone induction in primary care (ANRS-Methaville): a phase III. To date, patients willing to start methadone can only do so in a methadone clinic (a medical centre after dose stabilization. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of methadone in patients who

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Occupational cataracts and lens opacities in  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Occupational cataracts and lens opacities in interventional cardiology-induced cataracts. The O'CLOC study (Occupational Cataracts and Lens Opacities in interventional Cardiology will be performed to detect cataracts, even in the early stages (lens opacities, according to LOCS III

Boyer, Edmond

108

Reducing symptoms of major depressive disorder through a systematic training of general emotion regulation skills: protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major Depressive Disorder is one of the most challenging mental health problems of our time. Although effective psychotherapeutic treatments are available, many patients fail to demonstrate clinically significant improvements. Difficulties in emotion regulation have been identified as putative risk and maintaining factors for Major Depressive Disorder. Systematically enhancing adaptive emotion regulation skills should thus help reduce depressive symptom severity. However, at this point, no study has systematically evaluated effects of increasing adaptive emotion regulation skills application on symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder. In the intended study, we aim to evaluate stand-alone effects of a group-based training explicitly and exclusively targeting general emotion regulation skills on depressive symptom severity and assess whether this training augments the outcome of subsequent individual cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Methods/Design In the evaluation of the Affect Regulation Training, we will conduct a prospective randomized-controlled trial. Effects of the Affect Regulation Training on depressive symptom severity and outcomes of subsequent individual therapy for depression will be compared with an active, common factor based treatment and a waitlist control condition. The study sample will include 120 outpatients meeting criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. Depressive symptom severity as assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale will serve as our primary study outcome. Secondary outcomes will include further indicators of mental health and changes in adaptive emotion regulation skills application. All outcomes will be assessed at intake and at 10 points in time over the course of the 15-month study period. Measures will include self-reports, observer ratings, momentary ecological assessments, and will be complemented in subsamples by experimental investigations and the analysis of hair steroids. Discussion If findings should support the hypothesis that enhancing regulation skills reduces symptom severity in Major Depressive Disorder, systematic emotion regulation skills training can enhance the efficacy and efficiency of current treatments for this severe and highly prevalent disorder. Trial registration This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01330485. PMID:24467807

2014-01-01

109

The Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS) Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The molecular basis for the genetic risk of ischemic stroke is likely to be multigenic and influenced by environmental factors. Several small case-control studies have suggested associations between ischemic stroke and polymorphisms of genes that code for coagulation cascade proteins and platelet receptors. Our aim is to investigate potential associations between hemostatic gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, with particular

James F Meschia; Thomas G Brott; Robert D Brown Jr; Richard JP Crook; Michael Frankel; John Hardy; José G Merino; Stephen S Rich; Scott Silliman; Bradford Burke Worrall

2003-01-01

110

Characteristics of Jordanian depressed pregnant women: a comparison study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate the differences between Jordanian depressed women and non-depressed women in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics during their pregnancy. A convenience sample of 218 Jordanian pregnant women in their third trimester was selected for this study from three major Governorates in Jordan (Amman, Irbid and Zarqa), and the antenatal clinics of teaching hospitals (Jordan University Hospital and King Abdullah University Hospital) were accessed to collect the data. A demographical sheet and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used to collect data. There was a significant difference in EPDS scores between smokers and non-smokers, primiparous and multiparous women, and also between women with secondary or lower education and those with diploma or higher education. Higher EPDS scores were classified as a ?13 and lower EPDS scores as <13. However, there were no significant differences in the age, income and sleeping hours for women with higher EPDS scores compared with those with lower EPDS scores. This study showed that there are differences between pregnant women who had depression symptoms and pregnant women who did not have depression symptoms in relation to some sociodemographic variables (smoking status, education level and parity). PMID:24299168

Abuidhail, J; Abujilban, S

2014-09-01

111

The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) occurs in about 20,000 people per year in the U.S. annually and nearly half of the affected persons are dead within the first 30 days. Survivors of ruptured IAs are often left with substantial disability. Thus, primary prevention of aneurysm formation and rupture is of paramount importance. Prior studies indicate that genetic factors are important in the formation and rupture of IAs. The long-term goal of the Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) Study is to identify genes that underlie the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IA). Methods/Design The FIA Study includes 26 clinical centers which have extensive experience in the clinical management and imaging of intracerebral aneurysms. 475 families with affected sib pairs or with multiple affected relatives will be enrolled through retrospective and prospective screening of potential subjects with an IA. After giving informed consent, the proband or their spokesperson invites other family members to participate. Each participant is interviewed using a standardized questionnaire which covers medical history, social history and demographic information. In addition blood is drawn from each participant for DNA isolation and immortalization of lymphocytes. High- risk family members without a previously diagnosed IA undergo magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to identify asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms. A 10 cM genome screen will be performed to identify FIA susceptibility loci. Due to the significant mortality of affected individuals, novel approaches are employed to reconstruct the genotype of critical deceased individuals. These include the intensive recruitment of the spouse and children of deceased, affected individuals. Discussion A successful, adequately-powered genetic linkage study of IA is challenging given the very high, early mortality of ruptured IA. Design features in the FIA Study that address this challenge include recruitment at a large number of highly active clinical centers, comprehensive screening and recruitment techniques, non-invasive vascular imaging of high-risk subjects, genome reconstruction of dead affected individuals using marker data from closely related family members, and inclusion of environmental covariates in the statistical analysis. PMID:15854227

Broderick, Joseph P; Sauerbeck, Laura R; Foroud, Tatiana; Huston, John; Pankratz, Nathan; Meissner, Irene; Brown, Robert D

2005-01-01

112

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in  

E-print Network

cancer. This treatment leads to an excellent local tumor control with local recurrence rates around 6STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in selected breast-cancer radiation treatment for patients with an excellent prognostic and very low recurrence risk. Methods: Forty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

2009-01-01

114

The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands. Methods We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood. Results From 2007 until 2010, the NESDO consortium has recruited 510 depressed and non depressed older persons (? 60 years) at 5 locations throughout the Netherlands. Depressed persons were recruited from both mental health care institutes and general practices in order to include persons with late-life depression in various developmental and severity stages. Non-depressed persons were recruited from general practices. The baseline assessment included written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, cognitive tests and collection of blood and saliva samples. Information was gathered about mental health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, biological, cognitive and genetic determinants. The baseline NESDO sample consists of 378 depressed (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 132 non-depressed persons aged 60 through 93 years. 95% had a major depression and 26.5% had dysthymia. Mean age of onset of the depressive disorder was around 49 year. For 33.1% of the depressed persons it was their first episode. 41.0% of the depressed persons had a co morbid anxiety disorder. Follow up assessments are currently going on with 6 monthly written questionnaires and face-to-face interviews after 2 and 6 years. Conclusions The NESDO sample offers the opportunity to study the neurobiological, psychosocial and physical determinants of depression and its long-term course in older persons. Since largely similar measures were used as in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; age range 18-65 years), data can be pooled thus creating a large longitudinal database of clinically depressed persons with adequate power and a large set of neurobiological, psychosocial and physical variables from both younger and older depressed persons. PMID:22142532

2011-01-01

115

Depression and Social Networks in Community Dwelling Elders: A Descriptive Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social isolation and inadequate social support have been identified as correlates of depression in older adults, although the relationship between depression and social isolation is not entirely understood (Dorfman et al., 1995). This study was conducted to describe the social networks of depressed older adults living in the community and to compare the social networks of depressed and nondepressed individuals,

Frances Wilby

2011-01-01

116

3D MRI Studies of Neuroanatomic Changes in Unipolar Major Depression: The Role of Stress and  

E-print Network

changes associated with early-onset recurrent depression (EORD) and potential etiologic mechanisms-onset recurrent depression have only recently found evidence for depression-associated structural change. Studies smaller brain structures with precision. Brain changes associated with early-onset major depression have

Steinbach, Joe Henry

117

The Role of Parent and Peer Support in Predicting Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Community Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…

Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia

2005-01-01

118

The use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of depression in children and adolescents is well established, but debate remains about the phenomenology of the depressive syndrome in the young. In order to discover possible age differences in rates and etiology, the definition and measurement of depression must be comparable across the ages to be studied. A widely used self-report depression symptom scale, the Center for

Lenore Sawyer Radloff

1991-01-01

119

A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Studies suggest early-onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late-onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume

Natalie Sachs-Ericsson; Elizabeth Corsentino; Jerad Moxley; Jennifer L. Hames; Nicole C. Rushing; Kathryn Sawyer; Thomas Joiner; Edward A. Selby; Steven Zarit; Ian H. Gotlib; David C. Steffens

2012-01-01

120

Depression Among Acute Spinal Cord Injury Patients: A Study Utilizing the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depressive episodes once were thought to be a natural part of the recovery and adaptation from acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Others disagree and note that a variety of affective and cognitive reactions, which may or may not include dysphoria, occur after SCI. Studies which have sought to determine the actual prevalence of major depression among SCI patients have

Gary Davidoff; Elliot Roth; Paula Thomas; Robert Doljanac; Marcel Dijkers; Stanley Berent; Laurie Wolf; Jeri Morris; Gary Yarkony

1990-01-01

121

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study 1 EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol Summary Few studies have examined in detail the nature of tomato handling policies and practices in food service establishments. The purpose of this study

122

Symptomatology of depression in adolescence.  

PubMed

The symptomatology and dimensions of depression in adolescence were studied using the MMPI protocols of 212 adolescent psychiatric patients. A Face Valid Depression Scale for Adolescents was judgmentally developed by five child psychiatrists and psychologists. It included symptoms common to depressive adults and adolescents as well as symptoms peculiar to adolescents, which was confirmed by comparison with adult depression scales. Factor analysis of the scale yielded the following six factors: lack of self-confidence, social abandonment, loss of interests, sadness, somatic symptoms, and acting-out. The second and sixth factors appeared to be particularly characteristic of adolescents. PMID:469704

Mezzich, A C; Mezzich, J E

1979-06-01

123

Molecular studies of major depressive disorder: the epigenetic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder encompassing a spectrum of symptoms involving deficits to a range of cognitive, psychomotor and emotional processes. As is the norm for aetiological studies into the majority of psychiatric phenotypes, particular focus has fallen on the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. There are, however, several epidemiological, clinical and

J Mill; A Petronis

2007-01-01

124

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted

Sarah Schmiege; Nancy Felipe Russo

2005-01-01

125

Adoption study supporting genetic transmission in manic-depressive illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

COMPARISON of adoptive parents of persons with a psychiatric disorder with their biological parents provides a unique opportunity to separate the interacting aetiological roles of heredity and environment. We have conducted such a study in manic-depressive illness; the results strongly support the importance of genetic factors in the transmission of this disorder.

Julien Mendlewicz; JOHN D. RAINER

1977-01-01

126

An open study of lamotrigine in refractory bipolar depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar depressed patients (n=22) who were refractory to treatment with a combination of divalproex sodium (DVP) and another mood stabilizer or DVP and an antidepressant for 6 weeks were treated in an open naturalistic study with an addition of lamotrigine to DVP. Sixteen out of 22 (72%) responded by the end of week 4 and none developed rash or switched

Vivek Kusumakar; Lakshmi N Yatham

1997-01-01

127

Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

2012-01-01

128

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Transmission of Parental Depression to Children's Depression and Conduct Disturbance: An Extended Children of Twins Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children's behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental…

Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon J.

2010-01-01

129

Peer relations and depressed mood in normal children: a prospective study  

E-print Network

suicidal risk in depressed persons. Like other aspects of depression, the relationship between interpersonal behavior and depression has been examined in much more detail for adults than for children. While peer relations and depression have been... and suicidal intent in children in the same manner that it is for adults. The present study attempted to replicate findings concerning the relationship between hopelessness and depression with a normal sample of children and to further establish...

Hoye, Wayne Edgar

2012-06-07

130

Physical activity, exercise coping, and depression in a 10-year cohort study of depressed patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological research examining the relationship between physical activity and depression has been conducted almost exclusively with community samples. We examined associations between physical activity, exercise coping, and depression in a sample of initially depressed patients, using four waves of data spanning 10 years.

Alex H. S. Harris; Ruth Cronkite; Rudolf Moos

2006-01-01

131

Connections between the outcomes of osteoporotic hip fractures and depression, delirium or dementia in elderly patients: rationale and preliminary data from the CODE study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: osteoporosis, depression and other neuro-psychiatric disorders are very common after 50 years of age. Although these conditions recognize several and specific etiologic factors, they however appear to share physiologic, environmental processes and risk factors which may explain their possible association. Methods: we have built up a specific research project (the CODE study, Connections between the outcomes of osteoporotic hip fractures and depression, delirium or dementia in elderly patients), and carried out a preliminary survey on 55 hip fractured elderly patients (42 women, mean age 85 years old and 13 men, mean age 82 years old), hospitalized at SS. Annunziata hospital in Florence from July to September 2010. Results: there was a significant difference (p=0.010) in the functional recovery after surgery (as measured by Cumulated Ambulation Score, CAS) between depressed and non-depressed subjects (n=38), with a worse recovery and a lower CAS score in depressed patients (n=17). We also observed a higher prevalence of depression in the osteoporotic-fragile elderly people (69,1% of total sample). Conclusion: our preliminary survey has validated the suitability of the CODE study protocol in assessing connections between outcomes of osteoporotic hip fractures and depression in elderly patients, fostering the extension of the study (and suggesting also the inclusion of delirium and dementia) within a multicentric prospective study aimed to provide specific information and guidelines for osteoporotic fractured patients with concomitant depression or other neuro-psychiatric disorders. PMID:22783335

Piscitelli, Prisco; Metozzi, Alessia; Benvenuti, Enrico; Bonamassa, Lorenzo; Brandi, Gemma; Cavalli, Loredana; Colli, Emanuela; Fossi, Caterina; Parri, Simone; Giolli, Lorenzo; Tanini, Annalisa; Fasano, Alfonso; Di Tanna, Gianluca; Brandi, Maria Luisa

2012-01-01

132

Formally modeling, analyzing, and designing network protocols : a case study on retransmission-based reliable multicast protocols  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we conduct an extensive case study on formally modeling, analyzing, and designing retransmission-based reliable multicast protocols. We first present an abstract model of the communication service that ...

Livadas, Carolos

2003-01-01

133

EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study 1 EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol Summary Good hand hygiene is of critical importance in preventing-ill controls (Hennessy et al, 1998; Kassenborg et al, 1998). Research has also indicated that good hand hygiene

134

Adolescents in Primary Care with Sub-Threshold Depressed Mood Screened for Participation in a Depression Prevention Study: Co-Morbidity and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adolescents in primary care with sub-threshold depression symptoms may be candidates for early intervention to prevent onset of full major depressive disorder. Little is known about this population. Method We screened consecutive adolescents (ages 14–21) in 13 primary care sites for presence of depression symptoms for “at least a few days” or “nearly every day” in the last two weeks for possible enrollment in a primary care/Internet-based depression prevention intervention (CATCH-IT). We report illness severity, prevalence of self-harm ideation, prevalence correlates (automatic negative thoughts, generalized self-efficacy, perceived social support from family and friends) and co-occurring symptoms of other mental disorders with depressed mood. Results Twenty-one percent (N=293) of those screened reported a core symptom of depressive disorder of which 83 enrolled in the study and were analyzed. The sample was 40% ethnic minority with a mean zip code household income of $40,249 (SD=$14,500). Reporting at least one symptom of another mental disorder was common for anxiety (48%, N=40), substance abuse (31%, N=15), conduct disorder (71%, N=53), as were self-harm ideation (16%, N=12) and reporting school impairment (100%, N=83). Prevalence correlates for current depressive symptoms included low self-efficacy, automatic negative thoughts, perceived low peer acceptance, and school impairment. Conclusions Adolescents with sub-threshold depressed mood have frequent co-morbid symptoms that may need to be considered in developing prevention interventions. Early intervention targets to reduce depressed mood include pessimistic thinking, low self-efficacy, low peer acceptance, and school impairment. PMID:23795221

Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Melkonian, Stephanie; Marko, Monika; Humensky, Jennifer; Fogel, Joshua

2013-01-01

135

IPS multicentric study: Functional somatic symptoms in depression  

PubMed Central

Background: As a pilot project, Indian Psychiatric Society conducted the first multicentric study involving diverse settings from teaching institutions in public and private sectors and even privately run psychiatric clinics. Aim of the Study: To study the typology of functional somatic complaints (FSC) in patients with first episode depression. Materials and Methods: A total of 741 patients from 16 centers across the country participated in the study. They were assessed on Bradford Somatic Symptom inventory for FSC, Beck Depression Inventory for severity of depression, and Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale- anxiety index (CPRS-AI) for anxiety symptoms. Results: The mean age of the study sample was 38.23 years (SD-11.52). There was equal gender distribution (male - 49.8% vs. females 50.2%). Majority of the patients were married (74.5%), Hindus (57%), and from nuclear family (68.2%). A little over half of the patients were from urban background (52.9%). The mean duration of illness at the time of assessment was 25.55 months. Most of the patients (77%) had more than 10 FSCs, with 39.7% having more than 20 FSCs as assessed on Bradford Somatic Inventory. The more common FSC as assessed on Bradford Somatic Inventory were lack of energy (weakness) much of the time (76.2%), severe headache (74%) and feeling tired when not working (71%), pain in legs (64%), aware of palpitations (59.5%), head feeling heavy (59.4%), aches and pains all over the body (55.5%), mouth or throat getting dry (55.2%), pain or tension in neck and shoulder (54%), head feeling hot or burning (54%), and darkness or mist in front of the eyes (49.1%). The prevalence and typology of FSCs is to a certain extent influenced by the sociodemographic variables and severity of depression. Conclusion: Functional somatic symptoms are highly prevalent in Indian depressed patients and hence deserve more attention while diagnosing depression in Indian setting. PMID:23441051

Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Kalita, Kamal; Dalal, P. K.; Rao, G. P.; Chadda, R. K.; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Bang, Govind; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, P. K.; Kathuria, Puneet; Thirunavukarasu, M; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Harish, T.; Shah, Nilesh; Deka, Kamla

2013-01-01

136

Internet-delivered treatment: its potential as a low-intensity community intervention for adults with symptoms of depression: protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a high prevalence disorder, displaying high rates of lifetime incidence, early age onset, high chronicity, and role impairment. In Ireland 12-month prevalence of depression has been reported to be 10.3%. A large percentage of affected individuals have no medical diagnosis nor seek treatment. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) has established itself as an option for the treatment of depression. Many Irish adults with depression find it difficult to access evidence-based CBT, this is due to several factors, like stigma and costs. However, systematic factors including the shortage of trained professionals and the relative underdevelopment of services also make access difficult. Stepped-care can increase access to evidence-based CBT. One option is tailored internet-delivered treatment programs. Preliminary research from Ireland needs now to include large-scale studies on effectiveness. Thus the current study seeks to examine the potential of an internet-delivered low-intensity treatment for symptoms of depression in an Irish adult community sample. Method/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial of an online CBT (iCBT) program for the treatment of adults with depressive symptoms. The trial will include an active treatment group and a waiting-list control group. The active condition will consist of 8 weekly modules of iCBT, with post-session feedback support. Participants in the waiting list will receive access to the treatment at week 8. Participants will complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and eligibility criteria will also apply. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include quality of life indicators, significant events and satisfaction with online treatment. Data will be collected at baseline and at post-treatment, week 8, and at follow-up week 20 (3-months) and week 32 (6-months). Analysis will be conducted on the intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of an online delivered treatment for depression in a community sample of Irish adults with symptoms of depression. The study will be a first contribution and depending on the sample recruited the results may be generalizable to people with similar difficulties in Ireland and may therefore give insight into the potential of low-intensity interventions for Irish people with depressive symptoms. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03704676. DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN03704676 PMID:24886179

2014-01-01

137

Cognitive group therapy for depressive students: The case study  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to assess whether a course of cognitive group therapy could help depressed students and to assess whether assimilation analysis offers a useful way of analysing students' progress through therapy. “Johanna” was a patient in a group that was designed for depressive students who had difficulties with their studies. The assimilation of Johanna's problematic experience progressed as the meetings continued from level one (unpleasant thoughts) to level six (solving the problem). Johanna's problematic experience manifested itself as severe and excessive criticism towards herself and her study performance. As the group meetings progressed, Johanna found a new kind of tolerance that increased her determination and assertiveness regarding the studies. The dialogical structure of Johanna's problematic experience changed: she found hope and she was more assertive after the process. The results indicated that this kind of psycho-educational group therapy was an effective method for treating depression. The assimilation analysis offered a useful way of analysing the therapy process. PMID:20523883

Tiuraniemi, Juhani; Korhola, Jarno

2009-01-01

138

Functional brain imaging studies of youth depression: A systematic review?  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) in youth, particularly in the context of neuroimaging studies. This systematic review provides a timely comprehensive account of the available functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature in youth MDD. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMED, PsycINFO and Science Direct databases, to identify fMRI studies in younger and older youth with MDD, spanning 13–18 and 19–25 years of age, respectively. Results Twenty-eight studies focusing on 5 functional imaging domains were identified, namely emotion processing, cognitive control, affective cognition, reward processing and resting-state functional connectivity. Elevated activity in “extended medial network” regions including the anterior cingulate, ventromedial and orbitofrontal cortices, as well as the amygdala was most consistently implicated across these five domains. For the most part, findings in younger adolescents did not differ from those in older youth; however a general comparison of findings in both groups compared to adults indicated differences in the domains of cognitive control and affective cognition. Conclusions Youth MDD is characterized by abnormal activations in ventromedial frontal regions, the anterior cingulate and amygdala, which are broadly consistent with the implicated role of medial network regions in the pathophysiology of depression. Future longitudinal studies examining the effects of neurodevelopmental changes and pubertal maturation on brain systems implicated in youth MDD will provide a more comprehensive neurobiological model of youth depression. PMID:24455472

Kerestes, Rebecca; Davey, Christopher G.; Stephanou, Katerina; Whittle, Sarah; Harrison, Ben J.

2013-01-01

139

Personality and depressive symptoms: Stress generation and cognitive vulnerabilities to depression in a prospective daily diary study  

PubMed Central

Personality and psychopathology have long been associated, however the mechanisms that account for this link are less understood. Stress generation was examined as a potential mechanism to explain the association between personality traits, especially negative emotionality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, the moderating influence of cognitive vulnerabilities to potentiate the relation between stressors and depressive symptoms was investigated. These hypothesized processes were evaluated in a prospective daily diary study in which young adults (N=210) completed baseline measures of personality, dysfunctional attitudes, negative cognitive style, and depressive symptoms. The participants then recorded their levels of depressive symptoms and the occurrence of stressors daily for 35 days. Negative Emotionality-Stress Reaction (NEM-SR) predicted initial levels and trajectories of depressive symptoms and stressors over time. Daily stressors partially mediated the longitudinal association between baseline NEM-SR and trajectories of daily depressive symptoms. Both dysfunctional attitudes and negative cognitive style interacted with these additional stressors to predict prospective fluctuations of daily depressive symptoms.

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2014-01-01

140

Screening depressive symptoms in Jordanian women: evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D).  

PubMed

This study examined the psychometric qualities of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) in Jordanian women. Cronbach's alpha for the 20-item CES-D was .90. Factor analysis yielded three components. Four of the items had poor factor loadings and, therefore, were dropped. Cronbach's alpha for the remaining 16 items was .85. Validity testing using independent samples t-test provided evidence of discriminant validity for the 20-item and the 16-item CES-D. Attributes of the CES-D items indicated that depression status can be easily identified by clinicians. Co morbidity of depressive symptoms with physical and mental problems necessitates routine screening for depressed mood. PMID:20624023

Al-Modallal, Hanan

2010-08-01

141

Do you have depression? Stanford University is conducting a research study on the  

E-print Network

Do you have depression? Stanford University is conducting a research study on the interaction between depression and pre-diabetes. Study participants receive a comprehensive assessment on behavior and role in brain function in men and women with depression. Who can participate? The researchers

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

142

Clinical characteristics of depression among adolescent females: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adolescents rarely seek psychiatric help; they even hesitate to disclose their feelings to their parents. However; the adolescents especially the females experience depressive symptoms more frequently than general population. Do they experience classic depressive symptoms? Are there symptoms specific to this subpopulation? AIM OF THE STUDY: Through this study, the authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive disorders

Afaf H Khalil; Menan A Rabie; Mohamed F Abd-El-Aziz; Tarek A Abdou; Amany H El-Rasheed; Walaa M Sabry

2010-01-01

143

Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: A Prospective Study of Expressive Suppression and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to…

Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Geenen, Rinie; van Middendorp, Henriet; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Ha, Thao; Evers, Catharine; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

2013-01-01

144

Neurological complications of breast cancer: study protocol of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The improvement in breast cancer survival rates, along with the expected overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with breast cancer screening, requires a comprehensive assessment of its burden. Neurological complications can have a devastating impact on these patients; neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are among the most frequently reported. This project aims to understand the burden of neurological complications of breast cancer treatment in Northern Portugal, and their role as mediator of the impact of the treatment in different dimensions of the patients’ quality of life. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study was designed to include 500 patients with breast cancer, to be followed for 3?years. The patients were recruited at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and evaluations were planned at different stages: pretreatment, after surgery, after chemotherapy (whenever applicable) and at 1 and 3?years after enrolment. Patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain or chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (subcohorts), were also evaluated at the moment of confirmation of clinical diagnosis of the neurological complication and 6?months later. In each of the follow-up periods, a neurological examination has been performed by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression. Between January and December 2012, we recruited and conducted the baseline evaluation of 506 participants. The end of the follow-up period is scheduled for December 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and all patients provided written informed consent. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality. Results from this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in relevant conferences. PMID:25351600

Pereira, Susana; Fontes, Filipa; Sonin, Teresa; Dias, Teresa; Fragoso, Maria; Castro-Lopes, Jose; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

145

Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…

Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.

2012-01-01

146

Novel loci for major depression identified by genome-wide association study of Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression and meta-analysis of three studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) in 1221 cases from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study and 1636 screened controls. No genome-wide evidence for association was detected. We also carried out a meta-analysis of three European-ancestry MDD GWAS data sets: STAR*D, Genetics of Recurrent Early-onset Depression and the publicly available Genetic

S I Shyn; J Shi; J B Kraft; J B Potash; J A Knowles; M M Weissman; H A Garriock; J S Yokoyama; P J McGrath; E J Peters; W A Scheftner; W Coryell; W B Lawson; D Jancic; P V Gejman; A R Sanders; P Holmans; S L Slager; D F Levinson; S P Hamilton

2011-01-01

147

Low intensity vs. self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for major depression: a multicenter, controlled, randomized study  

PubMed Central

Background Major depression will become the second most important cause of disability in 2020. Computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy could be an efficacious and cost-effective option for its treatment. No studies on cost-effectiveness of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy has been carried out. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of low intensity vs self-guided psychotherapy for major depression in the Spanish health system. Methods The study is made up of 3 phases: 1.- Development of a computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy for depression tailored to Spanish health system. 2.- Multicenter controlled, randomized study: A sample (N=450 patients) with mild/moderate depression recruited in primary care. They should have internet availability at home, not receive any previous psychological treatment, and not suffer from any other severe somatic or psychological disorder. They will be allocated to one of 3 treatments: a) Low intensity Internet-delivered psychotherapy + improved treatment as usual (ITAU) by GP, b) Self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy + ITAU or c) ITAU. Patients will be diagnosed with MINI psychiatric interview. Main outcome variable will be Beck Depression Inventory. It will be also administered EuroQol 5D (quality of life) and Client Service Receipt Inventory (consume of health and social services). Patients will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. An intention to treat and a per protocol analysis will be performed. Discussion The comparisons between low intensity and self-guided are infrequent, and also a comparative economic evaluation between them and compared with usual treatment in primary. The strength of the study is that it is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of low intensity and self-guided Internet-delivered psychotherapy for depression in primary care, being the treatment completely integrated in primary care setting. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01611818 PMID:23312003

2013-01-01

148

Does Age at Onset of First Major Depressive Episode Indicate the Subtype of Major Depressive Disorder?: The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. Materials and Methods We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages <18), early adult onset (ages 18-44), middle adult onset (ages 45-59), and late onset (ages 60+). Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and ordinal logistic regression analysis with adjusting the effect of age, the relationships between clinical features and age at onset of MDD were evaluated. Results There was an apparent, but inconsistent correlation between clinical features and age at onset. Earlier onset MDD was significantly associated with higher proportion of female gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.570, p=0.022], more previous suicide attempts (AOR=0.635, p=0.038), greater number of previous depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, p<0.0001), and the alcohol use disorder identification test (F=7.061, p<0.0001). Conclusion Early age at onset may increase the likelihood of distinguishable MDD subtype, and age at onset of the first major depressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD. PMID:25323911

Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

2014-01-01

149

An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method, and was capable of removing virtually all S0 from the pyrite grains. As pyrite oxidation and dissolution processes are surface-dependent, and even the slightest coating by Fe2+ or sulfide oxidation products can sharply decrease pyrite reactivity, the improved removal of S0 prevents such decreases and allows clearer insights into pyrite reaction mechanisms to be gained from experimental studies. In addition to S0 removal, the suggested method was shown not to introduce any biases in the particle size distribution. The main difference observed between the two protocols is the removal of larger amounts of surface-attached fine particles in the proposed method along with S0. This also removes a potential bias, associated with the surface area of pyrite available for chemical reaction. The suggested pyrite pretreatment protocol is more efficient in removal of S0 contamination from pyrite grains and provides multiple advantages for both kinetic and isotopic investigations of pyrite transformations under various environmental conditions.

Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

2014-05-01

150

Validation of the Spanish Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales: A Comparative Validation Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are leading contributors to burden of disease in developing countries. Research aiming to improve their diagnosis and treatment is fundamental in these settings, and psychometric tools are widely used instruments to support mental health research. Our aim is to validate and compare the psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Methodology/Principal Findings A Spanish version of the CES-D was revised by 5 native Spanish speaking psychiatrists using as reference the English version. A locally standardized Spanish version of the ZSDS was used. These Spanish versions were administered to 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode (MDE), 63 without major depression but with clinical diagnosis of other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 61 with no evidence of psychiatric disorders (NEP). For both scales, Cronbach's alpha (C-?) and Hierarchical McDonald Omega for polychoric variables (MD-?) were estimated; and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis performed. For the CES-D and ZSDS scales, C-? was 0.93 and 0.89 respectively, while MD-? was 0.90 and 0.75 respectively. The area under the ROC curve in MDE+OPD was 0.83 for CES-D and 0.84 for ZSDS; and in MDE+NEP was 0.98 for CES-D and 0.96 for ZSDS. Cut-off scores (co) for the highest proportions of correctly classified (cc) individuals among MDE+OPD were ?29 for CES-D (sensitivity (ss)?=?77.1/specificity (sp)?=?79.4%/(cc)?=?78.2%) and ?47 for ZSDS (ss?=?85.7%/sp?=?71.4%/cc?=?78.9%). In the MDE+NEP, co were ?24 for the CES-D (ss?=?91.4%/sp?=?96.7%/cc?=?93.9%) and ?45 for the ZSDS (ss?=?91.4%/sp?=?91.8%/cc?=?91.6%). Conclusion Spanish versions of the CES-D and ZSDS are valid instruments to detect depression in clinical settings and could be useful for both epidemiological research and primary clinical settings in settings similar as those of public hospitals in Lima, Peru. PMID:23056202

Arevalo, Jorge M.; Chavez, Kristhy; Vilela, Ana; Lazo, Maria; Huapaya, Julio

2012-01-01

151

Depression among Arabs and Jews in Israel: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Depression is the second most common chronic disorder seen by primary care physicians. Risk factors associated with depression\\u000a include medical and psychosocial factors. While in Israel, the rate and risk factors for depression are considered similar\\u000a to those in other Western countries, population-based data are limited. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence\\u000a of depression among Jews and Muslim

Giora Kaplan; Saralee Glasser; Havi Murad; Ahmed Atamna; Gershon Alpert; Uri Goldbourt; Ofra Kalter-Leibovici

2010-01-01

152

Maintenance pharmacotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder: 5-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Practice guidelines endorse maintenance antidepressant treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder. In the Vantaa Depression Study, we followed 218 psychiatric patients with major depressive disorder for up to 5 years with a life-chart. Of these patients, 86 (39.4%) had more than three lifetime episodes and an indication for maintenance pharmacotherapy. However, of these, only 57% received treatment and only

I. A. K. Holma; K. Mikael Holm; Tarja K. Melartin; Erkki T. Isometsa

2008-01-01

153

Focused crawling in depression portal search: A feasibility study Thanh Tin Tang  

E-print Network

Focused crawling in depression portal search: A feasibility study Thanh Tin Tang Department@cs.anu.edu.au Abstract Previous work on domain specific search services in the area of depressive illness has documented could be automatically derived from a DMOZ depression category list, with dramatic saving in effort. We

Hawking, David

154

J Clin Psychiatry . Author manuscript A prospective study of hormone therapy and depression in  

E-print Network

and depression in community-dwelling elderly women: the Three City Study Jacqueline Scali 1 , Joanne Ryan 1-laure.ancelin@inserm.fr > Abstract Background The potential benefits of hormone therapy in treating depressed postmenopausal women are controversial and data on depression (re)emergence in the context of HT discontinuation are lacking. Objective

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Depression-Related Stress Generation: A Longitudinal Study of Black Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined Hammen's (1991) model of stress generation in depression in a Black adolescent population. The longitudinal sample of 1,766 participants entered the study at ages 13 to 18. Stressful events and depressive and other symptom occurrence over a 1-year period were analyzed. Results supported the stress generation model. Depressive

Wingate, LaRicka R.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

2004-01-01

156

Physical activity correlates in young women with depressive symptoms: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Young women are at high risk for developing depression and participation in physical activity may prevent or treat the disorder. However, the influences on physical activity behaviors of young women with depression are not well understood. The aim of this study was to gather in-depth information about the correlates of physical activity among young women with and without depressive

Denise Azar; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon; Verity J Cleland

2010-01-01

157

The outcome of depressive disorders in neurology patients: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In a previous prospective study of 300 consecutive new attenders at neurology outpatient clinics, depressive disorders were diagnosed in 119 patients (40%) and major depressive disorder in 77 (26%).Objective: To describe the eight month outcome of depression in this cohort.Methods: Patients were reinterviewed eight months after their baseline assessment. Mental state was examined using the primary care evaluation of

A J Carson; K Postma; J Stone; C Warlow; M Sharpe

2003-01-01

158

Work-related depression in the hotel industry: a study in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to develop and test a model, which examines work-related depression among frontline hotel employees. Specifically, the model examines emotional exhaustion as a full mediator of the effects of positive affectivity and intrinsic motivation on depression. The model also investigates the interaction of intrinsic motivation and positive affectivity on emotional exhaustion and depression.

Osman M. Karatepe; Ladan Zargar Tizabi

2011-01-01

159

Validity study of the Brazilian version of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Although depression is a well-established feature of schizophrenia, it is difficult to measure, because it overlaps with negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Routinely adopted depression scales were not designed to be used in cases of schizophrenia, and are known to perform poorly when trying to distinguish depression from other symptoms. Objective: The aim of this study was to

Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan; Ana Cristina Chaves; Itiro Shirakawa; Jair de Jesus Mari

1998-01-01

160

Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

2009-01-01

161

Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

2012-01-01

162

2 Towards the study of functional brain development in depression: An Interactive 3 Specialization approach  

E-print Network

U N C O R R E C T E D P R O O F 1 Review 2 Towards the study of functional brain development Brain 21 Brain development 22 Interactive Specialization 23 Preschool depression 24 Pediatric depression synthesizing established models 29of depression and normative brain development may help to overcome them. More

163

Depressive Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) in school children and adolescents in Iran. The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 1,984 children and…

Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane

2013-01-01

164

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures guidelines, the cognitive-behavioral

Corinne David-Ferdon; Nadine J. Kaslow

2008-01-01

165

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

2008-01-01

166

Study of proportion and determinants of depression among college students in Mangalore city  

PubMed Central

Background: Onset of depression is occurring earlier in life today than in past decades. Adolescence being transitional period from childhood to adulthood is a stage of emotional instability resulting from demand for separation and independence. Evidence suggests that early intervention for depression in children can improve long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in January 2010 to find out the prevalence of depression among pre university students in Mangalore city. Prevalence of depression was assessed using Beck's Depression Inventory II. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Out of 308 participants, depression was seen among 79.2% students. A majority (41.2%) were found to be suffering from moderate followed by mild (26.6%) depression. Prevalence of depression (P = 0.027) and severity of depression (P = 0.0357) was found to significantly increase with age of the participants. Students of commerce were found to be significantly more depressed than students of science stream (P = 0.002). No association of depression with gender of participants or with the type of college they were studying in was observed. Conclusion: There is a need for college students to be educated about depression in order to improve recognition and diagnosis. Also student counselling service offering mental health assistance needs to be established at colleges. PMID:24791051

Naushad, Sarah; Farooqui, Waseem; Sharma, Satish; Rani, Mukthi; Singh, Rajashree; Verma, Supreet

2014-01-01

167

Rumination and executive function in depression: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Major depression is associated with cognitive deficits, particularly those requiring central executive functioning. Depressed patients also tend to focus on and think about their symptoms and problems (“ruminate”) more than non-depressed controls. Although an association has been found between rumination and impaired performance on a central executive processing task, the causal relation between impaired executive functioning and rumination has

E Watkins; R G Brown

2002-01-01

168

Prospective study of postpartum depression: Prevalence, course, and predictive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

99 women (mean age 26.5 yrs) were followed from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until about 6 mo postpartum. Depression diagnostic and severity assessments were conducted during pregnancy and after delivery. Instruments included the Beck Depression Inventory and an interview adapted from the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Depression severity decreased steadily from the 2nd trimester until 9 wks

Michael W. OHara; Danny J. Neunaber; Ellen M. Zekoski

1984-01-01

169

A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

2005-01-01

170

Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Healthy couple relationships are fundamental to a healthy society, whereas relationship breakdown and discord are linked to a wide range of negative health and wellbeing outcomes. Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education) have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind. This study protocol describes an effectiveness evaluation of the two types of community-based relationship services. The aims of the Evaluation of Couple Counselling study are to: map the profiles of clients seeking agency-based couple counselling and relationship enhancement programs in terms of socio-demographic, relationship, health, and health service use indicators; to determine 3 and 12-month outcomes for relationship satisfaction, commitment, and depression; and determine relative contributions of client and therapy factors to outcomes. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental pre-post-post evaluation design is used to assess outcomes for couples presenting for the two types of community-based relationship services. The longitudinal design involves a pre-treatment survey and two follow-up surveys at 3- and 12-months post-intervention. The study is set in eight Relationships Australia Victoria centres, across metropolitan, outer suburbs, and regional/rural sites. Relationships Australia, a non-government organisation, is the largest provider of couple counselling and relationship services in Australia. The key outcomes are couple satisfaction, relationship commitment, and depression measured by the CESD-10. Multi-level modelling will be used to account for the dyadic nature of couple data. Discussion The study protocol describes the first large scale investigation of the effectiveness of two types of relationship services to be conducted in Australia. Its significance lies in providing more detailed profiles of couples who seek relationship services, in evaluating both 3 and 12-month relationship and health outcomes, and in determining factors that best predict improvements. It builds on prior research by using a naturalistic sample, an effectiveness research design, a more robust measure of relationship satisfaction, robust health indicators, a 12-month follow-up period, and a more rigorous statistical procedure suitable for dyadic data. Findings will provide a more precise description of those seeking relationship services and factors associated with improved relationship and health outcomes. PMID:22943742

2012-01-01

171

Unipolar depression across cultures: A Delphi analysis of the methodological and conceptual issues confronting the cross-cultural study of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research is to investigate the epistemological and methodological discrepancies involved in the cross-cultural study of unipolar depression. These discrepancies include the methodological design and measurement of depression and culture, and the epistemological variation in researchers as to whether depression is a universal or socially constructed phenomenon. A Delphi procedure was utilised which enabled a group of

Melinda Redmond; Rosanna Rooney; Brian Bishop

2006-01-01

172

Predictors of postpartum depression: prospective study of 264 women followed during pregnancy and postpartum.  

PubMed

The prevalence of postpartum depression is approximately 13%. Postpartum depression is associated with a higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and also with pervasive effects on the emotional, cognitive and behavioral development of the child. The aim of our study was to identify socio-demographic, psychosocial and obstetrical risk factors of postpartum depression in a middle class community sample, using a prospective design. We enrolled consecutively 312 pregnant outpatients in a single maternity unit. The first assessment was conducted between 32 and 41 weeks gestation, and a second time between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the French version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A cut-off score of 12/30 or above was considered as indicative of Major Depression. Of the initial sample of 312 women, 264 (84.6%) were followed-up between 6 and 8 weeks after delivery and considered for analysis. Depression during pregnancy, migrant status, and physical abuse by the partner were independently associated with postpartum depression when considered together, whereas physical complications were significantly associated with postpartum depression only when adjusting for antenatal depression. Depression during pregnancy, history of physical abuse, migrant status and postpartum physical complications are four major risk factors for postpartum depression. PMID:24370337

Gaillard, Adeline; Le Strat, Yann; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Keïta, Hawa; Dubertret, Caroline

2014-02-28

173

Promotoras across the border: a pilot study addressing depression in Mexican women impacted by migration.  

PubMed

The migration of working-aged men from Mexico to the United States fractures the family-centered support structures typical of Latin America and contributes to high levels of depression in women left behind in migratory sending communities in Mexico. Mujeres en Solidaridad Apoyandose (MESA) was developed to improve depression in women through social support in a resource poor setting. MESA is a promotora intervention that trains women in the community to lead social support groups over a five-week period. The MESA curriculum uses a combination of cognitive behavioral theory techniques, psychoeducation, and social support activities aimed at alleviating or preventing depression in women. Results from this pilot efficacy study (n = 39) show that depressed participants at baseline experienced declines in depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at follow-up. Other findings demonstrate the complexity behind addressing social support and depression for women impacted by migration in different ways. PMID:23440449

Edelblute, Heather B; Clark, Sandra; Mann, Lilli; McKenney, Kathryn M; Bischof, Jason J; Kistler, Christine

2014-06-01

174

A performance study of the cancelback protocol for Time Warp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents results from an experimental evaluation of the space-time tradeoffs in Time Warp augmented with the cancelback protocol for memory management. An implementation of the cancelback protocol on Time Warp is described that executes on a shared memory multiprocessor, a 32 processor Kendall Square Research Machine (KSR1). The implementation supports canceling back more than one object when memory

Samir R. Das; Richard M. Fujimoto

1993-01-01

175

Combined MI + CBT for Depressive Symptoms and Binge Drinking Among Young Adults: Two Case Studies  

PubMed Central

There are high rates of comorbidity between heavy drinking and depressive symptoms among college students, often resulting in severe alcohol-related consequences. No empirically supported treatment exists that concurrently addresses both of these problems in this population. Research with college students has demonstrated that brief motivational interventions (BMIs) reduce heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and that cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (CBT-D) is effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Thus, a program combining BMI and CBT-D appears ideal for college students with co-occurring binge drinking and depressive symptoms. This manuscript presents the rationale and format of a BMI + CBT-D treatment protocol for this population, and provides a case example of a female college student who received the protocol and experienced improvement in depressive symptoms, a reduction in alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences, and an increase in readiness to change alcohol consumption. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of these findings, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25170188

Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Palm, Kathleen M.; Dalton, Elizabeth; Fava, Maurizio

2014-01-01

176

Is depression the past tense of anxiety? An empirical study of the temporal distinction.  

PubMed

It has long been recognised that depression and anxiety share a common core of negative affect, but research on similarities and differences between these two emotions is growing. The focus of the current study was on whether the timing of a triggering event can determine whether the dominant emotional reaction is depression or anxiety. It was hypothesised that aversive events in the past would elicit more depression than anxiety, whereas the same aversive events in the future would elicit more anxiety than depression. We created temporally varied versions of vignettes describing aversive events occurring at either time, and asked participants to rate the extent to which the events would elicit feelings of depression or anxiety. Results indicated that adverse past events elicited much higher ratings of anticipated depression and adverse future events elicited much higher ratings of anticipated anxiety. Implications for understanding these two emotions and depressive and anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:25355667

Pomerantz, Andrew M; Rose, Paul

2014-12-01

177

Maternal depression and filicide-case study of ten mothers.  

PubMed

This study describes ten cases of filicides committed by mothers who intentionally killed one or more of their children within 12 months after delivery. The data were collected from police and court records, forensic psychiatric records, autopsy reports, and other medical records. The mean age of the mothers was 28.5 years and of the victims 4 months. The symptoms of depression were clear: an irritable, severely depressed mood with crying spells, insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, preoccupation with worries about the baby's well-being and the mother's caring abilities, suicidal ideation, or even psychotic thoughts. Most mothers had had house calls from the public health nurse or psychologist. The mothers' conditions deteriorated rapidly, and the filicide was committed when the mother was left alone with the baby against her will. The babies were well taken care of, not neglected or abused. The majority of the mothers had felt that their own parents, especially their mothers, were very demanding, rejecting, and emotionally unsupportive. All the mothers had also had traumatic experiences in their childhood or in adulthood. PMID:18587626

Kauppi, Anne; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Vanamo, Tuija; Merikanto, Juhani; Karkola, Kari

2008-07-01

178

A Prospective Study of Stress Autonomy versus Stress Sensitization in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigated the stress autonomy, stress sensitization, and depression vulnerability hypotheses in adolescents across six years (i.e., grades 6 through 12). Participants were 240 children (Time 1 mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.57) who varied in risk for depression based on their mother’s history of mood disorders. All analyses were conducted as multilevel models to account for nesting in the data. Results were consistent with the stress sensitization hypothesis. The within-subject relation of stress levels to depressive symptoms strengthened with increasing numbers of prior depressive episodes. In addition, evidence consistent with the vulnerability hypothesis was found. The relation of stress levels to depressive symptoms was stronger for adolescents who were at risk for depression based on maternal depression history and for those who had experienced more depressive episodes through grade 12. These findings suggest that onsets of depression in adolescents may be predicted by both relatively stable and dynamic transactions between stressful life events and vulnerabilities such as maternal depression and youths’ own history of depressive episodes. PMID:20455607

Morris, Matthew C.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Garber, Judy

2010-01-01

179

Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered “cohort” study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719

Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

2014-01-01

180

Prospective study of restless legs syndrome and risk of depression in women.  

PubMed

Most research on the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression has involved cross-sectional data. The objective of the present study was to evaluate this issue prospectively among Nurses' Health Study participants. A total of 56,399 women (mean age = 68 years) who were free of depression symptoms at baseline (2002) were followed until 2008. Physician-diagnosed RLS was self-reported. During 300,155 person-years of follow-up, the authors identified 1,268 incident cases of clinical depression (regular use of antidepressant medication and physician-diagnosed depression). Women with RLS at baseline were more likely to develop clinical depression (multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.1; P = 0.02) than those without RLS. The presence of RLS at baseline was also associated with higher scores on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) thereafter. Multivariable-adjusted mean differences were 1.00 (standard error, 0.12) for CESD-10 score and 0.47 (standard error, 0.07) for GDS-15 score between women with RLS and those without RLS (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, women with physician-diagnosed RLS had an increased risk of developing clinical depression and clinically relevant depression symptoms. Further prospective studies using refined approaches to ascertainment of RLS and depression are warranted. PMID:22805376

Li, Yanping; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Winkelman, John; Malhotra, Atul; Okereke, Olivia Ifeoma; Ascherio, Alberto; Gao, Xiang

2012-08-15

181

Prospective Study of Restless Legs Syndrome and Risk of Depression in Women  

PubMed Central

Most research on the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression has involved cross-sectional data. The objective of the present study was to evaluate this issue prospectively among Nurses' Health Study participants. A total of 56,399 women (mean age = 68 years) who were free of depression symptoms at baseline (2002) were followed until 2008. Physician-diagnosed RLS was self-reported. During 300,155 person-years of follow-up, the authors identified 1,268 incident cases of clinical depression (regular use of antidepressant medication and physician-diagnosed depression). Women with RLS at baseline were more likely to develop clinical depression (multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.1; P = 0.02) than those without RLS. The presence of RLS at baseline was also associated with higher scores on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) thereafter. Multivariable-adjusted mean differences were 1.00 (standard error, 0.12) for CESD-10 score and 0.47 (standard error, 0.07) for GDS-15 score between women with RLS and those without RLS (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, women with physician-diagnosed RLS had an increased risk of developing clinical depression and clinically relevant depression symptoms. Further prospective studies using refined approaches to ascertainment of RLS and depression are warranted. PMID:22805376

Li, Yanping; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Eilis J.; Winkelman, John; Malhotra, Atul; Okereke, Olivia Ifeoma; Ascherio, Alberto; Gao, Xiang

2012-01-01

182

Divided Visual Field Study of Depression, Cognition, and Mood  

E-print Network

, operations, products) in individuals with depression and co-occurring anxiety have produced more complex results (e.g., Clark, Beck, & Stewart, 1990; Ingram, Kendall, Smith, Donnell & Ronan, 1987). For example, although individuals with “pure” anxiety... participants was inferred on the basis of low scores on the Beck Depression Inventory). Although the authors interpreted their findings as consistent with a stable, enduring bias for negative information in depression-vulnerable individuals (e...

Garratt, Genevieve

2007-11-26

183

Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of perinatal depression: a cohort study from urban Pakistan.  

PubMed

Depression around childbirth is common in low income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with persistence of depression from the antenatal to the postnatal period in urban Pakistan. A total of 1,357 pregnant women in their third trimester attending the antenatal clinic were included in the study. From these, 763 mothers who delivered at the study maternity home were reassessed after 3 months of childbirth. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered to measure depression in both the antenatal and the postnatal periods. Psychological distress, disability and life events experienced by mothers were also measured by using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and Life Events Checklist, respectively. We found 25.8% prevalence rate of antenatal depression and 38.3% persistent depression in a private clinic. Persistently depressed mothers had significantly high psychological distress, more disability, and experienced more stressful life events than the resolved group. Our findings confirm the high rates of depression during pregnancy but we found low rates of persistent depression in this urban population as compared to the previous report. There is a need for further investigation of factors associated with persistent depression in order to develop appropriate interventions. PMID:21898171

Husain, Nusrat; Parveen, Asia; Husain, Meher; Saeed, Qamar; Jafri, Farhat; Rahman, Raza; Tomenson, Barbara; Chaudhry, Imran B

2011-10-01

184

Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  European studies about ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms are scarce, show inconclusive results and are complicated\\u000a by the discussion of what constitute (im)migrant and ethnic minority groups. Moreover, comparisons across countries are hampered\\u000a by a lack of comparable measures of depressive symptoms. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of depressive\\u000a symptoms among immigrants, ethnic minorities and natives

Sarah Missinne; Piet Bracke

185

Physical activity and depressive symptoms among pregnant women: the PIN3 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal depression confers health risks for both mother and family. Physical activity may promote better mental health; however,\\u000a few studies have examined the influence of physical activity on prenatal depression. Data from 1,220 women enrolled in the\\u000a third Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001–2005) were used to examine the associations between overall and domain-specific\\u000a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressive

Zewditu Demissie; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Kelly R. Evenson; Amy H. Herring; Nancy Dole; Bradley N. Gaynes

2011-01-01

186

Effects of adjunctive reboxetine in patients with duloxetine-resistant depression: a 12-week prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of the combination therapy with two antidepressants from different pharmacological families in patients with treatment-resistant depression has been reported in multiple studies. In this prospective 12-weeks open-label study, we assessed the effectiveness of the addition of reboxetine to 79 depressive outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) according to the DSM-IV criteria who had previously not responded, or

J. Seguí; F. López-Muñoz; C. Álamo; X. Camarasa; P. García-García; A. Pardo

2010-01-01

187

Measuring depression in nursing home residents with the MDS and GDS: an observational psychometric study  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to examine the Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) as measures of depression among nursing home residents. Methods The data for this study were baseline, pre-intervention assessment data from a research study involving nine nursing homes and 704 residents in Massachusetts. Trained research nurses assessed residents using the MDS and the GDS 15-item version. Demographic, psychiatric, and cognitive data were obtained using the MDS. Level of depression was operationalized as: (1) a sum of the MDS Depression items; (2) the MDS Depression Rating Scale; (3) the 15-item GDS; and (4) the five-item GDS. We compared missing data, floor effects, means, internal consistency reliability, scale score correlation, and ability to identify residents with conspicuous depression (chart diagnosis or use of antidepressant) across cognitive impairment strata. Results The GDS and MDS Depression scales were uncorrelated. Nevertheless, both MDS and GDS measures demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability. The MDS suggested greater depression among those with cognitive impairment, whereas the GDS suggested a more severe depression among those with better cognitive functioning. The GDS was limited by missing data; the DRS by a larger floor effect. The DRS was more strongly correlated with conspicuous depression, but only among those with cognitive impairment. Conclusions The MDS Depression items and GDS identify different elements of depression. This may be due to differences in the manifest symptom content and/or the self-report nature of the GDS versus the observer-rated MDS. Our findings suggest that the GDS and the MDS are not interchangeable measures of depression. PMID:15627403

Koehler, Melissa; Rabinowitz, Terry; Hirdes, John; Stones, Michael; Carpenter, G Iain; Fries, Brant E; Morris, John N; Jones, Richard N

2005-01-01

188

Cognitive mechanisms linking low trait positive affect to depressive symptoms: A prospective diary study.  

PubMed

Low trait positive affect represents an affective vulnerability to depression, but little research has examined mechanisms linking low trait positive affect to depressive symptoms. The current study investigated whether the cognitive strategies of dampening and positive rumination mediated the prospective association between low trait positive affect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 209 undergraduate students who participated in an eight-week online study. Depressive symptoms and trait temperament were assessed at baseline, followed by seven weekly questionnaires which assessed cognitive strategies in response to weekly events and weekly depressive symptoms. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling following the mediation approach proposed by Nezlek. Results indicated that low trait positive affect significantly predicted less positive rumination but not greater dampening in response to weekly positive events. Less positive rumination in response to weekly positive events partially mediated the association between low trait positive affect and greater depressive symptoms across the study. PMID:24552238

Harding, Kaitlin A; Hudson, Melissa R; Mezulis, Amy

2014-12-01

189

Depression and social networks in community dwelling elders: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

Social isolation and inadequate social support have been identified as correlates of depression in older adults, although the relationship between depression and social isolation is not entirely understood (Dorfman et al., 1995). This study was conducted to describe the social networks of depressed older adults living in the community and to compare the social networks of depressed and nondepressed individuals, thus adding to the body of knowledge regarding social networks, older adults, and depression. The sample consisted of 91 respondents aged 65 and older who were randomly selected using the voter registry. About 27% (25) respondents reported significant levels of depressive symptomology as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). All respondents completed semistructured interviews that included questions about social contacts with family and others during the prior week. All participants reported social contact with family and friends during this period. In this sample, depressed elders were not socially isolated. They were more likely to report contacts with friends than those who were not depressed, and equally likely to report involvement in volunteer activities. Their likelihood of seeking social support was also comparable. Results emphasize the importance of peer relationships and suggest that, in some groups of older adults, social isolation may not be a hallmark of depressive symptoms. PMID:21462057

Wilby, Frances

2011-04-01

190

Internet-based treatment of major depression for patients on a waiting list for inpatient psychotherapy: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and severe disorder. Although effective treatments for MDD are available, many patients remain untreated, mainly because of insufficient treatment capacities in the health care system. Resulting waiting periods are often associated with prolonged suffering and impairment as well as a higher risk of chronification. Web-based interventions may help to alleviate these problems. Numerous studies provided evidence for the efficacy of web-based interventions for depression. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new web-based guided self-help intervention (GET.ON-Mood Enhancer-WL) specifically developed for patients waiting to commence inpatient therapy for MDD. Methods In a two-armed randomised controlled trial (n?=?200), the web-based guided intervention GET.ON-Mood Enhancer-WL in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) will be compared with TAU alone. The intervention contains six modules (psycho education, behavioural activation I & II, problem solving I & II, and preparation for subsequent inpatient depression therapy). The participants will be supported by an e-coach, who will provide written feedback after each module. Inclusion criteria include a diagnosis of MDD assessed with a structured clinical interview [SCID] and a waiting period of at least three weeks before start of inpatient treatment. The primary outcome is observer-rated depressive symptom severity (HRSD24). Further (explorative) questions include whether remission will be achieved earlier and by more patients during inpatient therapy because of the web-based preparatory intervention. Discussion If GET.ON-Mood Enhancer-WL is proven to be effective, patients may start inpatient therapy with reduced depressive symptom severity, ideally leading to higher remission rates, shortened inpatient therapy, reduced costs, and decreased waiting times. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00004708. PMID:24279841

2013-01-01

191

Study protocol: the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS)  

PubMed Central

Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in children’s health and development. PMID:24103080

2013-01-01

192

Adaptive Inferential Feedback Partner Training for Depression: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive inferential feedback (AIF) partner training is a cognitive technique that teaches the friends and family members of depressed patients to respond to the patients' dysfunctional thoughts in a targeted manner. These dysfunctional attributions, which AIF addresses, are a common residual feature of depression amongst remitted patients, and…

Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Allen, Lesley A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Menza, Matthew; Gara, Michael A.; Panzarella, Catherine

2007-01-01

193

Incidence of depression in early adolescence: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors wished to determine whether depression was present in an early adolescent nonpatient identified school population. Questionnaires were administered to seventh and eighth grade students in a parochial extended elementary school. The findings indicated that 33.3% of this school population were experiencing moderate to severe depression and 35% of the sample acknowledged current suicidal ideation. A comparison of mean

Nina Albert; Aaron T. Beck

1975-01-01

194

Incidence of Depression in Early Adolescence: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument used to measure depression indicated that 35 percent of grade 7 and 8 students had significant levels of depression. The author suggests that programs regarding student mental health be instituted toward preventive guidance through the school system. (Author/DEP)

Albert, Nina; Beck, Aaron T.

1975-01-01

195

Anxiety, Depression, Hostility and General Psychopathology: An Arabian Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Arabian cultures, the psychosocial characteristics of psychopathological trends, including depression, anxiety, and hostility remain largely unknown. Scales measuring depression, anxiety, and hostility were administered to a voluntary sample of 989 Saudi Arabian men and 1,024 Saudi women coming from different social, economical, and educational…

Ibrahim, Abdel-Sattar; Ibrahim, Radwa M.

196

How common is depression among ALS caregivers? A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to assess the impact of personal, situational and patient characteristics on mood, and changes over time, among ALS caregivers. Seventy-one patient-caregiver pairs were interviewed once and 51 (72%) monthly until endpoints of death or tracheostomy for long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV). Depressive symptoms and DSM-IV disorders, coping strategies, caregiver burden, satisfaction with care-giving, and patient disease severity were assessed. At baseline, 13% of caregivers had major depression, and 10% had minor depression. Rates declined at last visit before death or LTMV (median interval three months), as did depressive symptoms. Correlates of caregiver depression included reliance on avoidance, perceived burden, fatigue, and feeling that the patient was critical and unappreciative. Half of the 14 caregivers of patients who planned LTMV were depressed at baseline, declining to 8% at endpoint, versus 16% (9/57) among caregivers of patients who died, declining non-significantly to 11%. While few personal or situational factors were correlated with caregiver distress, patients’ plans and degree of supportiveness influenced caregiver mood. Verbal comments of caregivers clarified the distinction between sadness and psychiatric depression. The high baseline rate of depression among caregivers of patients who planned tracheostomy decreased as caregivers instituted major changes in patient care or personal counseling. PMID:19922139

RABKIN, JUDITH G.; ALBERT, STEVEN M.; ROWLAND, LEWIS P.; MITSUMOTO, HIROSHI

2008-01-01

197

The Association of Depression and Anxiety with Pain: A Study from NESDA  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR?=?6.67; P<.001), anxiety (OR?=?4.84; P<.001), or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR?=?30.26; P<.001) was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR?=?3.53; P<.001) as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR?=?2.96; p<.001) and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR?=?5.15; P<.001) were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research. PMID:25330004

de Heer, Eric W.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Dekker, Jack; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.

2014-01-01

198

Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and\\/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with

Ing-Marie Claesson; Ann Josefsson; Gunilla Sydsjö

2010-01-01

199

The Longitudinal Relationship Between Depression and Walking Behavior in Older Latinos: The "!Caminemos!" Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to evaluate the relationship between baseline depression and prospective engagement in walking and exercise behavior after enrollment in an exercise intervention. Methods The study used baseline, 1-month, 12-month, and 24-month in-person interview and pedometer data collected from Latinos aged ?60 years participating in an exercise intervention (¡Caminemos!) at 27 senior centers (n=572). Results After joining an exercise intervention, and when using continuous pedometer data and scores from the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) as the outcomes of interest, older adults with baseline depression exhibited comparable levels of physical activity across time when compared to their non-depressed counterparts. Significant difference in physical activity levels between the depressed and non-depressed subgroups no longer existed within one month of initiating the exercise intervention. Discussion Among sedentary older Latino adults, having depression may not delay exercise initiation nor does it appear to prevent achievement or maintenance of an exercise program. PMID:23264440

Hernandez, Rosalba; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

200

A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.  

PubMed

Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

2014-01-01

201

Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the prevalence of depression and burnout among residents in paediatrics and to establish if a relation exists between these disorders and medication errors.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Three urban freestanding children’s hospitals in the United States.Participants 123 residents in three paediatric residency programmes.Main outcome measures Prevalence of depression using the Harvard national depression screening day scale, burnout using

Amy M Fahrenkopf; Theodore C Sectish; Laura K Barger; Paul J Sharek; Daniel Lewin; Vincent W Chiang; Sarah Edwards; Bernhard L Wiedermann; Christopher P Landrigan

2008-01-01

202

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

203

Evaluating a Brief, Internet-Based Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and alcohol misuse represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this co-occurrence is associated with increased risks and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective, however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it, particularly in young people. The increased availability of Internet-based programs to complement health care presents a unique opportunity in the treatment of these conditions. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate whether a brief, Internet-based, self-help intervention (the DEAL [DEpression-ALcohol] Project) can be effective in treating co-occurring depression and problematic alcohol use in young people (18-25 years old). Methods The evaluation will take the form of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing the DEAL Project with an attention-control condition (HealthWatch). The RCT will consist of a four-week intervention phase and a 24-week follow-up. It will be entirely Internet-based and open Australia-wide to young people 18 to 25 years old. The primary outcomes will be change in depression symptoms and alcohol use at 5, 12, and 24 weeks post baseline. Secondary outcomes include change in general functioning and quality of life, anxiety/stress symptomatology, and a number of other depression/alcohol related outcomes. Process analysis will also measure engagement across the conditions. Results This study is currently ongoing with preliminary results expected in late 2014. Conclusions This study, to our knowledge, will be the first RCT of a Internet-based treatment for comorbid depression and problematic alcohol use in any age group. If successful, the program represents a novel and innovative approach to addressing the significant harms associated with these conditions and will be an invaluable resource to those not receiving help elsewhere. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; ACTRN12613000033741; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=363461 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Mrg9VFX4). PMID:24583824

Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Mills, Katherine L

2014-01-01

204

Depression and Incident Dementia. An 8-Year Population-Based Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of depression (categorical diagnosis; major depression, MD) and depressive symptoms (dimensional diagnosis and symptom patterns) on incident dementia in the German general population. Methods Within the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+), a representative sample of 1,265 individuals aged 75 years and older were interviewed every 1.5 years over 8 years (mean observation time 4.3 years; mean number of visits 4.2). Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the effect of baseline depression and depressive symptoms on incident dementia. Results The incidence of dementia was 48 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI) 45–51). Depressive symptoms (Hazard ratio HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05), and in particular mood-related symptoms (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03–1.14), showed a significant impact on the incidence of dementia only in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for cognitive and functional impairment. MD showed only a significant impact on incidence of dementia in Cox proportional hazards regression, but not in binary logistic regression models. Discussion The present study using different diagnostic measures of depression on future dementia found no clear significant associations of depression and incident dementia. Further in-depth investigation would help to understand the nature of depression in the context of incident dementia. PMID:23527147

Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Ritschel, Franziska; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2013-01-01

205

Immigrant women's experiences of postpartum depression in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Literature documents that immigrant women in Canada have a higher prevalence of postpartum depression symptomatology than Canadian-born women. There exists a need to synthesize information on the contextual factors and social determinants of health that influence immigrant women’s reception of and behavior in accessing existing mental health services. Our research question is: what are the ethnoculturally defined patterns of help-seeking behaviors and decision-making and other predictive factors for therapeutic mental health care access and outcomes with respect to postpartum depression for immigrant women in Canada? Methods/design Our synthesis incorporates a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports (peer- and non-peer reviewed) of empirical research and aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on postpartum mental health care services as experienced by immigrant women. To reach this goal we are using integrated knowledge translation, thus partnering with key stakeholders throughout the planning, implementation and dissemination stages to ensure topic relevancy and impact on future practice and policy. The search and selection strategies draw upon established systematic review methodologies as outlined by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and also incorporate guidelines for selection and appraisal of gray literature. Two search phases (a database and a gray literature phase) will identify literature for screening and final selection based on an inclusion/exclusion checklist. Quality appraisal will be performed using the tools produced by the Centre for Evidence Based Management. The narrative synthesis will be informed by Popay et al. (2006) framework using identified tools for each of its four elements. The integrated knowledge translation plan will ensure key messages are delivered in an audience-specific manner to optimize their impact on policy and practice change throughout health service, public health, immigration and community sectors. Discussion The narrative synthesis methodology will facilitate understandings and acknowledgement of the broader influences of theoretical and contextual variables, such as race, gender, socio-economic status, pre-migration history and geographical location. Our review aims to have a substantive and sustainable impact on health outcomes, practice, programs and/or policy in the context of postpartum mental health of immigrant women. PROSPERO registration number CRD42012003020. PMID:23965183

2013-01-01

206

Post-disaster depression and vigilance: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to explore the relationships between post-disaster self-reports of depression, vigilance task performance, and frontal cerebral oxygenation. Forty participants (20 women) performed vigilance tasks following a magnitude 7.1 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand. In addition to performance, we measured self-reports of depression, anxiety, and stress anchored to the initial earthquake event, and frontal cerebral activity with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Among the participants, one case may have been an outlier with extremely elevated levels of self-reported depressivity. Excluding the extreme case, there was a correlation between change in response time (response slowing) and depressivity. Including the case there was a correlation between depressivity and right hemisphere oxygenation. These results provide some support for a relationship between moderate depressivity and sustained attention difficulties. PMID:23435497

Helton, William S; Ossowski, Ulrike; Malinen, Sanna

2013-05-01

207

Prevalence of depressive symptoms in a Japanese occupational setting: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

We measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms in 2,190 Japanese tax office workers using the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Score distribution by sex was more symmetrical and the mean score of each sex was higher than in the United States population. A high level of depressive symptoms was found in 15.2 percent of males and 10.6 percent of females by controlling for age and marital status. Males aged 50 years and over had more depressive symptoms than other male age groups. Perceived stress, related both to family life and the workplace, was associated with a high level of depressive symptoms. "Long-distance marriage" ("business bachelorhood"), peculiar to Japanese occupations, had little influence on depressive symptomatology. PMID:2817157

Iwata, N; Okuyama, Y; Kawakami, Y; Saito, K

1989-11-01

208

Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

2005-01-01

209

A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptomology and Self-Concept in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptomology and self-concept in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 and to determine whether primary school teacher ratings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior predict self-reported depressive symptoms and self-concept in adolescence. This study is part of an…

Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha; Dixon, Jennifer; Cavendish, Wendy Morrison

2008-01-01

210

Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

2014-01-01

211

Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

2004-01-01

212

Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…

Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

2006-01-01

213

The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

n/a; n/a

2005-01-01

214

The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a Young Adolescent Population: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was developed to assess the population prevalence of depression. The CES-D was developed and normed on an adult population. Since the CES-D's publication, various studies have both used and psychometrically assessed the scale for older adolescent populations. However, we found no…

Phillips, Glenn A.; Shadish, William R.; Murray, David M.; Kubik, Martha; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.

2006-01-01

215

The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

2012-01-01

216

Reporting of eligibility criteria of randomised trials: cohort study comparing trial protocols with subsequent articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether and how eligibility criteria of participants prespecified in protocols of randomised trials are reported in subsequent articles.Design Cohort study.Setting Protocols submitted to the ethics committee of a German medical faculty.Data sources 52 trial protocols and 78 subsequent publications published between 2000 and 2006.Main outcome measure Proportion of matching, missing, modified, or newly added eligibility criteria between

Anette Blümle; Joerg J Meerpohl; Gerta Rücker; Gerd Antes; Martin Schumacher; Erik von Elm

2011-01-01

217

A cross-sectional study of antenatal depression and associated factors in Malawi.  

PubMed

Depression, and disabling levels of mixed depressive, anxious and somatic symptoms, termed common mental disorder, occurring in the perinatal period are an important health problem in low- and middle-income countries. In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women were recruited from a district hospital antenatal clinic in Malawi. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and non-specific somatic symptoms commonly associated with distress, were measured using validated local versions of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). In a sub-sample, Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV diagnoses of major and minor depressive disorders were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Maternal socio-demographic and health variables were measured, and associations with SRQ score and depression diagnosis were determined. Of 599 eligible women, 583 were included in the analysis. The adjusted weighted prevalence of current major depressive episode and current major or minor depressive episode were 10.7 % (95 % CI 6.9-14.5 %) and 21.1 % (95 % CI 15.5-26.6 %), respectively. On multivariate analysis, SRQ score was significantly associated with lower perceived social support, experience of intimate partner violence, having had a complication in a previous delivery, higher maternal mid-upper arm circumference and more years of schooling. Major depressive episode was associated with lower perceived social support and experience of intimate partner violence. This study demonstrates that antenatal depression/CMD is common in Malawi and is associated with factors that may be amenable to psychosocial interventions. PMID:24240635

Stewart, Robert C; Umar, Eric; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis

2014-04-01

218

Depression in the elderly in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in elderly is a major global public health concern. There has been no population-based study of depression in the elderly in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and its association with family support of elderly (age 60 years and above) in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was carried out in Karachi from July-September 2008. Questionnaire based interviews were conducted with individuals (n?=?953) recruited through multi-stage cluster sampling technique, using the 15- item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Prevalence of depression was found to be 40.6%, with a higher preponderance in women than men (50% vs. 32%). Elderly currently not living with their spouses were 60% more depressed than those living with their spouses (Adjusted OR?=?1.6, 95% CI?=?1.3-2.1). Elderly who did not consider their children as future support were twice as likely to be depressed as those considering their children to be old age security (Adjusted OR?=?2.1, 95% CI?=?1.4-3.1). An increase in one male adult child showed 10% decrease in depression after adjusting for other variables (Adjusted OR?=?0.9, 95% CI?=?0.8-0.9). Conclusion A relatively high prevalence of depression was found in the elderly in Karachi. There appeared to be a strong association between depression and family support variables such as living with spouse, considering children as future security and number of male adult children in the sample studied. Mental wellbeing of the elderly in Pakistan needs to be given consideration in the health policy of the country. In collectivistic societies like Pakistan family support plays an important part in mental health of the elderly that needs to be recognized and supported through various governmental and non-governmental initiatives. Keypoints Assessment of depression in elderly, Cross-sectional study in Karachi-Pakistan PMID:23819509

2013-01-01

219

The Bipolar Interactive Psychoeducation (BIPED) study: trial design and protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorders affect between 3–5% of the population and are associated with considerable lifelong impairment. Since much of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is caused by recurrent depressive symptoms, which are often only poorly responsive to antidepressants, there is a need to develop alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. Psychoeducational interventions have emerged as promising long-term therapeutic options for bipolar disorder.

Sharon Simpson; Emma Barnes; Emily Griffiths; Kerry Hood; David Cohen; Nick Craddock; Ian Jones; Daniel J Smith

2009-01-01

220

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test Can Predict Depression: A Prospective Multi-Center Study  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the association between the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) and depression in COPD patients. The Korean versions of the CAT and patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used to assess COPD symptoms and depressive disorder, respectively. In total, 803 patients with COPD were enrolled from 32 hospitals and the prevalence of depression was 23.8%. The CAT score correlated well with the PHQ-9 score (r=0.631; P<0.001) and was significantly associated with the presence of depression (?±standard error, 0.452±0.020; P<0.001). There was a tendency toward increasing severity of depression in patients with higher CAT scores. By assessment groups based on the 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, the prevalence of depression was affected more by current symptoms than by airway limitation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the CAT was 0.849 for predicting depression, and CAT scores ?21 had the highest accuracy rate (80.6%). Among the eight CAT items, energy score showed the best correlation and highest power of discrimination. CAT scores are significantly associated with the presence of depression and have good performance for predicting depression in COPD patients. PMID:23853488

Lee, Young Seok; Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Young Sam; In, Kwang Ho; Jung, Bock Hyun; Lee, Kwan Ho; Ra, Seung Won; Hwang, Yong Il; Park, Yong-Bum

2013-01-01

221

Risk of Depressive Disorder following Non-Alcoholic Cirrhosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims To evaluate the risk of depressive disorders among non-alcoholic patients by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of a matched cohort of 52 725 participants (10 545 non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 42 180 control patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 11 years to determine the rates of newly onset depressive disorders, and Cox regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with depressive disorders in cirrhotic patients. Results During the 11-year follow-up period, 395 (3.75%) non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 1 183 (2.80%) control patients were diagnosed with depressive disorders. The incidence risk ratio of depressive disorders between non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and control patients was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.57–1.98, P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients were 1.75 times more likely to develop depressive disorders (95% CI, 1.56–1.96, P<.001) compared with the control patients. The hazard ratios for patients younger than 60 years old (1.31) and female (1.25) indicated that each is an independent risk factor for depressive disorders in non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Conclusions The likelihood of developing depressive disorders is greater among non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients than among patients without cirrhosis. Symptoms of depression should be sought in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24533141

Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Hung, Yi-Ping; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Hu, Yu-Wen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Min-Wei

2014-01-01

222

Measuring depressive symptoms in illness populations: Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale were examined among five groups that vaned in physical health and illness. Participants included 175 healthy undergraduates, 176 individuals attending family physicians, 107 progressive renal disease, 135 end-stage renal disease, and 120 cancer patients. Individual item and total CES-D scores were relatively symmetrically distributed and varied across the entire

Gerald M. Devins; Carolee M. Orme; Charles G. Costello; Yitzchak M. Binik; Beverly Frizzell; Henderikus J. Stam; Wendy M. Pullin

1988-01-01

223

School-Based Prevention of Depression: A Randomised Controlled Study of the "beyondblue" Schools Research Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Depressive disorders are experienced by 3-5% of the adolescent population at any point of time. They adversely affect adolescent development in a range of areas and greatly increase risk for suicide. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a universal intervention designed to reduce depressive symptoms among students…

Sawyer, Michael G.; Pfeiffer, Sara; Spence, Susan H.; Bond, Lyndal; Graetz, Brian; Kay, Debra; Patton, George; Sheffield, Jeanie

2010-01-01

224

A prospective study of the association between endogenous hormones and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women  

E-print Network

SECTION 1 A prospective study of the association between endogenous hormones and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women Running Title: Postmenopausal hormone levels and depression Joanne Ryan of Melbourne. Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research received grants from Organon Pty Ltd for the hormone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

The Interference of Introversion-Extraversion and Depressive Symptomatology with Reasoning Performance: A Behavioural Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the link between the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) scores and depressive symptomatology with reasoning performance induced by a task including valid and invalid Aristotelian syllogisms. The EPQ and the Zung Depressive Scale (ZDS) were completed by 48 healthy subjects (27 male, 21 female)…

Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rabavilas, Andreas D.; Stachtea, Xanthy; Giannakakis, Giorgos A.; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Papadimitriou, George N.; Stefanis, Costas N.

2012-01-01

226

Reboxetine in the Treatment of Depression in the Elderly: Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elderly patients are particularly susceptible to the potential side effects of current antidepressants due to age- related physiologic changes. We report a pilot study to examine the tolerability of increasing doses of reboxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (selective NRI), in elderly depressed patients. Twelve elderly female patients (75-87 years) with either major depression or dysthymia received reboxetine titrated to

Vittorino Andreoli; Giorgio Carbognin; Alberto Abati; Giovanni Vantini

1999-01-01

227

Neurasthenia and depression: A study of somatization and culture in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews conceptual and empirical issues regarding the interaction of neurasthenia, somatization and depression in Chinese culture and in the West. The historical background of neurasthenia and its current status are discussed, along with the epidemiology and phenomenology of somatization and depression. Findings are presented from a combined clinical and anthropological field study of 100 patients with neurasthenia in

Arthur Kleinman

1982-01-01

228

Depression and Dementia in Aging Adults with Down Syndrome: A Case Study Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of three adults (ages 46-47) with Down syndrome investigated the patterns of symptoms associated with depression and dementia. Characteristics that distinguish between dementia and depression in adults with Down syndrome are described. Periodic comprehensive assessment of adults with Down syndrome to detect functioning changes is…

Sung, Hyunsook; And Others

1997-01-01

229

Depressive symptoms during childhood and adult obesity: the Zurich Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and obesity have become major health problems with increasing prevalence. Given the limited effectiveness of treatment for weight problems, the identification of novel, potentially modifiable risk factors may provide insights on new preventive approaches to obesity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that depressive symptoms during childhood are associated with weight gain and obesity during

G Hasler; D S Pine; D G Kleinbaum; A Gamma; D Luckenbaugh; V Ajdacic; D Eich; W Rössler; J Angst

2005-01-01

230

School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

2009-01-01

231

Rumination and Depression in Adolescence: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multiwave Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted…

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2008-01-01

232

Gender Differences in and Risk Factors for Depression in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used longitudinal data (N = 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and…

Galambos, Nancy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Barker, Erin T.

2004-01-01

233

Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

2006-01-01

234

The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

2006-01-01

235

Pramipexole for bipolar II depression: a placebo-controlled proof of concept study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe original serotonergic and noradrenergic hypotheses do not fully account for the neurobiology of depression or mechanism of action of effective antidepressants. Research implicates a potential role of the dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The current study was undertaken as a proof of the concept that dopamine agonists will be effective in patients with bipolar II depression.

Carlos A Zarate; Jennifer L Payne; Jaskaran Singh; Jorge A Quiroz; David A Luckenbaugh; Kirk D Denicoff; Dennis S Charney; Husseini K Manji

2004-01-01

236

A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

2011-01-01

237

Validity of the Medical Outcomes Study Depression Screener in Family Practice Training Centers and Community Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Screening inventories that identify primary care patients suffering from depression should be brief, correlate with depression diagnoses, and be evaluated in popu- lations with whom the inventories will be used. Methods: A total of 566 patients from a medical school training center and 457 patients from six community family practice offices completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS)

Rollin Nagel; Denis Lynch; Marijo Tamburrino

238

Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP): study protocol and implementation challenges  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension affects 29% of the adult U.S. population and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite numerous effective treatments, only 53% of people with hypertension are at goal blood pressure. The chronic care model suggests that blood pressure control can be achieved by improving how patients and physicians address patient self-care. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol of a nested 2 × 2 randomized controlled trial to test the separate and combined effects on systolic blood pressure of a behavioral intervention for patients and a quality improvement-type intervention for physicians. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the physician intervention or to the physician control condition. Physician randomization occurred at the clinic level. The physician intervention included training and performance monitoring. The training comprised 2 internet-based modules detailing both the JNC-7 hypertension guidelines and lifestyle modifications for hypertension. Performance data were collected for 18 months, and feedback was provided to physicians every 3 months. Patient participants in both intervention and control clinics were individually randomized to the patient intervention or to usual care. The patient intervention consisted of a 6-month behavioral intervention conducted by trained interventionists in 20 group sessions, followed by 12 monthly phone contacts by community health advisors. Follow-up measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diastolic blood pressure and the proportion of patients with adequate blood pressure control at 6 and 18 months. Discussion Overall, 8 practices (4 per treatment group), 32 physicians (4 per practice; 16 per treatment group), and 574 patients (289 control and 285 intervention) were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of patients and providers and the challenges faced during study implementation are presented. The HIP interventions may improve blood pressure control and lower cardiovascular disease risk in a primary care practice setting by addressing key components of the chronic care model. The study design allows an assessment of the effectiveness and cost of physician and patient interventions separately, so that health care organizations can make informed decisions about implementation of 1 or both interventions in the context of local resources. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00201136 PMID:19245692

Dolor, Rowena J; Yancy, William S; Owen, William F; Matchar, David B; Samsa, Gregory P; Pollak, Kathryn I; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Ard, Jamy D; Prempeh, Maxwell; McGuire, Heather L; Batch, Bryan C; Fan, William; Svetkey, Laura P

2009-01-01

239

A prospective study of existential issues in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression.  

PubMed

Two studies with single-group design (Study 1 N = 18, Study 2 N = 28) addressed whether horticultural activities ameliorate depression severity and existential issues. Measures were obtained before and after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program and at 3-month follow-up. In both studies, depression severity declined significantly during the intervention and remained low at the follow-up. In both studies the existential outcomes did not change significantly; however, the change that did occur during the intervention correlated (rho > .43) with change in depression severity. Participants' open-ended accounts described the therapeutic horticulture experience as meaningful and influential for their view of life. PMID:21208054

Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil Wilhelm; Kirkevold, Marit

2011-01-01

240

A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression  

PubMed Central

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

2009-01-01

241

Vitamin D status in chronic dialysis patients with depression: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is the most widely acknowledged psychological problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Depression may be associated with VD deficiency. The aims of this study are to (a) elucidate the prospective association between HsCRP, VD contents and depressive symptoms in the dialyzed population, and (b) find the effect of calcitriol supplementation on depression in dialyzed patients. Methods In this prospective study, 484 dialysis patients (382 hemodialysis [HD] cases and 102 peritoneal dialysis [PD] cases; aged 18–60 years) from two hospitals in southeast China were included. The depression in these patients was evaluated using the Chinese version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). All subjects answered the BDI-I questionnaire for assessment of depression levels in summer. A cut-off value of 16 was set to include dialysis patients with depression. All patients were divided into two groups depending on the absence (Group1) or presence (Group 2) of depression. The two groups took 0.5 ?g/day 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D orally for one year. BDI Scores were recalculated for all patients. Sociodemographic, clinical data, and serum VD contents were also collected. Results A total of 484 participants (247 men [51.0%] and 237 women [49.0%]) were surveyed. Depressive symptoms were found in 213 (44.0%) patients. The baseline serum VD level (VD2?+?VD3) was 17.6?±?7.7 nmol/L. Patients with depressive symptoms have significantly higher serum HsCRP level and significantly lower serum VD level compared with the control group. After one-year follow-up, the supplementation of 0.5 ?g/day calcitriol slightly improved the microinflammatory state such as lowering mean serum HsCRP level and improving serum VD level, but not in significantly enhancing the depressive symptoms. Conclusions Calcitriol supplementation did not significantly enhance the depressive symptoms in our dialyzed population although patients with low levels of serum VD were more depressed. Therefore, more prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to reveal the exact cause-and-effect relationship between VD status and depressive symptoms or VD status related to some specific subtypes in dialyzed patients. PMID:24774860

2014-01-01

242

Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care.\\u000a However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the\\u000a halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored\\u000a in health services research. We describe a protocol to

Christian D Helfrich; Dean Blevins; Jeffrey L Smith; P Adam Kelly; Timothy P Hogan; Hildi Hagedorn; Patricia M Dubbert; Anne E Sales

2011-01-01

243

Treatment of minor depression in older adults: A pilot study comparing sertraline and exercise  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot clinical trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of an exercise program and anti-depressant treatment compared with usual care in improving the emotional and physical functioning of older adults with minor depression. Participants were 37 older adults with minor depression who were randomized to exercise, sertraline, or usual care; 32 participants completed the 16 week study. Outcomes included measures of both emotional (clinician and self-report) and physical (observed and self-report) functioning. There were trends for the superiority of the exercise and sertraline conditions over usual care in improving SF-36 mental health scores and clinician-rated depression scores. Individuals in the exercise condition showed greater improvements in physical functioning than individuals in the usual care condition. Both sertraline and exercise show promise as treatments for late-life minor depression. However, exercise has the added benefit of improving physical functioning as well. PMID:17164159

Brenes, Gretchen A.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Messier, Stephen P.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Pahor, Marco; Ip, Edward; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

2010-01-01

244

Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels of pesticide exposure experienced by farmers’ wives likely do not increase risk. PMID:23916637

Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

2013-01-01

245

Trajectories of Change in Obesity and Symptoms of Depression: The CARDIA Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether, over time, baseline obesity is associated with change in depressive symptoms or if baseline symptoms of depression are associated with change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Methods. We used latent growth curve modeling to examine data from years 5, 10, 15, and 20 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (n = 4643). We assessed depressive symptomatology with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Results. Respondents who started out with higher levels of depressive symptoms experienced a faster rate of increase in BMI (for Whites only) and waist circumference (for Blacks and Whites) over time than did those who reported fewer symptoms of depression in year 5. Initial BMI and waist circumference did not influence the rate of change in symptoms of depression over time. Conclusions. Depressive symptomatology likely plays a role in the development of physical health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, through its association with increases in relative weight and abdominal obesity over time. PMID:20395582

Epel, Elissa S.; Adler, Nancy E.; Kiefe, Catarina

2010-01-01

246

Prenatal immunologic predictors of postpartum depressive symptoms: a prospective study for potential diagnostic markers.  

PubMed

In postpartum depression (PPD), immunologic changes have been proposed to be involved in the disease pathology. The study evaluates the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response over the course of late pregnancy and postpartum period and their association with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. Furthermore, prenatal immunologic markers for a PPD were investigated. Hundred pregnant women were included. At 34th and 38th week of pregnancy as well as 2 days, 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum, immune parameters (neopterin, regulatory T cells, CXCR1, CCR2, MNP1 and CD11a) were measured by flow cytometry/ELISA, and the psychopathology was evaluated. We found that regulatory T cells were significantly increased prenatal (p = 0.011) and postnatal (p = 0.01) in mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms. The decrease in CXCR 1 after delivery was significantly higher in mother with postnatal depressive symptoms (p = 0.032). Mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms showed already prenatal significantly elevated neopterin levels (p = 0.049). Finally, regulatory T cells in pregnancy strongly predict postnatal depressive symptoms (p = 0.004). The present study revealed that prenatal and postnatal immunologic parameters are associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in mothers. In addition, we found immune markers that could eventually be the base for a biomarker set that predicts postnatal depressive symptoms already during pregnancy. PMID:24595743

Krause, Daniela; Jobst, Andrea; Kirchberg, Franka; Kieper, Susann; Härtl, Kristin; Kästner, Ralph; Myint, Aye-Mu; Müller, Norbert; Schwarz, Markus J

2014-10-01

247

Systemic inflammation, depression and obstructive pulmonary function: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the association between pulmonary function and depressive symptoms in healthy individuals with no known history of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods In a population-based sample (n?=?2077) of individuals aged 55 and above with no known history of obstructive pulmonary disease in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS), we analyzed the relationships between IL-6 and CRP, depressive symptoms (GDS-15 ?5) and obstructive pulmonary function (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted). Results High serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were associated with greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (p?depressive symptoms were independently associated with decreased FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC% predicted after adjusting for smoking status, BMI and number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Increasing grades of combination of inflammatory markers and/or depressive symptoms was associated with progressive increases in pulmonary obstruction. In hierarchical models, the significant association of depressive symptoms with pulmonary obstruction was reduced by the presence of IL-6 and CRP. Conclusions This study found for the first time an association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in older adults which appeared to be partly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies should be conducted to investigate proinflammatory immune markers and depressive symptoms as potential phenotypic indicators for chronic obstructive airway disorders in older adults. PMID:23676005

2013-01-01

248

Adjunctive Sleep Medications and Depression Outcome in the Treatment of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Resistant Depression in Adolescents Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective In the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents, study participants who received medication for sleep had a lower response rate. This report sought to clarify this finding. Method Depressed adolescents who had not responded to a previous adequate serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) trial were randomly assigned to another SSRI, venlafaxine, another SSRI+cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), or venlafaxine+CBT. Augmentation with sleep medication was permitted as clinically indicated. Results Youth who received trazodone were six times less likely to respond than those with no sleep medication (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05–0.50, p=0.001) and were three times more likely to experience self-harm (OR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–7.9, p=0.03), even after adjusting for baseline differences associated with trazodone use. None (0/13) of those cotreated with trazodone and either paroxetine or fluoxetine responded. In contrast, those treated with other sleep medications had similar rates of response (60.0% vs. 50.4%, ?2=0.85, p=0.36) and of self-harm events (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.1–2.6, p=0.53) as those who received no sleep medication. Conclusions These findings should be interpreted cautiously because these sleep agents were not assigned randomly, but at clinician discretion. Nevertheless, they suggest that the use of trazodone for the management of sleep difficulties in adolescent depression should be re-evaluated and that future research on the management of sleep disturbance in adolescent depression is needed. The very low response rate of participants cotreated with trazodone and either fluoxetine or paroxetine could be due to inhibition of CYP 2D6 by these antidepressants. PMID:22251024

Shamseddeen, Wael; Clarke, Gregory; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Emslie, Graham J.; Ryan, Neal; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna

2012-01-01

249

A twin-family study of the association between employment, burnout and anxious depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEarlier studies have shown that employment and burnout are related to anxiety and depression. This twin-family study investigates to what extent these associations are caused by shared etiological factors.

Christel M. Middeldorp; Danielle C. Cath; Dorret I. Boomsma

2006-01-01

250

Children of Treatment-Seeking Depressed Mothers: A Comparison with the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Child Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of current psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents (collectively called children) of mothers entering treatment for depression; to examine maternal predictors of child psychopathology among children of depressed mothers; and to determine consistency of findings with a similar child study ancillary…

Batten, Lisa A.; Hernandez, Mariely; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Blier, Pierre; Flament, Martine F.; Poh, Ernest; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M.

2012-01-01

251

Bidirectional association between physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the Whitehall II study  

PubMed Central

Although it has been hypothesized that the association of physical activity with depressive and anxiety symptoms is bidirectional, few studies have examined this issue in a prospective setting. We studied this bidirectional association using data on physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression at three points in time over 8 years. A total of 9,309 participants of the British Whitehall II prospective cohort study provided data on physical activity, anxiety and depression symptoms and 10 covariates at baseline in 1985. We analysed the associations of physical activity with anxiety and/or depression symptoms using multinomial logistic regression (with anxiety and depression symptoms as dependent variables) and binary logistic regression (with physical activity as the dependent variable). There was a cross-sectional inverse association between physical activity and anxiety and/or depressive symptoms at baseline (ORs between 0.63 and 0.72). In cumulative analyses, regular physical activity across all three data waves, but not irregular physical activity, was associated with reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms at follow-up (OR = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.54, 0.99). In a converse analysis, participants with anxiety and depression symptoms at baseline had higher odds of not meeting the recommended levels of physical activity at follow-up (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI 1.17, 2.74). This was also the case in individuals with anxiety and/or depression symptoms at both baseline and follow-up (OR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.10, 2.63). The association between physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and/or depression appears to be bidirectional. PMID:22623145

Azevedo Da Silva, Marine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Brunner, Eric J.; Kaffashian, Sara; Shipley, Martin J.; Kivimaki, Mika

2014-01-01

252

Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

Tanaka, Fumihiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Systems Engineering; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

1996-12-31

253

Patients understanding of depression associated with chronic physical illness: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of depression can be difficult in primary care, particularly when associated with chronic illness. Patient beliefs may affect detection and subsequent engagement with management. We explored patient beliefs about the nature of depression associated with physical illness. Methods A qualitative interview study of patients registered with general practices in Leeds, UK. We invited patients with coronary heart disease or diabetes from primary care to participate in semi-structured interviews exploring their beliefs and experiences. We analysed transcripts using a thematic approach, extended to consider narratives as important contextual elements. Results We interviewed 26 patients, including 17 with personal experience of depression. We developed six themes: recognising a problem, complex causality, the role of the primary care, responsibility, resilience, and the role of their life story. Participants did not consistently talk about depression as an illness-like disorder. They described a change in their sense of self against the background of their life stories. Participants were unsure about seeking help from general practitioners (GPs) and felt a personal responsibility to overcome depression themselves. Chronic illness, as opposed to other life pressures, was seen as a justifiable cause of depression. Conclusions People with chronic illness do not necessarily regard depression as an easily defined illness, especially outside of the context of their life stories. Efforts to engage patients with chronic illness in the detection and management of depression may need further tailoring to accommodate beliefs about how people view themselves, responsibility and negative views of treatment. PMID:24555886

2014-01-01

254

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) May Have Antidepressant Activity in Anxious Depressed Humans - An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Objective As part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the antidepressant action of oral chamomile (Matricaria recutita) extract in subjects with co-morbid anxiety and depression symptoms. We hypothesized that chamomile may demonstrate a clinically meaningful antidepressant activity versus placebo. Methods 57 subjects received either chamomile extract or placebo therapy. Nineteen subjects had anxiety with co-morbid depression, 16 had anxiety with past history of depression, and 22 had anxiety with no current or past depression. Generalized estimating equations analysis was used to identify clinically meaningful changes over time in Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D) rating outcome measures among treatment groups. Results We observed a significantly greater reduction in mean total HAM-D scores (p<0.05) and HAM-D core depression item score (p<0.05) for chamomile versus placebo in all subjects, and a non-significant trend for a greater reduction in HAM-D core depression score for chamomile versus placebo in subjects with anxiety with current co-morbid depression (p=0.062). Conclusion Chamomile may have clinically meaningful antidepressant activity that occurs in addition to its previously observed anxiolytic activity. PMID:22894890

Amsterdam, Jay D.; Shults, Justine; Soeller, Irene; Mao, Jun James; Rockwell, Kenneth; Newberg, Andrew B.

2013-01-01

255

Variation in the Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study  

PubMed Central

This study examines the association between race and depressive symptoms over a 16-year study period. The analysis is based on the responses of 3,485 African-American and White respondents from four waves of the Americans’ Changing Lives Panel Study. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify latent trajectory classes based on the reported levels of depressive symptoms over 16 years. Four latent trajectory classes were identified: two “high-risk” groups and two “low-risk” groups. Findings show the heterogeneity among and within racial groups in their trajectories of depressive symptoms and the distinct demographic and social relationship predictors for symptom trajectories. PMID:20589986

Lincoln, Karen D.; Takeuchi, David T.

2010-01-01

256

Three steps to writing adaptive study protocols in the early phase clinical development of new medicines  

PubMed Central

This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective. PMID:24980283

2014-01-01

257

Effects of Antidepressant Treatment on Sexual Arousal in Depressed Women: A Preliminary fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objective There was a recent study to explore the cerebral regions associated with sexual arousal in depressed women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this neuroimaging study was to investigate the effects of antidepressant treatment on sexual arousal in depressed women. Methods Seven depressed women with sexual arousal dysfunction (mean age: 41.7±13.8, mean scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17): 35.6±7.1 and 34.9±3.1, respectively) and nine healthy women (mean age: 40.3±11.6) underwent fMRI before and after antidepressant treatment. The fMRI paradigm contrasted a 1 minute rest period viewing non-erotic film with 4 minutes of sexual stimulation viewing an erotic video film. Data were analyzed by SPM 2. The relative number of pixels activated in each period was used as an index of activation. All depressed women were treated with mirtazapine (mean dosage: 37.5 mg/day) for 8 to 10 weeks. Results Levels of brain activity during sexual arousal in depressed women significantly increased with antidepressant treatment (p<0.05) in the regions of the hypothalamus (3.0% to 11.2%), septal area (8.6% to 27.8%) and parahippocampal gyrus (5.8% to 14.6%). Self-reported sexual arousal during visual sexual stimulation also significantly increased post-treatment, and severity of depressive symptoms improved, as measured by the BDI and HAMD-17 (p<0.05). Conclusion These results show that sexual arousal dysfunction of depressed women may improve after treatment of depression, and that this improvement is associated with increased activation of the hypothalamus, septal area, and parahippocampal gyrus during sexual arousal. PMID:23251203

Yang, Jong-Chul; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Eun, Sung-Jong; Lee, Moo-Suk; Han, Kyung-Lae; Chae, Jeong-Ho

2012-01-01

258

Prevalence of and factors associated with poststroke depression: a Malaysian study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prevalence of depression 3-6 months poststroke and examined specific factors associated with depression in a stroke population of the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It was hypothesised that poststroke depression (PSD) is prevalent in the poststroke population of University Hospital Malaysia and that PSD is significantly correlated with demographics, educational background, medical history, rehabilitation attendance, traditional medicine use, prestroke and poststroke activities, religiousness, activities of daily living, and social support. The study group comprised 80 patients admitted to the hospital with stroke of any etiology. Mean patient age was 56.8 years (standard deviation +/- 12.5 years). The results were derived by comparing the 80 stroke patients with 80 controls matched for age, sex, race, and medication use. Results were also derived from comparisons between depressed and nondepressed members of the stroke population (n = 80). The diagnosis of depression was based on the Zung Self-Rating Scale and confirmed by a psychiatrist, based on DSM-IV criteria. Interviews were conducted based on a 26-item questionnaire, modified Barthel Index, and Social Resources Scale were used to assess which factors correlated with depression. Depression was found to be common among Malaysians 3-6 months after stroke. A total of 66% of the patients were depressed, with depression considered mild in 51% and moderate to severe in 15%. It was demonstrated that the occurrence of depression was significantly correlated with age, ethnicity, noncontinuance of prestroke lifestyles, and poor performance in the activities of daily living rating. PMID:17904018

Glamcevski, Mihajlo Tome; Pierson, Jane

2005-01-01

259

A comparative study of wireless sensor networks and their routing protocols.  

PubMed

Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

2010-01-01

260

A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

2010-01-01

261

Depression and Stigma in High Risk Youth Living with HIV (YLH): A Multisite Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study explored the relationship between depression, stigma, and risk behaviors in a multisite study of high risk youth living with HIV (YLH) in the United States. Methods All youth met screening criteria for either problem level substance use, current sexual risk and/or suboptimal HIV medication adherence. Problem level substance use behavior was assessed with the CRAFFT, a 6-item adolescent screener. A single item was used to screen for current sexual risk and for a HIV medication adherence problem. Stigma and depression were measured via standard self-report measures. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that behavioral infection, older age, more problem behaviors, and greater stigma each contributed to the prediction of higher depression scores in YLH. Associations between depression, stigma, and problem behaviors are discussed. More than half of the youth in this study scored at or above the clinical cut-off for depression. Results highlight the need for depression focused risk reduction interventions that address stigma in YLH. Discussion Study outcomes suggest that interventions are needed to address stigma and depression not only among youth living with HIV but in the communities in which they live. PMID:22726715

Tanney, Mary R.; Naar-King, Sylvie; MacDonnel, Karen

2011-01-01

262

Efficacy, quality of life, and acceptability outcomes of atypical antipsychotic augmentation treatment for treatment-resistant depression: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating and costly mental disorder. Although commercially available antidepressants have proliferated over the last 20 years, a substantial number of patients either do not respond adequately to these drugs or are unable to tolerate their adverse effects. One common approach has been to augment conventional antidepressants with an adjunctive agent, but the optimal selection of atypical antipsychotic agents for adjunctive treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains controversial. Methods/Design An electronic literature search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, LiLACS, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for studies will be conducted with no restrictions on language, publication year, or publication type. Several clinical trial registry agencies, pharmaceutical company websites, and FDA reports will also be reviewed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with atypical antipsychotic augmentation treatment for treatment-resistant depression will be considered. Data will be independently extracted by two reviewers. Traditional pairwise meta-analyses will be performed for RCTs that directly compare different treatment arms. Then, Bayesian network meta-analyses will be performed to compare the relative efficacy and acceptability of different atypical antipsychotic agents (and doses). A sensitivity analysis will be performed by excluding studies classified as a small sample size, having a high placebo effect. Discussion This systematic review and network meta-analysis will comparatively analyze the efficacy, quality of life, and acceptability profiles of atypical antipsychotic medications used for the adjunctive treatment of TRD. The findings should provide clinically relevant implications for comprehensively understanding the risk–benefit profiles of these adjunctive treatments. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD 42014009666. PMID:25373601

2014-01-01

263

A preliminary study of functional connectivity in comorbid adolescent depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depressive disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related

Kathryn R. Cullen; Dylan G. Gee; Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Vilma Gabbay; Leslie Hulvershorn; Bryon A. Mueller; Jazmin Camchong; Christopher J. Bell; Alaa Houri; Sanjiv Kumra; Kelvin O. Lim; F. Xavier Castellanos; Michael P. Milham

2009-01-01

264

The Association between Depressive Mood and Cognitive Performance in an Elderly General Population – The MEMO Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the severity of depressive symptoms on different domains of cognitive function in the elderly. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 385 participants aged 65–83 years were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and performed a standardized neuropsychological test assessing attention, memory, cognitive speed and motor function.

Bernhard T. Baune; Thomas Suslow; Almut Engelien; Volker Arolt; Klaus Berger

2006-01-01

265

Association of Symptoms of Depression and Obesity With Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is growing evidence that symptoms of depression influence the development of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect relationships between symptoms of depression, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a biracial (African American–white) rural population.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with 1017 study participants (aged 12 to 62 years, 60%

Azad Alamgir Kabir; Paul K. Whelton; M. Mahmud Khan; Jeanette Gustat; Wei Chen

2006-01-01

266

The NICHD investigative interview protocol: an analogue study.  

PubMed

One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 7-year-old children were interviewed using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Investigative Interview Protocol about an event staged 4 to 6 weeks earlier. Children were prepared for talking about the investigated event using either an invitational or directive style of prompting, with or without additional practice describing experienced events. The open invitation prompts (including those using children's words to encourage further reporting) elicited more detailed responses than the more focused directive prompts without reducing accuracy. Children were most responsive when they had received preparation that included practice describing experienced events in response to invitation prompts. Overall, children were highly accurate regardless of prompt type. Errors mostly related to peripheral rather than central information and were more likely to be elicited by directive or yes/no questions than by invitations. Children who provided accounts when asked about a false event were less accurate when describing the true event. Children who received preparation that included practice recalling a recent event in response to directive and yes/no questions were least accurate when questioned about the false event first. The data provide the first direct evaluation of the accuracy of information elicited using different prompt types in the course of NICHD Protocol interviews, and underscore the importance of how children are prepared for subsequent reporting. PMID:24341318

Brown, Deirdre A; Lamb, Michael E; Lewis, Charlie; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Orbach, Yael; Wolfman, Missy

2013-12-01

267

3D MRI studies of neuroanatomic changes in unipolar major depression: the role of stress and medical comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence has accumulated for structural brain changes associated with unipolar recurrent major depression. Studies of neuroanatomic structure in early-onset recurrent depression have only recently found evidence for depression-associated structural change. Studies using high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are now available to examine smaller brain structures with precision. Brain changes associated with early-onset major depression have been reported in

Yvette I. Sheline

2000-01-01

268

Prevalence of Depression among University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Depression is one of the four major diseases in the world and is the most common cause of disability from diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression among Iranian university students using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods. Keyword depression was searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MAGIran, Medlib, and SID. Data was analyzed using meta-analysis (random-effects model). Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data was analyzed using STATA software Ver.10. Results. In 35 studies conducted in Iran from 1995 to 2012 with sample size of 9743, prevalence of depression in the university students was estimated to be 33% (95% CI: 32–34). The prevalence of depression among boys was estimated to be 28% (95% CI: 26–30), among girls 23% (95% CI: 22–24), single students 39% (95% CI: 37–41), and married students 20% (95% CI: 17–24). Metaregression model showed that the trend of depression among Iranian students was flat. Conclusions. On the whole, depression is common in university students with no preponderance between males and females and in single students is higher than married ones. PMID:24187615

Sarokhani, Diana; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Sarokhani, Mohamad Taher; Manesh, Rohollah Esmaeli; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

2013-01-01

269

Depressive Symptoms, Chronic Pain, and Falls in Older Community-Dwelling Adults: The MOBILIZE Boston Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND A better understanding is needed about the role of depression and chronic pain, two related chronic conditions, as predictors of falls in older persons. OBJECTIVES To examine whether overall depressive symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with fall risk, and to determine whether chronic pain mediates the relationship between depression and fall risk in aging. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING City of Boston and surrounding communities. PARTICIPANTS Older community-dwelling adults (n=722,mean age 78.3y). MEASUREMENTS Depressive symptomatology was assessed at baseline by the CESDR as overall depression and two separate domains, cognitive or somatic symptoms. Chronic pain was examined at baseline as: number of pain sites (none, single site, or multisite/widespread), pain severity, and pain interference with daily life activities. Participants recorded falls on monthly postcards during a subsequent 18-month period. RESULTS By using negative binomial regression, the rate of incident falls was highest among those with highest burden of depressive symptoms (indicated by total CESDR, Cognitive or Somatic CESDR domains). After adjustment for multiple confounders and fall risk factors, fall rate ratios comparing the highest CESDR three quartiles to the lowest quartile were 1.91, 1.26, 1.11, respectively. Similarly graded associations were observed according to CESDR domains. Although pain location and interference were mediators of the relationship between depression and falls, adjustment for pain reduced fall risk estimates only modestly. There was no interaction between depression and pain in relation to fall risk. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms are associated with fall risk in older adults and are mediated in part by chronic pain. Research is needed to determine effective strategies for reducing fall risk and related injuries in older people who have pain and depressive symptoms. PMID:22283141

Eggermont, Laura H.P.; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Jones, Rich N.

2012-01-01

270

Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result,

Martin Röösli; Patrizia Frei; John Bolte; Georg Neubauer; Elisabeth Cardis; Maria Feychting; Peter Gajsek; Sabine Heinrich; Wout Joseph; Simon Mann; Luc Martens; Evelyn Mohler; Roger C Parslow; Aslak Harbo Poulsen; Katja Radon; Joachim Schüz; György Thuroczy; Jean-François Viel; Martine Vrijheid

2010-01-01

271

Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Non-Depressed Parkinson's Disease and Depressed Parkinson's Disease: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, however the neural contribution to the high rate of depression in the PD group is still unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of depression in PD patients. Twenty-one healthy individuals and thirty-three patients with idiopathic PD, seventeen of whom were diagnosed with major depressive disorder, were recruited. An analysis of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was performed on the whole brain of all subjects. Our results showed that depressed PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and the rostral anterior cingulated cortex (rACC) compared with non-depressed PD patients. A significant positive correlation was found between Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and ALFF in the DLPFC. The findings of changed ALFF in these brain regions implied depression in PD patients may be associated with abnormal activities of prefrontal-limbic network. PMID:23717467

Wen, Xuyun; Wu, Xia; Liu, Jiangtao; Li, Ke; Yao, Li

2013-01-01

272

A study of arc force, pool depression and weld penetration during gas tungsten arc welding  

SciTech Connect

Weld pool depression, arc force, weld penetration, and their interrelations have been studied as a function of welding current. Pool depression and welding arc force have been measured simultaneously using a recently developed technique. The authors found quadratic dependence of arc force on current, confirming similar findings in previous studies. Pool depression is essentially zero below a threshold level of current (200 A in this experiment) and then increases quadratically with current. A perfectly linear relation between arc force and pool depression was found in the current range from 200 to 350 A, with pool depression onset at about 0.35 g force (0.34 [center dot] 10[sup [minus]2]N). The total surface tension and gravitational forces were calculated, from the measured surface topography, and found to be about five times that required to balance the arc force at 300 A. Thus electromagnetic and hydrodynamic forces must be taken into account to explain the measured levels of pool depression. The relation between weld penetration and pool depression for different welding currents has been established. Three distinct regimes of weld penetration on weld current were found.

Rokhlin, S.I.; Guu, A.C. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Welding Engineering)

1993-08-01

273

Individualized and Clinically Derived Stimuli Activate Limbic Structures in Depression: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives In the search for neurobiological correlates of depression, a major finding is hyperactivity in limbic-paralimbic regions. However, results so far have been inconsistent, and the stimuli used are often unspecific to depression. This study explored hemodynamic responses of the brain in patients with depression while processing individualized and clinically derived stimuli. Methods Eighteen unmedicated patients with recurrent major depressive disorder and 17 never-depressed control subjects took part in standardized clinical interviews from which individualized formulations of core interpersonal dysfunction were derived. In the patient group such formulations reflected core themes relating to the onset and maintenance of depression. In controls, formulations reflected a major source of distress. This material was thereafter presented to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment. Results Increased hemodynamic responses in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus and occipital lobe were observed in both patients and controls when viewing individualized stimuli. Relative to control subjects, patients with depression showed increased hemodynamic responses in limbic-paralimbic and subcortical regions (e.g. amygdala and basal ganglia) but no signal decrease in prefrontal regions. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that individualized stimuli derived from standardized clinical interviewing can lead to hemodynamic responses in regions associated with self-referential and emotional processing in both groups and limbic-paralimbic and subcortical structures in individuals with depression. Although the regions with increased responses in patients have been previously reported, this study enhances the ecological value of fMRI findings by applying stimuli that are of personal relevance to each individual's depression. PMID:21283580

Kessler, Henrik; Taubner, Svenja; Buchheim, Anna; Munte, Thomas F.; Stasch, Michael; Kachele, Horst; Roth, Gerhard; Heinecke, Armin; Erhard, Peter; Cierpka, Manfred; Wiswede, Daniel

2011-01-01

274

Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only “very much overtime”, but also “moderate overtime” (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015. Conclusions The proposed project will be free from hindsight bias, since all hypotheses and statistical models are completely defined, peer-reviewed, and published before we link the exposure data to the outcome data. The results of the project will indicate to what extent and in what direction the national burden of mental ill health in Denmark has been influenced by long working hours. PMID:25239125

Albertsen, Karen

2014-01-01

275

School-Based Primary Prevention of Depressive Symptomatology in AdolescentsFindings from Two Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two school-based primary prevention interventions for adolescent depressive symptomatology and disorder were examined in separate studies with high school samples of 9th and 10th-grade adolescents. In Study 1, a three-session educational intervention was associated with a short-term reduction in extreme-scoring cases of depressive symptoms among boys, but not girls, when compared to a randomly assigned control condition. However, this effect

Gregory N. Clarke; Wesley Hawkins; Mary Murphy; Lisa Sheeber

1993-01-01

276

Depressive symptoms of children and adolescents in a German representative sample: results of the BELLA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In Europe, a considerable proportion of children and adolescents is affected by depressive symptoms, impairing their everyday\\u000a life and social functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the depressive symptoms in children and adolescents in Germany, addressing\\u000a risk factors, comorbidity, and impact of depressive symptoms on everyday life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the BELLA study, the mental health

Susanne Bettge; Nora Wille; Claus Barkmann; Michael Schulte-Markwort; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer

2008-01-01

277

Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients. Methods Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument) administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), and visual analog scale (EQ VAS) tools. Results A total of 371 outpatients suffering new or recurrent episodes were recruited. The mean age of the group was 45.7±15.9 (range 18–83) years, and 75% of the group was female. In terms of diagnosis, 88% had major depressive disorder, 12% had dysthymic disorder, and 50% had a combination of both major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder. The mean (standard deviation) scores for the HAMD, Clinical Global Impression, and Thai Depression Inventory were 24.2±6.4, 4.47±1.1, and 51.51±0.2, respectively. Sixty-two percent had suicidal tendencies, while 11% had a family history of depression. Of the major depressive disorder cases, 61% had experienced a first episode. The SF-36v2 component scores ranged from 25 to 56, while the mean (standard deviation) of the EQ-5D was 0.50±0.22 and that of the EQ VAS was 53.79±21.3. Conclusion This study provides an overview of the sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics of patients with new or recurrent episodes of unipolar depressive disorders. PMID:24520194

Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Srisutasanavong, Usaree; Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon; Nivataphand, Raviwan; Apisiridej, Nattaporn; Petchsuwan, Donruedee; Saisavoey, Nattha; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Ruktrakul, Ruk; Srichan, Thawanrat; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Temboonkiat, Anakevich; Tubtimtong, Namtip; Rakkhajeekul, Sukanya; Wongtanoi, Boonsanong; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong

2014-01-01

278

Disclosure of symptoms of postnatal depression, the perspectives of health professionals and women: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In the UK, 8–15% of women suffer from postnatal depression with long term consequences for maternal mood and child development. Current guidelines state that health visitors and GPs should continue to have a major role in the detection and management of postnatal depression. Previous literature suggests that women are reluctant to disclose symptoms of postnatal depression. This study aimed to explore general practitioners' (GPs), health visitors' and women's views on the disclosure of symptoms which may indicate postnatal depression in primary care. Methods In-depth interviews with GPs, health visitors and women who were participating in a randomised controlled trial of anti-depressants versus health visitor delivered non-directive counselling for the treatment of postnatal depression. Interviews were audio-taped and fully transcribed. Thematic analysis with an iterative approach was used, allowing the views of practitioners and patients to be explored and then compared. Results Nineteen GPs, 14 health visitors and 28 women were interviewed. A number of common themes were identified across all three data sets: understanding and negotiating the diagnosis of postnatal depression, hindering and facilitating disclosure, and the system of care. Both women and health professionals described postnatal depression in psychosocial terms: an adjustment reaction to change in life circumstances and the reality of motherhood not meeting personal expectations. Women described making a conscious decision about whether or not to disclose their feelings to their GP or health visitor. Health professionals described strategies used to hinder disclosure and described a reluctance to make a diagnosis of postnatal depression, as they had few personal resources to manage women with postnatal depression themselves, and no services to which to refer women for further treatment. Conclusion To improve disclosure of symptoms in primary care, there should be a move away from questioning why health professionals do not make the diagnosis of depression and in response suggesting that education and training will improve skills and thus improve detection of depression. Improving the detection and management of postnatal depression in primary care requires recognition of the context in which women consult, and system changes that ensure health professionals work in an environment that can facilitate disclosure and that the necessary resources for management are available. Trail Registration ISRCTN 16479417 PMID:19159478

Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Sharp, Deborah; Chamberlain, Elizabeth; Folkes, Liz; Turner, Katrina M

2009-01-01

279

Vulnerability for Depression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vulnerability to depression and the antecedents for depression were collected and analyzed for an epidemiological pilot study of depression. Results of one test showed those categorized as 'invulnerables' as having a more positive opinion of their soc...

P. M. Lewinsohn

1980-01-01

280

Compounded effect of early adolescence depressive symptoms and impulsivity on late adolescence gambling: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Depression and impulsivity have been positively correlated to problem gambling, but no study has focused on the combined effects of both on the onset of problem gambling. This study examined the possible synergistic effect of depressive symptoms and impulsivity in early adolescence on late adolescence gambling behaviors among a longitudinal cohort of 678 students from Baltimore, MD. Methods The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Revised (TOCA-R), and Baltimore How I Feel-Adolescent Version (BHIF-AY), were used to assess late adolescence gambling behaviors, early adolescence impulsivity and depressive symptoms, respectively. Data analyses were conducted using ANOVA and binary logistic regression models. Results Twelve percent of the sample were problem gamblers (includes at-risk and problem gamblers), 87.5% of whom were males and 12.5% were females (p<0.001). Among males, there appeared to be a slight association between early adolescence depressive symptoms and late adolescence problem gambling. Compared to nongambling (NG) and social gambling (SG), depressive symptoms increased the odds of problem gambling by four-fold (PG vs. NG: OR=4.1, 95% CI=0.73–22.47, p=0.11; PG vs. SG: OR=3.9, 95% CI=0.78–19.31, p=0.10). Among those with high depressive symptoms, increases in impulsivity decreased the odds of problem gambling while among those with high impulsivity, increases in depressive symptoms decreased the odds of problem gambling. Conclusions Early adolescence depressive symptoms appear to be more positively associated with late adolescence problem gambling than early adolescence impulsivity, there seems to be a divisive interaction between depressive symptoms and impulsivity on problem gambling. PMID:21257115

Lee, Grace P.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

2010-01-01

281

Does Depression Predict Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease Equally Well? The HeSSup Prospective Cohort Study  

E-print Network

Does Depression Predict Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease Equally Well? The HeSSup Prospective Cohort Study Running Head: Depression, Coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases Hermann Nabi depression and cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) continues to be debated although little research has compared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Self-Structures, Negative Events, and Adolescent Depression: Clarifying the Role of Self-Complexity in a Prospective, Multiwave Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this multiwave longitudinal study was to examine the structure of self-complexity and its relation to depressive symptoms in 276 adolescents (M = 12.55; SD = 1.04). Self-complexity, depressive symptoms, and negative events were assessed during a laboratory assessment at baseline, and then depressive symptoms and negative events were…

Cohen, Joseph R.; Spiegler, Kevin M.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Abela, John R. Z.

2014-01-01

283

Remission and Residual Symptoms after Short-Term Treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John

2006-01-01

284

Prevalence of Students with Symptoms of Depression among High School Students in a District of Western Turkey: An Epidemiological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of depression and also to present some pertinent comments concerning prevention of depression among high school students. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of depression among high school students. Methods: A sample of students aged 14-19…

Unsal, Alaaddin; Ayranci, Unal

2008-01-01

285

Rumination and depression in adolescence: investigating symptom specificity in a multiwave prospective study.  

PubMed

A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted prospective elevations in depressive symptoms specifically. Rumination was assessed at baseline in a sample of early and middle adolescents (N = 350, 6-10th graders). Symptom measures of depression, anxious arousal, general internalizing, and conduct/externalizing problems with good discriminant validity were assessed at four time points over a 5-month period. Results using hierarchical linear modeling show that rumination predicted prospective fluctuations in symptoms of depression and general internalizing problems specifically but not anxious arousal or externalizing problems. Rumination predicted increasing prospective trajectories of general internalizing symptoms. Baseline rumination interacted with prospective co-occurring fluctuations of anxious arousal and externalizing behaviors over time to predict the highest levels of prospective depressive symptoms. Rumination partly mediated the sex difference (girls > boys) in depressive and internalizing symptoms. PMID:18991122

Hankin, Benjamin L

2008-10-01

286

Rumination and Depression in Adolescence: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multiwave Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted prospective elevations in depressive symptoms specifically. Rumination was assessed at baseline in a sample of early and middle adolescents (N = 350, 6–10th graders). Symptom measures of depression, anxious arousal, general internalizing, and conduct/externalizing problems with good discriminant validity were assessed at four time points over a 5-month period. Results using hierarchical linear modeling show that rumination predicted prospective fluctuations in symptoms of depression and general internalizing problems specifically but not anxious arousal or externalizing problems. Rumination predicted increasing prospective trajectories of general internalizing symptoms. Baseline rumination interacted with prospective co-occurring fluctuations of anxious arousal and externalizing behaviors over time to predict the highest levels of prospective depressive symptoms. Rumination partly mediated the sex difference (girls > boys) in depressive and internalizing symptoms. PMID:18991122

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2009-01-01

287

Validation of the Yale Swallow Protocol: a prospective double-blinded videofluoroscopic study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this prospective, double-blinded, multirater, systematic replication study was to investigate agreement for aspiration risk, in the same individual, between videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) and the Yale Swallow Protocol. Participants were 25 consecutive adults referred for dysphagia testing who met the inclusion criteria of completion of a brief cognitive assessment, oral mechanism examination, and no tracheotomy tube. First, all participants were administered the Yale Swallow Protocol by two experienced speech-language pathologists trained in protocol administration. Failure criteria were inability to drink the entire amount, interrupted drinking, or coughing during or immediately after drinking. Second, all participants completed a VFSS within 5-10 min of protocol administration. A speech-language pathologist, blinded to protocol results, reviewed the VFSS to determine aspiration status in a binary (yes/no) manner. Inter-rater agreement between two speech-language pathologists was 100 % for identification of aspiration risk with the Yale Swallow Protocol. Inter-rater agreement between the speech-language pathologist and the radiologist for identification of aspiration status with VFSS was 100 %. Twenty percent of VFSS recordings were viewed again 3-6 months after initial data collection, and intrarater agreement for identification of thin liquid aspiration was 100 %. Sensitivity for the Yale Swallow Protocol = 100 %, specificity = 64 %, positive predictive value = 78 %, and negative predictive value = 100 %. Importantly, all participants who passed the protocol did not aspirate during VFSS. Multiple, double-blinded raters and VFSS as the reference standard agreed with previous research with a single, nonblinded rater and FEES as the reference standard for identification of aspiration risk. The clinical usefulness and validity of the Yale Swallow Protocol for determining aspiration risk in a small sample size of male participants has been confirmed. Future research is needed with a larger and more heterogeneous population sample. PMID:24026519

Suiter, Debra M; Sloggy, Joanna; Leder, Steven B

2014-04-01

288

Anxiety, depression and behavioral problems among adolescents with recurrent headache: the Young-HUNT study  

PubMed Central

Background It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties. Results In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12–14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p?depressive symptoms was evident for all headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15–17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p?depressive symptoms and attention difficulties, while tension-type headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are associated with recurrent headache, and should accordingly be considered a part of the clinical assessment of children and adolescents with headache. Identification of these associated factors and addressing them in interventions may improve headache management. PMID:24925252

2014-01-01

289

Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas. PMID:20487532

2010-01-01

290

Pathway for inpatients with depressive episode in Flemish psychiatric hospitals: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Within the context of a biopsychosocial model of the treatment of depressive episodes, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Clinical pathways have been developed and implemented in hospitals to support multidisciplinary teamwork. The aim of this study is to explore current practice for the treatment of depressive episodes in Flemish psychiatric hospitals. Current practice in different hospitals is studied to get an idea of the similarities (outlined as a pathway) and the differences in the treatment of depressive episodes. Methods A convenience sample of 11 Flemish psychiatric hospitals participated in this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with different types of health care professionals (n = 43). The websites of the hospitals were searched for information on their approach to treating depressive episodes. Results A flow chart was made including the identified stages of the pathway: pre-admission, admission (observation and treatment), discharge and follow-up care. The characteristics of each stage are described. Although the stages are identified in all hospitals, differences between hospitals on various levels of the pathway exist. Hospitals emphasized the individual approach of each patient. The results point to a biopsychosocial approach to treating depressive episodes. Conclusion This study outlined current practice as a pathway for Flemish inpatients with depressive episodes. Within the context of surveillance of quality and quantity of care, this study may encourage hospitals to consider developing clinical pathways. PMID:19840384

Desplenter, Franciska A; Laekeman, Gert M; Simoens, Steven R

2009-01-01

291

Mediational Pathways Through Which Positive and Negative Emotionality Contribute to Anhedonic Symptoms of Depression: A Prospective Study of Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study takes a developmental psychopathological approach to examine mechanisms through which baseline levels of positive emotionality (PE) and negative emotionality (NE) prospectively predict increases in anhedonic depressive symptoms in a community sample of 350 adolescents (6th–10th graders). Dependent stressors mediated the relationship between baseline levels of NE and anhedonic depressive symptoms after controlling for initial symptoms. Supportive relationships mediated the relationship between baseline levels of PE and anhedonic depressive symptoms, after controlling for baseline symptoms. In addition, NE × PE interacted to predict later anhedonic depressive symptoms, such that adolescents with low levels of PE and high levels of NE experienced the greatest increase in anhedonic depressive symptoms. Last, supportive relationships interacted with baseline PE to predict prospective changes in anhedonic depressive symptoms, such that adolescents with low PE and low supportive relationships experienced the greatest increase in anhedonic depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of current theoretical models of the link between temperament and depression. PMID:19184402

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2009-01-01

292

Working conditions and depressive symptoms: A prospective study of U.S. Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Prior longitudinal studies of negative working conditions and depression generally have used a single exposure indicator, such as job strain, and have required consistent availability of the measure across waves and selection of only those working at all measurement points. Methods Up to four waves of the American’s Changing Lives study (1986-2001/2) and item response theory (IRT) models were used to generate wave-specific measures of negative working conditions. Random-intercept linear mixed models assessed the association between the score and depressive symptoms. Results Adjusting for covariates, negative working conditions were associated with significantly greater depressive symptoms. Conclusion A summary score of negative working conditions allowed use of all available working conditions measures and predicted depressive symptoms in a nationally-representative sample of U.S. workers followed for up to 15 years. Linear mixed models also allowed retention of intermittent workers. PMID:24013657

Burgard, Sarah A.; Elliott, Michael R.; Zivin, Kara; House, James S.

2013-01-01

293

Depression and the nature of Trinidadian family practice: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is the most common mental disorder; in an ambulatory-care setting 5 to 10% of patients meet the criteria for major depression. Despite extensive documentation in primary care internationally, Trinidadian studies published on depression have been primarily hospital-based and focussed on suicide. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of depression, the variables associated with depression and the commonest reason for the encounter (RFE) among adult patients attending Trinidadian fee-for-service family practice? Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey of consecutive patients taken from a stratified random sample of family practices in the north-west region of Trinidad. To measure depression the Zung scale was modified for use as a brief diagnostic tool. This modified Zung scale, when tested against a psychiatric interview, revealed that at a cut off point of 60, the scale had a specificity of 94% (95% CI 87–100), a sensitivity of 60% (95% CI 45–75), and a likelihood ratio for a positive test result of 10 (95% CI 6–42). Results 508 patients from 28 practices participated; a response rate of 85%. Participants were primarily younger 18–49 years (66.7%), female (69.5%), and educated, with 72.8% having received a secondary school, technical school or university education. Sixty-five (12.8%) of the respondents (95% CI 9.9–15.7) were determined to be depressed. Chi-square analysis revealed no statistically significant association between depression and age, ethnicity, education levels, occupation or marital status (p > 0.05). Binary logistic regression indicated that the likelihood of being depressed (p < 0.05) decreased with the increasing age of the patient and was inversely proportional to patient's achieved level of education; and that patients not presently in a relationship were more likely to be depressed than patients who were currently in a relationship. The 508 participants had 630 RFE, with 'check-ups' (17.5%) being the commonest, followed by joint pains (13.4%) and upper respiratory infections (10.5%). Conclusion The Trinidadian family physician has to maintain a high index of suspicion in the knowledge that as many as one of every eight adult patients may be depressed and that younger patients of lower educational status who were not currently in a relationship were more likely to be depressed. PMID:17462096

Maharaj, Rohan G

2007-01-01

294

Moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis: study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which is a major cause of disability among the elderly, is typically selected from multidisciplinary options, including complementary and alternative medicine. Moxibustion has been used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Korea to reduce pain and improve physical activity. However, there is no sufficient evidence of its effectiveness, and it cannot therefore be widely recommended for treating knee osteoarthritis. We designed a randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and qualitative characteristics of moxibustion treatment of knee osteoarthritis compared to usual care. Methods/designs This is a protocol for a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 212 participants will be assigned to the moxibustion group (n?=?106) and the usual care group (n?=?106) at 4 clinical research centres. The participants assigned to the moxibustion group will receive moxibustion treatment of the affected knee(s) at 6 standard acupuncture points (ST36, ST35, ST34, SP9, Ex-LE04, and SP10) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 sessions). Participants in the usual care group will not receive moxibustion treatment during the study period. Follow-up will be performed on the 5th and 13th weeks after random allocation. Both groups will be allowed to use any type of treatment, including surgery, conventional medication, physical treatment, acupuncture, herbal medicine, over-the-counter drugs, and other active treatments. Educational material that explains knee osteoarthritis, the current management options, and self-exercise will be provided to each group. The global scale of the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (K-WOMAC) will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. Other subscales (pain, stiffness, and function) of the K-WOMAC, the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Physical Function test, Patient Global Assessment, and the Pain Numerical Rating Scale will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of moxibustion. Safety will be assessed at every visit. In addition, an economic evaluation and a qualitative study will be conducted as a mixed-methods approach. Discussion This trial may contribute to developing evidence for the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis. Trial registration Trial registration number: KCT0000130 PMID:23497032

2013-01-01

295

Bee venom acupuncture, NSAIDs or combined treatment for chronic neck pain: study protocol for a randomized, assessor-blind trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common painful medical condition with a significant socioeconomic impact. In spite of widespread usage, the effectiveness and safety of combined treatments between conventional and complementary alternative medical treatment modalities has not been fully established in a rigorous randomized clinical trial (RCT). This pilot study will provide the clinical evidence to evaluate the feasibility and refine the protocol for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with CNP. Methods/Design This is a randomized, single-blind clinical trial with three parallel arms. Sixty patients between 18 and 65 years of age with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain lasting for at least three months will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated into the BVA, NSAIDs or combined treatment group. Assessors and statisticians will be blinded to the random allocation. All researchers will receive training to ensure their strict adherence to the study protocol. Patients from the BVA and combined treatment group will be treated with a bee venom increment protocol into predefined acupoints for six sessions over a three week period. BVA intervention is developed through a comprehensive discussion among interdisciplinary spine disorder experts, according to the guidelines of Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA). Patients from the NSAIDs and combined treatment groups will be prescribed loxoprofen (one tablet to be taken orally, three times a day for three weeks). Bothersomeness from CNP measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be the primary outcome assessed at screening, visit two (baseline), four, six, eight (4th week assessment) and nine (8th week assessment) follow-up session. VAS for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI), quality of life, depressive status and adverse experiences will also be analyzed. Discussion Our study results will contribute to feasibility evaluation and to relevant RCT protocol development for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of BVA and NSAIDs for CNP patients. Trial registration This study is registered with the United States (US) National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT01922466. PMID:24746224

2014-01-01

296

Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

Smith, D. B.; Woodruff, L. G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W. F.; Garrett, R. G.; Kilburn, J. E.; Goldhaber, M. B.

2009-01-01

297

Rearing style and depressive disorder in adulthood: a controlled study in a Spanish clinical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the style of rearing in a sample of depressive patients and compare it with a control\\u000a group of normal subjects of similar age, sex, and civil status. The hypothesis to verify was that among the depressives the\\u000a style of rearing is characterised by a deficit in Emotional Warmth and an excess

L. Rojo-Moreno; L. Livianos-Aldana; G. Cervera-Martínez; J. A. Dominguez-Carabantes

1999-01-01

298

Is Teenage Obesity Associated with Depression and Low Self-Esteem?: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,Objectives:A pilot study to explore the impact of perceived and actual overweight on self-esteem and depression in Hong Kong teenagers. Methods:A cross-section al questionnairestudy on 152 Chinese adolescents aged 12-16 was conducted in a secondary school in Hong Kong. Overweight was defined as abody,mass index (BMI) above 90 percentile of age-adjusted BMI reference. The short form Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13)

Pwk Mok; Whs Wong; Pwh Lee; Lck Low

2008-01-01

299

A STUDY ON PERCEPTION OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTIONS IN DEPRESSION  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The study was designed with a view to examine the relationship between perception of facial affects and psychopathology. Forty normal and twenty depressive subjects were asked to recognize the facial emotions provided and to discriminate the emotional tone in terms of intensity of expression while presented in pairs. A pair comparison solution indicate that the depressives were highly evaluative in the effect of sadness and less evaluative in happiness, in comparison to normals. PMID:21965925

Nandi, D.N.; Saha, G.B.; Bhattacharya, B.B.; Mandal, M.K.

1982-01-01

300

The heritability of hedonic capacity and perceived stress: a twin study evaluation of candidate depressive phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Anhedonia and stress sensitivity have been identified as promising depressive phenotypes. Research suggests that stress-induced anhedonia is a possible mechanism underlying the association between stress and depression. The present proof-of-concept study assessed whether hedonic capacity and stress perception are heritable and whether their genetic and environmental contributions are shared. Method. Twenty monozygotic (MZ) and 15 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs

R. Bogdan; D. A. Pizzagalli

2008-01-01

301

[The controversy of depression in black Africa: a study of cultural causes].  

PubMed

Epidemiological data about depression in Africa are contradictory. Until the fifties, an almost absence of depression was reported in the studied population and from the fifties till today, a prevalence comparable to these of others continents is found. The authors discussed methodological and technical grounds susceptible to explain this controversy, with a special focus on cultural factors according to the parental and way of thinking of the Kongos in Zaïre. PMID:8525864

Niati, V; Gilain, B; Meire, P

1995-01-01

302

A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All participants received the 12-session intervention and completed baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up

Alejandro Interian; Lesley A. Allen; Michael A. Gara; Javier I. Escobar

2008-01-01

303

Prospective Study of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Depressive Symptoms in Women and Men  

PubMed Central

Most studies of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and depression have been limited to cross-sectional designs. The objective of this study was to follow individuals over time to examine whether those with higher levels of CRF have lower risk of developing depressive symptoms. Participants were 11,258 men and 3,085 women enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study in Dallas, TX. All participants completed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline (1970–1995) and a follow-up health survey in 1990 and/or 1995. Individuals with a history of a mental disorder, cardiovascular disease, or cancer were excluded. CRF was quantified by exercise test duration, and categorized into age-stratified groups as low (lowest 20%), moderate (middle 40%), or high (upper 40%). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Those who scored 16 or more on the CES-D were considered to have depressive symptoms. After an average of 12 years of follow-up, 282 women and 740 men reported depressive symptoms. After adjusting for age, baseline examination year, and survey response year, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 31% lower for men with moderate CRF (odds ratio, OR 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.56–0.85) and 51% lower for men with high CRF (OR 0.49, CI 0.39–0.60), compared to men with low CRF. Corresponding ORs for women were 0.56 (CI 0.40–0.80) and 0.46 (CI 0.32–0.65). Higher CRF is associated with lower risk of incident depressive symptoms independent of other clinical risk predictors. PMID:18845305

Sui, Xuemei; Laditka, James N.; Church, Timothy S.; Hardin, James W.; Chase, Nancy; Davis, Keith; Blair, Steven N.

2009-01-01

304

Postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of postpartum depression among the Middle Eastern women living in Sydney, Australia. A phenomenologic research design was used to conduct in-depth, unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of 45 mothers who had experienced postpartum depression. The interviews were conducted in the mothers’ homes. Transcriptions of these interviews were analyzed

Violeta Lopez Nahas; Sharon Hillege; Nawal Amasheh

1999-01-01

305

Moderate Alcohol Use and Depression in Young Adults: Findings From a National Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the association between moderate alcohol use and depressive mood among young adults before and after adjustment for demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors that may act as confounders. Methods. We analyzed 2 waves of interview data collected from 13892 young adults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare frequency of depressive symptoms in moderate drinkers with frequency of symptoms in young adults in other alcohol use categories. Results. With adjustment for health and socioeconomic factors, frequency of depressive symptoms were similar among moderate drinkers, lifetime and long-term abstainers, and heavy/heavier moderate drinkers but remained significantly higher among heavy drinkers. Conclusions. Moderate alcohol use may have no effect on depression in young adults relative to abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:15727976

Paschall, Mallie J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lipton, Robert I.

2005-01-01

306

Early risk factors for depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents: a 6-to-8 year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms. PMID:24265533

Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

2013-11-01

307

Antenatal depression and suicidal ideation among rural Bangladeshi women: a community-based study.  

PubMed

Depression during pregnancy is a significant public health problem because of its negative effects on the health of both mother and infant. Data on its prevalence and determinants are lacking in Bangladesh. To estimate the prevalence of depression during pregnancy and to identify potential contributory factors among rural Bangladeshi women, a community-based study was conducted during 2005 in Matlab sub-district, a rural area of eastern Bangladesh. Three hundred and sixty-one pregnant women were identified through an existing health and demographic surveillance system covering a population of 110,000 people. The women were interviewed at home at 34-35 weeks of pregnancy. Information on risk factors was collected through structured questionnaires, with the Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) used to measure their psychological status. Both univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were applied using the SPSS 15.0 statistical software. The prevalence of depression at 34-35 weeks pregnancy was 33% (95% CI, 27.6-37.5). After adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression model, a history of being beaten by her husband either during or before the current pregnancy had the highest association with depression followed by having an unhelpful or unsupportive mother-in-law or husband, and family preference for a male child. Of the antenatally depressed women, 17 (14%) admitted to thoughts of self-harm during the pregnancy. This paper further explores the reasons why women have considered some form of self-harm during pregnancy. Depression during pregnancy is common among Bangladeshi women, with about a third being affected. The study highlights the need to allocate resources and develop strategies to address depression in pregnancy. PMID:19468825

Gausia, Kaniz; Fisher, Colleen; Ali, Mohammed; Oosthuizen, Jacques

2009-10-01

308

Utilization and Barriers to Mental Health Services Among Depressed Medical Interns: A Prospective Multisite Study  

PubMed Central

Background Compared with graduate students and young adults in the general population, depression is more prevalent among training physicians, yet physicians are often reluctant to seek mental health treatment. The purpose of this study is to identify perceived barriers to mental health treatment among depressed training physicians. Methods Subjects for this study were drawn from intern classes during the 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 academic years from 6 and 13 participating community and university hospitals, respectively. At 3-month intervals throughout the intern year, participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire regarding current depressive symptoms and questions regarding current mental health treatment. We explored potential barriers to mental health treatment at the end of the intern year and determined the proportion of subjects screening positive for depression and seeking treatment through analysis of subject responses. Stepwise binary logistic regression was conducted to compare baseline characteristics among depressed interns who sought mental health treatment and those that did not. Results Of the 42.5% (278 of 654) of interns who screened positive for depression, 22.7% (63 of 278) reported receiving treatment during the intern year. The most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment were time (91.5%), preference to manage problems on their own (75.1%), lack of convenient access (61.8%), and concerns about confidentiality (57.3%). Interns who had previously sought treatment for depression were more likely to seek treatment during internship. Conclusions Despite high rates of depression, few interns appear to seek mental health treatment due to time constraints, lack of convenient access, concerns about confidentiality, and a preference to manage problems on their own. By identifying barriers to mental health treatment we can begin to remove obstacles to the delivery of evidence-based treatments and implement prevention, screening, and early detection programs to improve the mental health of physicians in training. PMID:21975622

Guille, Constance; Speller, Heather; Laff, Rachel; Epperson, C. Neill; Sen, Srijan

2010-01-01

309

GPs' and health visitors' views on the diagnosis and management of postnatal depression: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In the UK, 8–15% of women suffer from postnatal depression, with long-term consequences for maternal mood and child development. Previous literature suggests that health visitors struggle with their conflicting roles with respect to mother and infant. Current policy is redirecting the emphasis and organisation of health visitor work, but guidelines state that health visitors and GPs should continue to have a major role in the detection and management of postnatal depression. Aim To explore the views of GPs and health visitors on the diagnosis and management of postnatal depression. Design of study A qualitative study nested within a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting Nine primary care trusts in Bristol, Manchester, and London. Method In-depth interviews with GPs and health visitors from primary care trusts participating in a randomised controlled trial of antidepressants versus health visitor-delivered non-directive counselling. Interviews were audiotaped and fully transcribed. Thematic analysis with an iterative approach was used to develop conceptual categories from the transcripts. Results Nineteen GPs and 14 health visitors were interviewed. GPs and health visitors described their work in making and negotiating the diagnosis of postnatal depression, the value of a long-term relationship with the woman, and how labelling affects management of women with postnatal depression. Responders described how they viewed others' roles in the management of postnatal depression, and how national policy and local organisational changes had an impact on patient care, so that no one health professional was assuming overall responsibility for the care of women with postnatal depression. Conclusion Ongoing organisational changes within primary care, such as the implementation of corporate working by health visitors, affect care provided to women after birth, which in turn has an impact on the diagnosis and management of postnatal depression. PMID:18399021

Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Chamberlain, Elizabeth; Turner, Katrina; Folkes, Liz; Caulfield, Layne; Sharp, Deborah

2008-01-01

310

The Relationship Between Alopecia Areata and Alexithymia, Anxiety and Depression: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness. PMID:25071275

Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A

2014-01-01

311

Happiness and Depression in Adolescence after Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy: Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Methodology Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ? 6 indicating "happiness". Depression was measured using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview. ?Results About one third of mothers reported having smoked during pregnancy and 4.6% reported smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day. The prevalence of happiness was 32.2% (95% CI 30.8; 33.7), depression 6.8% (95% CI 6.1; 7.6), and simultaneous happiness and depression less than 1%. The prevalence of offspring happiness decreased as smoking in pregnancy increased, even after control for confounding variables, showing an OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.55; 1.13]. The opposite happened to depression; the prevalence of offspring depression increased as smoking in pregnancy increased (<20 cigarettes/day OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.03; 1.84] and ?20 cigarettes/day OR = 2.11[95% CI 1.31; 3.40]. Smoking by the partner was associated with decreased offspring happiness after adjustment for confounders, but did no show association with offspring depression. Conclusions Offspring were less likely to be happy and more likely to be depressed if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and less likely to be happy if their father smoked during mother’s pregnancy. Although we can not affirm that this is a “causal pathway”, public policies to reduce smoking in pregnancy could improve the health of the offspring in the short and long term. PMID:24265817

Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; Laszlo, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Goncalves, Helen; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Barros, Fernando C.

2013-01-01

312

Neurofeedback As a Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder - A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in neurofeedback as a treatment for major depressive disorder. Reduction of asymmetry of alpha-activity between left and right prefrontal areas with neurofeedback has been postulated as effective in earlier studies. Unfortunately, methodological shortcomings limit conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. In a pilot-study, we investigated the effectiveness of reduction of asymmetry of alpha-activity with neurofeedback in depressed participants with the use of a stringent methodological approach. Methods Nine participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were treated with a maximum of 30 neurofeedback-sessions, aimed at reducing asymmetry of alpha-activity, over a 10-week period. No changes in the use of antidepressants were allowed 6 weeks before and during the intervention. Changes in depressive symptomatology were assessed with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms, self-report version. Results We observed response in 1 and remission in 4 out of a total of 9 participants. The effectiveness appeared largest in female participants. The mean asymmetry of alpha-activity decreased significantly over sessions in a quadratic fashion. This decrease was associated with clinical response. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that neurofeedback aimed at a reduction of frontal asymmetry of alpha-activity may be effective as a treatment for depression. However, this was an open label pilot study. Non-specific effects of the procedure and/or a beneficial natural course may have confounded the results. Randomized controlled trials will have to establish the efficacy of neurofeedback for depression. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR1629 PMID:24642756

Peeters, Frenk; Oehlen, Mare; Ronner, Jacco; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

2014-01-01

313

The impact of depressive symptomatology on physical disability: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of these analyses was to test the hypothesis that depressive symptomatology affects the risk of onset of physical disability in high-functioning elderly adults. METHODS. The data come from the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging, a community-based cohort of high-functioning adults aged 70 through 79 years who were assessed twice at a 2.5-year interval. Physical and cognitive status was assessed by performance as well as by self-report measures. RESULTS. In gender-stratified logistic regression models, high depressive symptoms as measured by the depression subscale of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were associated with an increased risk of onset of disability in activities of daily living for both men and women, adjusting for baseline sociodemographic factors, physical health status, and cognitive functioning. CONCLUSIONS. Joined with evidence that physical disability is a potential risk factor for depression, these findings suggest that both depressive symptoms and physical disability can initiate a spiralling decline in physical and psychological health. Given the important impact of activities-of-daily-living functioning on utilization of medical services and quality of life, prevention or reduction of depressive symptoms should be considered an important point of intervention. PMID:7977920

Bruce, M L; Seeman, T E; Merrill, S S; Blazer, D G

1994-01-01

314

Comparing telehealth-based and clinic-based group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with depression and anxiety: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate reliable adherence to a group cognitive behavioral (CBT) therapy protocol when delivered using on-line video conferencing as compared with face-to-face delivery of group CBT. A secondary aim was to show comparability of changes in subject depression inventory scores between on-line and face-to-face delivery of group CBT. Methods We screened 31 individuals, 18 of whom met the criteria for a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis of mood and/or anxiety disorder. All qualifying participants had the necessary equipment (computer, webcam, Internet) for participation in the study, but could exercise their preference for either the on-line or face-to-face format. Eighteen completed the 13 weekly session intervention program (ten face-to-face; eight video conferencing). We coded adherence to protocol in both intervention formats and generated pre–post changes in scores on the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II) for each participant. Results Application of the CBT protocol coding system showed reliable adherence to the group CBT intervention protocol in both delivery formats. Similarly, qualitative analysis of the themes in group discussion indicated that both groups addressed similar issues. Pre–post intervention scores for the BDI-II were comparable across the two delivery formats, with 60% of participants in each group showing a positive change in BDI-II severity classification (eg, from moderate to low symptoms). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates that group CBT could be delivered in a technology-supported environment (on-line video conferencing) and can meet the same professional practice standards and outcomes as face-to-face delivery of the intervention program. PMID:24855345

Khatri, Nasreen; Marziali, Elsa; Tchernikov, Illia; Shepherd, Nancy

2014-01-01

315

Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. METHODS: In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for

Ji-Yeon Park; Jeong-Soon You; Kyung-Ja Chang

2010-01-01

316

Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. Methods/design The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. Discussion This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel prevention strategy for PTSD among traumatized people. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00671099 PMID:23289548

2013-01-01

317

Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

2012-01-01

318

Depression following fracture in women: a study of age-matched cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objectives High levels of disability, functional impairment and mortality are independently associated with fracture and depression, however the relationship between fracture and depression is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fracture is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of women. Design A study of age-matched fracture versus non-fracture cohorts of women. Setting Barwon Statistical Division, southeastern Australia. Participants Two samples of women aged ?35?years were drawn from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). The fracture cohort included women with incident fracture identified from radiology reports and the non-fracture cohort were randomly selected from the electoral roll during 1994–1996. Outcome measure Symptoms of depression for women with and without fracture during the 12-month period 2000–2001 were identified by self-report questionnaire based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Results A total of 296 women with fracture (12 hip, 48 vertebral, 91 wrist/forearm, 17 upper arm, 7 pelvis, 11 rib, 62 lower leg and 48 other fractures) and 590 women without fracture were included. Associations between fracture and depression differed between younger (?65?years) and older (>65?years) women. Age and weight-adjusted odds ratio for depression following fracture among younger women was 0.62 (0.35 to 1.11, p=0.12) and 3.33 (1.24 to 8.98, p=0.02) for older women. Further adjustment for lifestyle factors did not affect the results. Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in mood status exist between older and younger women following fracture and that fracture is associated with increased depression in older women. Assessment of mood status in both the short and long term following fracture in the elderly seems justified, with early detection and treatment likely to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24561497

Williams, Lana J; Berk, Michael; Henry, Margaret J; Stuart, Amanda L; Brennan, Sharon L; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A

2014-01-01

319

Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model of Depression during Adolescence: Investigating Depressive Symptom Specificity in a Multi-Wave Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression commonly co-occurs with anxiety and externalizing problems. Etiological factors from a central cognitive theory of depression, the Hopelessness Theory (Abramson et al. "Psychological Review," 96, 358-372, 1989), were examined to evaluate whether a negative inferential style about cause, consequence, and self interacted with stressors…

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2008-01-01

320

INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)/AMES/SALMONELLA TEST PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate a proposed EPA standard protocol for the Ames test. The study utilized Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with three metabolic activation levels (0, 2, and coded unknowns. The three primary study goal...

321

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Health and aging in elderly farmers: the  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Health and aging in elderly farmers: the AMI cohort Karine Pérès1 studies specifically focused on health and aging among elders retired from agriculture. Yet living environment. The general aim of the AMI cohort was to study health and aging in elderly farmers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

2012-01-01

323

The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through

James F Meschia; Robert D Brown Jr; Thomas G Brott; Felix E Chukwudelunzu; John Hardy; Stephen S Rich

2002-01-01

324

NMR protocol for determination of oxidation susceptibility of serum lipids and application of the protocol to a chocolate study.  

PubMed

A protocol for determination of oxidation susceptibility of serum lipids based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy is presented and compared to the commonly used spectrophotometric method. Even though there are methodological differences between these two methods, the NMR-based oxidation susceptibility correlates well (r(2) = 0.73) with the lag time determined spectrophotometrically. In addition to the oxidizability of serum lipids, the NMR method provides also information about the lipid profile. The NMR oxidation assay was applied to the chocolate study including fasting serum samples (n = 45) from subjects who had consumed white (WC), dark (DC) or high-polyphenol chocolate (HPC) daily for 3 weeks. The oxidation susceptibility of serum lipids decreased in the HPC group, and there was a significant difference between the WC and HPC groups (P = 0.031). According to the random forest analysis, the consumption of the HPC chocolate induced changes to the amounts of HDL, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and nervonic, docosahexaenoic and myristic acids. Furthermore, arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, docosapentaenoic and palmitic acids, gamma-glutamyl transferase, hemoglobin, HDL, phosphatidylcholine and choline containing phospholipids explained about 60% of the oxidation susceptibility values. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-011-0323-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22661918

Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Mursu, Jaakko; Nurmi, Tarja; Tuppurainen, Kari; Laatikainen, Reino; Soininen, Pasi

2012-06-01

325

Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: a 5-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed. PMID:23379297

Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C

2013-11-01

326

Design of a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies in individual sports: the Swedish Athletics injury study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological studies have mainly been performed on team sports. The authors set out to develop a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies of injuries among elite athletics athletes.MethodsAn argument-based method for investigation of complex design problems was used to structure the collection and analysis of data. Specification of the protocol was preceded by an examination of requirements on injury surveillance in

Jenny Jacobsson; Toomas Timpka; Joakim Ekberg; Jan Kowalski; Sverker Nilsson; Per Renström

2010-01-01

327

The Zurich study —A prospective epidemiological study of depressive, neurotic and psychosomatic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary How common and how significant are brief depressive episodes (BDE) lasting less than 2 weeks? The authors propose splitting the BDE into two groups: one occurring monthly over 1 year of observation, termed ‘recurrent brief depression’BD), and those occurring less frequently, labeled ‘recurrent brief depression’ BD). From a medical point of view, the RBD are a relevant group. Different

J. Angst; A. Dobler-Mikola

1985-01-01

328

Venlafaxine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the efficacy of venlafaxine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents in alleviating the acute symptoms of major depressive disorder.To review acceptability of treatment with venlafaxine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents.To investigate the adverse effects of venlafaxine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents.

Cipriani, Andrea; Signoretti, Alessandra; Furukawa, Toshi A; Churchill, Rachel; Tomelleri, Silva; Omori, Ichiro M; McGuire, Hugh; Barbui, Corrado

2014-01-01

329

Paroxetine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the efficacy of paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents in alleviating the acute symptoms of major depressive disorder.To review acceptability of treatment with paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents.To investigate the adverse effects of paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents.

Cipriani, Andrea; Furukawa, Toshi A; Veronese, Antonio; Watanabe, Norio; Churchill, Rachel; McGuire, Hugh; Barbui, Corrado

2014-01-01

330

Workplace Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms: A Study of Multi-Ethnic Hospital Employees  

PubMed Central

Workplace discrimination reports have recently increased in the U.S. Few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences and the mental health consequences of this exposure. We examined the association between self-reported workplace discrimination and depressive symptoms among a multi-ethnic sample of hospital employees. Data came from the prospective case–control Gradients of Occupational Health in Hospital Workers (GROW) study (N = 664). We used the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess depressive symptoms and measured the occurrence, types, and frequency of workplace discrimination. African Americans were more likely than other racial/ethnic employees to report frequent and multiple types of discrimination exposure. Multivariate relationships were examined while controlling for socio-demographic factors, job strain, and general social stressors. After adjustment, workplace discrimination occurrence and frequency were positively associated with depressive symptoms. The positive association between workplace discrimination and depressive symptoms was similar across racial and ethnic groups. Reducing workplace discrimination may improve psychosocial functioning among racial/ethnic minority hospital employees at greatest risk of exposure. PMID:20463846

Gillen, Marion; Yen, Irene H.

2010-01-01

331

Prepregnancy Depressive Symptoms and Preterm Birth in the Black Women’s Health Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To examine the association between prepregnancy depressive symptoms and preterm birth. METHODS The present study is a prospective investigation of prepregnancy depressive symptoms—measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)—and risk of preterm birth reported in the Black Women’s Health Study. With data on 2,627 singleton births (175 spontaneous and 163 medically-indicated preterm births and 2,289 term births), we used generalized estimating equation models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS Relative to mothers with CES-D scores <16, the multivariable ORs of spontaneous preterm birth for mothers with CES-D scores of 16-22, 23-32, and ?33 were 1.17 (95% CI=0.78-1.80), 1.20 (95% CI=0.69-2.10), and 2.00 (95% CI=0.94-4.25), respectively (P-trend=0.09). There was little evidence of an association between prepregnancy depressive symptoms and medically-indicated preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS Our data provide some evidence of an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth among women with high prepregnancy depressive symptoms. PMID:20006271

Phillips, Ghasi S.; Wise, Lauren A.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Rosenberg, Lynn

2009-01-01

332

Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.  

PubMed

Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)=2.6 in 2003; OR=4.4 in 2006; OR=4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR=2.4 in 2006; OR=2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health. PMID:24647705

Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

2014-06-01

333

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Investigation of occupational and environmental  

E-print Network

Stücker3,4 and ICARE study group Abstract Background: Occupational causes of respiratory cancers need. The main objective of the study is to examine occupational risk factors for lung and head and neck cancers of 2926 lung cancer cases, a group of 2415 head and neck cancer cases, and a common control group of 3555

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis. PMID:21156044

2010-01-01

335

Investigating the efficacy of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for adult treatment seeking substance use disorder patients with comorbid ADHD: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD). The combination of ADHD and SUD is associated with a negative prognosis of both SUD and ADHD. Pharmacological treatments of comorbid ADHD in adult patients with SUD have not been very successful. Recent studies show positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in ADHD patients without SUD, but CBT has not been studied in ADHD patients with comorbid SUD. Methods/design This paper presents the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an integrated CBT protocol aimed at reducing SUD as well as ADHD symptoms in SUD patients with a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD. The experimental group receives 15 CBT sessions directed at symptom reduction of SUD as well as ADHD. The control group receives treatment as usual, i.e. 10 CBT sessions directed at symptom reduction of SUD only. The primary outcome is the level of self-reported ADHD symptoms. Secondary outcomes include measures of substance use, depression and anxiety, quality of life, health care consumption and neuropsychological functions. Discussion This is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an integrated CBT protocol for adult SUD patients with a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD. The rationale for the trial, the design, and the strengths and limitations of the study are discussed. Trial registration This trial is registered in http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01431235. PMID:23663651

2013-01-01

336

Transdiagnostic internet treatment for anxiety and depression: A randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disorder-specific cognitive behavioural therapy programs delivered over the internet (iCBT) with clinician guidance are effective at treating specific anxiety disorders and depression. The present study examined the efficacy of a transdiagnostic iCBT protocol to treat three anxiety disorders and\\/or depression within the same program (the Wellbeing Program). Seventy-seven individuals with a principal diagnosis of major depression, generalised anxiety disorder, panic

Nickolai Titov; Blake F. Dear; Genevieve Schwencke; Gavin Andrews; Luke Johnston; Michelle G. Craske; Peter McEvoy

2011-01-01

337

LATEX sensitization in elderly: allergological study and diagnostic protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of latex allergy varies according to the population studied from 3% to 64%. No data exist in the present literature about elderly people because they were not considered among populations at risk. We report a retrospective observational study of 88 elderly patients of our centre of Dermatology and Allergology at Policlinico Umberto I, University of Rome, Sapienza. Results First and second level diagnostic tests showed latex positivity in 11,4% of patients studied for latex allergy in the elderly population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a prevalence of elderly-latex sensitization of 11,4%, showing that allergy to latex is a growing disease that can occur at any age. So, we propose these patients as an additional risk category for latex allergy. PMID:24822075

2014-01-01

338

An Empirical Study on variants of TCP over AODV routing protocol in MANET  

E-print Network

The cardinal concept of TCP development was to carry data within the network where network congestion plays a vital role to cause packet loss. On the other hand, there are several other reasons to lose packets in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks due to fading, interfaces, multi-path routing, malicious node, and black hole. Along with throughput, fairness of TCP protocols is important to establish a good communication. In this paper, an empirical study has been done by simulation and analysis of TCP variations under AODV routing protocol. In our simulation, we studied multiple variations of TCP, such as Reno, New-Reno, Vegas, and Tahoe. The simulation work has been done in NS2 environment. Based on the analysis simulation result of we carried out our observations with respect to the behavior of AODV routing protocol for different TCP packets under several QoS metrics such as drop, throughput, delay, and jitter.

Morshed, Md Monzur; Islam, Md Rafiqul

2011-01-01

339

Characterization of depression in prodromal Huntington disease in the neurobiological predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) study.  

PubMed

Depression causes significant morbidity and mortality, and this also occurs in Huntington Disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative illness with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. The presentation of depression in this population remains poorly understood, particularly in the prodromal period before development of significant motor symptoms. In this study, we assessed depressive symptoms in a sample of 803 individuals with the HD mutation in the prodromal stage and 223 mutation-negative participants at the time of entry in the Neurobiological Predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) study. Clinical and biological HD variables potentially related to severity of depression were analyzed. A factor analysis was conducted to characterize the symptom domains of depression in a subset (n=168) with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found to be more prevalent in HD mutation carriers but did not increase with proximity to HD diagnosis and were not associated with length of the HD mutation. Increased depressive symptoms were significantly associated with female gender, self-report of past history of depression, and a slight decrease in functioning, but not with time since genetic testing. The factor analysis identified symptom domains similar to prior studies in other populations. These results show that individuals with the HD mutation are at increased risk to develop depressive symptoms at any time during the HD prodrome. The clinical presentation appears to be similar to other populations. Severity and progression are not related to the HD mutation. PMID:23790259

Epping, Eric A; Mills, James A; Beglinger, Leigh J; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Craufurd, David; Smith, Megan M; Groves, Mark; Bijanki, Kelly R; Downing, Nancy; Williams, Janet K; Long, Jeffrey D; Paulsen, Jane S

2013-10-01

340

Characterization of Depression in Prodromal Huntington Disease in the Neurobiological Predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) Study  

PubMed Central

Depression causes significant morbidity and mortality, and this also occurs in Huntington Disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative illness with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. The presentation of depression in this population remains poorly understood, particularly in the prodromal period before development of significant motor symptoms. In this study, we assessed depressive symptoms in a sample of 803 individuals with the HD mutation in the prodromal stage and 223 mutation-negative participants at the time of entry in the Neurobiological Predictors of HD (PREDICT-HD) study. Clinical and biological HD variables potentially related to severity of depression were analyzed. A factor analysis was conducted to characterize the symptom domains of depression in a subset (n=168) with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found to be more prevalent in HD mutation carriers but did not increase with proximity to HD diagnosis and were not associated with length of the HD mutation. Increased depressive symptoms were significantly associated with female gender, self-report of past history of depression, and a slight decrease in functioning, but not with time since genetic testing. The factor analysis identified symptom domains similar to prior studies in other populations. These results show that individuals with the HD mutation are at increased risk to develop depressive symptoms at any time during the HD prodrome. The clinical presentation appears to be similar to other populations. Severity and progression are not related to the HD mutation. PMID:23790259

Epping, Eric A.; Mills, James A.; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Craufurd, David; Smith, Megan M.; Groves, Mark; Bijanki, Kelly R.; Downing, Nancy; Williams, Janet K.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Paulsen, Jane S.

2013-01-01

341

Sarcopenia and its determinants among Iranian elderly (SARIR): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly populations increase in world because of improved health status in communities, so health and independency of seniors has become and will be one of the main priorities of public health systems. Ageing have been associated with changes in body composition, including loss of muscle mass, loss of bone mass and increase fat mass. Involuntary age related loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia,has been linked to functional impairment and physical disability. Several definitions for sarcopenia have been presented based on the method of measuring body composition, but an internationally accepted definition doesn’t presently exist yet. In 2010, the European working group on sarcopenia developed a new definition for sarcopenia according to measure muscle mass and muscle function. Several studies have been done about sarcopenia in world, but to our knowledge this study is the first in Iran which is one of the largest countries of the Middle East that faces a fast growing elderly population. The aim of this study is to evaluate sarcopenia and related risk factors in Iran according new definition of sarcopenia. Methods This study will be conducted in two phase among elderly men and women over 55 years in the 6th district of TehranThe first phase will be a population-based cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of sarcopenia in the study population, and to conduct case finding for the second phase. The second phase will be a case–control study to comparison the metabolic and inflammatory factors in sarcopenic and non sarcopenic groups. The association between sarcopenia and major dietary pattern will be evaluated using factor analysis. Conclusion This study is the first study that evaluates sarcopenia and its risk factor in Iranian elderlies. We discuss details of how we collect the data and appropriate instruments to measure muscle mass, muscle power and muscle strength, and suitable cut- off to define sarcopenia in Iranian elderlies. We believe the result of our study can be useful to health policy makers prepare the necessary infrastructure for elderly health improvements and increase the quality of life in geriatric. PMID:23497567

2012-01-01

342

Lateralized Caudate Metabolic Abnormalities in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: A Proton MR Spectroscopy Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has been increasingly used to examine striatal neurochemistry in adult major depressive disorder. This study extends the use of this modality to pediatric major depression to test the hypothesis that adolescents with major depression have elevated concentrations of striatal choline and creatine and lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate. Method Fourteen adolescents (ages 12–19 years, eight female) who had major depressive disorder for at least 8 weeks and a severity score of 40 or higher on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale—Revised and 10 healthy comparison adolescents (six female) group-matched for gender, age, and handedness were enrolled. All underwent three-dimensional 3-T 1H-MRS at high spatial resolution (0.75-cm3 voxels). Relative levels of choline, creatine, and N-acetylaspartate in the left and right caudate, putamen, and thalamus were scaled into concentrations using phantom replacement, and levels were compared for the two cohorts. Results Relative to comparison subjects, adolescents with major depressive disorder had significantly elevated concentrations of choline (2.11 mM versus 1.56 mM) and creatine (6.65 mM versus 5.26 mM) in the left caudate. No other neurochemical differences were observed between the groups. Conclusions These findings most likely reflect accelerated membrane turnover and impaired metabolism in the left caudate. The results are consistent with prior imaging reports of focal and lateralized abnormalities in the caudate in adult major depression. PMID:18056244

Gabbay, Vilma; Hess, David A.; Liu, Songtao; Babb, James S.; Klein, Rachel G.; Gonen, Oded

2009-01-01

343

Heart rate variability and depressed mood in physical education students: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and more specifically its parasympathetic component, has been reported to be associated with depression. The objective of this longitudinal study was to assess whether changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and in depressive moods were interrelated in healthy young subjects. Thirty students in physical education with a high physical load, were followed over the university year at 3 periods: October (P1), February (P2) and May (P3). Depressive mood was assessed by the score on the Depression subscale of the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire. HRV was assessed in supine and during an active orthostatic test with total power (TPms(2)) as the sum of the very low (VLF), low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, LF/HF ratio representing sympathetic and HFms(2) parasympathetic modulations. Results showed that changes in Depression scores between P1 and P2 were negatively and positively associated with changes in TPms(2), LFms(2), and HFms(2) in supine position and during orthostatism respectively. Although Anger/Aggressivity, Fatigue, and Vigor scores of the POMS were also correlated with changes in some HRV indices, Depression was the only significant predictive factor of changes in TPms(2) and HFms(2) between P1 and P2 in supine position and during orthostatism. These results were not observed between P2 and P3. In conclusion, in a healthy young sample of population, changes in depressive moods are associated with changes in total rhythmical power of HRV and more specifically its parasympathetic component. PMID:20447874

Pichon, Aurélien; Nuissier, Frédéric; Chapelot, Didier

2010-08-25

344

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), a treatment combining mindfulness meditation and interventions taken from cognitive therapy, in patients suffering from chronic-recurrent depression. Currently symptomatic patients with at least three previous episodes of depression and a history of suicidal ideation were randomly allocated to receive either MBCT delivered in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU; N = 14 completers) or TAU alone (N = 14 completers). Depressive symptoms and diagnostic status were assessed before and after treatment phase. Self-reported symptoms of depression decreased from severe to mild levels in the MBCT group while there was no significant change in the TAU group. Similarly, numbers of patients meeting full criteria for depression decreased significantly more in the MBCT group than in the TAU group. Results are consistent with previous uncontrolled studies. Although based on a small sample and, therefore, limited in their generalizability, they provide further preliminary evidence that MBCT can be used to successfully reduce current symptoms in patients suffering from a protracted course of the disorder. PMID:19249017

Barnhofer, Thorsten; Crane, Catherine; Hargus, Emily; Amarasinghe, Myanthi; Winder, Rosie; Williams, J. Mark G.

2009-01-01

345

Poststroke fatigue and depression are related to mortality in young adults: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the relationship between poststroke fatigue and depression and subsequent mortality in young ischaemic stroke patients in a population-based study. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting All surviving young ischaemic stroke patients living in Hordaland County. Participants Young ischaemic stroke patients aged 15–50?years at the time of the stroke were invited to a follow-up on an average 6?years after the index stroke. Psychosocial factors and risk factors were registered. Fatigue was self-assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Depression was measured by Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Intervention No intervention was performed. Primary and secondary outcome measure Mortality on follow-up. Results In total, 190 patients were included. The mean age on follow-up was 48?years and subsequent follow-up period was 12?years. Cox regression analysis showed that mortality was associated with FSS score (p=0.005) after adjusting for age (p=0.06) and sex (p=0.19). Cox regression analysis showed that mortality was associated with MADRS score (p=0.006) after adjusting for age (p=0.10) and sex (p=0.11). Conclusions Both fatigue and depression are associated with long-term mortality in young adults with ischaemic stroke. Depression may be linked to higher mortality because of psychosocial factors and unhealthy lifestyles whereas the link between fatigue and mortality is broader including connection to diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and psychosocial factors. PMID:23457330

Naess, Halvor; Nyland, Harald

2013-01-01

346

Web-based depression screening and psychiatric consultation for college students: a feasibility and acceptability study.  

PubMed

Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9???10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895

Williams, Aya; Larocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio; Kvedar, Joseph; Yeung, Albert

2014-01-01

347

Does sleep disturbance predict depression in elderly people? A study in inner London.  

PubMed Central

Insomnia in elderly people has traditionally been regarded as inevitable and trivial. A longitudinal study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbance among elderly people in an inner London community and its association with demographic variables, depression, dementia and disability. Those aged 65 years and over living at home were interviewed using a validated and reliable semi-structured interview schedule. A total of 705 people were interviewed in 1987-88 and 524 were re-interviewed in 1990. Subjective sleep disturbance was found to be common (33% and 43%, respectively). Sleep disturbance was associated with being a woman, being unmarried, living alone, disability, and current and future depression, but not with dementia or older age. The best predictor of future depression in elderly people who were not depressed was current sleep disturbance. In the presence of current sleep disturbance, the traditional predictors of depression--being a woman, having a disability, being unmarried, living alone and being older--did not contribute further. This study has shown that sleep disorder is associated with pathology. Insomnia in elderly people requires assessment and this must be accompanied by the treatment of underlying disorders and monitoring of future health. PMID:8292414

Livingston, G; Blizard, B; Mann, A

1993-01-01

348

Web-Based Depression Screening and Psychiatric Consultation for College Students: A Feasibility and Acceptability Study  

PubMed Central

Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9???10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895

Williams, Aya; LaRocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio

2014-01-01

349

Biofeedback assisted control of respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a biobehavioral intervention for depressive symptoms in patients after cardiac surgery: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The current study investigated whether biofeedback training aimed at increasing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of cardiac vagal modulation, can reduce depressive symptoms in patients after cardiac surgery. This randomized controlled study enrolled 26 patients after first-time cardiac surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to an RSA-biofeedback group (N = 13) or to a treatment as usual group (N = 13). The biofeedback training consisted of five 45 min sessions designed to increase RSA. The outcome was assessed as changes in RSA and in the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D) values from pre- to post-training. Both groups were comparable for demographic and biomedical characteristics. RSA increased significantly in patients who underwent RSA-biofeedback compared to controls. Moreover, the CES-D scores were reduced significantly from pre- to post-training in the RSA-biofeedback group compared to the controls. Changes in RSA were inversely related to changes in CES-D scores from pre- to post-training. These findings extend the effectiveness of RSA-biofeedback for increasing vagal modulation as well as for reducing depressive symptoms in post-surgical patients. Overall, the current study also suggests that this biobehavioral intervention may add to the efficacy of postoperative risk reduction programs and rehabilitation protocols in cardiac surgery patients. PMID:22829151

Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Favretto, Giuseppe; Valfrè, Carlo; Bonfà, Carlotta; Gasparotto, Renata; Palomba, Daniela

2013-03-01

350

Benefits and harms in clinical trials of duloxetine for treatment of major depressive disorder: comparison of clinical study reports, trial registries, and publications  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine, using research on duloxetine for major depressive disorder as an example, if there are inconsistencies between protocols, clinical study reports, and main publicly available sources (journal articles and trial registries), and within clinical study reports themselves, with respect to benefits and major harms. Design Data on primary efficacy analysis and major harms extracted from each data source and compared. Setting Nine randomised placebo controlled trials of duloxetine (total 2878 patients) submitted to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for marketing approval for major depressive disorder. Data sources Clinical study reports, including protocols as appendices (total 13?729 pages), were obtained from the EMA in May 2011. Journal articles were identified through relevant literature databases and contacting the manufacturer, Eli Lilly. Clinicaltrials.gov and the manufacturer’s online clinical trial registry were searched for trial results. Results Clinical study reports fully described the primary efficacy analysis and major harms (deaths (including suicides), suicide attempts, serious adverse events, and discontinuations because of adverse events). There were minor inconsistencies in the population in the primary efficacy analysis between the protocol and clinical study report and within the clinical study report for one trial. Furthermore, we found contradictory information within the reports for seven serious adverse events and eight adverse events that led to discontinuation but with no apparent bias. In each trial, a median of 406 (range 177-645) and 166 (100-241) treatment emergent adverse events (adverse events that emerged or worsened after study drug was started) in the randomised phase were not reported in journal articles and Lilly trial registry reports, respectively. We also found publication bias in relation to beneficial effects. Conclusion Clinical study reports contained extensive data on major harms that were unavailable in journal articles and in trial registry reports. There were inconsistencies between protocols and clinical study reports and within clinical study reports. Clinical study reports should be used as the data source for systematic reviews of drugs, but they should first be checked against protocols and within themselves for accuracy and consistency. PMID:24899650

Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Lundh, Andreas; Schroll, Jeppe; Gøtzsche, Peter C

2014-01-01

351

What do predict anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients? A follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Psychological adjustment following cancer occurrence remains a key issue among the survivors. This study aimed to investigate\\u000a psychological distress in patients with breast cancer following completion of breast cancer treatments and to determine its\\u000a associated factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This was a prospective study of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. Anxiety and depression were measured using\\u000a the Hospital Anxiety

Mariam Vahdaninia; Sepideh Omidvari; Ali Montazeri

2010-01-01

352

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Incidence and economical effects of pneumonia  

E-print Network

living in French nursing homes: design and methods of the INCUR study Laurent Demougeot1 , Yves Rolland1, in particular those living in nursing home. Nevertheless, specific research on incidence and economical effects of pneumonia in nursing homes residents is still scarce. In the present article, we present the rationale

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Postpartum depression in women with epilepsy: influence of antiepileptic drugs in a prospective study.  

PubMed

Patients with epilepsy are at high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and, according to one report, postpartum depression (PPD) as well. The study described here sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy. Fifty-six women with epilepsy participating in a prospective study of perinatal antiepileptic drug (AED) pharmacokinetics were included. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Fourteen participants (25.0%) had a postnatal BDI score > or =12 indicative of PPD. Logistic regression indicated that significant risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy included multiparity (odds ratio=12.5) and AED polytherapy (odds ratio=9.3). The rate of PPD was unaffected by the use of specific AEDs. In conclusion, PPD rates are higher among women with epilepsy than the general population, particularly those who are multiparous or receiving AED polytherapy, and there is no evidence that AED selection modifies this risk. PMID:19854113

Galanti, Melanie; Newport, D Jeffrey; Pennell, Page B; Titchner, Denicia; Newman, Melanee; Knight, Bettina T; Stowe, Zachary N

2009-11-01

354

Postpartum depression in women with epilepsy: Influence of antiepileptic drugs in a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Patients with epilepsy are at high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and, according to one report, postpartum depression (PPD) as well. The study described here sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy. Fifty-six women with epilepsy participating in a prospective study of perinatal antiepileptic drug (AED) pharmacokinetics were included. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Fourteen participants (25.0%) had a postnatal BDI score ?12 indicative of PPD. Logistic regression indicated that significant risk factors for PPD among women with epilepsy included multiparity (odds ratio = 12.5) and AED polytherapy (odds ratio = 9.3). The rate of PPD was unaffected by the use of specific AEDs. In conclusion, PPD rates are higher among women with epilepsy than the general population, particularly those who are multiparous or receiving AED polytherapy, and there is no evidence that AED selection modifies this risk. PMID:19854113

Galanti, Melanie; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Pennell, Page B.; Titchner, Denicia; Newman, Melanee; Knight, Bettina T.; Stowe, Zachary N.

2013-01-01

355

Study exploring depression and cardiovascular diseases amongst Arabic speaking patients living in the State of Qatar: Rationale and methodology  

PubMed Central

Abstract: In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Studies show that depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular patients. Thus, early detection of, and intervention for, depression among cardiovascular patients can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To date there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among cardiovascular patients. The goals of our three-phase research program are to (1) understand the mental health issues, specifically depression, as experienced by cardiovascular patients living in the State of Qatar; (2) identify and implement strategies that would prevent depression and assist patients to deal with depression; and (3) evaluate, facilitate, and sustain strategies that are effective at reducing depression and foster its treatment among cardiovascular patients. This paper describe phase I of the research program. Using both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, we will investigate (1) the prevalence and severity of depression among patients who have confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (2) how contextual factors such as social, cultural, and economic factors contribute to the risk of depression and its management among cardiovascular patients, and (3) formulate effective intervention strategies that are expected to increase awareness, prevention of and treatment for depression among cardiovascular patients, thus reducing cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in Qatar. PMID:24688991

Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim M; Alqahtani, Awad; Assad, Nidal; Qader, Najla Abdul; Byrne, Carolyn; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak Shing

2012-01-01

356

Study exploring depression and cardiovascular diseases amongst Arabic speaking patients living in the State of Qatar: Rationale and methodology.  

PubMed

In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Studies show that depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular patients. Thus, early detection of, and intervention for, depression among cardiovascular patients can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To date there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among cardiovascular patients. The goals of our three-phase research program are to (1) understand the mental health issues, specifically depression, as experienced by cardiovascular patients living in the State of Qatar; (2) identify and implement strategies that would prevent depression and assist patients to deal with depression; and (3) evaluate, facilitate, and sustain strategies that are effective at reducing depression and foster its treatment among cardiovascular patients. This paper describe phase I of the research program. Using both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, we will investigate (1) the prevalence and severity of depression among patients who have confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (2) how contextual factors such as social, cultural, and economic factors contribute to the risk of depression and its management among cardiovascular patients, and (3) formulate effective intervention strategies that are expected to increase awareness, prevention of and treatment for depression among cardiovascular patients, thus reducing cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in Qatar. PMID:24688991

Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim M; Alqahtani, Awad; Assad, Nidal; Qader, Najla Abdul; Byrne, Carolyn; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak Shing

2012-01-01

357

WLDF 311 Treefrog Study; Fall 2007 PVC Pipe Deployment Protocol  

E-print Network

. GPS h. Water jug i. Hammer to pound the stake j. Machete & gloves (for those on the remnant side) k/travel to study area with your co-worker 2. Pick up gear from stockroom & BRING YOUR OWN WATER JUG or carton (of # followed by unit #. For Example, "Rem 3-3" d. Fill the trap with water until it flows from overflow hole

Johnson, Matthew

358

The Great Depression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the personal impact of the depression on the lives of Americans. We will follow Utah\\'s Social Studies core curriculum Standard 6: Students will understand how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected the United States. Objective 1 Investigate the impact of the Great Depression on the United States. * Analyze the major causes of the Great Depression. ...

Randyandamber

2007-11-30

359

Memory and Depressive Symptoms Are Dynamically Linked among Married Couples: Longitudinal Evidence from the AHEAD Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…

Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.

2009-01-01

360

A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

2014-01-01

361

A Longitudinal Study of Children of Alcoholics: Predicting Young Adult Substance Use Disorders, Anxiety, and Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the specificity of parent alcoholism effects on young adult alcohol and drug abuse\\/dependence, anxiety, and depression, and tested whether adolescent symptomatology and substance use mediated parent alcoholism effects. Participants were from a longitudinal study in which a target child was assessed in adolescence and young adulthood with structured interview measures (N = 454 families at Time 1).

Laurie Chassin; Steven C. Pitts; Christian DeLucia; Michael Todd

1999-01-01

362

A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the specificity of parent alcoholism effects on young adult alcohol and drug abuse\\/ dependence, anxiety, and depression, and tested whether adolescent symptomatology and substance use mediated parent alcoholism effects. Participants were from a longitudinal study in which a target child was assessed in adolescence and young adulthood with structured interview measures (N = 454 families at Time

Laurie Chassin; Steven C. Pitts; Christian DeLucia; Michael Todd

1999-01-01

363

Major depression and cigarette smoking: results of a 21-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between major depression and cigarette smoking among young adults in a birth cohort before and after adjusting for confounding factors. Method. Data were gathered over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS). The CHDS is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand

D. M. FERGUSSON; R. D. GOODWIN; L. J. HORWOOD

2003-01-01

364

Premorbid Personality Traits and Psychosomatic Background Factors in Depression: The Lundby Study 1957–1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for specific predepressive personality factors has a long tradition in psychiatry. Studies in which assessments were made prospectively, before the onset of a first-ever episode of the illness, are, however, rare. In the present report from the Lundby Study we have investigated premorbid, mainly personality-related background factors for first incidences of depressive disorder, diagnosed according to the Lundby

Birgitta Rorsman; Anne Gräsbeck; Olle Hagnell; Per-Erik Isberg; Lena Otterbeck

1993-01-01

365

Serum BDNF Levels in Suicide Attempters Related to Psychosocial Stressors: A Comparative Study with Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have examined the neurobiological aspects of suicide, the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with suicide remain unclear. In this study, it is aimed to investigate whether there is a difference in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among suicide attempters without a major psychiatric disorder, compared to major depressive disorder patients and healthy subjects. It was

Artuner Deveci; Omer Aydemir; Oryal Taskin; Fatma Taneli; Aysen Esen-Danaci

2007-01-01

366

Revisiting the Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Important methodological questions still exist concerning the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST), including the possibility of a better way of interpreting it. The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of an alternative way of interpreting DST results. METHODS: A total of 50 patients with major depression aged 41.0 ± 11.4 years old participated in the study.

Konstantinos N Fountoulakis; Xenia Gonda; Zoltan Rihmer; Costas Fokas; Apostolos Iacovides

2008-01-01

367

A study on stress, depression and NK cytotoxic potential in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

It has been recognized that acute and chronic stress has an impact on the immune system. Acute stress may have a stimulating effect on the immune system, while in the case of chronic stress specially depression, the immune system could be down-regulated. However, an association between depression and a higher number of circulating white blood cells with increased activity has been reported. Elevation in immune cell numbers and alteration in cytokine profiles are documented for women suffering sporadic spontaneous abortion with a high stress score. In spite of these contradictory results and to make a new approach in immunological (NK activity) as well as psychological parameters (stress/depression) in women suffering from recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) the present study was planned. Forty-five women with a history of RSA and a matched control group were participated in this study. A questionnaire for life events known as life change units (LCU) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) outlines were used and the socio-psychological events were recorded after visiting and interview. Fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken as a source of NK activity and K562 cell line were used as NK sensitive target. The experiments were performed and the cells were analyzed with a flow-cytometer. The stress and the depression scores were determined 245+/-83.6 and 27.6+/-8.8 for women with RSA and 224+/-79.6 and 19.4+/-7.1 for non-RSA group respectively. There was an association between life stress scores and depression scores with r=0.65 and P=0.000 for RSA women. A correlation with r =-0.34 and P = 0.02 was found between depression scores and NK cytotoxicity. The Pearson correlation test showed a lack of relationship between high stress score and NK activity with the r=0.011 and P=0.95, but r=-0.30 and P=0.072 was obtained for high depression scores and NK cytotoxicity. Therefore, it could be suggested that in the case of women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, modulation for immunological parameters (i.e immunotherapy) concurrently with managing psychological aspects (stress/depression) could be modified for the benefit of the patients. PMID:17242498

Andalib, Alireza; Rezaie, Abass; Oreizy, Farzad; Shafiei, Katayoun; Baluchi, Sima

2006-03-01

368

Nutritional Interventions in Depression and Perinatal Depression  

PubMed Central

Depression is the leading cause of mental disability worldwide. Women who are depressed during pregnancy are at a higher risk for preterm delivery, preeclampsia, birth difficulties, and postpartum depression. The treatment of depression in conventional medicine has focused on physiological factors that lead to impaired neurotransmitter function and treatments to improve neurotransmitter function. Pharmaceutical substances pose risks for pregnant and lactating women, and lower risk options are preferred. Micronutrients, including certain B vitamins, folate, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in the synthesis and absorption of neurotransmitters. Experimental studies suggest that supplementation with specific micronutrients may alleviate depressive symptoms and improve birth outcomes in patients with perinatal depression. Alternative treatments for depression, including nutritional supplements, are an important treatment option for depressive symptoms while limiting potential side effects and treatment costs. This article explores the biological basis of perinatal depression and reviews the potential benefits of non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:23766734

Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Humphries, Debbie

2013-01-01

369

Sleep architecture in ziprasidone-treated bipolar depression: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study investigated the effect of ziprasidone augmentation therapy on sleep architecture in bipolar depression. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical pilot trial of ziprasidone versus placebo in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition bipolar disorder with current major depressive episode. The effects during acute (2–5 days) and continuation treatment (28–31 days) were measured. Main outcomes were sleep architecture variables including rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) measured by polysomnography. Secondary outcomes included subjective sleep quality measures and illness severity measures including the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Clinical Global Illness Severity (CGI-S) scores. Results: The completer analysis comprised of 14 patients (ziprasidone, N = 8 and placebo, N = 6). Latency to REM, duration of SWS, duration of stage 2 sleep, total sleep time, onset to sleep latency, number of awakenings and overall sleep efficiency significantly improved in ziprasidone-treated participants over placebo. CGI-S and HAMA scores also significantly improved. No significant difference between treatment groups was seen on the HAMD-17, MADRS or in self-reported sleep quality. Increase in SWS duration significantly correlated with improvement in CGI-S, however, this finding did not withstand Bonferroni correction. Conclusion: Adjunctive ziprasidone treatment alters sleep architecture in patients with bipolar depression, which may partially explain its mechanism of action and merits further investigation. PMID:24167686

Baskaran, Anusha; Summers, Dave; Willing, Stephanie LM; Jokic, Ruzica

2013-01-01

370

Trait Mindfulness as a Limiting Factor for Residual Depressive Symptoms: An Explorative Study Using Quantile Regression  

PubMed Central

Mindfulness has been suggested to be an important protective factor for emotional health. However, this effect might vary with regard to context. This study applied a novel statistical approach, quantile regression, in order to investigate the relation between trait mindfulness and residual depressive symptoms in individuals with a history of recurrent depression, while taking into account symptom severity and number of episodes as contextual factors. Rather than fitting to a single indicator of central tendency, quantile regression allows exploration of relations across the entire range of the response variable. Analysis of self-report data from 274 participants with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression showed that relatively higher levels of mindfulness were associated with relatively lower levels of residual depressive symptoms. This relationship was most pronounced near the upper end of the response distribution and moderated by the number of previous episodes of depression at the higher quantiles. The findings suggest that with lower levels of mindfulness, residual symptoms are less constrained and more likely to be influenced by other factors. Further, the limiting effect of mindfulness on residual symptoms is most salient in those with higher numbers of episodes. PMID:24988072

Radford, Sholto; Eames, Catrin; Brennan, Kate; Lambert, Gwladys; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J. Mark G.; Duggan, Danielle S.; Barnhofer, Thorsten

2014-01-01

371

Depressive Symptoms in Bereaved Parents in the 2008 Wenchuan, China Earthquake: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

This study sought to expand the literature on bereavement and response to natural disasters by reporting the prevalence, severity, and correlates of depressive symptoms among bereaved and nonbereaved parents of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China. Bereaved (n = 155) and nonbereaved (n = 35) parents from the Xiang’e township in China were interviewed at 18 months (Wave 1) and 24 months (Wave 2) following the earthquake. From Wave 1 to Wave 2, rates of probable depression fell for both bereaved (65.8% to 44.5%) and nonbereaved parents (34.3% to 20.0%). The depression index of both groups also decreased, but only significantly among bereaved parents. Of bereaved parents, those with fewer years of education had more severe symptoms at both waves. Depressive symptom severity of bereaved mothers improved over time, but that of bereaved fathers remained unchanged. Not becoming pregnant again after the earthquake was significantly linked to worse depressive symptoms in both waves, but this was not significant when age was added to the model. Bereaved parents may need more postearthquake supportive services, with fathers, individuals with fewer years of education, and parents who are not able to become pregnant again after the earthquake being particularly vulnerable. PMID:23536328

Liu, Wumei; Fan, Fang; Liu, Jianghong

2014-01-01

372

Gender abuse and major depression among transgender women: a prospective study of vulnerability and resilience.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the social and interpersonal context of gender abuse and its effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depression among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (2004-2007) among 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York City Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations (logistic regression). Results. We observed significant associations of psychological and physical gender abuse with major depression during follow-up. New or persistent experiences of both types of abuse were associated with 4- to 7-fold increases in the likelihood of incident major depression. Employment, transgender presentation, sex work, and hormone therapy correlated across time with psychological abuse; the latter 2 variables correlated with physical abuse. The association of psychological abuse with depression was stronger among younger than among older transgender women. Conclusions. Psychological and physical gender abuse is endemic in this population and may result from occupational success and attempts to affirm gender identity. Both types of abuse have serious mental health consequences in the form of major depression. Older transgender women have apparently developed some degree of resilience to psychological gender abuse. PMID:24328655

Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

2014-11-01

373

Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

2014-01-01

374

Study protocol: a systematic review of pediatric shared decision making  

PubMed Central

Background Shared decision making in pediatrics is unique because it often involves active participation of both the child or adolescent patient and his or her caregiver(s) in the decision making process with the clinician or care team, and the extent to which the patient is involved is commensurate with their developmental level. However, little is known about the nature of pediatric-specific shared decision making interventions and their impact. Methods/Design We will perform a systematic review with the objective of summarizing the nature of shared decision making practices, tools, techniques and technologies in the pediatric setting as well as their effects. A literature search will include Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and Ovid PsycInfo databases in addition to consultation of a group of shared decision making experts to identify unpublished or in-progress works. We will include original research studies involving patients <18 years, their caregivers, or both, and summarize methods and approaches designed to engage participants in the health care decision making process with clinicians. Perinatal and research participation decisions will be excluded. Descriptions of participants involved, interventions used and the measured outcomes will be reported. Quality assessment will be performed according to the design of each study, where possible. Discussion We anticipate that the paucity of published quantitative data and the heterogeneous nature of the reported results will preclude quantitative analysis. In this event, a meta-narrative approach will be undertaken. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004761 PMID:23816266

2013-01-01

375

Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model of Depression During Adolescence: Investigating Depressive Symptom Specificity in a Multi-Wave Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Depression commonly co-occurs with anxiety and externalizing problems. Etiological factors from a central cognitive theory of depression, the Hopelessness Theory (Abramson et al. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372, 1989), were examined to evaluate whether a negative inferential style about cause, consequence, and self interacted with stressors over time to predict prospective elevations in depressive symptoms specifically compared with typically co-occurring symptoms. Negative inferential style was assessed at baseline in a sample of early and middle adolescents (N=350, sixth to tenth graders). Measures of general depressive, anhedonic depressive, anxious arousal, general internalizing, and externalizing symptoms and occurrence of stressors were assessed at four time points over a 5-month period. Results using hierarchical linear modeling show that a negative inferential style interacted with negative events to predict prospective symptoms of general and anhedonic depression specifically but not anxious arousal, general internalizing or externalizing symptoms. Negative events predicted prospective elevations of symptoms of anxious arousal, internalizing, and externalizing problems. PMID:18437551

Hankin, Benjamin L.

2009-01-01

376

Depression - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

377

Major depression  

MedlinePLUS

... major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed ... responsible. This may be due to a problem with your genes. Or ...

378

Symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples treated with donated sperm: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART), and to study the relationship of demographic data, pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Design Descriptive, a part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’. Setting All university clinics in Sweden performing gamete donation. Population A consecutive sample of 214 lesbian couples requesting assisted reproduction, 165 of whom participated. Methods Participants individually completed three study-specific questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): time point 1 (T1), at commencement of ART; time point 2 (T2), approximately 2 months after treatment; and time point 3 (T3), 2–5 years after first treatment. Main outcome measures Anxiety and depression (HADS), pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans. Results The vast majority of lesbian women undergoing assisted reproduction reported no symptoms of anxiety and depression at the three assessment points. A higher percentage of the treated women, compared with the partners, reported symptoms of anxiety at T2 (14% versus 5%, P = 0.011) and T3 (10% versus 4%, P = 0.018), as well as symptoms of depression at T2 (4% versus 0%, P = 0.03) and T3 (3% versus 0%, P = 0.035). The overall pregnancy outcome was high; almost three-quarters of lesbian couples gave birth 2–5 years after sperm donation treatments. Open-ended comments illustrated joy and satisfaction about family building. Conclusion Lesbian women in Sweden reported good psychological health before and after treatment with donated sperm. PMID:23489411

Borneskog, C; Sydsjö, G; Lampic, C; Bladh, M; Svanberg, AS

2013-01-01

379

Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long-term large-scale epidemiologic study is expected to provide valuable data in the investigation of the health effects of low-dose radiation and disaster-related stress. PMID:22955043

Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

2012-01-01