Background Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators. Methods/Design The International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) is a multi-centre, international, randomized, prospective, open-label trial. It is enrolling 2016 MDD outpatients (ages 18-65) from primary or specialty care practices (672 per treatment arm; 672 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls). Study-eligible patients are antidepressant medication (ADM) naïve or willing to undergo a one-week wash-out of any non-protocol ADM, and cannot have had an inadequate response to protocol ADM. Baseline assessments include symptoms; distress; daily function; cognitive performance; electroencephalogram and event-related potentials; heart rate and genetic measures. A subset of these baseline assessments are repeated after eight weeks of treatment. Outcomes include the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (primary) and self-reported depressive symptoms, social functioning, quality of life, emotional regulation, and side-effect burden (secondary). Participants may then enter a naturalistic telephone follow-up at weeks 12, 16, 24 and 52. The first half of the sample will be used to identify potential predictors and moderators, and the second half to replicate and confirm. Discussion First enrolment was in December 2008, and is ongoing. iSPOT-D evaluates clinical and biological predictors of treatment response in the largest known sample of MDD collected worldwide. Trial registration International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00693849 URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00693849?term=International+Study+to+Predict+Optimized+Treatment+for+Depression&rank=1
Background Depression is a chronic illness that generally requires lifelong therapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique with few side effects that has been reported to be useful in the treatment of depression. However, no studies to date have evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the efficacy of rTMS for maintenance treatment of depression. Methods/design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study in China to evaluate the efficacy of rTMS in the prevention of relapse of depressive symptoms. In total, 540 patients, aged 18 to 60 years, diagnosed with depression and experiencing an acute exacerbation of depressive symptoms, will be enrolled. The study will consist of four phases: a screening/tolerability phase of up to 7 days; an open-label, flexible-dose lead-in phase of 8 weeks; an open-label, fixed-dose stabilization phase of 6 weeks; and a single-blind relapse prevention phase of 12 months. During the open-label phase, all patients will be treated with venlafaxine. Remitters with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) score ?7 will be eligible to enter the single-blind phase and will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: group 1 on active rTMS and venlafaxine; group 2 on sham rTMS and venlafaxine; and group 3 on venlafaxine alone. Efficacy will be evaluated during the study using relapse assessment (time between subject randomization to treatment and the first occurrence of relapse). Secondary outcome measures will include: symptom changes, measured by the HAM-D17; illness severity changes, measured by the Clinical Global Impression of Severity for Depression (CGI-S-DEP); and changes in subject functioning, assessed with the Personal and Social Performance (PSP)scale. Safety will be assessed throughout the study by monitoring of adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, electrocardiography (ECG), and measurements of vital signs (temperature, pulse, and blood pressure) and weight. Suicidality will be assessed by the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Discussion The result of this trial will assess the efficacy of rTMS in the prevention of relapse of symptoms of depression by determining whether rTMS in combination with an antidepressant is more efficacious than the antidepressant alone for maintenance of the clinical response. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01516931
Background Treatment of depression, the most prevalent and costly mental disorder, needs to be improved. Non-concordance with clinical guidelines and non-adherence can limit the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of depression. Through pharmaceutical care, pharmacists can improve patients' compliance and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention developed to improve adherence and outcomes of primary care patients with depression. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial, with 6-month follow-up, comparing patients receiving a pharmaceutical care support programme in primary care with patients receiving usual care. The total sample comprises 194 patients (aged between 18 and 75) diagnosed with depressive disorder in a primary care health centre in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Subjects will be asked for written informed consent in order to participate in the study. Diagnosis will be confirmed using the SCID-I. The intervention consists of an educational programme focused on improving knowledge about medication, making patients aware of the importance of compliance, reducing stigma, reassuring patients about side-effects and stressing the importance of carrying out general practitioners' advice. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Main outcome measure is compliance with antidepressants. Secondary outcomes include; clinical severity of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (STAI-S), health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D), satisfaction with the treatment received, side-effects, chronic physical conditions and socio-demographics. The use of healthcare and social care services will be assessed with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). Discussion This trial will provide valuable information for health professionals and policy makers on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention programme in the context of primary care. Trial registration NCT00794196
Rubio-Valera, Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Trave, Pere; Penarrubia-Maria, M Teresa; Ruiz, Mar; Pujol, Marian March
Background Despite limited effectiveness of short-term psychotherapy for chronic depression, there is a lack of trials of long-term psychotherapy. Our study is the first to determine the effectiveness of controlled long-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments and to assess the effects of preferential vs. randomized assessment. Methods/design Patients are assigned to treatment according to their preference or randomized (if they have no clear preference). Up to 80 sessions of psychodynamic or psychoanalytically oriented treatments (PAT) or up to 60 sessions of CBT are offered during the first year in the study. After the first year, PAT can be continued according to the ‘naturalistic’ usual method of treating such patients within the system of German health care (normally from 240 up to 300 sessions over two to three years). CBT therapists may extend their treatment up to 80 sessions, but focus mainly maintenance and relapse prevention. We plan to recruit a total of 240 patients (60 per arm). A total of 11 assessments are conducted throughout treatment and up to three years after initiation of treatment. The primary outcome measures are the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS, independent clinician rating) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) after the first year. Discussion We combine a naturalistic approach with randomized controlled trials(RCTs)to investigate how effectively chronic depression can be treated on an outpatient basis by the two forms of treatment reimbursed in the German healthcare system and we will determine the effects of treatment preference vs. randomization. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN91956346
Background Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and, although efficacious treatments are available, their efficacy is suboptimal and recurrence of symptoms is common. Effective preventive strategies could reduce disability and the long term social and health complications associated with the disorder, but current options are limited. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel, simple, and safe intervention that addresses attentional and interpretive biases associated with anxiety, dysphoria, and depression. The primary aim of this trial is to determine if CBM decreases the one-year onset of a major depressive episode among adults with subsyndromal depression. Design and methods This randomised controlled trial will recruit 532 adults with subsyndromal symptoms of depression living in the Australian community (parallel design, 1:1 allocation ratio). Participants will be free of clinically significant symptoms of depression and of psychotic disorders, sensory and cognitive impairment, and risky alcohol use. The CBM intervention will target attentional and interpretive biases associated with depressive symptoms. The sessions will be delivered via the internet over a period of 52 weeks. The primary outcome of interest is the onset of a major depressive episode according the DSM-IV-TR criteria over a 12-month period. Secondary outcomes of interest include change in the severity of depressive symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), use of antidepressants or benzodiazepines, and changes in attention and interpretive biases. The assessment of outcomes will take place 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomisation and will occur via the internet. Discussion We propose to test the efficacy of an innovative intervention that is well grounded in theory and for which increasing empirical evidence for an effect on mood is available. The intervention is simple, inexpensive, easy to access, and could be easily rolled out into practice if our findings confirm a role for CBM in the prevention of depression. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001334796. Date: 5th December 2013.
Background The high occurrence and under-treatment of clinical depression and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) within aged care settings is concerning, yet training programs aimed at improving the detection and management of these problems have generally been ineffective. This article presents a study protocol to evaluate a training intervention for facility managers/registered nurses working in aged care facilities that focuses on organisational processes and culture as well as knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. Methods A Randomised Control Trial (RCT) will be implemented across 18 aged care facilities (divided into three conditions). Participants will be senior registered nurses and personal care attendants employed in the aged care facility. The first condition will receive the training program (Staff as Change Agents – Enhancing and Sustaining Mental Health in Aged Care), the second condition will receive the training program and clinical support, and the third condition will receive no intervention. Results Pre-, post-, 6-month and 12-month follow-up measures of staff and residents will be used to demonstrate how upskilling clinical leaders using our transformational training approach, as well as the use of a structured screening, referral and monitoring protocol, can address the mental health needs of older people in residential care. Conclusions The expected outcome of this study is the validation of an evidence-based training program to improve the management of depression and BPSD among older people in residential care settings by establishing routine practices related to mental health. This relatively brief but highly focussed training package will be readily rolled out to a larger number of residential care facilities at a relatively low cost. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): The Universal Trial Number (UTN) is U1111-1141-0109.
High levels of depressive symptoms are common and contribute to poorer clinical outcomes even in geriatric patients who are already taking antidepressant medication. The Depression CARE for PATients at Home (Depression CAREPATH) intervention was designed to meet the needs of medical and surgical patients who suffer from depression. The intervention’s clinical protocols are designed to guide clinicians in managing depression as part of routine home care.
Bruce, Martha L.; Raue, Patrick J.; Sheeran, Thomas; Reilly, Catherine; Pomerantz, Judith C.; Meyers, Barnett S.; Weinberger, Mark I.; Zukowski, Diane
High levels of depressive symptoms are common and contribute to poorer clinical outcomes even in geriatric patients who are already taking antidepressant medication. The Depression CARE for PATients at Home (Depression CAREPATH) intervention was designed to meet the needs of medical and surgical patients who suffer from depression. The intervention's clinical protocols are designed to guide clinicians in managing depression as part of routine home care. PMID:21881429
Bruce, Martha L; Raue, Patrick J; Sheeran, Thomas; Reilly, Catherine; Pomerantz, Judith C; Meyers, Barnett S; Weinberger, Mark I; Zukowski, Diane
Background Despite 10 to% of persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa having clinical depression, and the consequences of depression for key public health outcomes (HIV treatment adherence and condom use), depression treatment is rarely integrated into HIV care programs. Task-shifting, protocolized approaches to depression care have been used to overcome severe shortages of mental health specialists in developing countries, but not in sub-Saharan Africa and not with HIV clients. The aims of this trial are to evaluate the implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a task-shifting, protocolized model of antidepressant care for HIV clinics in Uganda. Methods/Design INDEPTH-Uganda is a cluster randomized controlled trial that compares two task-shifting models of depression care - a protocolized model versus a model that relies on the clinical acumen of trained providers to provide depression care in ten public health HIV clinics in Uganda. In addition to data abstracted from routine data collection mechanisms and supervision logs, survey data will be collected from patient and provider longitudinal cohorts; at each site, a random sample of 150 medically stable patients who are depressed according to the PHQ-2 screening will be followed for 12 months, and providers involved in depression care implementation will be followed over 24 months. These data will be used to assess whether the two models differ on implementation outcomes (proportion screened, diagnosed, treated; provider fidelity to model of care), provider adoption of treatment care knowledge and practices, and depression alleviation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to compare the relative use of resources by each model. Discussion If effective and resource-efficient, the task-shifting, protocolized model will provide an approach to building the capacity for sustainable integration of depression treatment in HIV care settings across sub-Saharan Africa and improving key public health outcomes. Trial registration INDEPTH-Uganda has been registered with the National Institutes of Health sponsored clinical trials registry (3 February 2013) and has been assigned the identifier NCT02056106.
Background Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether individualized homeopathic Q-potencies and/or the type of the homeopathic case history have a specific therapeutical effect in acute depression as this has not yet been investigated. The study aims to assess the two components of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute depression, i.e., to investigate the specific effect of individualized Q-potencies versus placebo and to investigate the effect of different approaches to the homeopathic case history. Methods/Design A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient will be performed. 228 patients diagnosed with major depression (moderate episode) by a psychiatrist will be included. The primary endpoint is the total score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale after six weeks. Secondary end points are: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score after two and four weeks; response and remission rates, Beck Depression inventory total score, quality of life and safety at two, four and six weeks. Statistical analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The main endpoint will be analysed by a two-factorial analysis of covariance. Within this model generalized estimation equations will be used to estimate differences between verum and placebo, and between both types of case history. Discussion For the first time this study evaluates both the specific effect of homeopathic medicines and of a homeopathic case taking in patients with depression. It is an attempt to deal with the challenges of homeopathic research and the results might be useful information in the current discussion about the evidence on homeopathy Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01178255
Background We have developed a new paradigm that targets the recognition of facial expression of emotions. Here we report the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the effects of emotion recognition training on mood in a sample of individuals with depressive symptoms over a 6-week follow-up period. Methods/Design We will recruit 190 adults from the general population who report high levels of depressive symptoms (defined as a score ? 14 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Participants will attend a screening session and will be randomised to intervention or control procedures, repeated five times over consecutive days (Monday to Friday). A follow-up session will take place at end-of -treatment, 2-weeks and 6-weeks after training. Our primary study outcome will be depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory- II (rated over the past two weeks). Our secondary outcomes are: depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; anxiety symptoms, Beck Anxiety Inventory (rated over the past month); positive affect, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (rated as ‘how you feel right now’); negative affect, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (rated as ‘how you feel right now’); emotion sensitivity, Emotion Recognition Task (test phase); approach motivation and persistence, the Fishing Game; and depressive interpretation bias, Scrambled Sentences Test. Discussion This study is of a novel cognitive bias modification technique that targets biases in emotional processing characteristic of depression, and can be delivered automatically via computer, Internet or Smartphone. It therefore has potential to be a valuable cost-effective adjunctive treatment for depression which may be used together with more traditional psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy and pharmacotherapy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN17767674
Background With an ageing population in most Western countries, people are living longer but often with one or more chronic physical health problems. Older people in physically poor health are at greater risk of developing clinical depression. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Problem Solving Therapy (PST) have both been found to be efficacious in treating late-life depression, however patients with “multi-morbidity” (i.e. more than one chronic condition) are often excluded from these trials. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of CBT and PST in treating older adults who have one or more chronic physical health conditions and a diagnosable depressive disorder. This study will be the first to explicitly target the treatment of depression in older people in primary care settings presenting with a range of health problems using behavioural interventions. Methods/design The PROMISE-D study is a randomised controlled trial of two evidence-based treatments for late-life major or minor depression for patients who also have at least one co-morbid chronic health problem. Participants will be randomised to two active interventions (PST or CBT) or enhanced treatment-as-usual (E-TAU). Primary outcomes will be depression diagnostic status and severity of depression (according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale). Secondary outcomes will be anxiety severity, quality of life and health care utilisation. Assessments will be conducted by a researcher who remains blind to the patient’s treatment allocation and will be conducted pre and post-treatment and at six and 12 months follow-up. Health care utilisation will be assessed throughout a two year period following entry to the trial. Executive function, rumination and emotion regulation will also be measured to determine the impact of these factors on treatment response in two treatment groups. Discussion Multi-morbidity, the experience of two or more chronic health problems, is becoming an increasing problem internationally, particularly amongst the elderly. Evidence-based psychological treatments exist for late-life depression and these have been shown to be effective for participants with individual health problems and depression. However, there are no studies that have compared the two leading psychotherapies shown to be effective in the treatment of late-life depression. In addition, many trials of psychotherapy with older adults exclude those with multi-morbidity. Hence, this trial will confirm whether CBT and PST are efficacious in the treatment of depression in the context of complex medical needs and determine which of these two interventions is most efficacious. Trial registration ACTRN12612000854831
Translating comparative effectiveness of depression medications into practice by comparing the depression medication choice decision aid to usual care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background Comparative effectiveness research (CER) documents important differences in antidepressants in terms of efficacy, safety, cost, and burden to the patient. Decision aids can adapt this evidence to help patients participate in making informed choices. In turn, antidepressant therapy will more likely reflect patients’ values and context, leading to improved adherence and mood outcomes. Methods/Design The objective of this study is to develop the Depression Medication Choice decision aid for use during primary care encounters, and to test its efficacy by conducting a clustered practical randomized trial comparing the decision aid to usual depression care in primary care practices. We will use a novel practice-based, patient-centered approach based on participatory action research that involves a multidisciplinary team of designers, investigators, clinicians, patient representatives, and other stakeholders for the development of the decision aid. We will then conduct a clustered practical randomized trial enrolling clinicians and their patients (n = 300) with moderate to severe depression from rural, suburban and inner city primary care practices (n = 10). The intervention will consist of the use of the depression medication choice decision aid during the clinical encounter. This trial will generate preliminary evidence of the relative impact of the decision aid on patient involvement in decision making, decision making quality, patient knowledge, and 6-month measures of medication adherence and mental health compared to usual depression care. Discussion Upon completion of the proposed research, we will have developed and evaluated the efficacy of the decision aid depression medication choice as a novel translational tool for CER in depression treatment, engaged patients with depression in their care, and refined the process by which we conduct practice-based trials with limited research footprint. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01502891
Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. Methods/Design COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. Discussion The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline developers decide on the merits of including BA as a first-line treatment of depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN27473954
Background Depression is a common affliction for young adults, and is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy is a brief, structured intervention that has been shown to be highly effective for reducing depressive symptoms, yet to date has not been evaluated in young adult populations. Given its basis in theory-guided reminiscence-based therapy, and incorporation of effective therapeutic techniques drawn from cognitive therapy and problem-solving frameworks, it is hypothesized to be effective in treating depression in this age group. Methods and design This article presents the design of a randomized controlled trial implemented in a community-based youth mental health service to compare cognitive-reminiscence therapy with usual care for the treatment of depressive symptoms in young adults. Participants in the cognitive-reminiscence group will receive six sessions of weekly, individual psychotherapy, whilst participants in the usual-care group will receive support from the youth mental health service according to usual procedures. A between-within repeated-measures design will be used to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, psychological wellbeing and anxiety across baseline, three weeks into the intervention, post-intervention, one month post-intervention and three months post-intervention. Interviews will also be conducted with participants from the cognitive-reminiscence group to collect information about their experience receiving the intervention, and the process underlying any changes that occur. Discussion This study will determine whether a therapeutic approach to depression that has been shown to be effective in older adult populations is also effective for young adults. The expected outcome of this study is the validation of a brief, evidence-based, manualized treatment for young adults with depressive symptoms. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000084785.
Update to the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial
Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM) can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. A recently developed treatment, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), shows potential as a brief group program for people with recurring depression. This trial asks the policy research question; is MBCT with support to taper/discontinue antidepressant medication (MBCT-TS) superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and secondary outcomes of (a) depression free days, (b) residual depressive symptoms, (c) antidepressant medication (ADM) usage, (d) psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e) quality of life, and (f) cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question also asks whether an increase in mindfulness skills is the key mechanism of change. The design is a single-blind, parallel randomized controlled trial examining MBCT-TS versus m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT-TS with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Results Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. Analyses will be conducted following CONSORT standards and overseen by the trial’s Data Monitoring and Safety Committee. Initial analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis, with subsequent analyses being per protocol. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre- and post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users’ views and experiences. Conclusions If the results of our exploratory trial are extended to this definitive trial, MBCT-TS will be established as an alternative approach to maintenance antidepressants for people with a history of recurrent depression. The process studies will provide evidence about the effective components which can be used to improve MBCT and inform theory as well as other therapeutic approaches. Trial registration Trial registered 7 May 2009; ISRCTN26666654.
BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether
Ubiratan C Adler; Stephanie Krüger; Michael Teut; Rainer Lüdtke; Iris Bartsch; Lena Schützler; Friedericke Melcher; Stefan N Willich; Klaus Linde; Claudia M Witt
Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20?+?5 sessions) or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendation for counseling center and physician information). We plan to recruit a total of 180 patients (90 per arm) in two centers. Assessments are conducted pretreatment, after 6 (treatment termination) and 12 months (follow-up). The primary outcome measures are reduction of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and remission of depression as assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders by independent, blinded assessors at treatment termination. Secondary outcomes refer to quality of life. Discussion We investigate the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in acute care and we aim to identify predictors for acceptance and success of treatment. Trial registration ISRCTN96793588
Background Depression is one of the more severe and serious health problems because of its morbidity, disabling effects and for its societal and economic burden. Despite the variety of existing pharmacological and psychological treatments, most of the cases evolve with only partial remission, relapse and recurrence. Cognitive models have contributed significantly to the understanding of unipolar depression and its psychological treatment. However, success is only partial and many authors affirm the need to improve those models and also the treatment programs derived from them. One of the issues that requires further elaboration is the difficulty these patients experience in responding to treatment and in maintaining therapeutic gains across time without relapse or recurrence. Our research group has been working on the notion of cognitive conflict viewed as personal dilemmas according to personal construct theory. We use a novel method for identifying those conflicts using the repertory grid technique (RGT). Preliminary results with depressive patients show that about 90% of them have one or more of those conflicts. This fact might explain the blockage and the difficult progress of these patients, especially the more severe and/or chronic. These results justify the need for specific interventions focused on the resolution of these internal conflicts. This study aims to empirically test the hypothesis that an intervention focused on the dilemma(s) specifically detected for each patient will enhance the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Design A therapy manual for a dilemma-focused intervention will be tested using a randomized clinical trial by comparing the outcome of two treatment conditions: combined group CBT (eight, 2-hour weekly sessions) plus individual dilemma-focused therapy (eight, 1-hour weekly sessions) and CBT alone (eight, 2-hour group weekly sessions plus eight, 1-hour individual weekly sessions). Method Participants are patients aged over 18 years meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder, with a score of 19 or above on the Beck depression inventory, second edition (BDI-II) and presenting at least one cognitive conflict (implicative dilemma or dilemmatic construct) as assessed using the RGT. The BDI-II is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, at the end of therapy, and at 3- and 12-month follow-up; other secondary measures are also used. Discussion We expect that adding a dilemma-focused intervention to CBT will increase the efficacy of one of the more prestigious therapies for depression, thus resulting in a significant contribution to the psychological treatment of depression. Trial registration ISRCTN92443999; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01542957.
BACKGROUND: The treatment of depressive phases of bipolar disorder is challenging. The effects of the commonly used antidepressants in bipolar depression are questionable. Electroconvulsive therapy is generally considered to be the most effective treatment even if there are no randomized controlled trials of electroconvulsive therapy in bipolar depression. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy is well documented, but there are some
Ute Kessler; Arne E Vaaler; Helle Schøyen; Ketil J Oedegaard; Per Bergsholm; Ole A Andreassen; Ulrik F Malt; Gunnar Morken
Background The global prevalence of diabetes among adults will be 6.4% in 2010 and will increase to 7.7% by 2030. Diabetes doubles the odds of depression, and 9% of patients with diabetes are affected by depressive disorders. When subclinical depression is included, the proportion of patients who have clinically relevant depressive symptoms increases to 26%. In patients aged over 65 years, the interaction of diabetes and depression has predicted increased mortality, complications, disability, and earlier occurrence of all of these adverse outcomes. These deleterious effects were observed even in minor depression, where the risk of mortality within 7 years was 4.9 times higher compared with diabetes patients who did not have depressive symptoms. In this paper we describe the design and methods of the Minor Depression and Diabetes trial, a clinical trial within the 'Competence Network for Diabetes mellitus', which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Methods/Design Patients' inclusion criteria are: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, 65 to 85 years of age, 3 to 6 depressive symptoms (minor depression or mild major depression). Our aim is to compare the efficacy of diabetes-specific cognitive behavioural therapy adapted for the elderly vs. intensified treatment as usual vs. a guided self-help intervention regarding improvement of health related quality of life as the primary outcome. The trial will be conducted as a multicentre, open, observer-blinded, parallel group (3 groups) randomized controlled trial. Patients will be randomized to one of the three treatment conditions. After 12 weeks of open-label therapy in all treatment conditions, both group interventions will be reduced to one session per month during the one-year long-term phase of the trial. At the one-year follow-up, all groups will be re-examined regarding the primary and secondary parameters, for example reduction of depressive symptoms, prevention of moderate/severe major depression, improvement of glycaemic control, mortality, and cost effectiveness. Depending on additional funding, the sample will be continuously observed as a prospective cohort; the primary outcome will be changed to mortality for all subsequent follow-up measurements. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials Register (ISRCTN58007098).
Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial
Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mental health service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU). The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability) associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a) training and delivery of IPT, or (b) TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra-class correlation coefficient will be calculated and used to inform sample size calculations for subsequent large-scale trials. Qualitative data regarding process implementation will be collected quarterly from focus groups with participating clinicians over 18 months, plus phone interviews with participating adolescents and parent/guardians at 12 weeks and 24 weeks of treatment. The focus group qualitative data will be analysed using a Fourth Generation Evaluation methodology that includes a constant comparative cyclic analysis method. Discussion This study protocol will be informative for researchers and clinicians interested in considering, designing and/or conducting cluster randomised trials within community practice such as mental health services. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRNO12607000324415
Bearsley-Smith, Cate; Browne, Mark Oakley; Sellick, Ken; Villanueva, Elmer V; Chesters, Janice; Francis, Karen; Reddy, Prasuna
Background Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) delivered through the Internet is effective as a treatment in reducing insomnia in individuals seeking help for insomnia. CBT-I also lowers levels of depression in this group. However, it is not known if targeting insomnia using CBT-I will lower depressive symptoms, and thus reduce the risk of major depressive episode onset, in those specifically at risk for depression. Therefore, this study aims to examine whether Internet delivery of fully automated self-help CBT-I designed to reduce insomnia will prevent depression. Method/design A sample of 1,600 community-dwelling adults (aged 18–64), who screen positive for both subclinical levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia, will be recruited via various media and randomised to either a 9-week online insomnia treatment programme, Sleep Healthy Using The internet (SHUTi), or an online attention-matched control group (HealthWatch). The primary outcome variable will be depression symptom levels at the 6-month post-intervention on the Patient Heath Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). A secondary outcome will be onset of major depressive episodes assessed at the 6-month post-intervention using ‘current’ and ‘time from intervention’ criteria from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Discussion This trial is the first randomised controlled trial of an Internet-based insomnia intervention as an indicated preventative programme for depression. If effective, online provision of a depression prevention programme will facilitate dissemination. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), Registration number: ACTRN12611000121965.
Background Limited controlled data exist to guide treatment choices for clinicians caring for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although many putative predictors of treatment response have been reported, most were identified through retrospective analyses of existing datasets and very few have been replicated in a manner that can impact clinical practice. One major confound in previous studies examining predictors of treatment response is the patient’s treatment history, which may affect both the predictor of interest and treatment outcomes. Moreover, prior treatment history provides an important source of selection bias, thereby limiting generalizability. Consequently, we initiated a randomized clinical trial designed to identify factors that moderate response to three treatments for MDD among patients never treated previously for the condition. Methods/design Treatment-naïve adults aged 18 to 65?years with moderate-to-severe, non-psychotic MDD are randomized equally to one of three 12-week treatment arms: (1) cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, 16 sessions); (2) duloxetine (30–60?mg/d); or (3) escitalopram (10–20?mg/d). Prior to randomization, patients undergo multiple assessments, including resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), immune markers, DNA and gene expression products, and dexamethasone-corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) testing. Prior to or shortly after randomization, patients also complete a comprehensive personality assessment. Repeat assessment of the biological measures (fMRI, immune markers, and gene expression products) occurs at an early time-point in treatment, and upon completion of 12-week treatment, when a second Dex/CRH test is also conducted. Patients remitting by the end of this acute treatment phase are then eligible to enter a 21-month follow-up phase, with quarterly visits to monitor for recurrence. Non-remitters are offered augmentation treatment for a second 12-week course of treatment, during which they receive a combination of CBT and antidepressant medication. Predictors of the primary outcome, remission, will be identified for overall and treatment-specific effects, and a statistical model incorporating multiple predictors will be developed to predict outcomes. Discussion The PReDICT study’s evaluation of biological, psychological, and clinical factors that may differentially impact treatment outcomes represents a sizeable step toward developing personalized treatments for MDD. Identified predictors should help guide the selection of initial treatments, and identify those patients most vulnerable to recurrence, who thus warrant maintenance or combination treatments to achieve and maintain wellness. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00360399. Registered 02 AUG 2006. First patient randomized 09 FEB 2007.
Background The rise of the internet and related technologies has significant implications for the treatment of complex health problems, including the combination of depression and alcohol/other drug (AOD) misuse. To date, no research exists to test the real world uptake of internet and computer-delivered treatment programs in clinical practice. This study is important, as it is the first to examine the adoption of the SHADE treatment program, a DVD-based psychological treatment for depression and AOD use comorbidity, by clinicians working in a publicly-funded AOD clinical service. The study protocol that follows describes the methodology of this dissemination trial. Methods/design 19 clinicians within an AOD service on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia, will be recruited to the trial. Consenting clinicians will participate in a baseline focus group discussion designed to explore their experiences and perceived barriers to adopting innovation in their clinical practice. Computer comfort and openness to innovation will also be assessed. Throughout the trial, current, new and wait-list clients will be referred to the research program via the clinical service, which will involve clients completing a baseline and 15-week follow-up clinical assessment with independent research assistants, comprising a range of mental health and AOD measures. Clinicians will also complete session checklists following each clinical session with a client, outlining the extent to which the SHADE computer program was used. Therapeutic alliance will be measured at intake and discharge from both the clinician and client perspectives. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the factors associated with the adoption of an innovative, computer-delivered evidence-based treatment program, SHADE, by clinicians working in an AOD service. The results will contribute to the development of a model of dissemination of SHADE, which could be applied to a range of technological innovations. Clinical trials registry Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976.
Background Major depressive disorder is highly prevalent among Latinos with limited English language proficiency in the United States. Although major depressive disorder is highly treatable, barriers to depression treatment have historically prevented Latinos with limited English language proficiency from accessing effective interventions. The project seeks to evaluate the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression, an empirically supported treatment for depression, as an intervention that may address some of the disparities surrounding the receipt of efficacious mental health care for this population. Methods/design Following a pilot study of behavioral activation treatment for depression with 10 participants which yielded very promising results, the current study is a randomized control trial testing behavioral activation treatment for depression versus a supportive counseling treatment for depression. We are in the process of recruiting 60 Latinos with limited English language proficiency meeting criteria for major depressive disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th and 5th Edition for participation in a single-center efficacy trial. Participants are randomized to receive 10 sessions of behavioral activation treatment for depression (n?=?30) or 10 sessions of supportive counseling (n?=?30). Assessments occur prior to each session and at 1 month after completing treatment. Intervention targets include depressive symptomatology and the proposed mechanisms of behavioral activation treatment for depression: activity level and environmental reward. We will also examine other factors related to treatment outcome such as treatment adherence, treatment satisfaction, and therapeutic alliance. Discussion This randomized controlled trial will allow us to determine the efficacy of behavioral activation treatment for depression in a fast-growing, yet highly underserved population in US mental health services. The study is also among the first to examine the effect of the proposed mechanisms of change of behavioral activation treatment for depression (that is, activity level and environmental reward) on depression over time. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to compare an empirical-supported treatment to a control supportive counseling condition in a sample of depressed, Spanish-speaking Latinos in the United States. Trial registration Clinical Trials Register: NCT01958840; registered 8 October 2013.
Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial
Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM) can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. We need to develop psychological therapies that prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. A recently developed treatment, Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, see http://www.mbct.co.uk) shows potential as a brief group programme for people with recurring depression. In two studies it has been shown to halve the rates of depression recurring compared to usual care. This trial asks the policy research question, is MBCT superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and, secondary outcomes of (a) depression free days, (b) residual depressive symptoms, (c) antidepressant (ADM) usage, (d) psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e) quality of life, and (f) cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question asks is an increase in mindfulness skills the key mechanism of change? Methods/Design The design is a single blind, parallel RCT examining MBCT vs. m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT plus ADM-tapering with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre/post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users' views and experiences. Discussion If the results of our exploratory trial are extended to this definitive trial, MBCT will be established as an alternative approach to maintenance anti-depressants for people with a history of recurrent depression. The process studies will provide evidence about the effective components which can be used to improve MBCT and inform theory as well as other therapeutic approaches. Trial registration number ISRCTN26666654
Background Patients with heart disease often suffer from difficulties in psychological adaptation during cardiac rehabilitation. Mood disorders such as depression are known to be highly prevalent in cardiac patients and to have a negative impact on the progression of coronary heart disease. However, cardiac patients have difficulties to get psychological treatments due to low availability and motivational difficulties. Web-based interventions have been proven to be effective in treating depressive symptoms. Deprexis is a promising web-based psychological treatment which was devised for depressed patients. The aim of the study InterHerz is to examine if Deprexis is an effective psychological treatment to reduce stress and depression in cardiac patients. Methods/Design The sample will consist of 80 depressed patients randomized to an intervention group or a waitlist (10 weeks). Patients are recruited via cardiologists, cardiac rehabilitation units and the website of the Swiss Heart Foundation. Patients have access to a guided self-help program in which they work themselves through several modules and receive feedback from a clinical psychologist. Pre- and post-assessments, and a six-month follow-up, are conducted using online questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Discussion Deprexis is a new web-based treatment which has the potential to help depressed cardiac patients with limited access to psychological treatment to increase their mental health. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45945396
Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent diseases that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. There is evidence about a bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, prognostic implications of the joint effects of these two diseases on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well-known. Method/design A three-year, observational, prospective, cohort study, carried out in Primary Health Care Centres in Madrid (Spain). The project aims to analyze the effect of depression on cardiovascular events, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to estimate a clinical predictive model of depression in these patients. The number of patients required is 3255, all them with type 2 diabetes mellitus, older than 18?years, who regularly visit their Primary Health Care Centres and agree to participate. They are chosen by simple random sampling from the list of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of each general practitioner. The main outcome measures are all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity; and exposure variable is the major depressive disorder. There will be a comparison between depressed and not depressed patients in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, coronary artery disease and stroke using the Chi-squared test. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. To assess the effect of depression on the mortality, a survival analysis will be used comparing the two groups using the log-rank test. The control of potential confounding variables will be performed by the construction of a Cox regression model. Discussion Our study’s main contribution is to evaluate the increase in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in depressed Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus attended in Primary Health Care Setting. It would also be useful to identify subgroups of patients for which the interventions could be more beneficial.
Background Substantial data indicate potential health consequences of untreated postpartum depression (PPD) on the mother, infant, and family. Studies have evaluated interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as treatment for PPD; however, the results are questionable due to methodological limitations. A comprehensive review of maternal treatment preferences suggests that mothers favor ‘talking therapy’ as a form of PPD treatment. Unfortunately, IPT is not widely available, especially in rural and remote areas. To improve access to care, telepsychiatry has been introduced, including the provision of therapy via the telephone. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression) and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care) or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses). Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1) develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2) advance our understanding of training nurses to deliver IPT; (3) provide an economic evaluation of an IPT intervention; (4) investigate the utility of the EPDS in general clinical practice to identify depressed mothers; and (5) present valuable information regarding PPD, along with associated couple adjustment, co-morbid anxiety and self-reported attachment among a mixed rural and urban Canadian population. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials Ltd. ISRCTN88987377.
Background In the year 2020, depression will cause the second highest amount of disability worldwide. One quarter of the population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health services in Western countries are overburdened. Therefore, cost-effective interventions that do not involve mental health services, such as online psychotherapy programs, have been proposed. These programs demonstrate satisfactory outcomes, but the completion rate for patients is low. Health professionals’ attitudes towards this type of psychotherapy are more negative than the attitudes of depressed patients themselves. The aim of this study is to describe the profile of depressed patients who would benefit most from online psychotherapy and to identify expectations, experiences, and attitudes about online psychotherapy among both patients and health professionals that can facilitate or hinder its effects. Methods A parallel qualitative design will be used in a randomised controlled trial on the efficiency of online psychotherapeutic treatment for depression. Through interviews and focus groups, the experiences of treated patients, their reasons for abandoning the program, the expectations of untreated patients, and the attitudes of health professionals will be examined. Questions will be asked about training in new technologies, opinions of online psychotherapy, adjustment to therapy within the daily routine, the virtual and anonymous relationship with the therapist, the process of online communication, information necessary to make progress in therapy, process of working with the program, motivations and attitudes about treatment, expected consequences, normalisation of this type of therapy in primary care, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and resources and risks. A thematic content analysis from the grounded theory for interviews and an analysis of the discursive positions of participants based on the sociological model for focus groups will be performed. Discussion Knowledge of the expectations, experiences, and attitudes of both patients and medical personnel regarding online interventions for depression can facilitate the implementation of this new psychotherapeutic tool. This qualitative investigation will provide thorough knowledge of the perceptions, beliefs, and values of patients and clinicians, which will be very useful for understanding how to implement this intervention method for depression.
Background Major depression is a common mental disorder that substantially impairs quality of life and has high societal costs. Although\\u000a psychotherapies have proven to be effective antidepressant treatments, initial response rates are insufficient and the risk\\u000a of relapse and recurrence is high. Improvement of treatments is badly needed. Studying the mechanisms of change in treatment\\u000a might be a good investment for
Lotte HJM Lemmens; Arnoud Arntz; Frenk PML Peeters; Steven D Hollon; Anne Roefs; Marcus JH Huibers
Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression\\u000a is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms.\\u000a Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL), decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation\\u000a of health services, lead to increased morbidity
Adrienne O’Neil; Anna L Hawkes; Bianca Chan; Kristy Sanderson; Andrew Forbes; Bruce Hollingsworth; John Atherton; David L Hare; Michael Jelinek; Kathy Eadie; C Barr Taylor; Brian Oldenburg
Objective Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer. We need a rapid means of screening for and identifying depression and anxiety in patients with cancer. The present study evaluates the potential of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) scoring as a brief screening tool to assess psychological distress in routine cancer care. The ECOG PS is widely used by oncologists and the WHO, as a standardised measure to assess general well-being in patients with cancer and quality of life in cancer trials. We examine the discrepancy between patient-rated and oncologist-rated PS scores on the ECOG in a comparative assessment against the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Methods and design This is a prospective evaluation of approximately 500 ambulatory adult cancer patients from a large academic medical centre. Participants will be asked to assess their own ECOG PS on a scale of 0–4, which will be compared to ECOG PS as rated by their oncologists. Higher ECOG PS scores indicate poorer daily functioning. Both patient-rated and oncologist-rated ECOG PS and their absolute differences will be tested for predictive and concurrent validity against the HADS. A HADS cut-off ?15 will be used. Ethics approval for this study has been secured from the institutional ethics board. Outcomes are re-evaluated at 4-week to 6-week and 1-year follow-up. Conclusion This study holds practical significance for rapid screening of psychological distress in the cancer clinic with the use of the ECOG PS scoring. Given the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with cancer, screening is important to increase its recognition, which will, in turn, help to direct referrals and deliver appropriate intervention. This study also generates greater insight into the association between psychosomatic complaints and psychological distress. Trial registration number MEC 896.52.
Mei Hsien, Caryn Chan; Wan Azman, Wan Azmad; Md Yusof, Mastura; Ho, Gwo Fuang; Krupat, Edward
Background Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) involves standardised, automated, interactive self-help programmes delivered via a computer. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies have shown than cCBT reduces depressive symptoms as much as face-to-face therapy and more than waiting lists or treatment as usual. cCBT’s efficacy and acceptability may be influenced by the “human” support offered as an adjunct to it, which can vary in duration and can be offered by people with different levels of training and expertise. Methods/design This is a two-by-two factorial RCT investigating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of cCBT supplemented with 12 weekly phone support sessions are either brief (5–10 min) or extended (20–30 min) and are offered by either an expert clinician or an assistant with no clinical training. Adults with non-suicidal depression in primary care can self-refer into the study by completing and posting to the research team a standardised questionnaire. Following an assessment interview, eligible referrals have access to an 8-session cCBT programme called Beating the Blues and are randomised to one of four types of support: brief-assistant, extended-assistant, brief-clinician or extended-clinician. A sample size of 35 per group (total 140) is sufficient to detect a moderate effect size with 90% power on our primary outcome measure (Work and Social Adjustment Scale); assuming a 30% attrition rate, 200 patients will be randomised. Secondary outcome measures include the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Data on clinical outcomes, treatment usage and patient experiences are collected in three ways: by post via self-report questionnaires at week 0 (randomisation) and at weeks 12 and 24 post-randomisation; electronically by the cCBT system every time patients log-in; by phone during assessments, support sessions and exit interviews. Discussion The study’s factorial design increases its efficiency by allowing the concurrent investigation of two types of adjunct support for cCBT with a single sample of participants. Difficulties in recruitment, uptake and retention of participants are anticipated because of the nature of the targeted clinical problem (depression impairs motivation) and of the studied interventions (lack of face-to-face contact because referrals, assessments, interventions and data collection are completed by phone, computer or post). Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN98677176
Collaborative Interventions for Circulation and Depression (COINCIDE): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial of collaborative care for depression in people with diabetes and/or coronary heart disease
Background Depression is up to two to three times as common in people with long-term conditions. It negatively affects medical management of disease and self-care behaviors, and leads to poorer quality of life and high costs in primary care. Screening and treatment of depression is increasingly prioritized, but despite initiatives to improve access and quality of care, depression remains under-detected and under-treated, especially in people with long-term conditions. Collaborative care is known to positively affect the process and outcome of care for people with depression and long-term conditions, but its effectiveness outside the USA is still relatively unknown. Furthermore, collaborative care has yet to be tested in settings that resemble more naturalistic settings that include patient choice and the usual care providers. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a collaborative-care intervention, for people with depression and diabetes/coronary heart disease in National Health Service (NHS) primary care, in which low-intensity psychological treatment services are delivered by the usual care provider - Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. The study also aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention over 6 months, and to assess qualitatively the extent to which collaborative care was implemented in the intervention general practices. Methods This is a cluster randomized controlled trial of 30 general practices allocated to either collaborative care or usual care. Fifteen patients per practice will be recruited after a screening exercise to detect patients with recognized depression (?10 on the nine-symptom Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9). Patients in the collaborative-care arm with recognized depression will be offered a choice of evidence-based low-intensity psychological treatments based on cognitive and behavioral approaches. Patients will be case managed by psychological well-being practitioners employed by IAPT in partnership with a practice nurse and/or general practitioner. The primary outcome will be change in depressive symptoms at 6 months on the 90-item Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90). Secondary outcomes include change in health status, self-care behaviors, and self-efficacy. A qualitative process evaluation will be undertaken with patients and health practitioners to gauge the extent to which the collaborative-care model is implemented, and to explore sustainability beyond the clinical trial. Discussion COINCIDE will assess whether collaborative care can improve patient-centered outcomes, and evaluate access to and quality of care of co-morbid depression of varying intensity in people with diabetes/coronary heart disease. Additionally, by working with usual care providers such as IAPT, and by identifying and evaluating interventions that are effective and appropriate for routine use in the NHS, the COINCIDE trial offers opportunities to address translational gaps between research and implementation. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN80309252 Trial Status Open
Introduction Cognitive behaviour therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the internet has been found to be effective for a range of conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders. Recent results indicate that guided self-help via the internet is a promising treatment format also for psychodynamic therapy. However, to date and to our knowledge, no study has evaluated internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy as a transdiagnostic treatment. The affect-phobia model of psychopathology by McCullough et al provides a psychodynamic conceptualisation of a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a transdiagnostic guided self-help treatment based on the affect-phobia model in a sample of clients with depression and anxiety. Methods and analysis This study will be a randomised controlled trial with a total sample size of 100 participants. The treatment group receives a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on the transdiagnostic affect-phobia model of psychopathology. The treatment consists of eight text-based treatment modules and includes therapist contact in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group receive similar online therapist support without any treatment modules. Outcome measures are the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale and the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures that concerns emotional processing and mindfulness are included. All outcome and process measures will be administered weekly via the internet and at 6-month follow-up. Discussion This trial will add to the body of knowledge on internet-delivered psychological treatments in general and to psychodynamic treatments in particular. We also hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and working mechanisms of psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model.
Johansson, Robert; Hesser, Hugo; Ljotsson, Brjann; Frederick, Ronald J; Andersson, Gerhard
Background Depression is estimated to become the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Despite existing efficacious treatments (both medical and psychotherapeutic), a large proportion of patients do not respond to therapy. Recent insights from evolutionary psychology suggest that, in addition to targeting the proximal causes of depression (for example, targeting dysfunctional beliefs by cognitive behavioral therapy), the distal or evolutionary causes (for example, inclusive fitness) should also be addressed. A randomized superiority trial is conducted to develop and test an evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy protocol for depression, and to compare its efficacy against standard cognitive therapy for depression. Methods/design Romanian-speaking adults (18 years or older) with elevated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores (>13), current diagnosis of major depressive disorder or major depressive episode (MDD or MDE), and MDD with comorbid dysthymia, as evaluated by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), are included in the study. Participants are randomized to one of two conditions: 1) evolutionary-driven cognitive therapy (ED-CT) or 2) cognitive therapy (CT). Both groups undergo 12 psychotherapy sessions, and data are collected at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and the 3-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology and a categorical diagnosis of depression post-treatment. Discussion This randomized trial compares the newly proposed ED-CT with a classic CT protocol for depression. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to integrate insights from evolutionary theories of depression into the treatment of this condition in a controlled manner. This study can thus add substantially to the body of knowledge on validated treatments for depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64664414 The trial was registered in June 2013. The first participant was enrolled on October 3, 2012.
Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…
Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca
Background Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a cost-effective psychosocial prevention programme that helps people with recurrent depression stay well in the long term. It was singled out in the 2009 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Depression Guideline as a key priority for implementation. Despite good evidence and guideline recommendations, its roll-out and accessibility across the UK appears to be limited and inequitably distributed. The study aims to describe the current state of MBCT accessibility and implementation across the UK, develop an explanatory framework of what is hindering and facilitating its progress in different areas, and develop an Implementation Plan and related resources to promote better and more equitable availability and use of MBCT within the UK National Health Service. Methods/Design This project is a two-phase qualitative, exploratory and explanatory research study, using an interview survey and in-depth case studies theoretically underpinned by the Promoting Action on Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. Interviews will be conducted with stakeholders involved in commissioning, managing and implementing MBCT services in each of the four UK countries, and will include areas where MBCT services are being implemented successfully and where implementation is not working well. In-depth case studies will be undertaken on a range of MBCT services to develop a detailed understanding of the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Guided by the study’s conceptual framework, data will be synthesized across Phase 1 and Phase 2 to develop a fit for purpose implementation plan. Discussion Promoting the uptake of evidence-based treatments into routine practice and understanding what influences these processes has the potential to support the adoption and spread of nationally recommended interventions like MBCT. This study could inform a larger scale implementation trial and feed into future implementation of MBCT with other long-term conditions and associated co-morbidities. It could also inform the implementation of interventions that are acceptable and effective, but are not widely accessible or implemented.
Background Depression is one of the most common reasons for consulting a General Practitioner (GP) within the UK. Whilst antidepressants have been shown to be clinically effective, many patients and healthcare professionals would like to access other forms of treatment as an alternative or adjunct to drug therapy for depression. A recent systematic review presented some evidence that physical activity could offer one such option, although further investigation is needed to test its effectiveness within the context of the National Health Service. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (RCT) designed to evaluate an intervention developed to increase physical activity as a treatment for depression within primary care. Methods/design The TREAD study is a pragmatic, multi-centre, two-arm RCT which targets patients presenting with a new episode of depression. Patients were approached if they were aged 18-69, had recently consulted their GP for depression and, where appropriate, had been taking antidepressants for less than one month. Only those patients with a confirmed diagnosis of a depressive episode as assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R), a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score of at least 14 and informed written consent were included in the study. Eligible patients were individually randomised to one of two treatment groups; usual GP care or usual GP care plus facilitated physical activity. The primary outcome of the trial is clinical symptoms of depression assessed using the BDI four months after randomisation. A number of secondary outcomes are also measured at the 4-, 8- and 12-month follow-up points including quality of life, attitude to and involvement in physical activity and antidepressant use/adherence. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis and will use linear and logistic regression models to compare treatments. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information about the effectiveness of physical activity as a treatment for depression. Given the current prevalence of depression and its associated economic burden, it is hoped that TREAD will provide a timely contribution to the evidence on treatment options for patients, clinicians and policy-makers. Trial registration: ISRCTN 16900744
Using Standardized fMRI Protocols to Identify Patterns of Prefrontal Circuit Dysregulation that are Common and Specific to Cognitive and Emotional Tasks in Major Depressive Disorder: First Wave Results from the iSPOT-D Study
Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD.
Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M
BACKGROUND: Depression is often a chronic relapsing condition, with relapse rates of 50-80% in those who have been depressed before. This is particularly problematic for those who become suicidal when depressed since habitual recurrence of suicidal thoughts increases likelihood of further acute suicidal episodes. Therefore the question how to prevent relapse is of particular urgency in this group. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This
J Mark G Williams; Ian T Russell; Catherine Crane; Daphne Russell; Chris J Whitaker; Danielle S Duggan; Thorsten Barnhofer; Melanie JV Fennell; Rebecca Crane; Sarah Silverton
The Neuronetics NeuroStar Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) System is a class II medical device that produces brief duration, pulsed magnetic fields. These rapidly alternating fields induce electrical currents within localized, targeted regions of the cortex which are associated with various physiological and functional brain changes. In 2007, O'Reardon et al., utilizing the NeuroStar device, published the results of an industry-sponsored, multisite, randomized, sham-stimulation controlled clinical trial in which 301 patients with major depression, who had previously failed to respond to at least one adequate antidepressant treatment trial, underwent either active or sham TMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The patients, who were medication-free at the time of the study, received TMS five times per week over 4-6 weeks. The results demonstrated that a sub-population of patients (those who were relatively less resistant to medication, having failed not more than two good pharmacologic trials) showed a statistically significant improvement on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and various other outcome measures. In October 2008, supported by these and other similar results, Neuronetics obtained the first and only Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the clinical treatment of a specific form of medication-refractory depression using a TMS Therapy device (FDA approval K061053). In this paper, we will explore the specified FDA approved NeuroStar depression treatment protocol (to be administered only under prescription and by a licensed medical profession in either an in- or outpatient setting). PMID:21189465
Horvath, Jared C; Mathews, John; Demitrack, Mark A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
Using standardized fMRI protocols to identify patterns of prefrontal circuit dysregulation that are common and specific to cognitive and emotional tasks in major depressive disorder: first wave results from the iSPOT-D study.
Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD. PMID:23303059
Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Etkin, Amit; Koslow, Stephen H; Williams, Leanne M
Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…
Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele
Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were deduced from the late-life depression literature, culturally adapted CBT protocols for racial minorities, and the emerging social and developmental psychological theories for lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. Specific treatment interventions, processes, and outcomes are described to illustrate how these literatures may be used to provide more culturally appropriate and effective health care for the growing, older sexual minority population.
Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca
Background Depression accounts for the greatest burden of disease among all mental health problems, and is expected to become the second-highest amongst all general health problems by 2020. By the age of 75, 1 in 7 older people meet formal diagnostic criteria for depression. Efforts to ameliorate the burden of illness and personal suffering associated with depression in older people have focussed on those with more severe depressive syndromes. Less attention has been paid to those with mild disorders/sub-threshold depressive syndromes but these patients also suffer impairments in their quality of life and level of functioning. Methods/Design The CASPER study has been designed to assemble an epidemiological cohort of people over 75 years of age (the CASPER cohort), from which we will identify those eligible to participate in a trial of collaborative care for sub-threshold depression (the CASPER trial). We aim to undertake a pragmatic randomised controlled multi-centre trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of collaborative care; a low intensity psychological intervention in addition to usual general practitioner care versus usual general practitioner care alone. General practitioners from practices based in the North of England will be asked to identify potentially eligible patients over the age of 75 years. Patients will be sent a letter inviting them to participate in the study. We aim to recruit approximately 540 participants for the CASPER trial. A diagnostic interview will be carried out to ascertain trial eligibility with the major depressive episode module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.), eligible participants randomised to either the intervention or usual care. The primary outcome will be measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and additional quality of life measures will be collected. Data will be collected at baseline, 4 and 12 months for both trial and cohort participants. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN02202951
Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Background The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene’s Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Discussion This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment using C-potencies versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. It is an attempt to deal with the obstacles of homeopathic research due to the need for individual prescriptions in one of the most common psychiatric diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01635218.
Background Recent projections suggest that by the year 2030 depression will be the primary cause of disease burden among developed countries. Delivery of accessible consumer-focused evidenced-based services may be an important element in reducing this burden. Many consumers report a preference for self-help modes of delivery. The Internet offers a promising modality for delivering such services and there is now evidence that automated professionally developed self-help psychological interventions can be effective. By contrast, despite their popularity, there is little evidence as to the effectiveness of Internet support groups which provide peer-to-peer mutual support. Methods/Design Members of the community with elevated psychological distress were randomised to receive one of the following: (1) Internet Support Group (ISG) intervention, (2) a multi-module automated psychoeducational and skills Internet Training Program (ITP), (3) a combination of the ISG and ITP, or (4) an Internet Attention Control website (IAC) comprising health and wellbeing information and question and answer modules. Each intervention was 12 weeks long. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, 6 and 12 months to examine depressive symptoms, social support, self-esteem, quality of life, depression literacy, stigma and help-seeking for depression. Participants were recruited through a screening postal survey sent to 70,000 Australians aged 18 to 65 years randomly selected from four rural and four metropolitan regions in Australia. Discussion To our knowledge this study is the first randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a depression ISG. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65657330.
Background Increased life expectancy has resulted in a greater provision of informal care within the community for patients with chronic physical health conditions. Informal carers are at greater risk of poor mental health, with one in three informal carers of stroke survivors experiencing depression. However, currently no psychological treatments tailored to the unique needs of depressed informal carers of stroke survivors exist. Furthermore, informal carers of stroke survivors experience a number of barriers to attending traditional face-to-face psychological services, such as lack of time and the demands of the caring role. The increased flexibility associated with supported cognitive behavioral therapy self-help (CBTsh), such as the ability for support to be provided by telephone, email, or face-to-face, alongside shorter support sessions, may help overcome such barriers to access. CBTsh, tailored to depressed informal carers of stroke survivors may represent an effective and acceptable solution. Methods/Design This study is a Phase II (feasibility) randomized controlled trial (RCT) following guidance in the MRC Complex Interventions Research Methods Framework. We will randomize a sample of depressed informal carers of stroke survivors to receive CBT self-help supported by mental health paraprofessionals, or treatment-as-usual. Consistent with the objectives of assessing the feasibility of trial design and procedures for a potential larger scale trial we will measure the following outcomes: a) feasibility of patient recruitment (recruitment and refusal rates); (b) feasibility and acceptability of data collection procedures; (c) levels of attrition; (d) likely intervention effect size; (e) variability in number, length and frequency of support sessions estimated to bring about recovery; and (f) acceptability of the intervention. Additionally, we will collect data on the diagnosis of depression, symptoms of depression and anxiety, functional impairment, carer burden, quality of life, and stroke survivor mobility skill, self-care and functional ability, measured at four and six months post-randomization. Discussion This study will provide important information for the feasibility and design of a Phase III (effectiveness) trial in the future. If the intervention is identified to be feasible, effective, and acceptable, a written CBTsh intervention for informal carers of stroke survivors, supported by mental health paraprofessionals, could represent a cost-effective model of care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63590486.
The effects of a brief CBT intervention, delivered by frontline mental health staff, to promote recovery in people with psychosis and comorbid anxiety or depression (the GOALS study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background NICE guidance states that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) should be offered to all patients with psychosis. However, there is a need to improve access to therapeutic interventions. We aim to train frontline mental health staff to deliver brief, structured CBT-based therapies. We have developed and piloted a manualized intervention to support people with psychosis and anxious avoidance or depression to work towards a personal recovery goal. Methods/Design The ‘GOALS Study’ is a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing usual care plus an 8-week intervention with usual care alone. The key objective is to assess clinical feasibility (recruitment and randomization; compliance with the treatment manual; acceptability and satisfaction; progress towards goals). A secondary objective is a preliminary evaluation of efficacy. Sixty-six participants with a diagnosis of psychosis, plus symptoms of depression or anxiety will be recruited from adult mental health services. Those currently refusing medication, in receipt of CBT, or with a primary diagnosis of an organic mental health problem or substance dependency will be excluded. Following informed consent, randomization will be independent of the trial team, at a 50:50 ratio, at the level of the individual and stratified by main problem focus. Following randomization, participants allocated to the intervention group will begin the 8-week intervention with a local, trained member of staff, supervised by the study coordinator. Outcomes will be assessed blind to treatment condition at 0, 12 and 18 weeks post-randomization. The primary outcome measure for the efficacy analysis will be activity levels at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures include mood, psychotic symptoms, quality of life and clinical distress. A health economic analysis comparing service use in each condition will also be performed. Recruitment began in March, 2013 and is ongoing until December, 2014. Discussion This is the first trial of the GOALS intervention. The approach is brief and staff can be readily trained in its delivery: there is therefore potential to develop a cost-effective intervention that could be widely disseminated. If the trial proves clinically feasible and demonstrates preliminary evidence of efficacy, a large multi-site trial will be warranted. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN: 73188383. http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/search/StudyDetail.aspx?StudyID=13538
Magnetic resonance imaging of a randomized controlled trial investigating predictors of recovery following psychological treatment in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for Magnetic Resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies (MR-IMPACT)
Background Major depressive disorders (MDD) are a debilitating and pervasive group of mental illnesses afflicting many millions of people resulting in the loss of 110 million working days and more than 2,500 suicides per annum. Adolescent MDD patients attending NHS clinics show high rates of recurrence into adult life. A meta-analysis of recent research shows that psychological treatments are not as efficacious as previously thought. Modest treatment outcomes of approximately 65% of cases responding suggest that aetiological and clinical heterogeneity may hamper the better use of existing therapies and discovery of more effective treatments. Information with respect to optimal treatment choice for individuals is lacking, with no validated biomarkers to aid therapeutic decision-making. Methods/Design Magnetic resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the MR-IMPACT study, plans to identify brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of depressions and examine whether there are specific behavioural or neural markers predicting remission and/or subsequent relapse in a subsample of depressed adolescents recruited to the IMPACT randomised controlled trial (Registration # ISRCTN83033550). Discussion MR-IMPACT is an investigative biomarker component of the IMPACT pragmatic effectiveness trial. The aim of this investigation is to identify neural markers and regional indicators of the pathophysiology of and treatment response for MDD in adolescents. We anticipate that these data may enable more targeted treatment delivery by identifying those patients who may be optimal candidates for therapeutic response. Trial registration Adjunctive study to IMPACT trial (Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83033550).
Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression.
Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Munoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.
Background The ‘predictD algorithm’ provides an estimate of the level and profile of risk of the onset of major depression in primary care attendees. This gives us the opportunity to develop interventions to prevent depression in a personalized way. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a new intervention, personalized and implemented by family physicians (FPs), to prevent the onset of episodes of major depression. Methods/Design This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT), with cluster assignment by health center and two parallel arms. Two interventions will be applied by FPs, usual care versus the new intervention predictD-CCRT. The latter has four components: a training workshop for FPs; communicating the level and profile of risk of depression; building up a tailored bio-psycho-family-social intervention by FPs to prevent depression; offering a booklet to prevent depression; and activating and empowering patients. We will recruit a systematic random sample of 3286 non-depressed adult patients (1643 in each trial arm), nested in 140 FPs and 70 health centers from 7 Spanish cities. All patients will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The level and profile of risk of depression will be communicated to patients by the FPs in the intervention practices at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Our primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of major depression (measured by CIDI each 6 months) over 18 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be health-related quality of life (SF-12 and EuroQol), and measurements of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The inferences will be made at patient level. We shall undertake an intention-to-treat effectiveness analysis and will handle missing data using multiple imputations. We will perform multi-level logistic regressions and will adjust for the probability of the onset of major depression at 12 months measured at baseline as well as for unbalanced variables if appropriate. The economic evaluation will be approached from two perspectives, societal and health system. Discussion To our knowledge, this will be the first RCT of universal primary prevention for depression in adults and the first to test a personalized intervention implemented by FPs. We discuss possible biases as well as other limitations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01151982
A written self-help intervention for depressed adults comparing behavioural activation combined with physical activity promotion with a self-help intervention based upon behavioural activation alone: study protocol for a parallel group pilot randomised controlled trial (BAcPAc)
Background Challenges remain to find ways to support patients with depression who have low levels of physical activity (PA) to overcome perceived barriers and enhance the perceived value of PA for preventing future relapse. There is an evidence-base for behavioural activation (BA) for depression, which focuses on supporting patients to restore activities that have been avoided, but practitioners have no specific training in promoting PA. We aimed to design and evaluate an integrated BA and PA (BAcPAc) practitioner-led, written, self-help intervention to enhance both physical and mental health. Methods/design This study is informed by the Medical Research Council Complex Intervention Framework and describes a protocol for a pilot phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the feasibility and acceptability of the trial methods to inform a definitive phase III RCT. Following development of the augmented written self-help intervention (BAcPAc) incorporating behavioural activation with physical activity promotion, depressed adults are randomised to receive up to 12 sessions over a maximum of 4 months of either BAcPAc or behavioural activation alone within a written self-help format, which represents treatment as usual. The study is located within two ‘Improving Access to Psychological Therapies’ services in South West England, with both written self-help interventions supported by mental health paraprofessionals. Measures assessed at 4, 9, and 12 month follow-up include the following: CIS-R, PHQ-9, accelerometer recorded (4 months only) and self-reported PA, body mass index, blood pressure, Insomnia Severity Index, quality of life, and health and social care service use. Process evaluation will include analysis of recorded support sessions and patient and practitioner interviews. At the time of writing the study has recruited 60 patients. Discussion The feasibility outcomes will inform a definitive RCT to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the augmented BAcPAc written self-help intervention to reduce depression and depressive relapse, and bring about improvements across a range of physical health outcomes. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN74390532, 26.03.2013.
Background Clinical depression is common, debilitating and treatable; one in four people experience it during their lives. The majority of sufferers are treated in primary care and only half respond well to active treatment. Evidence suggests that folate may be a useful adjunct to antidepressant treatment: 1) patients with depression often have a functional folate deficiency; 2) the severity of such deficiency, indicated by elevated homocysteine, correlates with depression severity, 3) low folate is associated with poor antidepressant response, and 4) folate is required for the synthesis of neurotransmitters implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods/Design The primary objective of this trial is to estimate the effect of folate augmentation in new or continuing treatment of depressive disorder in primary and secondary care. Secondary objectives are to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of folate augmentation of antidepressant treatment, investigate how the response to antidepressant treatment depends on genetic polymorphisms relevant to folate metabolism and antidepressant response, and explore whether baseline folate status can predict response to antidepressant treatment. Seven hundred and thirty patients will be recruited from North East Wales, North West Wales and Swansea. Patients with moderate to severe depression will be referred to the trial by their GP or Psychiatrist. If patients consent they will be assessed for eligibility and baseline measures will be undertaken. Blood samples will be taken to exclude patients with folate and B12 deficiency. Some of the blood taken will be used to measure homocysteine levels and for genetic analysis (with additional consent). Eligible participants will be randomised to receive 5 mg of folic acid or placebo. Patients with B12 deficiency or folate deficiency will be given appropriate treatment and will be monitored in the 'comprehensive cohort study'. Assessments will be at screening, randomisation and 3 subsequent follow-ups. Discussion If folic acid is shown to improve the efficacy of antidepressants, then it will provide a safe, simple and cheap way of improving the treatment of depression in primary and secondary care. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN37558856
Roberts, Seren Haf; Bedson, Emma; Hughes, Dyfrig; Lloyd, Keith; Moat, Stuart; Pirmohamed, Munir; Slegg, Gary; Tranter, Richard; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Wilkinson, Clare; Russell, Ian
Slide show on Human protocols (the rules followed in human interactions); Networking protocols (rules followed in networked communication systems Examples: HTTP, FTP, etc.) and Security protocols (the communication rules followed in a security application)
Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4), while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6) increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.
Qiu, Chunfang; Sanchez, Sixto E; Lam, Nelly; Garcia, Pedro; Williams, Michelle A
The efficacy and safety of tianeptine were compared, in the course of a multicentre randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, to those of placebo in the treatment of Major Depressions and Bipolar Disorder, Depressed with or without melancholia, without psychotic features. After a 1-week run-in placebo period, 126 depressed out-patients presenting DSM-III-R Major Depression or Bipolar Disorder, Depressed, with a total
J. A. Costa e Silva; S. I. Ruschel; D. Caetano; F. L. Rocha; J. R. da Silva Lippi; S. Arruda; M. Ozun
Background As a major public health issue in China and worldwide, late-life depression is associated with physical limitations, greater\\u000a functional impairment, increased utilization and cost of health care, and suicide. Like other chronic diseases in elders such\\u000a as hypertension and diabetes, depression is a chronic disease that the new National Health Policy of China indicates should\\u000a be managed in primary care
Shulin Chen; Yeates Conwell; Baihua Xu; Helen Chiu; Xin Tu; Yan Ma
In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models ? meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are “statistically significant” or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings.
Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine\\u000a (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20%\\u000a of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different\\u000a psychological therapies and the moderators
Ian M Goodyer; Sonya Tsancheva; Sarah Byford; Bernadka Dubicka; Jonathan Hill; Raphael Kelvin; Shirley Reynolds; Christopher Roberts; Robert Senior; John Suckling; Paul Wilkinson; Mary Target; Peter Fonagy
The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements.
Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup
Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were allowed to attend a maximum of 22 sessions (50 minutes
Lorie A. Ritschel; Cynthia L. Ramirez; Meredith Jones; W. Edward Craighead
Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…
Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward
two district nurses and one community nurse; twenty patients who were over the age of 60 and who were participating in a feasibility study of a new model of care for late-life depression (PRIDE Trial: PRimary care Intervention for Depression in the Elderly (a feasibility study in Central Manchester funded by the Department of Health)). Results. Primary care practitioners conceptualized
Heather Burroughs; Karina Lovell; Mike Morley; Robert Baldwin; Alistair Burns; Carolyn Chew-Graham
... Thursday, March 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Health Disparities Hearing Disorders and Deafness THURSDAY, March 6, 2014 ( ... All rights reserved. More Health News on: Depression Health Disparities Hearing Disorders and Deafness Recent Health News Page ...
Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…
Examined the relationships between the constructs of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck and others, 1979) in 261 college students. Findings suggest the BDI and CES-D measure different aspects of depression and should not be used…
Skorikov, Vladimir B.; Vandervoort, Debra J.
Does treatment of subsyndromal depression improve depression and diabetes related outcomes: protocol for a randomised controlled comparison of psycho-education, physical exercise and treatment as usual
Background The prevalence of mood difficulties in persons with diabetes is approximately twice that in the general population, affecting the health outcomes and patients' quality of life in an undesirable way. Although subsyndromal depression is an important predictor of a more serious clinical depression, it is often overlooked. This study aims to compare the effects of two non-pharmacological interventions for subsyndromal depression, psychoeducation and physical exercise, with diabetes treatment as usual on mood- and diabetes-related outcomes. Methods and Design Type 2 diabetic patients aged 18-65 yrs. who report mood difficulties and the related need for help in a mail survey will be potential participants. After giving informed consent, they will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups (psychoeducation, physical activity, treatment as usual). Depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, health-related quality of life and diabetes self-care activities will be assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) will be performed at baseline and at one-year follow-up in order to determine the clinical significance of the patients' depressive symptoms. Disease-related data will be collected from patients' files and from additional physical examinations and laboratory tests. The two interventions will be comparable in terms of format (small group work), duration (six sessions) and approach (interactive learning; supporting the participants' active roles). The group treated as usual will be informed about their screening results and about the importance of treating depression. They will be provided with brief re-education on diabetes and written self-help instructions to cope with mood difficulties. Primary outcomes will be depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be glycaemic control, diabetes-related distress, self-management of diabetes and health-related quality of life. Tertiary outcomes will be biochemical markers reflecting common pathophysiological processes of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative damage that are assumed to be intertwined in both diabetes and depression. The mixed-effect linear model will be used to compare the outcome variables. Power analysis has indicated that the two intervention groups and the control group should comprise 59 patients to enable detection of clinically meaningful differences in depressive symptoms with a power of 80% and alpha = 0.05. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN05673017
Background Traditional diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggested that the presence or absence of stress prior to onset results in either ‘reactive’ or ‘endogenous’ subtypes of the disorder, respectively. Several lines of research suggest that the biological underpinnings of ‘reactive’ or ‘endogenous’ subtypes may also differ, resulting in differential response to treatment. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the gene-expression profiles of three animal models of ‘reactive’ and ‘endogenous’ depression. We then translated these findings to clinical samples using a human post-mortem mRNA study. Methods Affymetrix mouse whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure gene expression from hippocampal tissues of 144 mice from the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. The study used four inbred mouse strains and two depressogenic ‘stress’ protocols (maternal separation and Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress) to model ‘reactive’ depression. Stress-related mRNA differences in mouse were compared with a parallel mRNA study using Flinders Sensitive and Resistant rat lines as a model of ‘endogenous’ depression. Convergent genes differentially expressed across the animal studies were used to inform candidate gene selection in a human mRNA post-mortem case control study from the Stanley Brain Consortium. Results In the mouse ‘reactive’ model, the expression of 350 genes changed in response to early stresses and 370 in response to late stresses. A minimal genetic overlap (less than 8.8%) was detected in response to both stress protocols, but 30% of these genes (21) were also differentially regulated in the ‘endogenous’ rat study. This overlap is significantly greater than expected by chance. The VAMP-2 gene, differentially expressed across the rodent studies, was also significantly altered in the human study after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions Our results suggest that ‘endogenous’ and ‘reactive’ subtypes of depression are associated with largely distinct changes in gene-expression. However, they also suggest that the molecular signature of ‘reactive’ depression caused by early stressors differs considerably from that of ‘reactive’ depression caused by late stressors. A small set of genes was consistently dysregulated across each paradigm and in post-mortem brain tissue of depressed patients suggesting a final common pathway to the disorder. These genes included the VAMP-2 gene, which has previously been associated with Axis-I disorders including MDD, bipolar depression, schizophrenia and with antidepressant treatment response. We also discuss the implications of our findings for disease classification, personalized medicine and case-control studies of MDD.
Background Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. Methods In this genome-wide association study, we combined the results of 17 population-based studies assessing depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Replication of the independent top hits (p < 1 × 10?5) was performed in five studies assessing depressive symptoms with other instruments. In addition, we performed a combined meta-analysis of all 22 discovery and replication studies. Results The discovery sample comprised 34,549 individuals (mean age of 66.5) and no loci reached genome-wide significance (lowest p = 1.05 × 10?7). Seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for replication. In the replication set (n = 16,709), we found suggestive association of one single nucleotide polymorphism with depressive symptoms (rs161645, 5q21, p = 9.19 × 10?3). This 5q21 region reached genome-wide significance (p = 4.78 × 10?8) in the overall meta-analysis combining discovery and replication studies (n = 51,258). Conclusions The results suggest that only a large sample comprising more than 50,000 subjects may be sufficiently powered to detect genes for depressive symptoms.
Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshis, Erin; Baumert, Jens; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Marciante, Kristin; Meirelles, Osorio; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Yu, Lei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, David A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Cannas, Alessandra; Coker, Laura H.; de Geus, Eco; De Jager, Philip L.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Purcell, Shaun; Hu, Frank B.; Rimma, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary; Rice, Kenneth; Penman, Alan D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Emeny, Rebecca; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Kardia, Sharon; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Koenen, Karestan; Kraft, Peter; Kuningas, Maris; Massaro, Joseph M.; Melzer, David; Mulas, Antonella; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Murray, Anna; Oostra, Ben A.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Petersmann, Astrid; Pilling, Luke C.; Psaty, Bruce; Rawal, Rajesh; Reiman, Eric M.; Schulz, Andrea; Shulman, Joshua M.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Volzke, Henry; Widen, Elisabeth; Yaffe, Kristine; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cucca, Francesco; Harris, Tamara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Llewellyn, David J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Tanaka, Toshiko
Objective The authors used an adoption study design to investigate environmental influences on risk for psychopathology in adolescents with depressed parents. Method Participants were 568 adopted adolescents ascertained through large adoption agencies, 416 nonadopted adolescents ascertained through birth records, and their parents. Clinical interviews with parents and adolescents were used to determine lifetime DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of major depressive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders in adolescents and major depression in mothers and fathers. Effects of parental depression (either parent with major depression, maternal major depression, and paternal major depression) on adolescent psychopathology were tested in nonadopted and adopted adolescents separately, and interactive effects of parental depression and adoption status were tested. Results Either parent having major depression and a mother having major depression were associated with a significantly greater risk for major depression and disruptive behavior disorders in both nonadopted and adopted adolescents. Paternal depression did not have a main effect on any psychiatric disorder in adolescents and, with one exception (ADHD in adopted adolescents), did not predict significantly greater likelihoods of disorders in either nonadopted or adopted adolescents. Conclusions Maternal depression was an environmental liability for lifetime diagnoses of major depression and disruptive disorders in adolescents. Paternal depression was not associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in adolescents.
Tully, Erin C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Background Approximately 20–30% of patients with cancer experience a clinically relevant level of emotional distress in response to disease and treatment. This in itself is alarming but it is even more problematic because it is often difficult for physicians and nurses to identify cancer patients who experience clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. This can result in persistent distress and can cause human suffering as well as costs for individuals and to the community. Methods Applying a multi-disciplinary and design-oriented approach aimed at attaining new evidence-based knowledge in basic and applied psychosocial oncology, this protocol will evaluate an intervention to be implemented in clinical practice to reduce cancer patient anxiety and depression. A prospective randomized design will be used. The overarching goal of the intervention is to promote psychosocial health among patients suffering from cancer by means of self-help programmes delivered via an Internet platform. Another goal is to reduce costs for individuals and society, caused by emotional distress in response to cancer. Following screening to detect levels of patient distress, patients will be randomized to standard care or a stepped care intervention. For patients randomized to the intervention, step 1 will consist of self-help material, a chat forum where participants will be able to communicate with each other, and a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) section where they can ask questions and get answers from an expert. Patients in the intervention group who still report symptoms of anxiety or depression after access to step 1 will be offered step 2, which will consist of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) administered by a personal therapist. The primary end point of the study is patients’ levels of anxiety and depression, evaluated longitudinally during and after the intervention. Discussion There is a lack of controlled studies of the psychological and behavioral processes involved in this type of intervention for anxiety and depressive disorders. Since anxiety and depressive symptoms are relatively common in patients with cancer and the availability of adequate support efforts is limited, there is a need to develop evidence-based stepped care for patients with cancer, to be delivered via the Internet. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01630681
This paper outlines the development of a manualized, brief (16-session) psychodynamic intervention – Dynamic Interpersonal Therapy (DIT) – for the treatment of depression. DIT is based on a distillation of the evidence-based brief psychoanalytic\\/psychodynamic treatments pooled together from manualized approaches that were reviewed as part of the competence framework for psychological therapies first commissioned by Skills for Health. DIT has
Alessandra Lemma; Mary Target; Peter Fonagy
Major depression is a frequent affective disorder in young adolescents. Patients do not only suffer from severe psychological but also from physical impairments. Aim of the present study is a description of physical complaints in girls with major depression. Seventy-three patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression were compared to 72 controls. Physical complaints were assessed by a standardised and validated German questionnaire (Giessen Scale of Physical Complaints in Children and Adolescents). Patients reported significantly more complaints, in particular exhaustion and circulation problems. Physical problems are more likely to be a consequence rather than a cause of depression. Treatment of adolescents? depression should consider coping with body dysfunction during depressive episodes. PMID:24755039
Schmidt, Ulrike; Laessle, Reinhold
BACKGROUND: Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER) is a 6-month, prospective, observational study carried out in 12 European countries aimed at investigating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in outpatients receiving treatment for a first or new depressive episode. The Italian HRQoL data at 6 months is described in this report, and the factors associated with HRQoL changes were determined. METHODS:
Rosangela Caruso; Andrea Rossi; Alessandra Barraco; Deborah Quail; Luigi Grassi
Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18-45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P = 0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression. PMID:24744917
Mehta, Shubham; Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Swami, Mukesh Kumar
Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P = 0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression.
Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Swami, Mukesh Kumar
A revised clinical study protocol is presented for a randomized, double-blind, three-treatment-group trial to study the efficacy and safety of chenodeoxycholic acid in dissolving cholesterol gallstones over a two year period in gallstone patients of both ...
Background Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other health-related outcomes. In particular, attention will be given to mediator agents, such as musical expression and interaction in the sessions, as well as to the explanatory potential of EEG recordings in investigating emotion related music perception of individuals with depression. Methods 85 adults (18–50 years of age) with depression (ICD-10: F 32 or F33) will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. All participants will receive standard care, but the experimental group will be offered biweekly sessions of improvisational music therapy over a period of 3 months. A blind assessor will measure outcomes before testing, after 3 months, and after 6 months. Discussion This study aims to fill a gap in knowledge as to whether active (improvisational) music therapy applied to people with depression improves their condition. For the first time in this context, the mediating processes, such as changes in musical expression and interaction during the course of therapy, will be objectively investigated, and it is expected that the results will provide new insights into these processes. Furthermore, the findings are expected to reveal whether music related emotional experiences, as measured by EEG, can be utilized in assessing a depressive client's improvement in the therapy. The size and the comprehensiveness of the study are sufficient for generalizing its findings to clinical practice as well as to further music therapy research. Trial registration ISRCTN84185937
Erkkila, Jaakko; Gold, Christian; Fachner, Jorg; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Punkanen, Marko; Vanhala, Mauno
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of various dissociative phenomena in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their possible implications in manifestation and course of depression. We administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and a self-questionnaire of life events to 27 patients with MDD and to 40 healthy participants in order to collect information
Almudena Molina-Serrano; Sylvie Linotte; Marie Amat; Daniel Souery; Mara Barreto
... 8, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Critical Care Depression Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder TUESDAY, April 8, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- One-third ... the researchers evaluated the study's participants for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional disability at three months and ...
Data regarding the factors associated with depressive symptoms are limited, especially in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent depressive symptoms were present in postmenopausal women, to explore characteristics associated with depressive symptoms and to determine if time since menopause was independently associated with depressive symptoms. Data collected within the Mediterranean Islands (MEDIS) Study, a health and nutrition survey of elderly people living on Mediterranean islands was used. A total of 851 postmenopausal women living in various Greek islands, Cyprus, and Malta participated in the study. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Age-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that a year's increase in the time since menopause increased the likelihood of postmenopausal women having severe depressive symptoms by 3% (odds ratio [OR] per 1 year = 1.03, 95% CI 1.001-1.05). This positive association was also evident when other potential confounding factors (i.e, living conditions, financial status, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, smoking habits, and several clinical conditions) were also taken into account in multivariable analyses. Primary health care practitioners and public health care authorities could use the findings of this study to identify depressive symptoms early in postmenopausal women. PMID:24791809
Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zeimbekis, Akis; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Lionis, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes
Background:Obesity is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease burden and premature death, but effects on psychological morbidity remain uncertain. This article reports findings following a systematic review of epidemiological studies to determine whether obesity causes depression.Methods:Multiple databases were searched for English-language studies of etiology of obesity (exposure variable, analyzed as an ordered category) on depression outcomes (dependent variables, continuous or
E Atlantis; M Baker
PURPOSE Clinical care for depression in primary care negotiates a path between contrasting views of depression as a universal natural phenomenon and as a socially constructed category. This study explores the complexities of this work through a study of how family physicians experience working with different ethnic minority communities in recognizing, understanding, and caring for patients with depression. METHODS We undertook an analysis of in-depth interviews with 8 family physicians who had extensive experience in depression care in 3 refugee patient groups in metropolitan Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. RESULTS Although different cultural beliefs about depression were acknowledged, the physicians saw these beliefs as deeply rooted in the recent historical and social context of patients from these communities. Traumatic refugee experiences, dislocation, and isolation affected the whole of communities, as well as individuals. Physicians nevertheless often offered medication simply because of the impossibility of addressing structural issues. Interpreters were critical to the work of depression care, but their involvement highlighted that much of this clinical work lies beyond words. CONCLUSIONS The family physicians perceived working across cultural differences, working with biomedical and social models of depression, and working at both community and individual levels, not as a barrier to providing high-quality depression care, but rather as a central element of that care. Negotiating the phenomenon rather than diagnosing depression may be an important way that family physicians continue to work with multiple, contested views of emotional distress. Future observational research could more clearly characterize and measure the process of negotiation and explore its effect on outcomes.
Furler, John; Kokanovic, Renata; Dowrick, Christopher; Newton, Danielle; Gunn, Jane; May, Carl
Background Several systematic reviews have summarized the evidence for specific treatments of primary care patients suffering from depression. However, it is not possible to answer the question how the available treatment options compare with each other as review methods differ. We aim to systematically review and compare the available evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments for patients with depressive disorders in primary care. Methods/Design To be included, studies have to be randomized trials comparing antidepressant medication (tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), hypericum extracts, other agents) and/or psychological therapies (e.g. interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, behavioural therapy, short dynamically-oriented psychotherapy) with another active therapy, placebo or sham intervention, routine care or no treatment in primary care patients in the acute phase of a depressive episode. Main outcome measure is response after completion of acute phase treatment. Eligible studies will be identified from available systematic reviews, from searches in electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Central), trial registers, and citation tracking. Two reviewers will independently extract study data and assess the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's corresponding tool. Meta-analyses (random effects model, inverse variance weighting) will be performed for direct comparisons of single interventions and for groups of similar interventions (e.g. SSRIs vs. tricyclics) and defined time-windows (up to 3 months and above). If possible, a global analysis of the relative effectiveness of treatments will be estimated from all available direct and indirect evidence that is present in a network of treatments and comparisons. Discussion Practitioners do not only want to know whether there is evidence that a specific treatment is more effective than placebo, but also how the treatment options compare to each other. Therefore, we believe that a multiple treatment systematic review of primary-care based randomized controlled trials on the most important therapies against depression is timely.
The aim of this study is to compare the volumes of hippocampus, amygdala and subgenual prefrontal cortex among patients with melancholic depression, patients with psychotic depression and normal controls. Thirty nine patients with a diagnosis of major depression (22 with melancholic and 17 with psychotic subtype) and 18 normal controls were included in the study. Hippocampal, amygdala, anterior and posterior subgenual cortex volumes were measured by manual tracings on magnetic resonance volumetric images and compared across the 3 groups. We identified larger amygdala volumes and smaller left anterior subgenual cortex volumes in both patient groups compared to controls. There were no differences in hippocampal, right anterior and posterior subgenual cortex volumes across the 3 groups. In conclusion, melancholic and psychotic depression were not differentiated regarding the volumes of the hippocampus, the amygdala, and anterior and posterior subgenual cortex, even though amygdala volumes and left anterior subgenual cortex volume of both patient groups were differentiated compared to controls. PMID:21888185
Vasilopoulou, K; Papathanasiou, P; Michopoulos, J; Boufidou, F; Oulis, P; Nikolaou, C; Pantelis, C; Velakoulis, D; Lykouras, L
The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and depression is still controversial. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder in a population of patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group without thyroid disease. The authors enrolled 123 consecutive outpatients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism undergoing follow-up at the endocrinology department of San Paolo Hospital in Milan and 123 controls without thyroid disease under the charge of general physicians.All patients and controls underwent an evaluation by means of a psychiatric interview; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D); Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, and free T3 levels. Patients were also screened for thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies. Patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 63.4% at HAM-D and 64.2% at MADRS; 22 patients (17.9%) had a diagnosis of depressive episode (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria). The control group had a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 27.6% at HAM-D and 29.3% at MADRS, and only seven controls had a diagnosis of depressive episode. The prevalence of depressive symptoms between these two groups was statistically different. This study underlines a strong association between subclinical hypothyroidism and depressive symptoms, which could have some important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the clinical practice. PMID:25010109
Demartini, Benedetta; Ranieri, Rebecca; Masu, Annamaria; Selle, Valerio; Scarone, Silvio; Gambini, Orsola
Background Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is a vulnerability marker of depression. Implicit self-depressed associations are related to depression status and reduced remission probability. It is unknown whether these cognitive vulnerabilities precede the first onset of depression. Aim To test the predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the incidence of depressive disorders. Methods Prospective cohort study of 834 never-depressed individuals, followed over a two-year period. The predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the onset of depressive disorders was assessed using binomial logistic regression. The multivariate model corrected for baseline levels of subclinical depressive symptoms, neuroticism, for the presence of a history of anxiety disorders, for family history of depressive or anxiety disorders, and for the incidence of negative life events. Results As single predictors, both cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations were significantly associated with depression incidence. In the multivariate model, cognitive reactivity was significantly associated with depression incidence, together with baseline depressive symptoms and the number of negative life events, whereas implicit self-depressed associations were not. Conclusion Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is associated with the incidence of depressive disorders, also when various other depression-related variables are controlled for. Implicit self-depressed associations predicted depression incidence in a bivariate test, but not when controlling for other predictors.
Kruijt, Anne-Wil; Antypa, Niki; Booij, Linda; de Jong, Peter J.; Glashouwer, Klaske; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Van der Does, Willem
Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men and women, aged 55-60 years, from a population-based cohort, who filled out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We performed
Susanne R. de Rooij; Aart H. Schene; David I. Phillips; Tessa J. Roseboom
Background Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol awakening response may be a more stable measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and potentially of stress reactivity. Aims To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large population cohort. Method Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10 criteria at 18 years. Results We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93-1.66, P = 0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73-1.72, P = 0.61) after adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness. The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and unlikely to be of clinical significance.
Carnegie, Rebecca; Araya, Ricardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Glyn
Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy.
Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe
Objectives Studies suggest early onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. Method At regular intervals over a four year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). They were also assessed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Results Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. Conclusions EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression.
Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L.; Collins, Nicole; Sawyer, Kathryn; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H.; Steffens, David C.
Novel antidepressants are needed to enhance the health and quality of life of the hundreds-of-millions of depressed individuals worldwide who remain inadequately treated with today’s approaches. In reality, no new class of antidepressant medication has been introduced in over 50 years. This insufficiency of current drug treatments is evident to those eager to pursue invasive experimental options like that of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Encouragingly, human brain imaging studies and animal work implicate strong relationships between depressive symptoms and patterns of brain activity, which are now open to more empirical assessments using optogenetics. Recent advances in optogenetics permit control over specific subtypes of neurons, or their afferent or efferent projections, and can greatly further our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in depression and the mechanism of action of DBS and perhaps chemical antidepressants. Here, we discuss how optogenetic tools are being used to answer a broad range of molecular, cellular, and circuit-level questions pertaining to depression which, up until now, have been resistant to other experimental approaches. The emergence of optogenetic technology, when combined with the best-validated animal models of depression, will dramatically increase knowledge about the basic neurobiology of depression as well as facilitate the development of more effective antidepressant treatments.
Lobo, Mary Kay; Nestler, Eric J.; Covington, Herbert E.
This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR?=?3.22, 95 % CI?=?1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR?=?2.67, 95 % CI?=?1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife. PMID:24952069
Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T
Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies.
Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.
The aims of this study were to assess whether a course of cognitive group therapy could help depressed students and to assess whether assimilation analysis offers a useful way of analysing students' progress through therapy. “Johanna” was a patient in a group that was designed for depressive students who had difficulties with their studies. The assimilation of Johanna's problematic experience progressed as the meetings continued from level one (unpleasant thoughts) to level six (solving the problem). Johanna's problematic experience manifested itself as severe and excessive criticism towards herself and her study performance. As the group meetings progressed, Johanna found a new kind of tolerance that increased her determination and assertiveness regarding the studies. The dialogical structure of Johanna's problematic experience changed: she found hope and she was more assertive after the process. The results indicated that this kind of psycho-educational group therapy was an effective method for treating depression. The assimilation analysis offered a useful way of analysing the therapy process.
Tiuraniemi, Juhani; Korhola, Jarno
BACKGROUND: One of the important requirements for cultural, social and even economic development is having a book-loving nation. In order to achieve this, there is a need for purposeful and continuous programming. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between students’ study habits, happiness and depression in Isfahan University of Medical Science. METHODS: This research was a kind of descriptive and correlation survey. Statistical population included all MSc and PhD students in the second semester of the Isfahan University of Medical Science (263 students). In this research, stratified and random sampling was used in which a sample of 100 students was selected. Data collection instruments were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Oxford Happiness Inventory and a researcher-made questionnaire to determine the amount of students’ study. Validity of this questionnaires was determined by structure and content related validity and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the first (r = 0.94), second (r = 0.91) and third (r = 0.85) questionnaire. Analysis of research findings was done through descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Findings showed that 68.8 percent of students study less than 5 hours and only 2.5 percent of students study more than 10 hours. 65 percent of students had high amount of happiness and 35 percent had medium amount of happiness. In 60 percent of students there was no symptom of depression and 7.5 had depression symptoms. Also, there was no significant relationship between happiness and studying but there was a significant and negative relationship between studying and depression and happiness and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of study and tendency for reading are among the most important indices of human growth in terms of potential abilities for achieving a perfect human life and to prevent one-dimensional thinking. Thus, finding ways to encourage students to study is considered essential to achieve a healthy and developed society.
Bahrami, Susan; Rajaeepour, Saeed; Rizi, Hasan Ashrafi; Zahmatkesh, Monereh; Nematolahi, Zahra
Background The Whitehall II (WHII) study of British civil servants provides a unique source of longitudinal data to investigate key factors hypothesized to affect brain health and cognitive ageing. This paper introduces the multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and cognitive assessment designed to investigate brain health in a random sample of 800 members of the WHII study. Methods/design A total of 6035 civil servants participated in the WHII Phase 11 clinical examination in 2012–2013. A random sample of these participants was included in a sub-study comprising an MRI brain scan, a detailed clinical and cognitive assessment, and collection of blood and buccal mucosal samples for the characterisation of immune function and associated measures. Data collection for this sub-study started in 2012 and will be completed by 2016. The participants, for whom social and health records have been collected since 1985, were between 60–85 years of age at the time the MRI study started. Here, we describe the pre-specified clinical and cognitive assessment protocols, the state-of-the-art MRI sequences and latest pipelines for analyses of this sub-study. Discussion The integration of cutting-edge MRI techniques, clinical and cognitive tests in combination with retrospective data on social, behavioural and biological variables during the preceding 25 years from a well-established longitudinal epidemiological study (WHII cohort) will provide a unique opportunity to examine brain structure and function in relation to age-related diseases and the modifiable and non-modifiable factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse brain changes.
Background: As a pilot project, Indian Psychiatric Society conducted the first multicentric study involving diverse settings from teaching institutions in public and private sectors and even privately run psychiatric clinics. Aim of the Study: To study the typology of functional somatic complaints (FSC) in patients with first episode depression. Materials and Methods: A total of 741 patients from 16 centers across the country participated in the study. They were assessed on Bradford Somatic Symptom inventory for FSC, Beck Depression Inventory for severity of depression, and Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale- anxiety index (CPRS-AI) for anxiety symptoms. Results: The mean age of the study sample was 38.23 years (SD-11.52). There was equal gender distribution (male - 49.8% vs. females 50.2%). Majority of the patients were married (74.5%), Hindus (57%), and from nuclear family (68.2%). A little over half of the patients were from urban background (52.9%). The mean duration of illness at the time of assessment was 25.55 months. Most of the patients (77%) had more than 10 FSCs, with 39.7% having more than 20 FSCs as assessed on Bradford Somatic Inventory. The more common FSC as assessed on Bradford Somatic Inventory were lack of energy (weakness) much of the time (76.2%), severe headache (74%) and feeling tired when not working (71%), pain in legs (64%), aware of palpitations (59.5%), head feeling heavy (59.4%), aches and pains all over the body (55.5%), mouth or throat getting dry (55.2%), pain or tension in neck and shoulder (54%), head feeling hot or burning (54%), and darkness or mist in front of the eyes (49.1%). The prevalence and typology of FSCs is to a certain extent influenced by the sociodemographic variables and severity of depression. Conclusion: Functional somatic symptoms are highly prevalent in Indian depressed patients and hence deserve more attention while diagnosing depression in Indian setting.
Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Kalita, Kamal; Dalal, P. K.; Rao, G. P.; Chadda, R. K.; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Bang, Govind; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, P. K.; Kathuria, Puneet; Thirunavukarasu, M; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Harish, T.; Shah, Nilesh; Deka, Kamla
Background Based on data from large multicentre US trials, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is advocating a stepped-care model for the management of depression, with ‘case management’ or ‘collaborative care’ for selected patients in primary care. Aim To conduct a pilot study examining the use of graduate mental health workers case managing depressed primary care NHS patients. Design of study A randomised controlled trial comparing usual GP care with or without case management over 16 weeks of acute antidepressant drug treatment. Setting Three primary care practices in the North East of England. Method Patients with depression, aged 18–65 years, who had failed to adequately respond to antidepressant treatment, were randomised to the two treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks using a combination of observer and self ratings. Results Randomisation of 62 patients required screening of 1073 potential patients. There was little difference in outcome between the two treatment arms but a gradual improvement in symptoms over time was seen. Client satisfaction was assessed as high across both treatments. Conclusion While this pilot study confirmed the integrity of the study protocol and the suitability of the outcome measures and randomisation procedure, it raises questions regarding the practicality of recruitment and feasibility of the intervention. It would be crucial to address these issues prior to the implementation of a large multi-centre randomised controlled trial.
McMahon, Lindsay; Foran, Karin M; Forrest, Stephen D; Taylor, Michelle L; Ingram, Graham; Rajwal, Madhuri; Cornwall, Peter L; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish
Cost-effectiveness analysis of cognitive behaviour therapy for treatment of minor or mild-major depression in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for the economic evaluation alongside the MIND-DIA randomized controlled trial (MIND-DIA CEA)
BACKGROUND: Depression and elevated depression symptoms are more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes than in those without diabetes and are associated with adverse health outcomes and increased total healthcare utilization. This suggests that more effective depression treatment might not only improve health outcome, but also reduce costs. However, there is a lack of evidence on (cost-) effectiveness of
Nadja Chernyak; Frank Petrak; Kristin Plack; Martin Hautzinger; Matthias J Müller; Guido Giani; Andrea Icks
This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…
Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
Aims: This paper (1) examines the validity of the atypical subtype of depression in a community-based longitudinal cohort study, (2) presents estimates of the prevalence and sex differences of DSM-IV atypical depression and a newly more broadly defined atypical syndrome in the community and (3) compares the clinical correlates and treatment patterns of those with atypical depression with other depressives.
Jules Angst; Alex Gamma; Robert Sellaro; Heping Zhang; Kathleen Merikangas
The existence of depression in children and adolescents is well established, but debate remains about the phenomenology of the depressive syndrome in the young. In order to discover possible age differences in rates and etiology, the definition and measurement of depression must be comparable across the ages to be studied. A widely used self-report depression symptom scale, the Center for
Lenore Sawyer Radloff
This study examines whether perceived parent support, peer support, and the interaction between them predict depression symptoms and depression diagnosis 2 years later in a community sample of 389 adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 depression, parent support and anticipated peer support were not independently related to Time 2 depression in…
Young, Jami F.; Berenson, Kathy; Cohen, Patricia; Garcia, Jesenia
Major depressive episodes once were thought to be a natural part of the recovery and adaptation from acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Others disagree and note that a variety of affective and cognitive reactions, which may or may not include dysphoria, occur after SCI. Studies which have sought to determine the actual prevalence of major depression among SCI patients have
Gary Davidoff; Elliot Roth; Paula Thomas; Robert Doljanac; Marcel Dijkers; Stanley Berent; Laurie Wolf; Jeri Morris; Gary Yarkony
Introduction. Lack of adherence has been associated to lower efficacy of anti-depressant treatment, increasing the risk of recurrence and persistence of clinical symptoms. Patients with poor medication adherence have more concomitant medical illnesses and somatic symptoms. Furthermore, this increases use of healthcare services. Method. Longitudinal and observational study on therapeutic adherence level in depressive outpatients treated in 3 Primary Care (PC) centers. Eight evaluations during 6 months were carried out in 29 patients over 18, with DSM-IV-TR major depression diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to determine adherence level, to analyze socio-demographic factors and clinical profiles involved in adherence, and to observe the evolution of depressive symptoms. Results. Good therapeutic adherence was observed in 72.4% of patients. Significant differences in the Drug Attitude Inventory (U=107.5; p=0.036) were found. This tool evaluates the perceived effect of the medication, with a better perception observed in adherent patients. In those patients a progressive reduction on the Hamilton Depression Scale was found over the course of six monthly follow-up visits, with clinical remission observed in month 4. The analysis of survival rate did not reveal any significant difference between the two groups [Log Rank (?2=1.610, p=0.205)]. Conclusions. The therapeutic adherence observed in this longitudinal PC study is high, and it is associated with an improvement in the illness. A better perceived effect of the treatment showed a significant connection to an improvement in symptoms of depression. PMID:24844808
Serrano, Maria J; Vives, Margalida; Mateu, Catalina; Vicens, Catalina; Molina, Rosa; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Gili, Margalida
Objective To determine whether early adult cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms in midlife and how genetic and environmental influences explain the association; to examine cross-sectional relationships between depressive symptoms and specific cognitive abilities at midlife. Methods Design 35-year longitudinal and cross-sectional twin study of cognitive aging. Setting Large multicenter study in the United States. Participants 1237 male twins ages 51 to 60. Measurements At age 20 and midlife, participants completed the same version of a general cognitive ability test (Armed Forces Qualification Test [AFQT]). Midlife testing included an extensive neurocognitive protocol assessing processing speed, verbal memory, visual-spatial memory, working memory, executive function, and visual-spatial ability. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale prior to cognitive testing and provided health and lifestyle information during a medical history interview. Results Lower age 20 AFQT scores predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms at age 55 (r=?.16, p<.001). In bivariate twin modeling, 77% of the correlation between early cognitive ability and midlife depressive symptoms was due to shared genetic influences. Controlling for current age, age 20 AFQT, and non-independence of observations, depressive symptoms were associated with worse midlife AFQT scores and poorer performance in all cognitive domains except verbal memory Conclusion Results suggest that low cognitive ability is a risk factor for depressive symptoms; this association is partly due to shared genetic influences. Cross-sectional analyses indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and performance is not linked to specific cognitive domains.
Franz, Carol E.; Lyons, Michael J.; O'Brien, Robert; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Kim, Kathleen; Bhat, Reshma; Grant, Michael D.; Toomey, Rosemary; Eisen, Seth; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.
Background: Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children's behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental…
Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon J.
Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…
Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra
COMPARISON of adoptive parents of persons with a psychiatric disorder with their biological parents provides a unique opportunity to separate the interacting aetiological roles of heredity and environment. We have conducted such a study in manic-depressive illness; the results strongly support the importance of genetic factors in the transmission of this disorder.
Julien Mendlewicz; JOHN D. RAINER
Background Postnatal depression (PND) is the most common disorder of the puerperium with serious consequences for both mother and child if left untreated. While there are effective treatments, there are many barriers for new mothers needing to access them. Prevention strategies may offer a more acceptable means of addressing the problem. Internet interventions can help overcome some barriers to reducing the impact of PND. However, to date there are no published studies that investigate the efficacy of internet interventions for the prevention of PND. Methods/Design The proposed study is a two-arm double blind randomised controlled trial. 175 participants will be recruited in the immediate postnatal period at an Australian community hospital. Women who meet inclusion criteria (internet access, email address, telephone number, over 18, live birth, fluent English) will complete the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Those with a score above 9 will undertake the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID). Those with a clinical diagnosis of depression, or a lifetime diagnosis of bipolar disorder or psychosis on the SCID will be excluded. Following completion of the baseline battery women will be randomised using a computer-generated algorithm to either the intervention or control condition. The intervention will consist of 5 modules of automated, interactive cognitive behaviour training (CB training), completed weekly with email reminders. The control will replicate the level of contact participants experience with the intervention, but the content will be of a general health nature. Participants will complete questionnaires immediately post-intervention (6 weeks) and 3-, 6- and 12 months follow-up. There will also be a second SCID delivered via telephone at 6 months. We hypothesise that relative to the control group, the intervention group will show a greater reduction in postnatal distress on the EPDS (primary outcome measure). We also hypothesise that the intervention group will demonstrate lower levels of anxiety and stress and higher levels of parenting confidence than the control group following intervention and/or follow-up. Discussion The proposed study addresses a number of limitations of earlier trials. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registers, ACTRN12609001032246.
BackgroundDepressive symptoms and myalgia are commonly seen in patients with chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C.ObjectiveTo investigate the efficacy of acupuncture treatment on depressive symptoms and myalgia in patients with hepatitis.MethodsOf 44 patients with hepatitis screened for depression and myalgia, 28 were enrolled and included in the study. The main outcome measure for depressive symptoms was Beck's Depression Inventory
Zeliha Kocak Tufan; Hüseyin Arslan; Fatih Yildiz; Cemal Bulut; Hasan Irmak; Sami Kinikli; Ali Pekcan Demiroz
A comparative, protocol-based study is reported of the first (Chinese) and foreign (English) language writing processes of six postgraduate English-as-a-Foreign-Language students. The study revealed the approaches of the six writers to the task of producing academic written discourse to be very different, and suggested that if composing strategies…
It has been estimated that people with ID experience the same and possibly higher levels of depression than the general population. Referral to a General Medical Practitioner (GP) for primary care is recommended practice for people with depression and cognitive behavioural (CB) therapy is now an accepted evidence based intervention. A growing body…
McGillivray, Jane A.; Kershaw, Mavis M.
Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) can both denote prodromal Alzheimer's disease. While the two concepts share common clinical features, differential diagnosis between them is crucial. The objective of this pilot study was to explore differences in terms of the hippocampal (HC) and entorhinal cortex (EC) volume reduction between LLD and aMCI patients with (aMCI/D+ group) or without (aMCI group) depressive symptoms. Six LLD, 6 aMCI, and 6 aMCI/D+ participants were assessed using a structural magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Manual segmentation of HC and EC was carried out. The results of volumetric comparisons suggest that the HC was larger in aMCI/D+ and LLD subjects compared to aMCI participants. The left EC mean volume was slightly lower in aMCI/D+ subjects. Power analyses revealed that 36 participants per group would suffice to confirm these findings. Overall, these pilot findings suggest that aMCI can be distinguished from LLD based on cerebral atrophy measures, and that HC and EC atrophy in aMCI varies according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms.
Morin, Jean-Francois; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol
Studies on depression response to chronic pain are limited by lack of clarification of different forms of response patterns and cross-sectional measures. The current study examined heterogeneous long-term patterns of depression response to chronic pain onset prospectively using the mixture modeling technique. Depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset over a course of six years were charted in a nationally representative middle-aged sample. Four distinct depression symptom trajectories emerged. The resilience (72.0%) trajectory describes a pattern of no/minimal depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset. The post-pain depression trajectory (11.4%) describes a pattern of low depression at baseline and increasing symptoms following pain onset. The chronic depression (6.8%) trajectory is characterized by persistently high depression symptoms irrespective of pain onset. The prior depression improved (9.8%) trajectory describes a pattern of high depression at baseline and gradually declining symptoms following pain onset. Self-rated health at both baseline and following pain onset predicted the resilience trajectory. Baseline self-rated health distinguished the post-pain depression and chronic depression trajectories. Individuals in the prior depression improved trajectory were older and had more chronic illnesses at baseline but fewer illnesses following pain onset, compared to those in the resilience or post-pain depression trajectory. PMID:24679514
Zhu, Zhuoying; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bonanno, George A
In a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescent and young adult twins, their parents and their siblings, questionnaire data were collected on depression, anxiety and correlated personality traits, such as neuroticism. Data were collected by mailed surveys in 1991, 1993, 1995 and 1997. A total of 13,717 individuals from 3344 families were included in the study. To localise quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in anxiety and depression, the survey data were used to select the most informative families for a genome-wide search. For each individual a genetic factor score was computed, based on a genetic multivariate analysis of anxiety, depression, neuroticism and somatic anxiety. A family was selected if at least two siblings (or DZ twins) had extreme factor scores. Both discordant (high-low) and concordant (high-high and low-low) pairs were included in the selected sample. Once an extreme sibling pair was selected, all family members (parents and additional siblings of the selected pair) who had at least once returned a questionnaire booklet were asked to provide a DNA sample. In total, 2724 individuals from 563 families (1007 parents and 1717 offspring) were approached and 1975 individuals from 479 families (643 patients and 1332 offspring) complied by returning a buccal swab for DNA isolation. All offspring from selected families were asked to participate in a psychiatric interview and in a 24-hour ambulatory assessment of cardiovascular parameters and cortisol. The interview consisted of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview and was administered to 1253 offspring. In this paper we describe the genetic-epidemiological analyses of the survey data on anxiety, somatic anxiety, neuroticism and depression. We detail how these data were used to select families for the QTL study and discuss strategies that may help elucidate the molecular pathways leading from genes to anxious depression. PMID:11463154
Boomsma, D I; Beem, A L; van den Berg, M; Dolan, C V; Koopmans, J R; Vink, J M; de Geus, E J; Slagboom, P E
Summary Background: osteoporosis, depression and other neuro-psychiatric disorders are very common after 50 years of age. Although these conditions recognize several and specific etiologic factors, they however appear to share physiologic, environmental processes and risk factors which may explain their possible association. Methods: we have built up a specific research project (the CODE study, Connections between the outcomes of osteoporotic hip fractures and depression, delirium or dementia in elderly patients), and carried out a preliminary survey on 55 hip fractured elderly patients (42 women, mean age 85 years old and 13 men, mean age 82 years old), hospitalized at SS. Annunziata hospital in Florence from July to September 2010. Results: there was a significant difference (p=0.010) in the functional recovery after surgery (as measured by Cumulated Ambulation Score, CAS) between depressed and non-depressed subjects (n=38), with a worse recovery and a lower CAS score in depressed patients (n=17). We also observed a higher prevalence of depression in the osteoporotic-fragile elderly people (69,1% of total sample). Conclusion: our preliminary survey has validated the suitability of the CODE study protocol in assessing connections between outcomes of osteoporotic hip fractures and depression in elderly patients, fostering the extension of the study (and suggesting also the inclusion of delirium and dementia) within a multicentric prospective study aimed to provide specific information and guidelines for osteoporotic fractured patients with concomitant depression or other neuro-psychiatric disorders.
Piscitelli, Prisco; Metozzi, Alessia; Benvenuti, Enrico; Bonamassa, Lorenzo; Brandi, Gemma; Cavalli, Loredana; Colli, Emanuela; Fossi, Caterina; Parri, Simone; Giolli, Lorenzo; Tanini, Annalisa; Fasano, Alfonso; Di Tanna, Gianluca; Brandi, Maria Luisa
The study on the modeling of timed-token protocol (TTP) in metropolitan area network is presented in this paper. The classification of queueing models of TTP is given, and the mathematical analysis as well as numerical emulation for one of the queueing models i.e. L\\/G\\/1 [Intermittent, Station priority, TTP, Time-limited service] are presented.
Zhaoyi Lu; Lihong Wang; Dongyi Yao
Although there are many retrospective accounts from teachers and professional writers concerning the effect of computers on their writing, there are few real-time accounts of students struggling to simultaneously develop as writers and cope with computers. To fill this void in "testimonial data," a study examining talking-aloud protocols from a…
Background Depression is a high prevalence disorder, displaying high rates of lifetime incidence, early age onset, high chronicity, and role impairment. In Ireland 12-month prevalence of depression has been reported to be 10.3%. A large percentage of affected individuals have no medical diagnosis nor seek treatment. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) has established itself as an option for the treatment of depression. Many Irish adults with depression find it difficult to access evidence-based CBT, this is due to several factors, like stigma and costs. However, systematic factors including the shortage of trained professionals and the relative underdevelopment of services also make access difficult. Stepped-care can increase access to evidence-based CBT. One option is tailored internet-delivered treatment programs. Preliminary research from Ireland needs now to include large-scale studies on effectiveness. Thus the current study seeks to examine the potential of an internet-delivered low-intensity treatment for symptoms of depression in an Irish adult community sample. Method/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial of an online CBT (iCBT) program for the treatment of adults with depressive symptoms. The trial will include an active treatment group and a waiting-list control group. The active condition will consist of 8 weekly modules of iCBT, with post-session feedback support. Participants in the waiting list will receive access to the treatment at week 8. Participants will complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and eligibility criteria will also apply. Primary outcomes are depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include quality of life indicators, significant events and satisfaction with online treatment. Data will be collected at baseline and at post-treatment, week 8, and at follow-up week 20 (3-months) and week 32 (6-months). Analysis will be conducted on the intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of an online delivered treatment for depression in a community sample of Irish adults with symptoms of depression. The study will be a first contribution and depending on the sample recruited the results may be generalizable to people with similar difficulties in Ireland and may therefore give insight into the potential of low-intensity interventions for Irish people with depressive symptoms. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03704676. DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN03704676
Background Most interventions for depression have shown small or no effects. ‘Third wave‘ cognitive therapy and mentalization-based therapy have both gained some ground as treatments of psychological problems. No randomised trial has compared the effects of these two interventions for patients with major depression. Methods/ design We plan a randomised, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority clinical trial. During two years we will include 84 consecutive adult participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The participants will be randomised to either ‘third wave‘ cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based therapy. The primary outcome will be the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at cessation of treatment at 18 weeks. Secondary outcomes will be the proportion of patients with remission, Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, Beck’s Depression Inventory, and The World Health Organisation-Five Well-being Index 1999. Discussion Interventions for depression have until now shown relatively small effects. Our trial results will provide knowledge about the effects of two modern psychotherapeutic interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01070134
Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale
The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…
Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.
This community based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression among urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence or absence of depression. The prevalence of depression among the urban poor was 12.3%. Factors significantly associated with depression included respondents under 25 years old, male gender, living in the area for less than four years and those who do not exercise regularly. It is important to identify individuals with depression and its associated factors early because depression can severely affect the quality of life. PMID:22322990
Tan, Kok Leong; Yadav, Hematram
Introduction Depression is a well known health problem worldwide. Prevalence of depressive disorders varies in different societies. Aim to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders and some associated factors in Rasht City (Northern part of Iran). Materials and methods 4020 subjects were selected among 394925 residents of Rasht aged between 18–70 during 2003 – 2004. In the first phase, subjects were screened by Beck's Depression Inventory. In the second phase, those who scored more than 15 were assessed through semi-structured psychiatric interview (DSMIV-TR). Socio-demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, educational level, and socio-economic class were recorded as well. Results 9.5% of samples (63% female and 37% male) were diagnosed by depressive disorders. The prevalence of minor depressive disorder, dysthymia and major depressive disorder was 5%, 2/5%, and 1% respectively. Socio-economic class was significantly associated with both depressive symptoms based on BDI score (p < 0.001) and depressive disorders based on clinical interview (p < 0.001). Conclusion Comparing to other studies, this study revealed that prevalence of dysthymic and minor depressive disorder were more than major depressive disorder, and low socio-economic class was the most significant risk factor associated with depression. Regarding our study limitations, researchers and policy makers should not consider our findings as conclusive results. Findings of this study could be applied by researchers using analytical methodology to assess relationship between depressive disorders and associated factors.
BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that atypical and melancholic depression subtypes exist in depressed fibromyalgia (FM) patients, yet no study has empirically tested this hypothesis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical features and MDD with melancholic features occurs in a FM sample and to describe their demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics.
Rebecca L Ross; Kim D Jones; Rachel L Ward; Lisa J Wood; Robert M Bennett
Background: Optimal long-term treatment of major depression should assess the background factors affecting remission and recurrent episodes. The duration and number of previous depressive episodes has been shown to be important for recurrence. This long-term prospective study of patients with major depression assessed the prognostic effect of variables related to childhood, social life and occupation. Methods: The study examined 323
Trond Riise; Anders Lund
Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to…
Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Geenen, Rinie; van Middendorp, Henriet; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Ha, Thao; Evers, Catharine; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Abstract Objective In the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), fluoxetine (FLX) and the combination of fluoxetine with cognitive-behavioral therapy (COMB) had superior improvement trajectories compared to pill placebo (PBO), whereas cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) was not significantly different from PBO. Because attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-exist, we examined whether ADHD moderated these outcomes in TADS. Method A total of 439 adolescents with MDD, 12–17 years old, were randomized to FLX, CBT, COMB, or PBO. Random coefficients regression models examined depression improvement in 377 depressed youths without ADHD and 62 with ADHD, including 20 who were treated with a psychostimulant. Results Within the ADHD group, the improvement trajectories of the three active treatments were similar, all with rates of improvement greater than PBO. For those without ADHD, only COMB had a rate of improvement that was superior to PBO. Conclusions Co-morbid ADHD moderated treatment of MDD. CBT alone or FLX alone may offer benefits similar to COMB in the treatment of MDD in youths with co-morbid MDD and ADHD, whereas monotherapy may not match the benefits of COMB for those without ADHD. The ADHD subgroup analysis presented in this paper is exploratory in nature because of the small number of youths with ADHD in the sample. Clinical Trial Registry www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006286. The TADS protocol and all of the TADS manuals are available on the Internet at https://trialweb.dcri.duke.edu/tads/index.html.
May, Diane E.; Silva, Susan G.; Madaan, Vishal; Puumala, Susan E.; Curry, John F.; Walkup, John; Kepley, Hayden; Vitiello, Benedetto; March, John S.
Major depression is associated with substantial psychosocial dysfunction and post-concussive symptomatology following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Studies to date of anti—depressant treatment for major depression post-TBI have been limited by small sample size. The goal of the present study is to examine the rates of response and remission associated with citalopram treatment for major depression following traumatic brain injury. Subjects
MJ Rapoport; F. Chan; K. Lanctot; N. Herrmann; S. McCullagh; A. Feinstein
Depression is a frequent comorbid condition in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and may impact upon treatment prognosis. Identification of OCD "subtypes" might ultimately aid in treatment decision-making as it has in other psychiatric disorders. A retrospective pilot study was performed examining depressive and OCD symptomatology by analyzing the relation between factor scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Maudsley Inventory (MOCI) in 41 OCD patients. Total BDI score was significantly correlated with total MOCI score (r = .36, p < .02). Checking was correlated with Retarded depression (r = .30, p < .05). Doubting correlated with both Guilty depression (r = .48, p < .002) and Retarded depression (r = .37, p < .02). None of the canonical correlations were significant. At p < .08, the first canonical correlation approached significance. The data were interpreted cautiously as suggesting that some OCD patients may exhibit symptoms of Doubting together with Guilty depression and Retarded depression symptoms. These data need replication in a larger, prospective study design. PMID:9924732
Tynes, L L; Winstead, D K
Objective To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic measures for specific physical and psychiatric symptoms. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were systematically assessed by self- and clinician reports. Suicidal events were also reanalyzed by the Columbia Group and expert raters using the Columbia-Classification Algorithm for Suicidal Assessment used in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reclassification effort. Results Depressed adolescents reported high rates of physical symptoms at baseline, which improved as depression improved. Sedation, insomnia, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain occurred in at least 2% of those treated with FLX and/or COMB and at twice the rate of placebo. The rate of psychiatric AEs was 11% in FLX, 5.6% in COMB, 4.5% in PBO, and 0.9% in CBT. Suicidal ideation improved overall, with greatest improvement in COMB. Twenty-four suicide-related events occurred during the 12-week period: 5 patients (4.7%) in COMB, 10 (9.2%) in FLX, 5 (4.5%) in CBT, and 3 (2.7%) in placebo. Statistically, only FLX had more suicide-related events than PBO (p = .0402, odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% CI 1.00–13.7). Only five actual attempts occurred (2 COMB, 2 FLX, 1 CBT, 0 PBO). There were no suicide completions. Conclusions Different methods for eliciting AEs produce different results. In general, as depression improves, physical complaints and suicidal ideation decrease in proportion to treatment benefit. In this study, psychiatric AEs and suicide-related events are more common in FLX-treated patients. COMB treatment may offer a more favorable safety profile than medication alone in adolescent depression.
Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John
Background Depression screening in chronic disease is advocated but its impact on routine practice is uncertain. We examine the effects of a programme of incentivised depression screening in chronic disease within a UK primary care setting. Methods and Findings Cross sectional analysis of anonymised, routinely collected data (2008-9) from family practices in Scotland serving a population of circa 1.8 million. Primary care registered patients with at least one of three chronic diseases, coronary heart disease, diabetes and stroke, underwent incentivised depression screening using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS). 125143 patients were identified with at least one chronic disease. 10670 (8.5%) were under treatment for depression and exempt from screening. Of remaining, HADS were recorded for 35537 (31.1%) patients. 7080 (19.9% of screened) had raised HADS (?8); majority had indications of mild depression with HADS between 8 and 10. Over 6 months, 572 (8%) of those with raised HADS (?8) were initiated on antidepressants, while 696 (2.4%) patients with normal HADS (<8) were also initiated on antidepressants (relative risk of antidepressant initiation with raised HADS 3.3 (CI 2.97-3.67), p value <0.0001). Of those with multimorbidity who were screened, 24.3% had raised HADS (?8). A raised HADS was more likely in females, socioeconomically deprived, multimorbid or younger (18-44) individuals. Females and 45-64 years old were more likely to receive antidepressants. Limitations retrospective study of routinely collected data. Conclusions Despite incentivisation, only a minority of patients underwent depression screening, suggesting that systematic depression screening in chronic disease can be difficult to achieve in routine practice. Targeting those at greatest risk such as the multimorbid or using simpler screening methods may be more effective. Raised HADS was associated with higher number of new antidepressant prescriptions which has significant resource implications. The clinical benefits of such screening remain uncertain and merits investigation.
Jani, Bhautesh Dinesh; Purves, David; Barry, Sarah; Cavanagh, Jonathan; McLean, Gary; Mair, Frances S.
The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is designed for use in ad hoc mobile networks. Because of the difficulty of testing an ad hoc routing protocol in a real-world environment, a simulation was first created so that the protocol design could be tested in a variety of scenarios. Once simulation of the protocol was nearly complete, the
Elizabeth M. Royer; Charles E. Perkins
Although major depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders among patients with Parkinson's disease, diagnostic criteria have yet to be validated. The main aim of our study was to validate depressive symptoms using latent class analysis for use as diagnostic criteria for major depression in Parkinson's disease. We examined a consecutive series of 259 patients with Parkinson's disease admitted to 2 movement disorders clinics for regular follow-ups. All patients were assessed with a comprehensive psychiatric interview that included structured assessments for depression, anxiety, and apathy. The main finding was that all 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) diagnostic criteria for major depression (ie, depressed mood, diminished interest or pleasure, weight or appetite changes, sleep changes, psychomotor changes, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, poor concentration, and suicidal ideation) identified a patient class (severe depression group) with high statistical significance. Latent class analysis also demonstrated a patient class with minimal depressive symptoms (no-depression group), and a third patient class with intermediate depressive symptoms (moderate depression). Anxiety and apathy were both significant comorbid conditions of moderate and severe depression. Taken together, our findings support the use of the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) criteria for major depression for use in clinical practice and research in Parkinson's disease and suggest that anxiety may be included as an additional diagnostic criterion. PMID:21739470
Starkstein, Sergio; Dragovic, Milan; Jorge, Ricardo; Brockman, Simone; Merello, Marcelo; Robinson, Robert G; Bruce, David; Wilson, Mark
Background: Depression is common among recently abstinent alcoholics; however, its treatment has been little studied.Methods: Thirty-six depressed recently abstinent alcoholics were randomized in a 6-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sertraline 100 mg daily.Results: There was a significant group × time interaction for both the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). For the HDRS there were
Introduction: Although depression is a well-established feature of schizophrenia, it is difficult to measure, because it overlaps with negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Routinely adopted depression scales were not designed to be used in cases of schizophrenia, and are known to perform poorly when trying to distinguish depression from other symptoms. Objective: The aim of this study was to
Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan; Ana Cristina Chaves; Itiro Shirakawa; Jair de Jesus Mari
The current study assumes that workers actively influence the characteristics of their work environment. Not only will one's work environment (job characteristics) affect personal characteristics, such as feelings of depression; depression in turn is expected to affect the characteristics of one's work environment as well. Using a sample of 593 young Dutch workers, a longitudinal model relating feelings of depression
Toon W. Taris; Inge A. Bok; Denise G. Caljé
Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…
Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.
BACKGROUND: Young women are at high risk for developing depression and participation in physical activity may prevent or treat the disorder. However, the influences on physical activity behaviors of young women with depression are not well understood. The aim of this study was to gather in-depth information about the correlates of physical activity among young women with and without depressive
Denise Azar; Kylie Ball; Jo Salmon; Verity J Cleland
Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…
Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark
The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…
David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Iranian translation of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) in school children and adolescents in Iran. The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 1,984 children and…
Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Pasha, Gholamreza; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane
... Among fathers living with their children, depression scores rose by an average of 68 percent over the ... children showed a different trend: Their depression symptoms rose after high school, and then started to decline ...
Background: Onset of depression is occurring earlier in life today than in past decades. Adolescence being transitional period from childhood to adulthood is a stage of emotional instability resulting from demand for separation and independence. Evidence suggests that early intervention for depression in children can improve long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in January 2010 to find out the prevalence of depression among pre university students in Mangalore city. Prevalence of depression was assessed using Beck's Depression Inventory II. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Out of 308 participants, depression was seen among 79.2% students. A majority (41.2%) were found to be suffering from moderate followed by mild (26.6%) depression. Prevalence of depression (P = 0.027) and severity of depression (P = 0.0357) was found to significantly increase with age of the participants. Students of commerce were found to be significantly more depressed than students of science stream (P = 0.002). No association of depression with gender of participants or with the type of college they were studying in was observed. Conclusion: There is a need for college students to be educated about depression in order to improve recognition and diagnosis. Also student counselling service offering mental health assistance needs to be established at colleges.
Naushad, Sarah; Farooqui, Waseem; Sharma, Satish; Rani, Mukthi; Singh, Rajashree; Verma, Supreet
Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (iv, ip, sc), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000–300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio.
Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias
Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been effectively used for the treatment of depression in clinic. However, studies of its anti-depressive mechanism are challenging, accounted for the complex pathophysiology of depression, and complexity of CSGS with multiple constituents acting on different metabolic pathways. The variations of endogenous metabolites in rat model of depression after administration of CSGS
Zhi-Heng Su; Shu-Qi Li; Guo-An Zou; Chang-Yuan Yu; Yan-Guo Sun; Hong-Wu Zhang; Ying Gu; Zhong-Mei Zou
Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…
Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto
This longitudinal study explores the relationship of postpartum depression (PPD) and marital dysfunction on infant outcomes from birth to 2 1/2 years of age among middle-class, postpartum women. Participants were recruited during the prenatal period. Twelve mothers completed the study throughout a 2 1/2-year period. Questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and observations were used to collect data. Content analysis of the interviews (Morse & Field, 1995) was conducted and thematic patterns were identified. Clinical PPD and marital dysfunction (defined as little or no support or closeness, or verbal, emotional or physical abuse) characterized nearly one in three mothers. Four themes describing the women's postpartum progression were identified: stress, isolation, resentment, and eventual adjustment by creating a new normal. No major developmental delays or behavioral problems were found among the infants. Eight of the 12 mothers who were initially identified as breastfeeding nursed their infants for 6–18 months. Regardless of financial and educational advantages, mothers in the study experienced depression and marital dysfunction. These findings support other studies that confirm the lack of association of PPD with social class or marital status. Childbirth educators and other health care professionals are encouraged to continue providing expectant families with anticipatory education and community resources in order to increase awareness of mental health and marital risks during the postpartum transition.
Roux, Gayle; Anderson, Cheryl; Roan, Chris
Clinical trial simulation studies can be used to assess the impact of many aspects of trial design, conduct, analysis and decision making on trial performance metrics. Simulation studies can play a vital role in improving the efficiency of the drug development process within the pharmaceutical industry, but only if they are well designed and conducted. It is imperative therefore that a protocol or simulation plan is developed, documenting how the simulation study is to be conducted, analysed and reported. This article emphasises the specific considerations necessary for designing good quality simulation studies. These include defining data generation processes, data analytic methods, decision criteria and also determining the presentation of results for all intended audiences. With clinical trial simulations becoming a vital part of the drug development process, the protocol for clinical trial simulations may in future become part of the regulatory peer review process. More rigour in the planning and execution of simulation studies will ensure that the design, analysis and decision-making process for the subsequent clinical trial is based on credible evidence that can be independently verified. PMID:20688782
Smith, Mike K; Marshall, Andrea
The migration of working-aged men from Mexico to the United States fractures the family-centered support structures typical of Latin America and contributes to high levels of depression in women left behind in migratory sending communities in Mexico. Mujeres en Solidaridad Apoyandose (MESA) was developed to improve depression in women through social support in a resource poor setting. MESA is a promotora intervention that trains women in the community to lead social support groups over a five-week period. The MESA curriculum uses a combination of cognitive behavioral theory techniques, psychoeducation, and social support activities aimed at alleviating or preventing depression in women. Results from this pilot efficacy study (n = 39) show that depressed participants at baseline experienced declines in depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at follow-up. Other findings demonstrate the complexity behind addressing social support and depression for women impacted by migration in different ways. PMID:23440449
Edelblute, Heather B; Clark, Sandra; Mann, Lilli; McKenney, Kathryn M; Bischof, Jason J; Kistler, Christine
Depressive symptoms are common in the elderly and they have been associated with cognitive and functional impairment. However, relatively less is known about the relationship of a lifetime history of depression to cognitive impairment and functional status. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether current depressive symptoms and past depression are associated with cognitive or functional impairment in a community-based sample representative of east Sydney, Australia. We also examined whether there was an interaction between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. Eight hundred non-demented aged participants received a neuropsychological assessment, a past psychiatric history interview and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living scale was completed by an informant to determine functional ability. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were present in 6.1% of the sample and 16.6% reported a history of depression. Participants with current depression had significantly higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction and performed worse on memory and executive function compared to participants without current depression. After controlling for anxiety the effect on executive function was no longer significant while the effect on memory remained significant. A history of depression was associated with worse executive function, higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction. After controlling for psychological distress the effect of past depression on executive function was no longer significant. There were no significant interactions between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. There were no differences between participants with or without current depression and with or without past depression on functional abilities. These results support the view that current and past depressive episodes are associated with poorer cognitive performance but not with functional abilities. PMID:21871636
Reppermund, S; Brodaty, H; Crawford, J D; Kochan, N A; Slavin, M J; Trollor, J N; Draper, B; Sachdev, P S
Prevalence studies in psychiatric epidemiology out-number incidence investigations by a wide margin. This report gives descriptive information about the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in a general population. Using data gathered in a 16-year follow-up of an adult sample selected as part of the Stirling County Study (Canada), the incidence of these types of disorders was found to be approximately nine cases per 1,000 persons per year. The data suggest that for every man who became ill for the first time with one of these disorders, three women became ill. Incidence tended to be higher among relatively young persons. These incidence rates are consistent with prevalence rates of approximately 10 per cent to 15 per cent for depression and anxiety disorders aggregated together, given an estimated average duration of illness of about 10 years. It is concluded that these incidence rates are fairly realistic in view of evidence that disorders of these types tend to be chronic.
Murphy, J M; Olivier, D C; Monson, R R; Sobol, A M; Leighton, A H
An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method, and was capable of removing virtually all S0 from the pyrite grains. As pyrite oxidation and dissolution processes are surface-dependent, and even the slightest coating by Fe2+ or sulfide oxidation products can sharply decrease pyrite reactivity, the improved removal of S0 prevents such decreases and allows clearer insights into pyrite reaction mechanisms to be gained from experimental studies. In addition to S0 removal, the suggested method was shown not to introduce any biases in the particle size distribution. The main difference observed between the two protocols is the removal of larger amounts of surface-attached fine particles in the proposed method along with S0. This also removes a potential bias, associated with the surface area of pyrite available for chemical reaction. The suggested pyrite pretreatment protocol is more efficient in removal of S0 contamination from pyrite grains and provides multiple advantages for both kinetic and isotopic investigations of pyrite transformations under various environmental conditions.
Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay
Background Depression and cardiovascular diseases due to arteriosclerosis are both frequent and impairing conditions. Depression and (subclinical) arteriosclerosis appear to be related in a bidirectional way, and it is plausible to assume a partly joint causal relationship. However, the biological mechanisms and the behavioral pathways that lead from depression to arteriosclerosis and vice versa remain to be exactly determined. Methods/design This study protocol describes the rationale and design of the prospective BiDirect Study that aims at investigating the mutual relationship between depression and (subclinical) arteriosclerosis. BiDirect is scheduled to follow-up three distinct cohorts of individuals ((i) patients with acute depression (N?=?999), (ii) patients after an acute cardiac event (N?=?347), and (iii) reference subjects from the general population (N?=?912)). Over the course of 12 years, four personal examinations are planned to be conducted. The core examination program, which will remain identical across follow-ups, comprises a personal interview (e.g. medical diagnoses, health care utilization, lifestyle and risk behavior), a battery of self-administered questionnaires (e.g. depressive symptoms, readiness to change health behavior, perceived health-related quality of life), sensory (e.g. olfaction, pain) and neuropsychological (e.g. memory, executive functions, emotional processing, manual dexterity) assessments, anthropometry, body impedance measurement, a clinical work-up regarding the vascular status (e.g. electrocardiogram, blood pressure, intima media thickness), the taking of blood samples (serum and plasma, DNA), and structural and functional resonance imaging of the brain (e.g. diffusion tensor imaging, resting-state, emotional faces processing). The present report includes BiDirect-Baseline, the first data collection wave. Discussion Due to its prospective character, the integration of three distinct cohorts, the long follow-up time window, the diligent diagnosis of depression taking depression subtypes into account, the consideration of relevant comorbidities and risk factors, the assessment of indicators of (subclinical) arteriosclerosis in different vascular territories, and the structural and functional brain imaging that is performed for a large number of participants, the BiDirect Study represents an innovative approach that combines population-based cohorts with sophisticated clinical work-up methods and that holds the potential to overcome many of the drawbacks characterizing earlier investigations.
This study describes ten cases of filicides committed by mothers who intentionally killed one or more of their children within 12 months after delivery. The data were collected from police and court records, forensic psychiatric records, autopsy reports, and other medical records. The mean age of the mothers was 28.5 years and of the victims 4 months. The symptoms of depression were clear: an irritable, severely depressed mood with crying spells, insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, preoccupation with worries about the baby's well-being and the mother's caring abilities, suicidal ideation, or even psychotic thoughts. Most mothers had had house calls from the public health nurse or psychologist. The mothers' conditions deteriorated rapidly, and the filicide was committed when the mother was left alone with the baby against her will. The babies were well taken care of, not neglected or abused. The majority of the mothers had felt that their own parents, especially their mothers, were very demanding, rejecting, and emotionally unsupportive. All the mothers had also had traumatic experiences in their childhood or in adulthood. PMID:18587626
Kauppi, Anne; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Vanamo, Tuija; Merikanto, Juhani; Karkola, Kari
Most research on the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression has involved cross-sectional data. The objective of the present study was to evaluate this issue prospectively among Nurses' Health Study participants. A total of 56,399 women (mean age = 68 years) who were free of depression symptoms at baseline (2002) were followed until 2008. Physician-diagnosed RLS was self-reported. During 300,155 person-years of follow-up, the authors identified 1,268 incident cases of clinical depression (regular use of antidepressant medication and physician-diagnosed depression). Women with RLS at baseline were more likely to develop clinical depression (multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.1; P = 0.02) than those without RLS. The presence of RLS at baseline was also associated with higher scores on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) thereafter. Multivariable-adjusted mean differences were 1.00 (standard error, 0.12) for CESD-10 score and 0.47 (standard error, 0.07) for GDS-15 score between women with RLS and those without RLS (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, women with physician-diagnosed RLS had an increased risk of developing clinical depression and clinically relevant depression symptoms. Further prospective studies using refined approaches to ascertainment of RLS and depression are warranted.
Li, Yanping; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Eilis J.; Winkelman, John; Malhotra, Atul; Okereke, Olivia Ifeoma; Ascherio, Alberto; Gao, Xiang
The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…
Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie
Depression around childbirth is common in low income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with persistence of depression from the antenatal to the postnatal period in urban Pakistan. A total of 1,357 pregnant women in their third trimester attending the antenatal clinic were included in the study. From these, 763 mothers who delivered at the study maternity home were reassessed after 3 months of childbirth. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered to measure depression in both the antenatal and the postnatal periods. Psychological distress, disability and life events experienced by mothers were also measured by using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and Life Events Checklist, respectively. We found 25.8% prevalence rate of antenatal depression and 38.3% persistent depression in a private clinic. Persistently depressed mothers had significantly high psychological distress, more disability, and experienced more stressful life events than the resolved group. Our findings confirm the high rates of depression during pregnancy but we found low rates of persistent depression in this urban population as compared to the previous report. There is a need for further investigation of factors associated with persistent depression in order to develop appropriate interventions. PMID:21898171
Husain, Nusrat; Parveen, Asia; Husain, Meher; Saeed, Qamar; Jafri, Farhat; Rahman, Raza; Tomenson, Barbara; Chaudhry, Imran B
Background Biased causal attribution is a critical factor in the cognitive model of depression. Whereas depressed patients interpret events negatively, healthy people show a self-serving bias (internal attribution of positive events and external attribution of negative events). Methods Using fMRI, depressed patients (n=15) and healthy controls (n=15) were confronted with positive and negative social events and made causal attributions (internal vs. external). Functional data were analyzed using a mixed effects model. Results Behaviourally, controls showed a self-serving bias, whereas patients demonstrated a balanced attributional pattern. Analysis of functional data revealed a significant group difference in a fronto-temporal network. Higher activation of this network was associated with non self-serving attributions in controls but self-serving attributions in patients. Applying a psycho-physiological interaction analysis, we observed reduced coupling between a dorsomedial PFC seed region and limbic areas during self-serving attributions in patients compared to controls. Limitations Results of the PPI analysis are preliminary given the liberal statistical threshold. Conclusions The association of the behaviourally less frequent attributional pattern with activation in a fronto-temporal network suggests that non self-serving responses may produce a self-related response conflict in controls, while self-serving responses produce this conflict in patients. Moreover, attribution-modulated coupling between the dorsomedial PFC and limbic regions was weaker in patients than controls. This preliminary finding suggests that depression may be associated with disturbances in fronto-limbic coupling during attributional decisions. Our results implicate that treatment of major depression may benefit from approaches that facilitate reinterpretation of emotional events in a more positive, more self-serving way.
Seidel, Eva-Maria; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit
Centpropazine is a new antidepressant with minimal anticholinergic effects in preclinical animal models. In this study centpropazine has been compared with imipramine in a double blind randomized multicentric study. A total of 159 patients of major depressive disorder (79 in centpropazine group and 80 in imipramine group) from four centres were included in this trial. Each patient was randomised to receive either centpropazine in a dose of 40 to 120 mg per day or imipramine in a dose of 50 to 150 mg per day for a period of six weeks. The antidepressant efficacy of centpropazine was comparable to imipramine but anticholinergic side effects were four times less than imipramine. This establishes centpropazine as an effective antidepressant with remarkably safer tolerability profile.
Srivastava, J.S.; Asthana, O.P.; Singh, H.; Agarwal, A.K.; Shah, L.P.; Sharma, K.C.; Gopinath, P.S.; Srimal, R.C.
Purpose European studies about ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms are scarce, show inconclusive results and are complicated\\u000a by the discussion of what constitute (im)migrant and ethnic minority groups. Moreover, comparisons across countries are hampered\\u000a by a lack of comparable measures of depressive symptoms. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of depressive\\u000a symptoms among immigrants, ethnic minorities and natives
Sarah Missinne; Piet Bracke
The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) poses a real challenge in the design of a MANET routing protocol. Over the last 10 years, a variety of routing protocols have been developed and their performance simulations are made by network researchers. Most of the previous research on MANET routing protocols have focused on simulation study by varying
Nurul I. Sarkar; Wilford G. Lol
Background Possible physiological causes for the effect of sunlight on mood are through the suprachiasmatic nuclei and evidenced by serotonin and melatonin regulation and its associations with depression. Cognitive function involved in these same pathways may potentially be affected by sunlight exposure. We evaluated whether the amount of sunlight exposure (i.e. insolation) affects cognitive function and examined the effect of season on this relationship. Methods We obtained insolation data for residential regions of 16,800 participants from a national cohort study of blacks and whites, aged 45+. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a validated six-item screener questionnaire and depression status was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression was used to find whether same-day or two-week average sunlight exposure was related to cognitive function and whether this relationship differed by depression status. Results Among depressed participants, a dose-response relationship was found between sunlight exposure and cognitive function, with lower levels of sunlight associated with impaired cognitive status (odds ratio = 2.58; 95% CI 1.43–6.69). While both season and sunlight were correlated with cognitive function, a significant relation remained between each of them and cognitive impairment after controlling for their joint effects. Conclusion The study found an association between decreased exposure to sunlight and increased probability of cognitive impairment using a novel data source. We are the first to examine the effects of two-week exposure to sunlight on cognition, as well as the first to look at sunlight's effects on cognition in a large cohort study.
The pupillary responses to light in patients with depression and normal controls were evaluated among Chinese females. Four parameters related to the pupil were assessed using a video-based pupillometer. The results showed that there were significant differences in the pupil area in the darkness and the pupil area at the peak of constriction between depressed patients and normal controls. PMID:24566050
Wang, Jikun; Fan, Yaodong; Zhao, Xudong; Chen, Nanhui
The authors wished to determine whether depression was present in an early adolescent nonpatient identified school population. Questionnaires were administered to seventh and eighth grade students in a parochial extended elementary school. The findings indicated that 33.3% of this school population were experiencing moderate to severe depression and 35% of the sample acknowledged current suicidal ideation. A comparison of mean
Nina Albert; Aaron T. Beck
Psychiatric evaluation and assessment of common physical illnesses and disabilities was carried out in elderly depressives (aged 60 years and above). Correlation, if any, was seen between depression and physical problems. The ‘patient group’ comprised of 40 drawn from MHI, Cuttack, having a depressive disorder (ICD-10). The ‘control group’ of 20 was drawn from the general population with no psychiatric disorder. The presence of physical illness was looked for in both groups. The patient group had physical illnesses, 76% of which were previously undiagnosed. The control group had physical illnesses 71% of which were previously diagnosed. Undiagnosed physical illnesses are more common among elderly patients with depression than among matched control. The physical illnesses contributed in two thirds of the patients. So careful detection and management of physical illness is of equal importance in the management of depression.
Satapthy, Ramanand; Kar, Nilamadhab; Das, Indubhusan; Kar, Gopal Chandra; Pati, Tophan
BACKGROUND: We undertook a systematic review of observational studies of depression in primary care to determine 1) the nature and scope of the published studies 2) the methodological quality of the studies; 3) the identified recovery and risk factors for persistent depression and 3) the treatment and health service use patterns among patients. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL
Gail Gilchrist; Jane Gunn
Depression is often accompanied by other disorders including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. We studied the familial aggregation of these disorders in order to examine the possibility of a shared genetic origin. In a population-based study of 6596 subjects, we studied the association of self-reported depression, which required treatment by a psychiatrist, to family history of psychiatric disease, dementia, and
Shireen Fahim; Cornelia M. van Duijn; Fran M. Baker; Lenore Launer; Monique M. B. Breteler; Willem J. Schudel; Albert Hofman
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) as measures of depression among nursing home residents. METHODS: The data for this study were baseline, pre-intervention assessment data from a research study involving nine nursing homes and 704 residents in Massachusetts. Trained research nurses assessed residents using the MDS and
Melissa Koehler; Terry Rabinowitz; John Hirdes; Michael Stones; G Iain Carpenter; Brant E Fries; John N Morris; Richard N Jones
Background The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients. Methods Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument) administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), and visual analog scale (EQ VAS) tools. Results A total of 371 outpatients suffering new or recurrent episodes were recruited. The mean age of the group was 45.7±15.9 (range 18–83) years, and 75% of the group was female. In terms of diagnosis, 88% had major depressive disorder, 12% had dysthymic disorder, and 50% had a combination of both major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder. The mean (standard deviation) scores for the HAMD, Clinical Global Impression, and Thai Depression Inventory were 24.2±6.4, 4.47±1.1, and 51.51±0.2, respectively. Sixty-two percent had suicidal tendencies, while 11% had a family history of depression. Of the major depressive disorder cases, 61% had experienced a first episode. The SF-36v2 component scores ranged from 25 to 56, while the mean (standard deviation) of the EQ-5D was 0.50±0.22 and that of the EQ VAS was 53.79±21.3. Conclusion This study provides an overview of the sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics of patients with new or recurrent episodes of unipolar depressive disorders.
Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Srisutasanavong, Usaree; Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon; Nivataphand, Raviwan; Apisiridej, Nattaporn; Petchsuwan, Donruedee; Saisavoey, Nattha; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Ruktrakul, Ruk; Srichan, Thawanrat; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Temboonkiat, Anakevich; Tubtimtong, Namtip; Rakkhajeekul, Sukanya; Wongtanoi, Boonsanong; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong
Late-life depression is common among nursing home residents, but often is not addressed by nurses. Using a self-directed, CD-based depression training program, this pilot study used mixed methods to assess feasibility issues, determine nurse perceptions of training, and evaluate depression-related outcomes among residents in usual care and training conditions. Of 58 nurses enrolled, 24 completed the training and gave it high ratings. Outcomes for 50 residents include statistically significant reductions in depression severity over time (p<0.001) among all groups. Depression training is an important vehicle to improve depression recognition and daily nursing care, but diverse factors must be addressed to assure optimal outcomes.
Smith, Marianne; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Jaggers, Benjamin; Liu, Megan; Haedke, Chris
Background Depression and alcohol misuse represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this co-occurrence is associated with increased risks and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective, however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it, particularly in young people. The increased availability of Internet-based programs to complement health care presents a unique opportunity in the treatment of these conditions. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate whether a brief, Internet-based, self-help intervention (the DEAL [DEpression-ALcohol] Project) can be effective in treating co-occurring depression and problematic alcohol use in young people (18-25 years old). Methods The evaluation will take the form of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing the DEAL Project with an attention-control condition (HealthWatch). The RCT will consist of a four-week intervention phase and a 24-week follow-up. It will be entirely Internet-based and open Australia-wide to young people 18 to 25 years old. The primary outcomes will be change in depression symptoms and alcohol use at 5, 12, and 24 weeks post baseline. Secondary outcomes include change in general functioning and quality of life, anxiety/stress symptomatology, and a number of other depression/alcohol related outcomes. Process analysis will also measure engagement across the conditions. Results This study is currently ongoing with preliminary results expected in late 2014. Conclusions This study, to our knowledge, will be the first RCT of a Internet-based treatment for comorbid depression and problematic alcohol use in any age group. If successful, the program represents a novel and innovative approach to addressing the significant harms associated with these conditions and will be an invaluable resource to those not receiving help elsewhere. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; ACTRN12613000033741; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=363461 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Mrg9VFX4).
Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Mills, Katherine L
BACKGROUND: Within the context of a biopsychosocial model of the treatment of depressive episodes, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Clinical pathways have been developed and implemented in hospitals to support multidisciplinary teamwork. The aim of this study is to explore current practice for the treatment of depressive episodes in Flemish psychiatric hospitals. Current practice in different hospitals is studied to
Franciska A Desplenter; Gert M Laekeman; Steven R Simoens
BACKGROUND: The most common geriatric psychiatric disorder is depression. The role of family systems in depression among the elderly has not been studied extensively. It has been suggested that urbanization promotes nucleation of family systems and a decrease in care and support for the elderly. We conducted this study in Karachi, a large urban city of Pakistan, to determine the
Ather M Taqui; Ahmed Itrat; Waris Qidwai; Zeeshan Qadri
The purpose of the study was to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptomology and self-concept in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 and to determine whether primary school teacher ratings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior predict self-reported depressive symptoms and self-concept in adolescence. This study is part of an…
Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha; Dixon, Jennifer; Cavendish, Wendy Morrison
Multiple measurements of depression predict mortality in a longitudinal study of chronic hemodialysis outpatients.BackgroundThe medical risk factors associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients are well known, but the psychosocial factors that may affect outcome have not been clearly defined. One key psychosocial factor, depression, has been considered a predictor of mortality, but previous studies have provided equivocal results
Paul L. Kimmel; Rolf A. Peterson; Karen L. Weihs; Samuel J. Simmens; Sylvan Alleyne; Illuminado Cruz; Judith H. Veis
Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…
Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair
BACKGROUND: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used instrument to measure postnatal depression. This study aimed to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the EPDS in Iran. METHODS: The English language version of the EPDS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive
Ali Montazeri; Behnaz Torkan; Sepideh Omidvari
Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…
The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was developed to assess the population prevalence of depression. The CES-D was developed and normed on an adult population. Since the CES-D's publication, various studies have both used and psychometrically assessed the scale for older adolescent populations. However, we found no…
Phillips, Glenn A.; Shadish, William R.; Murray, David M.; Kubik, Martha; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.
No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol
James M. Bolton; Jina Pagura; Murray W. Enns; Bridget Grant; Jitender Sareen
Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…
Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan
Cross-sectional studies demonstrate depression is associated with disability in elders. These studies also report that disability in depressed elders is associated with greater medical illness burden, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. Only longitudinal studies, however, can determine the impact of depression and its comorbidities on functional decline. This review summarizes the findings of 20 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between baseline or incident depression and functional decline. However, the mediational effects of potential risk factors identified by cross-sectional studies cannot be derived from the current literature. We propose a mediational effects model for future longitudinal studies, incorporating measures sensitive to both mood symptoms and the medical, cognitive, and behavioral comorbidities of depression to better understand the impact of each on functional decline and to focus future clinical interventions. PMID:18838741
Schillerstrom, Jason E; Royall, Donald R; Palmer, Raymond F
Research has shown a relationship between income inequality and poor health. This column reports findings from a state-level study of the relationship between income inequality and the prevalence of depression. Estimates of depression prevalence by state, obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, were linked with Gini coefficients for U.S. household income, obtained from the Census Bureau. The current prevalence of depression was significantly associated with income inequality--the more unequal, the higher the depression prevalence. The association persisted after adjustment for income per capita, percentage of the population with a college degree, and percentage over age 65 years. PMID:21724781
Messias, Erick; Eaton, William W; Grooms, Amy N
Background Evidence on the association between fish consumption and depression is inconsistent and virtually non-existent from low- and middle-income countries. Using a standard protocol, we aim to assess the association of fish consumption and late-life depression in seven low- and middle-income countries. Methodology/Findings We used cross-sectional data from the 10/66 cohort study and applied two diagnostic criteria for late-life depression to assess the association between categories of weekly fish consumption and depression according to ICD-10 and the EURO-D depression symptoms scale scores, adjusting for relevant confounders. All-catchment area surveys were carried out in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India, and over 15,000 community-dwelling older adults (65+) were sampled. Using Poisson models the adjusted association between categories of fish consumption and ICD-10 depression was positive in India (p for trend?=?0.001), inverse in Peru (p?=?0.025), and not significant in all other countries. We found a linear inverse association between fish consumption categories and EURO-D scores only in Cuba (p for trend ?=?0.039) and China (p<0.001); associations were not significant in all other countries. Between-country heterogeneity was marked for both ICD-10 (I2>61%) and EURO-D criteria (I2>66%). Conclusions The associations of fish consumption with depression in large samples of older adults varied markedly across countries and by depression diagnosis and were explained by socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Experimental studies in these settings are needed to confirm our findings.
Albanese, Emiliano; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Dangour, Alan D.; Guerra, Mariella; Acosta, Daisy; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan de Jesus; Salas, Aquiles; Schonborn, Claudia; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.
We examined the associations of emotional eating and depressive symptoms with the consumption of sweet and non-sweet energy-dense foods and vegetables/fruit, also focusing on the possible interplay between emotional eating and depressive symptoms. The participants were 25-64-year-old Finnish men (n=1679) and women (n=2035) from the FINRISK 2007 Study (DILGOM substudy). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and a 132-item Food Frequency Questionnaire were used. Emotional eating and depressive symptoms correlated positively (r=0.31 among men and women), and both were related to a higher body mass. Emotional eating was related to a higher consumption of sweet foods in both genders and non-sweet foods in men independently of depressive symptoms and restrained eating. The positive associations of depressive symptoms with sweet foods became non-significant after adjustment for emotional eating, but this was not the case for non-sweet foods. Depressive symptoms, but not emotional eating, were related to a lower consumption of vegetables/fruit. These findings suggest that emotional eating and depressive symptoms both affect unhealthy food choices. Emotional eating could be one factor explaining the association between depressive symptoms and consumption of sweet foods, while other factors may be more important with respect to non-sweet foods and vegetables/fruit. PMID:20138944
Konttinen, Hanna; Männistö, Satu; Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Silventoinen, Karri; Haukkala, Ari
Background It is well-established that smoking and depression are associated in adolescents, but the temporal ordering of the association is subject to debate. Methods Longitudinal studies in English language which reported the onset of smoking on depression in non clinical populations (age 13-19) published between January 1990 and July 2008 were selected from PubMed, OVID, and PsychInfo databases. Study characteristics were extracted. Meta-analytic pooling procedures with random effects were used. Results Fifteen studies were retained for analysis. The pooled estimate for smoking predicting depression in 6 studies was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.40; p < 0.001). The pooled estimate for depression predicting smoking in 12 studies was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.63; p < 0.001). Studies that used clinical measures of depression were more likely to report a bidirectional effect, with a stronger effect of depression predicting smoking. Conclusion Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that the association between smoking and depression is bidirectional. To better estimate these effects, future research should consider the potential utility of: (a) shorter intervals between surveys with longer follow-up time, (b) more accurate measurement of depression, and (c) adequate control of confounding.
Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Rehm, Jurgen
Depressive symptomatology can proceed from altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortex (HPA)-axis function. Some authors stress the role that early life stress (ELS) may play in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms. However, the involvement of the HPA-axis in linking prenatal ELS with depressive symptoms has not been tested in a prospective-longitudinal study extending until after puberty in humans. Therefore, we examined whether antenatal maternal
Bea R H Van den Bergh; Ben Van Calster; Tim Smits; Sabine Van Huffel; Lieven Lagae; BRH Van den Bergh
Background Depression in elderly is a major global public health concern. There has been no population-based study of depression in the elderly in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and its association with family support of elderly (age 60 years and above) in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was carried out in Karachi from July-September 2008. Questionnaire based interviews were conducted with individuals (n?=?953) recruited through multi-stage cluster sampling technique, using the 15- item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Prevalence of depression was found to be 40.6%, with a higher preponderance in women than men (50% vs. 32%). Elderly currently not living with their spouses were 60% more depressed than those living with their spouses (Adjusted OR?=?1.6, 95% CI?=?1.3-2.1). Elderly who did not consider their children as future support were twice as likely to be depressed as those considering their children to be old age security (Adjusted OR?=?2.1, 95% CI?=?1.4-3.1). An increase in one male adult child showed 10% decrease in depression after adjusting for other variables (Adjusted OR?=?0.9, 95% CI?=?0.8-0.9). Conclusion A relatively high prevalence of depression was found in the elderly in Karachi. There appeared to be a strong association between depression and family support variables such as living with spouse, considering children as future security and number of male adult children in the sample studied. Mental wellbeing of the elderly in Pakistan needs to be given consideration in the health policy of the country. In collectivistic societies like Pakistan family support plays an important part in mental health of the elderly that needs to be recognized and supported through various governmental and non-governmental initiatives. Keypoints Assessment of depression in elderly, Cross-sectional study in Karachi-Pakistan
Major depression may result from decreased left frontal lobe function with respect to the right. Fast frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (FF r-TMS) excites the underlying cortex whereas slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (SF r-TMS) causes cortical inhibition. Left frontal FF r-TMS attenuates major depression whereas the inhibitory effects of right frontal SF r-TMS are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that right frontal SF r-TMS would treat depressed patients with minimal effect on controls.? A psychiatrist administered the Beck depression inventory and Hamilton D depression rating scales to eight depressed patients and six controls before and after the treatment protocol. Eight sessions of 100 right frontal lobe SF r-TMS were given at motor threshold and 0.5 Hz over a 6 week period. No adverse outcomes were noted in either group. A significant antidepressant effect was noted in depressed patients on the Beck and Hamilton D depression rating scales (p<0.05). No change on either scale was noted in the controls. In conclusion right frontal lobe SF r-TMS is a safe, non-invasive treatment for major depression that deserves further investigation.??
Menkes, D.; Bodnar, P.; Ballesteros, R.; Swenson, M.
The web browsers are the application software that are used to access information from the World Wide Web. With the increasing popularity of the web browsers, the modern web browsers are designed to contain more features as compared to the existing web browsers. For the transferring of information through these browsers, various protocols have been implemented on these modern web browsers to make these browsers more efficient. Different protocols used in different layers have different functions and by increasing the efficiency of these protocols we can make the working of browsers more efficient.
Mishra, Bharat; Baghel, Harish Singh; Patil, Manoj; Singh, Pramod
Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale were examined among five groups that vaned in physical health and illness. Participants included 175 healthy undergraduates, 176 individuals attending family physicians, 107 progressive renal disease, 135 end-stage renal disease, and 120 cancer patients. Individual item and total CES-D scores were relatively symmetrically distributed and varied across the entire
Gerald M. Devins; Carolee M. Orme; Charles G. Costello; Yitzchak M. Binik; Beverly Frizzell; Henderikus J. Stam; Wendy M. Pullin
Background There is a well recognized association between depression and diabetes. However, there is little empirical data about the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety among different groups of glucose metabolism in population based samples. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of increased levels of depression and anxiety is different between patients with type 2 diabetes and subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and normal glucose metabolism (NGM). Methodology/Principal Findings Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study of 2667 residents, 1261 men and 1406 women aged 40–65 years from the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, score ?16) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A, score ?8), respectively. Glucose metabolism status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test. In the total study population the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety for the NGM, IGM and type 2 diabetes were 12.5, 12.2 and 21.0% (P?=?0.004) and 15.0, 15.3 and 19.9% (p?=?0.216), respectively. In men, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 7.7, 9.5 and 19.6% (p<0.001), and in women 16.4, 15.8 and 22.6 (p?=?0.318), for participants with NGM, IGM and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Anxiety was not associated with glucose metabolism when stratified for sex. Intergroup differences (NGM vs. IGM and IGM vs. type 2 diabetes) revealed that higher prevalences of depressive symptoms are mainly manifested in participants with type 2 diabetes, and not in participants with IGM. Conclusions Depressive symptoms, but not anxiety are associated with glucose metabolism. This association is mainly determined by a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in participants with type 2 diabetes and not in participants with IGM.
Bouwman, Vanessa; Adriaanse, Marcel C.; van 't Riet, Esther; Snoek, Frank J.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Nijpels, Giel
Objective: To assess the influence of genetic and environmental risk factors upon postpartum depression. Design: Case-control, prospective study. Setting: The University of California at San Francisco Obstetric and Gynecology Clinic. Participants: Mothers screened for postpartum depression six weeks after delivery with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and recruited as cases and controls. Measurements: Eligible subjects completed a series of assessments and a structured clinical interview to confirm diagnosis of depression. Deoxyribonucleic acid was obtained for genotyping of 81 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 genes hypothesized to be postpartum depression-related. Results: Twenty-four cases and 24 controls were eligible for analysis. Three single necleotide polymorphisms in the serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A) gene were associated with postpartum depression. The strongest association at a functional promoter polymorphism (rs6311), a functional promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (p=0.002, odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval:0.10-0.63), was a finding robust to population stratification. Gene-wide association was significant for HTR2A (permuted p=0.008), but not when corrected for all 12 genes. Analysis of demographic and psychosocial risk factors identified distressed relationship, unplanned pregnancy, and a previous history of depression as significant predictive variables (p?0.05). Conclusions: This pilot data suggests deoxyribonucleic acid variations in HTR2A may be associated with postpartum depression. Psychosocial variables were also identified as risk factors. The relative influence of these variables on the manifestation of postpartum depression is yet to be determined.
Hamilton, Steven P.; Abel, Rebecca; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Patricia A.; Finley, Patrick R.
This study was conducted to investigate the association between the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) and depression in COPD patients. The Korean versions of the CAT and patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used to assess COPD symptoms and depressive disorder, respectively. In total, 803 patients with COPD were enrolled from 32 hospitals and the prevalence of depression was 23.8%. The CAT score correlated well with the PHQ-9 score (r=0.631; P<0.001) and was significantly associated with the presence of depression (?±standard error, 0.452±0.020; P<0.001). There was a tendency toward increasing severity of depression in patients with higher CAT scores. By assessment groups based on the 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, the prevalence of depression was affected more by current symptoms than by airway limitation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the CAT was 0.849 for predicting depression, and CAT scores ?21 had the highest accuracy rate (80.6%). Among the eight CAT items, energy score showed the best correlation and highest power of discrimination. CAT scores are significantly associated with the presence of depression and have good performance for predicting depression in COPD patients.
Lee, Young Seok; Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Young Sam; In, Kwang Ho; Jung, Bock Hyun; Lee, Kwan Ho; Ra, Seung Won; Hwang, Yong Il; Park, Yong-Bum
Although psychological resilience has been shown to 'buffer' against depression following major stressors, no studies have reported on this relationship within the prostate cancer (PCa) population, many of whom are at elevated risk of depression, health problems and suicide. To investigate the effects of resilience upon anxiety and depression in the PCa population, postal surveys of 425 PCa patients were collected from two sites: 189 PCa patients at site 1 and 236 at site 2. Background data plus responses to depression and resilience scales were collected. Results indicated that total resilience score was a significant buffer against depression across both sites. Resilience had different underlying component factor structures across sites, but only one (common) factor significantly (inversely) predicted depression. Within that factor, only some specific items significantly predicted depression scores, suggesting a focused relationship between resilience and depression. It may be concluded that measures of resilience may be used to screen depression at-risk PCa patients. These patients might benefit from resilience training to enhance their ability to cope effectively with the stress of their diagnosis and treatment. A focus upon specific aspects of overall resilience may be of further benefit in both these processes. PMID:24506500
Sharpley, C F; Bitsika, V; Wootten, A C; Christie, D R H
Background & Aims To evaluate the risk of depressive disorders among non-alcoholic patients by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of a matched cohort of 52 725 participants (10 545 non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 42 180 control patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 11 years to determine the rates of newly onset depressive disorders, and Cox regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with depressive disorders in cirrhotic patients. Results During the 11-year follow-up period, 395 (3.75%) non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and 1 183 (2.80%) control patients were diagnosed with depressive disorders. The incidence risk ratio of depressive disorders between non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients and control patients was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.57–1.98, P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients were 1.75 times more likely to develop depressive disorders (95% CI, 1.56–1.96, P<.001) compared with the control patients. The hazard ratios for patients younger than 60 years old (1.31) and female (1.25) indicated that each is an independent risk factor for depressive disorders in non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Conclusions The likelihood of developing depressive disorders is greater among non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients than among patients without cirrhosis. Symptoms of depression should be sought in patients with cirrhosis.
Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Hung, Yi-Ping; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Hu, Yu-Wen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Pan-Ming; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Min-Wei
BackgroundThe course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known.Aims(1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum
Vicenta Escribà-Agüir; Lucía Artazcoz
Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common health problem currently without any optimal treatments. Acupuncture has been traditionally sought as a treatment for FD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether acupuncture treatment helps improve symptoms of FD. Methods/design A two-center, randomized, waitlist-controlled trial will be carried out to evaluate whether acupuncture treatment improves FD symptoms. Seventy six participants aged 18 to 75 years with FD as diagnosed by Rome III criteria will be recruited from August 2013 to January 2014 at two Korean Medicine hospitals. They will be randomly allocated either into eight sessions of partially individualized acupuncture treatment over 4 weeks or a waitlist group. The acupuncture group will then be followed-up for 3 weeks with six telephone visits and a final visit will be paid at 8 weeks. The waitlist group will receive the identical acupuncture treatment after a 4-week waiting period. The primary outcome is the proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief and the secondary outcomes include Nepean dyspepsia index, EQ-5D, FD-related quality of life, Beck’s depression inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire, and level of ghrelin hormone. The protocol was approved by the participating centers’ Institutional Review Boards. Discussion Results of this trial will help clarify not only whether the acupuncture treatment is beneficial for symptom improvement in FD patients but also to elucidate the related mechanisms of how acupuncture might work. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01921504.
This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of using the Saskatchewan Health administrative claims databases for conducting depression research. To develop a claims-based definition of depression, we identified a cohort of individuals who began a “new” period of antidepressant use (no use 180 days prior) from which we selected a stratified random sample (n = 600) for medical record
Suzanne L West; Anke Richter; Catherine A Melfi; Mary McNutt; Marianne E Nennstiel; Josephine A Mauskopf
BackgroundThe original serotonergic and noradrenergic hypotheses do not fully account for the neurobiology of depression or mechanism of action of effective antidepressants. Research implicates a potential role of the dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The current study was undertaken as a proof of the concept that dopamine agonists will be effective in patients with bipolar II depression.
Carlos A Zarate; Jennifer L Payne; Jaskaran Singh; Jorge A Quiroz; David A Luckenbaugh; Kirk D Denicoff; Dennis S Charney; Husseini K Manji
The author reviews conceptual and empirical issues regarding the interaction of neurasthenia, somatization and depression in Chinese culture and in the West. The historical background of neurasthenia and its current status are discussed, along with the epidemiology and phenomenology of somatization and depression. Findings are presented from a combined clinical and anthropological field study of 100 patients with neurasthenia in
Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…
Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John
Major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence are common and serious mental illnesses. There is a great interest in discovering useful treatments for both mood symptoms and alcohol abuse in those patients with depressive disorders and comorbid alcohol dependence. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of mirtazapine for the treatment of patients with alcohol
Su-Jung Yoon; Chi-Un Pae; Dai-Jin Kim; Kee Namkoong; Eun Lee; Dong-Yul Oh; Young-Sik Lee; Dong-Hwan Shin; Young-Cheol Jeong; Joon-Hong Kim; Sung-Bin Choi; In-Bok Hwang; Young-Chul Shin; Sung-Nam Cho; Hae Kook Lee; Chung Tai Lee
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…
Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.
Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…
Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.
The current study used longitudinal data (N = 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and…
Galambos, Nancy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Barker, Erin T.
Introduction: We investigated the relationship between depressive illness and personality traits from the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) using data from a family study. Methods: The first-degree relatives of a series of 89 probands with RDC major depression (MD) were subdivided by their lifetime RDC diagnosis into: (1) relatives recovered from MD (n = 34); (2) never-ill relatives (n = 45).
Conor Duggan; Pak Sham; Alan Lee; Carrine Minne; Robin Murray
This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…
Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.
Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…
Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.
The objective of this study was to investigate the link between the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) scores and depressive symptomatology with reasoning performance induced by a task including valid and invalid Aristotelian syllogisms. The EPQ and the Zung Depressive Scale (ZDS) were completed by 48 healthy subjects (27 male, 21 female)…
Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Rabavilas, Andreas D.; Stachtea, Xanthy; Giannakakis, Giorgos A.; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Papadimitriou, George N.; Stefanis, Costas N.
Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…
March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto
Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Method: Potential baseline…
Curry, John; Rohde, Paul; Simons, Anne; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher; Reinecke, Mark; Feeny, Norah; Wells, Karen; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, David; Kennard, Betsy; Robins, Michele; Ginsburg, Golda; March, John
There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…
Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen
Background: A comprehensive assessment of the wide spectrum of depressive symptomatology, particularly in its subclinical forms, is lacking in standard rating scales. There is also an emerging need for instruments that can detect small differences in therapeutic studies and have good sensitivity. The purpose of this paper is to review the clinimetric characteristics of Paykel’s Clinical Interview for Depression (CID)
Jenny Guidi; Giovanni A. Fava; Per Bech; Eugene Paykel
The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of children's problems. One hundred and nineteen mother-child dyads were followed from the third trimester of pregnancy for almost 10 years. Depressive symptoms and background factors of the mothers and the anticipated/perceived…
Luoma, Ilona; Kaukonen, Palvi; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Tamminen, Tuula; Salmelin, Raili
Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists.
Background: Stress has touched almost all professions posing threat to mental and physical health. India being the Information Technology (IT) hub with lakhs involved as IT Professionals, there is a need to assess prevalence of professional stress, depression and problem alcohol use and understand their association. Objectives: (1) To screen for the prevalence of professional stress, risk for depression and harmful alcohol use among software engineers. (2) To study the association between professional stress, risk for depression and harmful alcohol use. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional online study conducted using screeing questionnaires like professional life stress scale, centre for epidemiological studies depression scale and alcohol use disorders identification test. This study was conducted specifically on professionals working in an IT firm with the designation of a software engineer. Results: A total of 129 subjects participated in the study. 51.2% of the study sample was found to be professionally stressed at the time of the interview. 43.4% of the study population were found to be at risk for developing depression. 68.2% of those who were professionally stressed were at risk for developing depression compared with only 17.5% of those who were not professionally stressed. Odds ratio revealed that subjects who were professionally stressed had 10 times higher risk for developing depression compared to those who were not professionally stressed. Subjects who were professionally stressed had 5.9 times higher prevalence of harmful alcohol use compared to those who were not professionally stressed. Subjects who were at risk for developing depression had 4.1 times higher prevalence of harmful alcohol use compared with those who were not at risk for developing depression. Conclusion: Such higher rates of professional stress, risk for developing depression and harmful alcohol use among software engineers could hinder the progress of IT development and also significantly increase the incidence of psychiatric disorders.
Darshan, M. S.; Raman, Rajesh; Rao, T. S. Sathyanarayana; Ram, Dushad; Annigeri, Bindu
Objectives This preliminary study examines the efficacy of 12-week home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) vs. home-delivered Supportive Therapy (ST) in reducing depression and disability in 30 depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled older adults. Design A 12-week randomized clinical trial. Research assistants were unaware of the participants' randomization status. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Setting Weill Cornell - Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research (ACISR). Participants Thirty elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability were recruited through advertisement and the Home-Delivered Meals Program of the Westchester County Department of Senior Programs and Services. Intervention PATH is a home-delivered intervention designed to reduce depression and disability in depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled elders. PATH is based on Problem Solving Therapy (PST) and integrates environmental adaptation and caregiver participation. PATH is consistent with Lawton's ecological model of adaptive functioning in aging. Measurements Depression and disability were measured with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale – 24 items and Sheehan Disability Scale, respectively. Client Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction with treatment. Results Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that PATH was more efficacious than ST in reducing depression and disability at 12 weeks. Participants in both treatment groups were satisfied with treatment. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that PATH is well accepted and efficacious in depressed elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. Because this population may not adequately respond to antidepressant medication treatment, PATH may provide relief to many patients who would otherwise remain depressed and suffer.
Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Arean, Patricia A.; Teri, Linda; Alexopoulos, George S.
The present study is based on the so-called 1957 Lundby cohort, a geographically defined normal Swedish population of 2612 individuals who were evaluated for mental disorders in 1957 and 1972. The annual age-standardised first incidence of depression, with or without other psychiatric symptoms, all degrees of impairment included, was found to be 4.3 per 1000 person years in men and 7.6 per 1000 person years in women. Up until 70 years of age, the cumulative probability of suffering a first episode of depression was 27% in men and 45% in women. PMID:2346831
Rorsman, B; Gräsbeck, A; Hagnell, O; Lanke, J; Ohman, R; Ojesjö, L; Otterbeck, L
Background Depression is the most widely acknowledged psychological problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Depression may be associated with VD deficiency. The aims of this study are to (a) elucidate the prospective association between HsCRP, VD contents and depressive symptoms in the dialyzed population, and (b) find the effect of calcitriol supplementation on depression in dialyzed patients. Methods In this prospective study, 484 dialysis patients (382 hemodialysis [HD] cases and 102 peritoneal dialysis [PD] cases; aged 18–60 years) from two hospitals in southeast China were included. The depression in these patients was evaluated using the Chinese version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). All subjects answered the BDI-I questionnaire for assessment of depression levels in summer. A cut-off value of 16 was set to include dialysis patients with depression. All patients were divided into two groups depending on the absence (Group1) or presence (Group 2) of depression. The two groups took 0.5 ?g/day 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D orally for one year. BDI Scores were recalculated for all patients. Sociodemographic, clinical data, and serum VD contents were also collected. Results A total of 484 participants (247 men [51.0%] and 237 women [49.0%]) were surveyed. Depressive symptoms were found in 213 (44.0%) patients. The baseline serum VD level (VD2?+?VD3) was 17.6?±?7.7 nmol/L. Patients with depressive symptoms have significantly higher serum HsCRP level and significantly lower serum VD level compared with the control group. After one-year follow-up, the supplementation of 0.5 ?g/day calcitriol slightly improved the microinflammatory state such as lowering mean serum HsCRP level and improving serum VD level, but not in significantly enhancing the depressive symptoms. Conclusions Calcitriol supplementation did not significantly enhance the depressive symptoms in our dialyzed population although patients with low levels of serum VD were more depressed. Therefore, more prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to reveal the exact cause-and-effect relationship between VD status and depressive symptoms or VD status related to some specific subtypes in dialyzed patients.
Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in children’s health and development.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD.
Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.
Background Several studies have been conducted in Iran in order to investigate the prevalence of depression among infertile couples. However, there is a remarkable diversity among the results. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate an overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran. Methods: International and national electronic databases were searched up to June 2011 including MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, SID, MagIran, and IranMedex as well as conference databases. Furthermore, reference lists of articles were screened and the studies’ authors were contacted for additional references. Cross-sectional studies addressing the prevalence of depression among infertile couples were included in this meta-analysis. We assessed 12 separate studies involving overall 2818 participants of which 1251 had depression. Results: Overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.55). The prevalence rate of depression was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.56) during 2000 to 2005 and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.57 during 2006 to 2011. The prevalence rate of depression was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.53) among women and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.54) among men. Conclusion: Not only the prevalence of depression in infertile couples was high but also had increasing growth in recent years. Furthermore, despite many studies conducted addressing the prevalence of depression in infertile couples, there is however a remarkable diversity between the results. Thus, one can hardly give a precise estimation of the prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran now.
MASOUMI, Seyyedeh Zahra; POOROLAJAL, Jalal; KERAMAT, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Seyyed Abbas
PURPOSE Postpartum depression is common but inadequately recognized and undertreated. Continuing depressive symptoms are associated with adverse outcomes for the woman, her infant, and family. We wanted to determine the effect of a practice-based training program for screening, diagnosis, and management of depression in postpartum mothers. METHODS In this practice-based effectiveness study, 28 practices were randomized to usual care (n = 14) or intervention (n = 14), and 2,343 women were enrolled between 5 and 12 weeks’ postpartum. The intervention sites received education and tools for postpartum depression screening, diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and follow-up within their practices. Usual-care practices received a 30-minute presentation about postpartum depression. Screening information for the usual care was obtained from baseline surveys sent directly to the central site but was not available for patient care. Outcomes were based on patient-reported outcomes (level of depressive symptoms) from surveys at 6 and 12 months, plus medical record review (diagnosis and therapy initiation). RESULTS Among the 2,343 women enrolled, 1,897 (80.1%) provided outcome information, and were included in the analysis. Overall, 654 (34.5% of 1,897) women had elevated screening scores indicative of depression, with comparable rates in the intervention and usual-care groups. Among the 654 women with elevated postpartum depression screening scores, those in the intervention practices were more likely to receive a diagnosis (P = .0006) and therapy for postpartum depression (P = .002). They also had lower depressive symptom levels at 6 (P = .07) and 12 months’ (P=.001) postpartum. CONCLUSIONS Primary care–based screening, diagnosis, and management improved mother’s depression outcomes at 12 months. This practical approach could be implemented widely with modest resources.
Yawn, Barbara P.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Wollan, Peter; Bertram, Susan; Graham, Debbie; Huff, Jessica; Kurland, Margary; Madison, Suzanne; Pace, Wilson D.
Objectives. We investigated whether, over time, baseline obesity is associated with change in depressive symptoms or if baseline symptoms of depression are associated with change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Methods. We used latent growth curve modeling to examine data from years 5, 10, 15, and 20 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (n = 4643). We assessed depressive symptomatology with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Results. Respondents who started out with higher levels of depressive symptoms experienced a faster rate of increase in BMI (for Whites only) and waist circumference (for Blacks and Whites) over time than did those who reported fewer symptoms of depression in year 5. Initial BMI and waist circumference did not influence the rate of change in symptoms of depression over time. Conclusions. Depressive symptomatology likely plays a role in the development of physical health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, through its association with increases in relative weight and abdominal obesity over time.
Epel, Elissa S.; Adler, Nancy E.; Kiefe, Catarina
Post-menopausal women experience variable biological and psychological changes. The effect of reduced levels of estrogen can effect on post-menopausal depression. Estrogen triggers physiological responses by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Two subtypes of ER, ERa and ERb are now known. We investigated the significance of ERa and ERb polymorphisms and post-menopasal depression in this study. Forty three women with post-menopausal depression and 63 post-menopausal women without depression as normal controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to investigate genotypes of ERa and ERb polymorphisms. Genotypes of PvuII and XbaI polymorphism of ERa receptor were significantly different in patients with post-menopausal depression comparing with controls. Genotypes of ERb did not show association with post-menopausal depression. Our study showed that ERa receptor polymorphism had an association with depression in post-menopausal women. It suggests that investigation of ER genes and their functions might be important for understanding pathophysilogical mechanism of post-menopausal depression.
Pae, Chi Un; Kim, Mi Ran; Min, Jung Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Chang Uk; Lee, Chul; Paik, In Ho
We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2) Performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack need to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. The results suggest that in order to improve the performance of a communication network, it will be important to study the entire protocol stuck as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the 7 layer OSI stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point.
Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)
Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061
Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B
Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.
Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela
Background While pain is frequently associated with unipolar depression, few studies have investigated the link between pain and bipolar depression. In the present study we estimated the prevalence and characteristics of pain among patients with bipolar depression treated by psychiatrists in their regular clinical practice. The study was designed to identify factors associated with the manifestation of pain in these patients. Methods Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n=121) were selected to participate in a cross-sectional study in which DSM-IV-TR criteria were employed to identify depressive episodes. The patients were asked to describe any pain experienced during the study, and in the 6 weeks beforehand, by means of a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS). Results Over half of the bipolar depressed patients (51.2%, 95% CI: 41.9%–60.6%), and 2/3 of the female experienced concomitant pain. The pain was of moderate to severe intensity and prolonged duration, and it occurred at multiple sites, significantly limiting the patient’s everyday activities. The most important factors associated with the presence of pain were older age, sleep disorders and delayed diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Conclusions Chronic pain is common in bipolar depressed patients, and it is related to sleep disorders and delayed diagnosis of their disorder. More attention should be paid to study the presence of pain in bipolar depressed patients, in order to achieve more accurate diagnoses and to provide better treatment options.
Childhood loneliness is characterised by children's perceived dissatisfaction with aspects of their social relationships. This 8-year prospective study investigates whether loneliness in childhood predicts depressive symptoms in adolescence, controlling for early childhood indicators of emotional problems and a sociometric measure of peer social preference. 296 children were tested in the infant years of primary school (T1 5 years of age), in the upper primary school (T2 9 years of age) and in secondary school (T3 13 years of age). At T1, children completed the loneliness assessment and sociometric interview. Their teachers completed externalisation and internalisation rating scales for each child. At T2, children completed a loneliness assessment, a measure of depressive symptoms, and the sociometric interview. At T3, children completed the depressive symptom assessment. An SEM analysis showed that depressive symptoms in early adolescence (age 13) were predicted by reports of depressive symptoms at age 8, which were themselves predicted by internalisation in the infant school (5 years). The interactive effect of loneliness at 5 and 9, indicative of prolonged loneliness in childhood, also predicted depressive symptoms at age 13. Parent and peer-related loneliness at age 5 and 9, peer acceptance variables, and duration of parent loneliness did not predict depression. Our results suggest that enduring peer-related loneliness during childhood constitutes an interpersonal stressor that predisposes children to adolescent depressive symptoms. Possible mediators are discussed. PMID:19777287
Qualter, Pamela; Brown, Stephen L; Munn, Penny; Rotenberg, Ken J
Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.
Objective As part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the antidepressant action of oral chamomile (Matricaria recutita) extract in subjects with co-morbid anxiety and depression symptoms. We hypothesized that chamomile may demonstrate a clinically meaningful antidepressant activity versus placebo. Methods 57 subjects received either chamomile extract or placebo therapy. Nineteen subjects had anxiety with co-morbid depression, 16 had anxiety with past history of depression, and 22 had anxiety with no current or past depression. Generalized estimating equations analysis was used to identify clinically meaningful changes over time in Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D) rating outcome measures among treatment groups. Results We observed a significantly greater reduction in mean total HAM-D scores (p<0.05) and HAM-D core depression item score (p<0.05) for chamomile versus placebo in all subjects, and a non-significant trend for a greater reduction in HAM-D core depression score for chamomile versus placebo in subjects with anxiety with current co-morbid depression (p=0.062). Conclusion Chamomile may have clinically meaningful antidepressant activity that occurs in addition to its previously observed anxiolytic activity.
Amsterdam, Jay D.; Shults, Justine; Soeller, Irene; Mao, Jun James; Rockwell, Kenneth; Newberg, Andrew B.
Abstract Object: The high prevalence and negative consequences of depression in caregivers have led to the development of depression prevention programs for this population. Their efficacy might be influenced by depression risk factors, and different interventions might fit specific caregiver profiles. Study goals were to examine (1) which subgroups of female caregivers had the highest likelihood of major depression (MDD) onset by 12-month follow-up based on depression risk factors and participation in two depression prevention programs, and (2) specific MDD predictors for each prevention approach. Method: Data were analyzed from two randomized trials: (1) cognitive-behavioral group (CB) vs. usual care (UC); n = 165; (2) problem-solving group (PS) vs. UC; n =165 (mean age = 54.5). Results: Classification tree analysis showed that emotional distress (ED) was the strongest predictor in both trials. Additional MDD predictors were (i) lower age (for caregivers with low ED); (ii) working outside the home (for caregivers with intermediate ED); and (iii) higher autonomy in the care-recipient (for homemakers). The strongest predictors for each prevention intervention were lower age for CB, higher social class for PS, and ED and depressive symptoms for UC. Conclusions: Results implicate the utility of emotional distress for depression screening and the need to develop tailored interventions. PMID:24274260
Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L; Torres, Angela
The provision of mental health services to immigrants in the Netherlands is hampered by difficulty in establishing valid diagnoses of psychiatric disorders. To improve the process of diagnosing depressive disorder among Turkish women in Dutch mental healthcare, we conducted a qualitative study of women with depression in Rotterdam. A bilingual Turkish-Dutch diagnostic interview was developed to explore Turkish women's idioms of distress. Interviews were conducted with 20 women with a disputed diagnosis of depression. Results showed that distress among the Turkish women was characterized by a wide range of somatic complaints, with anxiety and agitation occurring as frequently as depressive complaints. Because the range of complaints is so varied, major depression may be underdiagnosed in the Turkish immigrant population. PMID:22016465
Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD), based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007). A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsiveness at pre- and posttreatment. Following treatment, the patient exhibited attenuated depression and changes in blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) response in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the subgenual cingulate cortex. These preliminary findings outline a novel means to assess psychotherapy efficacy and suggest that BATD elicits functional brain changes in areas implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Further research is necessary to explore neurobiological mechanisms of change in BATD, particularly the potential mediating effects of reward responsiveness and associated brain functioning.
Gawrysiak, Michael J.; Carvalho, John P.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Nicholas, Christopher R. N.; Dougherty, John H.; Hopko, Derek R.
Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.
Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Perez-Lopez, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter
This presents the protocol used in the Recurrence Study (Phase III) of the National Cooperative Gallstone Study. The aim of this double-blind, randomized control trial is to determine the following factors in patients from the Phase II trial in whom chole...
Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit stronger causal inferences. Determining whether discrepancies are an antecedent of depressive symptoms, a consequence of depressive symptoms, or both is critical to understanding the discrepancies-depressive symptoms relationship. Knowledge about the temporal stability of discrepancies is also only starting to emerge, and it is unclear whether discrepancies predict incremental variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond neuroticism (i.e., a dispositional tendency to experience negative emotional states). The present study tested relationships among discrepancies, neuroticism, and depressive symptoms in 127 1st-year undergraduates using a 3-wave longitudinal design. Results suggest discrepancies may be understood as a trait-state where people are both highly consistent in their rank order on discrepancies and fluctuate somewhat in the level of discrepancies they experience at a particular point in time. As hypothesized, discrepancies predicted increases in depressive symptoms, even after controlling for neuroticism. Contrary to hypotheses, depressive symptoms did not predict changes in discrepancies. This study extends a long tradition of theory noting the depressing consequences of believing that one has fallen short of one's own standards. Harsh self-criticism and unobtainable self-expectations involving a strong sense of imperfection may be part of the premorbid personality of people vulnerable to depressive symptoms. PMID:23106821
Sherry, Simon B; Mackinnon, Sean P; Macneil, Matthew A; Fitzpatrick, Skye
Objective: Late-life depression has been associated with frontostriatal abnormalities that are thought to lead to deficits of cognitive inhibition. However, it remains unclear, whether age-of-onset identifies subgroups of depression. The objective of this study was to compare cognitive inhibition in depressed women aged 60 and older, according to age of the first onset depression (before or after 60 years old). Methods: We compared 10 currently depressed women (HDRS-17 ?18) with a late-onset depression to 10 depressed women with an early-onset depression, and to 10 healthy controls. We examined cognitive inhibition (Stroop, Hayling, Go/No-Go), shifting (TMT), updating in working memory (WAIS) and executive functions (BREF). All groups were matched for age, education level, and MMSE score (MMSE ?24). Results: Depressed elderly women with a late and an early-onset depression had a greater impairment in executive functions and cognitive inhibition compared with healthy controls (p<0,001), but without significant differences according to the age of the first onset depression. Futhermore, late-onset depression in women was significantly correlated with a deficit of cognitive inhibition (rs=0.55; p=0.012). Conclusion: Cognitive inhibition should be assessed in late-life depression. Interventions may be developed to specifically target cognitive impairment in the prevention of late-life depression, to identify those who are the most vulnerable to relapse. PMID:23015233
Deguigne, Florence; Jollant, Fabrice; Lhuillier, Jean-Paul; Garre, Jean-Bernard; Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane
This study describes a culturally relevant intervention using a collaborative depression care model to integrate mental health and primary care services for depressed low income Chinese-Americans at a community health center. A total of 6,065 patients were screened for depression. Of the 341 who screened positive, 57 participated and were randomly assigned to receive either enhanced physician care with care management (32) or enhanced physician care only (25). All enrolled participants were assessed at baseline and 4 monthly follow-up visits for depression, physical and mental health functioning, and perceived stigma toward receiving depression care, to determine the impact, if any, of their mental health treatment. Both groups reported significant reduction of depressive symptoms and improved mental health functioning from baseline to follow-up assessments although there was no significant difference between the two groups. Although the study found no advantage to adding the care management component in the treatment of depression, screening and assertive treatment of immigrant Chinese Americans who tend to underutilize mental health services is important and consistent with the increased adoption of team based care models in patient centered medical homes. High refusal rates for enrollment in the study have implications for future study designs for this group. PMID:22015960
Kwong, Kenny; Chung, Henry; Cheal, Karen; Chou, Jolene C; Chen, Teddy
Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants). The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18) who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants) and at 4 month follow-up to see if improvements persist. Measures of treatment adherence, pain, disability, and anxiety and depression will be assessed throughout study participation. Qualitative interviews for mentors, mentored participants, and control subjects will also be administered. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01118988.
The vulnerability to depression and the antecedents for depression were collected and analyzed for an epidemiological pilot study of depression. Results of one test showed those categorized as 'invulnerables' as having a more positive opinion of their soc...
P. M. Lewinsohn
Background\\/Aims: A third of individuals are depressed following stroke. A similar proportion have aphasia. The extent of their inclusion in depression following stroke studies affects the generalizability of findings. Methods: We systematically reviewed published studies (to December 2005) that diagnosed depression following stroke. We identified aphasia screening methods, aphasia exclusion and inclusion criteria and respective numbers of individuals with aphasia.
Ellen Townend; Marian Brady; Kirsty McLaughlan
Background Many clinical studies are ultimately not fully published in peer-reviewed journals. Underreporting of clinical research is wasteful and can result in biased estimates of treatment effect or harm, leading to recommendations that are inappropriate or even dangerous. Methods We assembled a cohort of clinical studies approved 2000–2002 by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Freiburg, Germany. Published full articles were searched in electronic databases and investigators contacted. Data on study characteristics were extracted from protocols and corresponding publications. We characterized the cohort, quantified its publication outcome and compared protocols and publications for selected aspects. Results Of 917 approved studies, 807 were started and 110 were not, either locally or as a whole. Of the started studies, 576 (71%) were completed according to protocol, 128 (16%) discontinued and 42 (5%) are still ongoing; for 61 (8%) there was no information about their course. We identified 782 full publications corresponding to 419 of the 807 initiated studies; the publication proportion was 52% (95% CI: 0.48–0.55). Study design was not significantly associated with subsequent publication. Multicentre status, international collaboration, large sample size and commercial or non-commercial funding were positively associated with subsequent publication. Commercial funding was mentioned in 203 (48%) protocols and in 205 (49%) of the publications. In most published studies (339; 81%) this information corresponded between protocol and publication. Most studies were published in English (367; 88%); some in German (25; 6%) or both languages (27; 6%). The local investigators were listed as (co-)authors in the publications corresponding to 259 (62%) studies. Conclusion Half of the clinical research conducted at a large German university medical centre remains unpublished; future research is built on an incomplete database. Research resources are likely wasted as neither health care professionals nor patients nor policy makers can use the results when making decisions.
Blumle, Anette; Meerpohl, Joerg J.; Schumacher, Martin; von Elm, Erik
VANETs has emerged as the new network environment for intelligent transportations systems. In this paper, we focus on two types of VANET applications and evaluate the effectiveness of our data dissemination protocol for these two types of applications. In particular, we investigate traffic monitoring (TM) and roadside message transfer (RMT) applications. The traffic monitoring application (TMA) allows drivers to query
Mooi Choo Chuah; Fen Fu
Instant messaging (IM) and network chat communication have seen an enormous rise in popularity over the last several years. However, since many of these systems are proprietary, little has been described about the network technology behind them. This analysis helps bridge this gap by providing an overview of the available features, functions, system architectures, and protocol specifications of the three
Raymond B. Jennings III; Erich M. Nahum; David P. Olshefski; Debanjan Saha; Zon-yin Shae; Chris Waters
This paper describes the in depth performance comparison and evaluation among three major solutions for forming multi-hop networks of Bluetooth devices (scatternet formation). The three protocols considered in this paper are BlueTrees, BlueStars, and the \\
Mohammad Shafkat Amin; Fahima Amin Bhuyan
Background Clinical guidance recommends physical activity to manage patients with persistent subthreshold depressive symptoms or mild-to-moderate depression. However, little is known regarding the acceptability of physical activity as a treatment for depression from patients' perspective. Aim To explore patients' views of physical activity for the treatment of depression in the context of primary care. Design of study In-depth interviews were held with 33 participants taking part in a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of physical activity for the management of depression. Setting Primary care. Results Most participants perceived physical activity to be an acceptable treatment for depression. The mechanisms by which physical activity could enhance mood were attributed to a number of subjective benefits including biochemical pathways, providing a source of distraction from negative thoughts, and a sense of purpose. Participants who expressed a belief that their depression was caused by biochemical mechanisms reported activity that ‘raised the heartbeat’ as most beneficial, while those who believed depression was situational in origin tended to state the benefits of less-aerobic activities, such as walking. Many participants reported low motivation and a lack of confidence as barriers to undertaking physical activity. These patients suggested that medication could be helpful for initiating and maintaining activity. Conclusion Patients view physical activity as an effective treatment for depression. However, they vary in their views about how physical activity might impact on depression, what intensity and form of activity is necessary to enhance mood, and the barriers to undertaking activity. This variation suggests the need for GPs to elicit patients' views on physical activity as a treatment, and offer interventions that are tailored to the needs and expectations of individual patients.
Searle, Aidan; Calnan, Michael; Lewis, Glyn; Campbell, John; Taylor, Adrian; Turner, Katrina
Background Psychosocial stress may account for the higher prevalence of depression in women and in individuals with a low educational background. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between depression and socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and lifestyle circumstances from a gender perspective in a relatively affluent primary care setting. Methods Patients, aged 18- 75 years, visiting a drop-in clinic at a primary care health centre were screened with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The physicians used also targeted screening with BDI. A questionnaire on socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Among patients, who scored BDI ?10, DSM-IV-criteria were used to diagnose depression. Of the 404 participants, 48 men and 76 women were diagnosed with depression. The reference group consisted of patients with BDI score <10, 187 men and 93 women. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) as being depressed were calculated for the psychosocial stressors and lifestyle circumstances, separately for men and women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the age-adjusted main effect models for men and women. Results The same three psychosocial stressors: feeling very stressed, perceived poor physical health and being dissatisfied with one's family situation were associated with depression equally in men and women. The negative predictive values of the main effect models in men and women were 90.7% and 76.5%, respectively. Being dissatisfied with one's work situation had high ORs in both men and women. Unemployment and smoking were associated with depression in men only. Conclusions Three questions, frequently asked by physicians, which involve patient's family and working situation as well as perceived stress and physical health, could be used as depression indicators in early detection of depression in men and women in primary health care.
Depressive symptoms have been shown to independently affect both antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV clinical outcomes in high-income countries. We examined the prospective relationship between depressive symptoms and adherence, virologic failure, and suppressed immune function in people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. Data from 403 study participants who were on stable ART and engaged in HIV clinical care were analyzed. We assessed crude and adjusted associations of depressive symptoms and ART adherence, both at baseline and at 12 months, using logistic regression. We used logistic generalized estimating equations to assess the association and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between depressive symptoms and both virologic failure and suppressed immune function. Ten percent of participants reported moderate or severe depressive symptoms at baseline and 31% of participants experienced virologic failure (>150 copies/ml) over two years. Depressive symptoms were associated with greater odds of reported medication nonadherence at both baseline (Odds Ratio [OR] per 1-unit increase ?=?1.18, 95% CI [1.12, 1.24]) and 12 months (OR ?=?1.08, 95% CI [1.03, 1.14]). By contrast, increases in depressive symptom score were inversely related to both virologic failure (OR?=?0.93, 95% CI [0.87, 1.00]) and immune system suppression (OR?=?0.88, 95% CI [0.79, 0.99]), though the association between depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes was less precise than for the association with nonadherence. Findings indicate a positive association between depressive symptoms and nonadherence, and also an inverse relationship between depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes, possibly due to informative loss to follow-up.
Belenky, Nadya M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Pence, Brian W.; Itemba, Dafrosa; Maro, Venance; Whetten, Kathryn
Literature on depression in rural and Hispanic elderly adults is sparse. This report describes the prevalence of depressive symptoms in 1,151 community-dwelling, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White participants in the San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study, conducted in rural Colorado during 1993-1995. The prevalence and odds ratios of high depressive symptoms, defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
Carolyn J. Swenson; Judith Baxter; Susan M. Shetterly; Sharon L. Scarbro; Richard F. Hamman
The combination of shortened telomeres, a biological marker of aging associated with cancer development, and elevated depression significantly impacted bladder cancer mortality, according to data presented at the 11th Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research. As part of an ongoing, large-scale epidemiologic study of bladder cancer, researchers from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston collected clinical and mental health information on 464 patients with bladder cancer. They assessed patients' depression levels with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.
Previous studies have suggested that adolescent mothers with higher social support have lower depressive symptoms. This is\\u000a a longitudinal study of adolescent mothers to examine the association of social support and depressive symptoms over one year\\u000a postpartum. This was a prospective study of adolescent mothers (N at baseline = 120, N at 1 year = 89; age < 19 years) enrolled\\u000a in a teen tot program. Participants completed
Joanna D. Brown; Sion Kim Harris; Elizabeth R. Woods; Matthew P. Buman; Joanne E. Cox
Depression in survivors of stroke is both common and clinically relevant. It is associated with excess suffering, handicap,\\u000a suicidal ideation and mortality and it hampers rehabilitation. Most of the data currently available are derived from clinical\\u000a studies. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of depression in survivors\\u000a of stroke, in a
A. T. F. Beekman; B. W. J. H. Penninx; D. J. H. Deeg; J. Ormel; J. H. Smit; A. W. Braam; W. van Tilburg
Objective:To examine the association between body size and depression in a longitudinal setting and to explore the connection between obesity and depression in young adults at the age of 31 years.Design:This study forms part of the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study (N=12 058). The follow-up studies were performed at 14 and 31 years. Data were collected by postal
A Herva; J Laitinen; J Miettunen; J Veijola; J T Karvonen; K Läksy; M Joukamaa
Context Although the prevalence of depression among medical interns substantially exceeds that of the general population, the specific factors responsible are not well understood. Recent reports of a moderating effect of a genetic polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter protein gene on the likelihood that life stress will precipitate depression may help to understand the development of mood symptoms in medical interns. Objective To identify psychological, demographic and residency program factors that associate with depression among interns and use medical internship as a model to study the moderating effects of this polymorphism using a prospective, within-subject design that addresses the design limitations of earlier studies. Design Prospective cohort study Setting 13 United States hospitals Participants 740 interns entering participating residency programs Main outcome measures Subjects were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a series of psychological traits and 5-HTTLPR genotype prior to internship and then assessed for depressive symptoms and potential stressors at 3-month intervals during internship. Results The PHQ-9 depression score increased from 2.4 prior to internship to a mean of 6.4 during internship (p<0.001). The proportion of participants who met PHQ-9 criteria for depression increased from 3.9% prior to internship to a mean of 25.7% during internship (p<0.001). A series of factors measured prior to internship (female sex, U.S. medical education, difficult early family environment, history of major depression, lower baseline depressive symptom score and higher neuroticism) and during internship (increased work hours, perceived medical errors and stressful life events) were associated with a greater increase in depressive symptoms during internship. In addition, subjects with at least one copy of a less transcribed 5-HTTLPR allele reported a greater increase in depressive symptoms under the stress of internship (p=0.002). Conclusions There is a marked increase in depressive symptoms during medical internship. Specific individual, internship and genetic factors are associated with the increase in depressive symptoms.
Sen, Srijan; Kranzler, Henry R.; Krystal, John H.; Speller, Heather; Chan, Grace; Gelernter, Joel; Guille, Constance
Introduction. Depression is one of the four major diseases in the world and is the most common cause of disability from diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression among Iranian university students using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods. Keyword depression was searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MAGIran, Medlib, and SID. Data was analyzed using meta-analysis (random-effects model). Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data was analyzed using STATA software Ver.10. Results. In 35 studies conducted in Iran from 1995 to 2012 with sample size of 9743, prevalence of depression in the university students was estimated to be 33% (95% CI: 32–34). The prevalence of depression among boys was estimated to be 28% (95% CI: 26–30), among girls 23% (95% CI: 22–24), single students 39% (95% CI: 37–41), and married students 20% (95% CI: 17–24). Metaregression model showed that the trend of depression among Iranian students was flat. Conclusions. On the whole, depression is common in university students with no preponderance between males and females and in single students is higher than married ones.
Sarokhani, Diana; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Sarokhani, Mohamad Taher; Manesh, Rohollah Esmaeli; Sayehmiri, Kourosh
Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, however the neural contribution to the high rate of depression in the PD group is still unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of depression in PD patients. Twenty-one healthy individuals and thirty-three patients with idiopathic PD, seventeen of whom were diagnosed with major depressive disorder, were recruited. An analysis of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was performed on the whole brain of all subjects. Our results showed that depressed PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and the rostral anterior cingulated cortex (rACC) compared with non-depressed PD patients. A significant positive correlation was found between Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and ALFF in the DLPFC. The findings of changed ALFF in these brain regions implied depression in PD patients may be associated with abnormal activities of prefrontal-limbic network.
Wen, Xuyun; Wu, Xia; Liu, Jiangtao; Li, Ke; Yao, Li
Background It is unclear whether risk for major depression during the menopausal transition or immediately thereafter is increased relative to premenopause. Objectives To examine whether the odds of experiencing major depression were greater when women were perimenopausal or postmenopausal compared to when they were premenopausal, independent of a history of major depression at study entry and annual measures of vasomotor symptoms, serum levels or changes in estradiol, follicular stimulating hormone, or testosterone and relevant confounders. Methods Participants included the 221 African American and Caucasian women, aged 42–52, who were premenopausal at entry into the Pittsburgh site of a community-based study of menopause, the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). We conducted the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) to assess diagnoses of lifetime, annual, and current major depression at baseline and annual follow-ups. Psychosocial and health factors, and blood samples for assay of reproductive hormones were obtained annually. Results Women were two to four times more likely to experience major depression episode when they were perimenopausal or early postmenopausal. Repeated measures logistic regression analyses showed that the effect of menopausal status was independent of history of major depression and annually measured upsetting life events, psychotropic medication use, vasomotor symptoms and serum levels of or changes in reproductive hormones. History of major depression was a strong predictor of major depression throughout the study. Conclusions The risk of major depression is greater for women during and immediately after the menopausal transition than when they are premenopausal.
Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Brown, Charlotte; Matthews, Karen A.
Objectives To examine the prevalence and correlates of elevated depressive symptoms in a 17-year cohort study of 173 women who were unmarried, pregnant adolescents between June 1988 and January 1990. Methods Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between correlates and elevated depressive symptoms during five distinct developmental periods of the life course. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory depression subscale. Results The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers significantly increased over the 17 years of the study from 19.8 % to 35.2%. In adjusted analyses, antenatal depressive symptoms were positively and significantly associated with elevated depressive symptoms at every developmental period. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was positively and significantly associated with elevated depressive symptoms at all but one developmental period. Other significant correlates of elevated depressive symptoms included welfare receipt, smoking and parity – all of which were significant at some, but not other, developmental periods. Conclusions Antenatal depressive symptoms and IPV were positively and significantly associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Given the public health consequences associated with maternal depression, clinical and community-based interventions should be developed to identify and to treat adolescent mothers at-risk for antenatal depression and IPV.
Gavin, Amelia R.; Lindhorst, Taryn; Lohr, Mary Jane
Weld pool depression, arc force, weld penetration, and their interrelations have been studied as a function of welding current. Pool depression and welding arc force have been measured simultaneously using a recently developed technique. The authors found quadratic dependence of arc force on current, confirming similar findings in previous studies. Pool depression is essentially zero below a threshold level of current (200 A in this experiment) and then increases quadratically with current. A perfectly linear relation between arc force and pool depression was found in the current range from 200 to 350 A, with pool depression onset at about 0.35 g force (0.34 [center dot] 10[sup [minus]2]N). The total surface tension and gravitational forces were calculated, from the measured surface topography, and found to be about five times that required to balance the arc force at 300 A. Thus electromagnetic and hydrodynamic forces must be taken into account to explain the measured levels of pool depression. The relation between weld penetration and pool depression for different welding currents has been established. Three distinct regimes of weld penetration on weld current were found.
Rokhlin, S.I.; Guu, A.C. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Welding Engineering)
ObjectiveThis study compared anxiety and depression in patients presenting with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) with those suffering from psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) to assess the link between these psychiatric pathologies and neurological symptoms.
I. Grimaldi; M. Dubuc; P. Kahane; T. Bougerol; L. Vercueil
Smoking to alleviate negative affect or improve physiological functioning (i.e., self-medication) is one explanation for the association between depression and smoking in adolescents. This study tests whether using cigarettes to improve mood or physiological functioning is associated with the onset, and change over time, of elevated depressive symptoms.Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens study which followed 1293
Michael Chaiton; Joanna Cohen; Jennifer O'Loughlin; Juergen Rehm
This study focuses on the role that appraisal of problem-solving skills plays in the relationship of stress to distress. 450 black South African university students completed the Life Experiences Survey, the Problem Solving Inventory, and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Multiple regression analysis indicated a direct effect for problem-solving appraisal on depression, but no support could be found for the stress-buffering effects of problem-solving appraisal. PMID:1454935
Pretorius, T B
Rationale Attentional and sensorimotor gating deficits in human depression are observed as residual symptoms irrespective of antidepressant\\u000a treatment. Clinical studies point to a benefit of modafinil in depression. No data are available on modafinil effects in depression-like\\u000a animal models.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives We investigated effects of modafinil on attention and sensorimotor gating after subchronic treatment during a restraint stress\\u000a protocol inducing depression-like changes in
Ralf Regenthal; Holger Koch; Christian Köhler; Rainer Preiss; Ute Krügel
In response to the dearth of attempts to examine functions of perceived social support on depression in Chinese adolescents, a prospective study was conducted to examine the relationship among stressful life events, perceived social support, and depression. The present results provided support for the buffering model, indicating that the function of perceived social support in mitigating subsequent depression was prominent
BackgroundA key question regarding the documented association between smoking and depression is whether it reflects a causal influence of smoking on depression; however, only a limited number of longitudinal studies exist in the literature, all of which have relatively short time frames. The purpose was to prospectively assess the risk of depression according to daily tobacco consumption in a Danish
Trine Flensborg-Madsen; Mikael Bay von Scholten; Esben Meulengracht Flachs; Erik Lykke Mortensen; Eva Prescott; Janne Schurmann Tolstrup
The main objective of this study is to investigate the interrelation between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness among Ankara University students. 364 university students completed a test battery including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Hopelessness Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Life satisfaction was negatively and significantly correlated with the scores from depression, anxiety
Sevgi Guney; Temel Kalafat; Murat Boysan
Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…
Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John
Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…
Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen
This protocol describes a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic and open surgery in the management of rotator cuff tears. This trial began in 2007 and was modified in 2010, with the removal of a non-operative arm due to high rates of early crossover to surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:155–60.
Carr, A. J.; Rees, J. L.; Ramsay, C. R.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Gray, A.; Moser, J.; Dawson, J.; Bruhn, H.; Cooper, C. D.; Beard, D. J.; Campbell, M. K.
The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of the diagnosis of depression and determine the impact of this diagnosis on early postoperative outcomes following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Multivariate analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to compare the association of depression with inhospital morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges following TJA. The rate of diagnosis of depression in the arthroplasty population was 10.0%. Patients with depression were significantly more likely to be white, female, and have Medicaid as a primary payer (all P<0.05). Depression was associated with a greater risk of post-operative psychosis (OR = 1.74), anemia (OR = 1.14), infection (OR = 1.33), and pulmonary embolism (OR 1.20), and a lower risk of cardiac (OR = 0.93) and gastrointestinal complications (OR = 0.80). Depression was not associated with in-hospital mortality. Depression appears to impact early postoperative morbidity after TJA, a finding which is important for patient counseling and risk adjustment. PMID:24090662
Browne, James A; Sandberg, Benjamin F; D'Apuzzo, Michele R; Novicoff, Wendy M
Background It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties. Results In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12–14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p?0.001), but not with behavioral problems. A significant association with anxiety and depressive symptoms was evident for all headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15–17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p?0,001) and attention difficulties (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.44, p =0.001). For migraine there was a significant association with both anxiety and depressive symptoms and attention difficulties, while tension-type headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are associated with recurrent headache, and should accordingly be considered a part of the clinical assessment of children and adolescents with headache. Identification of these associated factors and addressing them in interventions may improve headache management.
Previous work on domain specific search services in the area of depressive illness has documented the significant human cost required to setup and maintain closed-crawl parameters. It also showed that domain coverage is much less than that of whole-of-web search engines. Here we report on the feasibility of techniques for achieving greater coverage at lower cost. We found that acceptably
Thanh Tin Tang; David Hawking; Nick Craswell; Ramesh S. Sankaranarayana
In 1983 and 1984, the Swedish Committee for the Prevention and Treatment of Depression (PTD) organised a postgraduate training programme on the diagnosis and treatment to all the general practitioners on Gotland, Sweden. In the following years, the frequency of suicide and inpatient care for depression decreased significantly, as well as the frequency of sick leave for depression. The results of the Gotland study have provided evidence for the view that early recognition and adequate treatment of depression is one essential method of suicide prevention (Rutz et al., 1989; Rutz et al., 1992). A detailed retrospective clinical analysis, of all 115 consecutive suicide victims on Gotland between 1981 and 1992 presented in this study, showed that male gender and violent methods were overrepresented. 50 suicides had a DSM-III-R axis I diagnosis and half of them (n = 25) had primary major depression. Bipolar II disorder was relatively overrepresented in this sample. After the PTD programme, the proportion of depressive suicides was significantly lower than before. This finding strongly suggests that the significant decrease in the suicide rate after the PTD programme is a direct result of the robust decrease in depressive suicides of the area served by trained GPs. The practical importance of this finding is briefly discussed. PMID:8749979
Rihmer, Z; Rutz, W; Pihlgren, H
Objective To examine the course of depression during the treatment of depressed adolescents who had recently attempted suicide. Method Adolescents (N=124), age 12–18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) score of 36 or greater, entered a 6-month treatment with antidepressant medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy focused on suicide prevention, or their combination (Comb), at five academic sites. Treatment assignment could be either random or chosen by study participants. Intent-to-treat, mixed effects regression models of depression and other relevant ratings were estimated. Improvement and remission rates were computed with the last observation carried forward. Results Most patients (N=104 or 84%) chose treatment assignment and, overall, three-fourths (N=93) received Comb. In Comb, CDRS-R declined from a baseline adjusted mean of 49.6 (SD 12.3) to 38.3 (8.0) at week 12, and to 27.0 (10.1) at week 24 (p<0.0001), with a Clinical Global Impression-defined improvement rate of 58.0% at week 12, and 72.2% at week 24; and a remission (CDRS-R ?28) rate of 32.5% at week 12 and 50.0% at week 24. CDRS-R and the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) scores were correlated at baseline (r=0.43, p<0.0001), and declined in parallel. Conclusions When vigorously treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy, depressed adolescents who have recently attempted suicide show rates of improvement and remission of depression that appear comparable to those observed in non-suicidal depressed adolescents.
Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie
Background Obesity has been shown to be associated with depression and it has been suggested that higher body mass index (BMI) increases the risk of depression and other common mental disorders. However, the causal relationship remains unclear and Mendelian randomisation, a form of instrumental variable analysis, has recently been employed to attempt to resolve this issue. Aims To investigate whether higher BMI increases the risk of major depression. Method Two instrumental variable analyses were conducted to test the causal relationship between obesity and major depression in RADIANT, a large case-control study of major depression. We used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FTO and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 32 SNPs with well-established associations with BMI. Results Linear regression analysis, as expected, showed that individuals carrying more risk alleles of FTO or having higher score of GRS had a higher BMI. Probit regression suggested that higher BMI is associated with increased risk of major depression. However, our two instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal relationship between higher BMI and major depression (FTO genotype: coefficient –0.03, 95% CI –0.18 to 0.13, P = 0.73; GRS: coefficient –0.02, 95% CI –0.11 to 0.07, P = 0.62). Conclusions Our instrumental variable analyses did not support a causal relationship between higher BMI and major depression. The positive associations of higher BMI with major depression in probit regression analyses might be explained by reverse causality and/or residual confounding.
Hung, Chi-Fa; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J.; Gill, Michael; Korszun, Ania; Maier, Wolfgang; Mors, Ole; Preisig, Martin; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Jones, Lisa; Middleton, Lefkos; Aitchison, Kathy J.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Breen, Gerome; Lewis, Cathryn; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter
Background Depression is the most common mental disorder; in an ambulatory-care setting 5 to 10% of patients meet the criteria for major depression. Despite extensive documentation in primary care internationally, Trinidadian studies published on depression have been primarily hospital-based and focussed on suicide. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of depression, the variables associated with depression and the commonest reason for the encounter (RFE) among adult patients attending Trinidadian fee-for-service family practice? Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey of consecutive patients taken from a stratified random sample of family practices in the north-west region of Trinidad. To measure depression the Zung scale was modified for use as a brief diagnostic tool. This modified Zung scale, when tested against a psychiatric interview, revealed that at a cut off point of 60, the scale had a specificity of 94% (95% CI 87–100), a sensitivity of 60% (95% CI 45–75), and a likelihood ratio for a positive test result of 10 (95% CI 6–42). Results 508 patients from 28 practices participated; a response rate of 85%. Participants were primarily younger 18–49 years (66.7%), female (69.5%), and educated, with 72.8% having received a secondary school, technical school or university education. Sixty-five (12.8%) of the respondents (95% CI 9.9–15.7) were determined to be depressed. Chi-square analysis revealed no statistically significant association between depression and age, ethnicity, education levels, occupation or marital status (p > 0.05). Binary logistic regression indicated that the likelihood of being depressed (p < 0.05) decreased with the increasing age of the patient and was inversely proportional to patient's achieved level of education; and that patients not presently in a relationship were more likely to be depressed than patients who were currently in a relationship. The 508 participants had 630 RFE, with 'check-ups' (17.5%) being the commonest, followed by joint pains (13.4%) and upper respiratory infections (10.5%). Conclusion The Trinidadian family physician has to maintain a high index of suspicion in the knowledge that as many as one of every eight adult patients may be depressed and that younger patients of lower educational status who were not currently in a relationship were more likely to be depressed.
Maharaj, Rohan G
Background The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and general anxiety of the prisoners of war (POW) children. The study was also designed to compare the prevalence of depression and general anxiety amongst the POW's children and normal adults, 20 years after the Iraq-Iran war. Method An analytic cross-sectional study carried out in June 2009 in Yazd (the centre of Yazd province in Iran). The target and sampled population were the children of the Iranian POW who lived in Yazd. One hundred and twenty six POW's children, who were born before 1990 (date of father's freedom) were assessed. The duration of father's captivation was between 29-119 months. Ninety-five subjects accepted to participate. General anxiety and major depression were assessed by Persian version of Hamilton Scale for anxiety and Beck depression Inventory. This study was a combination of the psychological interview and questionnaire. Ninety five of normal adult group were also paired matched and assessed. Result Among 126 POW's children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the responsive rate was 75.3% (95 participants). The mean age of participants was 28.3 (SD: 5.34).The father's captivation duration were 29-119 months (mean: 79.2, SD: 21.6). The prevalence of depression and general anxiety amongst the POW's children were 48.4% and 79%. The prevalence of depression and general anxiety among the paired group were 21.1% and 63.2%.The differences between two groups were significant (p =0.000). Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated the prevalence of major depression and general anxiety in POW's children and a normal adult sample. The differences of major depression and general anxiety among the two groups were significant.
Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Razavi-Ratki, Seid Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh Molavi
Objective DSM-IV grants episodic irritability an equal status to low mood as a cardinal criterion for the diagnosis of depression in youth, yet not in adults; however, evidence for irritability as a major criterion of depression in youth is lacking. This article examines the prevalence, developmental characteristics, associations with psychopathology, and longitudinal stability of irritable mood in childhood and adolescent depression. Method Data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used. We divided observations on 9- to 16-year-olds who met criteria for a diagnosis of depression into 3 groups: those with depressed mood and no irritability, those with irritability and no depressed mood, and those with both depressed and irritable mood. We compared these groups using robust regression models on adolescent characteristics and early adult (ages 19–21 years) depression outcomes. Results Depressed mood was the most common cardinal mood in youth meeting criteria for depression (58.7%), followed by the co-occurrence of depressed and irritable mood (35.6%); irritable mood alone was rare (5.7%). Youth with depressed and irritable mood were similar in age and developmental stage to those with depression, but had significantly higher rates of disruptive disorders. The co-occurrence of depressed and irritable mood was associated with higher risk for comorbid conduct disorder in girls (gender-by-group interaction, F1,132 = 4.66, p = .03). Conclusions Our study findings do not support the use of irritability as a cardinal mood criterion for depression. However, the occurrence of irritability in youth depression is associated with increased risk of disruptive behaviors, especially in girls.
Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Copeland, William S.; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
The aim of this study was to simultaneously examine a wide range of risk factors and clinical characteristics in their predictive value for the 1-year severity of depressive symptoms. Data from 789 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a large psychiatric cohort study, with a major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline were used. Depression severity at 1-year follow-up was studied using linear and multinomial logistic regression models. Results of the analyses showed that high neuroticism, no partner and older age were found predictive of a poorer outcome independent of baseline clinical characteristics. Further, comorbid anxiety disorder, first episode, having a moderate subtype (vs. melancholic), and higher baseline depression severity predicted poorer outcome. To conclude, both risk factors and clinical characteristics independently predicted 1-year severity of depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that the prediction of prognosis and identification of persons at risk of a poor outcome should not only be based on clinical characteristics, but on risk factors as well. PMID:21802149
Lamers, Femke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; de Jonge, Peter; Smit, Johannes H; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Background: Depression is a common neuro-psychiatric consequence of stroke, affecting approximately 40% of the patients. Many studies show that in addition to the psychosocial stress, neurobiological factors such as site of infarct and brain atrophy may also be related to Post Stroke Depression (PSD). There are conflicting results in this area of research and paucity of such data in Indian literature. Thus the aim of this study is to weigh the importance of lesion location in PSD. Materials and Methods: Sixty two subjects with their first ever stroke were interviewed using a semi-structured proforma and PSD diagnosed using MINI Plus interview. Scales of Beck Depression Inventory and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale were used to assess severity of depression. Mini mental state examination was used to assess cognitive impairment and Barthel Index to measure Activities of Daily Living. Neuro-imaging provided information on site and side of lesion. Collected data was analysed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: PSD was diagnosed in 28 subjects, amongst who 19 had left sided lesions. Left sided cortical infarcts and sub cortical infarcts showed statistically significant association with PSD. Conclusion: Results are in keeping with previous landmark studies. Differences in emotional reactions depending on hemisphere and site of the infarct as shown in this study suggest organic biological basis for post stroke depression. Understanding the etiological basis would allow clinicians to monitor patients at risk of developing PSD, enabling early detection and treatment thus improving their quality of life and rehabilitation.
Rajashekaran, Pooja; Pai, Keshava; Thunga, Ravish; Unnikrishnan, B.
This phenomenological study, using the Husserlian philosophy, explored the perceptions of Nigerian-born immigrant women in the United States and their portrayal of depression. Through face-to-face, semi-structured, audio-taped interviews incorporating open-ended questions and probes to facilitate discussion, the study examined a purposive sample of 19 Nigerian-born immigrant women's perception of depression. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's seven step method of data analysis. The findings from the study uncovered six themes: (1) craziness and madness; (2) curse and evil spirit possession; (3) denial and secrecy; (4) isolation and rejection; (5) spirituality and religion; and (6) need for education. Findings indicated that Nigerian-born women were not able to differentiate depression from other types of mental illnesses. The women described depression as something that affects others and not them. The women's perception provided insight into why the clergy was preferred for treatment of depression rather than health care professionals. The findings of the study should increase the awareness of nurses and other health care professionals of the need to focus on evidence-based, culturally specific research, and illuminate issues surrounding depression in this population. PMID:20465767
Ezeobele, I; Malecha, A; Landrum, P; Symes, L
Background The objective of the study was to determine the genetic basis of Major Depressive Disorder, and the capacity to respond to antidepressant treatment. An association study of 21 candidate polymorphisms relevant to monoamine function and the mechanism of antidepressant response was conducted in 3 phenotypically distinct samples: a group with chronic or recurrent depression unable to respond to antidepressants (non-responders) (n = 58), a group capable of symptomatic improvement with or without treatment (responders) (n = 39), and volunteer controls (n = 85). The responders and non-responders constituted a larger group of depressed subjects. Methods A candidate gene approach was employed to asses the genetics basis of Major Depressive Disorder. The genotypic frequencies of selected polymorphisms were compared between the controls and depressed subjects. To asses the genetics basis of the capacity to respond to antidepressant treatment, the responders were compared to the non-responders. Candidate genes were chosen based on functional studies and proximity to whole genome linkage findings in the literature. Risk genotypes were identified by previous functional studies and association studies. Results A statistically significant difference in genotype frequency for the SLC6A4 intron 2 VNTR was detected between the subjects with a history of depression and controls (p = 0.004). Surprisingly, a statistically significant difference was detected between responders and non-responders for the DRD4 exon III VNTR genotype frequencies (p = 0.009). Furthermore, a difference between the controls and depressed subjects as well as between the controls and non-responders was detected for the number and distribution of risk genotypes in each group. Conclusion An association between several monoamine-related genes and Major Depressive Disorder is supported. The data suggest that the two depressive phenotypes are genetically different, inferring that the genetic basis for the capacity to respond to standard antidepressant treatment, and the genetic susceptibility to Major Depressive Disorder may be independent. In addition, a proof of concept is provided demonstrating that the number of risk genotypes may be an indication of susceptibility of major depressive disorder and the severity of the disorder.
Garriock, Holly A; Delgado, Pedro; Kling, Mitchel A; Carpenter, Linda L; Burke, Michael; Burke, William J; Schwartz, Thomas; Marangell, Lauren B; Husain, Mustafa; Erickson, Robert P; Moreno, Francisco A
Objective Young adulthood is an important period for both bone and mental health. This study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and bone density in apparently healthy Korean men and women aged 29?32 years. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 123 men and 133 women who completed follow-up examinations of the Kangwha study in 2010?2011. Bone stiffness index (SI) was measured at the os calcis using a quantitative ultrasound device. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI) and classified as normal (K-BDI <10), mild (K-BDI 10–15), and moderate to severe (K-BDI ?16). Results Moderate to severe depressive symptoms were prevalent among 11.4% of men and 19.6% of women. Higher K-BDI scores were significantly correlated to SI in men, before (??=?–0.286, p?=?0.001) and after (??=?–0.228, p?=?0.013) adjustment for covariates. Men with depressive symptoms tended to have a lower SI; multivariate-adjusted mean SI in men with normal, mild, and moderate to severe depressive symptoms was 104.1±3.1, 100.9±5.9, and 94.1±7.8, respectively (p for trend?=?0.021). In contrast, no significant correlations were identified in women. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower SI in men, but not in women. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of depression on developing osteoporosis or osteoporotic fractures later in life.
Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Kyoung Min; Ahn, Song Vogue; Choi, Dong Phil; Suh, Il
Depression during pregnancy is a significant public health problem because of its negative effects on the health of both mother\\u000a and infant. Data on its prevalence and determinants are lacking in Bangladesh. To estimate the prevalence of depression during\\u000a pregnancy and to identify potential contributory factors among rural Bangladeshi women, a community-based study was conducted\\u000a during 2005 in Matlab sub-district,
Kaniz Gausia; Colleen Fisher; Mohammed Ali; Jacques Oosthuizen
This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), a treatment combining mindfulness meditation and interventions taken from cognitive therapy, in patients suffering from chronic-recurrent depression. Currently symptomatic patients with at least three previous episodes of depression and a history of suicidal ideation were randomly allocated to receive either MBCT delivered in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU; N=14 completers)
Thorsten Barnhofer; Catherine Crane; Emily Hargus; Myanthi Amarasinghe; Rosie Winder; J. Mark G. Williams
This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective.
Background This study aims to look at the prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology (PPDS) among Canadian women. Studies have found that in developed countries, 10-15% of new mothers were affected by major postpartum depression. Mothers who suffer from postpartum depression may endure difficulties regarding their ability to cope with life events, as well as negative clinical implications for maternal-infant attachment. Methods An analysis based on 6,421 Canadian women, who had a live birth between 2005 and 2006 and were part of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES), was performed. PPDS was measured based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Various factors that assessed socio-economic status, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics were considered for the multinomial regression model. Results The national prevalence of minor/major and major PPDS was found to be 8.46% and 8.69% respectively. A mother's stress level during pregnancy, the availability of support after pregnancy, and a prior diagnosis of depression were the characteristics that had the strongest significant association with the development of PPDS. Conclusions A significant number of Canadian women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Findings from this study may be useful to increase both the attainment of treatment and the rate at which it can be obtained among new mothers. Interventions should target those with the greatest risk of experiencing PPDS, specifically immigrant and adolescent mothers.
Objectives To assess the effects of suffering in a spouse on prevalent and incident psychiatric (depression) and physical morbidity (cardiovascular disease, CVD) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design Descriptive longitudinal study. Participants 1330 older married couples enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a large epidemiologic study of the elderly. Measurements Predictor variables were physical, psychological, and existential/spiritual indicators of suffering. Primary outcomes were prevalent and incident depression and CVD. Results Controlling for known risk factors for depression, we found a dose-response relationship between suffering in a spouse and concurrent depression in their partner as well as a relationship between suffering and the partner’s future risk for depression. With respect to CVD, and controlling for sub-clinical CVD at baseline, husbands whose wives reported high levels of suffering also had higher rates of prevalent CVD, but there were not significant associations between wives suffering and husbands incident CVD. There were no associations between husbands’ suffering and wives’ prevalent or incident CVD. Conclusion Exposure to spousal suffering is an independent and unique source of distress in married couples that contributes to psychiatric and physical morbidity. More attention should be paid to the interpersonal effects of suffering in married couples, and to its role in contributing to morbidity.
Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Hebert, Randy S.; Martire, Lynn M.; Monin, Joan K.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Albert, Steven M.
The aim of this study was to increase understanding of the associations between different dimensions of morningness-eveningness, depressive symptoms, and emotional eating in the general population. The participants were 25-to-74-year-old Finnish men (n?=?2325) and women (n?=?2699) from the National FINRISK Study conducted in 2007. The Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 were used to measure depressive symptoms and emotional eating. Chronotype was assessed with a shortened version of Horne and Östberg's Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Structural equation modeling was used as an analytical approach. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a two-factor structure for the six-item MEQ with separate factors for morning alertness and circadian preference for daily activities (r?=?0.65). Higher alertness in the morning and preference for morning hours were both related to lower depressive symptoms (?total effect?=?-0.36 and -0.11, respectively) and emotional eating (?total effect?=?-0.20 and -0.09; ?indirect effect through depressive symptoms = -0.12 and -0.04, respectively), even though the relationships with morning alertness were stronger. However, the associations of circadian preference with depressive symptoms and emotional eating were reversed after adjustment for morning alertness. Finally, among participants who rarely or never experienced sleeping sufficiently, those in the lowest (i.e. eveningness) and higher (i.e. morningness) circadian preference/morning alertness quartiles had the highest depressive symptom scores. In conclusion, the findings emphasize the importance of separating between different dimensions of chronotype when examining its relationships with psychological factors such as depressive symptoms and overeating tendencies. PMID:24417521
Konttinen, Hanna; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Kanerva, Noora; Männistö, Satu; Haukkala, Ari
Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols.
Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit
Objectives. We examined the association between moderate alcohol use and depressive mood among young adults before and after adjustment for demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors that may act as confounders. Methods. We analyzed 2 waves of interview data collected from 13892 young adults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare frequency of depressive symptoms in moderate drinkers with frequency of symptoms in young adults in other alcohol use categories. Results. With adjustment for health and socioeconomic factors, frequency of depressive symptoms were similar among moderate drinkers, lifetime and long-term abstainers, and heavy/heavier moderate drinkers but remained significantly higher among heavy drinkers. Conclusions. Moderate alcohol use may have no effect on depression in young adults relative to abstinence from alcohol use.
Paschall, Mallie J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lipton, Robert I.
Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.
Shin, Kyoung Min; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon
We report the case of a man aged 62 suffering from a known type I bipolar disorder and referred by his attending psychiatrist because of a state of spatiotemporal disorientation, confusion and prostration evoking significant neurologic impairment. The interest of this case report is in the use of the 18-FDG PET-Scanner, which is increasingly widespread in clinical psychiatry, to support the differential diagnosis between a psycho-organic pathology like dementia or a functional psychiatric pathology like depressive pseudo-dementia (also named melancholic dementia), in which some patterns of dysfunction can now be identified by functional imaging. PMID:24683825
Schena, A; Ansseau, M; Triffaux, J M; Salmon, E; Withofs, N; Scantamburlo, G
Selenium is an essential trace element important to neurotransmission, but toxic at high levels. Some studies suggest beneficial effects on mood. We assessed the association of selenium exposure with presence of depressive symptoms. Selenium exposure was measured in toenail samples collected in 1987 from 3735 US participants (age 20-32 years) and depressive symptoms assessed in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Binary and polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of log2(selenium) and selenium quintiles with presence of depressive symptoms (CES-D score?27 or on antidepressant medication). Relative to selenium quintile 1, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having depressive symptoms in 1990 for quintile 5 was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.51) and a unit increase in log2(selenium), which represents a doubling of the selenium level, was associated with an OR=2.03 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.70). When examining 1, 2 or 3+ exams vs. no exams with symptoms, the OR for quintile 5 was 1.73 (1.04, 2.89) for 3+ exams and for one exam and two exams, there were no associations. In a generalized estimating equations longitudinal model, a doubling of the selenium level was associated with a 56% higher odds of having depressive symptoms at an exam. Contrary to previously reported findings related to mood, higher level of selenium exposure was associated with presence of elevated depressive symptoms. More research is needed to elucidate the role of selenium in depressive disorders. PMID:24560993
Colangelo, Laura A; He, Ka; Whooley, Mary A; Daviglus, Martha L; Morris, Steven; Liu, Kiang
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness.
Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A
This study investigated whether the Expressed Emotion (EE) status of families is associated with an increased risk of negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. The subjects were 52 schizophrenic patients from mental hospitals in Kochi, Japan, who satisfied the DSM-III-R or ICD-9 criteria for schizophrenia. The Japanese version of the Camberwell Family Interview was administered to 73 key relatives of the patients within 2 weeks after admission. A certified rater evaluated the EE's status of each family, using an audiotaped interview and its transcript. Using cohort study design, the subjects were followed for 9 months after their discharge and were monitored for negative and depressive symptoms. Trained psychiatrists who were blind to the EE status of the patients' households administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (BPRS) at discharge, and 9 months after discharge. Repeated-measures analyses of variance showed that EE effects were significant in Emotional withdrawal in all subjects, Depressive mood and Total depressive symptoms in non-relapsers. A multiple regression analyses revealed that EE's effect was significant only in Depressive mood in non-relapsers controlling confounding factors. In non-relapsers in positive symptoms, high EE families could make patients depressed. EE's effect on negative symptoms remains to be established. PMID:9850982
Mino, Y; Inoue, S; Shimodera, S; Tanaka, S; Tsuda, T; Yamamoto, E
Background Previous research has not shown any significant health gain for patients as a result of providing education about depression for GPs. Reasons for this, however, are unclear. Aims To explore relationships between process and outcome in the setting of a randomised controlled trial of a complex educational intervention designed to provide GPs with training in the assessment and management of depression. Design of study Qualitative study utilising semi-structured interviews. Setting General practice in the northwest of England. Method Semi-structured interviews with 30 GPs in Liverpool and Manchester who participated in a randomised controlled trial. Results Three major barriers to the effectiveness of the intervention were identified: the lack of the GP's belief that he/she could have an impact on the outcome of depression, the appropriateness of the training, and the organisational context in which doctors had to implement what they had learned. Conclusion Attitudes toward treating depression may need addressing at a much earlier point in medical education. If students are introduced to a biosocial model of depression at an early stage, they may feel more hopeful about their ability to intervene when faced with patients who exhibit significant degrees of functional disability in the context of apparently socially determined disorders. Postgraduate interventions should be tailored to the treatment of depression as a common chronic condition and be focused at the level of the organisation, not the individual practitioner.
Gask, Linda; Dixon, Clare; May, Carl; Dowrick, Chris
Background We undertook a systematic review of observational studies of depression in primary care to determine 1) the nature and scope of the published studies 2) the methodological quality of the studies; 3) the identified recovery and risk factors for persistent depression and 3) the treatment and health service use patterns among patients. Methods Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO using combinations of topic and keywords, and Medical Subject Headings in MEDLINE, Headings in CINAHL and descriptors in PsycINFO. Searches were limited to adult populations and articles published in English during 1985–2006. Results 40 articles from 17 observational cohort studies were identified, most were undertaken in the US or Europe. Studies varied widely in aims and methods making it difficult to meaningfully compare the results. Methodological limitations were common including: selection bias of patients and physicians; small sample sizes (range 35–108 patients at baseline and 20–59 patients at follow-up); and short follow-up times limiting the extent to which these studies can be used to inform our understanding of recovery and relapse among primary care patients with depression. Risk factors for the persistence of depression identified in this review were: severity and chronicity of the depressive episode, the presence of suicidal thoughts, antidepressant use, poorer self-reported quality of life, lower self-reported social support, experiencing key life events, lower education level and unemployment. Conclusion Despite the growing interest in depression being managed as a chronic illness, this review identified only 17 observational studies of depression in primary care, most of which have included small sample sizes and been relatively short-term. Future research should be large enough to investigate risk factors for chronicity and relapse, and should be conducted over a longer time frame.
Gilchrist, Gail; Gunn, Jane
Research on lay beliefs about depression has shown that recovered-depressed people evaluate their own depressive experiences as more distressing than do those who have never experienced major depression. This study tested whether history of depression would influence beliefs about others' experiences of depression. Recovered-depressed (n = 63) and never-depressed adults (n = 64) completed the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (R-SAQ; J.C. Coyne & M.M. Calarco, 1995) revised to address perceptions of others' experiences of depression. History of depression was not associated with R-SAQ scores. In supplementary analyses, self-reported depression proneness was also uncorrelated with perceptions of others' depression. People without a history of major depression were just as likely to recognize the highly debilitating nature of depression for others. Although nondepressed people frequently fail to convey empathy to friends or relatives who are depressed, this failure probably does not reflect lack of knowledge that depression is incapacitating. PMID:16538660
Wernicke, Rachel A; Pearlman, Michelle Y; Thorndike, Frances P; Haaga, David A F
Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been effectively used for the treatment of depression in clinic. However, studies of its anti-depressive mechanism are challenging, accounted for the complex pathophysiology of depression, and complexity of CSGS with multiple constituents acting on different metabolic pathways. The variations of endogenous metabolites in rat model of depression after administration of CSGS may offer deeper insights into the anti-depressive effect and mechanism of CSGS. In this study, metabonomics based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to profile the metabolic fingerprints of urine obtained from chronic variable stress (CVS)-induced depression model in rats with and without CSGS treatment. Through partial least squares-discriminate analysis, it was observed that metabolic perturbations induced by chronic variable stress were restored in a time-dependent pattern after treatment with CSGS. Metabolites with significant changes induced by CVS, including 3-O-methyldopa (1), pantothenic acid (2), kynurenic acid (3), xanthurenic acid (4), 2,8-dihydroxyquinoline glucuronide (5), 5-hydroxy-6-methoxyindole glucurnoide (8), l-phenylalanyl-l-hydroxyproline (9), indole-3-carboxylic acid (10), proline (11), and the unidentified metabolites (6, 2.11min_m/z 217.0940; 7, 2.11min_m/z 144.0799), were characterized as potential biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of depression. The derivations of all those biomarkers can be regulated by CSGS treatment except indole-3-carboxylic acid (10), which suggested that the therapeutic effect of CSGS on depression may involve in regulating the dysfunctions of energy metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, bone loss and liver detoxification. This study indicated that the rapid and noninvasive urinary metabonomics approach may be a powerful tool to study the efficacy and mechanism of complex TCM prescriptions. PMID:21398066
Su, Zhi-Heng; Li, Shu-Qi; Zou, Guo-An; Yu, Chang-Yuan; Sun, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Gu, Ying; Zou, Zhong-Mei
A latent profile analysis was conducted on the co-occurring symptoms of 423 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder as part of the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS), a multisite, randomized treatment trial. The participants had a mean (SD) age of 14.6 (1.5) years; of the sample, 45.6% was male and 73.8% was white.…
Herman, Keith C.; Ostrander, Rick; Walkup, John T.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.
In this paper we will present results of a series of studies investigating the embodiment of depression. The first series of studies analyzed gait patterns in depression. Using a motion capture system we investigated (1) whether dynamic gait patterns of currently and formerly depressed patients differ from never depressed people and (2) whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) normalize gait patterns
J. Michalak; J. Burg; T. Heidenreich; N. F. Troje
Background Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and treating patients from foreign countries who display potential depressive features. Methods The data were collected in focus groups and through individual interviews with GPs in northern Sweden and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results In the analysis three themes, based on various categories, emerged; "Realizing the background", "Struggling for clarity" and "Optimizing management". Patients' early life events of importance were often unknown which blurred the accuracy. Reactions to trauma, cultural frictions and conflicts between the new and old gender norms made the diagnostic process difficult. The patient-doctor encounter comprised misconceptions, and social roles in the meetings were sometimes confused. GPs based their judgement mainly on clinical intuition and the established classification of depressive disorders was discussed. Tools for management and adequate action were diffuse. Conclusion Dialogue about patients' illness narratives and social context are crucial. There is a need for tools for multicultural, general practice care in the depressive spectrum. It is also essential to be aware of GPs' own conceptions in order to avoid stereotypes and not to under- or overestimate the occurrence of depressive symptoms
Lehti, Arja; Hammarstrom, Anne; Mattsson, Bengt
BACKGROUND: The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result,
Martin Röösli; Patrizia Frei; John Bolte; Georg Neubauer; Elisabeth Cardis; Maria Feychting; Peter Gajsek; Sabine Heinrich; Wout Joseph; Simon Mann; Luc Martens; Evelyn Mohler; Roger C Parslow; Aslak Harbo Poulsen; Katja Radon; Joachim Schüz; György Thuroczy; Jean-François Viel; Martine Vrijheid
This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…
Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.
Background The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate reliable adherence to a group cognitive behavioral (CBT) therapy protocol when delivered using on-line video conferencing as compared with face-to-face delivery of group CBT. A secondary aim was to show comparability of changes in subject depression inventory scores between on-line and face-to-face delivery of group CBT. Methods We screened 31 individuals, 18 of whom met the criteria for a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis of mood and/or anxiety disorder. All qualifying participants had the necessary equipment (computer, webcam, Internet) for participation in the study, but could exercise their preference for either the on-line or face-to-face format. Eighteen completed the 13 weekly session intervention program (ten face-to-face; eight video conferencing). We coded adherence to protocol in both intervention formats and generated pre–post changes in scores on the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II) for each participant. Results Application of the CBT protocol coding system showed reliable adherence to the group CBT intervention protocol in both delivery formats. Similarly, qualitative analysis of the themes in group discussion indicated that both groups addressed similar issues. Pre–post intervention scores for the BDI-II were comparable across the two delivery formats, with 60% of participants in each group showing a positive change in BDI-II severity classification (eg, from moderate to low symptoms). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates that group CBT could be delivered in a technology-supported environment (on-line video conferencing) and can meet the same professional practice standards and outcomes as face-to-face delivery of the intervention program.
Khatri, Nasreen; Marziali, Elsa; Tchernikov, Illia; Shepherd, Nancy
Objectives Perinatal depression has been found to be a strong and independent risk factor for poor child growth and development in low-income South Asian populations. The authors aimed to study if there was a similar association in first and second-generation British women of Pakistani origin. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting The study was conducted in the North-West of England, in areas with high density of Pakistani-origin population. The subjects were recruited from Central Manchester Hospital in the City of Manchester and East Lancashire Hospital in Lancashire. Participants 704 physically healthy women were assessed in two phases (screening and detailed assessment of high scorers and a proportion of low scorers) during the third trimester of pregnancy to obtain at birth a cohort of 63 infants of depressed mothers and 173 infants of psychologically well mothers. Primary and secondary outcome measures All infants were weighed and measured at birth and 6?months, and their development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development–Third Edition. Results There was no difference in the birth weight or weight and height at 6?months of infants of depressed mothers versus infants of psychologically well mothers. The only significant difference between the two groups was in the infants' adaptive behaviour; infants of depressed mothers scored significantly lower than those of psychologically well mothers (mean difference 4.6, t=2.81, df 195, p=0.006). The associations remained significant after adjustment for socio-demographic factors by multivariate analyses. Conclusions Prenatal depression is not associated with impaired growth in this sample of British Pakistani women. There is, however, an association of prenatal depression with parent-reported problems in the infants' adaptive behaviour. Further research is needed to understand various pathways through which maternal depression affects infant outcomes in low- and high-income settings.
Cruickshank, John Kennedy; Tomenson, Barbara; Khan, Sarah; Rahman, Atif
Objective To quantify the impact of depression measured by self-reports and depression measured by clinical interview on all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes and to analyze the strength of both associations, the influence of covariates, and possible differences between studies assessing self-rated depressive symptoms and those using a clinical interview to measure depression as predictors of mortality. Research Design and Methods PUBMED and PsycINFO were searched up to July 2013 for prospective studies assessing depression, diabetes and mortality. The pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random-effects models. Results Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. After adjustment for demographic variables depression measured by self-reports was associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk (pooled HR?=?2.56, 95% CI 1.89–3.47), and the mortality risk remained high after additional adjustment for diabetes complications (HR?=?1.76, 95% CI 1.45–2.14,). Six studies reporting adjusted HRs for depression measured by clinical interviews supported the results of the other models (HR?=?1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.93). Conclusions Both depression measured by self-report and depression measured by clinical interview have an unfavorable impact on mortality in individuals with diabetes. The results, however, are limited by the heterogeneity of the primary studies. It remains unclear whether self-reports or clinical interviews for depression are the more precise predictor.
Hofmann, Mareike; Kohler, Birgit; Leichsenring, Falk; Kruse, Johannes
Background Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common painful medical condition with a significant socioeconomic impact. In spite of widespread usage, the effectiveness and safety of combined treatments between conventional and complementary alternative medical treatment modalities has not been fully established in a rigorous randomized clinical trial (RCT). This pilot study will provide the clinical evidence to evaluate the feasibility and refine the protocol for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with CNP. Methods/Design This is a randomized, single-blind clinical trial with three parallel arms. Sixty patients between 18 and 65 years of age with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain lasting for at least three months will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated into the BVA, NSAIDs or combined treatment group. Assessors and statisticians will be blinded to the random allocation. All researchers will receive training to ensure their strict adherence to the study protocol. Patients from the BVA and combined treatment group will be treated with a bee venom increment protocol into predefined acupoints for six sessions over a three week period. BVA intervention is developed through a comprehensive discussion among interdisciplinary spine disorder experts, according to the guidelines of Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA). Patients from the NSAIDs and combined treatment groups will be prescribed loxoprofen (one tablet to be taken orally, three times a day for three weeks). Bothersomeness from CNP measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be the primary outcome assessed at screening, visit two (baseline), four, six, eight (4th week assessment) and nine (8th week assessment) follow-up session. VAS for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI), quality of life, depressive status and adverse experiences will also be analyzed. Discussion Our study results will contribute to feasibility evaluation and to relevant RCT protocol development for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of BVA and NSAIDs for CNP patients. Trial registration This study is registered with the United States (US) National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT01922466.
Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed. PMID:23379297
Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C
Depression is the leading cause of mental disability worldwide. Women who are depressed during pregnancy are at a higher risk for preterm delivery, preeclampsia, birth difficulties, and postpartum depression. The treatment of depression in conventional medicine has focused on physiological factors that lead to impaired neurotransmitter function and treatments to improve neurotransmitter function. Pharmaceutical substances pose risks for pregnant and lactating women, and lower risk options are preferred. Micronutrients, including certain B vitamins, folate, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in the synthesis and absorption of neurotransmitters. Experimental studies suggest that supplementation with specific micronutrients may alleviate depressive symptoms and improve birth outcomes in patients with perinatal depression. Alternative treatments for depression, including nutritional supplements, are an important treatment option for depressive symptoms while limiting potential side effects and treatment costs. This article explores the biological basis of perinatal depression and reviews the potential benefits of non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:23766734
Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Humphries, Debbie
Students will understand the personal impact of the depression on the lives of Americans. We will follow Utah\\'s Social Studies core curriculum Standard 6: Students will understand how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected the United States. Objective 1 Investigate the impact of the Great Depression on the United States. * Analyze the major causes of the Great Depression. ...
Although pancreatic carcinoma and depression have been linked for years, the prevalence and relationship of these often coexisting diseases are still poorly understood. A clinical gestalt asserts that many patients present with depression before pancreatic carcinoma is diagnosed. Published studies reviewing this issue have found that many patients with pancreatic cancer are depressed. If the definition of depression is broadened
A. D. Boyd; M. Riba
Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities), and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities). Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and different aspects of job satisfaction: satisfaction with leadership, which should be highly correlated with readiness, versus satisfaction with salary, which should be less correlated with readiness. Content validity will be assessed using an expert panel and modified Delphi technique. Discussion We propose a comprehensive protocol for validating a survey instrument for assessing organizational readiness to change that specifically addresses key threats of bias related to halo effect, method bias and questions of construct validity that often go unexplored in research using measures of organizational constructs.
In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.
Smith, D. B.; Woodruff, L. G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W. F.; Garrett, R. G.; Kilburn, J. E.; Goldhaber, M. B.
Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status including cardiovascular risk factors and common chronic disorders were registered for 57 953 adult men and women free of cardiovascular disease. The cohort was followed up during a mean (SD) 11.4 (2.9) years for a first AMI from baseline through 2008. A total of 2111 incident AMIs occurred, either identified at hospitals or by the National Cause of Death Registry. The multi-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.31 (95% CI 1.03–1.66) for symptoms of depression and 1.25 (CI 0.99–1.57) for anxiety. Two episodes of mixed symptoms of anxiety and depression (MSAD), reported 10 years apart, increased the risk for AMI by 52% (11–108%). After exclusion of the first 5 years of follow-up, the association of depression symptoms with AMI risk was attenuated. Relative risk for AMI with anxiety symptoms and MSAD weakened when participants with chronic disorders were excluded. Conclusion Self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety, especially if recurrent, were moderately associated with the risk of incident AMI. We had some indications that these associations might partly reflect reverse causation or confounding from common chronic diseases.
Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Havard; Bjerkeset, Ottar
Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...
Background Apathy and depression are important neuropsychiatric disorders that can occur after a stroke but the etiology and risk factors are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for apathy and depression following a stroke. Methods Patients with an acute stroke who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from our hospital, and general information was recorded from patient charts. The Apathy Evaluation Scale, Clinician Version (AES-C) was used to evaluate these patients within 2 weeks after the stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale Initiation/Perseveration subset (MDRS I/P), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Stroop Color-Word Association Test were employed to evaluate emotion, cognitive function and executive function. The patients were divided into two groups: the apathy group and the non-apathy group. We also divided the patients into two groups based on whether or not they had post-stroke depression. The clinical characteristics and scores on the MoCA, MMSE, HAMD and MDRS I/P were compared between the apathy and non-apathy groups as well as between patients with and without depression. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for apathy and depression following a stroke. Results A total of 75 patients with acute stroke were recruited. Of these, 25 (33.3%) developed apathy and 12 (16%) developed depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of cerebrovascular disease (OR: 6.45, 95% CI: 1.48-28.05, P?=?0.013), low HbA1c (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81, P?=?0.017) and a low MDRS I/P score (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.96, P?=?0.010) were risk factors for post-stroke apathy. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression indicated that a low MDRS I/P (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.97, P?=?0.015) was associated with post-stroke depression. Conclusions Three risk factors for post-stroke apathy were identified as a history of cerebrovascular disease, low HbA1c and lower MDRS I/P scores. A low MDRS I/P score was also identified as a risk factor for post-stroke depression. These results may be useful to clinicians in recognizing and treating apathy and depression in patients after a stroke.
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) is an NIH Roadmap initiative devoted to developing better measurement tools for assessing constructs relevant to the clinical investigation and treatment of all diseases-constructs such as pain, fatigue, emotional distress, sleep, physical functioning, and social participation. Following creation of item banks for these constructs, our priority has been to validate them, most often in short-term observational studies. We report here on a three-month prospective observational study with depressed outpatients in the early stages of a new treatment episode (with assessments at intake, one-month follow-up, and three-month follow-up). The protocol was designed to compare the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression item bank (administered as a computerized adaptive test, CAT) with two legacy self-report instruments: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD; Radloff, 1977) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999). PROMIS depression demonstrated strong convergent validity with the CESD and the PHQ-9 (with correlations in a range from .72 to .84 across all time points), as well as responsiveness to change when characterizing symptom severity in a clinical outpatient sample. Identification of patients as "recovered" varied across the measures, with the PHQ-9 being the most conservative. The use of calibrations based on models from item response theory (IRT) provides advantages for PROMIS depression both psychometrically (creating the possibility of adaptive testing, providing a broader effective range of measurement, and generating greater precision) and practically (these psychometric advantages can be achieved with fewer items-a median of 4 items administered by CAT-resulting in less patient burden). PMID:24931848
Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Maihoefer, Catherine C; Lawrence, Suzanne M
Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)?=?2.6 in 2003; OR?=?4.4 in 2006; OR?=?4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR?=?2.4 in 2006; OR?=?2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health. PMID:24647705
Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy
Summary How common and how significant are brief depressive episodes (BDE) lasting less than 2 weeks? The authors propose splitting the BDE into two groups: one occurring monthly over 1 year of observation, termed ‘recurrent brief depression’BD), and those occurring less frequently, labeled ‘recurrent brief depression’ BD). From a medical point of view, the RBD are a relevant group. Different
J. Angst; A. Dobler-Mikola
A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.
Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.
Suicide is an important public problem. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior in depression will facilitate the development of more effective prevention strategies for suicide. There are several reviews of imaging studies of suicidal behavior, but none of these reviews have focused only on suicide in depression. We reviewed neuroimaging studies of suicide in depression in recent years. The majority of studies found structural and functional alterations in the orbital frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and striatum in depressive patients with suicidal behaviors. The evidence suggests that the frontal-striatal circuitry, which includes the striatum, orbital frontal and anterior cingulate cortices, is involved in the neurobiology of suicide in depressive patients. These findings also indicate that not all suicides have the same underlying neuropathology. Future studies require larger samples and more accurate subtypes of suicide. Furthermore, combining neuroimaging and other new technologies in molecular biology will be helpful to reveal the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior in depression. PMID:24632395
Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Ziqi; Jia, Zhiyun; Gong, Qiyong
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have an increased onset risk of aging-related somatic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity and cancer. This suggests mechanisms of accelerated biological aging among the depressed, which can be indicated by a shorter length of telomeres. We examine whether MDD is associated with accelerated biological aging, and whether depression characteristics such as severity, duration, and psychoactive medication do further impact on biological aging. Data are from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, including 1095 current MDD patients, 802 remitted MDD patients and 510 control subjects. Telomere length (TL) was assessed as the telomere sequence copy number (T) compared to a single-copy gene copy number (S) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This resulted in a T/S ratio and was converted to base pairs (bp). MDD diagnosis and MDD characteristics were determined by self-report questionnaires and structured psychiatric interviews. Compared with control subjects (mean bp=5541), sociodemographic-adjusted TL was shorter among remitted MDD patients (mean bp=5459; P=0.014) and current MDD patients (mean bp=5461; P=0.012). Adjustment for health and lifestyle variables did not reduce the associations. Within the current MDD patients, separate analyses showed that both higher depression severity (P<0.01) and longer symptom duration in the past 4 years (P=0.01) were associated with shorter TL. Our results demonstrate that depressed patients show accelerated cellular aging according to a 'dose-response' gradient: those with the most severe and chronic MDD showed the shortest TL. We also confirmed the imprint of past exposure to depression, as those with remitted MDD had shorter TL than controls. PMID:24217256
Verhoeven, J E; Révész, D; Epel, E S; Lin, J; Wolkowitz, O M; Penninx, B W J H
Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9???10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality.
Williams, Aya; LaRocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio
Objectives To investigate the relationship between poststroke fatigue and depression and subsequent mortality in young ischaemic stroke patients in a population-based study. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting All surviving young ischaemic stroke patients living in Hordaland County. Participants Young ischaemic stroke patients aged 15–50?years at the time of the stroke were invited to a follow-up on an average 6?years after the index stroke. Psychosocial factors and risk factors were registered. Fatigue was self-assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Depression was measured by Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Intervention No intervention was performed. Primary and secondary outcome measure Mortality on follow-up. Results In total, 190 patients were included. The mean age on follow-up was 48?years and subsequent follow-up period was 12?years. Cox regression analysis showed that mortality was associated with FSS score (p=0.005) after adjusting for age (p=0.06) and sex (p=0.19). Cox regression analysis showed that mortality was associated with MADRS score (p=0.006) after adjusting for age (p=0.10) and sex (p=0.11). Conclusions Both fatigue and depression are associated with long-term mortality in young adults with ischaemic stroke. Depression may be linked to higher mortality because of psychosocial factors and unhealthy lifestyles whereas the link between fatigue and mortality is broader including connection to diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and psychosocial factors.
Naess, Halvor; Nyland, Harald
Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9???10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895
Williams, Aya; Larocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio; Kvedar, Joseph; Yeung, Albert
This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), a treatment combining mindfulness meditation and interventions taken from cognitive therapy, in patients suffering from chronic-recurrent depression. Currently symptomatic patients with at least three previous episodes of depression and a history of suicidal ideation were randomly allocated to receive either MBCT delivered in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU; N = 14 completers) or TAU alone (N = 14 completers). Depressive symptoms and diagnostic status were assessed before and after treatment phase. Self-reported symptoms of depression decreased from severe to mild levels in the MBCT group while there was no significant change in the TAU group. Similarly, numbers of patients meeting full criteria for depression decreased significantly more in the MBCT group than in the TAU group. Results are consistent with previous uncontrolled studies. Although based on a small sample and, therefore, limited in their generalizability, they provide further preliminary evidence that MBCT can be used to successfully reduce current symptoms in patients suffering from a protracted course of the disorder.
Barnhofer, Thorsten; Crane, Catherine; Hargus, Emily; Amarasinghe, Myanthi; Winder, Rosie; Williams, J. Mark G.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling in depressive illness in postnatal women: to compare fluoxetine and placebo, six sessions and one session of counselling, and combinations of drugs and counselling. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled treatment trial, double blind in relation to drug treatment, with four treatment cells: fluoxetine or placebo plus one or six sessions of counselling. SUBJECTS: 87 women satisfying criteria for depressive illness 6-8 weeks after childbirth, 61 (70%) of whom completed 12 weeks of treatment. SETTING: Community based study in south Manchester. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychiatric morbidity after 1, 4, and 12 weeks, measured as mean scores and 95% confidence limits on the revised clinical interview schedule, the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and the Hamilton depression scale. RESULTS: Highly significant improvement was seen in all four treatment groups. The improvement in subjects receiving fluoxetine was significantly greater than in those receiving placebo. The improvement after six sessions of counselling was significantly greater than after a single session. Interaction between counselling and fluoxetine was not statistically significant. These differences were evident after one week, and improvement in all groups was complete after four weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Both fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling given as a course of therapy are effective treatments for non-psychotic depression in postnatal women. After an initial session of counselling, additional benefit results from either fluoxetine or further counselling but there seems to be no advantage in receiving both. The choice of treatment may therefore be made by the women themselves.
Appleby, L.; Warner, R.; Whitton, A.; Faragher, B.
Background Ineffective emotion regulation and abnormal amygdala activation have each been found in adolescent-onset major depressive disorder. However, amygdala activation during emotion regulation has not been studied in adolescent-onset major depressive disorder. Method Fourteen unmedicated adolescents diagnosed with current depression without comorbid psychiatric disorders and fourteen well-matched controls ages 13 to 17 years underwent an emotional regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During this task, participants viewed negatively-valence images and were asked to notice how they were feeling without trying to change it and maintain their emotional reaction (“Maintain”) or to interpret the image in such a way as minimize their emotional response (“Reduce”). Results Imaging analyses demonstrated that adolescents with depression showed: (1) greater right amygdala activation during the maintain condition relative to controls, (2) less connectivity during the maintain condition between the amygdala and both the insula and medial prefrontal cortex than controls, and (3) a significant positive correlation between amygdala-seeded connectivity during maintenance of emotion and psychosocial functioning. Limitations The current study is cross-sectional comparison and longitudinal investigations with larger sample sizes are needed to examine the association between amygdala reactivity and emotion regulation over time in adolescent MDD. Conclusions During the maintain condition, adolescents with depression showed a heightened amygdala response and less reciprocal activation in brain regions that may modulate the amygdala. A poorly modulated, overreactive amygdala may contribute to poor emotion regulation.
Perlman, Greg; Simmons, Alan N.; Wu, Jing; Hahn, Kevin S.; Tapert, Susan F.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Paulus, Martin P.; Brown, Gregory G.; Frank, Guido K.; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Yang, Tony T.
Individuals with arthritis are vulnerable to depression. In this study, we calculated time to remission from depression in a representative community-based sample of depressed Canadians with arthritis who were followed for 12 years. We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal panel study, the National Population Health Survey, which was begun in 1994/95 and has included biennial assessment of depression since that time. Our analysis focused on a total of 216 respondents with arthritis who were depressed at baseline. The mean time to remission from depression was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier procedure and compared across categories of each of the potential predictors. The percentage of those no longer screening positive for depression was calculated at two years after baseline. At two years after baseline, 71% of the sample had achieved remission from depression. Time to remission was significantly longer for those depressed adults who were under the age of 55, those who reported more chronic pain at baseline, those with comorbid migraine, and those who experienced childhood physical abuse or parental addictions. These findings highlight the importance of screening for these factors to improve the targeting of interventions to depressed patients with arthritis. PMID:24587900
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Battiston, Marla; Gadalla, Tahany M; Shaked, Yael; Raza, Ferrah
Lower social participation and less frequent walking represent two factors that may contribute to depression among older adults, but previous research on the subject is inconclusive. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to quantify associations between depression and the combined effects from social participation and walking in a sample of older adults living in Canada (n = 549). Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted, in which we entered social participation and walking as predictors of depression while controlling for individual characteristics. Results of the final models show that individuals who do not walk outside their home report more depressive symptoms or a greater likelihood of possible clinical depression (the association in our study between social participation and depression was attenuated to non-significance). The current study highlights the central role played by life habits, such as walking, in older adults' mental health status. PMID:23472603
Julien, Dominic; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Kestens, Yan; Payette, Hélène
Introduction The incidence of respiratory depression in patients who are chemically sedated in the emergency department (ED) is not well understood. As the drugs used for chemical restraint are respiratory depressants, improving respiratory monitoring practice in the ED may be warranted. The objective of this study is to describe the incidence of respiratory depression in patients chemically sedated for violent behavior and psychomotor agitation in the ED. Methods Adult patients who met eligibility criteria with psychomotor agitation and violent behavior who were chemically sedated were eligible. SpO2 and ETCO2 (end-tidal CO2) was recorded and saved every 5 seconds. Demographic data, history of drug or alcohol abuse, medical and psychiatric history, HR and BP every 5 minutes, any physician intervention for hypoxia or respiratory depression, or adverse events were also recorded. We defined respiratory depression as an ETCO2 of ?50 mmHg, a change of 10% above or below baseline, or a loss of waveform for ?15 seconds. Hypoxia was defined as a SpO2 of ?93% for ?15 seconds. Results We enrolled 59 patients, and excluded 9 because of ?35% data loss. Twenty-eight (28/50) patients developed respiratory depression at least once during their chemical restraint (56%, 95% CI 42–69%); the median number of events was 2 (range 1–6). Twenty-one (21/50) patients had at least one hypoxic event during their chemical restraint (42%, 95% CI 29–55%); the median number of events was 2 (range 1–5). Nineteen (19/21) (90%, 95% CI 71–97%) of the patients that developed hypoxia had a corresponding ETCO2 change. Fifteen (15/19) (79%, 95% CI 56–91%) patients who became hypoxic met criteria for respiratory depression before the onset of hypoxia. The sensitivity of ETCO2 to predict the onset of a hypoxic event was 90.48% (95% CI: 68–98%) and specificity 69% (95% CI: 49–84%). Five patients received respiratory interventions from the healthcare team to improve respiration [Airway repositioning: (2), Verbal stimulation: (3)]. Thirty-seven patients had a history of concurrent drug or alcohol abuse and 24 had a concurrent psychiatric history. None of these patients had a major adverse event. Conclusion About half of the patients in this study exhibited respiratory depression. Many of these patients went on to have a hypoxic event, and most of the incidences of hypoxia were preceded by respiratory depression. Few of these events were recognized by their treating physicians.
Deitch, Kenneth; Rowden, Adam; Damiron, Kathia; Lares, Claudia; Oqroshidze, Nino; Aguilera, Elizabeth
Background Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. Methods/design The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. Discussion This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel prevention strategy for PTSD among traumatized people. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00671099
The efficacy of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for mood disturbances associated with menopause has yet to be firmly established. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ERT for improving mood and anxiety of non-depressive postmenopausal women. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study involved two treatment groups: one receiving conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs; 0.625 mg/day) and the other placebo, for six cycles of 28 days each. Subjects were hysterectomized, healthy, non-depressive (according to Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Life Time Version [SADS-L]) women. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), respectively. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and other scales were used to characterize symptoms. In both groups, BDI scores were significantly lower at cycles 1, 2, 3, and 6, compared with baseline assessments (p<0.01). Anxiety scores for both groups significantly improved from cycle 3 to study endpoint. The only significant difference favoring the active group occurred at cycle 1. POMS scores were significantly improved at the end of cycles 1, 2, 3 and 6 among treated subjects and at the end of cycles 2, 3, and 6 among placebo subjects. ERT is not associated with improvements in mood or anxiety symptoms in non-depressive, hysterectomized, postmenopausal women. PMID:22016254
Demetrio, Frederico Navas; Rennó, Joel; Gianfaldoni, Arlete; Gonçalves, Marcelo; Halbe, Hans Wolfgang; Filho, Antônio Hélio Guerra V; Gorenstein, Clarice
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between infertility characteristics, cognitive coping strategies, and depressive symptoms in definitive involuntarily childless people. Both cross-sectional and prospective relationships were studied in a sample of 169 persons for whom an involuntarily childless future was definitive. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) and the Symptom Check List (SCL-90) were filled
Vivian Kraaij; Nadia Garnefski; Anne Vlietstra
Background. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between major depression and cigarette smoking among young adults in a birth cohort before and after adjusting for confounding factors. Method. Data were gathered over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS). The CHDS is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand
D. M. FERGUSSON; R. D. GOODWIN; L. J. HORWOOD
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have documented an elevated frequency of depressive symptoms and disorders in fibromyalgia, but have not examined the association between this comorbidity and occupational status. The purpose of this study was to describe these epidemiological associations using a national probability sample. METHODS: Data from iteration 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used. The CCHS 1.1
Aliya Kassam; Scott B Patten
A concatenation of findings from preclinical and clinical studies support a preeminent function for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in mediating the physiological response to external stressors and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Recently, human genetic studies have provided considerable support to several long-standing hypotheses of mood and anxiety disorders, including the CRF hypothesis. These data, reviewed in
E B Binder; C B Nemeroff
Performed a meta-analysis of reliability estimates for Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (A. Beck and others, 1961) scores across studies. Only 7.5% of studies reviewed (n=1,200) reported meaningful reliability estimates. Analysis results suggest that standard errors of measurement should be considered in addition to reliability estimates when…
Yin, Ping; Fan, Xitao
The search for specific predepressive personality factors has a long tradition in psychiatry. Studies in which assessments were made prospectively, before the onset of a first-ever episode of the illness, are, however, rare. In the present report from the Lundby Study we have investigated premorbid, mainly personality-related background factors for first incidences of depressive disorder, diagnosed according to the Lundby
Birgitta Rorsman; Anne Gräsbeck; Olle Hagnell; Per-Erik Isberg; Lena Otterbeck
Objective: Of the many forms of psychotherapy offered to treat depression in youth, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has been shown to be efficacious. Nonetheless, a high degree of apparent non-responsiveness, failure to remit post-treatment, and lack of long term benefit are all problematic. Given that regular participation is critical to treatment success, child and family predictors of attendance were researched. Method: Twenty-nine depressed Canadian youth (aged 10–17) participated in a youth only or youth plus parent CBT group. Child and parent predictors of attendance were examined. Results: Youth who were younger, less anxious (by maternal report), and had more formally educated parents attended CBT more consistently. Further, mothers who perceived their children’s depressive symptoms as more severe, whose children reported more depressive and anxious symptoms, and who reported more life stressors attended more parent sessions. Conclusions: This study identifies key factors influencing youth and parent attendance in group CBT for depressed youth. Addressing these factors at the outset of treatment may decrease attrition in this form of psychotherapy.
Wilansky-Traynor, Pamela; Manassis, Katharina; Monga, Suneeta; Shaw, Maryanne; Merka, Patricia; Levac, Anne-Marie; Kleiman, Valery
Mindfulness has been suggested to be an important protective factor for emotional health. However, this effect might vary with regard to context. This study applied a novel statistical approach, quantile regression, in order to investigate the relation between trait mindfulness and residual depressive symptoms in individuals with a history of recurrent depression, while taking into account symptom severity and number of episodes as contextual factors. Rather than fitting to a single indicator of central tendency, quantile regression allows exploration of relations across the entire range of the response variable. Analysis of self-report data from 274 participants with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression showed that relatively higher levels of mindfulness were associated with relatively lower levels of residual depressive symptoms. This relationship was most pronounced near the upper end of the response distribution and moderated by the number of previous episodes of depression at the higher quantiles. The findings suggest that with lower levels of mindfulness, residual symptoms are less constrained and more likely to be influenced by other factors. Further, the limiting effect of mindfulness on residual symptoms is most salient in those with higher numbers of episodes.
Radford, Sholto; Eames, Catrin; Brennan, Kate; Lambert, Gwladys; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J. Mark G.; Duggan, Danielle S.; Barnhofer, Thorsten
Background An association between depression and coronary heart disease is now accepted but there has been little primary care research on this topic. The UPBEAT-UK studies are centred on a cohort of primary patients with coronary heart disease assessed every six months for up to four years. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associations of depression in this cohort at baseline. Method Participants with coronary heart disease were recruited from general practice registers and assessed for cardiac symptoms, depression, quality of life and social problems. Results 803 people participated. 42% had a documented history of myocardial infarction, 54% a diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or angina. 44% still experienced chest pain. 7% had an ICD-10 defined depressive disorder. Factors independently associated with this diagnosis were problems living alone (OR 5.49, 95% CI 2.11–13.30), problems carrying out usual activities (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.93–7.14), experiencing chest pain (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.58–6.76), other pains or discomfort (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.42–8.10), younger age (OR 0.95 per year 95% CI 0.92–0.98). Conclusion Problems living alone, chest pain and disability are important predictors of depression in this population.
Walters, Paul; Barley, Elizabeth A.; Mann, Anthony; Phillips, Rachel; Tylee, Andre
Mindfulness has been suggested to be an important protective factor for emotional health. However, this effect might vary with regard to context. This study applied a novel statistical approach, quantile regression, in order to investigate the relation between trait mindfulness and residual depressive symptoms in individuals with a history of recurrent depression, while taking into account symptom severity and number of episodes as contextual factors. Rather than fitting to a single indicator of central tendency, quantile regression allows exploration of relations across the entire range of the response variable. Analysis of self-report data from 274 participants with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression showed that relatively higher levels of mindfulness were associated with relatively lower levels of residual depressive symptoms. This relationship was most pronounced near the upper end of the response distribution and moderated by the number of previous episodes of depression at the higher quantiles. The findings suggest that with lower levels of mindfulness, residual symptoms are less constrained and more likely to be influenced by other factors. Further, the limiting effect of mindfulness on residual symptoms is most salient in those with higher numbers of episodes. PMID:24988072
Radford, Sholto; Eames, Catrin; Brennan, Kate; Lambert, Gwladys; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J Mark G; Duggan, Danielle S; Barnhofer, Thorsten
Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0-15), while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8 ± 3.5 versus 3.3 ± 3.1, P = .001). Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all P < .05). Regarding fish consumption, 50% of the individuals reported consuming 1-2 times weekly, 32% 3 to 5 times weekly, 11% 2-3 times monthly, while the rest reported rare (4.5%) and everyday (1.2%) consumption. Logistic regression showed that increased fish consumption (>3 times/week versus never/rare) was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4) (odds??ratio = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61), after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood. PMID:21197433
Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsitsinakis, George; Siassos, Gerassimos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Galiatsatos, Nikos; Metaxa, Vasiliki; Lazaros, George; Miliou, Antigoni; Giakoumi, Evaggelia; Mylonakis, Charalambos; Zaromytidou, Marina; Economou, Evaggelos; Triantafyllou, Georgia; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos
Objectives: This study investigated the effect of ziprasidone augmentation therapy on sleep architecture in bipolar depression. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical pilot trial of ziprasidone versus placebo in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition bipolar disorder with current major depressive episode. The effects during acute (2–5 days) and continuation treatment (28–31 days) were measured. Main outcomes were sleep architecture variables including rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and slow wave sleep (SWS) measured by polysomnography. Secondary outcomes included subjective sleep quality measures and illness severity measures including the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Clinical Global Illness Severity (CGI-S) scores. Results: The completer analysis comprised of 14 patients (ziprasidone, N = 8 and placebo, N = 6). Latency to REM, duration of SWS, duration of stage 2 sleep, total sleep time, onset to sleep latency, number of awakenings and overall sleep efficiency significantly improved in ziprasidone-treated participants over placebo. CGI-S and HAMA scores also significantly improved. No significant difference between treatment groups was seen on the HAMD-17, MADRS or in self-reported sleep quality. Increase in SWS duration significantly correlated with improvement in CGI-S, however, this finding did not withstand Bonferroni correction. Conclusion: Adjunctive ziprasidone treatment alters sleep architecture in patients with bipolar depression, which may partially explain its mechanism of action and merits further investigation.
Baskaran, Anusha; Summers, Dave; Willing, Stephanie LM; Jokic, Ruzica
Objectives Subsyndromal depression (SSD) is several times more common than major depression in older adults, and is associated with significant negative health outcomes. Physical activity can improve depression, yet adherence is often poor. We assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term efficacy and safety of a novel intervention using exergames (entertaining video games that combine game play with exercise) for SSD in older adults. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (N = 19, age 63–94) with SSD participated in a 12-week pilot study (with follow-up at 20 to 24 weeks) of Nintendo’s Wii Sports, with three 35-minute sessions a week. Results 86% of enrolled participants completed the 12-week intervention. There was a significant improvement in depressive symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and cognitive performance, but not physical health-related quality of life. There were no major adverse events, and improvement in depression was maintained at follow-up. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary indication of the benefits of exergames in seniors with SSD. Randomized controlled trials of exergames for late-life SSD are warranted.
Rosenberg, Dori; Depp, Colin A.; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Reichstadt, Jennifer; Palmer, Barton W.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Greg; Jeste, Dilip V.
Background Depressive disorders are common, cause considerable disability, and do not always respond to standard therapy (psychotherapy, antidepressants). Anthroposophic treatment for depression differs from ordinary treatment in the use of artistic and physical therapies and special medication. We studied clinical outcomes of anthroposophic therapy for depression. Methods 97 outpatients from 42 medical practices in Germany participated in a prospective cohort study. Patients were aged 20–69 years and were referred to anthroposophic therapies (art, eurythmy movement exercises, or rhythmical massage) or started physician-provided anthroposophic therapy (counselling, medication) for depression: depressed mood, at least two of six further depressive symptoms, minimum duration six months, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, German version (CES-D, range 0–60 points) of at least 24 points. Outcomes were CES-D (primary outcome) and SF-36 after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 months. Data were collected from July 1998 to March 2005. Results Median number of art/eurythmy/massage sessions was 14 (interquartile range 12–22), median therapy duration was 137 (91–212) days. All outcomes improved significantly between baseline and all subsequent follow-ups. Improvements from baseline to 12 months were: CES-D from mean (standard deviation) 34.77 (8.21) to 19.55 (13.12) (p < 0.001), SF-36 Mental Component Summary from 26.11 (7.98) to 39.15 (12.08) (p < 0.001), and SF-36 Physical Component Summary from 43.78 (9.46) to 48.79 (9.00) (p < 0.001). All these improvements were maintained until last follow-up. At 12-month follow-up and later, 52%–56% of evaluable patients (35%–42% of all patients) were improved by at least 50% of baseline CES-D scores. CES-D improved similarly in patients not using antidepressants or psychotherapy during the first six study months (55% of patients). Conclusion In outpatients with chronic depression, anthroposophic therapies were followed by long-term clinical improvement. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that the anthroposophic approach, with its recourse to non-verbal and artistic exercising therapies can be useful for patients motivated for such therapies.
Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut
Previous studies consistently reported abnormal recognition of facial expressions in depression. However, it is still not clear whether this abnormality is due to an enhanced or impaired ability to recognize facial expressions, and what underlying cognitive systems are involved. The present study aimed to examine how individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms differ from controls on facial expression recognition and to assess attention and information processing using eye tracking. Forty participants (18 with elevated depressive symptoms) were instructed to label facial expressions depicting one of seven emotions. Results showed that the high-depression group, in comparison with the low-depression group, recognized facial expressions faster and with comparable accuracy. Furthermore, the high-depression group demonstrated greater leftwards attention bias which has been argued to be an indicator of hyperactivation of right hemisphere during facial expression recognition. PMID:22288009
Wu, Lingdan; Pu, Jie; Allen, John J B; Pauli, Paul