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Sample records for deprivation amplification revisited

  1. Deprivation amplification revisited; or, is it always true that poorer places have poorer access to resources for healthy diets and physical activity?

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Background It has commonly been suggested (including by this author) that individual or household deprivation (for example, low income) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of affordable nutritious food or facilities for physical activity in the neighbourhood). Discussion The idea of deprivation amplification has some intuitive attractiveness and helps divert attention away from purely individual determinants of diet and physical activity, and towards health promoting or health damaging features of the physical and social environment. Such environmental features may be modifiable, and environmental changes may help promote healthier behaviors. However, recent empirical examination of the distribution of facilities and resources shows that location does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods. This suggests that we need: a) to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date empirical evidence on the socio-economic distribution of neighbourhood resources, and b) to engage in further research on the relative importance of, and interactions between, individual and environmental factors in shaping behavior. Summary In this debate paper I suggest that it may not always be true that poorer neighbourhoods are more likely to lack health promoting resources, and to be exposed to more health damaging resources. The spatial distribution of environmental resources by area socioeconomic status may vary between types of resource, countries, and time periods. It may also be that the presence or absence of resources is less important than their quality, their social meaning, or local perceptions of their accessibility and relevance. PMID:17683624

  2. Complement amplification revisited.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Hans U; Jelezarova, Emiliana

    2006-01-01

    Complement amplification in blood takes place not only on activating surfaces, but in plasma as well, where it is maintained primarily by C3b2-IgG complexes. Regular products of C3 activation in serum, these complexes are inherently very efficient precursors of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. Moreover, they can bind properdin bivalently, thus creating preferred sites for convertase formation. C3b2-IgG complexes have a half-life that is substantially longer than that of free C3b, since both C3b molecules are partially protected from inactivation by factor H and I. These complexes are preferentially generated on certain naturally occurring and induced antibodies that exhibit a paratope-independent affinity for C3/C3b. Such antibodies are known to stimulate alternative complement pathway activation. We have assembled the evidence for the generation and the functional potency of the C3b2-IgG complexes, which have been studied during the last two decades. We illustrate their roles in immune complex solubilization, phagocytosis, immune response, and their ability to initiate devastating effects in ischemia/reperfusion and in aggravating inflammation. PMID:16023211

  3. Schizophrenia and subsequent neighborhood deprivation: revisiting the social drift hypothesis using population, twin and molecular genetic data.

    PubMed

    Sariaslan, A; Fazel, S; D'Onofrio, B M; Långström, N; Larsson, H; Bergen, S E; Kuja-Halkola, R; Lichtenstein, P

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood influences in the etiology of schizophrenia have been emphasized in a number of systematic reviews, but causality remains uncertain. To test the social drift hypothesis, we used three complementary genetically informed Swedish cohorts. First, we used nationwide Swedish data on approximately 760 000 full- and half-sibling pairs born between 1951 and 1974 and quantitative genetic models to study genetic and environmental influences on the overlap between schizophrenia in young adulthood and subsequent residence in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. Schizophrenia diagnoses were ascertained using the National Patient Registry. Second, we tested the overlap between childhood psychotic experiences and neighborhood deprivation in early adulthood in the longitudinal Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=2960). Third, we investigated to what extent polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia predicted residence in deprived neighborhoods during late adulthood using the TwinGene sample (n=6796). Sibling data suggested that living in deprived neighborhoods was substantially heritable; 65% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 60-71%) of the variance was attributed to genetic influences. Although the correlation between schizophrenia and neighborhood deprivation was moderate in magnitude (r=0.22; 95% CI: 0.20-0.24), it was entirely explained by genetic influences. We replicated these findings in the TCHAD sample. Moreover, the association between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and neighborhood deprivation was statistically significant (R(2)=0.15%, P=0.002). Our findings are primarily consistent with a genetic selection interpretation where genetic liability for schizophrenia also predicts subsequent residence in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. Previous studies may have overemphasized the relative importance of environmental influences in the social drift of schizophrenia patients. Clinical and policy interventions will therefore

  4. MEDICAL "DEPRIVATION."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.

    THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL…

  5. The maternal deprivation animal model revisited.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Llorente, Ricardo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Mela, Virginia; Llorente-Berzal, Álvaro; Prada, Carmen; Viveros, María-Paz

    2015-04-01

    Early life stress, in the form of MD (24h at pnd 9), interferes with brain developmental trajectories modifying both behavioral and neurobiochemical parameters. MD has been reported to enhance neuroendocrine responses to stress, to affect emotional behavior and to impair cognitive function. More recently, changes in body weight gain, metabolic parameters and immunological responding have also been described. Present data give support to the fact that neuronal degeneration and/or astrocyte proliferation are present in specific brain regions, mainly hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus, which are particularly vulnerable to the effects of neonatal stress. The MD animal model arises as a valuable tool for the investigation of the brain processes occurring at the narrow time window comprised between pnd 9 and 10 that are critical for the establishment of brain circuitries critical for the regulation of behavior, metabolism and energy homeostasis. In the present review we will discuss three possible mechanisms that might be crucial for the effects of MD, namely, the rapid increase in glucocorticoids, the lack of the neonatal leptin surge, and the enhanced endocannabinoid signaling during the specific critical period of MD. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the detrimental consequences of MD is a concern for public health and may provide new insights into mental health prevention strategies and into novel therapeutic approaches in neuropsychiatry. PMID:25616179

  6. Sleep deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Svestka, Jaromir

    2008-11-01

    Sleep deprivation is a useful therapeutic option in the treatment of depressive disorders, especially in pharmacoresistant disorders. Its therapeutic efficacy in other indications has not, however, been confirmed. According to current knowledge, application of sleep therapy requires concomitant therapy to prevent early relapses of depression. Total sleep deprivation is the classic variant of its clinical use. Partial sleep deprivation has a somewhat less pronounced antidepressant effect, and the duration of sleep deprivation rather than application timing determines its therapeutic effect. The most reliable predictors of sleep deprivation efficacy are marked diurnal fluctuations of depressive mood, patient locomotor activity, and limbic hyperactivity in the central nervous system. The mechanism of the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation remains unknown. PMID:19029872

  7. Environmentally Deprived Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimnicht, Glen

    This paper discusses the meaning of environmental deprivation, specifically the effects of racial, ethnic, and cultural differences on education. Objectives are also given for a Head Start and Follow Through program. A child is environmentally deprived to the extent that he has not developed his intellectual ability and a positive self-image.…

  8. Monocular Deprivation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-tang; Chou, Xiao-lin; Tao, Huizhong Whit

    2016-01-01

    Monocular deprivation is an experimental technique to study the ocular dominance plasticity during critical period (Hubel and Wiesel, 1963). Generally one eye of an animal is sutured during critical period, and the sutured eye is re-opened after either less than three days (short term) or more than three days (long term). Here we describe a detailed protocol for short-term and long-term monocular deprivation in mouse (Ma et al., 2013).

  9. Was cultural deprivation in fact sensory deprivation? Deprivation, retardation and intervention in the USA.

    PubMed

    Raz, Mical

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s, the term "deprivation" entered American psychiatric discourse. This article examines how the concept of deprivation permeated the field of mental retardation, and became an accepted theory of etiology. It focuses on sensory deprivation and cultural deprivation, and analyzes the interventions developed, based on these theories. It argues that the controversial theory of cultural deprivation derived its scientific legitimization from the theory of sensory deprivation, and was a highly politicized concept that took part in the nature-nurture debate. PMID:21488428

  10. Deprivation and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloke, Daphne

    1983-01-01

    A case study of a pair of extremely deprived twin boys focuses on their verbal communication. Talkativeness alone was not regarded as a measure of intelligence, but attention was paid to the less talkative twin's greater use of imaginative speech. Speculations are made on the evolutionary role of creative speech. (IS)

  11. Lakatos Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social sciences as…

  12. Unihemispheric sleep deprivation in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Oleksenko; Mukhametov; Polyakova; Supin; Kovalzon

    1992-03-01

    Unihemispheric and bihemispheric sleep deprivation were performed in bottlenose dolphins. One brain hemisphere was capable of being deprived of delta (0.5-3.0 Hz) sleep in the former condition. Here, an increase in sleep pressure was observed during sleep deprivation in the deprived hemisphere. In the recovery sleep, following unihemispheric sleep deprivation, there was a rebound of delta sleep only in the deprived hemisphere. Following bihemispheric sleep deprivation the animals exhibited an increase in delta sleep in both hemispheres. PMID:10607024

  13. Amplification effects in optomechanics via weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Song, He-Shan

    2014-07-01

    We revisit the scheme of single-photon weak-coupling optomechanics using postselection, proposed by Pepper, Ghobadi, Jeffrey, Simon, and Bouwmeester [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.023601], by analyzing the exact solution of the dynamical evolution. Positive and negative amplification effects of the displacement of the mirror's position can be generated when the Kerr phase is considered. This effect occurs when the postselected state of the photon is orthogonal to the initial state, which cannot be explained by the usual weak measurement results. The amplification effect can be further modulated by a phase shifter, and the maximal displacement state can appear within a short evolution time.

  14. Consequences of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the history of research and the results of recent studies on the effects of sleep deprivation in animals and humans. Humans can bear several days of continuous sleeplessness, experiencing deterioration in wellbeing and effectiveness; however, also a shorter reduction in the sleep time may lead to deteriorated functioning. Sleeplessness accounts for impaired perception, difficulties in keeping concentration, vision disturbances, slower reactions, as well as the appearance of microepisodes of sleep during wakefulness which lead to lower capabilities and efficiency of task performance and to increased number of errors. Sleep deprivation results in poor memorizing, schematic thinking, which yields wrong decisions, and emotional disturbances such as deteriorated interpersonal responses and increased aggressiveness. The symptoms are accompanied by brain tissue hypometabolism, particularly in the thalamus, prefrontal, frontal and occipital cortex and motor speech centres. Sleep deficiency intensifies muscle tonus and coexisting tremor, speech performance becomes monotonous and unclear, and sensitivity to pain is higher. Sleeplessness also relates to the changes in the immune response and the pattern of hormonal secretion, of the growth hormone in particular. The risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease increases. The impairment of performance which is caused by 20-25 hours of sleeplessness is comparable to that after ethanol intoxication at the level of 0.10% blood alcohol concentration. The consequences of chronic sleep reduction or a shallow sleep repeated for several days tend to accumulate and resemble the effects of acute sleep deprivation lasting several dozen hours. At work, such effects hinder proper performance of many essential tasks and in extreme situations (machine operation or vehicle driving), sleep loss may be hazardous to the worker and his/her environment. PMID:20442067

  15. Response deprivation, reinforcement, and economics

    PubMed Central

    Allison, James

    1993-01-01

    Reinforcement of an instrumental response results not from a special kind of response consequence known as a reinforcer, but from a special kind of schedule known as a response-deprivation schedule. Under the requirements of a response-deprivation schedule, the baseline rate of the instrumental response permits less than the baseline rate of the contingent response. Because reinforcement occurs only if the schedule deprives the organism of the contingent response, reinforcement cannot result from any intrinsic property of the contingent response or any property relative to the instrumental response. Two typical effects of response-deprivation schedules—facilitation of the instrumental response and suppression of the contingent response—are discussed in terms of economic concepts and models of instrumental performance. It is suggested that response deprivation makes the contingent response function as an economic good, the instrumental response as currency. PMID:16812695

  16. [Delusion and sleep deprivation].

    PubMed

    Devillières, P; Opitz, M; Clervoy, P; Stephany, J

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the authors report two observations of short delusion that occurred after taking Guronsan--a psychostimulant commercialized in France--for a few days, with the intention of maintaining a total deprivation of sleep for three days in both cases. The ensuing clinical picture included a state of depersonalization, a loss of the sense of reality, illusions and even visual hallucinations as well as a delirious feeling of persecution. These disorders altered with the state of vigilance and the patients remembered them clearly. The authors discussed the etiopathogenic role of this psychotrope, as its components--acid ascorbic, glucuronamide and caffein--are not mentioned in literature as causing factors of a psychotic state. Then they compared this psychotrope with other molecules: amphetamines in particular may start a delirium of persecution, but normally they just reveal an underlying psychotic structure, which doesn't seem to be the case here, where the two young adults were only found a little immature. Chloroquine has sometimes been incriminated for disorders similar to those mentioned above, with a difference lying in a greater stability in the duration of these disorders that would persist several days after the end of the treatment. The clinical picture of the two cases was more labile and sedation was complete as soon as the absorption of the psychotrope was interrupted and sleep was restored at the same time. That is why the authors emphasize the importance of the deprivation of sleep as a causing factor of those delusion disorders which have particularly been observed in the case of solitary navigators. The psychiatrist dealing with emergencies shouldn't overlook this clinical and etiological possibility, all the less so as the treatment is simple and the resort to neuroleptics unnecessary. PMID:8767052

  17. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking.

    PubMed

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Leder, Johannes; Ketturat, Charlene; Dresler, Martin; Faber, Nadira Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by - more or less qualified - advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) ×2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compared participants with one night of total sleep deprivation to participants with a night of regular sleep. Competency of advisor was manipulated within subjects. We found that sleep deprived participants show increased advice taking. An interaction of condition and competency of advisor and further post-hoc analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for the medium competency advisor compared to the high competency advisor. Furthermore, sleep deprived participants benefited more from an advisor of high competency in terms of stronger improvement in judgmental accuracy than well-rested participants. PMID:27109507

  18. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking

    PubMed Central

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Leder, Johannes; Ketturat, Charlene; Dresler, Martin; Faber, Nadira Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by – more or less qualified – advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) ×2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compared participants with one night of total sleep deprivation to participants with a night of regular sleep. Competency of advisor was manipulated within subjects. We found that sleep deprived participants show increased advice taking. An interaction of condition and competency of advisor and further post-hoc analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for the medium competency advisor compared to the high competency advisor. Furthermore, sleep deprived participants benefited more from an advisor of high competency in terms of stronger improvement in judgmental accuracy than well-rested participants. PMID:27109507

  19. Identifying a deprivation of liberty.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The UK Supreme Court's judgment in Cheshire West and Chester Council v P [2014] fundamentally changed the approach to determining if a person who lacked capacity was deprived of their liberty by the State. The Supreme Court further held that a deprivation of liberty could occur in any care setting including a person's own home. In this article, Richard Griffith discusses the approach district nurses should adopt when determining whether a patient being cared for at home is deprived of his/her liberty. PMID:26692137

  20. Effects of Prolonged Deprivation on Learned Helplessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mal, Suraj; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated influence of prolonged deprivation on responses to uncontrollable outcome among 104 Indian students in the tenth grade. Finds high-deprived and female students displayed greater helplessness than did their low-deprived and male counterparts. Females and high-deprives students attributed uncontrollable outcome more to internal, stable,…

  1. Neurobiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alkadhi, Karim; Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Although the physiological function of sleep is not completely understood, it is well documented that it contributes significantly to the process of learning and memory. Ample evidence suggests that adequate sleep is essential for fostering connections among neuronal networks for memory consolidation in the hippocampus. Sleep deprivation studies are extremely valuable in understanding why we sleep and what are the consequences of sleep loss. Experimental sleep deprivation in animals allows us to gain insight into the mechanism of sleep at levels not possible to study in human subjects. Many useful approaches have been utilized to evaluate the effect of sleep loss on cognitive function, each with relative advantages and disadvantages. In this review we discuss sleep and the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation mostly in experimental animals. The negative effects of sleep deprivation on various aspects of brain function including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and the state of cognition-related signaling molecules are discussed. PMID:24179461

  2. Regulation of photolyase in Escherichia coli K-12 during adenine deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, J L; Rupert, C S

    1990-01-01

    DNA photolyase, a DNA repair enzyme encoded by the phr gene of Escherichia coli, is normally regulated at 10 to 20 active molecules per cell. In purA mutants deprived of adenine, this amount increased sixfold within 2 h. Operon fusions placing lacZ under transcriptional control of phr promoters indicated no change in transcription rate during adenine deprivation, and gene fusions of phr with lacZ showed a nearly constant level of translation as well. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the total amount of photolyase protein remained constant during enzyme amplification. On the other hand, treatment of cells with chloramphenicol during the adenine deprivation prevented any increase. DNA regions lying 1.3 to 4.2 kb upstream of the phr coding sequences were necessary for this amplification to occur and for this purpose would function in trans. These results suggest that adenine deprivation leads to a posttranslational change, involving synthesis of protein encoded by sequences lying upstream of phr, which increases photolyase activity. The amplification in activity was found to be reversible, for when adenine was restored, the photolyase activity declined before cell growth resumed. Images PMID:2254263

  3. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  4. Swing Amplification of Galactic Spiral Arms: Phase Synchronization of Stellar Epicycle Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the swing amplification model of galactic spiral arms proposed by Toomre. We describe the derivation of the perturbation equation in detail and investigate the amplification process of stellar spirals. We find that the elementary process of the swing amplification is the phase synchronization of the stellar epicycle motion. Regardless of the initial epicycle phase, the epicycle phases of stars in a spiral are synchronized during the amplification. Based on the phase synchronization, we explain the dependence of the pitch angle of spirals on the epicycle frequency. We find the most amplified spiral mode and calculate its pitch angle, wavelengths, and amplification factor, which are consistent with those obtained by the more rigorous model based on the Boltzmann equation by Julian & Toomre.

  5. Revisiting dandruff.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Piérard, G E

    2006-10-01

    Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the postpubertal population of any ethnicity and both genders. It may, however, represent a stubborn esthetical disturbance often source of pruritus. Skin biocenosis, in particular the Malassezia spp. flora, plays a key aetiologic role, in combination with the unusual capacity of some corneocytes to be coated by these yeasts. Substantial evidence indicates that keratinocytes play an active role in the generation and expression of immunopathological reactions. This is probably the case in dandruff. Upon stimulation of a critical colonization of corneocytes by Malassezia yeasts, the release of pro-inflammatory mediators is increased. This could lead to the subclinical microinflammation present in dandruff. In seborrheic dermatitis, local deposits of immunoglobulins and the release of lymphokines are responsible for the recruitment and local activation of leukocytes leading to the eventual amplification of the inflammatory reaction. Some ancillary non-microbial causes of dandruff may operate through physical or chemical irritants. Many methods have been described for rating dandruff. Our favourite tools are clinical examination and squamometry. Dandruff can precipitate telogen effluvium and exacerbate androgenic alopecia. Antidandruff formulations exhibiting some direct or indirect anti-inflammatory activity can improve both dandruff and its subsequent hair cycle disturbance. PMID:18489295

  6. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Stephanie M.; Goldstein, Andrea N.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports a link between sleep loss and obesity. However, the detrimental impact of sleep deprivation on central brain mechanisms governing appetitive food desire remains unknown. Here we report that sleep deprivation significantly decreases activity in appetitive evaluation regions within the human frontal cortex and insula cortex during food desirability choices, combined with a converse amplification of activity within the amygdala. Moreover, this bi-directional change in the profile of brain activity is further associated with a significant increase in the desire for weight-gain promoting high-calorie foods following sleep deprivation, the extent of which is predicted by the subjective severity of sleep loss across participants. These findings provide an explanatory brain mechanism by which insufficient sleep may lead to the development/maintenance of obesity through diminished activity in higher-order cortical evaluation regions, combined with excess subcortical responsivity in the amygdala, resulting in selection of foods most capable of triggering weight-gain. PMID:23922121

  7. Deprivation in Education. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Rose; Rutt, Simon; Sims, David

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between deprivation and education is a critical relationship with profound implications for a country's economic prosperity and the social mobility of its citizens. This is highlighted by the Welsh Government which states that: "A good education is critical to better life chances and a commitment to achieving this has been an…

  8. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed. PMID:27574515

  9. Early amplification options.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Sandra Abbott; Schryer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Children with permanent hearing loss have been remediated with hearing amplification devices for decades. The influx of young infants identified with hearing loss through successful newborn hearing screening programs has established a need for amplification resources for infants within the first six months of life. For the approximately two of every 1000 infants born who are identified with bilateral hearing loss [Mehl and Thomson, 1998, Pediatrics 101, p. e4], the use of amplification is commonly the first step in treating the sequella of their loss. The use of hearing aids, combined with early intervention, has been shown to significantly improve the speech and language skills of young children with hearing loss [Yoshinaga-Itano, 2000, Seminars in Hearing 21, p. 309]. Speech and language delays have contributed to compromised academic performance of school aged children with hearing loss [Johnson et al., 1997, Educational Audiology Handbook, Singular Publishing, San Diego]. Most hard-of-hearing and deaf children use hearing aids and other assistive listening devices every day throughout their lifetime and the life expectancy of a hearing aid is only five to eight years. The current challenge for pediatric audiologists is selecting and evaluating the available amplification to provide the best options for children and their families. Amplification technology has seen an explosion in growth the past few years and the options continue to expand rapidly. This article examines currently available amplification technology and reviews the selection criteria that may be used for infants and young children. Issues such as style, type, amplification features, signal processing strategies, and verification and validation tools are also discussed. PMID:14648816

  10. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  11. Child pedestrian casualties and deprivation.

    PubMed

    Green, James; Muir, Helen; Maher, Mike

    2011-05-01

    The existence of an association between child pedestrian accidents and socio-economic deprivation in Great Britain is well established. The factors driving this association are complex and difficult to isolate. This study uses accident prediction models to investigate the links between child pedestrian casualties and a range of environmental and socio-economic factors commonly linked to deprived areas and people. Separate models are constructed relating to the areas in which the children become casualties, and the areas in which the children reside. Significant socio-economic factors include: single-parenthood, reliance on income support, and crime; and environmental factors include domestic garden area, junction density and pedestrian and vehicular flow density. The study found that factors pertaining to the local environment were more prevalent in the models considering accident locations, whilst socio-economic factors were of greater influence in the residency model. PMID:21376859

  12. Quantum Feedback Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Quantum amplification is essential for various quantum technologies such as communication and weak-signal detection. However, its practical use is still limited due to inevitable device fragility that brings about distortion in the output signal or state. This paper presents a general theory that solves this critical issue. The key idea is simple and easy to implement: just a passive feedback of the amplifier's auxiliary mode, which is usually thrown away. In fact, this scheme makes the controlled amplifier significantly robust, and furthermore it realizes the minimum-noise amplification even under realistic imperfections. Hence, the presented theory enables the quantum amplification to be implemented at a practical level. Also, a nondegenerate parametric amplifier subjected to a special detuning is proposed to show that, additionally, it has a broadband nature.

  13. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  14. On soliton amplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibovich, S.; Randall, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation that permits wave amplification or damping. A 'terminal similarity' solution is identified for large times in amplified systems. Numerical results are given which confirm that the terminal similarity solution is a valid local approximation for mu t sufficiently large and positive, even though the approximation is not uniformly valid in space.

  15. Gravitomagnetic amplification in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Tsagas, Christos G.

    2010-02-15

    Magnetic fields interact with gravitational waves in various ways. We consider the coupling between the Weyl and the Maxwell fields in cosmology and study the effects of the former on the latter. The approach is fully analytical and the results are gauge invariant. We show that the nature and the outcome of the gravitomagnetic interaction depends on the electric properties of the cosmic medium. When the conductivity is high, gravitational waves reduce the standard (adiabatic) decay rate of the B field, leading to its superadiabatic amplification. In poorly conductive environments, on the other hand, Weyl-curvature distortions can result into the resonant amplification of large-scale cosmological magnetic fields. Driven by the gravitational waves, these B fields oscillate with an amplitude that is found to diverge when the wavelengths of the two sources coincide. We present technical and physical aspects of the gravitomagnetic interaction and discuss its potential implications.

  16. Voltage Amplification using Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Farias, E. E.; Cavalcanti, G. H.; Santiago, M. A. M.

    2006-12-04

    The purpose of this work is to present experimental results about voltage amplification using plasma produced by a simple neon lamp, series connected with a signal generator and discrete circuit elements. The main advantage of employing plasma as an amplifier is due to its ability to drive larger power and potentially to operate in a larger frequency range compared with traditional amplifiers. Our results show that both, the voltage gain and the frequency range where the gain is bigger than one, are related to the plasma density which may be adjusted by a proper control of electrical discharge conditions. The plasma produced into the neon lamp exhibits a diode characteristic that is the principal responsible by the nonlinear plasma response. The amplification occurs when the plasma shows a negative conductance. In this regime the lamp works as an active amplifier and voltage gain higher than 18 was obtained.

  17. Light amplification using semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    During the summer of 1953, John von Neumann discussed his ideas concerning light amplification using semiconductors with Edward Teller. In September of that year, von Neumann sent a manuscript containing his ideas and calculations on this subject to Teller for his comments. To the best of our knowledge, von Neumann did not take time to work further on these ideas, and the manuscript remained unpublished. These previously unpublished writings of John von Neumann on the subject of light amplification in semiconductors are printed as a service to the laser community. While von Neumann's original manuscript and his letter to Teller are available to anyone who visits the Library of Congress, it is much more convenient to have this paper appear in an archival journal.

  18. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  19. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  20. Resident Performance and Sleep Deprivation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asken, Michael J.; Raham, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on resident performance and sleep deprivation suggests that current research is sparse and inconclusive, and existing research suggests potentially severe negative effects. It is proposed that justifications for sleep-depriving night call schedules remain untested, and their use as part of residency training should be…

  1. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  2. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  3. [Smoking cessation and social deprivation].

    PubMed

    Merson, F; Perriot, J; Underner, M; Peiffer, G; Fieulaine, N

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is a major of public health policy issue; one in two lifelong smokers will die from a disease related to tobacco use. In France, smoking is responsible for more than 70,000 deaths every year. The benefits linked to stopping smoking include reduced mortality and morbidity related to the use of tobacco. Recent data show an increase in the prevalence of smoking in the lowest socioeconomic population. Tobacco control needs a better understanding of the determinants of smoking in this population, which are also factors in the failure of cessation attempts. Based on international literature, this review specifies the educational and socioeconomic factors involved in tobacco smoking and in the result of an attempt to quit. Its aim is to propose ways to improve the management of smoking cessation in a socially deprived population. PMID:25496789

  4. Sleep deprivation therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is the most widely documented rapid-onset antidepressant therapy, targeting the broadly defined depressive syndrome. Although SD responses are transient, its effects can be sustained by concomitant medications (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and lithium) and circadian-related interventions (e.g., bright light and sleep phase advance). Thus, considering its safety, this technique can now be considered among the first-line antidepressant treatment strategies for patients affected by mood disorders. SD is a complex intervention and it should be considered multi-target in nature. Thus, the mechanisms explaining its antidepressant effect can be looked for on many levels, involving not only monoaminergic mechanisms but also sleep homeostatic and circadian mechanisms, glutamatergic mechanisms and synaptic plasticity. PMID:25549913

  5. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. PMID:21846079

  6. Immediate error correction process following sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shulan; Cheng, I-Chen; Tsai, Ling-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that one night of sleep deprivation decreases frontal lobe metabolic activity, particularly in the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), resulting in decreased performance in various executive function tasks. This study thus attempted to address whether sleep deprivation impaired the executive function of error detection and error correction. Sixteen young healthy college students (seven women, nine men, with ages ranging from 18 to 23 years) participated in this study. Participants performed a modified letter flanker task and were instructed to make immediate error corrections on detecting performance errors. Event-related potentials (ERPs) during the flanker task were obtained using a within-subject, repeated-measure design. The error negativity or error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) and the error positivity (Pe) seen immediately after errors were analyzed. The results show that the amplitude of the Ne/ERN was reduced significantly following sleep deprivation. Reduction also occurred for error trials with subsequent correction, indicating that sleep deprivation influenced error correction ability. This study further demonstrated that the impairment in immediate error correction following sleep deprivation was confined to specific stimulus types, with both Ne/ERN and behavioral correction rates being reduced only for trials in which flanker stimuli were incongruent with the target stimulus, while the response to the target was compatible with that of the flanker stimuli following sleep deprivation. The results thus warrant future systematic investigation of the interaction between stimulus type and error correction following sleep deprivation. PMID:17542943

  7. Coherent white light amplification

    DOEpatents

    Jovanovic, Igor; Barty, Christopher P.

    2004-05-25

    A system for coherent simultaneous amplification of a broad spectral range of light that includes an optical parametric amplifier and a source of a seed pulse is described. A first angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the source of a seed pulse. A first imaging telescope is operatively connected to the first angular dispersive element and operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A source of a pump pulse is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A second imaging telescope is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier and a second angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the second imaging telescope.

  8. Swedish Successful Schools Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoog, Jonas; Johansson, Olof; Olofsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a follow-up study of two Swedish schools in which, five years previously, the principals had been successful leaders. Had this success been maintained? Design/methodology/approach: Two schools were revisited to enable the authors to interview principals and teachers as well as…

  9. The Linguistic Repertoire Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Brigitta

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of poststructuralist approaches to the notion of a linguistic repertoire and introduces the notion of language portraits as a basis for empirical study of the way in which speakers conceive and represent their heteroglossic repertoires. The first part of the article revisits Gumperz's notion of a linguistic…

  10. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  11. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  12. Colloquial Hebrew Imperatives Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolozky, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    In revisiting Bolozky's [Bolozky, Shmuel, 1979. "On the new imperative in colloquial Hebrew." "Hebrew Annual Review" 3, 17-24] and Bat-El's [Bat-El, Outi, 2002. "True truncation in colloquial Hebrew imperatives." "Language" 78(4), 651-683] analyses of colloquial Hebrew imperatives, the article argues for restricting Imperative Truncation to the…

  13. Revisiting Curriculum Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the notion of curriculum potential by revisiting the ideas of Miriam Ben-Peretz and Joseph Schwab. Invoking the German "Didaktik" tradition and by way of a curriculum-making framework, the paper argues that interpreting curriculum materials for curriculum potential requires a careful analysis and unpacking of the meanings and…

  14. Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…

  15. Revisiting the Rhetorical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the special strand on "Revisiting the rhetorical curriculum" is to explore the educational potential of a new rhetorical perspective, specifically in relation to different traditions within educational and rhetorical studies. This implies that we do not only look at education "in" rhetoric, but that we position education also "as" a…

  16. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-01

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world’s high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  17. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-01

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961–2010 period, we find that the warming for the world’s high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction. PMID:26753547

  18. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-01

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world's high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction. PMID:26753547

  19. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOMAINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Area-level deprivation is consistently associated with poor health outcomes. Using US census data (2000) and principal components analysis, a priori defined socio-demographic indices of poverty, housing, residential stability, occupation, employment and education were created fo...

  20. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  1. Management of Hormone Deprivation Symptoms After Cancer.

    PubMed

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Loprinzi, Charles L; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-08-01

    Cancer survivors often experience symptoms related to hormone deprivation, including vasomotor symptoms, genitourinary symptoms, and sexual health concerns. These symptoms can occur due to natural menopause in midlife women, or they can be brought on by oncologic therapies in younger women or men. We searched PubMed for English-language studies from January 1990 through January 2016 to identify relevant articles on the management of hormone deprivation symptoms, including vasomotor, genitourinary, and sexual symptoms in patients with cancer. The search terms used included hormone deprivation, vasomotor symptoms, hot flash, vaginal dryness, sexual dysfunction, and breast cancer. This manuscript provides a comprehensive description of data supporting the treatment of symptoms associated with hormone deprivation. PMID:27492917

  2. Prostate Cancer Severity Associations with Neighborhood Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Tierney, Ann; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rundle, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background. The goal of this paper was to examine neighborhood deprivation and prostate cancer severity. Methods. We studied African American and Caucasian prostate cancer cases from the Pennsylvania State Cancer Registry. Census tract-level variables and deprivation scores were examined in relation to diagnosis stage, grade, and tumor aggressiveness. Results. We observed associations of low SES with high Gleason score among African Americans residing in neighborhoods with low educational attainment (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.13–1.60), high poverty (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15–1.67), low car ownership (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20–1.78), and higher percentage of residents on public assistance (OR = 1.32, 95% = 1.08–1.62). The highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was also associated with high Gleason score. For both Caucasians and African Americans, the highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was associated with high Gleason score at diagnosis (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.19–1.52; OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21–2.40, resp.). Conclusion. Using a neighborhood deprivation index, we observed associations between high-grade prostate cancer and neighborhood deprivation in Caucasians and African-Americans. PMID:22111000

  3. Relative deprivation and mortality in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Salti, Nisreen

    2010-03-01

    This paper tests the relative income hypothesis by considering the relationship between mortality, income and relative deprivation in South Africa using individual-level data on income and five measures of relative deprivation each with a different reference group. We find that income tends to be protective of, and relative deprivation detrimental to health, but the latter often gives a better account of mortality than does income alone. For some population groups the fit is improved in specifications which include both income and relative deprivation. Overall, there seems to be solid evidence in support of the relative income hypothesis, particularly for the more economically disadvantaged population groups. Relative deprivation is especially significant when age is the reference group, suggesting that the comparison of socio-economic standing that has an impact on health tends to happen within cohorts. The results are robust to splitting the sample into urban/rural subsamples and to looking at the incidence of illness as the health outcome rather than mortality. While little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effect of relative deprivation on health and mortality, the consistent evidence in favor of age as a reference group, particularly in a context like South Africa's suggests that intra-cohort comparisons should be an avenue for more in depth investigation. PMID:20045239

  4. Gene amplification during myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ulrike; Ludwig, Nicole; Raslan, Abdulrahman; Meier, Carola; Meese, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Gene amplifications are mostly an attribute of tumor cells and drug resistant cells. Recently, we provided evidence for gene amplifications during differentiation of human and mouse neural progenitor cells. Here, we report gene amplifications in differentiating mouse myoblasts (C2C12 cells) covering a period of 7 days including pre-fusion, fusion and post-fusion stages. After differentiation induction we found an increase in copy numbers of CDK4 gene at day 3, of NUP133 at days 4 and 7, and of MYO18B at day 4. The amplification process was accompanied by gamma-H2AX foci that are indicative of double stand breaks. Amplifications during the differentiating process were also found in primary human myoblasts with the gene CDK4 and NUP133 amplified both in human and mouse myoblasts. Amplifications of NUP133 and CDK4 were also identified in vivo on mouse transversal cryosections at stage E11.5. In the course of myoblast differentiation, we found amplifications in cytoplasm indicative of removal of amplified sequences from the nucleus. The data provide further evidence that amplification is a fundamental mechanism contributing to the differentiation process in mammalians. PMID:26760505

  5. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed. PMID:26551336

  6. Neighbourhood Deprivation, School Disorder and Academic Achievement in Primary Schools in Deprived Communities in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jacqueline; Belsky, Jay; Broomfield, Kate A.; Melhuish, Edward

    2006-01-01

    There is growing concern about violent behaviour in schools, involving students, staff and/or parents. A survey of 1777 primary schools (for children aged 5 to 11) throughout England, most in areas of social and economic deprivation, found more disorder in neighbourhoods with greater deprivation. More disorder was also observed when there was more…

  7. Disentangling Area Effects: Evidence from Deprived and Non-Deprived Neighbourhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Rowland; Kintrea, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether living in a deprived area compounded residents' disadvantaged status and whether area effects contributed to social exclusion. Data from surveys conducted in deprived and socially mixed neighborhoods indicated that both structure and agency were important in influencing neighborhood problems, though living in areas of…

  8. Revisiting Dialogues and Monologues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2012-01-01

    In educational discourse dialogue tends to be viewed as being (morally) superior to monologue. When we look at them as basic forms of communication, we find that dialogue is a two-way, one-to-one form and monologue is a one-way, one-to-many form. In this paper I revisit the alleged (moral) superiority of dialogue. First, I problematize certain…

  9. Time functions revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Albert

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.

  10. Deprivation and outcome of total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Murray, James R D; Birdsall, Paul D; Sher, J Lester; Deehan, David J

    2006-03-01

    Deprivation correlates with poor health and psychosocial variables can affect the symptoms of knee arthritis. Our aim was to determine the effect of deprivation on the level of knee function and health-related quality of life at the time of arthroplasty and 12 months after total knee replacement. From our database of over 2500 knee replacements, we analysed both clinical and quality of life outcome measures. We analysed the relationship between deprivation (by Townsend score), knee function (Knee Society Score) and health-related quality of life (Nottingham Health Profile) before total knee replacement (TKR) and at 12 months post-operation. There was no significant correlation between Townsend score, Knee Society Score and Nottingham Health Profile preoperatively or at 12 months after knee replacement, thus showing that there was no association between deprivation and the severity of knee arthritis at the time of joint replacement nor was there a relationship between deprivation and the short-term outcome from total knee replacement. PMID:16469499

  11. Abscisic Acid in relation to mineral deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Y; Richmond, A E

    1972-12-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) plants growing in half-strength Hoagland solution were deprived of nutrients by being transferred to distilled water. The abscisic acid content of leaves in the mineral-deprived plants rose continuously throughout the 7 days of the experimental period. However, although the content of ABA rose within 24 hours, a decline in growth and leaf-chlorophyll were discernible only after the 4th day of mineral deprivation. As anticipated, mineral-deprived (stressed) plants exhibit "resistance" to lack of aeration in the root medium, similar to that shown in salt-stressed plants or plants that were pretreated with absiscic acid. When the mineral-deprived plants were returned to half-strength Hoagland, the content of leaf abscisic acid declined to the prestressed level and the "resistance" to lack of root aeration disappeared.These results indicate that an increase in abscisic acid may be induced by conditions unfavorable to growth and not exclusively by conditions affecting the plant's water balance. In addition, the work also indicates that mineral deficiency is associated with significant modification in the hormonal balance of the plant. PMID:16658239

  12. Why ring regenerative amplification (regen)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovsky, V.; Felix, C.; Mourou, G.

    2002-06-01

    We show that ring cavity regenerative amplifiers (regens) have distinct advantages over the linear ones for applications in chirped pulse amplification. Larger energy, better contrast and better isolation from the oscillator are experimentally demonstrated.

  13. Why ring regenerative amplification (regen)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovsky, V.; Felix, C.; Mourou, G.

    We show that ring cavity regenerative amplifiers (regens) have distinct advantages over the linear ones for applications in chirped pulse amplification. Larger energy, better contrast and better isolation from the oscillator are experimentally demonstrated.

  14. Deprivation amblyopia and congenital hereditary cataract.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Behzad; Stacy, Rebecca C; Kruger, Joshua; Cestari, Dean M

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision associated with decreased visual acuity, poor or absent stereopsis, and suppression of information from one eye.(1,2) Amblyopia may be caused by strabismus (strabismic amblyopia), refractive error (anisometropic amblyopia), or deprivation from obstructed vision (deprivation amblyopia). 1 In the developed world, amblyopia is the most common cause of childhood visual impairment, 3 which reduces quality of life 4 and also almost doubles the lifetime risk of legal blindness.(5, 6) Successful treatment of amblyopia greatly depends on early detection and treatment of predisposing disorders such as congenital cataract, which is the most common cause of deprivational amblyopia. Understanding the genetic causes of congenital cataract leads to more effective screening tests, early detection and treatment of infants and children who are at high risk for hereditary congenital cataract. PMID:24138041

  15. Glucose deprivation activates a metabolic and signaling amplification loop leading to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Nicholas A; Tahmasian, Martik; Kohli, Bitika; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Zhu, Maggie; Vivanco, Igor; Teitell, Michael A; Wu, Hong; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Mischel, Paul S; Graeber, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    The altered metabolism of cancer can render cells dependent on the availability of metabolic substrates for viability. Investigating the signaling mechanisms underlying cell death in cells dependent upon glucose for survival, we demonstrate that glucose withdrawal rapidly induces supra-physiological levels of phospho-tyrosine signaling, even in cells expressing constitutively active tyrosine kinases. Using unbiased mass spectrometry-based phospho-proteomics, we show that glucose withdrawal initiates a unique signature of phospho-tyrosine activation that is associated with focal adhesions. Building upon this observation, we demonstrate that glucose withdrawal activates a positive feedback loop involving generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase and mitochondria, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases by oxidation, and increased tyrosine kinase signaling. In cells dependent on glucose for survival, glucose withdrawal-induced ROS generation and tyrosine kinase signaling synergize to amplify ROS levels, ultimately resulting in ROS-mediated cell death. Taken together, these findings illustrate the systems-level cross-talk between metabolism and signaling in the maintenance of cancer cell homeostasis. PMID:22735335

  16. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. Selection criteria We planned

  17. Play Deprivation: Is It Happening In Your School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    High-stakes testing combined with the notion that indoor and outdoor spontaneous play are a "waste of time" have contributed to the condition known as "play deprivation". This paper defines the term play deprivation and explores its negative effects on children and adults. Negative effects resulting from play deprivation include an increase in…

  18. Reframing in dentistry: revisited.

    PubMed

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekalakshmi; Challa, Ramasubbareddy; Asokan, Sharath

    2013-01-01

    The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child's behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice. PMID:24021326

  19. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia, Jorge; Ortega, Pablo G.; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector, and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about a better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  20. ART FOR THE ECONOMICALLY AND SOCIALLY DEPRIVED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCFEE, JUNE K.

    THERE ARE CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN THE CHILDREN OF THE ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVED IN THE UNITED STATES. ART EDUCATION CAN HELP THESE CHILDREN DEAL WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT. EXAMPLES OF ETHNIC DIVERSITY ARE GIVEN IN REPORTS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE (MEXICAN-AMERICANS, PUERTO RICANS, AND FILIPINOS), NEGROES, AND AMERICAN INDIANS.…

  1. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  2. Economic Deprivation and Early-Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    This study used longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) to examine three issues regarding effects of economic deprivation on child development: (1) the effects on children's developmental outcomes of poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education; (2) the developmental…

  3. Parental Deprivation and the Development of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, G.

    The research on parental deprivation done at the Wisconsin primate laboratories and related laboratories is summarized. Social isolation and certain other social conditions were observed in their effects on aggressive behavior. Isolate-reared rhesus monkeys show more abnormality in postures and movements than do socially reared monkeys from…

  4. Degradation of Binocular Coordination during Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jianliang; Maruta, Jun; Heaton, Kristin J; Maule, Alexis L; Rajashekar, Umesh; Spielman, Lisa A; Ghajar, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    To aid a clear and unified visual perception while tracking a moving target, both eyes must be coordinated, so the image of the target falls on approximately corresponding areas of the fovea of each eye. The movements of the two eyes are decoupled during sleep, suggesting a role of arousal in regulating binocular coordination. While the absence of visual input during sleep may also contribute to binocular decoupling, sleepiness is a state of reduced arousal that still allows for visual input, providing a context within which the role of arousal in binocular coordination can be studied. We examined the effects of sleep deprivation on binocular coordination using a test paradigm that we previously showed to be sensitive to sleep deprivation. We quantified binocular coordination with the SD of the distance between left and right gaze positions on the screen. We also quantified the stability of conjugate gaze on the target, i.e., gaze-target synchronization, with the SD of the distance between the binocular average gaze and the target. Sleep deprivation degraded the stability of both binocular coordination and gaze-target synchronization, but between these two forms of gaze control the horizontal and vertical components were affected differently, suggesting that disconjugate and conjugate eye movements are under different regulation of attentional arousal. The prominent association found between sleep deprivation and degradation of binocular coordination in the horizontal direction may be used for a fit-for-duty assessment. PMID:27379009

  5. The Cycle of Deprivation: Myths and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welshman, John

    2008-01-01

    The year 2006 marked the 30th anniversary of the publication of Michael Rutter and Nicola Madge's Cycles of Disadvantage (1976). As such, it provides an opportunity to take stock of debates over an alleged cycle of deprivation, both in the 1970s, and more recently. This article seeks to use historical methods in order to outline some areas in…

  6. Relative Deprivation, Rising Expectations, and Black Militancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeles, Ronald P.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the role of relative deprivation (RD) and rising expectations (RE) as mediating variables between social structure and black militancy through secondary analyses of survey data of blacks living in Cleveland and Miami in the late 1960s. Alternative explanations and implications derived from the present data and the theories for the…

  7. Degradation of Binocular Coordination during Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jianliang; Maruta, Jun; Heaton, Kristin J.; Maule, Alexis L.; Rajashekar, Umesh; Spielman, Lisa A.; Ghajar, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    To aid a clear and unified visual perception while tracking a moving target, both eyes must be coordinated, so the image of the target falls on approximately corresponding areas of the fovea of each eye. The movements of the two eyes are decoupled during sleep, suggesting a role of arousal in regulating binocular coordination. While the absence of visual input during sleep may also contribute to binocular decoupling, sleepiness is a state of reduced arousal that still allows for visual input, providing a context within which the role of arousal in binocular coordination can be studied. We examined the effects of sleep deprivation on binocular coordination using a test paradigm that we previously showed to be sensitive to sleep deprivation. We quantified binocular coordination with the SD of the distance between left and right gaze positions on the screen. We also quantified the stability of conjugate gaze on the target, i.e., gaze–target synchronization, with the SD of the distance between the binocular average gaze and the target. Sleep deprivation degraded the stability of both binocular coordination and gaze–target synchronization, but between these two forms of gaze control the horizontal and vertical components were affected differently, suggesting that disconjugate and conjugate eye movements are under different regulation of attentional arousal. The prominent association found between sleep deprivation and degradation of binocular coordination in the horizontal direction may be used for a fit-for-duty assessment. PMID:27379009

  8. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  9. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation

  10. Chromosomal destabilization during gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, J C; Wahl, G M

    1990-01-01

    Acentric extrachromosomal elements, such as submicroscopic autonomously replicating circular molecules (episomes) and double minute chromosomes, are common early, and in some cases initial, intermediates of gene amplification in many drug-resistant and tumor cell lines. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the amplification process, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which such extrachromosomal elements are generated and we traced the fate of these amplification intermediates over time. The model system consists of a Chinese hamster cell line (L46) created by gene transfer in which the initial amplification product was shown previously to be an unstable extrachromosomal element containing an inverted duplication spanning more than 160 kilobases (J. C. Ruiz and G. M. Wahl, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4302-4313, 1988). In this study, we show that these molecules were formed by a process involving chromosomal deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed at multiple time points on cells with amplified sequences. These studies reveal that the extrachromosomal molecules rapidly integrate into chromosomes, often near or at telomeres, and once integrated, the amplified sequences are themselves unstable. These data provide a molecular and cytogenetic chronology for gene amplification in this model system; an early event involves deletion to generate extrachromosomal elements, and subsequent integration of these elements precipitates a cascade of chromosome instability. Images PMID:2188107

  11. Feedback Amplification of Neutrophil Function.

    PubMed

    Németh, Tamás; Mócsai, Attila

    2016-06-01

    As the first line of innate immune defense, neutrophils need to mount a rapid and robust antimicrobial response. Recent studies implicate various positive feedback amplification processes in achieving that goal. Feedback amplification ensures effective migration of neutrophils in shallow chemotactic gradients, multiple waves of neutrophil recruitment to the site of inflammation, and the augmentation of various effector functions of the cells. We review here such positive feedback loops including intracellular and autocrine processes, paracrine effects mediated by lipid (LTB4), chemokine, and cytokine mediators, and bidirectional interactions with the complement system and with other immune and non-immune cells. These amplification mechanisms are not only involved in antimicrobial immunity but also contribute to neutrophil-mediated tissue damage under pathological conditions. PMID:27157638

  12. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, S.K.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example, the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei. 25 figs.

  13. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, Stefan K.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei.

  14. Isothermal Amplification of Insect DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP) method can amplify a target DNA sequence at a constant temperature in about one hour. LAMP has broad application in agriculture and medicine because of the need for rapid and inexpensive diagnoses. LAMP eliminates the need for temperature cycl...

  15. Chronic centrosome amplification without tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vitre, Benjamin; Holland, Andrew J.; Kulukian, Anita; Shoshani, Ofer; Hirai, Maretoshi; Wang, Yin; Maldonado, Marcus; Cho, Thomas; Boubaker, Jihane; Swing, Deborah A.; Tessarollo, Lino; Evans, Sylvia M.; Fuchs, Elaine; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Centrosomes are microtubule-organizing centers that facilitate bipolar mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. Recognizing that centrosome amplification is a common feature of aneuploid cancer cells, we tested whether supernumerary centrosomes are sufficient to drive tumor development. To do this, we constructed and analyzed mice in which centrosome amplification can be induced by a Cre-recombinase–mediated increase in expression of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4). Elevated Plk4 in mouse fibroblasts produced supernumerary centrosomes and enhanced the expected mitotic errors, but proliferation continued only after inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. Increasing Plk4 levels in mice with functional p53 produced centrosome amplification in liver and skin, but this did not promote spontaneous tumor development in these tissues or enhance the growth of chemically induced skin tumors. In the absence of p53, Plk4 overexpression generated widespread centrosome amplification, but did not drive additional tumors or affect development of the fatal thymic lymphomas that arise in animals lacking p53. We conclude that, independent of p53 status, supernumerary centrosomes are not sufficient to drive tumor formation. PMID:26578792

  16. Isothermal amplification of insect DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP) method can amplify a target DNA sequence at a constant temperature in about 1 hour. LAMP has broad application in agriculture and medicine because of the need for rapid and inexpensive diagnoses. The power of LAMP is being used by researchers ...

  17. Sleep deprivation produces feelings of vicarious agency.

    PubMed

    Hon, Nicholas; Poh, Jia-Hou

    2016-02-01

    A variety of self-related psychological constructs are supported by the fundamental ability to accurately sense either self-agency or lack of agency in some action or outcome. Agency judgments are typically studied in individuals who are well-rested and mentally-fresh; however, in our increasingly fast-paced world, such judgments often need to be made while in less optimal states. Here, we studied the effect of being in one such non-optimal state - when sleep-deprived - on judgments of agency. We found that 24h of total sleep deprivation elevated agency ratings on trials designed to produce a strong sense of non-agency. These data provide the first evidence that physiological state variables can affect agency processing in the normal population. PMID:26773604

  18. Androgen deprivation treatment of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Houts, Frederick W; Taller, Inna; Tucker, Douglas E; Berlin, Fred S

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or more conservative interventions, for patients with paraphilias and excessive sexual drive. Discussions of informed consent, side effects, contraindications and case examples are provided. PMID:22005210

  19. Optical chirped beam amplification and propagation

    DOEpatents

    Barty, Christopher P.

    2004-10-12

    A short pulse laser system uses dispersive optics in a chirped-beam amplification architecture to produce high peak power pulses and high peak intensities without the potential for intensity dependent damage to downstream optical components after amplification.

  20. Satellite failures revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  1. Anonymous Signatures Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswat, Vishal; Yun, Aaram

    We revisit the notion of the anonymous signature, first formalized by Yang, Wong, Deng and Wang [10], and then further developed by Fischlin [4] and Zhang and Imai [11]. We present a new formalism of anonymous signature, where instead of the message, a part of the signature is withheld to maintain anonymity. We introduce the notion unpretendability to guarantee infeasibility for someone other than the correct signer to pretend authorship of the message and signature. Our definition retains applicability for all previous applications of the anonymous signature, provides stronger security, and is conceptually simpler. We give a generic construction from any ordinary signature scheme, and also show that the short signature scheme by Boneh and Boyen [2] can be naturally regarded as such a secure anonymous signature scheme according to our formalism.

  2. Revisiting Lambert's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The orbital boundary value problem, also known as Lambert problem, is revisited. Building upon Lancaster and Blanchard approach, new relations are revealed and a new variable representing all problem classes, under L-similarity, is used to express the time of flight equation. In the new variable, the time of flight curves have two oblique asymptotes and they mostly appear to be conveniently approximated by piecewise continuous lines. We use and invert such a simple approximation to provide an efficient initial guess to an Householder iterative method that is then able to converge, for the single revolution case, in only two iterations. The resulting algorithm is compared, for single and multiple revolutions, to Gooding's procedure revealing to be numerically as accurate, while having a significantly smaller computational complexity.

  3. Quantum duel revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G. M.; Paiva, Milena M.

    2012-03-01

    We revisit the quantum two-person duel. In this problem, both Alice and Bob each possess a spin-1/2 particle which models dead and alive states for each player. We review the Abbott and Flitney result—now considering non-zero α1 and α2 in order to decide if it is better for Alice to shoot or not the second time—and we also consider a duel where players do not necessarily start alive. This simple assumption allows us to explore several interesting special cases, namely how a dead player can win the duel shooting just once, or how can Bob revive Alice after one shot, and the better strategy for Alice—being either alive or in a superposition of alive and dead states—fighting a dead opponent.

  4. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  5. Economic deprivation and early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Duncan, G J; Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K

    1994-04-01

    We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems. PMID:7516849

  6. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies. PMID:23996012

  7. Double regenerative amplification of picosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhen-ao; Chen, Li-yuan; Bai, Zhen-xu; Chen, Meng; Li, Gang

    2012-04-01

    An double Nd:YAG regenerative amplification picosecond pulse laser is demonstrated under the semiconductor saturable absorption mirror(SESAM) mode-locking technology and regenerative amplification technology, using BBO crystal as PC electro-optic crystal. The laser obtained is 20.71ps pulse width at 10 KHz repetition rate, and the energy power is up to 4W which is much larger than the system without pre-amplification. This result will lay a foundation for the following amplification.

  8. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions. PMID:26780802

  9. The super collider revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P. )

    1992-05-20

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC.

  10. Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system

    DOEpatents

    Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2005-03-29

    A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.

  11. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

    2014-01-01

    Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:24805968

  12. Spheromak Impedance and Current Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W

    2002-01-31

    It is shown that high current amplification can be achieved only by injecting helicity on the timescale for reconnection, {tau}{sub REC}, which determines the effective impedance of the spheromak. An approximate equation for current amplification is: dI{sub TOR}{sup 2}/dt {approx} I{sup 2}/{tau}{sub REC} - I{sub TOR}{sup 2}/{tau}{sub closed} where I is the gun current, I{sub TOR} is the spheromak toroidal current and {tau}{sub CLOSED} is the ohmic decay time of the spheromak. Achieving high current amplification, I{sub TOR} >> I, requires {tau}{sub REC} <<{tau}{sub CLOSED}. For resistive reconnection, this requires reconnection in a cold zone feeding helicity into a hot zone. Here we propose an impedance model based on these ideas in a form that can be implemented in the Corsica-based helicity transport code. The most important feature of the model is the possibility that {tau}{sub REC} actually increases as the spheromak temperature increases, perhaps accounting for the ''voltage sag'' observed in some experiments, and a tendency toward a constant ratio of field to current, B {proportional_to} I, or I{sub TOR} {approx} I. Program implications are discussed.

  13. A New Model to Study Sleep Deprivation-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Brendan P.; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Design: Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB9ed4), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (seits1) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB9ed4 flies was also assessed. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB9ed4/+ and seits1 mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB9ed4/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB9ed4/+ became adults. Conclusions: These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. Citation: Lucey BP, Leahy A, Rosas R, Shaw PJ. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure. SLEEP 2015;38(5):777–785. PMID:25515102

  14. The premack principle, response deprivation, and establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Kevin P.; Morris, Edward K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes response deprivation as an establishing operation. In this context, we review the concept of establishing operation, in particular, its reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects; we place response deprivation in the literature on the reinforcing effects of behavioral activity, wherein response deprivation subsumes the Premack principle; we describe the reinforcer-altering and evocative effects of response deprivation; and we address a methodological concern about the evocative effect. In closing, we discuss some conceptual and empirical implications of the foregoing analyses. PMID:22478362

  15. Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G

    1999-03-01

    Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment. PMID:10190635

  16. Multinomial pattern matching revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Multinomial pattern matching (MPM) is an automatic target recognition algorithm developed for specifically radar data at Sandia National Laboratories. The algorithm is in a family of algorithms that first quantizes pixel value into Nq bins based on pixel amplitude before training and classification. This quantization step reduces the sensitivity of algorithm performance to absolute intensity variation in the data, typical of radar data where signatures exhibit high variation for even small changes in aspect angle. Our previous work has focused on performance analysis of peaky template matching, a special case of MPM where binary quantization is used (Nq = 2). Unfortunately references on these algorithms are generally difficult to locate and here we revisit the MPM algorithm and illustrate the underlying statistical model and decision rules for two algorithm interpretations: the 1-of-K vector form and the scalar. MPM can also be used as a detector and specific attention is given to algorithm tuning where "peak pixels" are chosen based on their underlying empirical probabilities according to a reward minimization strategy aimed at reducing false alarms in the detection scenario and false positives in a classification capacity. The algorithms are demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations on the AFRL civilian vehicle dataset for variety of choices of Nq.

  17. Lorentz violation naturalness revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Liberati, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-energy percolation also in this case.

  18. Stacking Global Seismograms Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, P. M.; Buehler, J. S.; Denolle, M.; Fan, W.; Ma, Z.; Mancinelli, N. J.; Matoza, R. S.; Wang, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Over 20 years ago, stacks of global seismograms produced direct images of the global seismic wavefield highlighting the visibility, frequency content, and polarity of known seismic phases, and also identified a host of new phases associated with reflections and phase conversions from upper-mantle discontinuities. Two different stacking methods proved particularly useful: (1) STA/LTA-filtered stacks that describe the local signal-to-noise characteristics of the major seismic phases. These serve to image the entire wavefield in a uniform way for educational purposes and to show which phases are observed most clearly as a guide to future research. These stacks also resolve SH versus SV timing differences consistent with radial anisotropy. (2) Reference-phase stacks that preserve the polarity, amplitude, and timing of traces with respect to a specified target phase. These show a large number of top-side and bottom-side reflections and phase conversions from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities that create weak phases with a characteristic "railroad track" appearance both preceding and following many of the main seismic phases. Reference-phase stacking can also be used to produce coherent surface-wave stacks at very long periods, which directly show the dispersive character of the surface waves. Here we revisit and update these stacks by exploiting the vastly increased data now available from the IRIS DMC to produce greatly improved wavefield images. We present several examples of the different stacking approaches and point out their various features, including promising targets for future research.

  19. CGL description revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.

    2016-03-01

    Solar wind observational studies have emphasized that the solar wind plasma data is bounded by the mirror and firehose instabilities, and it is often believed that these instabilities are of a purely kinetic nature. The simplest fluid model that generalizes magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic temperatures is the Chew-Goldberger-Low model (CGL). Here we briefly revisit the CGL description and discuss its (otherwise well-documented) linear firehose and mirror instability thresholds; namely that the firehose instability threshold is identical to the one found from linear kinetic theory and that the mirror threshold contains a factor of 6 error. We consider a simple higher-order fluid model with time dependent heat flux equations and show that the mirror instability threshold is correctly reproduced. We also present fully nonlinear three-dimensional simulations of freely decaying turbulence for the Hall-CGL model with isothermal electrons. The spatial resolution of these simulations is 5123 and the formation of a spectral break in magnetic and velocity field spectra around the proton inertial length is found.

  20. Searle's"Dualism Revisited"

    SciTech Connect

    P., Henry

    2008-11-20

    A recent article in which John Searle claims to refute dualism is examined from a scientific perspective. John Searle begins his recent article 'Dualism Revisited' by stating his belief that the philosophical problem of consciousness has a scientific solution. He then claims to refute dualism. It is therefore appropriate to examine his arguments against dualism from a scientific perspective. Scientific physical theories contain two kinds of descriptions: (1) Descriptions of our empirical findings, expressed in an every-day language that allows us communicate to each other our sensory experiences pertaining to what we have done and what we have learned; and (2) Descriptions of a theoretical model, expressed in a mathematical language that allows us to communicate to each other certain ideas that exist in our mathematical imaginations, and that are believed to represent, within our streams of consciousness, certain aspects of reality that we deem to exist independently of their being perceived by any human observer. These two parts of our scientific description correspond to the two aspects of our general contemporary dualistic understanding of the total reality in which we are imbedded, namely the empirical-mental aspect and the theoretical-physical aspect. The duality question is whether this general dualistic understanding of ourselves should be regarded as false in some important philosophical or scientific sense.

  1. Revisiting caspases in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, M; Jacob, A; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening illness that occurs due to an abnormal host immune network which extends through the initial widespread and overwhelming inflammation, and culminates at the late stage of immunosupression. Recently, interest has been shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contributes to this immune suppression, anergy and organ dysfunction. Immediate to the discoveries of the intracellular proteases, caspases for the induction of apoptosis and inflammation, and their striking roles in sepsis have been focused elaborately in a number of original and review articles. Here we revisited the different aspects of caspases in terms of apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and inflammation and focused their links in sepsis by reviewing several recent findings. In addition, we have documented striking perspectives which not only rewrite the pathophysiology, but also modernize our understanding for developing novel therapeutics against sepsis. PMID:25412304

  2. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  3. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. PMID:25547207

  4. 42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. 488.30 Section 488.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.30 Revisit user fee...

  5. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  6. Cultural Warping of Childbirth, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education revisits Doris Haire's classic 1972 article, “The Cultural Warping of Childbirth,” and describes the birth culture of today. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  7. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  8. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  9. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges....

  10. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges....

  11. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges....

  12. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges....

  13. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges....

  14. Relative Deprivation and Adolescent Outcomes in Iceland: A Multilevel Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relative deprivation emphasizes that social comparisons contextualize how people experience impoverishment. An important application of this theory argues that relative deprivation that stems from unfavorable social comparisons can result in anger, normlessness and an increased likelihood of deviant behavior. We test this theory in a…

  15. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P=0.0005), CP (P=0.0002), and OVT (P=0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens. PMID:26908886

  16. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  17. Tempol prevents chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Albawaana, Amal S; Alhashimi, Farah H; Athamneh, Rabaa Y

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. Tempol is a nitroxide compound that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of tempol can overcome oxidative stress and prevent learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using multiple platform model. Tempol was administered to rats via oral gavages. Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze. The hippocampus was dissected; antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, SOD, and catalase) were assessed. The result of this project revealed that chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short and long term memory (P<0.05), while tempol treatment prevented such effect. Furthermore, tempol normalized chronic sleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD (P<0.05). Tempol also enhanced the ratio of GSH/GSSG in chronically sleep deprived rats treated with tempol as compared with only sleep deprived rats (P<0.05). In conclusion chronic sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with tempol prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. PMID:26616531

  18. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  19. Resonant primordial gravitational waves amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunshan; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to evade the Lyth bound in models of inflation. We minimally extend the conventional single-field inflation model in general relativity (GR) to a theory with non-vanishing graviton mass in the very early universe. The modification primarily affects the tensor perturbation, while the scalar and vector perturbations are the same as the ones in GR with a single scalar field at least at the level of linear perturbation theory. During the reheating stage, the graviton mass oscillates coherently and leads to resonant amplification of the primordial tensor perturbation. After reheating the graviton mass vanishes and we recover GR.

  20. Heralded amplification of photonic qubits.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Natalia; Pini, Vittorio; Martin, Anthony; Verma, Varun B; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard; Lita, Adriana; Marsili, Francesco; Korzh, Boris; Bussières, Félix; Sangouard, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas; Thew, Rob

    2016-01-11

    We demonstrate postselection free heralded qubit amplification for Time-Bin qubits and single photon states in an all-fibre, telecom-wavelength, scheme that highlights the simplicity, stability and potential for fully integrated photonic solutions. Exploiting high-efficiency superconducting detectors, the gain, fidelity and the performance of the amplifier are studied as a function of loss. We also demonstrate the first heralded single photon amplifier with independent sources. This provides a significant advance towards demonstrating device-independent quantum key distribution as well as fundamental tests of quantum mechanics over extended distances. PMID:26832244

  1. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP)

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al., 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC- counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al., 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  2. Chemical Amplification with Encapsulated Reagents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Koemer, Steffi; Craig, Stephen; Lin, Shirley; Rudkevich, Dmitry M.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Autocatalysis and chemical amplification are characteristic properties of living systems, and they give rise to behaviors such as increased sensitivity, responsiveness, and self-replication. Here we report a synthetic system in which a unique form of compartmentalization leads to nonlinear, autocatalytic behavior. The compartment is a reversibly formed capsule in which a reagent is sequestered. Reaction products displace the reagent from the capsule into solution and the reaction rate is accelerated. The resulting self-regulation is sensitive to the highly selective molecular recognition properties of the capsule.

  3. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Dissociated Components of Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Whitney, Paul; Belenky, Gregory; Hinson, John M.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: We studied the effects of sleep deprivation on executive functions using a task battery which included a modified Sternberg task, a probed recall task, and a phonemic verbal fluency task. These tasks were selected because they allow dissociation of some important executive processes from non-executive components of cognition. Design: Subjects were randomized to a total sleep deprivation condition or a control condition. Performance on the executive functions task battery was assessed at baseline, after 51 h of total sleep deprivation (or no sleep deprivation in the control group), and following 2 nights of recovery sleep, at fixed time of day (11:00). Performance was also measured repeatedly throughout the experiment on a control task battery, for which the effects of total sleep deprivation had been documented in previously published studies. Setting: Six consecutive days and nights in a controlled laboratory environment with continuous behavioral monitoring. Participants: Twenty-three healthy adults (age range 22–38 y; 11 women). Twelve subjects were randomized to the sleep deprivation condition; the others were controls. Results: Performance on the control task battery was considerably degraded during sleep deprivation. Overall performance on the modified Sternberg task also showed impairment during sleep deprivation, as compared to baseline and recovery and compared to controls. However, two dissociated components of executive functioning on this task—working memory scanning efficiency and resistance to proactive interference—were maintained at levels equivalent to baseline. On the probed recall task, resistance to proactive interference was also preserved. Executive aspects of performance on the phonemic verbal fluency task showed improvement during sleep deprivation, as did overall performance on this task. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation affected distinct components of cognitive processing differentially. Dissociated non

  4. Total sleep deprivation decreases flow experience and mood status

    PubMed Central

    Kaida, Kosuke; Niki, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sleep deprivation on flow experience. Methods Sixteen healthy male volunteers of mean age 21.4±1.59 (21–24) years participated in two experimental conditions, ie, sleep-deprivation and normal sleep. In the sleep-deprived condition, participants stayed awake at home for 36 hours (from 8 am until 10 pm the next day) beginning on the day prior to an experimental day. In both conditions, participants carried out a simple reaction time (psychomotor vigilance) task and responded to a questionnaire measuring flow experience and mood status. Results Flow experience was reduced after one night of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss also decreased positive mood, increased negative mood, and decreased psychomotor performance. Conclusion Sleep deprivation has a strong impact on mental and behavioral states associated with the maintenance of flow, namely subjective well-being. PMID:24376356

  5. Comparisons and perceived deprivation in ethnic minority settings.

    PubMed

    Zagefka, Hanna; Brown, Rupert

    2005-04-01

    Two studies investigated comparison choices among ethnic minorities and majorities. The perceived status of the self vis-á-vis different comparison targets also was assessed. Antecedents and consequences of comparisons and relative deprivation were examined. Predictions were derived from social comparison, stigma, social identity, and relative deprivation research. Two surveys were conducted, one in London with mainly Asian participants (N = 235) and one in Germany with Turkish and Aussiedler participants (N = 166) and German majority members (N = 351). Participants preferred intragroup and temporal comparisons (with other ingroup members and with the self in the past) to various types of cross-group comparisons (with outgroup members). Perceived similarity and contact with a target positively predicted interest in comparing with this target, and perceived higher status of the target was a negative predictor. Some evidence was found that feelings of deprivation depend on comparison choices. Deprivation negatively predicted self-esteem and life satisfaction. Deprivation and group identification were negatively correlated. PMID:15743982

  6. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj E-mail: rajc@andrew.cmu.edu

    2014-10-28

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

  7. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj

    2014-10-01

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

  8. An evaluation of direct PCR amplification

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Daniel E.; Roy, Reena

    2014-01-01

    Aim To generate complete DNA profiles from blood and saliva samples deposited on FTA® and non-FTA® paper substrates following a direct amplification protocol. Methods Saliva samples from living donors and blood samples from deceased individuals were deposited on ten different FTA® and non-FTA® substrates. These ten paper substrates containing body fluids were kept at room temperature for varying lengths of time ranging from one day to approximately one year. For all assays in this research, 1.2 mm punches were collected from each substrate containing one type of body fluid and amplified with reagents provided in the nine commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification kits. The substrates were not subjected to purification reagent or extraction buffer prior to amplification. Results Success rates were calculated for all nine amplification kits and all ten substrates based on their ability to yield complete DNA profiles following a direct amplification protocol. Six out of the nine amplification kits, and four out of the ten paper substrates had the highest success rates overall. Conclusion The data show that it is possible to generate complete DNA profiles following a direct amplification protocol using both standard (non-direct) and direct PCR amplification kits. The generation of complete DNA profiles appears to depend more on the success of the amplification kit rather than the than the FTA®- or non-FTA®-based substrates. PMID:25559837

  9. Trophic amplification of climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Richard R.; Beaugrand, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems can alternate suddenly between contrasting persistent states due to internal processes or external drivers. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which these shifts occur, especially in exploited ecosystems. There have been several abrupt marine ecosystem shifts attributed either to fishing, recent climate change or a combination of these two drivers. We show that temperature has been an important driver of the trophodynamics of the North Sea, a heavily fished marine ecosystem, for nearly 50 years and that a recent pronounced change in temperature established a new ecosystem dynamic regime through a series of internal mechanisms. Using an end-to-end ecosystem approach that included primary producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers, and detritivores, we found that temperature modified the relationships among species through nonlinearities in the ecosystem involving ecological thresholds and trophic amplifications. Trophic amplification provides an alternative mechanism to positive feedback to drive an ecosystem towards a new dynamic regime, which in this case favours jellyfish in the plankton and decapods and detritivores in the benthos. Although overfishing is often held responsible for marine ecosystem degeneration, temperature can clearly bring about similar effects. Our results are relevant to ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM), seen as the way forward to manage exploited marine ecosystems. PMID:19740882

  10. Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Alhola, Paula; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Today, prolonged wakefulness is a widespread phenomenon. Nevertheless, in the field of sleep and wakefulness, several unanswered questions remain. Prolonged wakefulness can be due to acute total sleep deprivation (SD) or to chronic partial sleep restriction. Although the latter is more common in everyday life, the effects of total SD have been examined more thoroughly. Both total and partial SD induce adverse changes in cognitive performance. First and foremost, total SD impairs attention and working memory, but it also affects other functions, such as long-term memory and decision-making. Partial SD is found to influence attention, especially vigilance. Studies on its effects on more demanding cognitive functions are lacking. Coping with SD depends on several factors, especially aging and gender. Also interindividual differences in responses are substantial. In addition to coping with SD, recovering from it also deserves attention. Cognitive recovery processes, although insufficiently studied, seem to be more demanding in partial sleep restriction than in total SD. PMID:19300585

  11. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Alcohol induced hepatitis, which was suspected in this subject, may have caused a predisposition to altered zinc metabolism and possible zinc deficiency which was exacerbated by subsequent zinc deprivation. The report supports the value of neutrophil zinc concentration as an indicator of poor zinc status. PMID:1740525

  12. Approaches towards molecular amplification for sensing.

    PubMed

    Goggins, Sean; Frost, Christopher G

    2016-06-01

    Diagnostic assays that rely on molecular interactions have come a long way; from initial reversible detection systems towards irreversible reaction indicator-based methods. More recently, the emergence of innovative molecular amplification methodologies has revolutionised sensing, allowing diagnostic assays to achieve ultra-low limits of detection. There have been a significant number of molecular amplification approaches developed over recent years to accommodate the wide variety of analytes that require sensitive detection. To celebrate this achievement, this comprehensive critical review has been compiled to give a broad overview of the many different approaches used to attain amplification in sensing with an aim to inspire the next generation of diagnostic assays looking to achieve the ultimate detection limit. This review has been created with the focus on how each conceptually unique molecular amplification methodology achieves amplification, not just its sensitivity, while highlighting any key processes. Excluded are any references that were not found to contain an obvious molecular amplifier or amplification component, or that did not use an appropriate signal readout that could be incorporated into a sensing application. Additionally, methodologies where amplification is achieved through advances in instrumentation are also excluded. Depending upon the type of approach employed, amplification strategies are divided into four categories: target, label, signal or receptor amplification. More recent, more complex protocols combine a number of approaches and are therefore categorised by which amplification component described within was considered as the biggest advancement. The advantages and disadvantages of each methodology are discussed along with any limits of detection, if stated in the original article. Any subsequent use of the methodology within sensing or any other application is also mentioned to draw attention to its practicality. The importance of

  13. Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through

  14. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  15. Sleep deprivation attenuates inflammatory responses and ischemic cell death.

    PubMed

    Weil, Zachary M; Norman, Greg J; Karelina, Kate; Morris, John S; Barker, Jacqueline M; Su, Alan J; Walton, James C; Bohinc, Steven; Nelson, Randy J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2009-07-01

    Although the biological function of sleep remains uncertain, the consequences of sleep deprivation are well-described and are reported to be detrimental to cognitive function and affective well-being. Sleep deprivation also is strongly associated with elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We used a mouse model of cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation to test the hypothesis that acute sleep deprivation would exacerbate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after global ischemia. The resulting data led to a rejection of our hypothesis that sleep deprivation is necessarily detrimental. Indeed, acute sleep deprivation (ASD) was associated with a reduction in ischemia-induced interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) gene expression and attenuation of neuronal damage in the hippocampus. Further, sleep deprivation increased gene expression of two anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10 that are associated with improved ischemic outcome. To determine whether the anti-inflammatory properties of ASD were specific to ischemia, mice were treated systemically with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammogen. Acute sleep deprivation attenuated the central and peripheral increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and increased IL-10 expression. Together, the ischemia and LPS data suggest that, ASD produces an anti-inflammatory bias that could be exploited to improve medical procedures that are compromised by inflammation. PMID:19409382

  16. Spatial reversal learning is robust to total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; Kramer, Michiel; Post, Ger; Eggels, Leslie; Wuite, Mark; Dematteis, Maurice; Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2012-04-21

    Sleep deprivation affects cognitive functions that depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) such as cognitive flexibility, and the consolidation of newly learned information. The identification of cognitive processes that are either robustly sensitive or robustly insensitive to the same experimental sleep deprivation procedure, will allow us to better focus on the specific effects of sleep on cognition, and increase understanding of the mechanisms involved. In the present study we investigate whether sleep deprivation differentially affects the two separate cognitive processes of acquisition and consolidation of a spatial reversal task. After training on a spatial discrimination between two levers in a Skinner box, male Wistar rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency. We first evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the acquisition of reversal learning. Performance on reversal learning after 12h of sleep deprivation (n=12) was compared to performance after control conditions (n=12). The second experiment evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the consolidation of reversal learning; the first session of reversal learning was followed by 3h of nap prevention (n=8) or undisturbed control conditions (n=8). The experiments had sufficient statistical power (0.90 and 0.81, respectively) to detect differences with medium effect sizes. Neither the acquisition, nor the consolidation, of reversal learning was affected by acute sleep deprivation. Together with previous findings, these results help to further delineate the role of sleep in cognitive processing. PMID:22321457

  17. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Brooks A.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Urpa, Lea M.; Davis, Devon E.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. New Method We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4 hours during the 12-hour light cycle on baseline, 8 hours of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8 hours of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. Results The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (~90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76 s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. Comparison with Existing Method There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-hour period. Conclusions Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5 h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. PMID:26014662

  18. Measuring the amplification of attention.

    PubMed

    Blaser, E; Sperling, G; Lu, Z L

    1999-09-28

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red-green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to green) alters the perceived direction of motion and is found to be equivalent to increasing the physical redness (or greenness) by 25-117%, depending on the observer and color. Whereas attention to a color drastically alters the salience of that color, it leaves color appearance unchanged. A computational model, which embodies separate, parallel pathways for object perception and for salience, accounts for 99% of the variance of the experimental data. PMID:10500237

  19. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  20. Mechanisms of Metal-Induced Centrosome Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to toxic and carcinogenic metals is widespread; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. One potential mechanism for metal-induced carcinogenicity and toxicity is centrosome amplification. Here, we review the mechanisms for metal-induced centrosome amplification, including arsenic, chromium, mercury and nano-titanium dioxide. PMID:21118148

  1. First Grade Writers Revisit Their Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jane A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on first grade readers and writers who revisit their work and describes what first-graders do when they revisit their writing about science and literature and review collections of their work. The first-graders discussed here are in Elaine O'Connor's classroom at Clark Elementary School in Charlottesville. In a…

  2. Teachers' perceptions of students' feelings of clothing deprivation.

    PubMed

    Francis, S K; Demissee, D W

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare teachers' perceptions of the feelings of perceived clothing deprivation among their students with the students' actual feelings. The samples consisted of 336 home economics students in Grades 9 through 12 from 6 high schools and 140 teachers employed by the same 6 schools. Results indicated that there was no difference between teachers and students on two measures of clothing deprivation, Inability to Buy and Clothing Deprivation Relative to Peers. In addition, a number of programs for meeting students' clothing needs were identified by the teachers. PMID:8337068

  3. Deprivation-induced cortical reorganization in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anu; Gilley, Phillip M; Dorman, Michael F; Baldwin, Robert

    2007-09-01

    A basic finding in developmental neurophysiology is that some areas of the cortex cortical areas will reorganize following a period of stimulus deprivation. In this review, we discuss mainly electroencephalography (EEG) studies of normal and deprivation-induced abnormal development of the central auditory pathways in children and in animal models. We describe age cut-off for sensitive periods for central auditory development in congenitally deaf children who are fitted with a cochlear implant. We speculate on mechanisms of decoupling and reorganization which may underlie the end of the sensitive period. Finally, we describe new magentoencephalography (MEG) evidence of somatosensory cross-modal plasticity following long-term auditory deprivation. PMID:17828665

  4. Benjamin Franklin and Mesmerism, revisited.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Kevin M; Perry, Campbell

    2002-10-01

    The authors revisit and update their previous historiographical note (McConkey & Perry, 1985) on Benjamin Franklin's involvement with and investigation of animal magnetism or mesmerism. They incorporate more recent literature and offer additional comment about Franklin's role in and views about mesmerism. Franklin had a higher degree of personal involvement with and a more detailed opinion of mesmerism than has been previously appreciated. PMID:12362950

  5. Sleep Deprived and Sweating It Out: The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation on Skin Conductance Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jean C.J.; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A.A.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Design: Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. Setting: The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants: Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Interventions: Sleep deprivation and feedback. Measurements and Results: Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Conclusions: Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. Citation: Liu JC, Verhulst S, Massar SA, Chee MW. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress. SLEEP 2015;38(1):155–159. PMID:25325448

  6. Radiolytic Cryovolcanism Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Cooper, P. D.; Sittler, E. C.; Wesenberg, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Active geysers of water vapor and ice grains from the south pole of Enceladus are not yet definitively explained in terms of energy sources and processes. Other instances of hot (Io) and cold (Mars, Triton) volcanism beyond Earth are known if not fully understood. We revisit, in comparison to other models, the 'Old Faithful' theory of radiolytic gas-driven cryovolcanism first proposed by Cooper et al. [Plan. Sp. Sci. 2009]. In the energetic electron irradiation environment of Enceladus within Saturn's magnetosphere, a 10-percent duty cycle could be maintained for current geyser activity driven by gases from oxidation of ammonia to N2 and methane to CO2 in the thermal margins of a south polar sea. Much shorter duty cycles down to 0.01 percent would be required to account for thermal power output up to 16 GW, Steady accumulation of oxidant energy over four billion years could have powered all Enceladus emissions over the past four hundred thousand to four hundred million years. There could be separate energy sources driving mass flow and thermal emission over vastly different time scales. Since episodic tidal dissipation on 10 Myr time scales at 0.1 - 1 Gyr intervals [O'Neill and Nimmo, Nature 2010], and thus duty cycles 1 - 10 percent, could heat the polar sea to the current level, the radiolytic energy source could easily power and modulate the geyser mass flow on million-year time scales. Maximum thermal emission temperature 223 K [Abramov and Spencer, Icarus 2009] hints at thermal buffering in the basal and vent wall layers by a 1:1 H2O:H2O2 radiolytic eutectic, assuming deep ice crust saturation with H2O2 from long cumulative surface irradiation and downward ice convection. Due to density stratification the peroxide eutectic and salt water layers could separate, so that the denser peroxide layer (1.2 g/cc) descends to the polar sea while the lighter salt water (1.05 g/cc) rises along separate channels. Methane reservoirs could be found dissolved into the polar

  7. Are You Sleep Deprived? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 ... ve had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are many treatments for sleep disorders and ...

  8. Effects of Nicotine Deprivation on Craving Response Covariation in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sayette, Michael A.; Martin, Christopher S.; Hull, Jay G.; Wertz, Joan M.; Perrott, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of craving propose that when cravings are strong, diverse responses—thought to index an underlying craving state— covary. Previous studies provided weak support for this hypothesis. The authors tested whether nicotine deprivation affects degree of covariation across multiple measures related to craving. Heavy and light smokers (N = 127) were exposed to smoking cues while either nicotine deprived or nondeprived. Measures included urge ratings, affective valence, a behavioral choice task assessing perceived reinforcement value of smoking, and smoking-related judgment tasks. Results indicated higher correlations in the nicotine-deprived than in nondeprived group. The measures principally responsible for this effect loaded onto a single common Craving factor for nicotine-deprived but not nondeprived smokers. These findings suggest that, under certain conditions, measures of craving-related processes covary. PMID:12653419

  9. Sleep and Nutritional Deprivation and Performance of House Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Michael R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to compare cognitive functioning in acutely and chronically sleep-deprived house officers is described. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in primary mental tasks involving basic rote memory, language, and numeric skills. (Author/MLW)

  10. Family Stability in the Context of Economic Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odita, Florence C.; Janssens, Mary Ann

    1977-01-01

    This review is aimed at highlighting the impact of economic deprivation on the family, the nucleus of any social system. The low income families receiving "aid for families of the dependent children" (AFDC) are the focus. (Author)

  11. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    PARK, YOUNG-SOOK; CHUNG, SOOK-HEE; LEE, SEONG-KYU; KIM, JA-HYUN; KIM, JUN-BONG; KIM, TAE-KYUN; KIM, DONG-SHIN; BAIK, HAING-WOON

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n=24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  12. Sustained Perceptual Deficits from Transient Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory pathways display heightened plasticity during development, yet the perceptual consequences of early experience are generally assessed in adulthood. This approach does not allow one to identify transient perceptual changes that may be linked to the central plasticity observed in juvenile animals. Here, we determined whether a brief period of bilateral auditory deprivation affects sound perception in developing and adult gerbils. Animals were reared with bilateral earplugs, either from postnatal day 11 (P11) to postnatal day 23 (P23) (a manipulation previously found to disrupt gerbil cortical properties), or from P23-P35. Fifteen days after earplug removal and restoration of normal thresholds, animals were tested on their ability to detect the presence of amplitude modulation (AM), a temporal cue that supports vocal communication. Animals reared with earplugs from P11-P23 displayed elevated AM detection thresholds, compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, an identical period of earplug rearing at a later age (P23-P35) did not impair auditory perception. Although the AM thresholds of earplug-reared juveniles improved during a week of repeated testing, a subset of juveniles continued to display a perceptual deficit. Furthermore, although the perceptual deficits induced by transient earplug rearing had resolved for most animals by adulthood, a subset of adults displayed impaired performance. Control experiments indicated that earplugging did not disrupt the integrity of the auditory periphery. Together, our results suggest that P11-P23 encompasses a critical period during which sensory deprivation disrupts central mechanisms that support auditory perceptual skills. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory systems are particularly malleable during development. This heightened degree of plasticity is beneficial because it enables the acquisition of complex skills, such as music or language. However, this plasticity comes with a cost: nervous system development

  13. Effects of oxygen deprivation on incubated rat soleus muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagan, Julie M.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated soleus muscle deprived of oxygen produces more lactate and alanine than oxygen-supplied muscle. Oxygenated muscle synthesized glutamine, while anoxic muscle used this amino acid. Oxygen deprivation decreased adenine nucleotides leading to the efflux of nucleosides. Protein synthesis and degradation responded differently to anoxia. Synthesis almost completely ceased, while proteolysis increased. Therefore, protein degradation in soleus muscle is enhanced when energy supplies and oxygen tension are low.

  14. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Design: Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Settings: Laboratory. Participants: Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). Interventions: 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P < 0.001), objective vigilance (mean RT: P < 0.001; slowest 10% RT: P < 0.001; lapses: P < 0.005), and subjective vigilance (P < 0.0001). Performance on reasoning tasks and time monitoring behavior did not differ between groups. Conclusions: The results highlight the potential dangerous effects of total sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. Citation: Esposito MJ, Occhionero M, Cicogna P. Sleep deprivation and time-based prospective memory. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1823–1826. PMID:26085303

  15. Vascular Compliance Limits during Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Derrick J.; Schei, Jennifer L.; Rector, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Design: Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Setting: Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Patients or Participants: Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma. Citation: Phillips DJ; Schei JL; Rector DM. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1459-1470. PMID:24082305

  16. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms and self-administration following caffeine deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H; Zacny, J P

    1995-08-01

    This study examined the effects of complete or partial caffeine deprivation on withdrawal symptomatology and self-administration of coffee in caffeine-dependent coffee drinkers. Nine habitual coffee drinkers abstained from dietary sources of caffeine for 33.5 h. Caffeine deprivation was manipulated by administering capsules containing 0%, 50%, or 100% of each subject's daily caffeine intake (complete, partial, and no deprivation conditions). Caffeine withdrawal symptomatology was measured using self-report questionnaires. Caffeine self-administration was measured using: i) the amount of coffee subjects earned on a series of concurrent random-ratio schedules that yielded coffee and money reinforcers; ii) the amount of earned coffee they consumed. Saliva samples revealed that subjects complied with the caffeine abstinence instructions. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms occurred reliably following complete caffeine deprivation, though not in the partial deprivation condition. Caffeine self-administration was not related to deprivation condition. We conclude that caffeine withdrawal symptomatology is not necessarily associated with increased caffeine consumption. PMID:7675881

  17. Reduced visual processing capacity in sleep deprived persons.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2011-03-15

    Multiple experiments have found sleep deprivation to lower task-related parietal and extrastriate visual activation, suggesting a reduction of visual processing capacity in this state. The perceptual load theory of attention (Lavie, 1995) predicts that our capacity to process unattended distractors will be reduced by increasing perceptual difficulty of task-relevant stimuli. Here, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation and perceptual load on visual processing capacity by measuring neural repetition-suppression to unattended scenes while healthy volunteers attended to faces embedded in face-scene pictures. Perceptual load did not affect repetition suppression after a normal night of sleep. Sleep deprivation reduced repetition suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) in the high but not low perceptual load condition. Additionally, the extent to which task-related fusiform face area (FFA) activation was reduced after sleep deprivation correlated with behavioral performance and lowered repetition suppression in the PPA. The findings concerning correct responses indicate that a portion of stimulus related activation following a normal night of sleep contributes to potentially useful visual processing capacity that is attenuated following sleep deprivation. Finally, when unattended stimuli are not highly intrusive, sleep deprivation does not appear to increase distractibility. PMID:21195190

  18. Sleep deprivation in adolescents and adults: changes in affect.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Lisa S; McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Kaplan, Katherine A; Dahl, Ronald E; Harvey, Allison G

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated the impact of sleep deprivation on several aspects of affective functioning in healthy participants selected from three different developmental periods: early adolescence (ages 10-13), midadolescence (ages 13-16), and adulthood (ages 30-60). Participants completed an affective functioning battery under conditions of sleep deprivation (a maximum of 6.5 hours total sleep time on the first night followed by a maximum of 2 hours total sleep time on the second night) and rest (approximately 7-8 hours total sleep time each night for two consecutive nights). Less positive affect was observed in the sleep-deprived, compared to rested, condition. This effect held for 9 of the 12 positive affect items on the PANAS-C. Participants also reported a greater increase in anxiety during a catastrophizing task and rated the likelihood of potential catastrophes as higher when sleep deprived, relative to when rested. Early adolescents appraised their main worry as more threatening when sleep deprived, relative to when rested. These results support and extend previous research underscoring the adverse affective consequences of sleep deprivation. PMID:21058849

  19. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated. PMID:26678391

  20. Depression, neighborhood deprivation and risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mezuk, Briana; Chaikiat, Åsa; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with both depression and diabetes, but to date little attention has been paid to whether the association between depression and diabetes varies across different types of neighborhoods. This prospective study examined the relationship between depression, neighborhood deprivation, and risk of type 2 diabetes among 336,340 adults from a national-representative sample of primary care centers in Sweden (2001–2007). Multi-level logistic regression models were used to assess associations between depression and risk of type 2 diabetes across affluent and deprived neighborhoods. After accounting for demographic, individual-level socioeconomic, and health characteristics, depression was significantly associated with risk of diabetes (odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–1.14), as was neighborhood deprivation (OR for high vs. low deprivation: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.22–1.34). The interaction term between depression and neighborhood deprivation was non-significant, indicating that the relationship between depression and diabetes risk is similar across levels of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:23771166

  1. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism

    PubMed Central

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Methods Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. Results During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Conclusions Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness. PMID:26241047

  2. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  3. Sleep deprivation due to shift work.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation due to shift work is related to perturbation of the sleep/wake cycle, associated with the modified activity/rest pattern. This may cause a significant disruption of circadian rhythms of biologic functions, driven by the body clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Shift and night workers have to change sleep times and strategies according to their duty periods; consequently, both sleep length and quality can be considerably affected depending on the variable start and finish times on different shifts. About 10% of night and rotating shift workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, have been estimated to have a diagnosable "shift-work sleep disorder," according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 (ICSD-2). In the long run, this may lead to persistent and severe disturbances of sleep, chronic fatigue and psychoneurotic syndromes, besides being a risk or aggravating factor for accidents, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and reproductive disorders, as well as, probably, for cancer. Preventive and corrective actions deal with the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, careful health surveillance, appropriate education and training on effective countermeasures, in particular, sleep hygiene and napping. PMID:26563802

  4. Serine deprivation enhances antineoplastic activity of biguanides.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Hulea, Laura; Toban, Nader; Birman, Elena; Blouin, Marie-José; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Zhao, Yunhua; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Metformin, a biguanide widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, clearly exhibits antineoplastic activity in experimental models and has been reported to reduce cancer incidence in diabetics. There are ongoing clinical trials to evaluate its antitumor properties, which may relate to its fundamental activity as an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that serine withdrawal increases the antineoplastic effects of phenformin (a potent biguanide structurally related to metformin). Serine synthesis was not inhibited by biguanides. Instead, metabolic studies indicated a requirement for serine to allow cells to compensate for biguanide-induced decrease in oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating glycolysis. Furthermore, serine deprivation modified the impact of metformin on the relative abundance of metabolites within the citric acid cycle. In mice, a serine-deficient diet reduced serine levels in tumors and significantly enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory actions of biguanide treatment. Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism. PMID:25377470

  5. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  6. Cochlear amplification, outer hair cells and prestin

    PubMed Central

    Dallos, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical amplification of acoustic signals is apparently a common feature of vertebrate auditory organs. In non-mammalian vertebrates amplification is produced by stereociliary processes, related to the mechanotransducer channel complex and probably to the phenomenon of fast adaptation. The extended frequency range of the mammalian cochlea has likely co-evolved with a novel hair cell type, the outer hair cell and its constituent membrane protein, prestin. Cylindrical outer hair cells are motile and their somatic length changes are voltage driven and powered by prestin. One of the central outstanding problems in mammalian cochlear neurobiology is the relation between the two amplification processes. PMID:18809494

  7. Amplification of large artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D R; Smyth, A P; Moir, D T

    1990-01-01

    Yeast artificial chromosome cloning is an attractive technology for genomic mapping studies because very large DNA segments can be readily propagated. However, detailed analyses often require the extensive application of blotting-hybridization techniques because artificial chromosomes are normally present at only one copy per haploid genome. We have developed a cloning vector and host strain that alleviate this problem by permitting copy number amplification of artificial chromosomes. The vector includes a conditional centromere that can be turned on or off by changing the carbon source. Strong selective pressure for extra copies of the artificial chromosome can be applied by selecting for the expression of a heterologous thymidine kinase gene. When this system was used, artificial chromosomes ranging from about 100 to 600 kilobases in size were readily amplified 10- to 20-fold. The selective conditions did not induce obvious rearrangements in any of the clones tested. Reactivation of the centromere in amplified artificial chromosome clones resulted in stable maintenance of an elevated copy number for 20 generations. Applications of copy number control to various aspects of artificial chromosome analysis are addressed. Images PMID:2236036

  8. Solid state Raman image amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmes, Lonnie K.; Murray, James T.; Austin, William L.; Powell, Richard C.

    1998-07-01

    Lite Cycles has developed a new type of eye-safe, range-gated, lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid-state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level infrared images with gains greater than 106 with the addition of only quantum-limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30 - 100 cm for nanosecond pulses and less than 5 mm if picosecond pulses are used. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCDs. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCDs. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR, and can be used for real-time optical signal processing. Applications for military use include eye-safe imaging lidars that can be used for autonomous vehicle identification and targeting.

  9. Isothermal DNA amplification in vitro: the helicase-dependent amplification system.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong-Joo; Park, Kkothanahreum; Kim, Dong-Eun

    2009-10-01

    Since the development of polymerase chain reaction, amplification of nucleic acids has emerged as an elemental tool for molecular biology, genomics, and biotechnology. Amplification methods often use temperature cycling to exponentially amplify nucleic acids; however, isothermal amplification methods have also been developed, which do not require heating the double-stranded nucleic acid to dissociate the synthesized products from templates. Among the several methods used for isothermal DNA amplification, the helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) is discussed in this review with an emphasis on the reconstituted DNA replication system. Since DNA helicase can unwind the double-stranded DNA without the need for heating, the HDA system provides a very useful tool to amplify DNA in vitro under isothermal conditions with a simplified reaction scheme. This review describes components and detailed aspects of current HDA systems using Escherichia coli UvrD helicase and T7 bacteriophage gp4 helicase with consideration of the processivity and efficiency of DNA amplification. PMID:19629390

  10. Determinants of smoking-induced deprivation in China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Spending on cigarettes may deprive households of other items like food. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with this smoking-induced deprivation among adult smokers in China. Methods The data came from waves 1–3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, conducted from 2006 to 2009 among urban adults aged 18 years or older in China. We focus on the samples of current smokers from six cities (N=7981). Smoking-induced deprivation was measured with the survey question, “In the last six months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?” We examined whether sociodemographic factors, smoking intensity and price paid per pack of cigarettes were associated with smoking-induced deprivation using generalised estimating equations modelling. Findings 7.3% of smokers reported smoking-induced deprivation due to purchasing cigarettes. Low-income and middle-income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with high-income smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.06, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.31; AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69); smokers living in Shenyang (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.24) and Yinchuan (AOR=2.50, 95% CI 1.89 to 3.32) were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with smokers living in Beijing. Retired smokers were less likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with employed smokers (AOR=0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.87). There was no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity, price paid per pack of cigarettes and smoking-induced deprivation. Conclusions Our findings indicate that certain groups of smokers in China acknowledge spending money on cigarettes that could be better spent on household essentials. Tobacco control policies that reduce smoking in China may improve household living standards by reducing smoking-induced deprivation. PMID:24827978

  11. Centrosome amplification and cancer: Branching out

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Susana A

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a common feature of human cancer, the role of supernumerary centrosomes in tumourigenesis is still poorly understood. We have recently described a novel role for centrosome amplification in promoting cell invasion that could impact tumor progression.

  12. Can Anomalous Amplification be Attained without Postselection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Liu, Wei-Tao; Viza, Gerardo I.; Howell, John C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a parameter estimation technique based on performing joint measurements of a weak interaction away from the weak-value-amplification approximation. Two detectors are used to collect full statistics of the correlations between two weakly entangled degrees of freedom. Without discarding of data, the protocol resembles the anomalous amplification of an imaginary-weak-value-like response. The amplification is induced in the difference signal of both detectors allowing robustness to different sources of technical noise, and offering in addition the advantages of balanced signals for precision metrology. All of the Fisher information about the parameter of interest is collected. A tunable phase controls the strength of the amplification response. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed technique by measuring polarization rotations in a linearly polarized laser pulse. We show that in the presence of technical noise the effective sensitivity and precision of a split detector is increased when compared to a conventional continuous-wave balanced detection technique.

  13. The Spatial Pattern of Cochlear Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jonathan A.N.; Nin, Fumiaki; Reichenbach, Tobias; Uthaiah, Revathy C.; Hudspeth, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensorineural hearing loss, which stems primarily from the failure of mechanosensory hair cells, changes the traveling waves that transmit acoustic signals along the cochlea. However, the connection between cochlear mechanics and the amplificatory function of hair cells remains unclear. Using an optical technique that permits the targeted inactivation of prestin, a protein of outer hair cells that generates forces on the basilar membrane, we demonstrate that these forces interact locally with cochlear traveling waves to achieve enormous mechanical amplification. By perturbing amplification in narrow segments of the basilar membrane, we further show that a cochlear traveling wave accumulates gain as it approaches its peak. Analysis of these results indicates that cochlear amplification produces negative damping that counters the viscous drag impeding traveling waves; targeted photoinactivation locally interrupts this compensation. These results reveal the locus of amplification in cochlear traveling waves and connect the characteristics of normal hearing to molecular forces. PMID:23217746

  14. A Simple Structure for Signal Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wan-Xiang; Gu, Chang-Gui; Liang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-02-01

    It has been found that a triple-node feed-forward motif has a function of signal amplification, where two input nodes receive the external weak signal and jointly modulate the response of the third output node [Liang et al., Phys. Rev. E 88 (2013) 012910]. We here show that the signal amplification can be further enhanced by adding a link between the two input nodes in the feed-forward motif. We further reveal that the coupling strength of the link regulates the enhancement of signal amplification in the modified feed-forward motif. We finally analyze the mechanism of signal amplification of such simple structure. Supported by the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning under Grant No. QD2015016, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11505114 and 11305078

  15. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES - Book Chapter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter contains the following headings and subheadings: Introduction; Experimental Approach - Precautions, Template, Primers, Reaction Conditions, Enhancers, Post Amplification; Procedures - Template DNA, Basic PCR, Thermal Cycle Parameters, Enzyme Addition, Agarose Ge...

  16. Coupled isothermal polynucleotide amplification and translation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A cell-free system for polynucleotide amplification and translation is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for using the system and a composition which allows the various components of the system to function under a common set of reaction conditions.

  17. Can Anomalous Amplification be Attained without Postselection?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Liu, Wei-Tao; Viza, Gerardo I; Howell, John C

    2016-03-11

    We present a parameter estimation technique based on performing joint measurements of a weak interaction away from the weak-value-amplification approximation. Two detectors are used to collect full statistics of the correlations between two weakly entangled degrees of freedom. Without discarding of data, the protocol resembles the anomalous amplification of an imaginary-weak-value-like response. The amplification is induced in the difference signal of both detectors allowing robustness to different sources of technical noise, and offering in addition the advantages of balanced signals for precision metrology. All of the Fisher information about the parameter of interest is collected. A tunable phase controls the strength of the amplification response. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed technique by measuring polarization rotations in a linearly polarized laser pulse. We show that in the presence of technical noise the effective sensitivity and precision of a split detector is increased when compared to a conventional continuous-wave balanced detection technique. PMID:27015468

  18. Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Elkin, Chris

    2006-05-09

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  19. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  20. Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Tucker, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

  1. Doppler ultrasound--basics revisited.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Mary

    Palpation of pedal pulses alone is known to be an unreliable indicator for the presence of arterial disease. Using portable Doppler ultrasound to measure the resting ankle brachial pressure index is superior to palpation of peripheral pulses as an assessment of the adequacy pf the arterial supply in the lower limb. Revisiting basics, this article aims to aid the clinician to understand and perform hand-held Doppler ultrasound effectively while involving the client or patient in the process. The author describes the basics of Doppler ultrasound, how to select correct equipment for the process, and interpretation of results to further enhance clinicians' knowledge. PMID:16835512

  2. Onshore seismic amplifications due to bathymetric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Carbajal-Romero, M.; Flores-Guzmán, N.; Olivera-Villaseñor, E.; Kryvko, A.

    2016-08-01

    We perform numerical calculations for onshore seismic amplifications, taking into consideration the effect of bathymetric features on the propagation of seismic movements. To this end, the boundary element method is applied. Boundary elements are employed to irradiate waves and, consequently, force densities can be obtained for each boundary element. From this assumption, Huygens’ principle is applied, and since the diffracted waves are built at the boundary from which they are radiated, this idea is equivalent to Somigliana’s representation theorem. The application of boundary conditions leads to a linear system being obtained (Fredholm integral equations). Several numerical models are analyzed, with the first one being used to verify the proposed formulation, and the others being used to estimate onshore seismic amplifications due to the presence of bathymetric features. The results obtained show that compressional waves (P-waves) generate onshore seismic amplifications that can vary from 1.2 to 5.2 times the amplitude of the incident wave. On the other hand, the shear waves (S-waves) can cause seismic amplifications of up to 4.0 times the incident wave. Furthermore, an important result is that in most cases the highest seismic amplifications from an offshore earthquake are located on the shoreline and not offshore, despite the seafloor configuration. Moreover, the influence of the incident angle of seismic waves on the seismic amplifications is highlighted.

  3. Amplification uncertainty relation for probabilistic amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, quantum amplification limit refers to the property of inevitable noise addition on canonical variables when the field amplitude of an unknown state is linearly transformed through a quantum channel. Recent theoretical studies have determined amplification limits for cases of probabilistic quantum channels or general quantum operations by specifying a set of input states or a state ensemble. However, it remains open how much excess noise on canonical variables is unavoidable and whether there exists a fundamental trade-off relation between the canonical pair in a general amplification process. In this paper we present an uncertainty-product form of amplification limits for general quantum operations by assuming an input ensemble of Gaussian-distributed coherent states. It can be derived as a straightforward consequence of canonical uncertainty relations and retrieves basic properties of the traditional amplification limit. In addition, our amplification limit turns out to give a physical limitation on probabilistic reduction of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen uncertainty. In this regard, we find a condition that probabilistic amplifiers can be regarded as local filtering operations to distill entanglement. This condition establishes a clear benchmark to verify an advantage of non-Gaussian operations beyond Gaussian operations with a feasible input set of coherent states and standard homodyne measurements.

  4. The effect of dietary pyridoxine on arsenic deprivation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uthus, E.O.; Poelllot, R. )

    1991-03-15

    In experiments on As deprivation, many findings indicate that As can affect enzymes or metabolites that are also influenced by vitamin B{sub 6}. Thus, an experiment was designed to ascertain the effect of pyridoxine (pyr) on As deprivation in rats. Male, weanling rats were fed an amino acid based diet containing 0.24% methionine (M) and less than 15 ng As/g. Dietary variables were As, 0 or 1 {mu}g/g; M, 0 or 3 g/kg; and pyridoxine, 0 or 10 mg/kg. After 10 weeks, growth was reduced by As, Pyr, or M deprivation. Both endogenous ({minus}PP) and pyridoxal phosphate-stimulated (+PP) RBC aspartate aminotransferase were decreased by Pyr deficiency. The ratio of +PP/{minus}PP, known as the activation coefficient (AC), was affected by an interaction between As and Pyr. Pyr deficiency resulted in a less marked increase in AC in the As-deprived rats than in the As-supplemented rats. Plasma Fe was slightly decreased by Pyr deficiency in the As-deprived rats but increased by Pyr deficiency in the As-supplemented rats. Plasma threonine and serine were increased by As supplementation in the Pyr-deficient rats but there was no effect of As supplementation in the Pyr-supplemented rats. Plasma alanine was decreased by As or Pyr deprivation. In Pyr deficiency, As deprivation had no effect on plasma glycine (G) in the M-deficient rats but decreased G in the M-supplemented rats. In the Pyr-supplemented rats, As had no effect on G, regardless of M. The findings indicate that As and Pyr interact to affect amino acid metabolism.

  5. BRAF inhibitor resistance enhances vulnerability to arginine deprivation in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Ying; Wu, Chunjing; Chen, Shu-Mei; Shah, Sumedh S.; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Feun, Lynn G.; Kuo, Macus T.; Suarez, Miguel; Prince, Jeffrey; Savaraj, Niramol

    2016-01-01

    BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) has been used for treatment of melanomas harboring V600E mutation. Despite a high initial response rate, resistance to BRAFi is inevitable. Here, we demonstrate that BRAFi-resistant (BR) melanomas are susceptible to arginine deprivation due to inability to initiate re-expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, a key enzyme for arginine synthesis) as well as ineffective autophagy. Autophagy and ASS1 re-expression are known to protect melanoma cells from cell death upon arginine deprivation. When melanoma cells become BR cells by long-term in vitro incubation with BRAFi, c-Myc-mediated ASS1 re-expression and the levels of autophagy-associated proteins (AMPK-α1 and Atg5) are attenuated. Furthermore, our study uncovers that downregulation of deubiquitinase USP28 which results in more active c-Myc degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome machinery is the primary mechanism for inability to re-express ASS1 upon arginine deprivation in BR cells. Overexpression of USP28 in BR cells enhances c-Myc expression and hence increases ASS1 transcription upon arginine deprivation, and consequently leads to cell survival. On the other hand, overexpression of Atg5 or AMPK-α1 in BR cells can redirect arginine deprivation-induced apoptosis toward autophagy. The xenograft models also confirm that BR tumors possess lower expression of ASS1 and are hypersensitive to arginine deprivation. These biochemical changes in BRAFi resistance which make them vulnerable to arginine deprivation can be exploited for the future treatment of BR melanoma patients. PMID:26771234

  6. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant’s and the addressee’s perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant’s but not from the addressee’s perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant’s and from the addressee’s perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep

  7. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Gaétane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might

  8. Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Higano, Celestia S

    2014-05-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer for decades; however, the choice of continuous or intermittent administration is a matter of debate. Two large phase III trials have reported results comparing these 2 forms of ADT administration. The National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) PR-7 trial studied men with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and no evidence of metastatic disease after definitive or salvage radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy. The Southwest Oncology Group 9346 trial studied men with newly diagnosed hormone-sensitive metastatic disease. The primary end point in both trials was overall survival with a noninferiority design. The NCIC trial showed that the overall survival in men treated with intermittent ADT was not inferior to that of men treated with continuous ADT, but the SWOG trial was inconclusive regarding noninferiority. Certain domains of quality of life were better in the intermittent arms of both trials. If using ADT in the setting of biochemical relapse, intermittent ADT should be strongly considered over continuous ADT, except perhaps in patients with Gleason score of 8 or higher. In men with metastatic disease, continuous ADT remains the standard of care, because the SWOG trial did not establish noninferiority of intermittent ADT with respect to survival. However, for those with significant side effects from ADT, establishing the risk group, as determined by PSA value after 7 months of ADT or the presence of pain at diagnosis, may help guide the choice of intermittent versus continuous ADT in men with metastatic disease. PMID:24812139

  9. SLIM--An Early Work Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2008-07-25

    An early, but at the time illuminating, piece of work on how to deal with a general, linearly coupled accelerator lattice is revisited. This work is based on the SLIM formalism developed in 1979-1981.

  10. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Bin; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Huang, Chenghui; Liu, Franklin; Neill, Daniel; Li, Chuanyuan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) {gamma}H2AX immunostaining to detect {gamma}H2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and

  11. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, Frank J.; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11–15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  12. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  13. Cellular consequences of sleep deprivation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Chiara

    2006-10-01

    Several recent studies have used transcriptomics approaches to characterize the molecular correlates of sleep, waking, and sleep deprivation. This analysis may help in understanding the benefits that sleep brings to the brain at the cellular level. The studies are still limited in number and focus on a few brain regions, but some consistent findings are emerging. Sleep, spontaneous wakefulness, short-term, and long-term sleep deprivation are each associated with the upregulation of hundreds of genes in the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. In fruit flies as well as in mammals, three categories of genes are consistently upregulated during waking and short-term sleep deprivation relative to sleep. They include genes involved in energy metabolism, synaptic potentiation, and the response to cellular stress. In the rat cerebral cortex, transcriptional changes associated with prolonged sleep loss differ significantly from those observed during short-term sleep deprivation. However, it is too early to draw firm conclusions relative to the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, and more extensive studies using DNA and protein arrays are needed in different species and in different brain regions. PMID:16920372

  14. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  15. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. PMID:27413249

  16. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis. PMID:27413249

  17. Sleep deprivation affects extinction but not acquisition memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-11-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were used as indicators of sleep. We found that the bees sleep more during the dark phase of the day compared with the light phase. Sleep phases were characterized by two distinct patterns of antennal activities: symmetrical activity, more prominent during the dark phase; and asymmetrical activity, more common during the light phase. Sleep-deprived bees showed rebound the following day, confirming effective deprivation of sleep. After appetitive conditioning of the bees to various olfactory stimuli, we observed their sleep. Bees conditioned to odor with sugar reward showed lesser sleep compared with bees that were exposed to either reward alone or air alone. Next, we asked whether sleep deprivation affects memory consolidation. While sleep deprivation had no effect on retention scores after odor acquisition, retention for extinction learning was significantly reduced, indicating that consolidation of extinction memory but not acquisition memory was affected by sleep deprivation. PMID:19864296

  18. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis among children and dogs in a closed socially deprived community from Italy.

    PubMed

    Marangi, M; Berrilli, F; Otranto, D; Giangaspero, A

    2010-12-01

    Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts from humans and animals living in well-defined contexts is useful to study the circulation of isolates and represents a tool to evaluate zoonotic infection risk. The presence of giardiasis in children living in a disadvantaged and socially deprived small Rom community, as well in dogs roaming freely in the same context was carried out by microscopic analysis and beta-giardin gene amplification. Five out of 14 children were found positive at microscopic examination for G. duodenalis and six positive at PCR, while eight out of 14 dogs tested both microscopically and molecularly positive for G. duodenalis. Moreover, most of the children and dogs were symptomatic. Molecular characterization of Giardia positive samples from children and dogs showed 99.5% identity with Giardia Assemblage A1. The dog-specific genotypes C and D were not found. The findings of this survey provide the first European evidence to support the possible role of dogs in zoonotic transmission involving children and stray dogs in a closed context with very low standards of hygiene (i.e. Rom community), and these results show the need to monitor the health of marginal populations to safeguard ethnic minority groups. PMID:20042065

  19. Remote fiber sensors and optical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontes, M. J.; Coelho, Thiago V. N.; Carvalho, Joel P.; Santos, J. L.; Guerreiro, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work discusses remote fiber sensors enabled by optical amplification. Continuous wave numerical modeling based on the propagation of pumps and signal lasers coupled to optical fibers explores Raman amplification schemes to predict the sensor's behavior. Experimental analyses report the results to a temperature remote optical sensor with 50 km distance between the central unit and the sensor head. An electrical interrogation scheme is used due to their low cost and good time response. Different architectures in remote sensor systems are evaluated, where diffraction gratings are the sensor element. A validation of calculated results is performed by experimental analyses and, as an application, the noise generated by Raman amplification in the remote sensors systems is simulated applying such numerical modeling. The analyses of sensors systems based on diffraction gratings requires optical broadband sources to interrogate the optical sensor unit, mainly in long period gratings that shows a characteristic rejection band. Therefore, the sensor distance is limited to a few kilometers due to the attenuation in optical fibers. Additional attenuation is introduced by the sensor element. Hence, to extend the distance in the optical sensor system, the optical amplification system is needed to compensate the losses in the optical fibers. The Raman amplification technology was selected mainly due to the flexibility in the gain bandwidth. The modeling can be applied to sensor systems that monitor sites located at long distances, or in places that the access is restricted due to harsh environment conditions in such cases conventional sensors are relatively fast deteriorated.

  20. Increased Automaticity and Altered Temporal Preparation Following Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Danyang; Asplund, Christopher L.; Ling, Aiqing; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Temporal expectation enables us to focus limited processing resources, thereby optimizing perceptual and motor processing for critical upcoming events. We investigated the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on temporal expectation by evaluating the foreperiod and sequential effects during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). We also examined how these two measures were modulated by vulnerability to TSD. Design: Three 10-min visual PVT sessions using uniformly distributed foreperiods were conducted in the wake-maintenance zone the evening before sleep deprivation (ESD) and three more in the morning following approximately 22 h of TSD. TSD vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups were determined by a tertile split of participants based on the change in the number of behavioral lapses recorded during ESD and TSD. A subset of participants performed six additional 10-min modified auditory PVTs with exponentially distributed foreperiods during rested wakefulness (RW) and TSD to test the effect of temporal distribution on foreperiod and sequential effects. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: There were 172 young healthy participants (90 males) with regular sleep patterns. Nineteen of these participants performed the modified auditory PVT. Measurements and Results: Despite behavioral lapses and slower response times, sleep deprived participants could still perceive the conditional probability of temporal events and modify their level of preparation accordingly. Both foreperiod and sequential effects were magnified following sleep deprivation in vulnerable individuals. Only the foreperiod effect increased in nonvulnerable individuals. Conclusions: The preservation of foreperiod and sequential effects suggests that implicit time perception and temporal preparedness are intact during total sleep deprivation. Individuals appear to reallocate their depleted preparatory resources to more probable event timings in ongoing trials, whereas vulnerable

  1. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: evidence of state instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, S. M.; Van Dongen, H. P.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Nathaniel Kleitman was the first to observe that sleep deprivation in humans did not eliminate the ability to perform neurobehavioral functions, but it did make it difficult to maintain stable performance for more than a few minutes. To investigate variability in performance as a function of sleep deprivation, n = 13 subjects were tested every 2 hours on a 10-minute, sustained-attention, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) throughout 88 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD condition), and compared to a control group of n = 15 subjects who were permitted a 2-hour nap every 12 hours (NAP condition) throughout the 88-hour period. PVT reaction time means and standard deviations increased markedly among subjects and within each individual subject in the TSD condition relative to the NAP condition. TSD subjects also had increasingly greater performance variability as a function of time on task after 18 hours of wakefulness. During sleep deprivation, variability in PVT performance reflected a combination of normal timely responses, errors of omission (i.e., lapses), and errors of commission (i.e., responding when no stimulus was present). Errors of omission and errors of commission were highly intercorrelated across deprivation in the TSD condition (r = 0.85, p = 0.0001), suggesting that performance instability is more likely to include compensatory effort than a lack of motivation. The marked increases in PVT performance variability as sleep loss continued supports the "state instability" hypothesis, which posits that performance during sleep deprivation is increasingly variable due to the influence of sleep initiating mechanisms on the endogenous capacity to maintain attention and alertness, thereby creating an unstable state that fluctuates within seconds and that cannot be characterized as either fully awake or asleep.

  2. The influence of social deprivation on length of hospitalisation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Engin; Raynaud, Denis

    2013-04-01

    The implementation of activity-based payment system named T2A-tarification à l'activité-in 2004 profoundly modified the financing of French hospitals. Presently applied to activities concerning medicine, surgery and obstetrics, the pricing for these activities was developed using the National Costs Study. The considerable differences observed between costs in the private sector and those in the public sector are in part justified, by the latter, by caring for patients with social deprivation. The goal of this study is to measure the influence of social deprivation on the length of hospitalisation. A survey on inpatient social deprivation was carried out from November to December 2008 by the French Ministry of Health (Department of Research, Study, Evaluation and Statistics-DREES, and technical agency of Hospital information-ATIH). Four dimensions of social deprivation were taken into consideration after a previous qualitative study: social isolation, quality of housing, level of income and access to rights. The sample is based on 27 hospitals, including public and private (for-profit and not-for-profit), representing 57,175 stays, 6,800 of which were patients with social deprivation. After multivariate analyses adjusted for age, severity of illness and DRG, we found that there was a longer length of stay for inpatients with social deprivation (+16%), and in particular for patients living in social isolation (+17%) and for patients with inadequate housing (+17%). The impact of low income on the length of stay is less important. However, low income associated with inadequate housing significantly increases lengths of stay (+24%). PMID:22095444

  3. Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Disruption: Stress, Allostasis, and Allostatic Load.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2015-03-01

    Sleep has important homeostatic functions, and circadian rhythms organize physiology and behavior on a daily basis to insure optimal function. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption can be stressors, enhancers of other stressors that have consequences for the brain and many body systems. Whether the origins of circadian disruption and sleep disruption and deprivation are from anxiety, depression, shift work, long-distance air travel, or a hectic lifestyle, there are consequences that impair brain functions and contribute to the cumulative wear and tear on body systems caused by too much stress and/or inefficient management of the systems that promote adaptation. PMID:26055668

  4. Relationship between Statin Utilization and Socioeconomic Deprivation in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Boruzs, Klára; Juhász, Attila; Nagy, Csilla; Ádány, Róza; Bíró, Klára

    2016-01-01

    The risk of premature mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is approximately three times higher in the Central Eastern European region than in high income European countries, which suggests a lack and/or ineffectiveness of preventive interventions against CVDs. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the relationship between premature CVD mortality, statin utilization as a preventive medication and socioeconomic deprivation at the district level in Hungary. As a conceptually new approach, the prescription of statins, the prescription redemption and the ratio between redemption and prescription rates were also investigated. The number of prescriptions for statins and the number of redeemed statin prescriptions were obtained from the National Health Insurance Fund Administration of Hungary for each primary healthcare practice for the entire year of 2012. The data were aggregated at the district level. To define the frequency of prescription and of redemption, the denominator was the number of the 40+-year-old population adjusted by the rates of 60+-year-old population of the district. The standardized mortality rates, frequency of statin prescriptions, redeemed statin prescriptions, and ratios for compliance in relation to the national average were mapped using the “disease mapping” option, and their association with deprivation (tertile of deprivation index as a district-based categorical covariate) was defined using the risk analysis capabilities within the Rapid Inquiry Facility. The risk analysis showed a significant positive association between deprivation and the relative risk of premature cardiovascular mortality, and a reverse J-shaped association between the relative frequency of statin prescriptions and deprivation. Districts with the highest deprivation showed a low relative frequency of statin prescriptions; however, significantly higher primary compliance (redemption) was observed in districts with the highest deprivation

  5. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. PMID:26575605

  6. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  7. Amplification, redundancy, and quantum Chernoff information.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2014-04-11

    Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment. PMID:24765928

  8. Heralded photon amplification for quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, C. I.; Bruno, N.; Sangouard, N.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.; Thew, R. T.

    2012-08-01

    Heralded noiseless amplification based on single-photon sources and linear optics is ideally suited for long-distance quantum communication tasks based on discrete variables. We experimentally demonstrate such an amplifier, operating at telecommunication wavelengths. Coherent amplification is performed with a gain of G=1.98±0.20 for a state with a maximum expected gain G=2. We also demonstrate that there is no need for a stable phase reference between the initial signal state and the local auxiliary photons used by the amplifier. We discuss these results in the context of experimental device-independent quantum key distribution based on heralded qubit amplification, and we highlight several key challenges for its realization.

  9. Optical amplification enhancement in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, R.; Leonetti, M.; Froufe-Perez, L. S.; Galisteo-Lopez, J. F.; Lopez, C.; Conti, C.

    2011-02-15

    Improving and controlling the efficiency of a gain medium is one of the most challenging problems of laser research. By measuring the gain length in an opal-based photonic crystal doped with laser dye, we demonstrate that optical amplification is more than twenty-fold enhanced along the {Gamma}-K symmetry directions of the face-centered-cubic photonic crystal. These results are theoretically explained by directional variations of the density of states, providing a quantitative connection between density of the states and light amplification.

  10. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  11. Extended equal area criterion revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, X.; Wehenkel, L.; Belhomme, R.; Rousseaux, P.; Pavella, M. ); Euxibie, E.; Heilbronn, B.; Lesigne, J.F. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports on a case study conducted on the EHV French power system in order to revisit the extended equal area criterion and test its suitability as a fast transient stability indicator. The assumptions underlying the method are reexamined, causes liable to invalidate them are identified, and indices are devised to automatically circumvent them. The selection of candidate critical machines is also reconsidered and an augmented criterion is proposed. The various improvements are developed and tested on about 1000 stability scenarios, covering the entire 400-kV system; the severity of the scenarios, resulting from the combination of weakened both pre- and post-fault configurations, subjects the method to particularly stringent conditions. The obtained results show that the devised tools contribute to significantly reinforce its robustness and reliability.

  12. A dual amplification fluorescent strategy for sensitive detection of DNA methyltransferase activity based on strand displacement amplification and DNAzyme amplification.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wanling; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2016-03-15

    DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays a critical role in many biological processes and has been regarded as a predictive cancer biomarker and a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. Sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential for early cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. Here, we developed a dual amplification fluorescent strategy for sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity based on strand displacement amplification (SDA) and DNAzyme amplification. A trifunctional double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) probe was designed including a methylation site for DNA MTase recognition, a complementary sequence of 8-17 DNAzyme for synthesizing DNAzyme, and a nicking site for nicking enzyme cleavage. Firstly, the trifunctional dsDNA probe was methylated by DNA MTase to form the methylated dsDNA. Subsequently, HpaII restriction endonuclease specifically cleaved the residue of unmethylated dsDNA. Next, under the action of polymerase and nicking enzyme, the methylared dsDNA initiated SDA, releasing numbers of 8-17 DNAzymes. Finally, the released 8-17 DNAzymes triggered DNAzyme amplification reaction to induce a significant fluorescence enhancement. This strategy could detect DNA MTase activity as low as 0.0082U/mL. Additionally, the strategy was successfully applied for evaluating the inhibitions of DNA MTase using two anticancer drugs, 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The results indicate the proposed strategy has a potential application in early cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. PMID:26492469

  13. Genetic and Environmental Processes in Young Children's Resilience and Vulnerability to Socioeconomic Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Cohen, Julia; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Some children exposed to socioeconomic (SES) deprivation are resilient and function better than expected, given the level of deprivation they have experienced. The present study tested genetic and environmental contributions to young children's resilience and vulnerability to SES deprivation. Children's resilience was assessed by the difference…

  14. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  15. Current Issues in Maternal and Paternal Deprivation. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    An overview of some major current issues in maternal and paternal deprivation is presented. Parts I and II focus on (1) single parents and issues in paternal deprivation and (2) sex stereotyping and issues in maternal deprivation, respectively. More particularly, Part I discusses the effects of divorce and death on children and the problem of…

  16. Double Trouble? The Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Chronotype on Adolescent Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Talbot, Lisa S.; Kaplan, Katherine A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an…

  17. The Institutionalized Geriatric Patient Considered in a Framework of Developmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erber, Joan T.

    1979-01-01

    An overview is presented of several areas of deprivation research (animal, child, young adult) and methods of conceptualizing and measuring deprivation is applied to institutionalized geriatric patients. Suggestions are made for more precise approaches to studying and treating deprivation in this population. (Author/SS)

  18. TRAITS OF SCHOOL ACHIEVERS FROM A DEPRIVED BACKGROUND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAVIDSON, HELEN H.; GREENBERG, JUDITH W.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE, MOTIVATIONAL, AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-ACHIEVING STUDENTS FROM A DEPRIVED ENVIRONMENT. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STUDENT'S SEX TO HIS ACHIEVEMENT STATUS WAS ALSO ASSESSED. THE SUBJECTS, 160 10-YEAR-OLD FIFTH-GRADE NEGRO CHILDREN, WERE DIVIDED INTO LOW-ACHIEVING AND…

  19. Income Satisfaction and Relative Deprivation: An Empirical Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ambrosio, Conchita; Frick, Joachim R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between two well-established concepts of measuring individual well-being: the concept of "happiness," i.e. self-reported level of satisfaction with income, and "relative deprivation," i.e. the gaps between the individual's income and the incomes of all individuals richer than him. Operationalizing both concepts…

  20. Are You Sleep Deprived? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  1. [Support for teenage pregnancies and early emotional deprivation].

    PubMed

    Andro, Gwénäelle

    2016-01-01

    The perinatal psychology and psychiatry unit of Caen university hospital has put in place two systematic intervention protocols relating to pregnancy: teenage pregnancy and denial of pregnancy. Professionals are particularly concerned with teenagers with a history of early emotional deprivation and mistreatment, with the spectre of repetition. A partnership with a motherhood centre helps all concerned to work together to build resilience. PMID:27444534

  2. Deprivation in American Affluence: The Theory of Stimulus Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses theory of stimulus addiction, a process of human accommodation to stimuli which fosters dependency and may foster addiction. Suggests that a society of affluence may be prone to addictiveness because the more continuous the stimuli the person experiences, the more tolerance is created, and with tolerance comes stimulus deprivation.…

  3. Regional vulnerability of the hippocampus to repeated motor activity deprivation.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Moeeini, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Abedin; Pakdel, Shiva; Moharrerie, Alireza; Arjang, Kaveh; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-03-15

    Spontaneous vertical and horizontal exploratory movements are integral components of rodent behavior. Little is known, however, about the structural and functional consequences of restricted spontaneous exploration. Here, we report two experiments to probe whether restriction in vertical activity (rearing) in rats could induce neuro-hormonal and behavioral disturbances. Rearing movements in rats were deprived for 3h/day for 30 consecutive days by placing the animal into a circular tunnel task. Rats temporarily deprived of rearing behavior showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels but no detectable psychological distress and/or anxiety-related behavior within an elevated plus maze. However, rats emitted a greater number of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and spent significantly more time vocalizing than controls when deprived of their rearing behavior. Despite intact spatial performance within wet- and dry-land spatial tasks, rearing-deprived rats also exhibited a significant alteration in search strategies within both spatial tasks along with reduced volume and neuron number in the hippocampal subregion CA2. These data suggest a new approach to test the importance of free exploratory behavior in endocrine and structural manifestations. The results support a central role of the CA2 in spontaneous exploratory behavior and vulnerability to psychological stress. PMID:26723539

  4. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Early Deprivation in Postinstitutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Seth D.; Nelson, Charles A.; Schlaak, Mary F.; Roeber, Barbara J.; Wewerka, Sandi S.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Frenn, Kristin A.; Loman, Michelle M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2010-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental sequelae of early deprivation were examined by testing (N = 132) 8- and 9-year-old children who had endured prolonged versus brief institutionalized rearing or rearing in the natal family. Behavioral tasks included measures that permit inferences about underlying neural circuitry. Children raised in institutionalized…

  5. Deprivation, Social Exclusion and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…

  6. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

  7. Behavior Problems in Children Adopted from Psychosocially Depriving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems were investigated in 342 6- to 18-year-old children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that provided adequate physical resources but not consistent, responsive caregiving. Results indicated that attention and externalizing problems were the most prevalent types of behavior problems in the sample as a…

  8. Sleep deprivation amplifies striatal activation to monetary reward

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, Benjamin C.; Phillips, Mary L.; Siegle, Greg J.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Forbes, Erika E.; Franzen, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep loss produces abnormal increases in reward-seeking, though the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present study examined the influence of one night of sleep deprivation on neural responses to a monetary reward task in a sample of late adolescents/young adults. Methods Using a within-subjects crossover design, 27 healthy, right-handed late-adolescents/young adults (16 females, 11 males; mean age 23.1 years) completed functional magnetic resonance imaging following a night of sleep deprivation and following a night of normal sleep. Participants’ recent sleep history was monitored using actigraphy for one week prior to each sleep condition. Results Following sleep deprivation, participants exhibited increased activity in the ventral striatum and reduced deactivation in medial prefrontal cortex during the winning of monetary reward, relative to the same task following normal sleep conditions. Shorter total sleep time over the five nights before the sleep deprived testing condition was associated with reduced deactivation in the medial prefrontal cortex during reward. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that sleep loss produces aberrant functioning in reward neural circuitry, increasing the salience of positively-reinforcing stimuli. Aberrant reward functioning related to insufficient sleep may contribute to the development and maintenance of reward dysfunction-related disorders, such as compulsive gambling, eating, substance abuse, and mood disorders. PMID:23286303

  9. Effect of sleep deprivation on the human metabolome.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah K; Ang, Joo Ern; Revell, Victoria L; Holmes, Ben; Mann, Anuska; Robertson, Francesca P; Cui, Nanyi; Middleton, Benita; Ackermann, Katrin; Kayser, Manfred; Thumser, Alfred E; Raynaud, Florence I; Skene, Debra J

    2014-07-22

    Sleep restriction and circadian clock disruption are associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The metabolic pathways involved in human sleep, however, have yet to be investigated with the use of a metabolomics approach. Here we have used untargeted and targeted liquid chromatography (LC)/MS metabolomics to examine the effect of acute sleep deprivation on plasma metabolite rhythms. Twelve healthy young male subjects remained in controlled laboratory conditions with respect to environmental light, sleep, meals, and posture during a 24-h wake/sleep cycle, followed by 24 h of wakefulness. Two-hourly plasma samples collected over the 48 h period were analyzed by LC/MS. Principal component analysis revealed a clear time of day variation with a significant cosine fit during the wake/sleep cycle and during 24 h of wakefulness in untargeted and targeted analysis. Of 171 metabolites quantified, daily rhythms were observed in the majority (n = 109), with 78 of these maintaining their rhythmicity during 24 h of wakefulness, most with reduced amplitude (n = 66). During sleep deprivation, 27 metabolites (tryptophan, serotonin, taurine, 8 acylcarnitines, 13 glycerophospholipids, and 3 sphingolipids) exhibited significantly increased levels compared with during sleep. The increased levels of serotonin, tryptophan, and taurine may explain the antidepressive effect of acute sleep deprivation and deserve further study. This report, to our knowledge the first of metabolic profiling during sleep and sleep deprivation and characterization of 24 h rhythms under these conditions, offers a novel view of human sleep/wake regulation. PMID:25002497

  10. Citicoline retards myopia progression following form deprivation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Mao, Junfeng; Liu, Shuangzhen; Fu, Chunyan

    2016-06-01

    The retinal dopaminergic system is involved in the myopic shift following form deprivation. Citicoline has been demonstrated to stimulate the dopaminergic system in the brain and retina. Furthermore, citicoline has been used in many neurogenic diseases, such as senile cognitive impairment, stroke and Parkinson's disease as well as in amblyopia and glaucoma. Our aim was to investigate the effect of citicoline on the refractive state and retinal dopamine level in form deprivation myopia of guinea pigs. Guinea pigs, at an age of four weeks, were randomly divided into normal control, deprivation, deprived + citicoline and deprived + vehicle groups. Form deprivation myopia was induced by a translucent eye shield covering the right eye. Citicoline was injected intraperitoneally twice a day (500 mg/kg, 9 am and 9 pm) for 10 days. In vitro, retinal explants were cultured with citicoline for 24 h, with a final citicoline concentration of 100 µmol/L. The ocular refractive parameters and retinal dopamine content were measured. After occlusion for 10 days, the form-deprived eyes became myopic with an increase in axial length and a decrease in retinal dopamine content. The intraperitoneal injection of citicoline reduced the myopic degree (from -3.25 ± 0.77D to -0.62 ± 0.47D, P < 0.001) and partially raised retinal dopamine levels (from 0.55 ± 0.21 ng to 0.81 ± 0.24 ng, P < 0.01) in the form-deprived eyes. After 24 h of culturing retinal explants with citicoline, retinal dopamine content increased significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.14 ng to 0.62 ± 0.21 ng, P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that an intraperitoneal injection of citicoline could retard the myopic shift induced by form deprivation in guinea pigs, which was mediated by an increase in the retinal dopamine levels. PMID:26979720