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Sample records for derived methoxylated analog

  1. “One-shot” analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated analogs in human breast milk and serum using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Butryn, Deena; Gross, Michael; Chi, Lai-Har; Schecter, Arnold; Olson, James; Aga, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH-BDE) and methoxylated (MeO-BDE) analogs in humans is an area of high interest to public health due to their neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects. Consequently, there is a rise involving the investigation of these three classes of compounds together in order to understand their bioaccumulation patterns in environmental matrices and in humans. Analysis of PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be accomplished simultaneously, but detection limits for PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in LC-MS is insufficient for trace level quantification. Therefore, fractionation steps of the phenolic (OH-BDEs) and neutral (PBDEs and MeO-BDEs) compounds during sample preparation are typically performed so different detection techniques can be used to achieve the needed sensitivities. However, this approach involves multiple injections, ultimately increasing analysis time. In this study, an analytical method was developed for a “one-shot” analysis of 12 PBDEs, 12 OH-BDEs, and 13 MeO-BDEs using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This overall method includes simultaneous extraction of all analytes via pressurized liquid extraction followed by lipid removal steps to reduce matrix interferences. The OH-BDEs were derivatized using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide, producing OH-TMDS derivatives that can be analyzed with PBDEs and MeO-BDEs by GC-MS/MS in “one shot” within a 25-min run. The overall recoveries were generally greater than 65%, and the limits of detection ranged from 2–14 pg in both breast milk and serum. The applicability of the method was successfully validated on four paired human breast milk and serum samples. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs, OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs in breast milk were 59, 2.2, and 0.57 ng g−1 lipid, respectively. In serum, the mean total concentrations were 79, 38, and 0.96 ng g

  2. Investigation of bioaccumulation and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives in varying trophic level freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un-Jung; Jo, Hyunbin; Lee, In-Seok; Joo, Gea-Jae; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-01

    The concentrations and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives (OH- and MeO-BDEs) were determined in seven representative fish species from a river in the Republic of Korea. The PBDEs and their derivatives were found to be accumulated in the internal organs of the fish to different extents. PBDEs were preferentially accumulated in the internal organs rather than muscle tissue, and especially, showed increasing accumulation tendencies with increasing bromination level in liver. The OH-BDEs and MeO-BDEs were preferentially accumulated in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, respectively. MeO-BDE concentrations were found to increase according to relative trophic level, suggesting that the PBDE derivatives can be biomagnified to a greater extent than the parent PBDEs in freshwater food webs. In a comparison with the dissolved analyte concentrations in the water that were measured by using semi-permeable membrane devices, the greater uptake of non-ortho substituted MeO-BDEs by fish was observed. PMID:26092317

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated and hydroxylated analogs in Brown Bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) plasma from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, A; Pacepavicius, G; Martínez, M A; Darling, C; Muir, D; Sherry, J; McMaster, M; Alaee, M

    2013-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) were detected and quantified in Brown Bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) from Lake Ontario. Samples were collected in 2006 from three different locations near the city of Toronto: Frenchman's Bay, Toronto Island, and Tommy Thompson Park. A total of 117 plasma samples were pooled into 19 samples, separating males and females by site of capture. Pooled samples were analyzed for 36 PBDEs, 20 MeO-PBDEs and 20 OH-PBDEs, but only six PBDEs, five MeO- and eight OH-compounds were confirmed against standards currently available. These peaks were quantified as "identified" peaks, while peaks matching ion ratios but not matching the retention time of the available standards were quantified as "unidentified" peaks. Both "identified" and "unidentified" concentrations were combined to obtain a total concentration. No significant variations were obtained for total PBDE concentrations, ranging from 3.33 to 9.02 ng g(-1)wet weight. However, OH- and MeO-PBDE totals ranged over 1 order of magnitude among the samples (not detected - 3.57 ng g(-1)wet weight for OH-PBDEs and not detected -0.10 ng/g wet weight for MeO-PBDE). The results of this study suggested that these compounds are ubiquitous in biota. Source estimation of MeO- and OH-PBDEs in freshwater fish were discussed. Considering that up to date no freshwater sources for MeO- or OH-PBDEs have been reported, concentrations found should be mainly related to bioaccumulation from anthropogenic sources, although other sources could not be dismissed. PMID:23121987

  4. Graphene-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated and hydroxylated analogs from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Shi, Jianbo; Sun, Jianteng; Wang, Thanh; Zeng, Lixi; Zhu, Nali; Jiang, Guibin

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we developed a novel graphene-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (GA-MSPD) method for extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their methoxylated (MeO-) and hydroxylated (OH-) analogs from environmental samples. We found that grinding the solid sample with chemically converted graphene (CCG) powder yielded a tight contact and sufficient dispersion of the sample matrix due to the large surface area and flexible nanosheet morphology of CCG. The resultant blend was eluted using a two-step elution strategy: PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were eluted firstly by hexane/dichloromethane and analyzed by GC-ECD, and then OH-PBDEs were eluted by acetone and determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The GA-MSPD conditions were optimized in detail. Better recoveries were obtained with GA-MSPD than with other sorbents (C18 silica, Florisil and carbon nanotubes) and other extraction techniques (Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extraction). Other advantages of GA-MSPD, including reduced consumption of sorbent and solvent, good selectivity and short extraction time, were also demonstrated. In analysis of soil samples, the method detection limits of five PBDEs, ten MeO-PBDEs and ten OH-PBDEs were in the range of 5.9-28.7, 14.3-46.6, and 5.3-212.6 pg g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs from different kinds of spiked environmental samples, including soil, tree bark and fish. PMID:22093345

  5. 3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene, a natural methoxylated analog of resveratrol, inhibits breast cancer cell invasiveness by downregulation of PI3K/Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascades and reversal of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Jie-Heng; Hsu, Li-Sung; Lin, Chih-Li; Hong, Hui-Mei; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Way, Tzong-Der; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2013-11-01

    The molecular basis of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) functions as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer because EMT may endow breast tumor-initiating cells with stem-like characteristics and enable the dissemination of breast cancer cells. We have recently verified the antitumor activity of 3,5,4′-trimethoxystilbene (MR-3), a naturally methoxylated derivative of resveratrol, in colorectal cancer xenografts via an induction of apoptosis. The effect of MR-3 on EMT and the invasiveness of human MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell line were also explored. We found that MR-3 significantly increased epithelial marker E-cadherin expression and triggered a cobblestone-like morphology of MCF-7 cells, while reciprocally decreasing the expression of mesenchymal markers, such as snail, slug, and vimentin. In parallel with EMT reversal, MR-3 downregulated the invasion and migration of MCF-7 cells. Exploring the action mechanism of MR-3 on the suppression of EMT and invasion indicates that MR-3 markedly reduced the expression and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, accompanied with the downregulation of β-catenin target genes and the increment of membrane-bound β-catenin. These results suggest the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the MR-3-induced EMT reversion of MCF-7 cells. Notably, MR-3 restored glycogen synthase kinase-3β activity by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt, the event required for β-catenin destruction via a proteasome-mediated system. Overall, these findings indicate that the anti-invasive activity of MR-3 on MCF-7 cells may result from the suppression of EMT via down-regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling, and consequently, β-catenin nuclear translocation. These occurrences ultimately lead to the blockage of EMT and the invasion of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • MR-3 blocked MCF-7 cell invasion by inducing a reversal of EMT. • Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in MR-3-induced EMT

  6. Drugs derived from cannabinoids. 1. Nitrogen analogs, benzopyranopyridines and benzopyranopyrroles.

    PubMed

    Pars, H G; Granchelli, F E; Razdan, R K; Keller, J K; Teiger, D G; Rosenberg, F J; Harris, L S

    1976-04-01

    Various nitrogen analogs of delta6a,10a-tetrahydrocannabinol were synthesized by a general procedure described in an earlier communication. Minimum effective doses (MED50's) and lethal doses (LD50's) were determined by a modified Irwin mouse screen after iv administration of compounds in PEG 200. The most potent compounds were the propargyl (5t), allyl (5m), and chloroallyl (5o-q) derivatives. Overt behavioral effects (CNS depression, static ataxia, and hypersensitivity) of 5t and Roger Adams' carbocyclic analog (III) were found to be similar in the mouse, cat, dog, and monkey. Dichloroisoproterenol prevented and reversed many of the depressant effects of both III and 5t but had no effect on the ataxia produced by these compounds. In antinociceptive tests, 5t was active in the phenylquinone and Eddy hot-plate tests but was inactive in the tail-flick test. PMID:817019

  7. Cross-Domain Analogies as Relating Derived Relations among Two Separate Relational Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among…

  8. Drugs derived from cannabinoids. 3. Sulfur analogs, thiopyranobenzopyrans and thienobenzopyrans.

    PubMed

    Razdan, R K; Terris, B Z; Handrick, G R; Dalzell, H C; Pars, H G; Howes, J F; Plotnikoff, N; Dodge, P; Dren, A; Kyncl, J; Shoer, L; Thompson, W R

    1976-04-01

    Sulfur analogs of cannabinoids corresponding to DMHP (1) were prepared utilizing the Pechmann condensation between the appropriate keto ester and (5-(1,2-dimethylheptyl)resorcinol, followed by Grignard reaction. Compounds of various structural types (2-6), which had different ring size and position of the sulfur atom substituted in the alicyclic ring, were found to be active CNS agents in pharmacological tests in mice, rats, and dogs. They showed profiles qualitatively similar to those of the nitrogen and carbocyclic analogs. Basic esters of the most interesting parent phenols 2 and 4 were also prepared and tested. PMID:944268

  9. Strigolactone analogs derived from ketones using a working model for germination stimulants as a blueprint.

    PubMed

    Mwakaboko, Alinanuswe S; Zwanenburg, Binne

    2011-04-01

    Strigolactones are important signaling compounds in the plant kingdom. Here we focus on their germination stimulatory effect on seeds of the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche spp. and more particularly on the design and synthesis of new active strigolactone analogs derived from simple cyclic ketones. New analogs derived from 1-indanone, 1-tetralone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone and a series of substituted cyclohexanones (including carvone and pulegone) are prepared by formylation of the ketones with ethyl formate followed by coupling with a halo butenolide. Both enantiomers of the analog derived from 1-tetralone have been prepared by employing a homochiral synthon for the coupling reaction. For three other strigolactone analogs the antipodes have been obtained by chromatography on a chiral column. All analogs have an appreciable germinating activity towards seeds of Striga hermomonthica and Orobanche crenata and O. cernua. Stereoisomers having the same configuration at the D-ring as in naturally occurring strigol have a higher stimulatory effect than the corresponding antipodes. The analogs obtained from 1-indanone and 1-tetralone have an activity comparable with that of the well known stimulant GR 24. Analogs derived from 2-phenyl-cylohexanone, carvone and pulegone also have a good germinating response. The results show that the working model for designing new bioactive strigolactones is applicable. PMID:21421570

  10. Identification of pyridine analogs as new predator-derived kairomones

    PubMed Central

    Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Tosato, Monique Nenniger; Sporkert, Frank; Broillet, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    In the wild, animals have developed survival strategies relying on their senses. The individual ability to identify threatening situations is crucial and leads to increase in the overall fitness of the species. Rodents, for example have developed in their nasal cavities specialized olfactory neurons implicated in the detection of volatile cues encoding for impending danger such as predator scents or alarm pheromones. In particular, the neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion (GG), an olfactory subsystem, are implicated in the detection of danger cues sharing a similar chemical signature, a heterocyclic sulfur- or nitrogen-containing motif. Here we used a “from the wild to the lab” approach to identify new molecules that are involuntarily emitted by predators and that initiate fear-related responses in the recipient animal, the putative prey. We collected urines from carnivores as sources of predator scents and first verified their impact on the blood pressure of the mice. With this approach, the urine of the mountain lion emerged as the most potent source of chemical stress. We then identified in this biological fluid, new volatile cues with characteristic GG-related fingerprints, in particular the methylated pyridine structures, 2,4-lutidine and its analogs. We finally verified their encoded danger quality and demonstrated their ability to mimic the effects of the predator urine on GG neurons, on mice blood pressure and in behavioral experiments. In summary, we were able to identify here, with the use of an integrative approach, new relevant molecules, the pyridine analogs, implicated in interspecies danger communication. PMID:26283896

  11. Identification of pyridine analogs as new predator-derived kairomones.

    PubMed

    Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Tosato, Monique Nenniger; Sporkert, Frank; Broillet, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    In the wild, animals have developed survival strategies relying on their senses. The individual ability to identify threatening situations is crucial and leads to increase in the overall fitness of the species. Rodents, for example have developed in their nasal cavities specialized olfactory neurons implicated in the detection of volatile cues encoding for impending danger such as predator scents or alarm pheromones. In particular, the neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion (GG), an olfactory subsystem, are implicated in the detection of danger cues sharing a similar chemical signature, a heterocyclic sulfur- or nitrogen-containing motif. Here we used a "from the wild to the lab" approach to identify new molecules that are involuntarily emitted by predators and that initiate fear-related responses in the recipient animal, the putative prey. We collected urines from carnivores as sources of predator scents and first verified their impact on the blood pressure of the mice. With this approach, the urine of the mountain lion emerged as the most potent source of chemical stress. We then identified in this biological fluid, new volatile cues with characteristic GG-related fingerprints, in particular the methylated pyridine structures, 2,4-lutidine and its analogs. We finally verified their encoded danger quality and demonstrated their ability to mimic the effects of the predator urine on GG neurons, on mice blood pressure and in behavioral experiments. In summary, we were able to identify here, with the use of an integrative approach, new relevant molecules, the pyridine analogs, implicated in interspecies danger communication. PMID:26283896

  12. Cross-domain analogies as relating derived relations among two separate relational networks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-05-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among separate relational networks and by correlating participants' performance with a standard measure of analogical reasoning. In two experiments, adult participants first completed general intelligence and analogical reasoning tests. Subsequently, they were exposed to a computerized conditional discrimination training procedure designed to create two relational networks, each consisting of two 3-member equivalence classes. The critical test was a two-part analogical test in which participants had to relate combinatorial relations of coordination and distinction between the two relational networks. In Experiment 1, combinatorial relations for each network were individually tested prior to analogical testing, but in Experiment 2 they were not. Across both experiments, 65% of participants passed the analogical test on the first attempt. Moreover, results from the training procedure were strongly correlated with the standard measure of analogical reasoning. PMID:21547072

  13. Cross-Domain Analogies as Relating Derived Relations among Two Separate Relational Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among separate relational networks and by correlating participants' performance with a standard measure of analogical reasoning. In two experiments, adult participants first completed general intelligence and analogical reasoning tests. Subsequently, they were exposed to a computerized conditional discrimination training procedure designed to create two relational networks, each consisting of two 3-member equivalence classes. The critical test was a two-part analogical test in which participants had to relate combinatorial relations of coordination and distinction between the two relational networks. In Experiment 1, combinatorial relations for each network were individually tested prior to analogical testing, but in Experiment 2 they were not. Across both experiments, 65% of participants passed the analogical test on the first attempt. Moreover, results from the training procedure were strongly correlated with the standard measure of analogical reasoning. PMID:21547072

  14. Relating Derived Relations as a Model of Analogical Reasoning: Reaction Times and Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as chalk is to…

  15. Current prospects of synthetic curcumin analogs and chalcone derivatives against mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Franzblau, Scott G; Jantan, Ibrahim; Jasamai, Malina

    2013-11-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is amongst the foremost infectious diseases. Treatment of tuberculosis is a complex process due to various factors including a patient's inability to persevere with a combined treatment regimen, the difficulty in eradicating the infection in immune-suppressed patients, and multidrug resistance (MDR). Extensive research circumscribing molecules to counteract this disease has led to the identification of many inhibitory small molecules. Among these are chalcone derivatives along with curcumin analogs. In this review article, we summarize the reported literature regarding anti tubercular activity of chalcone derivatives and synthetic curcumin analogs. Our goal is to provide an analysis of research to date in order to facilitate the synthesis of superior antitubercular chalcone derivatives and curcumin analogs. PMID:23305394

  16. Nutritional value and safety of methionine derivatives, isomeric dipeptides and hydroxy analogs in mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Gumbmann, M R

    1988-03-01

    Weight gains in mice fed amino acid diets containing methionine and 16 methionine derivatives and analogs were compared at graded dietary concentrations. Linear response was closely approximated for concentrations below those yielding maximum growth. Derivatization of L-methionine generally lowered potency, calculated as the ratio of the slopes of the two dose-response curves. However, the three isomeric dipeptides L-L-, L-D- and D-L-methionylmethionine, N-acetyl- and N-formyl-L-methionine, L-methionine sulfoxide and D-methionine were well utilized. The double derivative N-acetyl-L-methionine sulfoxide reduced potency below 60%. D-Methionine sulfoxide, N-acetyl-D-methionine and D-methionyl-D-methionine had potencies between 4 and 40%. The calcium salts of L- and D-alpha-hydroxy analogs of methionine had potencies of 55.4 and 85.7%, respectively. Several of the analogs were less growth-inhibiting or toxic at high concentrations in the diet than was L-methionine. These results imply that some methionine dipeptides or analogs may be better candidates for fortifying foods than L-methionine. Possible biochemical pathways for the utilization of methionine derivatives and analogs are also described. PMID:3351635

  17. Expanding the phosphorus-carbon analogy: formation of an unprecedented 5-phosphasemibullvalene derivative.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Massimo; Weber, Manuela; Müller, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We could access for the first time a 5-phosphasemibullvalene derivative via quantitative and selective photochemical di-π-methane rearrangement from the corresponding phosphabarrelene. Due to the striking analogy between phosphorus and carbon, this hitherto unknown transformation of vinyl-phosphorus species provides the possibility to prepare novel, chiral and conformationally rigid organophosphorus cage compounds in a straightforward manner. PMID:27103541

  18. Dramatic 13C-depletion in the plant methoxyl pool and its global biogeochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppler, F.; Kalin, R. M.; Harper, D. B.; McRoberts, C. W.; Hamilton, J. T.

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool for environmental scientists, plant biologists, ecologists and geochemists studying global elemental cycles or past climatic conditions. Thus most plant species have been photosynthetically characterised as Calvin cycle (C3), Slack-Hatch cycle (C4) and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) categories using carbon isotope signatures. Moreover variations in the carbon isotope composition (d13C) of compounds, produced and destroyed in the global carbon cycle, are often used to investigate biogeochemical cycles and global source-sink relationships, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Stable isotope techniques are increasingly applied to the study of atmospheric budgets of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We report evidence that methoxyl groups in terrestrial plants (in esters and aromatic ethers) have a unique carbon isotope signature exceptionally depleted in 13C. Plant-derived C1 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also highly depleted in 13C compared with Cn+1 VOCs. Our observations suggest that the plant methoxyl pool is the predominant source of C1 compounds of plant origin in the biosphere such as methanol, chloromethane, bromomethane, iodomethane, and cyanomethane. Moreover this pool, which comprises approximately 2.5% of carbon in plant biomass and represents an important substrate for methanogenesis, is likely to be a significant source of highly depleted methane entering the atmosphere. The distinct 13C depletion of methoxyl groups in plants which is reflected in isotope signatures of C1 VOCs may provide a helpful tool in constraining complex environmental processes. These isotope anomalies have a tremendous potential to improve our understanding of the global cycles of atmospheric trace gases and the biochemical pathways involved. Furthermore methoxyl groups could act as markers for biological activity in organic matter of terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin.

  19. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-12-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies. PMID:26521216

  20. Solvent effect in NMR spectroscopy: Methoxyl resonance shifts induced by trifluoroacetic acid in isoflavones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Hirday N.; Sanduja, Sudershan K.; Sanduja, Radhika; Parmar, Virinder S.

    1H NMR spectra of eight different methoxylated isoflavones have been measured in deuterated chloroform and in a mixture (1 : 1) of deuterated chloroform and trifluoroacetic acid. The TFA-induced shifts of the methoxyl resonances have been interpreted and can serve as a guide in inferring the structures of natural or new isoflavones. This study is particularly useful in distinguishing a C-5 methoxyl from a C-7 methoxyl and a C-2' methoxyl from C-3' or C-4' methoxyl groups in an isoflavone. The steric, electronic and conformational factors are discussed to explain the different shift values.

  1. Diazaquinomycins E–G, Novel Diaza-Anthracene Analogs from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Mullowney, Michael W.; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Shaikh, Anam; Wei, Xiaomei; Tanouye, Urszula; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Burdette, Joanna E.; Murphy, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of our program to identify novel secondary metabolites that target drug-resistant ovarian cancers, a screening of our aquatic-derived actinomycete fraction library against a cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR5) led to the isolation of novel diaza-anthracene antibiotic diazaquinomycin E (DAQE; 1), the isomeric mixture of diazaquinomycin F (DAQF; 2) and diazaquinomycin G (DAQG; 3), and known analog diazaquinomycin A (DAQA; 4). The structures of DAQF and DAQG were solved through deconvolution of X-Ray diffraction data of their corresponding co-crystal. DAQE and DAQA exhibited moderate LC50 values against OVCAR5 of 9.0 and 8.8 μM, respectively. At lethal concentrations of DAQA, evidence of DNA damage was observed via induction of apoptosis through cleaved-PARP. Herein, we will discuss the isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activity of these secondary metabolites. PMID:24921978

  2. Effects of valproate derivatives I. Antiepileptic efficacy of amides, structural analogs and esters.

    PubMed

    Redecker, C; Altrup, U; Hoppe, D; Düsing, R; Speckmann, E J

    2000-01-01

    Derivatives of the antiepileptic drug valproate (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been synthesized and tested in order to improve the intracellular availability of VPA. The buccal ganglia of Helix pomatia were used as a test nervous system and antiepileptic efficacies were reconfirmed using rat cortex in vivo. Epileptiform activities consisted of typical paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDS) which appeared in the identified neuron B3 with application of pentylenetetrazol. Epileptiform activities were found to be accelerated, unaffected or blocked. (i) The Amide-derivatives 2-propylpentanamide and N,N-dipropyl-2-propylpentanamide, and short chain ester derivatives 1-O-(2-propylpentanoyl)-2,3-propandiol, 2,2-di(hydroxymethyl)-1-O-(2-propylpentanoyl)-1,3-propanediol and 2,2-di(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-di-O-(2-propylpentanoyl)-1,3-propanediol accelerated epileptiform activities. Membrane potential often shifted to a permanent depolarization which corresponded to the PDS-inactivation level. (ii) The structural analogs 1-cycloheptene-1-carboxylic acid and cyclooctanecarboxylic acid accelerated epileptiform activities only slightly or were without effects. (iii) The small VPA-ester, 2-propylpentanoic acid ethyl ester, decreased the epileptiform activities in a way that is comparable to the effects of VPA well known from previous studies. It thus could be thought as a VPA-pro-drug. (iv) The mannitol-esters 1-O-(2-propylpentanoyl)-D-mannitol and 3,4;5,6-Di-O-isopropylidene-1-O-(2-propylpentanoyl)-D-mannitol blocked the PDS in a way which is different from the known effects of VPA. These substances are interpreted not to exert their effects after being metabolized to VPA and thus they are thought to be new antiepileptic substances. PMID:10670421

  3. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDE) in human milk from Bizerte, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, Sihem; Ben Ameur, Walid; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Touil, Soufiane; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2015-04-01

    Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in 36 human milk samples collected in 2010 from healthy mothers living in Bizerte region from Tunisia. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry working with negative ion chemical ionization (GC-NCI-MS) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organo-brominated compounds. Among the 8 examined MeO-PBDE congeners 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-MeO-BDE-68, 4'-MeO-BDE-49 and 5'-MeO-BDE-100 were detected in human milk at different levels and frequencies. This is the first study reporting 5'-MeO-BDE-100 and 4'-MeO-BDE-49 levels in human milk samples. Levels of ∑MeO-PBDEs ranged from 0.23 to 4.70ngg(-)(1) lipid weight (lw) in the samples, with a mean and median value of 1.52 and 1.11ngg(-1)lw respectively. Concentrations of ∑MeO-PBDEs in human milk were negatively correlated with age of primapara mothers (p<0.05) and no age-dependency was observed for multipara mothers. Primapara mothers had higher levels of MeO-PBDEs than multipara mothers however no statistical significance was observed. A weak correlation between ∑PBDEs and ∑MeO-PBDEs was found but not between BDE-47 and its methoxylated analog 6-MeO-BDE-47, suggesting differences in exposure pathways for these contaminants in humans and further supporting the hypothesis that MeO-PBDEs were likely not only originated from PBDE precursors. PMID:25682256

  4. Characterization of the global structure of low methoxyl pectin in solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low methoxyl citrus pectin (LMP) and amidated low methoxyl pectin (LMAP) were characterized by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with online light scattering (LS), intrinsic viscosity ('w), differential refractive index (dRI) and ultra violet detection (UV), by amino acid anal...

  5. D/H ratios of methoxyl groups of the sedimentary organic matter of Lake Holzmaar (Eifel, Germany): A potential palaeoclimate/-hydrology proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhäuser, Tobias; Sirocko, Frank; Greule, Markus; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD values) of methoxyl groups in lignin and pectin from a variety of plant types from different locations have been shown to mirror δD values of precipitation, with a mean uniform isotopic fractionation. Since δD in precipitation is mainly influenced by climatic conditions, including temperature, evaporation and precipitation amount, methoxyl groups of organic matter have been proposed as a potential palaeoclimate proxy. Here, we measured the δD values of the methoxyl groups of sedimentary organic matter derived from sediment core segments of Lake Holzmaar (Eifel, Germany). The sediment core covers the entire Holocene and part of the Late Glacial (until 13,650 years BP). Since the sedimentary organic matter was indicated by organic source proxies of predominantly phytoplanktonic origin, we considered the δD values of the methoxyl groups as a proxy for the δD value of the lake water. Presently and probably during most of the Holocene, the δD value of precipitation was primarily controlled by temperature (2-4.5‰/°C) as well as in isotopic equilibrium with the δD value of the lake water. We used these modern temperature sensitivities of the Eifel region together with the measured δD values of the methoxyl groups of the sedimentary organic matter to evaluate temperature changes recorded for the Holocene. The resulting mean temperature variance was found to be consistently less than 1.8-4 °C and is broadly in line with that reported from the NGRIP ice core for the same period. The transition from the Holocene to the Late Glacial period was accompanied with more negative δD values of the methoxyl groups (∼13‰ for the Younger Dryas). Besides the association with temperature we assumed a higher susceptibility of the δD value of Lake Holzmaar to evaporative enrichment during the Younger Dryas which could serve as an explanation for discrepancies reported for existing palaeoclimate/-hydrology records of the Eifel region. Our

  6. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, after being trained on A-B and A-C matching tasks, subjects match not only functionally-same B and C stimuli (stimulus equivalence), but also BC compounds with same-class elements and BC compounds with different-class elements (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a :…

  7. Drugs derived from cannabinoids. 2. Basic esters of nitrogen and carbocyclic analogs.

    PubMed

    Razdan, R K; Terris, B Z; Pars, H G; Plotnikoff, N P; Dodge, P W; Dren, A T; Kyncl, J; Somani, P

    1976-04-01

    Various basic esters of nitrogen (2) and carbocyclic (3 and 4) analogs of cannabinoids were synthesized using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in methylene chloride. The compounds in the three series werw studied in selected pharmacological tests in mice, rats, dogs, and cats. It was shown that making the basic ester from the phenol retains biological activity and can lead to a greater selectivity of action, particularly the antinociceptive activity. The most interesting esters were 5, 6, 10, and 14 in the nitrogen analogs series and 19 and 20 in the carbocyclic series. Compound 5 was more potent than codeine in the writhing, hot-plate, and tail-flick tests and is at present undergoing clinical testing. Compound 20 was very potent in the mouse audiogenic seizure test and is of interest as an anticovulsant agent. PMID:817020

  8. Lignin methoxyl hydrogen isotope ratios in a coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, Sarah J.; Ellsworth, Patricia V.; Sternberg, Leonel da Silveira Lobo

    2013-11-01

    Stable hydrogen isotope ratios of plant lignin methoxyl groups have recently been shown to record the hydrogen isotopic composition of meteoric water. Here we extend this technique towards tracing water source variations across a saltwater to freshwater gradient in a coastal, subtropical forest ecosystem. We measure the hydrogen isotopic composition of xylem water (δDxw) and methoxyl hydrogen (δDmethoxyl) to calculate fractionations for coastal mangrove, buttonwood and hammock tree species in Sugarloaf Key, as well as buttonwoods from Miami, both in Florida, USA. Prior studies of the isotopic composition of cellulose and plant leaf waxes in coastal ecosystems have yielded only a weak correlation to source waters, attributed to leaf water effects. Here we find δDmethoxyl values range from -230‰ to -130‰, across a 40‰ range in δDxw with a regression equation of δDmethoxyl ‰ = 1.8 * δDxw - 178‰ (R2 = 0.48, p < 0.0001, n = 74). This is comparable within error to the earlier published relationship for terrestrial trees which was defined across a much larger 125‰ isotopic range in precipitation. Analytical precision for measurements of δD values of pure CH3I by gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-P-IRMS) is σ = 6‰ (n = 31), which is considerably better than for CH3I liberated through cleavage with HI from lignin with σ = 18‰ (n = 26). Our results establish that δDmethoxyl can record water sources and salinity incursion in coastal ecosystems, where variations sufficiently exceed method uncertainties (i.e., applications with δD excursions >50‰). For the first time, we also report yields of propyl iodide, which may indicate lignin synthesis of propoxyl groups under salt-stress.

  9. Conformationally restrained analogs of sympathomimetic catecholamines. Synthesis, conformational analysis, and adrenergic activity of isochroman derivatives.

    PubMed

    Macchia, B; Balsamo, A; Breschi, M C; Chiellini, G; Lapucci, A; Macchia, M; Manera, C; Martinelli, A; Martini, C; Scatizzi, R

    1993-10-15

    In previous papers dealing with the study of the conformations and the biopharmacological activity of conformationally restrained analogs of sympathomimetic catecholamines (NE and ISO), proposals were advanced for the three-dimensional molecular models A, B, and C; these models provided information about the steric requirements for the direct activation of alpha 1, alpha 2,beta 1, and beta 2 adrenoceptors, respectively. The 1-(aminomethyl)-6,7-dihydroxyisochromans 11 and 12 and the 1-(aminomethyl)-5,6-dihydroxyisochromans 13 and 14 (1-AMDICs) are two different types of semirigid analogs of NE and ISO. The alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, and beta 2 adrenergic properties of the 1-AMDICs 11-14 were evaluated in vitro, both by radioligand binding assays and by functional tests on isolated preparations, and were compared with those of their parent compounds (NE and ISO). The results of a conformational study carried out by means of both 1H NMR spectrometry and theoretical calculations indicated that, in these 1-AMDICs, the presumed active groups (aryl moiety, amine nitrogen and benzylic ethereal oxygen) are in a spatial relationship corresponding to the one found for NE and ISO in their preferred conformations, which also proved to be the pharmacophoric conformation in the models A-C. By means of a comparison of the stereostructures of the 1-AMDICs 11-14 with their biopharmacological properties, it was possible to obtain a further definition of the model B with respect to the activation of the alpha 2 adrenoceptors; the superimposition of the 1-AMDICs 11 and 12 with the molecular model C made it possible to detect an area of the beta-adrenergic receptors which might hinder the fit of adrenergic drugs that are analogs of catecholamines with these receptors. PMID:8230093

  10. FeCl3-promoted and ultrasound-assisted synthesis of resveratrol O-derived glycoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Marzag, Hamid; Robert, Guillaume; Dufies, Maeva; Bougrin, Khalid; Auberger, Patrick; Benhida, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Phenol derived O-glycosides were synthesized using a direct and convenient O-glycosidation, starting from acetylated sugars in the presence of FeCl3, an inexpensive, mild and benign Lewis acid catalyst. The reactions were carried out under both conventional and ultrasonic irradiation conditions. In general, improvement in rates and yields were observed when reactions were carried out under sonication compared with conventional conditions leading to the corresponding β-O-glycosides as the major anomer. Post-synthetic transformations of iodophenol intermediates led to new resveratrol O-glycoside analogs in good overall yields. PMID:24961448

  11. Bioavailabilty of beta-amino acid and C-terminally derived PK/PBAN analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of linear beta amino-acid-substituted peptides (PK-betaA-1: Ac-YFT[beta3-P]RLa; PK-betaA-2: Ac-Y[beta2-homoF]TPRLa; PK-betaA-3: Ac-Y[beta3-F]TPRLa and PK-betaA-4: Ac-[beta3-F]FT[beta3-P]RLa) and unsubstituted analogs (Ac-YFTPRLa and YFTPRLa) of the pyrokinin(PK)/pheromone biosynthesis-ac...

  12. Glucosamine and Glucosamine-6-phosphate Derivatives: Catalytic Cofactor Analogs for the glmS Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Posakony, Jeffrey J.; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.

    2013-01-01

    Two analogues of glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P, 1) and five of glucosamine (GlcN, 2) were prepared for evaluation as catalytic cofactor of the glmS ribozyme, a bacterial gene-regulatory RNA that controls cell wall biosynthesis. Glucosamine and allosamine with 3-azido substitutions were prepared by SN2 reactions of the respective 1,2,4,6-protected sugars; final acidic hydrolysis afforded the fully deprotected compounds as their TFA salts. A 6-phospho-2-aminoglucolactam (31) was prepared from glucosamine in a 13-step synthesis, which included a late-stage POCl3-phosphorylation. A simple and widely applicable 2-step procedure with the triethylsilyl (TES) protecting group was developed to selectively expose the 6-OH group in N-protected glucosamine analogs, which provided another route to chemical phosphorylation. Mitsunobu chemistry afforded 6-cyano (35) and 6-azido (36) analogues of GlcN-(Cbz) and the selectivity for the 6-position was confirmed by NMR (COSY, HMBC, HMQC) experiments. Compound 36 was converted to the fully deprotected 6-azido-GlcN (37) and 2,6-diaminoglucose (38) analogs. A 2-hydroxylamino glucose (42) analogue was prepared via an oxaziridine (41). Enzymatic phosphorylation of 42 and chemical phosphorylation of its 6-OH precursor (43) were possible, but 42 and the 6-phospho product (44) were unstable under neutral or basic conditions. Chemical phosphorylation of the previously described 2-guanidinyl-glucose (46) afforded its 6-phospho analogue (49) after final deprotection. PMID:23578404

  13. Enhancing Physicochemical Properties through Synthesis and Formulation of Piclamilast- and Lapatinib-Derived Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodring, Jennifer L.

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease of significant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Current chemotherapeutics targeting the causative agent Trypanosoma brucei lack oral bioavailability, efficacy, and safety. New small molecule drugs are desperately needed for HAT. Target repurposing represents one method for rapidly discovering new anti-trypanosomal compounds. This concept has been applied to repurposing small molecule inhibitors of human phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) for HAT, while improving physicochemical properties. The first project in this dissertation begins with the human PDE4 inhibitor piclamilast, which has an IC50 value of 4.7 microM against T. brucei PDEB1. Based upon this scaffold, new analogs were designed, synthesized, and screened for their biological activity against TbrPDEB1. Secondly, previous optimization of the human tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib led to the discovery of the 4-anilino-quinazoline NEU-617, a potent (EC 50 = 42 nM) antitrypanosomal agent. Since alkynyl thienopyrimidines are well-known scaffolds for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, we assessed this scaffold as an alternative to the quinazoline of NEU-617. In addition, analogs of the NEU-617 were designed and synthesized to improve their physicochemical properties, such as lipophilicity and predicted central nervous system penetration. Lastly, nanoformulations have been shown to improve the oral bioavailability and circulation half-life of their encapsulated drug components. Because of this, nanoemulsions, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles were explored for their potential parasitic inhibitory effects and their ability to improve the physicochemical properties of NEU-617.

  14. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  15. Immunostimulant activities of a lipophilic muramyl dipeptide derivative and of desmuramyl peptidolipid analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Parant, M A; Audibert, F M; Chedid, L A; Level, M R; Lefrancier, P L; Choay, J P; Lederer, E

    1980-01-01

    The immunostimulant properties of a new muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derivative bearing a lipophilic moiety on the C-terminal end of the peptide chain are described. It is shown, in particular, that 1,O-(acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine-L-alanyl)-glycerol-3-mycolate had increased immunostimulant activity in comparison with MDP. It induced hypersensitivity even when administered with an antigen in saline, and it gave higher protection against bacterial infections than did MDP. A quite unexpected finding was obtained with the corresponding desmuramyl compound 1,O-(L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine-L-alanyl)-glycerol-3-mycolate, which had no activity in producing humoral antibodies but was just as active as the muramic acid-containing compound in stimulating nonspecific resistance to bacterial infections. It was not pyrogenic. Modifications of the peptide moiety or the lipid moiety of this peptidolipid led to decrease, or even loss, of activity. These results show the importance of the N-acetylmuramyl moiety in MDP for humoral antibody production. The peptidolipid 1,O-(L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine-L-alanyl)-glycerol-3-mycolate is the first member of a new category of nonspecific immunostimulants. PMID:7380554

  16. Chloroethyinitrosourea-derived ethano cytosine and adenine adducts are substrates for escherichia coli glycosylases excising analogous etheno adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Guliaev, Anton B.; Singer, B.; Hang, Bo

    2004-05-05

    Exocyclic ethano DNA adducts are saturated etheno ring derivatives formed mainly by therapeutic chloroethylnitrosoureas (CNUs), which are also mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this work, we report that two of the ethano adducts, 3,N{sup 4}-ethanocytosine (EC) and 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine (EA), are novel substrates for the Escherichia coli mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase (Mug) and 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA), respectively. It has been shown previously that Mug excises 3,N{sup 4}-ethenocytosine ({var_epsilon}C) and AlkA releases 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using synthetic oligonucleotides containing a single ethano or etheno adduct, we found that both glycosylases had a {approx}20-fold lower excision activity toward EC or EA than that toward their structurally analogous {var_epsilon}C or {var_epsilon}A adduct. Both enzymes were capable of excising the ethano base paired with any of the four natural bases, but with varying efficiencies. The Mug activity toward EC could be stimulated by E. coli endonuclease IV and, more efficiently, by exonuclease III. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed similar structural features of the etheno and ethano derivatives when present in DNA duplexes. However, also as shown by MD, the stacking interaction between the EC base and Phe 30 in the Mug active site is reduced as compared to the {var_epsilon}C base, which could account for the lower EC activity observed in this study.

  17. Synthesis of analogs of the radiation mitigator JP4-039 and visualization of BODIPY derivatives in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, Marie-Céline; Skoda, Erin M.; Sacher, Joshua R.; Epperly, Michael W.; Goff, Julie P.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    JP4-039 is a lead structure in a series of nitroxide conjugates that are capable of accumulating in mitochondria and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). To explore structure-activity relationships (SAR), new analogs with variable nitroxide moieties were prepared. Furthermore, fluorophore-tagged analogs were synthesized and provided the opportunity for visualization in mitochondria. All analogs were tested for radioprotective and radiomitigative effects in 32Dcl3 cells. PMID:23715589

  18. Synthesis of analogs of the radiation mitigator JP4-039 and visualization of BODIPY derivatives in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Marie-Céline; Skoda, Erin M; Sacher, Joshua R; Epperly, Michael W; Goff, Julie P; Greenberger, Joel S; Wipf, Peter

    2013-07-01

    JP4-039 is a lead structure in a series of nitroxide conjugates that are capable of accumulating in mitochondria and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). To explore structure-activity relationships (SAR), new analogs with variable nitroxide moieties were prepared. Furthermore, fluorophore-tagged analogs were synthesized and provided the opportunity for visualization in mitochondria. All analogs were tested for radioprotective and radiomitigative effects in 32Dcl3 cells. PMID:23715589

  19. GLOBAL STRUCTURES OF HIGH METHOXYL PECTIN FROM SOLUTION AND IN GELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of high methoxyl orange pectin deposited from solution and sugar acid gels (HMSAG) were obtained by atomic force microscopy in the Tapping Mode (TM). For the first time, images of pectin deposited from water revealed that the transition from pectin networks to individual molecules or aggrega...

  20. The structure of high-methoxyl sugar acid gels of citrus pectin as determined by AFM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of native high methoxyl sugar acid gels (HMSAG) were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the Tapping ModeTM. Electronic thinning of the pectin strands to one pixel wide allowed the pectin network to be viewed in the absence of variable strand widths related to preferentially solvate...

  1. Spliced stromal cell-derived factor-1α analog stimulates endothelial progenitor cell migration and improves cardiac function in a dose-dependent manner after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hiesinger, William; Frederick, John R.; Atluri, Pavan; McCormick, Ryan C.; Marotta, Nicole; Muenzer, Jeffrey R.; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α is a potent endogenous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) chemokine and key angiogenic precursor. Recombinant SDF-1α has been demonstrated to improve neovasculogenesis and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) but SDF-1α is a bulky protein with a short half-life. Small peptide analogs might provide translational advantages, including ease of synthesis, low manufacturing costs, and the potential to control delivery within tissues using engineered biomaterials. We hypothesized that a minimized peptide analog of SDF-1α, designed by splicing the N-terminus (activation and binding) and C-terminus (extracellular stabilization) with a truncated amino acid linker, would induce EPC migration and preserve ventricular function after MI. Methods EPC migration was first determined in vitro using a Boyden chamber assay. For in vivo analysis, male rats (n=48) underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. At infarction, the rats were randomized into 4 groups and received peri-infarct intramyocardial injections of saline, 3 μg/kg of SDF-1α, 3 μg/kg of spliced SDF analog, or 6 μg/kg spliced SDF analog. After 4 weeks, the rats underwent closed chest pressure volume conductance catheter analysis. Results EPCs showed significantly increased migration when placed in both a recombinant SDF-1α and spliced SDF analog gradient. The rats treated with spliced SDF analog at MI demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in end-diastolic pressure, stroke volume, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and stroke work compared with the control rats. Conclusions A spliced peptide analog of SDF-1α containing both the N- and C- termini of the native protein induced EPC migration, improved ventricular function after acute MI, and provided translational advantages compared with recombinant human SDF-1α. PMID:20951261

  2. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios of methoxyl groups in Eifel (Germany) maar deposits: a potential palaeotemperature proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhäuser, Tobias; Sirocko, Frank; Greule, Markus; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD values) of methoxyl groups in a variety of plant types from different locations have been shown to record δD values of precipitation, with a mean uniform isotopic fractionation. Since δD in precipitation is mainly influenced by climatic conditions, including temperature, evaporation and precipitation amount, methoxyl groups of organic matter have been proposed as a potential palaeoclimate proxy. We measured the δD values of the methoxyl groups in bulk sediment and oospores (algal spores from charophytes) from Eifel maar sediment core samples. The sediment cores cover the entire Holocene and part of the Late Glacial (9640 BC to ~12,000 BC). The methodology employed was precise with mean standard deviations of δD values of 3.3‰ (n = 12) and 1.3‰ (n = 3) for methoxyl groups of bulk sediment and oospore samples, respectively. Based on our measurements palaeoclimatic interpretations were made. Along a North-South transect of Europe δD values of precipitation and lake water are both strikingly correlated with the mean annual air temperature (R² = 0.99 and R² = 0.93, respectively), leading to a temperature gradient of 4-6‰ per 1° C. We used this gradient to calculate changes in temperature over the past ~14,000 years as indicated by changes in the δD values of the bulk sediment and oospores. Whereas the mean temperature variation within the Holocene was found to be consistently less than 2° C, the covered Late Glacial period indicates colder temperatures, by as much as 5° C, both with respect to the average Holocene temperature. The observed long term temperature trend is broadly in line with that reported from the NGRIP ice core for the same time period. δD values of methoxyl groups of bulk sediment are also consistent with those obtained from oospores. We suggest that the δD values of methoxyl groups from well-characterized organic material, especially in the case of oospores, have great potential to assist

  3. Drugs derived from cannabinoids. 5. delta6a,10a-Tetrahydrocannabinol and heterocyclic analogs containing aromatic side chains.

    PubMed

    Winn, M; Arendsen, D; Dodge, P; Dren, A; Dunnigan, D; Hallas, R; Hwang, K; Kyncl, J; Lee, Y H; Plotnikoff, N; Young, P; Zaugg, H

    1976-04-01

    Ten new delta6a,10a-THC analogs with arylalkyl side chains, one with a dimethylaminoalkyl side chain, and six heterocyclic delta6a,10a-THC analogs [8-substituted 5,5-dimethyl-10-hydroxy-2-(2-propynyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5H-[1]benzo-pyrano[4,3-c]pyridines] were prepared. They showed pharmacological activity as analgesics, tranquilizers, antihypertensives, and hypnotics and as antisecretory, antiulcer, and antidiarrheal agents. The most potent compounds had either a 1-methyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl)butyl or a 1,2-dimethyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl)butyl side chain. PMID:817021

  4. Improved Protein Kinase C Affinity through Final Step Diversification of a Simplified Salicylate-Derived Bryostatin Analog Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bryostatin 1, in clinical trials or preclinical development for cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and a first-of-its-kind strategy for HIV/AIDS eradication, is neither readily available nor optimally suited for clinical use. In preceding work, we disclosed a new class of simplified bryostatin analogs designed for ease of access and tunable activity. Here we describe a final step diversification strategy that provides, in only 25 synthetic steps, simplified and tunable analogs with bryostatin-like PKC modulatory activities. PMID:25238640

  5. Antiangiogenic properties of substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ol/one analogs and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Reddy, Y Thirupathi; Sonar, Vijaykumar N; Muthusamy, Venkatraj; Crooks, Peter A; Freeman, Michael L; Sekhar, Konjeti R

    2010-12-15

    In the past half century research efforts have defined a critical role for angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis. We previously reported that inhibition of a novel target, ENOX1, by a (Z)-2-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene) quinuclidin-3-ol, suppressed tumor angiogenesis. The present study was undertaken in order to establish structure-activity relationships for quinuclidine analogs. The angiogenesis inhibiting activity of a series of substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ols (1a-1k), (Z)-2-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ones (2a-2h), (Z)-(±)-2-(1H/N-methyl-indol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ols (3a-3b), and substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzenesulfonylindol-3-yl-methylene)quinuclidin-3-ols and their derivatives (4a-4d) that incorporate a variety of substituents in both the indole and N-benzyl moieties was evaluated using Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) subjected to in vitro cell migration scratch assays, tubule formation in Matrigel, cell viability and proliferation assays. In total, 25 different analogs were evaluated. Based on in vitro cell migration scratch assays, eight analogs were identified as potent angiogenesis inhibitors at 10 μM, a concentration that was determined to be nontoxic by colony formation assay. In addition, this approach identified a potent antiangiogenic ENOX1 inhibitor, analog 4b. PMID:21055930

  6. Stable hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of methoxyl groups during plant litter degradation.

    PubMed

    Anhäuser, Tobias; Greule, Markus; Zech, Michael; Kalbitz, Karsten; McRoberts, Colin; Keppler, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Stable hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of methoxyl groups (δ(2)Hmethoxyl and δ(13)Cmethoxyl values, respectively) in plant material have been shown to possess characteristic signatures. These isotopic signatures can be used for a variety of applications such as constraining the geographical origin and authenticity of biomaterials. Recently, it has also been suggested that δ(2)Hmethoxyl values of sedimentary organic matter of geological archives might serve as a palaeoclimate/-hydrology proxy. However, deposited organic matter is subject to both biotic and abiotic degradation processes, and therefore an evaluation of their potential impact on the δ(2)Hmethoxyl and δ(13)Cmethoxyl values would allow more reliable interpretations of both isotopic signatures. Here, we investigated this potential influence by exposing foliar litter of five different tree species (Sycamore maple, Mountain ash, European beech, Norway spruce and Scots pine) to natural degradation. The foliar litter was sampled at nine intervals over a 27-month period, and the bulk methoxyl content as well as the δ(2)Hmethoxyl and δ(13)Cmethoxyl values were measured. At the end of the experiment, a loss of the bulk methoxyl in the range of ∼40-70% was measured. Linear regression analysis showed no dependence of δ(2)Hmethoxyl values with methoxyl content for four out of five foliar litter samples studied (R(2) in the range of 0.03 and 0.36, p > .05). On the contrary, the δ(13)Cmethoxyl values showed significant linear correlations for the great majority of the foliar litter samples (R(2) in the range of 0.51 and 0.73, p < .05). The litter species with the greatest methoxyl loss (Mountain ash, Scots pine and Norway spruce) showed the strongest (13)C enrichment, by up to ∼5‰. Since δ(2)Hmethoxyl shows no systematic overall change during the course of degradation, we propose that there is considerable potential for its use as a palaeoclimate proxy for a wide range of geological

  7. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  8. What climate information is recorded in stable isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotope composition of the bioelements C, O, H and N in plant organic matter is known to be a very powerful for various environmental impacts. Particularly tree rings are suitable for this analysis because they exhibit a "climate archive" with a yearly or even biannual resolution. One of the most determined wood compounds is cellulose which amongst others is used to reconstruct the temperature due to measurement of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Therefore cellulose is converted into cellulose nitrate to eliminate the exchangeable hydroxyl hydrogen or equilibration methods are used. However, a general problem associated with the determination of the stable hydrogen values of marker compounds for the study of climate and environmental conditions is the isolation of the pure compound for analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Exploitation of components of wood as markers, in particular, has been restricted by the very labour intensive and time consuming preparation of samples (e.g. cellulose nitrate). An alternative way to record climate information from tree rings was recently proposed by Keppler et al. (2007) who measured the stable hydrogen values of methoxyl groups in wood. Lignin methoxyl groups are considered to be stable, i.e. the hydrogen atoms of the methoxyl moiety do not exchange with those of plant water during ongoing metabolic reactions in the plant. Thus the initial deuterium content of the methoxyl groups of lignin in woody tissue at formation is retained throughout the lifetime of the tree and in preserved tissue. The methoxyl content of lignin in wood is usually determined by the Zeisel method (Zeisel, 1885) - the reaction between methyl ethers and hydroiodic acid to form methyl iodide. Exploiting this reaction for the measurement of stable hydrogen values of lignin methoxyl groups ensures that during the entire analytical procedure the isotope signal is preserved since no isotopic exchange occurs between the methyl groups and

  9. Gas chromatographic separation of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers

    PubMed Central

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Vyas, Sandhya M.; Song, Yang; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites display axial chirality. Here we describe an enantioselective, gas chromatographic separation of methylated derivatives of hydroxylated (OH-)PCB atropisomers (MeO-PCB) using a chemically bonded β-cyclodextrin column (Chirasil-Dex). The atropisomers of several MeO-PCBs could be separated on this column with resolutions ranging from 0.42–0.87 under isothermal or temperature-programmed conditions. In addition, the enantiomeric fraction of OH-PCB 136 metabolites was determined in male and female rats treated with racemic PCB 136. The methylated derivatives of two OH-PCB 136 metabolites showed an enantiomeric enrichment in liver tissue, whereas PCB 136 itself was near racemic. PMID:18760792

  10. Development of fluorinated methoxylated chalcones as selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors: Synthesis, biochemistry and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Bijo; Mathew, Githa Elizabeth; Uçar, Gülberk; Baysal, Ipek; Suresh, Jerad; Vilapurathu, Jobin Kunjumon; Prakasan, Aneesh; Suresh, Jeethu Kuruppath; Thomas, Anjana

    2015-10-01

    A series of methoxylated chalcones with fluoro and trifluoromethyl derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their ability to inhibit human monoamine oxidase A and B. The chemical structures of the compounds have been characterized by means of their (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Mass spectroscopic datas and elemental analysis. The results demonstrate that these compounds are reversible and selective MAO-B inhibitors with a competitive mode of inhibition. The most potent compound (2E)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one showed the best activity and higher selectivity towards hMAO-B with Ki and SI values of 0.22±0.01μM and 0.05 comparable to that standard drug, Selegiline Ki and SI values were found as 0.33±0.03μM and 0.04, respectively. Molecular docking studies were carried out to further explain the in vitro results of the new compounds, and to identify the hypothetical binding mode for the compounds inside the inhibitor binding cavity of hMAO-B. PMID:26189013

  11. Structure-activity relationship in the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of putative metabolites and related analogs of benzene derived from the valence tautomers benzene oxide and oxepin

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, A.A.; Rastetter, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    A series of putative metabolites and related analogs of benzene, derived from the valence tautomers benzene oxide and oxepin, was tested for mutagenicity (reversions to histidine prototrophy and forward mutations to resistance to 8-azaguanine) and for cytotoxicity by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test. Benzene was not mutagenic in either assay. The benzene oxide-oxepin system and benzene dihydrodial induced point mutations but not frameshifts. 4,5-sym-Oxepin oxide, which is a putative metabolite of the oxepin valence tautomer; 3,6-diazo-cyclohexane-1,6-3,4-dioxide, a synthetic precursor of sym-oxepin oxide; and transoid-4,11-dioxatricyclo(5.1 0)undeca-1,6-diene, a stable bridgehead diene analog of sym-oxepin oxide, were toxic but not mutagenic in both assays. 4H-Pyran-4-=carboxaldehyde, a stable acid catalyzed rearrangement product of sym-oxepin oxide, was not mutagenic and much less cytotoxic than sym-oxepin oxide. Stable analogs of the valence tautomer benzene oxide, namely syn-indan-3a,7a-oxide and syn-2-hydroxyindan-3a,7a-oxide, were mutagenic and induced point mutations. All compounds were cytotoxic to Salmonella. Firstly, the apparent decay times of these chemicals, especially that of sym-oxepin oxide, were surprisingly longer than expected, as judged by quantitative plate diffusion assays. Secondly, it is concluded that if benzene oxide is further metabolized in its oxepin tautomeric form, toxic but not mutagenic products are formed. Thirdly, the relatively weak mutagenicity of benzene oxide may be mainly due to its instability and corresponding low probability to reach intracellular polynucleotide targets, whereas stable analogs of benzene oxide are relatively more potent mutagens. 48 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. A novel aryl-hydrazide from the marine lichen Lichina pygmaea: isolation, synthesis of derivatives, and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Roullier, Catherine; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Weghe, Pierre van de; Devehat, Françoise Lohézic-Le; Boustie, Joël

    2010-08-01

    A new aryl-hydrazide l-glutamic acid derivative, pygmeine (3), was isolated from a methanolic extract of Lichina pygmaea, a marine lichen. Synthetic derivatives obtained via a two-step coupling of l-glutamic acid with phenylhydrazine moieties were useful to elucidate the structure of 3 and to carry out biological assays. Thus, the cytotoxicity of the ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxyl isomers along with their respective benzyl intermediates, and a natural methoxylated analog, were evaluated on murine and human melanoma cells (B16, A375). The para-hydroxyl isomer 6 was found to be the most active (IC(50)=1.6 microM) on B16 cells. PMID:20570625

  13. Two-carbon bridge substituted cocaines: enantioselective synthesis, attribution of the absolute configuration and biological activity of novel 6- and 7-methoxylated cocaines.

    PubMed

    Simoni, D; Roberti, M; Andrisano, V; Manferdini, M; Rondanin, R; Invidiata, F P

    1999-05-30

    In an effort to learn more about the general structure-activity relationships of cocaine with the aim to elucidate those structural features that might confer antagonistic properties to such analogues, we describe herein our synthetic efforts to prepare two-carbon bridge functionalized (methoxylated and hydroxylated) analogues. Our approach makes use of a modification of the classical Willstatter synthesis of cocaine: Mannich type cyclization of acetonedicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester with methylamine hydrochloride and 2-methoxysuccindialdehyde in a citrate buffer solution afforded the 6- and 7-substituted 2-carbomethoxy-3-tropinones 3a,b and 4a,b in approximate yields of 64%. Reduction of the (+/-)-tropinone derivatives was performed with sodium amalgam in a sulfuric acid solution to afford a mixture of (+/-)-methoxyecgonine and (+/-)-methoxypseudoecgonine derivatives 5, 11 and 6, 7, 12, 13. Benzoylation of these alcohols yielded the desired cocaine and pseudococaine-like compounds 8, 14 and 9, 10, 15, 16. Additionally, we show that enzymatic hydrolysis of these cocaine analogues using pig liver esterase (PLE) affords a practical means for achieving their chemical resolution. The enantiomers of the methoxycocaine analogues were also prepared starting from chiral (+)- and (-)-6-methoxytropinone. All new analogues were examined for their ability to displace [3H]mazindol binding and to inhibit high-affinity uptake of [3H]dopamine into striatal nerve ending (synaptosomes). It appeared evident that methoxylation of the cocaine two-carbon bridge provides compounds of particular interest: the Ki for the binding of the methoxypseudococaines is about two to four times smaller than the Ki for inhibition of dopamine uptake, thus enabling these compounds capable of countering the effects of cocaine to some extent. PMID:10418122

  14. Antibiotic activity and structural analysis of the scorpion-derived antimicrobial peptide IsCT and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungik; Shin, Song Yub; Kim, Kyoungho; Lim, Shin Saeng; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Yangmee

    2004-10-15

    IsCT is a non-cell-selective antimicrobial peptide isolated from the scorpion Opisthacanthus madagascariensis that has potent cytolytic activity against both mammalian and bacterial cells. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of IsCT and to design novel peptide antibiotics with bacterial cell selectivity, we synthesized several analogs of IsCT and determined their three-dimensional structures in solution by 2D-NMR spectroscopy. IsCT has a linear alpha-helical structure from Gly3 to Phe13, and [K7]-IsCT has a linear alpha-helical structure from Leu2 to Phe13. [K7, P8, K11]-IsCT, which has a bend in its middle region, exhibited the highest antibacterial activity without hemolytic activity, suggesting that its proline-induced bend is an important determinant of this selectivity. Tryptophan fluorescence showed that the high selectivity of [K7, P8, K11]-IsCT toward bacterial cells is closely correlated with its highly selective interaction with negatively charged phospholipids. Its potent activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests that [K7, P8, K11]-IsCT may serve as a promising lead candidate in the development of new peptide antibiotics. PMID:15369808

  15. Analog-to-digital conversion as a source of drifts in displacements derived from digital recordings of ground acceleration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Displacements obtained from double integration of digitally recorded ground accelerations often show drifts much larger than those expected for the true ground displacements. These drifts might be due to many things, including dynamic elastic ground tilt, inelastic ground deformation, hysteresis in the instruments, and cross feed due to misalignment of nominally orthogonal sensors. This article shows that even if those effects were not present, the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) process can produce apparent "pulses" and offsets in the acceleration baseline if the ground motion is slowly varying compared with the quantization level of the digitization. Such slowly varying signals can be produced by constant offsets that do not coincide with a quantization level and by near- and intermediate-field terms in the wave field radiated from earthquakes. Double integration of these apparent pulses and offsets leads to drifts in the displacements similar to those found in processing real recordings. These effects decrease in importance as the resolution of the ADC process increases.

  16. A sialic acid-derived phosphonate analog inhibits different strains of influenza virus neuraminidase with different efficiencies.

    PubMed

    White, C L; Janakiraman, M N; Laver, W G; Philippon, C; Vasella, A; Air, G M; Luo, M

    1995-02-01

    A phosphonate analog of N-acetyl neuraminic acid (PANA) has been designed as a potential neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor and synthesized as both the alpha (ePANA) and beta (aPANA) anomers. Inhibition of type A (N2) and type B NA activity by ePANA was approximately a 100-fold better than by sialic acid, but inhibition of type A (N9) NA was only ten-fold better than by sialic acid. The aPANA compound was not a strong inhibitor for any of the NA strains tested. The crystal structures at 2.4 A resolution of ePANA complexed to type A (N2) NA, type A (N9) NA and type B NA and aPANA complexed to type A (N2) NA showed that neither of the PANA compounds distorted the NA active site upon binding. No significant differences in the NA-ePANA complex structures were found to explain the anomalous inhibition of N9 neuraminidase by ePANA. We put forward the hypothesis that an increase in the ePANA inhibition compared to that caused by sialic acid is due to (1) a stronger electrostatic interaction between the inhibitor phosphonyl group and the active site arginine pocket and (2) a lower distortion energy requirement for binding of ePANA. PMID:7844831

  17. Interconversion between Methoxylated and Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Rice Plants: An Important but Overlooked Metabolic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Su, Zhenzhu; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is limited knowledge on the methoxylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the relationship between hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) in organisms. In this study, rice (Oryza sativa L.) was chosen as the model organism to determine the metabolism of PCBs in plants. Limited para-substituted 4'-OH-CB-61 (major metabolite) and 4'-MeO-CB-61 (minor metabolite) were found after a 5-day exposure to CB-61, while ortho- and meta-substituted products were not detected. Interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in organisms was observed for the first time. The demethylation ratio of 4'-MeO-CB-61 was 18 times higher than the methylation ratio of 4'-OH-CB-61, indicating that formation of OH-PCBs was easier than formation of MeO-PCBs. The transformation products were generated in the roots after 24 h of exposure. The results of in vivo and in vitro exposure studies show that the rice itself played a key role in the whole transformation processes, while endophytes were jointly responsible for hydroxylation of PCBs and demethylation of MeO-PCBs. Metabolic pathways of PCBs, OH-PCBs, and MeO-PCBs in intact rice plants are proposed. The findings are important in understanding the fate of PCBs and the source of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:26928534

  18. Maternal transfer, distribution, and metabolism of BDE-47 and its related hydroxylated, methoxylated analogs in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wen, Quan; Liu, Hong-ling; Zhu, Yu-ting; Zheng, Xin-mei; Su, Guan-yong; Zhang, Xiao-wei; Yu, Hong-xia; Giesy, John P; Lam, Michael H W

    2015-02-01

    OH-PBDEs have been reported to be more potent than the postulated precursor PBDEs or corresponding MeO-PBDEs. However, there are contradictory reports for transformation of these compounds in organisms, particularly, for biotransformation of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, only one study reported transformation of 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in Japanese medaka. In present study zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 in the diet for 20 d. Concentrations of each exposed compound were measured in eggs collected on days 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20. After 20 d exposure, concentrations of precursor and biotransformation products in liver and liver-free residual carcass were measured by use of GC-MS/MS. Total mass of the five compounds in bodies of adults were: 2'-MeO-BDE-28 ∼ 6-MeO-BDE-47>BDE-47>2'-OH-BDE-28>6-OH-BDE-47. MeO-PBDEs were also accumulated more into parental fish body than in liver, while OH-PBDEs accumulated in liver more than in liver-free residual carcass. Concentrations in liver of males were greater than those of females. This result suggests sex-related differences in accumulation. Ratios between concentration in eggs and liver (E/L) were: 2.9, 1.7, 0.8, 0.4 and 0.1 for 6-MeO-BDE-47, BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 2'-MeO-BDE-28 and 2'-OH-BDE-28, respectively. This result suggests transfer from adult females to eggs. BDE-47 was not transformed into OH-PBDEs or MeO-PBDEs. Inter-conversions of 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 were observed, with metabolite/precursor concentration ratios for 6-OH-BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 being 3.8%, 14.6%, 2.9% and 76.0%, respectively. Congener-specific differences were observed in distributions between liver and carcass, maternal transfer and transformation. The two MeO-PBDEs were accumulated into adults, transferred to eggs, and were transformed to the structural similar OH-PBDEs, which might be more toxic. BDE-47 was accumulated into adults and transferred from females to eggs, but not transformed to MeO-PBDEs and/or OH-PBDEs. Accumulation of OH-PBDEs into adults as well as rates of transformation of OH-PBDEs to MeO-PBDEs were all several orders of magnitude less. Thus, MeO-PBDEs are likely to present more of a risk in the environment. PMID:24973617

  19. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypical member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. It has a well-characterized structure and function and serves as a model membrane receptor in this study. Phospholipid–cholesterol affinity was quantified by measuring cholesterol partition coefficients. Phospholipid–receptor interactions were probed by measuring the level of rhodopsin activation. Our study shows that phospholipid derived from TFA had a higher membrane cholesterol affinity than their cis analogues. TFA phospholipid membranes also exhibited a higher acyl chain packing order, which was indicated by the lower acyl chain packing free volume as determined by DPH fluorescence and the higher transition temperature for rhodopsin thermal denaturation. The level of rhodopsin activation was diminished in TFA phospholipids. Since membrane cholesterol level and membrane receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, the combination of higher cholesterol content and reduced receptor activation associated with the presence of TFA–phospholipid could be factors contributing to the elevation of LDL cholesterol. PMID:15766276

  20. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009.

    PubMed

    Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Polder, Anuschka; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Víkingsson, Gísli; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Dam, Maria

    2012-02-01

    A selection of MeO-BDE and BDE congeners were analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using both low resolution and high resolution GC-MS. MeO-PBDE concentrations relative to total PBDE concentrations varied greatly between sampling periods and species. The highest MeO-PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, often exceeding the concentration of the most abundant PBDE, BDE-47. The lowest MeO-PBDE levels were found in fin whales and ringed seals. The main MeO-BDE congeners were 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68. A weak correlation only between BDE47 and its methoxylated analog 6-MeO-BDE47 was found and is indicative of a natural source for MeO-PBDEs. PMID:22225820

  1. Aromatic Methoxylation and Hydroxylation by Organometallic High-Valent Nickel Complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Schultz, Jason W; Rath, Nigam P; Mirica, Liviu M

    2015-06-24

    Herein we report the synthesis and reactivity of several organometallic Ni(III) complexes stabilized by a modified tetradentate pyridinophane ligand containing one phenyl group. A room temperature stable dicationic Ni(III)-disolvento complex was also isolated, and the presence of two available cis coordination sites in this complex offers an opportunity to probe the C-heteroatom bond formation reactivity of high-valent Ni centers. Interestingly, the Ni(III)-dihydroxide and Ni(III)-dimethoxide species can be synthesized, and they undergo aryl methoxylation and hydroxylation that is favored by addition of oxidant, which also limits the β-hydride elimination side reaction. Overall, these results provide strong evidence for the involvement of high-valent organometallic Ni species, possibly both Ni(III) and Ni(IV) species, in oxidatively induced C-heteroatom bond formation reactions. PMID:26053329

  2. Synthesis and characterization of an in situ forming hydrogel using tyramine conjugated high methoxyl gum tragacanth.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Moslem; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Soleimani, Masoud; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an enzyme catalyzed in situ forming hydrogel based on tyramine conjugated high methoxyl content gum tragacanth (TA-HMGT) was prepared and characterized. TA-HMGT was synthesized via heterogeneous ammonolysis of methyl ester groups of HMGT. Then, the hydrogel was prepared via horseradish peroxidase catalyzed coupling reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogel properties, such as gelation time, swelling/degradation behavior and rheological properties could be adjusted by tuning the gelation parameters and extent of tyramine conjugation. This system was a soft elastic hydrogel with appropriate biocompatibility. The fast gelation of the hydrogel is desirable for clinical applications. Also, in vitro bovine serum albumin release from the synthesized hydrogel showed good release profile with limited burst release. PMID:26553882

  3. Seasonal variations of hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Löfstrand, Karin; Liu, Xitao; Lindqvist, Dennis; Jensen, Sören; Asplund, Lillemor

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) found at high levels in the Baltic biota are mainly natural products, but can also be formed through metabolism or abiotic oxidation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The formation of OH-PBDEs is of concern since there is growing evidence of phenolic toxicity. This study investigates seasonal variations in levels of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, focusing on an exposed species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), sampled in the Baltic Sea in May, June, August and October of 2008. Both the OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels in the mussels showed seasonal variations from May to October, the highest concentration of each congener appearing in June. The seasonal variation was more marked for OH-PBDEs than in MeO-PBDEs, but all congeners showed the same trends, except 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68, which did not significantly decline in concentrations after June. Biotic or abiotic debromination is suggested as a possible reason for the rapid decrease in methoxylated penta- and hexa-BDE concentrations observed in blue mussels from June to August, while the tetraBDE concentrations were stable. In addition, 1,3,7/1,3,8-tribrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins showed the same seasonal variation. The seasonal variations indicates natural formation and are unlikely to be due to transformation of anthropogenic precursors. The levels of PBDEs were fairly constant over time and considerably lower than those of the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. The timing of the peaks in concentrations suggests that filamentous macro-algae may be important sources of these compounds found in the blue mussels from this Baltic Sea location. PMID:21288551

  4. Comparison of the growth promoting activities and toxicities of various auxin analogs on cells derived from wild type and a nonrooting mutant of tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Caboche, M.; Muller, J.F. ); Chanut, F. ); Aranda, G.; Cirakoglu, S. )

    1987-01-01

    A naphthaleneacetic acid tolerant mutant isolated from a mutagenized culture of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and impaired in root morphogenesis has been previously characterized by genetic analysis. To understand the biochemical basis for naphthaleneacetic acid resistance, cells derived from this mutant and from wild-type tobacco were compared for their ability to respond to various growth regulators. The growth promoting abilities and cytotoxicities of auxin analogs were different for mutant and wild-type cells. These different activities were not correlated with increased rate of conjugation or breakdown of the auxins by mutant cells. These observations, as well as previous studies on the interaction of the mutant with Agrobacterium, suggest that mutant resistance to auxins is not a result of a specific modification of the process by which auxins induce cell killing, but to a more general alteration of the cellular response to auxin. A screening of auxin-related molecules which induce cell death in wild-type cells but not mutant cells without promoting growth in either was performed. p-Bromophenyleacetic acid was found to display these characteristics.

  5. Crystallographic structure of a phosphonate derivative of the Enterobacter cloacae P99 cephalosporinase: mechanistic interpretation of a beta-lactamase transition-state analog.

    PubMed

    Lobkovsky, E; Billings, E M; Moews, P C; Rahil, J; Pratt, R F; Knox, J R

    1994-06-01

    The crystal structure of a complex formed on reaction of the Enterobacter cloacae P99 cephalosporinase (beta-lactamase) with a phosphonate monoester inhibitor, m-carboxyphenyl [[N-[(p-iodophenyl)acetyl]amino]methyl]phosphonate, has been obtained at 2.3-A resolution. The structure shows that the inhibitor has phosphonylated the active site serine (Ser64) with loss of the m-carboxyphenol leaving group. The inhibitor is positioned in the active site in a way that can be interpreted in terms of a transition-state analog. The arylacetamido side chain is placed as anticipated from analogous beta-lactamoyl complexes of penicillin-recognizing enzymes, with the amino group hydrogen-bonded to the backbone carbonyl of Ser318 (of the B3 beta-strand) and to the amides of Gln120 and Asn152. There is support in the asymmetry of the hydrogen bonding of this side chain to the protein and in the 2-fold disorder of the benzyl group for the considerable breadth in substrate specificity exhibited by class C beta-lactamases. One phosphonyl oxygen atom is in the oxyanion hole, hydrogen-bonded to main-chain NH groups of Ser318 and Ser64, while the other oxygen is solvated, not within hydrogen-bonding distance of any amino acid side chain. The closest active site functional group to the solvated oxygen atom is the Tyr150 hydroxyl group (3.4A); Lys67 and Lys315 are quite distant (4.3 and 5.7 A, respectively). Rather, Tyr150 and Lys67 are more closely associated with Ser64O gamma (2.9 and 3.3 A). This arrangement is interpreted in terms of the transition state for breakdown of the tetrahedral intermediate in the deacylation step of catalysis, where the Tyr150 phenol seems the most likely general acid. Thus, Tyr150, as the phenoxide anion, would be the general base catalyst in acylation, as proposed by Oefner et al. [Nature (1990) 343, 284-288]. The structure is compared with that of a similar phosphonate derivative of a class A beta-lactamase [Chen et al. (1993) J. Mol. Biol. 234, 165

  6. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  7. Methoxylated Flavones from Salvia Mirzayanii Rech. f. and Esfand with Immunosuppressive Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Att-ur-Rahman, Rahman; Mesaik, M. Ahmed; Khalid, Ahmad Shukralla; Adeli, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Salvia Mirzayanii was extracted with methanol. Methanol extract was suspended in water and defatted with petroleum ether. The defatted part was then partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The ethyl acetate partition was chromatographed on a silica gel column to afford several fractions. Lymphocyte proliferation inhibitory assay of the resulted fractions was compared in-vitro and the fraction with more immunosuppressive activity was subjected to more purification to yield three methoxylated flavones: 5,7-dihydroxy,6,4’– dimethoxyflavone(1), 5-hydroxy,6,7,3’,4’–tetramethoxyflavone(2) and 5,3’-dihydroxy,6,7,4’– trimethoxyflavone (3). Compounds 2 and 3 potently suppressed the proliferation of human blood lymphocytes with IC50 values of 1.3 ± 0.04 μg/mL and 1.3 ± 0.21 μg/mL in comparison with prednisolone as one of the lymphocyte suppressor drugs (IC50=1.45 ± 0.6 μg/mL). In phagocyte chemiluminescence assay, compounds 1 and 3 in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNCs) exerted suppressive moderate activity against ROS with IC50 of 55.3 ± 0.4 and 36.2 ± 0.7 μg/mL, respectively, while compound 2 showed weak activity with IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, compounds 2 and 3 have a similar suppressive effect more than compound 1 on PHA-activated lymphocyte proliferation, which might be because of their C-3’ oxidation pattern of ring B. It is indicated that the presence of 3’-OH or 3’-OMe in flavone ring B, caused more anti-proliferation activity than 3’-H. Oxidative burst assay showed more activity for compound 1 which is less methoxylated than others. It also showed more activity for compounds 3 than 2, which differ only in 3’-OH instead of 3’-OMe. PMID:26330886

  8. Theoretical and Analog Studies of the Effects of Nonlinear Stability Derivatives on the Longitudinal Motions of an Aircraft in Response to Step Control Deflections and to the Influence of Proportional Automatic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curfman, Howard J , Jr

    1955-01-01

    Through theoretical and analog results the effects of two nonlinear stability derivatives on the longitudinal motions of an aircraft have been investigated. Nonlinear functions of pitching-moment and lift coefficients with angle of attack were considered. Analog results of aircraft motions in response to step elevator deflections and to the action of the proportional control systems are presented. The occurrence of continuous hunting oscillations was predicted and demonstrated for the attitude stabilization system with proportional control for certain nonlinear pitching-moment variations and autopilot adjustments.

  9. Self-organizing p-quinquephenyl building blocks incorporating lateral hydroxyl and methoxyl groups into supramolecular nano-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaoyang; Zhong, Keli; Liu, Yang; Li, Zhaohua; Chen, Tie; Jin, Long Yi

    2016-05-01

    The self-assembling behavior of coil-rod-coil molecules 1a, 1b, and 2a, 2b was investigated using DSC, POM, SAXS, and AFM in bulk and aqueous solutions. These molecules contain p-quinquephenyl groups as rod segments incorporating lateral hydroxyl or methoxyl groups in the center positions and oligo(ethylene oxide)s as the coil segments. Molecules 1a and 1b, with lateral methoxyl groups in the rod segments, self-assemble into oblique columnar structures in the crystalline phase and transform into nematic phases. On the other hand, molecules 2a and 2b, with hydroxyl groups in the center of their rod segments, self-organize into hexagonal perforated lamellar and oblique columnar nano-structures in the crystalline and liquid crystalline phase, respectively. In aqueous solutions, these molecules aggregate into nano-ribbons and vesicles, depending on their lateral groups and oligo(ethylene oxide) chain lengths. These results imply that the lateral methoxyl or hydroxyl groups, present in the center of the rod segments, significantly influence the formation of various supramolecular nano-structures in the bulk state and in aqueous solution. This is achieved via tuning of the non-covalent interactions of the rod building blocks. PMID:27025276

  10. Dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants in relation to their concentrations in breast milk and serum in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yukiko; Nishimura, Eri; Kato, Yoshihisa; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated human exposure to neutral, phenolic, and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in a duplicate diet study to evaluate their concentrations in breast milk and serum of Okinawan people from Japan during 2004-2009. Dietary intakes of phenolic OHCs were predominantly 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47). After exposure, TriBP and TBBPA were transferred to breast milk, whereas 6-OH-BDE47 was selectively retained in serum. Despite a lower dietary exposure to pentachlorophenol and 4-hydroxy-CB187, both were retained in serum. For the methoxylated OHCs, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TriBA) and 6-methoxy-BDE47 were the predominant dietary contaminants, of which TriBA was present in both breast milk and serum, whereas 6-methoxy-BDE47 was selectively transferred to breast milk. These findings suggest that dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated OHCs may result in differential partitioning between breast milk and serum with different pharmacokinetic or exposure routes. PMID:24263137

  11. Sedimentary records of hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the southern Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Lan, Jing; Zhao, Zongshan; Zhao, Meixun

    2014-07-15

    Although hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have caused much concern in recent years, few reports had discussed on their input history. In this study, we measured the contents of nine MeO-BDEs, ten OH-BDEs, and total organic carbon (TOC) of two sediment cores from the southern Yellow Sea. 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-MeO-BDE-68, 6-OH-BDE-47, and 2'-OH-BDE-68 were the predominant congeners in HH12, while only 2'-OH-BDE-68 and 6-OH-BDE-47 were frequently detected in core HH11. The records showed that OH-/MeO-BDEs in both cores had increased rapidly since the 1950s. Their existence was detected at the bottom layers (∼1800 s) prior to the production of PBDEs (1960s), thus OH-/MeO-BDEs originate from natural origins rather than artificial PBDEs. Comparisons between TOC and OH-/MeO-BDEs indicated that TOC is a potential factor affecting the accumulation of OH-/MeO-BDEs in marine environments. Similar trends and significant correlations between OH-BDEs and MeO-BDEs suggest their common origins or interconversion. PMID:24910183

  12. Triptycene analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy (Inventor); Perchellet, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention provides analogs of triptycene which are useful as anticancer drugs, as well as for other uses. The potency of these compounds is in a similar magnitude as daunomycin, a currently used anticancer drug. Each compound of the invention produces one or more desired effects (blocking nucleoside transport, inhibiting nucleic acid or protein syntheses, decreasing the proliferation and viability of cancer cells, inducing DNA fragmentation or retaining their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant tumor cells).

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Methoxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water, Soil and Sediment from China by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaozhong; Hu, Decong; Chen, Wei; Wu, Bin; Lin, Changjun

    2015-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used brominated flame retardants, which are increasingly reported in the environment. Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are structural analogs to PBDEs and reported as natural products and novel pollutants present in the environment. First, a new isotopic dilution GC-MS method was developed in this study to simultaneously determine 13 PBDEs and 8 MeO-PBDEs in water, soil and sediment. Liquid/liquid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography cleanup were used, and some important steps and crucial parameters were modified and intensified compared with the other literatures. Besides, the conditions of GC and MS were also optimized. The limits of quantitation values of 0.005-0.1 and 0.02-0.1 µg L(-1) in water were calculated for PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, respectively; so did 0.25-5 and 1-5 µg kg(-1) dry weight in soil and sediment. In addition, good repeatability and accuracy of the whole method were achieved. Moreover, 60 water and 30 sediment samples for aquaculture crayfish and freshwater fish collected from aquatic products production base, 40 soil samples collected from agricultural products production base and also 20 Yangtze River water samples and 20 Hanjiang River water samples collected from different sampling situations near Wuhan, Hubei province along the Yangtze River and the Hanjiang River were analyzed to determine whether they are contaminated by PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. Using the established methods, it was found that PBDEs or MeO-PBDEs emerged in 4 of 60 water samples for aquatic products, 3 of 40 soils, and 2 of 30 sediments and in low µg kg(-1) dry weight for soil and sediments and low µg L(-1) for water. PMID:25697450

  14. PBDEs, hydroxylated PBDEs and methoxylated PBDEs in bivalves from Beijing markets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xitao; Jiao, Ying; Lin, Chunye; Sun, Ke; Zhao, Ye

    2014-09-01

    The structural analogues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) have been attracting increasing concern in recent years. Five bivalve species (blue mussel, short-necked clam, surf clam, ark shell and razor clam) were collected from Beijing markets, and the concentrations of seven PBDEs, four OH-PBDEs and fourteen MeO-PBDEs in the bivalves were measured. The seasonal variations of these three types of polybrominated compound in blue mussels were also monitored. The results indicate that the levels of ΣPBDEs in this study were comparable to those in short-necked clams from Liaodong Bay, China, with BDE47 as the dominant congener. For the ortho-MeO-PBDEs, 6-MeO-BDE47 was found at higher concentrations than the others, while for the meta- and para-MeO-PBDEs, 4'-MeO-BDE17 was found at higher concentrations. 6-OH-BDE-47 was the most abundant congener among the 4 measured OH-PBDEs, followed by 6-OH-BDE-137 and 6-OH-BDE-85. The levels of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in bivalves from Beijing markets were much lower than the corresponding compounds in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea. In the blue mussels collected in April, June and September of 2012, apparent seasonal variations were observed for these three types of polybrominated compounds, but the acidic components displayed different trends from the neutral components, with PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs showing the highest concentrations in June, while OH-PBDEs had the lowest concentrations in June. This difference in seasonal variations between the neutral components and the acidic components may be explained by their different sources and transformation/elimination mechanisms. PMID:24636323

  15. Marine sponge: a potential source for methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Asia-Pacific food web.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Koichi; Kato, Yoshihisa; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Endo, Tetsuya

    2011-12-28

    Marine sponges collected in Palau, Micronesia, were investigated for hydroxylated or methoxylated analogues of brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), brominated dibenzo-p-dioxin (BDD), and brominated biphenyls. The neutral fractions of Haliclona sp. and Callyspongia sp. contained 2'-methoxy-2,3',4,5'-tetraBDE, 6-methoxy-2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE, 2',6-dimethoxy-2,3',4,5-tetraBDE 2,2'-dimethoxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl, several methoxy-triBDEs, and dimethoxy-penta-/hexaBDEs. The methoxylated BDEs in sponges were strikingly similar to those of local fish living in the western Pacific Ocean. The total concentrations of these compounds (ΣMeO-PBDE) in both sponges were 63.5 μg/g extractable organic matter (EOM) for Haliclona sp. and 36.5 μg/g EOM for Callyspongia sp., which were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than the levels seen in tropical coral reef fish (unicornfish or surgeonfish) (280-290 ng/g lipid) and groupers (550 ng/g lipid) from Okinawan coastal waters. The phenolic fractions of both sponges contained hydroxy-methoxy tetra-/pentaBDEs as well as hydroxy-tetraBDD, in addition to the corresponding phenolic tetraBDE analogues. Although the total concentrations of phenolic products (27-80 μg/g EOM) in both sponges fell within a range comparable to the methoxylated products, ΣOH-PBDE in local fish were trace level (less than 10 ng/g lipid of) or undetectable. This survey indicates that marine sponges are a possible source of the MeO-PBDE analogues that biomagnify via the food chain to the higher trophic organisms in the western Pacific, whereas the distribution of the corresponding hydroxylated analogues is limited. PMID:22034991

  16. Analogy, explanation, and proof

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, John E.; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence. PMID:25414655

  17. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Li, Xueqin; Wu, Haifeng; Long, Wei; Jiang, Xiaojian; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian; Si, Chuanling; Wang, Xinfeng; Jiang, Yunyao; Hu, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA), was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae). MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP)-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26938526

  18. 5-Methoxyl Aesculetin Abrogates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK and AP-1 Pathways in RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Li, Xueqin; Wu, Haifeng; Long, Wei; Jiang, Xiaojian; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian; Si, Chuanling; Wang, Xinfeng; Jiang, Yunyao; Hu, Weicheng

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a pale amorphous coumarin derivative, 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA), was isolated from the dried bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae). MOA modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, but the precise mechanisms are still not fully understood. We determined the effects of MOA on the production of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages. MOA significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β. It also effectively attenuated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and TNF-α mRNA expression and significantly decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), thus blocking nuclear translocation of activation protein (AP)-1. In a molecular docking study, MOA was shown to target the binding site of ERK via the formation of three hydrogen bonds with two residues of the kinase, which is sufficient for the inhibition of ERK. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MOA in RAW 264.7 macrophages derive from its ability to block both the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and one of their downstream transcription factors, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our observations support the need for further research into MOA as a promising therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26938526

  19. Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blood plasma of humans in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Ho, Ka-Lok; Ge, Li-Chen; Du, Jun; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Giesy, John P; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu

    2012-10-15

    Hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are suspected endocrine disruptors. Little is known about the accumulation or sources of these chemicals in tissues of humans, particularly those residing in Hong Kong, which is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Seven MeO-BDEs, fifteen OH-BDEs and three bromophenols (BRPs) were analyzed in blood plasma of 116 humans that had been collected by the Hong Kong Red Cross. Total concentrations of MeO-BDEs, OH-BDEs and BRPs ranged from 3.8×10² to 52×10³ pg g⁻¹ lipid (median 4.5×10³ pg g⁻¹), 5.3 to 4.9×10² pg g⁻¹ lipid (81 pg g⁻¹) and ND to 1.1×10² pg g⁻¹ lipid (3.7 pg g⁻¹), respectively. 3-MeO-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 2, 4, 5-TBP were the predominant MeO-BDEs, OH-BDEs and BRPs, respectively. These results are consistent with accumulation of MeO-BDEs, OH-BDEs and BRPs in human plasma being primarily from natural products and inter-conversion of natural products. Coefficients of determination for some pairs of congeners such as 3-OH-BDE-100 and 6-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-85 and 5'-OH-BDE-99, and 2, 4-DBP and 6-OH-BDE-85, were near 1.0, which is consistent with them having common sources. Patterns of relative concentrations of the target analytes were similar in the diet, particularly fish, as in blood plasma of humans, which suggests that the diet and particularly seafood might be a source of these compounds and PBDEs. Furthermore, biotransformation of natural chemicals such as OH-BDEs to BRPs might be the primary route of their elimination from humans. PMID:22771521

  20. Producing and recognizing analogical relations.

    PubMed

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  1. Neural Analog Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    1982-07-01

    Neural Analog Information Processing (NAIP) is an effort to develop general purpose pattern classification architectures based upon biological information processing principles. This paper gives an overview of NAIP and its relationship to the previous work in neural modeling from which its fundamental principles are derived. It also presents a theorem concerning the stability of response of a slab (a two dimensional array of identical simple processing units) to time-invariant (spatial) patterns. An experiment (via computer emulation) demonstrating classification of a spatial pattern by a simple, but complete NAIP architecture is described. A concept for hardware implementation of NAIP architectures is briefly discussed.

  2. Climate signal in d13C of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high-elevation alpine larch trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelmann, Dana; Greule, Markus; Treydte, Kerstin; Keppler, Frank; Esper, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Tree-rings of high alpine larch trees (Larix decidua) were investigated by a recently established method that measures d13C values of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (Greule et al. 2009). The resulting d13C time series were tested for their potential as a climate proxy. For this 37 larch trees were sampled at the tree line near Simplon Village (Southern Switzerland). They were analysed for their tree-ring width (TRW) and from five individuals d13C of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (d13Cmethoxyl) were measured at annual resolution from 1971-2009 and at pentadal resolution from 1747-2009. The d13Cmethoxyl chronologies were corrected for the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 concentration and its decreasing d13C value. Further, the physiological response of the trees to these atmospheric changes was corrected using the flexible correction factor approach of Treydte et al. (2009), which minimise the residuals with the target climate data. This approach results in the highest so far reported correction factors of 0.032 - 0.036‰/ppmv CO2, which are explained by a low water-use efficiency of deciduous larch. The climate response of the new d13Cmethoxyl proxy shows a significant correlation of 0.75 for the annually and 0.87 for the pentadally resolved data with June to August temperatures. TRW shows also significant correlations with June to August temperatures, but they are lower than the correlations observed for the d13Cmethoxyl chronologies. These results indicate the potential of d13Cmethoxyl chronologies as a summer temperature proxy from high-elevation alpine trees with an even stronger signal than reported from earlier published tree-ring width and maximum latewood density temperature reconstructions. References: Greule, M., Mosandl, A., Hamilton, J.T.G., Keppler, F., 2009. A simple rapid method to precisely determine 13C/12C ratios of plant methoxyl groups. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 23(11): 1710-1714. Treydte, K.S., Frank, D.C., Saurer, M

  3. Computational Protein Design to Re-Engineer Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1α (SDF) Generates an Effective and Translatable Angiogenic Polypeptide Analog

    PubMed Central

    Hiesinger, William; Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; Atluri, Pavan; Marotta, Nicole A.; Frederick, John R.; Fitzpatrick, J. Raymond; McCormick, Ryan C.; Muenzer, Jeffrey R.; Yang, Elaine C.; Levit, Rebecca D.; Yuan, Li-Jun; MacArthur, John W.; Saven, Jeffery G.; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND After ischemic injury, cardiac secretion of the potent endothelial progenitor stem cell (EPC) chemokine SDF stimulates endogenous neovascularization and myocardial repair, a process insufficiently robust to repair major infarcts. Experimentally, exogenous administration of recombinant SDF enhances neovasculogenesis and cardiac function after MI. However, SDF has a short half-life, is bulky, and very expensive. Smaller analogs of SDF may provide translational advantages including enhanced stability and function, ease of synthesis, lower cost, and potential modulated delivery via engineered biomaterials. In this study, computational protein design was used to create a more efficient evolution of the native SDF protein. METHODS and RESULTS Protein structure model was used to engineer an SDF polypeptide analog (ESA) that splices the N-terminus (activation and binding) and C-terminus (extracellular stabilization) with a diproline segment designed to limit the conformational flexibility of the peptide backbone and retain the relative orientation of these segments observed in the native structure of SDF. EPCs in ESA gradient, assayed by Boyden chamber, showed significantly increased migration compared to both SDF and control gradients (ESA 567±74 cells/HPF vs SDF 438±46 p=0.037; vs Control 156±45 p=0.001). EPC receptor activation was evaluated by quantifying phosphorylated AKT. ESA had significantly greater pAKT levels than SDF and control (1.64±0.24 vs 1.26±0.187, p=0.01; vs. 0.95±0.08, p<0.001). Angiogenic growth factor assays revealed a distinct increase in Angiopoietin-1 expression in the ESA and SDF treated hearts. Also, CD-1 mice (n=30) underwent LAD ligation and peri-infarct intramyocardial injection of ESA, SDF-1α, or saline. At 2 weeks, echocardiography demonstrated a significant gain in EF, CO, SV, and Fractional Area Change (FAC) in mice treated with ESA when compared to controls and significant improvement in FAC when compared to SDF treated

  4. Influence of chain length and polymer concentration on the gelation of (amidated) low-methoxyl pectin induced by calcium.

    PubMed

    Capel, François; Nicolai, Taco; Durand, Dominique; Boulenguer, Patrick; Langendorff, Virginie

    2005-01-01

    The gelation of low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) induced by addition of Ca2+ was studied by measuring the storage modulus as a function of temperature during cooling. Samples with different molar masses were prepared by mechanical degradation. The effect of the molar mass and the pectin concentration on the gelation properties was investigated. The effect of partial amidation was studied by comparing LMP and partially amidated LMP with the same molar mass and degree of methylation. The results are compared to those from a model developed for Ca2+-induced pectin gelation, and good agreement is found except at low concentrations and low molar masses where the gels are weaker than predicted. At low concentrations intrachain bonding weakens the gel, while the presence of small pectin chains weakens the gel because it neutralizes binding sites on larger chains. PMID:16283714

  5. Microtubule-stabilizing properties of the avocado-derived toxins (+)-(R)-persin and (+)-(R)-tetrahydropersin in cancer cells and activity of related synthetic analogs.

    PubMed

    Field, Jessica J; Kanakkanthara, Arun; Brooke, Darby G; Sinha, Saptarshi; Pillai, Sushila D; Denny, William A; Butt, Alison J; Miller, John H

    2016-06-01

    The avocado toxin (+)-R-persin (persin) is active at low micromolar concentrations against breast cancer cells and synergizes with the estrogen receptor modulator 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Previous studies in the estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 indicate that persin acts as a microtubule-stabilizing agent. In the present study, we further characterize the properties of persin and several new synthetic analogues in human ovarian cancer cells. Persin and tetrahydropersin cause G2M cell cycle arrest and increase intracellular microtubule polymerization. One analog (4-nitrophenyl)-deshydroxypersin prevents cell proliferation and blocks cells in G1 of the cell cycle rather than G2M, suggesting an additional mode of action of these compounds independent of microtubules. Persin can synergize with other microtubule-stabilizing agents, and is active against cancer cells that overexpress the P-glycoprotein drug efflux pump. Evidence from Flutax-1 competition experiments suggests that while the persin binding site on β-tubulin overlaps the classical taxoid site where paclitaxel and epothilone bind, persin retains activity in cell lines with single amino acid mutations that affect these other taxoid site ligands. This implies the existence of a unique binding location for persin at the taxoid site. PMID:26968704

  6. Structure/Reactivity Relationships in the Benzo[c]phenanthrene Skeleton: Stable Ion and Electrophilic Substitution (Nitration, Bromination) Study of Substituted Analogs; Novel Carbocations and Substituted Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Brulé, Cédric; Laali, Kenneth K.; Okazaki, Takao; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of novel carbocations were generated by low temperature protonation of substituted benzo[c]phenanthrenes B[c]Phs and their charge delocalization pathways were elucidated by NMR based on the magnitude of Δδ13C values. It has been shown that the protonation regioselectivity is strongly controlled by methoxy and hydroxyl substituents, whose directive effects override methyl substitution effects. Regiocontrol by –OMe and –OH substituents, and its stronger influence relative to methyl groups, was also observed in the nitration and bromination reactions. Charge distribution modes in the regioisomeric protonated carbocations via parent B[c]Ph as well as in the benzylic carbocation formed via fjord-region epoxide ring opening were deduced by GIAO-DFT, and from the NPA-derived changes in charges over CHs. These patterns were compared with those derived from NMR experiments in the substituted derivatives. NMR-based charge delocalization mapping provided insight into structure/activity relationships in the methylated and fluorinated B[c]Phs. Regioselectivities observed in the nitration and bromination reactions in representative cases are the same as those via protonations. Among a group of novel nitro and bromo derivatives synthesized in this study are examples where nitro group is introduced into the fjord-region, for which X-ray structure could be obtained in one case. PMID:17394355

  7. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  8. Analog enhancement of radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.; Nachazel, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper shows how analog methods for edge sharpening, contrast enhancement, and expansion of the range of gray levels of particular interest are effective for easy on-line application to video viewing of X-ray roentgenograms or to fluoroscopy. The technique for analog enhancement of radiographic images is a modified version of the system designed by Fuchs et al. (1972), whereby an all directional second derivative signal called detail signal is used to produce both vertical and horizontal enhancement of the image. Particular attention is given to noise filtration and contrast enhancement. Numerous radiographs supplement the text.

  9. Properties of compressible elastica from relativistic analogy.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Oz; Diamant, Haim

    2016-01-21

    Kirchhoff's kinetic analogy relates the deformation of an incompressible elastic rod to the classical dynamics of rigid body rotation. We extend the analogy to compressible filaments and find that the extension is similar to the introduction of relativistic effects into the dynamical system. The extended analogy reveals a surprising symmetry in the deformations of compressible elastica. In addition, we use known results for the buckling of compressible elastica to derive the explicit solution for the motion of a relativistic nonlinear pendulum. We discuss cases where the extended Kirchhoff analogy may be useful for the study of other soft matter systems. PMID:26563905

  10. Novel daidzein analogs enhance osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stromal/stem cells through estrogen receptor dependent and independent mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures. Studies have demonstrated the use of phytoestrogens, or plant-derived estrogens, such as genistein anddaidzein, to effectively increase osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal s...

  11. Digital plus analog output encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafle, R. S. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The disclosed encoder is adapted to produce both digital and analog output signals corresponding to the angular position of a rotary shaft, or the position of any other movable member. The digital signals comprise a series of binary signals constituting a multidigit code word which defines the angular position of the shaft with a degree of resolution which depends upon the number of digits in the code word. The basic binary signals are produced by photocells actuated by a series of binary tracks on a code disc or member. The analog signals are in the form of a series of ramp signals which are related in length to the least significant bit of the digital code word. The analog signals are derived from sine and cosine tracks on the code disc.

  12. Vorticity in analog gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose–Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  13. Graphene-encapsulated silica as matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction sorbents for the analysis of poly-methoxylated flavonoids in the leaves of Murraya panaculata (L.) Jack.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Li, Xuwen; Yang, Jie; Li, Lanjie; Jin, Yongri; Shi, Xiaolei

    2015-06-01

    In this study, graphene-encapsulated silica was synthesized by a hydrothermal reduction strategy. The presence of silica in graphene was identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The graphene-encapsulated silica subsequently was used as adsorbent for matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of poly-methoxylated flavonoids from the dried leaves of Murraya panaculata (L.) Jack. Compared with the other adsorbents (graphene, silica gel, C18 silica, neutral alumina, diatomaceous earth) and without any adsorbents, better results were obtained. Then a method for analysis of poly-methoxylated flavonoids was established by coupling matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and UV detection. Compared with reflux extraction and ultrasonic extraction, the proposed method is quicker, more efficient and more environmental protection. Less than 10 min is needed from extraction to detection. PMID:25847864

  14. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  15. Detection of methoxylated and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge in China with evidence for their microbial transformation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianteng; Zhu, Lizhong; Pan, Lili; Wei, Zi; Song, Yao; Zhang, Yuduo; Qu, Liping; Zhan, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in the sewage sludge samples collected from twelve wastewater treatment plants in China. Two MeO-PCB congeners, including 3′-MeO-CB-65 and 4′-MeO-CB-101, were detected in three sludge with mean concentrations of 0.58 and 0.52 ng/g dry weight, respectively. OH-PCBs were detected in eight sludge samples, with an average total concentration of 4.2 ng/g dry weight. Furthermore, laboratory exposure was conducted to determine the possible source of OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in the sewage sludge, and their metabolism by the microbes. Both 4′-OH-CB-101 and 4′-MeO-CB-101 were detected as metabolites of CB-101 at a limited conversion rate after 5 days. Importantly, microbial interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs was observed in sewage sludge. Demethylation of MeO-PCBs was favored over methylation of OH-PCBs. The abundant and diverse microbes in sludge play a key role in the transformation processes of the PCB analogues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MeO-PCBs in environmental matrices and on OH-PCBs in sewage sludge. The findings are important to understand the environmental fate of PCBs. PMID:27417462

  16. Heat-induced gelation of bovine serum albumin/low-methoxyl pectin systems and the effect of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Donato, Laurence; Garnier, Catherine; Novales, Bruno; Durand, Sylvie; Doublier, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Influence of low-methoxyl pectin (LM pectin) and calcium ions (3 mM) on mechanical behavior and microstructure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) gels (pH 6.8, in 0.1 M NaCl) was evaluated. Protein and LM pectin concentrations were fixed at 2, 4, and 8 wt % and 0.21, 0.43, and 0.85 wt %, respectively. Rheological measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled with texture image analysis by use of the co-occurrence method were performed. Heat treatment of BSA/LM pectin mixtures induced protein gelation and a phase separation process between the two biopolymers, which was kinetically trapped. Calcium ions induced pectin gelation and modified BSA gel properties. Depending on biopolymer concentrations, a balance between pectin and/or protein gel contribution on final gel strength exists. The microstructures of the mixed systems in the presence of calcium can be interpreted as interpenetrated structures. Texture image analysis allowed one to classify more precisely the different microstructures observed in relation with mechanical properties. PMID:15638542

  17. Detection of methoxylated and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge in China with evidence for their microbial transformation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Zhu, Lizhong; Pan, Lili; Wei, Zi; Song, Yao; Zhang, Yuduo; Qu, Liping; Zhan, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in the sewage sludge samples collected from twelve wastewater treatment plants in China. Two MeO-PCB congeners, including 3'-MeO-CB-65 and 4'-MeO-CB-101, were detected in three sludge with mean concentrations of 0.58 and 0.52 ng/g dry weight, respectively. OH-PCBs were detected in eight sludge samples, with an average total concentration of 4.2 ng/g dry weight. Furthermore, laboratory exposure was conducted to determine the possible source of OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in the sewage sludge, and their metabolism by the microbes. Both 4'-OH-CB-101 and 4'-MeO-CB-101 were detected as metabolites of CB-101 at a limited conversion rate after 5 days. Importantly, microbial interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs was observed in sewage sludge. Demethylation of MeO-PCBs was favored over methylation of OH-PCBs. The abundant and diverse microbes in sludge play a key role in the transformation processes of the PCB analogues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MeO-PCBs in environmental matrices and on OH-PCBs in sewage sludge. The findings are important to understand the environmental fate of PCBs. PMID:27417462

  18. Gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    PubMed

    Losada, S; Santos, F J; Covaci, A; Galceran, M T

    2010-08-01

    Gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS) is proposed for the analysis of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in fish and shellfish. MS-MS operating parameters related to the isolation and fragmentation of the precursor ions were optimized to achieve maximum sensitivity and selectivity. This new method allows the determination of both MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs in a single run. Low limits of detection (0.4-2.5 pg injected) and high precision (RSD<13%) were achieved. A sample treatment based on a selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using Florisil as fat retainer was applied for the analysis of these compounds in fish samples. Method limits of quantification ranged from 0.11 to 0.95 ng g(-1) lipid weight for MeO-PBDEs and between 0.18 and 0.50 ng g(-1) lipid weight for PBDEs. In addition, good repeatability of the whole method was achieved (RSD<15%). The suitability of the method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (SRM 1945, whale blubber) with satisfactory results. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs in fish and shellfish samples from the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:20615508

  19. Sample preparation method for the speciation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated and hydroxylated analogues in diverse environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Qian; Qu, Guangbo; Ruan, Ting; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-01-15

    A reliable analytical method was developed here for the simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of ten polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), nine methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and ten hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) in various environmental matrices, including water, soil, sediment, plant, mollusk and fish. PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were measured by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization (negative)-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS) for the separation and determination of OH-PBDEs without prior derivatization. After preliminary sample cleaning using acid silica gel, water-impregnated silica column separation of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs was proved to be rapid, simple, and efficient. For phenolic analytes, the method detection limits (MDLs) were 3.2-11.6pg/L in water sample and 2.8-18.4pg/g dry weight in solid samples. For neutral compounds, MDLs were 48.8-150.3pg/L in water sample and 46.5-170.8pg/g dry weight in solid samples. The method was validated using six kinds of environmental samples spiked with all analytes at three concentration levels (0.3ng, 2ng and 5ng, respectively) for recovery (71-113%) and repeatability determination (4-12%RSD). PMID:22265556

  20. Detection of methoxylated and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge in China with evidence for their microbial transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianteng; Zhu, Lizhong; Pan, Lili; Wei, Zi; Song, Yao; Zhang, Yuduo; Qu, Liping; Zhan, Yu

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in the sewage sludge samples collected from twelve wastewater treatment plants in China. Two MeO-PCB congeners, including 3‧-MeO-CB-65 and 4‧-MeO-CB-101, were detected in three sludge with mean concentrations of 0.58 and 0.52 ng/g dry weight, respectively. OH-PCBs were detected in eight sludge samples, with an average total concentration of 4.2 ng/g dry weight. Furthermore, laboratory exposure was conducted to determine the possible source of OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in the sewage sludge, and their metabolism by the microbes. Both 4‧-OH-CB-101 and 4‧-MeO-CB-101 were detected as metabolites of CB-101 at a limited conversion rate after 5 days. Importantly, microbial interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs was observed in sewage sludge. Demethylation of MeO-PCBs was favored over methylation of OH-PCBs. The abundant and diverse microbes in sludge play a key role in the transformation processes of the PCB analogues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MeO-PCBs in environmental matrices and on OH-PCBs in sewage sludge. The findings are important to understand the environmental fate of PCBs.

  1. p,p'-Methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide prevents neurodegeneration and glial cell activation induced by streptozotocin in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinton, Simone; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Ramalho, Rita M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible molecular targets involved in the neuroprotective effect of p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide [(MeOPhSe)2], using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type rat model. Male Wistar rats were injected with STZ (1.0 mg/8 μl; 4 μl/ventricle). After 21 days of STZ injection, regular diet-fed rats were supplemented with 10 ppm of (MeOPhSe)2 during 30 days. At the end of this period, rats performed object recognition and step-down passive avoidance tasks. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining and active caspase-3. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, and microtubule associated protein 2 were determined by immunofluorescence in rat hippocampus. The results demonstrate that the (MeOPhSe)2 dietary supplementation reversed STZ-induced memory impairment by enhancing memory in sham rats. (MeOPhSe)2 was also effective in reducing STZ-induced apoptosis and preserving dendrites and synapses. Moreover, (MeOPhSe)2 inhibited activation of microglia and astrogliosis induced by STZ in the rat hippocampus. We conclude that the (MeOPhSe)2 neuroprotective action is related to inhibition of apoptosis and suppression of inflammation. PMID:22903129

  2. Synthesis, physicochemical, and anticonvulsant properties of new N-Mannich bases derived from pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and its 3-methyl analog.

    PubMed

    Rybka, Sabina; Obniska, Jolanta; Rapacz, Anna; Filipek, Barbara; Kamiński, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    A series of 22 new N-[(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-methyl]-3-methyl-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and pyrrolidine-2,5-dione derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activities in the maximum electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure tests after intraperitoneal injection into mice. The neurotoxicity was determined applying the rotarod test. The in vivo results in mice showed that seven compounds were effective in the MES or/and scPTZ seizure tests. The quantitative evaluation in both tests after i.p. administration into mice revealed that the most active compounds were N-[{4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl}-methyl]-3-methylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione (12) with ED50  = 16.13 mg/kg (MES), ED50  = 133.99 mg/kg (scPTZ) and N-[{4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl}-methyl]-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (23) with ED50  = 37.79 mg/kg (MES), ED50  = 128.82 mg/kg (scPTZ), whereas N-[{4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl}-methyl]-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (24) was effective only in the MES test with ED50  = 16.37 mg/kg. These molecules showed higher potency and also lower neurotoxicity than the reference antiepileptic drugs such as ethosuximide and valproic acid. PMID:25139813

  3. Developing Analogy Cost Estimates for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The analogy approach in cost estimation combines actual cost data from similar existing systems, activities, or items with adjustments for a new project's technical, physical or programmatic differences to derive a cost estimate for the new system. This method is normally used early in a project cycle when there is insufficient design/cost data to use as a basis for (or insufficient time to perform) a detailed engineering cost estimate. The major limitation of this method is that it relies on the judgment and experience of the analyst/estimator. The analyst must ensure that the best analogy or analogies have been selected, and that appropriate adjustments have been made. While analogy costing is common, there is a dearth of advice in the literature on the 'adjustment methodology', especially for hardware projects. This paper discusses some potential approaches that can improve rigor and repeatability in the analogy costing process.

  4. Spatial distributions of methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the East China Sea--a seaward increasing trend.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Lan, Jing; Li, Huijuan; Li, Guoliang; Cao, Yali; Zhao, Zongshan; Zhao, Meixun; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-11-01

    Methoxylated (MeO-) and hydroxylated (OH-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine environments have been of increasing concern due to their potential ecological toxicities and worldwide occurrence. However, few reports have been referred to their occurrence and distributions in marine sediments despite large numbers of studies on marine organisms have been reported. In the present paper, nine MeO-BDEs, ten OH-BDEs and three phytoplankton biomarkers (PBs) of brassicasterol, dinosterol and alkenones have been measured in surface sediments from the East China Sea. 6-MeO-BDE47, 2'-MeO-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47 were predominant congeners, ranging from 5.2 to 599.5 pg g(-1)dw, 5.2 to 562.4 pg g(-1)dw, and 11.4 to 129.1 pg g(-1)dw, respectively. Their spatial patterns all presented a seaward increasing trend and higher levels of these compounds were mainly concentrated in the outer shelf influenced by the Kuroshio Current. The patterns further prove that these ortho-substituted MeO-BDEs and OH-BDEs in marine sediments are natural compounds. Furthermore, alkenones also presented a seaward increasing trend. Statistical analysis shows that there are significant correlations between MeO-BDEs, OH-BDEs and alkenones, impling the potential of coccolithophorids for producing these natural compounds and their global distribution, especially in open oceans. Comparison between TOC and the ratio of 6-MeO-BDE47/6-OH-BDE47 suggests that TOC should be a potential controlling factor of the conversion between MeO-BDE and OH-BDE pairs. PMID:25113209

  5. Matrix solid-phase dispersion of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated analogues in lettuce, carrot and soil.

    PubMed

    Iparraguirre, A; Rodil, R; Quintana, J B; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Zuloaga, O; Cela, R; Fernández, L A

    2014-09-19

    In the present work, a novel analytical method for the simultaneous determination of ten polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), eight methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and seven hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) in soil, lettuce and carrot samples was developed. The procedure was based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). Under optimum conditions, 0.5g of sample (freeze-dried in the case of lettuce and carrot samples) was dispersed with 0.5g of octadecyl-functionalized silica (C18) and 1.75g of acidified silica (10% H2SO4, w/w) was used as clean-up sorbent. A two-step fractionated elution was carried out. First, PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were eluted in 75:25% (v/v) n-hexane/dichloromethane mixture and, then, the retained OH-PBDEs were eluted in pure dichloromethane. Both extracts were analyzed by GC-NCI-MS separately, in the case of OH-PBDEs after derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy for soil, lettuce and carrot matrices, spiked at two fortification levels (5 and 25ngg(-1)). After correction with the corresponding surrogate, apparent recovery values (defined as the recovery obtained after correction with the corresponding surrogate) were in the 80-129% range. Precision (as relative standard deviation) in the 1-21% range and method detection limits (MDLs) in the 0.003 and 0.3ngg(-1) range for soil and in the 0.003-0.4ngg(-1) range (dry weight) for lettuce and carrot samples were obtained. For PBDEs the method was also validated with a standard reference material (SRM-2585) of house dust. Finally, the method was applied for the determination of target analytes in soil, lettuce and carrot. PMID:25130091

  6. Nonvolatile Analog Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

  7. Analog synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  8. Preliminary results for potential climatic signals in dD of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high-elevation alpine larch trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelmann, Dana F. C.; Greule, Markus; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Tree-rings of high alpine larch trees (Larix decidua) were investigated using a recently established method that measures dD values of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (Greule et al. 2008). The resulting dD time series were tested for their potential to preserve climatic signals. 37 larch trees were sampled at the tree line near Simplon Village (Southern Switzerland). They were analysed for their tree-ring width (TRW), and from five individuals dD of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (dDmethoxyl) were measured at annual resolution from 1971-2009 and at pentadal resolution from 1781-2009. The inter-series correlation of the five annually resolved dDmethoxyl series is 0.53 (p < 0.001). For the five pentadally resolved dDmethoxyl series no significant inter-series correlation could be determined. The dDmethoxyl series (annually and pentadally) show a negative correlation with tree-ring width of r = -0.53 (p < 0.001) and r = -0.32 (p < 0.05), respectively. The climate response of the new dDmethoxyl proxy shows a significant correlation of r = 0.60 for the annually resolved data with June to July precipitation. The pentadally resolved dDmethoxyl series do not show any significant correlation neither with temperature nor precipitation. These results probably indicate dDmethoxyl as a precipitation proxy for high-alpine sites. The missing climate signal in the pentadally resolved series is probably due to absent long term trends in precipitation, which have stronger year to year variability. References: Greule, M., Mosandl, A., Hamilton, J.T.G., Keppler, F., 2008. A rapid and precise method for determination of D/H ratios of plant methoxyl groups. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 22(24): 3983-3988.

  9. Analog synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Sarpeshkar, R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog–digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA–protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  10. Analog pulse processor

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  11. Challenges in Using Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  12. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  13. Newly discovered methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes have been contaminants in the Great Lakes herring gull eggs for thirty years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Chu, Shaogang; McCrindle, Robert

    2012-09-01

    We recently reported the discovery and identification of novel methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes (MeO-PBDPBs) in herring gulls eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. We presently investigated the temporal changes (1982-2010) in MeO-PBDPB concentrations and congener patterns, as well as chemical tracers of diet (ratios of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes), in egg pool homogenates from five selected colony sites across the Great Lakes. Egg pool homogenates from the Channel-Shelter (C-S) Island (Lake Huron) contained ∑MeO-PBDPB concentrations orders of magnitude greater than those from other colonies, suggesting potential point contamination sources nearby. In the C-S Island egg pools, concentrations increased from the initial study year (31 ng/g wet weight) and peaked around the late 1990s, followed by a general decline until 2010. Over the period, concentrations generally increased in eggs from Fighting Island (Lake Erie), Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario) and Big Sister Island (Lake Michigan) colonies, whereas the levels in Agawa Rock (Lake Superior) declined. Although other factors likely exist, changes over time in the carbon and nitrogen isotope tracers reflected a shift of the gull diet from aquatic to more terrestrial origins, and suggested this diet shift partially accounted for the temporal changes of ∑MeO-PBDPB levels in eggs from most colonies. The ratio of Br(6)- to Br(5)-MeO-PBDPB congeners generally decreased over time in the colonies at Channel-Shelter Island, Fighting Island and Agawa Rock. This suggested that Br(5)- versus Br(6)-MeO-PBDPB congeners and/or possibly their nonmethoxylated and higher brominated precursors may have been more abundant in diets of terrestrial origin. Notably, these MeO-PBDPB congeners are not "emerging" brominated substances, but rather "recently discovered" contaminants since, as of 2011, ∑MeO-PBDPB concentrations have been constantly in the range of 30-100 ng/g ww for at least the last 30

  14. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  15. Degradation of Methoxylated Benzoic Acids by a Nocardia from a Lignin-Rich Environment: Significance to Lignin Degradation and Effect of Chloro Substituents

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, R. L.; McCoy, Elizabeth; Harkin, J. M.; Kirk, T. K.; Obst, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Strain A81 of Nocardia corallina hydroxylates or demethylates p-anisic acid to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and isovanillic acid. It demethylates veratric acid to a mixture of vanillic and isovanillic acids. These are both demethylated to protocatechuic acid, which undergoes ring cleavage to afford β-carboxy-cis-cis-muconic acid. The intermediacy of protocatechuic acid in the catabolic pathway of veratric acid was confirmed by blocking ring cleavage with an additional substituent in the ring: 5-chlorovanillic acid was demethylated to 5-chloro-protocatechuic acid, which accumulated. Chloro substituents in the ring of other methoxylated benzoic acids also arrested their normal metabolism by the Nocardia: an ortho-chloro substituent thwarted both demethylation and ring-opening. ortho-Hydroxylation of p-methoxybenzoic acid to isovanillic acid was unaffected by a chlorine ortho to the methoxyl group. Washed whole cells of veratric acid-grown N. corallina A81 produced no detected structural changes in an isolated lignin. The implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:4743871

  16. Identifying Solar Analogs in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Lezcano, Andrew; Preston, Heather L.

    2014-06-01

    Since human beings live on a planet orbiting a G2 V star, to us perhaps the most intrinsically interesting category of stars about which planets have been discovered is solar analogs. While Kepler has observed more than 26000 targets which have effective temperatures within 100K of the Sun, many of these are not true solar analogs due to activity, surface gravity, metallicity, or other considerations. Here we combine ground-based measurements of effective temperature and metallicity with data on rotational periods and surface gravities derived from 16 quarters of Kepler observations to produce a near-complete sample of solar analogs in the Kepler field. We then compare the statistical distribution of stellar physical parameters, including activity level, for subsets of solar analogs consisting of KOIs and those with no detected exoplanets. Finally, we produce a list of potential solar twins in the Kepler field.

  17. Analogies as categorization phenomena: Studies from scientific discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Leslie Jill

    Studies on the role of analogies in science classrooms have tended to focus on analogies that come from the teacher or curriculum, and not the analogies that students generate. Such studies are derivative of an educational system that values content knowledge over scientific creativity, and derivative of a model of teaching in which the teacher's role is to convey content knowledge. This dissertation begins with the contention that science classrooms should encourage scientific thinking and one role of the teacher is to model that behavior and identify and encourage it in her students. One element of scientific thinking is analogy. This dissertation focuses on student-generated analogies in science, and offers a model for understanding these. I provide evidence that generated analogies are assertions of categorization, and the base of an analogy is the constructed prototype of an ad hoc category. Drawing from research on categorization, I argue that generated analogies are based in schemas and cognitive models. This model allows for a clear distinction between analogy and literal similarity; prior to this research analogy has been considered to exist on a spectrum of similarity, differing from literal similarity to the degree that structural relations hold but features do not. I argue for a definition in which generated analogies are an assertion of an unexpected categorization: that is, they are asserted as contradictions to an expected schema.

  18. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  19. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  20. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  1. Novel stilbene-based Fischer base analog of leuco-TAM - (2E,2'Z)-{2-(4-(E)-styrylphenyl)propane-1,3-diylidene}bis(1,3,3-trimethylindoline) - derivatives: synthesis and structural consideration by 1D NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Keum, Sam-Rok; Lim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-02-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of novel stilbene-based (St) Fischer base analogs of leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes by treating Fischer base with (E)-4-styrylbenzaldehyde derivatives. All St-LTAM molecules examined herein are characterized by 1D and 2D NMR. They were found to exhibit ZE configuration and isomerize to their diastereomers EE and ZZ in 2-3 h. They exhibit type I behavior of diastereomeric isomerization. PMID:26448377

  2. Digital and analog communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  3. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  4. Electrical analogous in viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala, Guido; Di Paola, Mario; Francomano, Elisa; Li, Yan; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, electrical analogous models of fractional hereditary materials are introduced. Based on recent works by the authors, mechanical models of materials viscoelasticity behavior are firstly approached by using fractional mathematical operators. Viscoelastic models have elastic and viscous components which are obtained by combining springs and dashpots. Various arrangements of these elements can be used, and all of these viscoelastic models can be equivalently modeled as electrical circuits, where the spring and dashpot are analogous to the capacitance and resistance, respectively. The proposed models are validated by using modal analysis. Moreover, a comparison with numerical experiments based on finite difference time domain method shows that, for long time simulations, the correct time behavior can be obtained only with modal analysis. The use of electrical analogous in viscoelasticity can better reveal the real behavior of fractional hereditary materials.

  5. Reasoning through Instructional Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapon, Shulamit; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to account for students' assessments of the plausibility and applicability of analogical explanations, and individual differences in these assessments, by analyzing properties of students' underlying knowledge systems. We developed a model of explanation and change in explanation focusing on knowledge elements that provide a…

  6. Quantum Analog Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  7. Learning by Analogical Bootstrapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miao, Chun-Hui; Kurtz, Kenneth J.; Gentner, Dedre

    2001-01-01

    Reports on research into whether mutual alignment of partially known situations can be an effective strategy when compared to the common procedure of drawing analogies from a well understood situation to one that is poorly understood. Results suggest that such mutual alignment is an effective means of promoting insight. (MM)

  8. An Interesting Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Jose M.; Fernandez, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this note is to give some insight into the formal unity of a very applicable area of mathematics by showing an interesting analogy between the weak part of the Rouche-Frobenius theorem and the existence result for the initial value problem for the general first-order linear two-dimensional PDE.

  9. How Analogy Drives Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstadter, Doug

    2004-05-05

    Many new ideas in theoretical physics come from analogies to older ideas in physics. For instance, the abstract notion of 'isospin' (or isotopic spin) originated in the prior concept of 'spin' (quantized angular momentum); likewise, the concept of 'phonon' (quantum of sound, or quantized collective excitation of a crystal) was based on the prior concept of 'photon' (quantum of light, or quantized element of the electromagnetic field). But these two examples, far from being exceptions, in fact represent the bread and butter of inventive thinking in physics. In a nutshell, intraphysics analogy-making -- borrowing by analogy with something already known in another area of physics -- is central to the progress of physics. The aim of this talk is to reveal the pervasiveness -- indeed, the indispensability -- of this kind of semi-irrational, wholly intuitive type of thinking (as opposed to more deductive mathematical inference) in the mental activity known as 'doing physics'. Speculations as to why wild analogical leaps are so crucial to the act of discovery in physics (as opposed to other disciplines) will be offered.

  10. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  11. Gravitoelectromagnetic analogy based on tidal tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, L. Filipe O.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2008-07-15

    We propose a new approach to a physical analogy between general relativity and electromagnetism, based on tidal tensors of both theories. Using this approach we write a covariant form for the gravitational analogues of the Maxwell equations, which makes transparent both the similarities and key differences between the two interactions. The following realizations of the analogy are given. The first one matches linearized gravitational tidal tensors to exact electromagnetic tidal tensors in Minkowski spacetime. The second one matches exact magnetic gravitational tidal tensors for ultrastationary metrics to exact magnetic tidal tensors of electromagnetism in curved spaces. In the third we show that our approach leads to a two-step exact derivation of Papapetrou's equation describing the force exerted on a spinning test particle. Analogous scalar invariants built from tidal tensors of both theories are also discussed.

  12. Interaction of Chloramphenicol Tripeptide Analogs with Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenkov, A G; Shishkina, A V; Tashlitsky, V N; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A; Sumbatyan, N V

    2016-04-01

    Chloramphenicol amine peptide derivatives containing tripeptide fragments of regulatory "stop peptides" - MRL, IRA, IWP - were synthesized. The ability of the compounds to form ribosomal complexes was studied by displacement of the fluorescent erythromycin analog from its complex with E. coli ribosomes. It was found that peptide chloramphenicol analogs are able to bind to bacterial ribosomes. The dissociation constants were 4.3-10 µM, which is 100-fold lower than the corresponding values for chloramphenicol amine-ribosome complex. Interaction of the chloramphenicol peptide analogs with ribosomes was simulated by molecular docking, and the most probable contacts of "stop peptide" motifs with the elements of nascent peptide exit tunnel were identified. PMID:27293096

  13. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  14. Analogy Construction versus Analogy Solution, and Their Influence on Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz-Itay, Yifat; Kaniel, Shlomo; Ben-Amram, Einat

    2006-01-01

    This study compares transfer performed by subjects trained to solve verbal analogies, with transfer by subjects trained to construct them. The first group (n = 57) received instruction in a strategy to solve verbal analogies and the second group (n = 66) was trained in strategies for constructing such analogies. Before and after intervention, all…

  15. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  16. Antarctic analogs for Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. E.; Andersen, D. T.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is a new world for Astrobiology. The Cassini discovery of the icy plume emanating from the South Polar region indicates an active world, where detection of water, organics, sodium, and nano-particle silica in the plume strongly suggests that the source is a subsurface salty ocean reservoir. Recent gravity data from Cassini confirms the presence of a regional sea extending north to 50°S. An ocean habitat under a thick ice cover is perhaps a recurring theme in the Outer Solar System, but what makes Enceladus unique is that the plume jetting out into space is carrying samples of this ocean. Therefore, through the study of Enceladus' plumes we can gain new insights not only of a possible habitable world in the Solar Systems, but also about the formation and evolution of other icy-satellites. Cassini has been able to fly through this plume - effectively sampling the ocean. It is time to plan for future missions that do more detailed analyses, possibly return samples back to Earth and search for evidence of life. To help prepare for such missions, the need for earth-based analog environments is essential for logistical, methodological (life detection) and theoretical development. We have undertaken studies of two terrestrial environments that are close analogs to Enceladus' ocean: Lake Vida and Lake Untersee - two ice-sealed Antarctic lakes that represent physical, chemical and possibly biological analogs for Enceladus. By studying the diverse biology and physical and chemical constraints to life in these two unique lakes we will begin to understand the potential habitability of Enceladus and other icy moons, including possible sources of nutrients and energy, which together with liquid water are the key ingredients for life. Analog research such as this will also enable us to develop and test new strategies to search for evidence of life on Enceladus.

  17. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J. T.; Larsen, R. S.; Shapiro, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks.

  18. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Henze, C.; Teachey, A.; Isaacson, H.; Petigura, E.; Marcy, G. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Chen, J.; Bryson, S. T.; Sandford, E.

    2016-04-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of (0.91+/- 0.02) {R}{{J}}, a low orbital eccentricity ({0.06}-0.04+0.10), and an equilibrium temperature of (131+/- 3) K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric coverage, we are able to uniquely and precisely measure the orbital period of this post snow-line planet (1071.2323 ± 0.0006d), paving the way for follow-up of this K = 11.8 mag target.

  19. Resveratrol and Its Analogs As Antitumoral Agents For Breast Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Saturnino, Carmela; Caruso, Anna; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-tri-hydroxystilbene) (RSV), a naturally occurring phytoalexin, readily available in the diet, has gained interest as a non-toxic agent capable of displaying cancer-preventing and anti-cancer properties. Several studies, using both in vitro and in vivo models, have illustrated RSV capacity to modulate a multitude of signaling pathways associated with cellular growth and division, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. However, its clinical application is limited because of a low oral bioavailability with high adsorption but rapid metabolism and low tissue concentrations. Several chemical modifications to the backbone structure have been made for the purpose of improving pharmacokinetic parameters. One promising strategy involves the introduction of methoxylic or hydroxylic groups on the phenylic rings of RSV. Moreover, by replacing the alkene linker between the two aromatic rings with a heterocyclic system rigid analogs such as 2,3- thiazolidin-4-ones and 3-chloro-azetidin-2-ones that displayed higher cytotoxic activity and hence higher ability to inhibit in vitro breast cancer cell growth have been synthesized. In vitro studies have demonstrated, for some of these compounds, a greater bioaccessibility than RSV and more selective inhibitory effects on breast cancer cell growth. Further investigations, particularly in vivo, are required as next step to implicate these analogs as pharmacologic agents for a possible clinical anticancer application. PMID:26996623

  20. Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem at various flow modes.

    PubMed

    Abramov, A A; Butkovskii, A V

    2016-07-01

    The Reynolds analogy and the extended Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem are considered. For a viscous incompressible fluid we derive the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number and the Eckert number. We show that for any positive Eckert number, the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number has a maximum. For a monatomic gas in the transitional flow regime, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, we investigate the extended Reynolds analogy, i.e., the relation between the shear stress and the energy flux transferred to the boundary surface, at different velocities and temperatures. We find that the extended Reynolds analogy for a rarefied monatomic gas flow with the temperature of the undisturbed gas equal to the surface temperature depends weakly on time and is close to 0.5. We show that at any fixed dimensionless time the extended Reynolds analogy depends on the plate velocity and temperature and undisturbed gas temperature mainly via the Eckert number. For Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less we generalize an extended Reynolds analogy. The generalized Reynolds analogy depends mainly only on dimensionless time for all considered Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less. PMID:27575220

  1. Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem at various flow modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, A. A.; Butkovskii, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The Reynolds analogy and the extended Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem are considered. For a viscous incompressible fluid we derive the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number and the Eckert number. We show that for any positive Eckert number, the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number has a maximum. For a monatomic gas in the transitional flow regime, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, we investigate the extended Reynolds analogy, i.e., the relation between the shear stress and the energy flux transferred to the boundary surface, at different velocities and temperatures. We find that the extended Reynolds analogy for a rarefied monatomic gas flow with the temperature of the undisturbed gas equal to the surface temperature depends weakly on time and is close to 0.5. We show that at any fixed dimensionless time the extended Reynolds analogy depends on the plate velocity and temperature and undisturbed gas temperature mainly via the Eckert number. For Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less we generalize an extended Reynolds analogy. The generalized Reynolds analogy depends mainly only on dimensionless time for all considered Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less.

  2. Antarctic Space Analog Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Gunderson, E. K. Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Holland, Albert W.

    1998-01-01

    The primary aim of this project was to examine group dynamics and individual performance in extreme, isolated environments and identify human factors requirements for long-duration space missions using data collected in an analog environment. Specifically, we wished to determine: 1) the characteristics of social relations in small groups of individuals living and working together in extreme, isolated environments, and 2) the environmental, social and psychological determinants of performance effectiveness in such groups. These two issues were examined in six interrelated studies using data collected in small, isolated research stations in Antarctica from 1963 to the present. Results from these six studies indicated that behavior and performance on long-duration space flights is likely to be seasonal or cyclical, situational, social, and salutogenic in nature. The project responded to two NASA program emphases for FY 1997 as described in the NRA: 1) the primary emphasis of the Behavior and Performance Program on determining long-term individual and group performance responses to space, identifying critical factors affecting those responses and understanding underlying mechanisms involved in behavior and performance, and developing and using ground-based models and analogs for studying space-related behavior and performance; and 2) the emphasis of the Data Analysis Program on extended data analysis. Results from the study were used to develop recommendations for the design and development of pre-flight crew training and in-flight psychological countermeasures for long-duration manned space missions.

  3. Hydroxylated, methoxylated, and parent polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the inland environment, Korea, and potential OH- and MeO-BDE source.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un-Jung; Yen, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations, congener profiles, and phase-specific distribution profiles of 27 polybrominated diphenyl ethers and 10 hydroxylated and 18 methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers (OH- and MeO-BDEs; later called structural analogues of PBDEs) were determined in surface soil, water, air, and vegetation from the southeastern city of Busan, Korea for 2010-2011. The total PBDE concentrations were 0.18-7.7 ng/g in soil, 6.3-87 pg/L [corrected] in water, 5.3-16 pg/m(3) in air, and 0.06-0.22 ng/g in vegetation. The OH- and MeO-BDE concentrations were lower than the parent PBDE concentrations in soil samples but OH-BDEs were much greater in the water samples and MeO-BDEs were much greater in the air samples. The relative concentrations of the PBDEs and their structural analogues varied depending on the type and homologue of the degradation product, the substituent position, and the characteristics of the environmental medium. In particular, the OH-BDEs were not found in air samples and the OH-penta BDEs were not detected in any of the matrices. The dominance of the ortho-substituted structural analogues found in water and vegetation suggested that they may have natural sources, but different substituent patterns were found in the air and soil samples, suggesting that the structural analogues had different formation mechanisms in these media. PMID:24911666

  4. Characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDEs in soils and plants from an e-waste area, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuzhen; Huang, Honglin; Niu, Zhenchuan; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in the soil-plant system, soil and plant samples were collected from an e-waste recycling area in China. Forty one PBDEs, twelve OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were detected in the soil and plant samples. Concentrations of PBDEs in roots were significantly correlated to their concentrations in the soils, but the percentages of lower brominated congeners in the plants were higher than those in the soils. Significant positive linear relationships exist between concentrations of ∑OH-PBDEs and ∑MeO-PBDEs with higher levels of ∑MeO-PBDEs than those of ∑OH-PBDEs in the soils, plant roots and leaves. A majority of the OH-/MeO-PBDEs had the hydroxyl or methoxy group at the ortho-positions to the biphenyl bond for most of the plant species. However the occurrence of meta- and para- substituted OH-/MeO-PBDEs in soils and plants were also confirmed. PMID:24113474

  5. Levels and distribution of methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plant and soil samples surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Yanwei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) along with hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were found in plant and soil samples collected surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market in China. The profiles of MeO-PBDE congeners were different between seafood processing factory and seafood market. The detection frequency and concentration of 6-OH-BDE-47 were lower than that of MeO-PBDEs. Near seafood processing factory, a decreasing trend of analyte concentrations in plants was found downstream the river where factory wastewater was discharged. Concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs in plant and soil samples showed difference as root > soil > leaf. However, at seafood market, the concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs were much higher in leaves than those in soil. The concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs in leaves showed a remarkable difference between Calystegia soldanella (Linn.) R. Br. and Setaira viridis (L.) Beauv. PMID:23416744

  6. Experimental investigation on the soil sorption properties and hydrophobicity of polymethoxylated, polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers and methoxylated-, hydroxylated-polychlorinated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuesheng; Zeng, Xiaolan; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Shi, Jiaqi; Wei, Zhongbo; Yang, Shaogui; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, twenty-six types of polymethoxylated diphenyl ethers (PMeODEs), twenty types of polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers (PHODEs), seven types of methoxylated-polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PCDEs) and seven types of hydroxylated-polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (HO-PCDEs) were synthesized. The logKow and logKoc values of all of the synthesized compounds were then determined using HPLC. The soil sorption properties of five types of selected substituted diphenyl ethers (DEs) were investigated. Sorption behavior studies suggested that rapid sorption played a primary role in the sorption process of the selected DEs and their sorption isotherms were fitted the Freundlich logarithmic model. For PMeODEs and PHODEs, with the increase in the number of substituents, both logKow and logKoc values exhibited linearly decreasing trends. Unlike PMeODEs and PHODEs, both logKow and logKoc values of MeO/HO-PCDEs were decreased linearly with the increasing number of chlorine atoms. The reason maybe that both methoxy and hydroxyl are hydrophilic groups, whereas the chlorine atom is hydrophobic group. Linear relationships were observed for the logKow and logKoc of all studied DEs. Moreover, the logKow of PMeODEs, PHODEs, MeO- and HO-PCDEs and their corresponding PCDEs showed good linearity. PMID:25917505

  7. Kinetic and Spectroscopic Studies of Aerobic Copper(II)-Catalyzed Methoxylation of Arylboronic Esters and Insights into Aryl Transmetalation to Copper(II).

    PubMed

    King, Amanda E; Ryland, Bradford L; Brunold, Thomas C; Stahl, Shannon S

    2012-11-26

    We previously reported a preliminary mechanistic study of aerobic Cu(OAc)(2)-catalyzed methoxylation of 4-tolylboronic ester (King, et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 5044-5045), which revealed that aryl transmetalation from the boronic ester to Cu(II) is the turnover-limiting step. In the present study, more-thorough kinetic and spectroscopic studies provide additional insights into transmetalation pathway and the identity of the Cu(II) catalyst resting state(s). EPR spectroscopic studies show that at least two copper(II) species are present under catalytic conditions and their relative populations vary as a function of reaction time and acidity of the arylboronic ester, and are influenced by addition of acetic acid or acetate to the reaction mixture. Analysis of kinetic data and (11)B NMR and EPR spectra under diverse reaction conditions suggests that aryl transmetalation occurs from a tetracoordinate, anionic boronate to a cationic Cu(II) species, mediated by a methoxide-bridge. PMID:23204631

  8. p,p'-Methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide protects against amyloid-β induced cytotoxicity in vitro and improves memory deficits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pinton, Simone; Souza, Ana Cristina; Sari, Marcel H M; Ramalho, Rita M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2013-06-15

    Behavioral evidence suggests that the organoselenium compound p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide [(MeOPhSe)2] ameliorates memory and learning performance in rodents. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of (MeOPhSe)2 neuroprotection in cortical neurons exposed to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as well as in Aβ-infused mice. For this purpose, primary cultures of rat cortical neurons were pre-incubated with 10 μM of (MeOPhSe)2 or vehicle, followed by exposure to 25 μM Aβ fragment 25-35 or vehicle. Furthermore, the therapeutic effect of (MeOPhSe)2 (5 mg/kg, oral route, daily for 5 days) on memory deficits was evaluated in mice exposed to Aβ fragment 25-35 (3 nmol/3 μl/per site, intracerebroventricular infusion). The results demonstrate that (MeOPhSe)2 prevented Aβ-induced cell death in vitro, associated with inhibition of caspase-3 and -9 activities, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Further, (MeOPhSe)2 rescued Aβ-induced memory impairment in mice. In conclusion, (MeOPhSe)2 is neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this organoselenium compound offers a potential treatment option for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23557695

  9. In Vitro Metabolism of 20(R)-25-Methoxyl-Dammarane-3, 12, 20-Triol from Panax notoginseng in Human, Monkey, Dog, Rat, and Mouse Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Liu, Li; Sun, Baoshan; Guo, Zhenghong; Shi, Caihong; Zhao, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    The present study characterized in vitro metabolites of 20(R)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD) in mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human liver microsomes. 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was incubated with liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. The reaction mixtures and the metabolites were identified on the basis of their mass profiles using LC-Q/TOF and were quantified using triple quadrupole instrument by multiple reaction monitoring. A total of 7 metabolites (M1–M7) of the phase I metabolites were detected in all species. 25(R)-OCH3-PPD was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and O-demethylation. Enzyme kinetic of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD metabolism was evaluated in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Incubations studies with selective chemical inhibitors demonstrated that the metabolism of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was primarily mediated by CYP3A4. We conclude that 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was metabolized extensively in mammalian species of mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. CYP3A4-catalyzed oxygenation metabolism played an important role in the disposition of 25(R)-OCH3-PPD, especially at the C-20 hydroxyl group. PMID:24736630

  10. Functional and topological studies with Trp-containing analogs of the peptide StII(1-30) derived from the N-terminus of the pore forming toxin sticholysin II: contribution to understand its orientation in membrane.

    PubMed

    Ros, Uris; Souto, Ana Lucia C F; de Oliveira, Felipe J; Crusca, Edson; Pazos, Fabiola; Cilli, Eduardo M; Lanio, Maria E; Schreier, Shirley; Alvarez, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Sticholysin II (St II) is the most potent cytolysin produced by the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, exerting hemolytic activity via pore formation in membranes. The toxin's N-terminus contains an amphipathic α-helix that is very likely involved in pore formation. We have previously demonstrated that the synthetic peptide StII(1-30) encompassing the 1-30 segment of St II forms pores of similar radius to that of the protein (around 1 nm), being a good model of toxin functionality. Here we have studied the functional and conformational properties of fluorescent analogs of StII(1-30) in lipid membranes. The analogs were obtained by replacing Leu residues at positions 2, 12, 17, and 24 with the intrinsically fluorescent amino acid Trp (StII(1-30L2W), StII(1-30L12W), StII(1-30L17W), or StII(1-30L24W), respectively). The exchange by Trp did not significantly modify the activity and conformation of the parent peptide. The blue-shift and intensity enhancement of fluorescence in the presence of membrane indicated that Trp at position 2 is more deeply buried in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer. These experiments, as well as assays with water-soluble or spin-labeled lipid-soluble fluorescence quenchers suggest an orientation of StII(1-30) with its N-terminus oriented towards the hydrophobic core of the bilayer while the rest of the peptide is more exposed to the aqueous environment, as hypothesized for sticholysins. PMID:23868208

  11. Analog and digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baher, H.

    The techniques of signal processing in both the analog and digital domains are addressed in a fashion suitable for undergraduate courses in modern electrical engineering. The topics considered include: spectral analysis of continuous and discrete signals, analysis of continuous and discrete systems and networks using transform methods, design of analog and digital filters, digitization of analog signals, power spectrum estimation of stochastic signals, FFT algorithms, finite word-length effects in digital signal processes, linear estimation, and adaptive filtering.

  12. Cholesterol side chain analogs but not its ether analogs possess cholesterol-lowering activity.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lin; Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Weihuan; Liu, Yuwei; Zheng, Fangrui; Ma, Ka Ying; Li, Yuk Man; Wang, Lijun; Man, Sun Wa; Zhang, Chengnan; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Cholesterol analogs can be used to treat hypercholesterolemia. The present study was to test the effects of cholesteryl 3β-ethoxy (CE) and cholesteryl 3β-methoxy (CM) on plasma total cholesterol (TC) compared with that of β-sitosterol (SI) in hamsters fed a high cholesterol diet. CM and CE are the methoxy and ethoxy analogs of cholesterol while SI is an analog of cholesterol having an additional ethyl group on the side chain. Results showed that SI at a dose of 0.1% could effectively reduce plasma TC by 18%. The analysis of sterols in the plasma and liver did not detect the presence of SI, proving that it was poorly absorbed in the intestine. In contrast, both CE and CM had no effect on plasma TC. However, CE and CM were found to accumulate in both plasma and liver, indicating that they could be well absorbed in the intestine. It was therefore concluded that analogs having different side chains possessed plasma TC-lowering activity, while analogs or derivatives on the hydroxyl group had no hypocholesterolemic activity. PMID:25536519

  13. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  14. Pictorial Analogies XII: Stoichiometric Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortman, John J.

    1994-01-01

    Pictorial analogies that demonstrate concepts of amounts allow instructors to teach that in stoichiometric problems, the number--or moles--of molecules of a chemical is what matters, even though it must be measured in masses or volumes. Analogies to stoichiometric relationships include the ratio of four wheels to one body in making wagons and…

  15. Isolated transfer of analog signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezdek, T.

    1974-01-01

    Technique transfers analog signal levels across high isolation boundary without circuit performance being affected by magnetizing reactance or leakage inductance. Transfers of analog information across isolated boundary are made by interrupting signal flow, with switch, in such a manner as to produce alternating signal which is applied to transformer.

  16. Conjecturing via Reconceived Classical Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2011-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is believed to be an efficient means of problem solving and construction of knowledge during the search for and the analysis of new mathematical objects. However, there is growing concern that despite everyday usage, learners are unable to transfer analogical reasoning to learning situations. This study aims at facilitating…

  17. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  18. Synthesis of Novel Chiral Sulfonamide-Bearing 1,2,4-Triazole-3-thione Analogs Derived from D- and L-Phenylalanine Esters as Potential Anti-Influenza Agents.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Eyüp; Karaküçük-Iyidoğan, Ayşegül; Schols, Dominique; Oruç-Emre, Emine Elçin

    2016-06-01

    Novel enantiopure 1,2,4-trizole-3-thiones containing a benzensulfonamide moiety were synthesized via multistep reaction sequence starting with D-phenylalanine methyl ester and L-phenylalanine ethyl ester as a source of chirality. The chemical structures of all compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV, IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, 2D NMR (HETCOR), and mass spectral data. All compounds were tested in vitro antiviral activity against a broad variety of DNA and RNA viruses and in vitro cytostatic activity against murine leukemia (L1210), human T-lymphocyte (CEM) and human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines. Although enantiopure 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione analogs in (R) configuration emerged as promising anti-influenza A H1N1 subtype in Madin Darby canine kidney cell cultures (MDCK), their enantiomers exhibited no activity. Especially compounds , , , , and (EC50 : 6.5, 6.1, 2.4, 1.6, 1.7 μM, respectively) had excellent activity against influenza A H1N1 subtype compared to the reference drug ribavirin (EC50 : 8.0 μM). Several compounds have been found to inhibit proliferation of L1210, CEM and HeLa cell cultures with IC50 in the 12-53 μM range. Compound and in (R) configuration were the most active compounds (IC50 : 12-22 μM for and IC50 : 19-23 μM for ). Chirality 28:495-513, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27225330

  19. The hypolipidemic action of a diet supplemented with p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide is not directly related to its antioxidant property.

    PubMed

    Sartori Oliveira, Carla Elena; Pinton, Simone; da Rocha, Juliana Trevisan; Gai, Bibiana Mozzaquatro; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated whether a p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet causes toxicity in rats. A second aim of this study was to determine whether a 10 ppm (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet has hypolipidemic effect on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. To rule out the antioxidant property of (MeOPhSe)2 in its hypolipidemic action, parameters of oxidative stress were carried out. Wistar rats were fed with 3, 10, or 30 ppm of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet for 30 days. None of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diets caused alteration in general parameters of toxicity and lipid profile of rats. The hypolipidemic effect of 10 ppm of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet on rats treated with Triton WR-1339 (400 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was investigated. The (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet partially protected against the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-C and reduced the atherogenic index (AI) increased by Triton WR-1339 in rats. A positive correlation between TC and triglyceride levels (r = 0.679) and non-HDL-C levels (r = 0.929) and AI (r = 0.889) was demonstrated. Triton WR-1339 altered parameters of oxidative stress in livers of rats but (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet did not protect against these alterations. The results demonstrated that the hypolipidemic action of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet is not directly related to its antioxidant property and devoid of systemic toxicity in rats at the parameters analyzed. PMID:27035225

  20. New tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione derivatives are potent inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and are synergistic with 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, R; Andries, K; Debyser, Z; Kukla, M J; Schols, D; Breslin, H J; Woestenborghs, R; Desmyter, J; Janssen, M A; De Clercq, E

    1994-01-01

    Tetrahydro-imidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO) derivatives were shown to specifically block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication through a unique interaction with the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Through further modification of the lead compounds and structure-activity relationship analysis several new TIBO derivatives that show high potency, selectivity, and specificity against HIV-1 have been obtained. A new TIBO derivative, R86183, inhibits the replication of HIV-1, but not HIV-2, in a variety of CD4+ T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes, at a concentration of 0.3 to 30 nM, which is at least 4 orders of magnitude lower than the 50% cytotoxic concentration. Whereas an HIV-1 strain containing the Leu-100-->Ile mutation in the RT gene is about 400-fold less susceptible, R86183 still inhibits the replication of an HIV-1 strain containing the Tyr-181-->Cys RT mutation by 50% at a concentration of 130 nM. R86183 inhibits the poly(C).oligo(dG)12-18-directed HIV-1 RT reaction by 50% at a concentration of 57 nM. The antiviral activity of 22 TIBO derivatives in cell culture correlated well with their activity against HIV-1 RT. No such correlation was found for their cytotoxicity. The combination of R86183 with either zidovudine or didanosine resulted in a synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 (strain IIIB) replication. Combination of R86183 with the protease inhibitor Ro31-8959 was found to be additive. Also described is a dilution protocol circumventing overestimation and underestimation of antiviral activity due to adherence to plastic surfaces. Images PMID:7535037

  1. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  2. Solving a problem by analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    1999-03-01

    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  3. Evaluating countermeasures in spaceflight analogs.

    PubMed

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-04-15

    Countermeasures are defined as solutions to prevent the undesirable physiologic outcomes associated with spaceflight. Spaceflight analogs provide a valuable opportunity for the evaluation of countermeasures because they allow for the evaluation of more subjects, more experimental control, and are considerably less expensive than actual spaceflight. The various human analogs have differing strengths and weaknesses with respect to the development and evaluation of countermeasures. The human analogs are briefly reviewed with a focus on their suitability for countermeasure evaluation. Bed rest is the most commonly used analog for evaluating countermeasures. While countermeasures are typically developed to target one or maybe two particular physiologic issues, it is increasingly important to evaluate all of the organ systems to discern whether they might be unintended consequences on nontargeted tissues. In preparation for Mars exploration it will be necessary to fully integrate countermeasures to protect all organ systems. The synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple countermeasures needs to be the focus of future work. PMID:26662054

  4. Introduction to Analog Field Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA tests systems and operational concepts in analog environments, which include locations underwater, in the arctic, on terrestrial impact craters, in the desert, and on the International Space S...

  5. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of radioactive Ca, Sm and Pd isotopes: critical assessment of the use of analogies to derive best-estimates from existing non-specific data.

    PubMed

    Henner, Pascale; Hurtevent, Pierre; Thiry, Yves

    2014-10-01

    (45)Ca, (151)Sm and (107)Pd are three radionuclides present in low to intermediate in activity radioactive wastes for which no soil-to-plant Transfer Factors (TF) values are available to be used in biosphere models for Ecological Risk Assessment. In the absence of specific radioecological studies, this work reviews and analyzes the existing literature for stable isotopes of Pd, Sm and Ca in order to derive best estimates for TF values that could be used as Transfer Factors. Alternative methods of extrapolation are also critically assessed. The values have been classified according to climatic zone, plant class and soil type for each element. The overall geometric mean TF values (for all plants and conditions) was calculated as 8.4E-02 for Pd, for which the value of radioRu in TRS-472 is also available. The mean TF for Sm was 4.2E-04. This value was lower than the TF values for radioactive Ce that are proposed as alternative values for Sm in TRS-472. The former may be relevant for long term assessments and the latter could possibly used to describe the short term (151)Sm post-release behaviour. The mean value for Ca is 2.3E-01 but varies considerably among plants of a given class due to the variety of plant Ca uptake behaviors. Alternatively, to limit this variability, Ca data content for dry plant matter, as analyzed using the phylogenetic method, could be used to derive TF values if the conservation of isotopic ratio of (45)Ca to stable Ca in soils and in plants hypothesis is taken into account. The TF for Ca in sub-tropical zones is 10-fold lower than in temperate zones. There is a lot of data available about exchangeable Ca in soil, which mean that we could calculate an available TF. The analysis shows that Ca bioavailability is also a key factor within transfer. PMID:24956582

  6. The Robustness of Acoustic Analogies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, J. B.; Lele, S. K.; Wei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic analogies for the prediction of flow noise are exact rearrangements of the flow equations N(right arrow q) = 0 into a nominal sound source S(right arrow q) and sound propagation operator L such that L(right arrow q) = S(right arrow q). In practice, the sound source is typically modeled and the propagation operator inverted to make predictions. Since the rearrangement is exact, any sufficiently accurate model of the source will yield the correct sound, so other factors must determine the merits of any particular formulation. Using data from a two-dimensional mixing layer direct numerical simulation (DNS), we evaluate the robustness of two analogy formulations to different errors intentionally introduced into the source. The motivation is that since S can not be perfectly modeled, analogies that are less sensitive to errors in S are preferable. Our assessment is made within the framework of Goldstein's generalized acoustic analogy, in which different choices of a base flow used in constructing L give different sources S and thus different analogies. A uniform base flow yields a Lighthill-like analogy, which we evaluate against a formulation in which the base flow is the actual mean flow of the DNS. The more complex mean flow formulation is found to be significantly more robust to errors in the energetic turbulent fluctuations, but its advantage is less pronounced when errors are made in the smaller scales.

  7. Polymorphism of ceramide 3. Part 2: a vibrational spectroscopic and X-ray powder diffraction investigation of N-octadecanoyl phytosphingosine and the analogous specifically deuterated d(35) derivative.

    PubMed

    Raudenkolb, Steve; Wartewig, Siegfried; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2003-07-01

    In order to characterize the arrangements of the hydrocarbon chains of ceramide 3, the thermotropic phase behaviour of the ceramides N-octadecanoylphytosphingosine (CER3) and its chain deuterated derivative N-(d(35)-octadecanoyl)phytosphingosine (d(35)CER3) was studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. CER3 and d(35)CER3 exhibit an identical thermotropic polymorphism involving three different crystalline phases. The selective deuteration of the fatty acid chain enables to distinguish the sphingoid part from the fatty acid part by means of FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. It could be shown that both hydrocarbon chains are arranged in different subcells. Temperature dependent Raman measurements elucidate simultaneously the changes in the trans/gauche ratios and the packing of both the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acid and of the sphingoid part. The phase behaviour of CER3 and d(35)CER3, both dry and hydrated, was investigated. PMID:12818735

  8. Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization and Uv-Uv Hole-Burning Spectroscopic Studies of Jet-Cooled Acetanilide Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ceol Joo; Min, Ahreum; Ahn, Ahreum; Lee, Seung Jun; Choi, Myong Yong; Kim, Seong Keun

    2013-06-01

    Conformational investigations and photochemistry of jet-cooled methacetine (MA) and phenacetine (PA) using one color resonant two-photon ionization (REMPI), UV-UV hole-burning and IR-dip spectroscopy are presented. MA and PA are derivatives of acetanilide, substituted by methoxyl, ethoxyl group in the para position of acetanilide, respectively. Moreover, we have investigated conformational information of the acetanilide derivatives (AAP, MA and PA)-water. In this work, we will present and discuss the solvent effects of the hydroxyl group of acetanilide derivatives in the excited state.

  9. Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs) and hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs) in the liver of harbor seals from the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Neels, Hugo; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-09-15

    Metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs are shown to influence the thyroid hormone homeostasis and therefore, could have an influence on the growth of newborn or young animals. We have investigated the occurrence of hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) in the liver (48 pups; 6 adults) and blubber (4 pups; 1 adult) of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) from the northwest Atlantic. The sum of HO-PCBs in the liver ranged from 90 to 22,450 pg/g wet weight (ww) for pups and from 410 to 5290 pg/g ww for adults. Congener 4-HO-CB 107 was predominant in almost all samples regardless of age or gender, except in one adult male. Sum HO-PCB concentrations were highly correlated with the sum of precursor PCBs in the liver of harbor seals (r(2) = 0.79; p<0.0001). Concentrations of sum HO-PBDEs in the liver ranged from 70 to 1850 pg/g ww for pups and from 90 to 230 pg/g ww for adults. HO-PBDEs were also correlated with PBDEs (r(2) = 0.58; p<0.0001). Sum MeO-PBDE concentrations in the liver ranged from 20 to 1460 pg/g ww in pups and from 10 to 270 pg/g ww in adults. HO-PCBs and HO-PBDEs were not detected in the blubber. Levels of MeO-PBDEs in the blubber ranged from 1500 to 4400 pg/g ww. In all blubber samples, 6-MeO-BDE 47 was the predominant MeO-PBDE congener, followed by 2'-MeO-BDE 68 and 5-MeO-BDE 47, respectively. The presence of HO-metabolites in pup liver suggests that young harbor seals may have some, yet limited, metabolic capacity for PCBs and PBDEs, which can lead to an excessive accumulation of these chemicals in the body. Moreover, the presence of HO-PCB and HO-PBDE metabolites may pose an additional stress for young harbor seals due to their influence on the thyroid hormone system and could have consequences for the entire population. PMID:24982026

  10. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro; Chino, Kanako; Kamimura, Naofumi; Masai, Eiji; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions. PMID:26399549

  11. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro; Chino, Kanako; Kamimura, Naofumi; Masai, Eiji; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions. PMID:26399549

  12. Resveratrol and its methoxy-derivatives as modulators of DNA damage induced by ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Traversi, Gianandrea; Fiore, Mario; Leone, Stefano; Basso, Emiliano; Di Muzio, Elena; Polticelli, Fabio; Degrassi, Francesca; Cozzi, Renata

    2016-07-01

    Various naturally occurring stilbene-like compounds that are related to resveratrol (RSV) possess some of the beneficial effects of the parent molecule and provide even further benefits. Therefore, a series of methoxylated analogues of RSV were prepared with the aim of increasing antitumour and proapoptotic activity. In a previous article, we studied two methoxy-derivatives, pterostilbene (PTERO) and trimethoxystilbene (TRIMETHOXY), in which the first was formed by the substitution of two hydroxyl groups with two methoxy groups (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene) and the second was formed by the replacement of all three OH groups with methoxy groups (trans-3,5,4'-trimethoxystilbene). Both methoxy-derivatives showed stronger antioxidant activity when compared with RSV. In the present article, we focused on the analysis of the ability of RSV and its two methoxylated derivatives to protect proliferating non-tumoural cells from the damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). First we showed that the methoxy derivatives, contrary to their parental compound, are unable to affect topoisomerase enzyme and consequently are not clastogenic per se Second we showed that both PTERO and TRIMETHOXY more efficiently reduce the chromosome damage induced by IR. Furthermore, TRIMETHOXY, but not PTERO, causes a delay in cell proliferation, particularly in mitosis progression increasing the number of cells in metaphase at the expense of prophases and ana/telophases. PMID:26819346

  13. Linearity optimization in a class of analog phase modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the ultimate modulating linearity attainable with a phase modulation technique based on the linear addition of quadrature phase carrier signals which have been multiplied by precisely defined nonlinear transformations of the modulating signal. Optimum gain coefficients are derived and plotted to permit implementation of analog phase modulators capable of exceptionally good linearity of phase deviations as large as 5 radians.

  14. Biomimetic Analogs for Collagen Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Gu, L.; Kim, Y.K.; Liu, Y.; Ryou, H.; Wimmer, C.E.; Dai, L.; Arola, D.D.; Looney, S.W.; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.

    2011-01-01

    Inability of chemical phosphorylation of sodium trimetaphosphate to induce intrafibrillar mineralization of type I collagen may be due to the failure to incorporate a biomimetic analog to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphates (ACP) as nanoprecursors. This study investigated adsorption/desorption characteristics of hydrolyzed and pH-adjusted sodium trimetaphosphate (HPA-Na3P3O9) to collagen. Based on those results, a 5-minute treatment time with 2.8 wt% HPA-Na3P3O9 was used in a single-layer reconstituted collagen model to confirm that both the ACP-stabilization analog and matrix phosphoprotein analog must be present for intrafibrillar mineralization. The results of that model were further validated by complete remineralization of phosphoric-acid-etched dentin treated with the matrix phosphoprotein analog and lined with a remineralizing lining composite, and with the ACP-stabilization analog supplied in simulated body fluid. An understanding of the basic processes involved in intrafibrillar mineralization of reconstituted collagen fibrils facilitates the design of novel tissue engineering materials for hard tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:20940362

  15. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  16. All-optical analog comparator.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical '1' or '0' by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function. PMID:27550874

  17. All-optical analog comparator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function. PMID:27550874

  18. Multilateral Collaborations in Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, R. l.

    2016-01-01

    International collaborations in studies utilizing ground-based space flight analogs are an effective means for answering research questions common to participating agencies. These collaborations bring together worldwide experts to solve important space research questions. By collaborating unnecessary duplication of science is reduced, and the efficiency of analog use is improved. These studies also share resources among agencies for cost effective solutions to study implementation. Recently, NASA has engaged in collaborations with international partners at a variety of analog sites. The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) is currently hosting investigator studies from NASA and from the German Space Agency (DLR). These isolation studies will answer questions in the areas of team cohesion, sleep and circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral correlates to function. Planning for the next HERA campaign is underway as proposal selections are being made from the International Life Sciences Research Announcement (ILSRA). Studies selected from the ILSRA will be conducted across 4 HERA missions in 2017. NASA is planning collaborative studies with DLR at the :envihab facility in Cologne, Germany. Investigations were recently selected to study the effects of 0.5% CO2 exposure over 30 days of bed rest. These studies will help to determine the fidelity of this ground-based analog for studying the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome. NASA is also planning a multilateral collaboration at :envihab with DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA) to examine artificial gravity as a countermeasure to mitigate the effects of 60 days of bed rest. NASA is also considering collaborations with the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in studies that will utilize their Ground-based Experimental Facility (NEK). The NEK is comprised of 4 interconnected modules and a Martian surface simulator. This isolation analog can support 3 -10 crew members for long duration

  19. Analog video to ARINC 818

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Many commercial and military aircraft still use analog video, such as RS-170, RS-343, or STANEG 3350. Though the individual digital components many be inexpensive, the cost to certify and retrofit an entire aircraft fleet may be prohibitively expensive. A partial or incremental upgrade program where analog cameras remain in use but data is converted and processed digitally can be an attractive option. This paper describes Great River Technology's experience in converting multiple channels of RS-170 and multiplexing them through a concentrator to put them onto a single fiber or cable. The paper will also discuss alternative architectures and how ARINC 818 can be utilized with legacy systems.

  20. A note on stability of analog neural networks with time delays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y J; Wu, Q H

    1996-01-01

    This note presents a generalized sufficient condition which guarantees stability of analog neural networks with time delays. The condition is derived using a Lyapunov functional and the stability criterion is stated as: the equilibrium of analog neural networks with delays is globally asymptotically stable if the product of the norm of connection matrix and the maximum neuronal gain is less than one. PMID:18263550

  1. Optical analogs of model atoms in fields

    SciTech Connect

    Milonni, P.W.

    1991-05-02

    The equivalence of the paraxial wave equation to a time-dependent Schroedinger equation is exploited to construct optical analogs of model atoms in monochromatic fields. The approximation of geometrical optics provides the analog of the corresponding classical mechanics. Optical analogs of Rabi oscillations, photoionization, stabilization, and the Kramers-Henneberger transformation are discussed. One possibility for experimental realization of such optical analogs is proposed. These analogs may be useful for studies of quantum chaos'' when the ray trajectories are chaotic. 9 refs.

  2. Terrestrial analogs for space exploration habitation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Paul D.; Brown, Jeri W.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) can use early earth-based analogs to simulate many aspects of space flight missions and system operation. These analogs can thus provide information supporting future missions to the moon and to Mars. A study was performed to investigate the potential of terrestrial analogs in simulating human space exploration missions. The study resulted in preliminary requirements and concepts for analog habitation systems, and further study in this area is necessary for SEI terrestrial analog development.

  3. Infrared spectra of lunar soil analogs. [spectral reflectance of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectra of analogs of lunar soils were investigated to further the development of methodology for interpretation of remotely measured infrared spectra of the lunar surface. The optical constants of dunite, bytownite, augite, ilmenite, and a mare glass analog were obtained. The infrared emittance spectra of powdered minerals were measured and compared with spectra calculated by the reflectance theory using a catalog of optical constants. The results indicate that the predictions of the theory closely simulate the experimental measurements if the optical constants are properly derived.

  4. Analogies and "Modeling Analogies" in Teaching: Some Examples in Basic Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, J. J.; Johsua, S.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effect of modeling analogy on learning of the concepts of electricity in grade 6, 8, and 10. Describes 2 analogies (train analogy and thermal analogy) with diagrams and examples. Discusses the accessibility, transferability, and difficulty of each analogy. Reports treatment effect and some further implications. (YP)

  5. Mathematical Analogy and Metaphorical Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicky, Jan

    2010-01-01

    How are we to understand the power of certain literary metaphors? The author argues that the apprehension of good metaphors is importantly similar to the apprehension of fruitful mathematical analogies: both involve a structural realignment of vision. The author then explores consequences of this claim, drawing conceptually significant parallels…

  6. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bichard, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body.

  7. Analog Simulation of a Laser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Gary

    1982-01-01

    Presents an analog simulation of laser properties (finding time evolution of the intensity of a ruby laser pulse) which serves as the basis of a three-four hour laboratory experiment. Includes programs for solution to rate equations of a three-level laser and production of a giant pulse in a ruby laser. (Author/SK)

  8. Understanding & Teaching Genetics Using Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Scott; Himelblau, Ed

    2013-01-01

    We present a collection of analogies that are intended to help students better understand the foreign and often nuanced vocabulary of the genetics curriculum. Why is it called the "wild type"? What is the difference between a locus, a gene, and an allele? What is the functional (versus a rule-based) distinction between dominant and…

  9. Algicidal Activity of Stilbene Analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our continuing search for natural product and natural product-based compounds for the control of off-flavor in catfish, a total of twenty nine stilbene analogs were synthesized and evaluated for algicidal activity against the 2-methylisoborneol (MIB)-producing cyanobacterium Oscillatoria ...

  10. Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hongjing; Chen, Dawn; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    How can humans acquire relational representations that enable analogical inference and other forms of high-level reasoning? Using comparative relations as a model domain, we explore the possibility that bottom-up learning mechanisms applied to objects coded as feature vectors can yield representations of relations sufficient to solve analogy…

  11. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  12. Analogy of the Cell Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this project, students compare the makeup of a cell to an everyday working unit or system. They create a three-dimensional object that represents their analogy. For example, students could create a car motor or manufacturing plant. (Of course, this is totally hand-created by them, so it can be a homemade re-creation of a system, not an actual…

  13. Multichannel analog temperature sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribble, R.

    1985-08-01

    A multichannel system that protects the numerous and costly water-cooled magnet coils on the translation section of the FRX-C/T magnetic fusion experiment is described. The system comprises a thermistor for each coil, a constant current circuit for each thermistor, and a multichannel analog-to-digital converter interfaced to the computer.

  14. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  15. Bayesian analogy with relational transformations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjing; Chen, Dawn; Holyoak, Keith J

    2012-07-01

    How can humans acquire relational representations that enable analogical inference and other forms of high-level reasoning? Using comparative relations as a model domain, we explore the possibility that bottom-up learning mechanisms applied to objects coded as feature vectors can yield representations of relations sufficient to solve analogy problems. We introduce Bayesian analogy with relational transformations (BART) and apply the model to the task of learning first-order comparative relations (e.g., larger, smaller, fiercer, meeker) from a set of animal pairs. Inputs are coded by vectors of continuous-valued features, based either on human magnitude ratings, normed feature ratings (De Deyne et al., 2008), or outputs of the topics model (Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, 2007). Bootstrapping from empirical priors, the model is able to induce first-order relations represented as probabilistic weight distributions, even when given positive examples only. These learned representations allow classification of novel instantiations of the relations and yield a symbolic distance effect of the sort obtained with both humans and other primates. BART then transforms its learned weight distributions by importance-guided mapping, thereby placing distinct dimensions into correspondence. These transformed representations allow BART to reliably solve 4-term analogies (e.g., larger:smaller::fiercer:meeker), a type of reasoning that is arguably specific to humans. Our results provide a proof-of-concept that structured analogies can be solved with representations induced from unstructured feature vectors by mechanisms that operate in a largely bottom-up fashion. We discuss potential implications for algorithmic and neural models of relational thinking, as well as for the evolution of abstract thought. PMID:22775500

  16. ANALOG: a program for estimating paleoclimate parameters using the method of modern analogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s with CLIMAP, paleoclimatologists have been trying to derive quantitative estimates of climatic parameters from the sedimentary record. In general the procedure is to observe the modern distribution of some component of surface sediment that depends on climate, find an empirical relationship between climate and the character of sediments, then extrapolate past climate by studying older sediments in the same way. Initially the empirical relationship between climate and components of the sediment was determined using a multiple regression technique (Imbrie and Kipp, 1971). In these studies sea-floor sediments were examined to determine the percentage of various species of planktonic foraminifera present in them. Supposing that the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages depended strongly on the extremes of annual sea-surface temperature (SST), the foraminiferal assemblages (refined through use of varimax factor analysis) were regressed against the average SST during the coolest and warmest months of the year. The result was a set of transfer functions, equations that could be used to estimate cool and warm SST from the faunal composition of a sediment sample. Assuming that the ecological preference of the species had remained constant throughout the last several hundred thousand years, these transfer functions could be used to estimate SSTs during much of the late Pleistocene. Hutson (1980) and Overpeck, Webb, and Prentice (1985) proposed an alternative approach to estimating paleoclimatic parameters. Their 'method of modern analogs' revolved not around the existence of a few climatically-sensitive faunal assemblages but rather on the expectation that similar climatic regimes should foster similar faunal and floral assemblages. From a large pool of modern samples, those few are selected whose faunal compositions are most similar to a given fossil sample. Paleoclimate estimates are derived using the climatic character of only the most similar

  17. Structure-mapping approach to analogy and metaphor

    SciTech Connect

    Gentner, D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure-mapping theory of analogy describes a set of principles by which the interpretation of an analogy is derived from the meanings of its parts. These principles are characterized as implicit rules for mapping knowledge about a base domain into a target domain. Two important features of the theory are that the rules depend only on syntactic properties of the knowledge representation, and not on the specific content of the domains; and the theoretical framework allows analogies to be distinguished cleanly from literal similarity statements, applications of general laws, and other kinds of comparisons. Two mapping principles are described: relations between objects, rather than attributes of objects, are mapped from base to target; and the particular relations mapped are determined by systematicity, as defined by the existence of higher-order relations. 4 references.

  18. Synthesis and biological activity of Wuweizisu C and analogs.

    PubMed

    Chang, J B; Wang, Q; Li, Y F

    2009-01-01

    Lignans are widely distributed in nature. The earliest recorded medicinal use of lignans dated back to over 1000 years ago. Lignan-rich plant products were also active ingredients in Chinese and Japanese folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The dried root and stem of this plant are listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gastric, duodenal ulcers and many other diseases. This review highlights synthetic strategies for the Wuweizisu C analogs and the important pharmacological activities as well as therapeutic findings related to the treatment of HBV and other diseases. Notably a significant and ongoing project on Wuweizisu C and its analogs has led to the discovery and development of two potent derivatives alpha-DDB and BICYCLOL which are currently in clinical trials against HBV, especially in lowering elevated SGPT levels. Further design, synthesis, and evaluation of Wuweizisu C analogs are discussed. PMID:19903156

  19. Mechanisms of Transthyretin Cardiomyocyte Toxicity Inhibition by Resveratrol Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Bourgault, Steve; Choi, Sungwook; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Price, Joshua L.; Reixach, Natàlia

    2011-01-01

    The transthyretin amyloidoses are a subset of protein misfolding diseases characterized by the extracellular deposition of aggregates derived from the plasma homotetrameric protein transthyretin (TTR2) in peripheral nerves and the heart. We have established a robust disease-relevant human cardiac tissue culture system to explore the cytotoxic effects of amyloidogenic TTR variants. We have employed this cardiac amyloidosis tissue culture model to screen 23 resveratrol analogs as inhibitors of amyloidogenic TTR-induced cytotoxicity and to investigate their mechanisms of protection. Resveratrol and its analogs kinetically stabilize the native tetramer preventing the formation of cytotoxic species. In addition, we demonstrate that resveratrol can accelerate the formation of soluble non-toxic aggregates and that the resveratrol analogs tested can bring together monomeric TTR subunits to form non-toxic native tetrameric TTR. PMID:21557933

  20. Analog to digital converter for two-dimensional radiant energy array computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaefer, D. H.; Strong, J. P., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The analog to digital converter stage derives a bit array of digital radiant energy signals representative of the amplitudes of an input radiant energy analog signal array and derives an output radiant energy analog signal array to serve as an input to succeeding stages. The converter stage includes a digital radiant energy array device which contains radiant energy array positions so that the analog array is less than a predetermined threshold level. A scaling device amplifies the radiant signal levels of the input array and the digital array so that the radiant energy signal level carried by the digital array corresponds to the threshold level. An adder device adds the signals of the scaled input and digital arrays at corresponding array positions to form the output analog array.

  1. Synaptic dynamics in analog VLSI.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2007-10-01

    Synapses are crucial elements for computation and information transfer in both real and artificial neural systems. Recent experimental findings and theoretical models of pulse-based neural networks suggest that synaptic dynamics can play a crucial role for learning neural codes and encoding spatiotemporal spike patterns. Within the context of hardware implementations of pulse-based neural networks, several analog VLSI circuits modeling synaptic functionality have been proposed. We present an overview of previously proposed circuits and describe a novel analog VLSI synaptic circuit suitable for integration in large VLSI spike-based neural systems. The circuit proposed is based on a computational model that fits the real postsynaptic currents with exponentials. We present experimental data showing how the circuit exhibits realistic dynamics and show how it can be connected to additional modules for implementing a wide range of synaptic properties. PMID:17716003

  2. Battery hydrometer with analog output

    SciTech Connect

    Patis, B.L.

    1982-09-21

    There is disclosed a battery hydrometer for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude related to the specific gravity of a battery electrolyte. The hydrometer includes a source of radiation for providing a detectable beam of radiation and a piston member arranged to be submerged within the electrolyte and to intercept and modulate the beam of radiation in response to the specific gravity of the electrolyte. The piston member is suspended within the electrolyte by a spring which exerts a compressive force upon the piston member against which the electrolyte must act. The hydrometer further includes a radiation detector aligned with the radiation source for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude responsive to the modulated beam of radiation.

  3. Classical Analog to Entanglement Reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Ben; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2015-08-01

    In this Letter we study the problem of secrecy reversibility. This asks when two honest parties can distill secret bits from some tripartite distribution pX Y Z and transform secret bits back into pX Y Z at equal rates using local operation and public communication. This is the classical analog to the well-studied problem of reversibly concentrating and diluting entanglement in a quantum state. We identify the structure of distributions possessing reversible secrecy when one of the honest parties holds a binary distribution, and it is possible that all reversible distributions have this form. These distributions are more general than what is obtained by simply constructing a classical analog to the family of quantum states known to have reversible entanglement. An indispensable tool used in our analysis is a conditional form of the Gács-Körner common information.

  4. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  5. Basic Electricity--a Novel Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Uses the analogy of water flow to introduce concepts in basic electricity. Presents a demonstration that uses this analogy to help students grasp the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance. (JRH)

  6. Thermal analog device reduces machining errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Thermal analog devices predict thermal expansion and contraction of machine structures subjected to various heat inputs. Analog devices correct positioning of machine tools to compensate for distortion of machine frame.

  7. Simple Electronic Analog of a Josephson Junction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, R. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that an electronic Josephson junction analog constructed from three integrated circuits plus an external reference oscillator can exhibit many of the circuit phenomena of a real Josephson junction. Includes computer and other applications of the analog. (Author/SK)

  8. Abstract analogical reasoning in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Mosner, Maya G; Gallagher, Natalie M; Fearon, Edward W; Balhana, Carlos D; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit a deficit in spontaneously recognizing abstract similarities that are crucial for generalizing learning to new situations. This may contribute to deficits in the development of appropriate schemas for navigating novel situations, including social interactions. Analogical reasoning is the central cognitive mechanism that enables typically developing children to understand abstract similarities between different situations. Intriguingly, studies of high-functioning children with ASD point to a relative cognitive strength in basic, nonabstract forms of analogical reasoning. If this analogical reasoning ability extends to abstract analogical reasoning (i.e., between superficially dissimilar situations), it may provide a bridge between a cognitive capability and core ASD deficits in areas such as generalization and categorization. This study tested whether preserved analogical reasoning abilities in ASD can be extended to abstract analogical reasoning, using photographs of real-world items and situations. Abstractness of the analogies was determined via a quantitative measure of semantic distance derived from latent semantic analysis. Children with ASD performed as well as typically developing children at identifying abstract analogical similarities when explicitly instructed to apply analogical reasoning. Individual differences in abstract analogical reasoning ability predicted individual differences in a measure of social function in the ASD group. Preliminary analyses indicated that children with ASD, but not typically developing children, showed an effect of age on abstract analogical reasoning. These results provide new evidence that children with ASD are capable of identifying abstract similarities through analogical reasoning, pointing to abstract analogical reasoning as a potential lever for improving generalization skills and social function in ASD. PMID:25255899

  9. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  10. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-01-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to…

  11. Reasoning by Analogy in Constructing Mathematical Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    A powerful way of understanding something new is by analogy with something already known. An analogy is defined as a mapping from one structure, which is already known (the base or source), to another structure that is to be inferred or discovered (the target). The research community has given considerable attention to analogical reasoning in the…

  12. Relativistic Velocity Addition Law from Machine Gun Analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Many derivations of the relativistic addition law of parallel velocities without use of the Lorentz transformations (LT) are known.1-5 Some of them are based on thought experiments that require knowledge of the time dilation and the length contraction effects.1,4,5 Other derivations involve the Doppler effect in the optic domain considered from three inertial reference frames in relative motion.6 A few derivations simply involve only the principle of constancy of the light velocity.2 Such derivations are interesting for the teaching of special relativity theory since the relativistic addition of velocities leads directly to the LT.7 The derivation we propose is based on a machine gun-target analogy8 of the acoustic Doppler effect, considered from the rest frame of the machine gun and from the rest frame of the target.

  13. Classical analog of quantum phase

    SciTech Connect

    Ord, G.N.

    1992-07-01

    A modified version of the Feynman relativistic chessboard model (FCM) is investigated in which the paths involved are spirals in the space-time. Portions of the paths in which the particle`s proper time is reversed are interpreted in terms of antiparticles. With this intepretation the particle-antiparticle field produced by such trajectories provides a classical analog of the phase associated with particle paths in the unmodified FCM. It is shwon that in the nonrelativistic limit the resulting kernel is the correct Dirac propagator and that particle-antiparticle symmetry is in this case responsible for quantum interference. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Exploring the use of multiple analogical models when teaching and learning chemical equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Allan G.; de Jong, Onno

    2005-12-01

    This study describes the multiple analogical models used to introduce and teach Grade 12 chemical equilibrium. We examine the teacher's reasons for using models, explain each model's development during the lessons, and analyze the understandings students derived from the models. A case study approach was used and the data were drawn from the observation of three consecutive Grade 12 lessons on chemical equilibrium, pre- and post-lesson interviews, and delayed student interviews. The key analogical models used in teaching were: the school dance; the sugar in a teacup; the pot of curry; and the busy highway. The lesson and interview data were subject to multiple, independent analyses and yielded the following outcomes: The teacher planned to use the students' prior knowledge wherever possible and he responded to student questions with stories and extended and enriched analogies. He planned to discuss where each analogy broke down but did not. The students enjoyed the teaching but built variable mental models of equilibrium and some of their analogical mappings were unreliable. A female student disliked masculine analogies, other students tended to see elements of the multiple models in isolation, and some did not recognize all the analogical mappings embedded in the teaching plan. Most students learned that equilibrium reactions are dynamic, occur in closed systems, and the forward and reverse reactions are balanced. We recommend the use of multiple analogies like these and insist that teachers always show where the analogy breaks down and carefully negotiate the conceptual outcomes.

  15. Approaches to synthetic platelet analogs.

    PubMed

    Modery-Pawlowski, Christa L; Tian, Lewis L; Pan, Victor; McCrae, Keith R; Mitragotri, Samir; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    Platelet transfusion is routinely used for treating bleeding complications in patients with hematologic or oncologic clotting disorders, chemo/radiotherapy-induced myelosuppression, trauma and surgery. Currently, these transfusions mostly use allogeneic platelet concentrates, while products like lyophilized platelets, cold-stored platelets and infusible platelet membranes are under investigation. These natural platelet-based products pose considerable risks of contamination, resulting in short shelf-life (3-5 days). Recent advances in pathogen reduction technologies have increased shelf-life to ~7 days. Furthermore, natural platelets are short in supply and also cause several biological side effects. Hence, there is significant clinical interest in platelet-mimetic synthetic analogs that can allow long storage-life and minimum side effects. Accordingly, several designs have been studied which decorate synthetic particles with motifs that promote platelet-mimetic adhesion or aggregation. Recent refinement in this design involves combining the adhesion and aggregation functionalities on a single particle platform. Further refinement is being focused on constructing particles that also mimic natural platelet's shape, size and elasticity, to influence margination and wall-interaction. The optimum design of a synthetic platelet analog would require efficient integration of platelet's physico-mechanical properties and biological functionalities. We present a comprehensive review of these approaches and provide our opinion regarding the future directions of this research. PMID:23092864

  16. Analog computation with dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegelmann, Hava T.; Fishman, Shmuel

    1998-09-01

    Physical systems exhibit various levels of complexity: their long term dynamics may converge to fixed points or exhibit complex chaotic behavior. This paper presents a theory that enables to interpret natural processes as special purpose analog computers. Since physical systems are naturally described in continuous time, a definition of computational complexity for continuous time systems is required. In analogy with the classical discrete theory we develop fundamentals of computational complexity for dynamical systems, discrete or continuous in time, on the basis of an intrinsic time scale of the system. Dissipative dynamical systems are classified into the computational complexity classes P d, Co-RP d, NP d and EXP d, corresponding to their standard counterparts, according to the complexity of their long term behavior. The complexity of chaotic attractors relative to regular ones leads to the conjecture P d ≠ NP d. Continuous time flows have been proven useful in solving various practical problems. Our theory provides the tools for an algorithmic analysis of such flows. As an example we analyze the continuous Hopfield network.

  17. Theoretical understanding of two-photon-induced fluorescence of isomorphic nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pralok K; Pati, Swapan K

    2015-04-21

    We use ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations for a detailed understanding of one-photon absorption (1PA) and two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections of eight different nucleoside analogs. The results are compared and contrasted with the available experimental data. Our calculated results show that the low energy peaks in the absorption spectra mainly arise because of the π-π* electronic transition of the nucleoside analogs. The emission spectra of the nucleoside analogs are also calculated using TDDFT methods. The calculated absorption and emission spectra in the presence of a solvent follow the same trend as those found experimentally. Our results demonstrate that the nucleoside analogs show significantly different electronic and optical properties, although their bonding aspects towards Watson-Crick base pairing remain the same. We also derive the microscopic details of the origin of nonlinear optical properties of the nucleoside analogs. PMID:25785569

  18. Automatic activation of categorical and abstract analogical relations in analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2006-10-01

    We examined activation of concepts during analogical reasoning. Subjects made either analogical judgments or categorical judgments about four-word sets. After each four-word set, they named the ink color of a single word in a modified Stroop task. Words that referred to category relations were primed (as indicated by longer response times on Stroop color naming) subsequent to analogical judgments and categorical judgments. This finding suggests that activation of category concepts plays a fundamental role in analogical thinking. When colored words referred to analogical relations, priming occurred subsequent to analogical judgments, but not to categorical judgments, even though identical four-word stimuli were used for both types of judgments. This finding lends empirical support to the hypothesis that, when people comprehend the analogy between two items, they activate an abstract analogical relation that is distinct from the specific content items that compose the analogy. PMID:17263066

  19. [Active vitamin D3 analog].

    PubMed

    Takata, Shinjiro

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and exerts effects on skeletal and extraskeletal health in children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D insufficiency is related to low muscle strength, increasing body sway, falls in the elderly. Supplementation with vitamin D reduces risk of osteoporotic fracture, and improves muscle strength and postural balance to prevent the elderly from fall. The preferred vitamin D analog for daily supplementation is cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). The active form of vitamin D3 is 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3. Alfacalcidol, calcitriol and eldecalcitol are used to treat osteoporosis in Japan. Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial for osteoporotic subjects showed that eldecalcitol is more efficacious to increase bone mineral density and prevent vertebral and wrist fractures in osteoporotic patients with vitamin D sufficiency than alfacalcidol. PMID:26529933

  20. Analog computing by Brewster effect.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Amir; Zangeneh-Nejad, Farzad; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Khavasi, Amin

    2016-08-01

    Optical computing has emerged as a promising candidate for real-time and parallel continuous data processing. Motivated by recent progresses in metamaterial-based analog computing [Science343, 160 (2014)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1242818], we theoretically investigate the realization of two-dimensional complex mathematical operations using rotated configurations, recently reported in [Opt. Lett.39, 1278 (2014)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.39.001278]. Breaking the reflection symmetry, such configurations could realize both even and odd Green's functions associated with spatial operators. Based on such an appealing theory and by using the Brewster effect, we demonstrate realization of a first-order differentiator. Such an efficient wave-based computation method not only circumvents the major potential drawbacks of metamaterials, but also offers the most compact possible device compared to conventional bulky lens-based optical signal and data processors. PMID:27472595

  1. QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  2. The Young Solar Analogs Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Richard O.; Saken, J. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Fuller, V.; Kahvaz, Y.; Lambert, R.; Newsome, I.; Seeds, M.

    2013-01-01

    We are carrying out a long-term project of measuring chromospheric activity and brightness variations in 31 young solar analogs (YSAs) using facilities at the Dark Sky Observatory (DSO - Appalachian State University) and the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT). These YSAs are solar-type (spectral types F8 - K2) stars with ages ranging from 0.3 - 1.5 Gyr. The goal of this project is to gain better understanding of the magnetic activity of the early Sun, and especially how that activity may have impacted the development of life on the Earth. This project will also yield insights into the space environments experienced by young Earth analogs. We are currently in the 6th year of spectroscopic measurements of these stars: these data include Ca II H & K chromospheric flux measurements, and narrow-band measurements in the photospheric G-band, both obtained with the G/M spectrograph on the DSO 32-inch telescope. We will present evidence of activity cycles in a number of our stars, as well as periods determined from rotational modulation of the spectroscopic indices. The relationship between the Ca II activity index and the G-band index will be explored. NSF support for our project has provided funds for the construction of a robotic photometric telescope to monitor the program stars in a 5-passband system (Strömgren-v, Johnson-Cousins B, V, and R, and a 3-nm wide Hα filter). The robotic telescope has been functional since April 2012 and observes the program stars on every clear night; combined with the Piggy-back telescope attached to the DSO 32-inch, we now have photometric observations on over 130 nights stretching over nearly 2 years. We will examine the relationships between variations in the Ca II H & K index, the G-band index and the photometric bands. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation, grant AST-1109158.

  3. The Young Solar Analogs Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Richard O.; Saken, J. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Seeds, M. F.; Morrison, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    We are carrying out a long-term project of measuring chromospheric activity and brightness variations in 31 young solar analogs (YSAs) using the Dark Sky Observatory (DSO -- Appalachian State University) 32-inch telescope and the G/M spectrograph. These YSAs are solar-type (spectral types F8 - K2) stars with ages ranging from 0.3 - 1.5 Gyr. The goal of this project is to gain better understanding of the magnetic activity of the early Sun, and especially how that activity may have impacted the development of life on the Earth. This project will also yield insights into the space environments experienced by young Earth analogs. We are currently in our 5th year of obtaining Ca II K & H chromospheric flux measurements, and are beginning to see signs of long-term activity cycles in a number of our stars. In addition, rotational modulation of the chromospheric fluxes is detectable in our data, and we have determined rotational periods for many of our stars. Short timescale increases in the K & H fluxes have been observed in a number of our stars; these events may be related to stellar flares. VATTSpec, a new moderate-resolution spectrograph on the 1.8-m Vatican Telescope in Arizona, has recently become involved with the project. This spectrograph will increase our ability to detect short-term changes in stellar activity on timescales of hours to minutes. We have been monitoring the program stars for one year in a multi-band photometric system consisting of Stromgren-v, and Johnson B, V, and R filters. We will soon add a narrow-band H-alpha filter to the system. Photometry is being carried out with a small piggy-back telescope on the 32-inch, but a robotic photometric telescope is currently being installed at DSO for this purpose. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  4. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems. PMID:25784574

  5. Analysis of analogies used by science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.

    Science teachers use analogies that display a rich variety of form and content. An account of science teacher analogies that relies solely on systems of analysis imported from other fields of inquiry tends to obscure the unique features of these analogies as they operate within classroom discourse. This study examines teachers' analogies in context and highlights some of their special characteristics. The purpose of this analysis is to increase our understanding of how analogies operate in naturalistic instructional settings and to generate new research questions about science teaching and learning in view of the broader dimensions of the curriculum.Science isa very human activity. It involves human actors and judgements, rivalries and antagonisms, mysteries and surprises, the creative use of metaphor and analogy. It is fallible, often uncertain, and sometimes creatively ambiguous [Lemke, 1990, p. 134].Received: 1 June 1993; Revised: 29 November 1993;

  6. Terrestrial Analogs for Planetary Wrinkle Ridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Golombek, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Wrinkle ridges are common physiographic features on the terrestrial planets. Their origin has remained enigmatic, although two different types of models, volcanic and tectonic, have been proposed. The major impediment to deciphering the origin of wrinkle ridges has been the lack of a terrestrial analog. Seven terrestrial analogs were discussed, two in detail. Their implications for the origin for planetary wrinkle ridges were considered. All of the terrestrial analogs were formed in compressional environments and are the surface breaks of thrust faults.

  7. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  8. Real World: Analog Testing in Extreme Environments

    NASA Video Gallery

    See how NASA uses analog testing to simulate space exploration. Explore extreme environments like the Aquarius underwater laboratory in Key Largo, Florida. Find out how scientists use mathematical ...

  9. Fermilab accelerator control system: Analog monitoring facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1987-10-01

    Thousands of analog signals are monitored in different areas of the Fermilab accelerator complex. For general purposes, analog signals are sent over coaxial or twinaxial cables with varying lengths, collected at fan-in boxes and digitized with 12 bit multiplexed ADCs. For higher resolution requirements, analog signals are digitized at sources and are serially sent to the control system. This paper surveys ADC subsystems that are used with the accelerator control systems and discusses practical problems and solutions, and it describes how analog data are presented on the console system.

  10. Phaeofurans and Sorbicillin Analogs from a Fungicolous Phaeoacremonium Species (NRRL 32148)

    PubMed Central

    Reátegui, Ricardo F.; Wicklow, Donald T.; Gloer, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Two new benzofuran-derived metabolites of polyketide origin called phaeofurans A and B (1–2), along with three sorbicillin analogs (3–5) have been obtained from a fungicolous isolate of the genus Phaeoacremonium (NRRL 32148). The structures were determined by analysis of MS and 2D NMR data. The antifungal effects of the extract were ascribed to the sorbicillin analogs. PMID:16441079

  11. Chromatographic and spectral properties of some aryl-substituted phencyclidine analogs.

    PubMed

    Costa, J F; Speaker, T J

    1983-01-01

    As part of a search for phencyclidine (PCP) antagonists, a series of eleven aryl-substituted PCP analogs were prepared and characterized. TLC and GC elution profiles of these derivatives are described in a number of systems allowing for the tentative identification of the PCP analogs. Further, MS, NMR, UV/vis and IR spectral tabulations are provided. Correlation of chromatographic character with physical organic structure parameters, such as those of Hammet, showed good predictability. PMID:6645410

  12. Chemical modification and structure-activity relationships of pyripyropenes. 2. 1,11-Cyclic analogs.

    PubMed

    Obata, R; Sunazuka, T; Kato, Y; Tomoda, H; Harigaya, Y; Omura, S

    1996-11-01

    A series of 1,11-cyclic analogs of pyripyropene A were prepared. Replacement of the 1,11-acyl groups of pyripyropenes with 1,11-cyclic acetals effectively improved in vitro acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitory activity. Especially noteworthy is benzylidene acetal analog 35, the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 5.6 nM) among the derivatives prepared so far, which showed 16 times more potent inhibitory activity than pyripyropene A. PMID:8982344

  13. Theoretical ingredients of a Casimir analog computer

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    We derive a correspondence between the contour integration of the Casimir stress tensor in the complex-frequency plane and the electromagnetic response of a physical dissipative medium in a finite real-frequency bandwidth. The consequences of this correspondence are at least threefold: First, the correspondence makes it easier to understand Casimir systems from the perspective of conventional classical electromagnetism, based on real-frequency responses, in contrast to the standard imaginary-frequency point of view based on Wick rotations. Second, it forms the starting point of finite-difference time-domain numerical techniques for calculation of Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries. Finally, this correspondence is also key to a technique for computing quantum Casimir forces at micrometer scales using antenna measurements at tabletop (e.g., centimeter) scales, forming a type of analog computer for the Casimir force. Superficially, relationships between the Casimir force and the classical electromagnetic Green’s function are well known, so one might expect that any experimental measurement of the Green’s function would suffice to calculate the Casimir force. However, we show that the standard forms of this relationship lead to infeasible experiments involving infinite bandwidth or exponentially growing fields, and a fundamentally different formulation is therefore required. PMID:20460309

  14. Synthesis of p-O-Alkyl Salicylanilide Derivatives as Novel EGFR Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Hou, Lin; Sun, Wenyan; Yu, Zidong; Wang, Jibo; Gao, Hua; Yang, Guiming

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a validated target for anticancer drugs, plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. A series of p-O-alkyl salicylanilide derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel EGFR inhibitors using a salicylic acid scaffold. A simulated six-membered ring strategy formed through intramolecular hydrogen bonds was employed to mimic the planar quinazoline of the EGFR antagonist, gefitinib. The derived compounds with hydroxyl at the ortho position were more potent than ones with methoxyl group. In particular, compounds 5d and 5b displayed significant EGFR inhibitory (IC50 values = 0.30 and 0.45 μM, respectively) activity as well as potent antiproliferative activity in A431 and HCT-116 tumor cells. These salicylanilides could be considered as promising lead compounds for developing novel EGFR inhibitors. PMID:26763193

  15. Expert analogy use in a naturalistic setting

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Donald R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker's goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption) of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance. PMID:25505437

  16. Phytotoxicity of brominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated and methoxylated analogues (6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47) to maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuehui; Huang, Honglin; Wen, Bei; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-03-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) are widely found in various environmental media, which is of concern given their biological toxicity. In this study, the phytotoxicities of BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 to maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by an in vivo exposure experiment. Results showed that BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited seed germination and seedling development, and elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups, and phosphorylated histone H2AX levels in maize roots, suggesting the inducement of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and DNA damage to maize. Exposure to BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 caused the overproduction of H2O2, O2(•-), and •OH, and elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the roots. In addition, 6-OH-BDE-47 caused more severe damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in maize than did BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47. These results demonstrated the phytotoxicities of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and 6-MeO-BDE-47 to maize, and clarified that overproduction of ROS was the key mechanism leading to toxicity. This study offers useful information for a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental behaviors and toxicities of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs. PMID:25654621

  17. The biomolecule, 2-[(2-methoxyl)sulfanyl]-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile: FT-IR, Laser-Raman spectra and DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sert, Yusuf; El-Emam, Ali A.; Al-Deeb, Omar A.; Al-Turkistani, Abdulghafoor A.; Ucun, Fatih; Çırak, Çağrı

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized potential chemotherapeutic agent namely, 2-[(2-methoxyl)sulfanyl]-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm-1) of the molecule in solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and M06-2X (the highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09W software, for the first time. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with the results in the literature. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy and the other related molecular energy values of the compound have been investigated using the same theoretical calculations.

  18. Unpowered wireless analog resistance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andringa, Matthew M.; Neikirk, Dean P.; Wood, Sharon L.

    2004-07-01

    Our society depends heavily on a network of buildings, bridges and roadways. In order to properly maintain this civil infrastructure and avoid damage and costly repairs due to structural failure, it is necessary to monitor the health of these structures. Sensors must frequently be placed in inaccessible locations under harsh conditions and should ideally last the lifetime of the structure the sensors are monitoring. This paper presents the development of a low cost, passive, un-powered wireless analog resistance sensor. The sensor was originally designed for monitoring corrosion in concrete, but there are many other potential applications including remote temperature monitoring, embedded accelerometers, and embedded strain gauges. The passive wireless nature makes the sensor ideally suited for embedding in inaccessible locations under harsh conditions. The sensor consists of a resonant inductor-capacitor circuit containing a resistive transducer. The sensor is interrogated by measuring the impedance through a remote, magnetically coupled reader loop. The width of the resonance is directly related to the resistance of the transducer. The sensor has been simulated under a variety of conditions using a circuit model and compared to actual test sensors built and evaluated in the laboratory.

  19. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd, Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Existing models of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive (ex: bedrest). We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre- and post-flight astronaut performance data using the same tasks. Spline regression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of: leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/ BW of 79 J/kg, knee extension (KE) isokinetic/BW of 6 Nm/Kg and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg. Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of strength / BW has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant exercise targets.

  20. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  1. Fault diagnosis of analog circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bandler, J.W.; Salama, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    In this paper, various fault location techniques in analog networks are described and compared. The emphasis is on the more recent developments in the subject. Four main approaches for fault location are addressed, examined, and illustrated using simple network examples. In particular, we consider the fault dictionary approach, the parameter identification approach, the fault verification approach, and the approximation approach. Theory and algorithms that are associated with these approaches are reviewed and problems of their practical application are identified. Associated with the fault dictionary approach we consider fault dictionary construction techniques, methods of optimum measurement selection, different fault isolation criteria, and efficient fault simulation techniques. Parameter identification techniques that either utilize linear or nonlinear systems of equations to identify all network elements are examined very thoroughly. Under fault verification techniques we discuss node-fault diagnosis, branch-fault diagnosis, subnetwork testability conditions as well as combinatorial techniques, the failure bound technique, and the network decomposition technique. For the approximation approach we consider probabilistic methods and optimization-based methods. The artificial intelligence technique and the different measures of testability are also considered. The main features of the techniques considered are summarized in a comparative table. An extensive, but not exhaustive, bibliography is provided.

  2. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Makaluvamine Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Nadkarni, Dwayaja H.; Wu, Hui; Velu, Sadanandan E.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a key etiological agent in the formation of dental caries. The major virulence factor is its ability to form biofilms. Inhibition of S. mutans biofilms offers therapeutic prospects for the treatment and the prevention of dental caries. In this study, 14 analogs of makaluvamine, a marine alkaloid, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against S. mutans and for their ability to inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation. All analogs contained the tricyclic pyrroloiminoquinone core of makaluvamines. The structural variations of the analogs are on the amino substituents at the 7-position of the ring and the inclusion of a tosyl group on the pyrrole ring N of the makaluvamine core. The makaluvamine analogs displayed biofilm inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 μM to 88 μM. Further, the observed bactericidal activity of the majority of the analogs was found to be consistent with the anti-biofilm activity, leading to the conclusion that the anti-biofilm activity of these analogs stems from their ability to kill S. mutans. However, three of the most potent N-tosyl analogs showed biofilm IC50 values at least an order of magnitude lower than that of bactericidal activity, indicating that the biofilm activity of these analogs is more selective and perhaps independent of bactericidal activity. PMID:25767719

  3. Alaskan thermokarst terrain and possible Martian analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatto, L. W.; Anderson, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A first-order analog to Martian fretted terrain has been recognized on enhanced, ERTS-1 (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) imagery of Alaskan Arctic thermokarst terrain. The Alaskan analog displays flat-floored valleys and intervalley uplands characteristic of fretted terrain. The thermokarst terrain has formed in a manner similar to one of the processes postulated for the development of the Martian fretted terrain.

  4. Analog disc recorder system: operator's reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, J.D.; Smith, E.L.

    1984-07-01

    The FM Analog Disc Recorder System is a cost-efficient means of capturing analog transient data from many channels; it has high-frequency response and long record time. It can digitize recorded signals, correct internal distortion, and present the data as plots either on a CRT, hardcopy plot, or both. The system is easy to use, self-contained, and compact.

  5. Rotanone analogs: method of preparation and use

    DOEpatents

    VanBrocklin, Henry F; O& #x27; Neil, James P; Gibbs, Andrew R; Erathodiyil, Nandanan

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides rotenone analogs and methods of making and using them. Labeled with single photon and positron emitting isotopes, the rotenone analogs of the present invention are useful in, for example, clinical imaging applications as tracers to measure cardiac blood flow and detect regions of ischemia.

  6. Using Analogies to Develop Conceptual Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Sally

    Because analogies are such powerful tools for communicating they should be exploited more consciously for instructional purposes. Unfortunately, analogies as a topic of investigation in the school curriculum tend to surface only as a subheading within a figurative language lesson in English class or as a test item on the SAT, MAT, or GRE. Analogy…

  7. Mathematical Analogs and the Teaching of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Kathy; Nason, Rod; Cooper, Tom

    The literature has noted that some mathematical analogs are more effective than others for the teaching of fractions. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of seven mathematical analogs commonly used in the teaching of the partitive quotient fraction construct. A sample of twelve purposively selected Year Three children were presented with…

  8. Predicting Naming Latencies with an Analogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Skousen's (1989, Analogical modeling of language, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht) Analogical Model (AM) predicts behavior such as spelling pronunciation by comparing the characteristics of a test item (a given input word) to those of individual exemplars in a data set of previously encountered items. While AM and other exemplar-based models…

  9. Piperazine-based nucleic acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Jurgen; Silks, Louis A.; Michalczyk, Ryszard

    2005-01-11

    A novel nucleoside analog is disclosed which comprises a piperazine ring in the place of the ring ribose or deoxyribose sugar. Monomers utilizing a broad variety of nucleobases are disclosed, as well as oligomers comprising the monomers disclosed herein linked by a variety of linkages, including amide, phosphonamide, and sulfonamide linkages. A method of synthesizing the nucleoside analogs is also disclosed.

  10. The Pennies-as-Electrons Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Everyday experiences familiarize students with the ways in which electricity is used, but often the underlying concepts remain a mystery. Teachers often use analogies to help students relate the flow of electrons to other common systems, but many times these analogies are incomplete and lead to more student misconceptions. However, the "pass the…

  11. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  12. A Mechanical Analogy for the Photoelectric Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Milan S.; Djordjevich, Alexandar

    2006-01-01

    Analogy is a potent tool in the teacher's repertoire. It has been particularly well recognized in the teaching of science. However, careful planning is required for its effective application to prevent documented drawbacks when analogies are stretched too far. Befitting the occasion of the World Year of Physics commemorating Albert Einstein's 1905…

  13. An Analog Computer for Electronic Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, A. L.; Iu, H. H. C.; Lu, D. D. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a compact analog computer and proposes its use in electronic engineering teaching laboratories to develop student understanding of applications in analog electronics, electronic components, engineering mathematics, control engineering, safe laboratory and workshop practices, circuit construction, testing, and maintenance. The…

  14. A Computer Analogy for Illustrating Entropy Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a computer program for Commodore PET (requiring 8K) which illustrates the statistical nature of entropy by providing a simple analogy. The analogy involves the distribution of objects free to move in a box divided into two compartments. A listing of program statements is also included. (JN)

  15. Analogical Processes and College Developmental Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Although a solid body of research concerning the role of analogies in reading processes has emerged at a variety of age groups and reading proficiencies, few of those studies have focused on analogy use by readers enrolled in college developmental reading courses. The current study explores whether 232 students enrolled in mandatory (by placement…

  16. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning in Science Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study in a classroom setting investigates first graders' (age 7-8 years, N = 25) ability to perform analogical reasoning and create their own analogies for two irreversible natural phenomena: mixing and heat transfer. We found that the children who contributed actively to a full-class discussion were consistently successful at…

  17. Play with Language: Overextensions as Analogies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Judith; Nelson, Katherine

    1984-01-01

    Defines criteria to identify children's language overextensions and investigates how young children in the early stages of language acquisition rename objects analogically during a standardized play situation. Results indicate that analogic extensions are well within the capabilities of children from one year, eight months to two years, four…

  18. An Analog Earth Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The earth climate is broadly governed by the radiative power of the sun as well as the heat retention and convective cooling of the atmosphere. I have constructed an analog earth model for an undergraduate climate class that simulates mean climate using these three parameters. The ‘earth’ is a hollow, black, bronze sphere (4 cm diameter) mounted on a thin insulated rod, and illuminated by two opposite optic fibers, with light focused on the sphere by a set of lenses. The sphere is encased in a large double-walled aluminum cylinder (34 cm diameter by 26 cm high) with separate water cooling jackets at the top, bottom, and sides. The cylinder can be filled with a gas of choice at a variety of pressures or can be run in vacuum. The exterior is cladded with insulation, and the temperature of the sphere, atmosphere and walls is monitored with thermocouples. The temperature and waterflow of the three cooling jackets can be monitored to establish the energy output of the whole system; the energy input is the energy yield of the two optic fibers. A small IR transmissive lens at the top provides the opportunity to hook up the fiber of a hyper spectrometer to monitor the emission spectrum of the black ‘earth’ sphere. A pressure gauge and gas inlet-outlet system for flushing of the cell completes it. The heat yield of the cooling water at the top is the sum of the radiative and convective components, whereas the bottom jacket only carries off the radiative heat of the sphere. Undergraduate E&ES students at Wesleyan University have run experiments with dry air, pure CO2, N2 and Ar at 1 atmosphere, and a low vacuum run was accomplished to calibrate the energy input. For each experiment, the lights are flipped on, the temperature acquisition routine is activated, and the sphere starts to warm up until an equilibrium temperature has been reached. The lights are then flipped off and the cooling sequence towards ambient is registered. The energy input is constant for a given

  19. Investigation of Celestial Solid Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    Our far infrared studies of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic aerogel grains have demonstrated that the mm and sub-mm wave absorption produced by the fundamental two level systems (TLS) mechanism represents a more significant contribution for these open grain structures than for bulk amorphous silicate grains. We found that the region with the anomalous temperature dependence of the spectral index due to the TLS excitations can extend in a fluffy material up to 80 per cm, which is well beyond its typical upper limit for bulk glasses. Currently there is no theoretical explanation for this surprising result. The effects of reduced dimensionality on the optical properties of carbonaceous grains have been studied with a systematic investigation of carbon aerogels. This spectroscopic approach has permitted a more reliable determination of the single grain mass normalized absorption coefficient based on the experimentally determined characteristics of the fluffy material rather than on first principles calculations involving the bulk properties of the substance. Our finding is that the electrical connectivity of the material is the main factor affecting its far infrared absorption coefficient. Another one of the main constituents of the interstellar dust, amorphous ice, has been investigated in the mm-wave region both in the high (HDA) and low (LDA) density amorphous phases and as a function of impurities. We found that doping either phase with ionic (LiCl) or molecular (methanol) impurities decreases the difference in the mm-wave absorption coefficient between the HDA and LDA ice phases so that the HDA spectrum can be used as an analog for impure ice absorption in the far infrared spectral region.

  20. Fostering Multilateral Involvement in Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration in space flight research is an effective means for conducting investigations and utilizing limited resources to the fullest extent. Through these multilateral collaborations mutual research questions can be investigated and resources contributed by each international partner to maximize the scientific benefits to all parties. Recently the international partners embraced this approach to initiate collaborations in ground-based space flight analog environments. In 2011, the International Analog Research Working Group was established, and later named the International Human Space Flight Analog Research Coordination Group (HANA). Among the goals of this working group are to 1) establish a framework to coordinate research campaigns, as appropriate, to minimize duplication of effort and enhance synergy; 2) define what analogs are best to use for collaborative interests; and 3) facilitate interaction between discipline experts in order to have the full benefit of international expertise. To accomplish these goals, HANA is currently engaged in developing international research campaigns in ground-based analogs. Plans are being made for an international solicitation for proposals to address research of common interest to all international partners. This solicitation with identify an analog environment that will best accommodate the types of investigations requested. Once selected, studies will be integrated into a campaign and implemented at the analog site. Through these combined efforts, research beneficial to all partners will be conducted efficiently to further address human risks of space exploration.

  1. Analogies: Explanatory Tools in Web-Based Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…

  2. Preparation of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline and analogs thereof

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Pat J.

    2001-01-01

    The compound 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline and analogs thereof may be used to produce an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth, dry weight, nutritional value (proteins and amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation and photosynthetically derived chemical energy when applied to plants through their roots and/or through their foliar portions. The present invention includes an essentially quantitative chemical synthesis for this compound which is performed in a single step reaction of Fremy's Salt (potassium nitrosodisulphonate) with either glutamine or 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid. Fremy's salt (potassium nitrosodisulphonate) is available commercially, or can be readily synthesized.

  3. Polarization optics analogy of quantum wavefunctions in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Dragoman, D.

    2010-07-15

    Detailed similarities between polarization states of light and ballistic charge carriers in graphene are derived. Based on these, the optical equivalent of quantum wavefunctions, the Dirac equation, and the effect of an electrostatic potential are found, and the quantum analogs of the refractive index of light and of the optical composition law of reflection coefficients are obtained. The differences between the behaviors of quantum wavefunctions in graphene and electromagnetic fields, due to the chiral symmetry of ballistic charge carriers that cannot be mimicked in classical polarization optics, are also evidenced.

  4. Lipid and sulfur substituted prenylcysteine analogs as human Icmt inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Joel A.; Hahne, Kalub; Hrycyna, Christine A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt) offers a promising strategy for K-Ras driven cancers. We describe the synthesis and inhibitory activity of substrate-based analogs derived from several novel scaffolds. Modifications of both the prenyl group and thioether of N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-l-cysteine (AFC), a substrate for human Icmt (hIcmt), have resulted in low micromolar inhibitors of Icmt and have given insights into the nature of the prenyl binding site of hIcmt. PMID:21782433

  5. Programmable Analog-To-Digital Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kist, Edward H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed analog-to-digital converter with programmable voltage steps that can be changed during operation. Allows concentration of converter resolution over specific portion of waveform. Particularly useful in digitizing wind-shear radar and lidar return signals, in digital oscilloscopes, and other applications in which desirable to increase digital resolution over specific area of waveform while accepting lower resolution over rest of waveform. Effective increase in dynamic range achieved without increase in number of analog-to-digital converter bits. Enabling faster analog-to-digital conversion.

  6. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Harb, Charles C.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  7. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Harb, Charles C.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2001-05-15

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  8. Comparative conformational analysis of peptide T analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akverdieva, Gulnare; Godjayev, Niftali; Akyuz, Sevim

    2009-01-01

    A series of peptide T analogs were investigated within the molecular mechanics framework. In order to determine the role of the aminoacid residues in spatial formation of peptide T the conformational peculiarities of the glycine-substituted analogs were investigated. The conformational profiles of some biologically tested analogs of this peptide were determined independently. The received data permit to assess the active form of this peptide. It is characterized by β-turn at the C-terminal physiologically active pentapeptide fragment of peptide molecule. The received results are important for the investigation of the structure-activity relationship and may be used at design of a rigid-molecule drug against HIV.

  9. Hybrid benzothiazole analogs as antiurease agent: Synthesis and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Imran, Syahrul; Wadood, Abdul; Rahim, Fazal; Khan, Khalid Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    Benzothiazole analogs (1-20) have been synthesized, characterized by EI-MS and (1)H NMR, and evaluated for urease inhibition activity. All compounds showed excellent urease inhibitory potential varying from 1.4±0.10 to 34.43±2.10μM when compared with standard thiourea (IC50 19.46±1.20μM). Among the series seventeen (17) analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, and 18 showed outstanding urease inhibitory potential. Analogs 15 and 19 also showed good urease inhibition activity. When we compare the activity of N-phenylthiourea 20 with all substituted phenyl derivatives (1-18) we found that compound 15 showed less activity than compound 20 having 3-methoxy substituent. The binding interactions of these active analogs were confirmed through molecular docking. PMID:27038849

  10. An Electrical Analog Computer for Poets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruels, Mark C.

    1972-01-01

    Nonphysics majors are presented with a direct current experiment beyond Ohms law and series and parallel laws. This involves construction of an analog computer from common rheostats and student-assembled voltmeters. (Author/TS)

  11. An Electronic Analog of the Diffraction Grating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Gives an outline description of electronic circuitry which is analogous to the optical diffraction grating or to crystals used in the Bragg reflection of X-rays or electron waves, and explains how to use it. (Author/GA)

  12. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, G. Allen; Raring, James; Skogen, Erik J.

    2009-07-21

    An optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is disclosed which converts an input optical analog signal to an output optical digital signal at a sampling rate defined by a sampling optical signal. Each bit of the digital representation is separately determined using an optical waveguide interferometer and an optical thresholding element. The interferometer uses the optical analog signal and the sampling optical signal to generate a sinusoidally-varying output signal using cross-phase-modulation (XPM) or a photocurrent generated from the optical analog signal. The sinusoidally-varying output signal is then digitized by the thresholding element, which includes a saturable absorber or at least one semiconductor optical amplifier, to form the optical digital signal which can be output either in parallel or serially.

  13. Analog Computer Laboratory with Biological Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strebel, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    The use of biological examples in teaching applications of the analog computer is discussed and several examples from mathematical ecology, enzyme kinetics, and tracer dynamics are described. (Author/GA)

  14. Computer Analogies: Teaching Molecular Biology and Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Stanley; McArthur, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that computer science analogies can aid the understanding of gene expression, including the storage of genetic information on chromosomes. Presents a matrix of biology and computer science concepts. (DDR)

  15. NASA Now: Exploring Asteroids: An Analog Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Extreme Environment Mission Operations, or NEEMO, project lead Bill Todd describes this analog mission and how aquanauts living and working in an undersea habitat are helping NASA prepare ...

  16. Photoresistance analog multiplier has wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R. G.

    1965-01-01

    Photoactivated bridge facilitates equal performance of analog multipliers over a wide frequency range. The multiplier operates from direct current to an upper frequency limited by either the light source or the closed-loop amplifier.

  17. The Analog (Computer) As a Physiology Adjunct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Peter A.

    1979-01-01

    Defines and discusses the analog computer and its use in a physiology laboratory. Includes two examples: (1) The Respiratory Control Function and (2) CO-Two Control in the Respiratory System. Presents diagrams and mathematical models. (MA)

  18. Simultaneous separation of chlorinated/brominated dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated derivatives from hydroxylated analogues on molecularly imprinted polymers prior to gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important contaminants in the environment. In recent years also polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) have been reported as emerging environmental stressors. It has been suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are important - may be even the most important - precursors of brominated dioxins/furans. The aim of this study was to develop a robust, time-saving analytical procedure to collectively separate in animal tissues such compounds prior to determination of individual substances with a gas/liquid chromatograph coupled to an ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/IT-MS or UPLC/TOF-MS). Two OH-CB/BDE separation methods including alkaline extraction and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were compared. Performance of both methods was validated: absolute recovery values were in the 47-90% range depending on the compound, while recovery relative standard deviation was below 20% in most cases. Levels of the studied compounds have been assessed in some real life samples. PMID:26452807

  19. Analog hardware for learning neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This is a recurrent or feedforward analog neural network processor having a multi-level neuron array and a synaptic matrix for storing weighted analog values of synaptic connection strengths which is characterized by temporarily changing one connection strength at a time to determine its effect on system output relative to the desired target. That connection strength is then adjusted based on the effect, whereby the processor is taught the correct response to training examples connection by connection.

  20. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  1. ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL DATA CONVERTER

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, G.W.; Althouse, J.E.; Anderson, D.P.; Bussey, G.R.; Minnear, L.H.

    1960-09-01

    Electrical apparatus is described, particularly useful in telemetry work, for converting analog signals into electrical pulses and recording them. An electronic editor commands the taking of signal readings at a frequency which varies according to linearity of the analog signal being converted. Readings of information signals are recorded, along with time base readings and serial numbering, if desired, on magnetic tape and the latter may be used to operate a computer or the like. Magnetic tape data may be transferred to punched cards.

  2. Analog environments in space human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of what has been learned from space analog environments, which mimic such significant features of space as isolation, confinement, risk, and deprivation; emphasis is placed on the especially successful environments constituted by extended submarine research, undersea habitats, and Antarctic station wintering. Attention is also given to the advantages and limitations of the use of analog environments for space human factors research, and possibilities for such research efforts' management.

  3. AMiBA Wideband Analog Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek Y.; Wilson, Warwick; Lin, Kai-Yang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, P. T. P.; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Han, Chih-Chiang; Oshiro, Peter; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Altamirano, Pablo; Jiang, Homin; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Chang, Su-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wei, Tashun; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei

    2010-06-01

    A wideband analog correlator has been constructed for the Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy. Lag correlators using analog multipliers provide large bandwidth and moderate frequency resolution. Broadband intermediate frequency distribution, back-end signal processing, and control are described. Operating conditions for optimum sensitivity and linearity are discussed. From observations, a large effective bandwidth of around 10 GHz has been shown to provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting cosmic microwave background variations.

  4. Rhenium(I) carbonyl complexes of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPT). Rhenium(I)-promoted methoxylation of the triazine ring carbon atom in dinuclear rhenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Femia, F J; Babich, J W; Zubieta, J A

    2001-06-01

    2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPT) bridged dinuclear rhenium(I) tricarbonyl halide complexes with the composition (mu-TPT)[ReX(CO)(3)](2) (3, X = Cl; 4, X = Br) can be made either by one-pot reaction of TPT with 2 equiv of [ReX(CO)(5)] (X = Cl and Br) in chloroform or by reacting mononuclear [ReX(CO)(3)(TPT)] (2) (1, X = Cl; 2, X = Br) with an excess amount of [ReX(CO)(5)]. Crystal data are as follows. 1: monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 11.751(1) A, b = 11.376(1) A, c = 15.562(2) A, beta = 103.584(2) degrees, V = 2022.0(4) A(3), Z = 4. 2: monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 11.896(1) A, b = 11.396(1) A, c = 15.655(1) A, beta = 104.474(2) degrees, V = 2054.9(3) A(3), Z = 4. 3: triclinic, P1, a = 11.541(2) A, b = 12.119(2) A, c = 13.199(2) A, alpha = 80.377(2) degrees, beta = 76.204(3) degrees, gamma = 66.826(2) degrees, V = 1642.5(4) A(3), Z = 2. Crystals of 4 crystallized from acetone: triclinic, P1, a = 11.586(5) A, b = 12.144(5) A, c = 13.364(6) A, alpha = 80.599(7) degrees, beta = 76.271(8) degrees, gamma = 67.158(8) degrees, V = 1678.0(12) A(3), Z = 2. Crystals of 4' are obtained from CH(2)Cl(2)-pentane solution: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 17.555(4) A, b = 15.277(3) A, c = 13.093(3) A, beta = 111.179(3) degrees, V = 3274.0(12) A(3), Z = 4. By contrast, similar reactions in the presence of methanol yielded complexes with the composition [mu-C(3)N(3)(OMe)(py)(2)(pyH)][ReX(CO)(3)](2) (5, X = Cl; 6, X = Br). Crystal data for 5: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 26.952(2) A, b = 16.602(1) A, c = 14.641(1) A, beta = 116.147(1) degrees, V = 5880.5(8) A(3), Z = 8. 6: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 27.513(3) A, b = 16.740(2) A, c = 14.837(2) A, beta = 116.925(2) degrees, V = 6092.8(10) A(3), Z = 8. An unusual metal-induced methoxylation at the carbon atom of the triazine ring of the bridging TPT ligand was observed. The nucleophilic attack of MeO(-) on C(3) results in a tetrahedral geometry around the carbon atom. Concomitantly, the uncoordinated pyridyl ring is protonated and rotated into a perpendicular

  5. Analog modelling of obduction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all

  6. MODERN ANALOGS IN QUATERNARY PALEOECOLOGY: Here Today, Gone Yesterday, Gone Tomorrow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Stephen T.

    2004-05-01

    Modern analog analysis, the comparison of Quaternary fossil pollen assemblages with modern assemblages, has long been a mainstay of paleoecological and paleoclimatic inference. The logic of analogical inference involves a comparative element (comparison of modern and fossil assemblages to select matches and assess goodness of fit) and a causal element (assumption that the relationships between modern vegetation and derivative pollen assemblages are matched by those between ancient vegetation and fossil pollen assemblages). An array of numerical and statistical tools have been developed to ensure objective, consistent, and quantitative assessments of similarity between pollen assemblages. Divergent or convergent relationships between vegetation and pollen assemblages can arise from a variety of sources, composing a potential source of error in analog analysis, but such errors can be anticipated and minimized. Pollen assemblages lacking modern analogs are well documented for the late-glacial period (17,00010,000 years BP) in eastern North America and other regions. Simulated climates for this period also lacked modern analogs owing to increased seasonality of insolation, lowered CO2, and persistent ice sheets. Most pollen assemblages from the last glacial maximum (23,00020,000 years BP) in eastern North America have modern analogs, but macrofossil and other evidence suggest that the vegetation may have lacked modern analogs, owing to unique climate realizations and perhaps direct effects of lowered CO2. Better understanding of the nature of past no-analog vegetation, and the underlying causes, will address important issues in ecology and evolutionary biology and help anticipate biotic responses to the no-analog greenhouse world of the near-future.

  7. Optical domain analog to digital conversion methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-13

    Methods and apparatus for optical analog to digital conversion are disclosed. An optical signal is converted by mapping the optical analog signal onto a wavelength modulated optical beam, passing the mapped beam through interferometers to generate analog bit representation signals, and converting the analog bit representation signals into an optical digital signal. A photodiode receives an optical analog signal, a wavelength modulated laser coupled to the photodiode maps the optical analog signal to a wavelength modulated optical beam, interferometers produce an analog bit representation signal from the mapped wavelength modulated optical beam, and sample and threshold circuits corresponding to the interferometers produce a digital bit signal from the analog bit representation signal.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of 4-hydroxyl aurone derivatives as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Qiang, Xiaoming; Luo, Li; Li, Yuxing; Xiao, Ganyuan; Tan, Zhenghuai; Deng, Yong

    2016-05-15

    A series of 4-hydroxyl aurone derivatives were designed synthesized and evaluated as potential multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The results demonstrated that most of the derivatives exhibited good multifunctional properties. Among them, compound 14e displayed good inhibitory activities of self- and Cu(2+)-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation with 99.2% and 84.0% at 25μM, respectively, and high antioxidant activity with a value 1.90-fold of Trolox. In addition, 14e also showed remarkable inhibitory activities of both monoamine oxidase A and B with IC50 values of 0.271μM and 0.393μM, respectively. However the 6-methoxyl aurones 15a-c revealed excellent selectivity toward MAO-B. Furthermore, the representative compounds 14e and 15b displayed good metal-chelating abilities and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeabilities in vitro. PMID:27079124

  9. Hemisynthesis of selected embelin analogs and investigation of their proapoptotic activity against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Viault, Guillaume; Babu, Katragadda Suresh; Gautier, Fabien; Barillé-Nion, Sophie; Juin, Philippe; Tasseau, Olivier; Grée, René

    2013-12-01

    Embelin is a natural product, inhibitor of XIAP (X-chromosome-linked Inhibitor of APoptosis) with strong proapoptotic properties on cancer cells. In order to clarify the role of two OH groups on benzoquinone core, we have prepared by hemisynthesis close analogs of embelin, where these OH groups have been replaced in a systematic manner by OMe and OAc groups. Proapoptotic activities of six embelin derivatives have been studied as single agent, or in combination with TRAIL, and their abilities to interact with XIAP have been evaluated by Surface Plasmon Biacore. Our results show that these new embelin analogs have good proapoptotic properties against selected cancer cells, often higher than the natural product itself. Further, this activity is not directly mediated by XIAP. Altogether these preliminary results demonstrate that for active embelin analogs, the two OH groups are not absolutely required for anticancer activity, opening new possibilities for the design of proapoptotic derivatives in these series. PMID:23373598

  10. Rotation Periods and Ages of Solar Analogs and Solar Twins Revealed by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, J.-D., Jr.; García, R. A.; Mathur, S.; Anthony, F.; Barnes, S. A.; Meibom, S.; da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T.

    2014-08-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  11. Analogs of sex pheromone of processionary moth,Thaumetopoea pityocampa: Synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Camps, F; Fabriàs, G; Gasol, V; Guerrero, A; Hernández, R; Montoya, R

    1988-05-01

    The synthesis and biological activity of some analogs of (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate1, the major component of the sex pheromone of the processionary mothThaumetopoea pityocampa is described. The analogs have been formally derived by structural modification of the enyne and acetate functions of the parent compound1. In field tests, trifluoroacetate ester16 and the analog,11, with fluorine substitution at the olefin site, decreased the pheromone action, whereas epoxy derivative,10, from epoxidation of the olefin moiety in1, and propionate ester15 gave synergistic activity. The formate14 had a variable effect according to the composition of the lure. Formal reduction of the enyne to give the acetylene2 was found to retain activity. Alcohols12 and13, resulting from hydrolysis of the enyne1 and acetylene2, respectively, inhibited the action of their parent compounds. PMID:24276283

  12. Synthesis, Antifungal Activity, and Structure Activity Relationships of Coruscanone A Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K. Suresh; Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R.; Zhang, Qifeng; Khan, Shabana I.; Ferreira, Daneel; Clark, Alice M.

    2008-01-01

    Coruscanone A, a plant derived cyclopentenedione derivative, showed potent in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, comparable to amphotericin B and fluconazole. A series of analogs have been synthesized by modification of the cyclopentenedione ring, the enolic methoxy functionality, and the side chain styryl moiety of this natural product lead. A structurally close 1,4-benzoquinone analog was also prepared. All the compounds were examined for their in vitro activity against major opportunistic fungal pathogens including C. albicans, C. neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus, and fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains, with several analogs demonstrating potent antifungal activity. Structure activity relationship studies indicate that the 2-methoxymethylene-cyclopent-4-ene-1,3-dione structural moiety is the pharmacophore responsible for the antifungal activity of this class of compounds, while the side chain styryl-like moiety plays an important complementary role, presumably contributing to target binding. PMID:17181171

  13. Analog Signal Correlating Using an Analog-Based Signal Conditioning Front End

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman; Krasowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of correlating two analog signals by using an analog-based signal conditioning front end to hard-limit the analog signals through adaptive thresholding into a binary bit stream, then performing the correlation using a Hamming "similarity" calculator function embedded in a one-bit digital correlator (OBDC). By converting the analog signal into a bit stream, the calculation of the correlation function is simplified, and less hardware resources are needed. This binary representation allows the hardware to move from a DSP where instructions are performed serially, into digital logic where calculations can be performed in parallel, greatly speeding up calculations.

  14. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  15. Exploring the Use of Multiple Analogical Models when Teaching and Learning Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allan G.; De Jong, Onno

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the multiple analogical models used to introduce and teach Grade 12 chemical equilibrium. We examine the teacher's reasons for using models, explain each model's development during the lessons, and analyze the understandings students derived from the models. A case study approach was used and the data were drawn from the…

  16. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and live cell imaging of novel fluorescent duocarmycin analogs.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Lutz F; Behrendt, Frank; Pestel, Galina F; Schuberth, Ingrid; Mitkovski, Mišo

    2012-11-01

    For a better understanding of the mode of action of duocarmycin and its analogs, the novel fluorescent duocarmycin derivatives 13-15 and 17b-19b were synthesized, and their bioactivity as well as their cellular uptake investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in live-cell imaging experiments. PMID:23161634

  17. In vitro and In vivo Studies on Stilbene Analogs as Potential Treatment Agents for Colon Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based upon the potential of resveratrol as a cancer chemopreventive agent, 27 stilbenes analogs were synthesized and tested against colon cancer cell line HT-29. Among these compounds, amino derivative (Z)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) aniline (4), (Z)-methyl 4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) benzoate (6) and (Z)-1...

  18. An Effective Model to Increase Student Attitude and Achievement: Narrative Including Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Akcay, Husamettin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the analogical models and narratives used to introduce and teach Grade 9 chemical covalent compounds which are relatively abstract and difficult for students. We explained each model's development during the lessons and analyzed understanding students derived from these learning materials. In this context, achievement,…

  19. Methoxylation of Singly Bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn Dimer: Preferential Formation of 1,4-C60 Adduct with Sterically Less Demanding Addends and Stability Difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60.

    PubMed

    He, Fa-Gui; Li, Zong-Jun; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Methoxylation of the singly bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn dimer afforded 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60, a 1,4-C60 adduct with sterically less demanding addends, as the major adduct. The situation was different from that of direct functionalization of C60, where 1,2-OMe(Bn)C60 was obtained as the major product. The reaction was studied with in situ vis-NIR spectroscopy and computational calculations to obtain a better understanding of this unusual regioselectivity. The stability difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60 was studied. PMID:27387300

  20. Analog forecasting with dynamics-adapted kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Analog forecasting is a nonparametric technique introduced by Lorenz in 1969 which predicts the evolution of states of a dynamical system (or observables defined on the states) by following the evolution of the sample in a historical record of observations which most closely resembles the current initial data. Here, we introduce a suite of forecasting methods which improve traditional analog forecasting by combining ideas from kernel methods developed in harmonic analysis and machine learning and state-space reconstruction for dynamical systems. A key ingredient of our approach is to replace single-analog forecasting with weighted ensembles of analogs constructed using local similarity kernels. The kernels used here employ a number of dynamics-dependent features designed to improve forecast skill, including Takens’ delay-coordinate maps (to recover information in the initial data lost through partial observations) and a directional dependence on the dynamical vector field generating the data. Mathematically, our approach is closely related to kernel methods for out-of-sample extension of functions, and we discuss alternative strategies based on the Nyström method and the multiscale Laplacian pyramids technique. We illustrate these techniques in applications to forecasting in a low-order deterministic model for atmospheric dynamics with chaotic metastability, and interannual-scale forecasting in the North Pacific sector of a comprehensive climate model. We find that forecasts based on kernel-weighted ensembles have significantly higher skill than the conventional approach following a single analog.

  1. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Maria; D’Agostino, Paul M.; Mihali, Troco K.; Moffitt, Michelle C.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2010-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes) and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes), which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids. PMID:20714432

  2. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships. PMID:26263071

  3. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  4. Airframe Noise Prediction by Acoustic Analogy: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Casper, Jay H.; Tinetti, A.; Dunn, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present work follows a recent survey of airframe noise prediction methodologies. In that survey, Lighthill s acoustic analogy was identified as the most prominent analytical basis for current approaches to airframe noise research. Within this approach, a problem is typically modeled with the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation, for which a geometry-independent solution is obtained by means of the use of the free-space Green function (FSGF). Nonetheless, the aeroacoustic literature would suggest some interest in the use of tailored or exact Green s function (EGF) for aerodynamic noise problems involving solid boundaries, in particular, for trailing edge (TE) noise. A study of possible applications of EGF for prediction of broadband noise from turbulent flow over an airfoil surface and the TE is, therefore, the primary topic of the present work. Typically, the applications of EGF in the literature have been limited to TE noise prediction at low Mach numbers assuming that the normal derivative of the pressure vanishes on the airfoil surface. To extend the application of EGF to higher Mach numbers, the uniqueness of the solution of the wave equation when either the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition (BC) is specified on a deformable surface in motion. The solution of Lighthill s equation with either the Dirichlet or the Neumann BC is given for such a surface using EGFs. These solutions involve both surface and volume integrals just like the solution of FW-H equation using FSGF. Insight drawn from this analysis is evoked to discuss the potential application of EGF to broadband noise prediction. It appears that the use of a EGF offers distinct advantages for predicting TE noise of an airfoil when the normal pressure gradient vanishes on the airfoil surface. It is argued that such an approach may also apply to an airfoil in motion. However, for the prediction of broadband noise not directly associated with a trailing edge, the use of EGF does not

  5. Not All Analogies Are Created Equal: Associative and Categorical Analogy Processing following Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Current research on analogy processing assumes that different conceptual relations are treated similarly. However, just as words and concepts are related in distinct ways, different kinds of analogies may employ distinct types of relationships. An important distinction in how words are related is the difference between associative (dog-bone) and…

  6. Students' Pre- and Post-Teaching Analogical Reasoning when They Draw Their Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosaria

    2012-01-01

    Analogies are parts of human thought. From them, we can acquire new knowledge or change that which already exists in our cognitive structure. In this sense, understanding the analogical reasoning process becomes an essential condition to understand how we learn. Despite the importance of such an understanding, there is no general agreement in…

  7. The Importance of Explicitly Mapping Instructional Analogies in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asay, Loretta Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Analogies are ubiquitous during instruction in science classrooms, yet research about the effectiveness of using analogies has produced mixed results. An aspect seldom studied is a model of instruction when using analogies. The few existing models for instruction with analogies have not often been examined quantitatively. The Teaching With…

  8. Analogy-Enhanced Instruction: Effects on Reasoning Skills in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remigio, Krisette B.; Yangco, Rosanelia T.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the reasoning skills of first year high school students after learning general science concepts through analogies. Two intact heterogeneous sections were randomly assigned to Analogy-Enhanced Instruction (AEI) group and Non Analogy-Enhanced (NAEI) group. Various analogies were incorporated in the lessons of the AEI group for…

  9. Value and Limitations of Analogs in Teaching Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.

    Analogical reasoning is frequently used in acquisition of mathematical concepts. Concrete representations used to teach mathematics are essentially analogs of mathematical concepts, and it is argued that analogies enter into mathematical concept acquisition in numerous other ways as well. According to Gentner's theory, analogies entail a…

  10. Biosynthesis of amphetamine analogs in plants.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Jillian M; Krizevski, Raz; Marsolais, Frédéric; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    Amphetamine analogs are produced by plants in the genus Ephedra and by Catha edulis, and include the widely used decongestants and appetite suppressants pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. A combination of yeast (Candida utilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation and subsequent chemical modification is used for the commercial production of these compounds. The availability of certain plant biosynthetic genes would facilitate the engineering of yeast strains capable of de novo pseudoephedrine and ephedrine biosynthesis. Chemical synthesis has yielded amphetamine analogs with myriad functional group substitutions and diverse pharmacological properties. The isolation of enzymes with the serendipitous capacity to accept novel substrates could allow the production of substituted amphetamines in synthetic biosystems. Here, we review the biology, biochemistry and biotechnological potential of amphetamine analogs in plants. PMID:22502775

  11. Polymeric nanogel formulations of nucleoside analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei V

    2008-01-01

    Nanogels are colloidal microgel carriers that have been introduced recently as a prospective drug delivery system for nucleotide therapeutics. The crosslinked protonated polymer network of nanogels binds oppositely charged drug molecules, encapsulating them into submicron particles with a core-shell structure. The nanogel network also provides a suitable template for chemical engineering, surface modification and vectorisation. This review reveals recent attempts to develop novel drug formulations of nanogels with antiviral and antiproliferative nucleoside analogs in the active form of 5′-triphosphates; discusses structural approaches to the optimisation of nanogel properties, and; discusses the development of targeted nanogel drug formulations for systemic administration. Notably, nanogels can improve the CNS penetration of nucleoside analogs that are otherwise restricted from passing across the blood–brain barrier. The latest findings reviewed here demonstrate an efficient intracellular release of nucleoside analogs, encouraging further applications of nanogel carriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:17184158

  12. Increased urinary excretion of analogs of Krebs cycle metabolites and arabinose in two brothers with autistic features.

    PubMed

    Shaw, W; Kassen, E; Chaves, E

    1995-08-01

    A marked increase in analogs of Krebs cycle metabolites was found in the urine of two brothers with autistic features. These metabolites included citramalic, tartaric (3-OH-malic), and 3-oxoglutaric acids and compounds tentatively identified as a citric acid analog and partially identified as a phenylcarboxylic acid by the fragmentation pattern of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of the compounds and mass shifts of the same compounds derivatized with perdeuterated N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The molecular mass of the TMS derivative of the tentatively identified citric acid analog was 596 Da, based on a finding of a significant M - 15 ion at m/z 581. The citric acid analog was excreted in quantities as high as 137 mmol/mol creatinine, based on the response factor of citric acid as a surrogate calibrator. A carbohydrate with a retention time and mass spectrum identical to arabinose was also found in high concentrations in the urine of these brothers. PMID:7628083

  13. Parallel Analog-to-Digital Image Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokerson, D. C.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed integrated-circuit network of many identical units convert analog outputs of imaging arrays of x-ray or infrared detectors to digital outputs. Converter located near imaging detectors, within cryogenic detector package. Because converter output digital, lends itself well to multiplexing and to postprocessing for correction of gain and offset errors peculiar to each picture element and its sampling and conversion circuits. Analog-to-digital image processor is massively parallel system for processing data from array of photodetectors. System built as compact integrated circuit located near local plane. Buffer amplifier for each picture element has different offset.

  14. Associative Pattern Recognition In Analog VLSI Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Winner-take-all circuit selects best-match stored pattern. Prototype cascadable very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chips built and tested to demonstrate concept of electronic associative pattern recognition. Based on low-power, sub-threshold analog complementary oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuitry, each chip can store 128 sets (vectors) of 16 analog values (vector components), vectors representing known patterns as diverse as spectra, histograms, graphs, or brightnesses of pixels in images. Chips exploit parallel nature of vector quantization architecture to implement highly parallel processing in relatively simple computational cells. Through collective action, cells classify input pattern in fraction of microsecond while consuming power of few microwatts.

  15. Discrete analog computing with rotor-routers.

    PubMed

    Propp, James

    2010-09-01

    Rotor-routing is a procedure for routing tokens through a network that can implement certain kinds of computation. These computations are inherently asynchronous (the order in which tokens are routed makes no difference) and distributed (information is spread throughout the system). It is also possible to efficiently check that a computation has been carried out correctly in less time than the computation itself required, provided one has a certificate that can itself be computed by the rotor-router network. Rotor-router networks can be viewed as both discrete analogs of continuous linear systems and deterministic analogs of stochastic processes. PMID:20887076

  16. A quadratic analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.; Staples, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter with a square root transfer function has been developed for use with a pair of CCD imaging detectors in the White Light Coronagraph/X-ray XUV Telescope experiment to be flown as part of the Internal Solar Polar Mission. It is shown that in background-noise-limited instrumentation systems a quadratic analog-to-digital converter will allow a maximum dynamic range with a fixed number of data bits. Low power dissipation, moderately fast conversion time, and reliability are achieved in the proposed design using standard components and avoiding nonlinear elements.

  17. Analog graphic display method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method for using an output device such as an LED to show the approximate analog level of a variable electrical signal wherein a modulating AC waveform is superimposed either on the signal or a reference voltage, both of which are then fed to a comparator which drives the output device. Said device flashes at a constant perceptible rate with a duty cycle which varies in response to variations in the level of the input signal. The human eye perceives these variations in duty cycle as analogous to variations in the level of the input signal.

  18. Synthetic heparin-binding factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul O.; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2010-04-20

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  19. Landauer bound for analog computing systems.

    PubMed

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Gammaitoni, Luca; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2016-07-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalize the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence, every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy. PMID:27575108

  20. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  1. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Uchakin, Peter N; Tobin, Brian W

    2002-10-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section. PMID:12361789

  2. Analog graphic display method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-08-13

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for using an output device such as an LED to show the approximate analog level of a variable electrical signal wherein a modulating AC waveform is superimposed either on the signal or a reference voltage, both of which are then fed to a comparator which drives the output device. Said device flashes at a constant perceptible rate with a duty cycle which varies in response to variations in the level of the input signal. The human eye perceives these variations in duty cycle as analogous to variations in the level of the input signal. 21 figures.

  3. Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.

  4. Analogies between optical propagation and heat diffusion: applications to microcavities, gratings and cloaks

    PubMed Central

    Amra, C.; Petiteau, D.; Zerrad, M.; Guenneau, S.; Soriano, G.; Gralak, B.; Bellieud, M.; Veynante, D.; Rolland, N.

    2015-01-01

    A new analogy between optical propagation and heat diffusion in heterogeneous anisotropic media has been proposed recently by three of the present authors. A detailed derivation of this unconventional correspondence is presented and developed. In time harmonic regime, all thermal parameters are related to optical ones in artificial metallic media, thus making possible to use numerical codes developed for optics. Then, the optical admittance formalism is extended to heat conduction in multilayered structures. The concepts of planar microcavities, diffraction gratings and planar transformation optics for heat conduction are addressed. Results and limitations of the analogy are emphasized. PMID:26730214

  5. Validation of predictive models for geologic disposal of radioactive waste via natural analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    The incorporation of toxic or hazardous material in the earth's crust is a phenomenon not unique to radioactive waste burial. Useful insights on the environmental transport and effects of underground toxic or radioactive material can be derived from comparative analysis against natural (mineral) analogs. This paper includes a discussion of the background and rationale for the analog approach, a descripton of several variations of the approach, and some sample applications to illustrate the concept, focusing on Radium-226 and Iodine-129 as specific case studies.

  6. Duplex stabilities of phosphorothioate, methylphosphonate, and RNA analogs of two DNA 14-mers.

    PubMed Central

    Kibler-Herzog, L; Zon, G; Uznanski, B; Whittier, G; Wilson, W D

    1991-01-01

    The duplex stabilities of various phosphorothioate, methylphosphonate, RNA and 2'-OCH3 RNA analogs of two self-complementary DNA 14-mers are compared. Phosphorothioate and/or methylphosphonate analogs of the two sequences d(TAATTAATTAATTA) [D1] and d(TAGCTAATTAGCTA) [D2] differ in the number, position, or chirality (at the 5' terminal linkage) of the modified phosphates. Phosphorothioate derivatives of D1 are found to be less destabilized when the linkage modified is between adenines rather than between thymines. Surprisingly, no base sequence effect on duplex stabilization is observed for any methylphosphonate derivatives of D1 or D2. Highly modified phosphorothioates or methylphosphonates are less stable than their partially modified counterparts which are less stable than the unmodified parent compounds. The 'normal' (2'-OH) RNA analog of duplex D1 is slightly destabilized, whereas the 2'-OCH3 RNA derivative is significantly stabilized relative to the unmodified DNA. For the D1 sequence, at approximately physiological salt concentration, the order of duplex stability is 2'-OCH3 RNA greater than unmodified DNA greater than 'normal' RNA greater than methylphosphonate DNA greater than phosphorothioate DNA. D2 and the various D2 methylphosphonate analogs investigated all formed hairpin conformations at low salt concentrations. PMID:1711677

  7. New mitomycin analogs produced by directed biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Claridge, C A; Bush, J A; Doyle, T W; Nettleton, D E; Moseley, J E; Kimball, D; Kammer, M F; Veitch, J

    1986-03-01

    When the normal fermentation medium for the production of mitomycin C with Streptomyces caespitosus is supplemented with a number of primary amines, two new types of mitomycin analogs described as Type I and Type II are produced. Type I analogs are related to mitomycin C with the amine substitution at position C7 on the mitosane ring. Type II analogs also contain the same substitutions at C7 but the conformation of the mitosane ring is related to mitomycin B having an OH at positions C9a and a methyl substituted aziridine. The products obtained from the supplementation of the medium with methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, propargylamine and 2-methylallylamine were isolated and characterized. In all cases the Type I analogs are more active in a prophage induction test and against L1210 lymphatic leukemia in mice. A number of other amines have been tested and shown to yield new products that have not yet been isolated. No secondary amines are incorporated. PMID:3700245

  8. Presence, Analogy, and "Earth in the Balance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Uses vice president Albert Gore Jr.'s book "Earth in the Balance" as a case study to examine the relationship between analogy and "presence." Argues that presence is a flexible critical construct allowing for examination of the relationship between the style, substance, and structure of arguments. Explores relationships between C. Perelman and the…

  9. A Mechanical Analogy for Ohm's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Couto Tavares, Milton; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A mechanical analogy between the microscopic motion of a charged carrier in an ordinary resistor and the macroscopic motion of a ball falling along a slanted board covered with a lattice of nails is introduced. The Drude model is also introduced to include the case of inelastic collisions. Computer simulation of the motion is described. (KR)

  10. (-)-Botryodiplodin, A Unique Ribose Analog Toxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many toxins owe their mechanisms of action to being structural analogs of essential metabolites, messengers or structural components. Examples range from tubo-curare to penicillin. Ribose plays a unique role in the metabolism of living organisms, whether prokaryotes or eukaryotes. It and its deri...

  11. RF digital-to-analog converter

    DOEpatents

    Conway, P.H.; Yu, D.U.L.

    1995-02-28

    A digital-to-analog converter is disclosed for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration. 18 figs.

  12. Radiation Behavior of Analog Neural Network Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langenbacher, H.; Zee, F.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.

    1996-01-01

    A neural network experiment conducted for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) 1-b launched in June 1994. Identical sets of analog feed-forward neural network chips was used to study and compare the effects of space and ground radiation on the chips. Three failure mechanisms are noted.

  13. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  14. Invention through Form and Function Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    "Invention through Form and Function Analogy" is an invention book for teachers and other leaders working with youth who are involving students in the invention process. The book consists of an introduction and set of nine learning cycle formatted lessons for teaching the principles of invention through the science and engineering design…

  15. Analog optical computing primitives in silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunshan; DeVore, Peter T. S.; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    Optical computing accelerators may help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide.

  16. Plasma analog of particle-pair production

    SciTech Connect

    Tsidulko, Yu.A.; Berk, H.L.

    1996-09-01

    It is shown that the plasma axial shear flow instability satisfies the Klein-Gordon equation. The plasma instability is then shown to be analogous to spontaneous particle-pair production when a potential energy is present that is greater than twice the particle rest mass energy. Stability criteria can be inferred based on field theoretical conservation laws.

  17. Biological Analogs for Language Contact Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W.

    1977-01-01

    This article proposes that language contact can be best understood if the entire range of such situations from second language learning to evolution of dialects and creoles is studied within a framework analogical to the symbiosis of living organisms. Language contact is viewed in terms of dynamic evolutionary stages. (CHK)

  18. Resistance Gene Analogs in Cherries (Prunus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic studies have shown that NBS-LRR Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) tend to occur in clusters and often map to major resistances gene or QTL. The identification and use of specific RGAs as molecular markers among plant material displaying differential resistance phenotypes has the potential to di...

  19. The Lenz Vector and Orbital Analog Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a single geometrical diagram based on the Lenz vector which shows the qualitative and quantitative features of all three types of Coulomb orbits. Explains the use of a simple analog computer with an overhead projector to demonstrate many of these effects. (Author/CP)

  20. Synthesis and psychobiological evaluation of modafinil analogs in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent with low potential for abuse and dependence, has a reliable structure to find some novel derivatives with better activity and lower potential for abuse and risk of dependency. This study was designed to evaluate psychobiological activity of some novel N-aryl modafinil derivatives. Methods Seven novel N-aryl modafinil derivatives were synthesized through three reactions: a) preparation of benzhydrylsulfanyl acetic acid through reaction of benzhydrol with thioglycolic acid, b) formation of desired amide by adding the substituted aniline to activated acid with EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl amino propyl) carbodiimide). This reaction was catalyzed by HOBt (N- hydroxylbenzotriazole), and c) oxidation of sulfur to sulfoxide group with H2O2. Then, their psychobiological effect on the performance of male albino mice were compared to that of modafinil as following: wakefulness by determining the effects of derivatives on phenobarbital-induced loss of the righting reflex (LOPR); exploratory activity by measuring activity in the open field test (OFT); depression by measuring immobility time (IT) during forced swimming test (FST) and the anxiogenic and anxiolytic like effects by using elevated plus-maze test (EPM). All tests were videotaped and analyzed for the frequency and duration of the behaviors during the procedures. Conclusions 2-(Benzhydrylsulfonyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)acetamide (4c) showed comparable result in LOPR test. However, all analogs were found to be stimulant except 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-phenylacetamide (4a). Also 4c led the most exploratory activity in mice among derivatives. FST results showed that 4a had the longest IT while modafinil, 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-(3-chlorophenyl) acetamide (4b) and 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-(4-ethylphenyl) acetamide (4d) had the shortest IT. In EPM, all derivatives showed anxiogenic-like behavior since they decreased open arms time and open arms

  1. ANALOGY AND DISANALOGY IN PRODUCTION AND PERCEPTION OF SPEECH

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    A varied psychological vocabulary now describes the cognitive and social conditions of language production, the ultimate result of which is the mechanical action of vocal musculature in spoken expression. Following the logic of the speech chain, descriptions of production have often exhibited a clear analogy to accounts of perception. This reciprocality is especially evident in explanations that rely on reafference to control production, on articulation to inform perception, and on strict parity between produced and perceived form to provide invariance in the relation between abstract linguistic objects and observed expression. However, a causal account of production and perception cannot derive solely from this hopeful analogy. Despite sharing of abstract linguistic representations, the control functions in production and perception as well as the constraints on their use stand in fundamental disanalogy. This is readily seen in the different adaptive challenges to production — to speak in a single voice — and perception — to resolve familiar linguistic properties in any voice. This acknowledgment sets descriptive and theoretical challenges that break the symmetry of production and perception. As a consequence, this recognition dislodges an old impasse between the psychoacoustic and motoric accounts in the regulation of production and perception. PMID:25642428

  2. Analog signal processing for the Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Jared, R.C.; Landis, D.A.; Goulding, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a large gas filled cylindrical detector designed to provide 3-D images of tracks radiating from the center of the detector where e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions occur. Ionization along the tracks is drifted in an electric field to the end planes which are equipped with a large array of proportional wires and position pads (17,000 channels). The wire signals are used to derive radial data while the pad signals provide the azmuthal information. The axial dimension is determined using the drift time of the ionization. Preamplifiers mounted in the ends of the chamber feed the signals to remote amplifiers whose outputs drive Charge Coupled Devices (CCD). The CCDs are normally clocked at 10 MHz and hold a 45.5 ..mu..s history (445 CCD buckets) of analog drift information from the TPC. During readout the clock is changed to 20 KHz and 17,000 CCD outputs are digitized (9 bits) in parallel. The non-zero data is then transferred to buffer memories associated with the digitizers. This paper emphasizes the analog signal processing part of the system.

  3. Exact solutions and physical analogies for unidirectional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    2016-06-01

    Unidirectional flow is the simplest phenomenon of fluid mechanics. Its mathematical description, the Dirichlet problem for Poisson's equation in two dimensions with constant forcing, arises in many physical contexts, such as the torsion of elastic beams, first solved by de Saint-Venant for complex shapes. Here the literature is unified and extended by identifying 17 physical analogies for unidirectional flow and describing their common mathematical structure. Besides classical analogies in fluid and solid mechanics, applications are discussed in stochastic processes (first passage in two dimensions), pattern formation (river growth by erosion), and electrokinetics (ion transport in nanochannels), which also involve Poisson's equation with nonconstant forcing. Methods are given to construct approximate geometries that admit exact solutions, by adding harmonic functions to quadratic forms or by truncating eigenfunction expansions. Exact solutions for given geometries are also derived by conformal mapping. We prove that the remarkable geometrical interpretation of Poiseuille flow in an equilateral triangular pipe (the product of the distances from an interior point to the sides) is only shared by parallel plates and unbounded equilateral wedges (with the third side hidden behind the apex). We also prove Onsager reciprocity for linear electrokinetic phenomena in straight pores of arbitrary shape and surface charge, based on the mathematics of unidirectional flow.

  4. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  5. Antimicrobial activity of human α-defensin 5 and its linear analogs: N-terminal fatty acylation results in enhanced antimicrobial activity of the linear analogs.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Basil; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Human α-defensin 5 (HD5) exhibits broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and plays an important role in mucosal immunity of the small intestine. Although there have been several studies, the structural requirements for activity and mechanism of bacterial killing is yet to be established unequivocally. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of HD5 and linear analogs. Cysteine deletions attenuated the antibacterial activity considerably. Candidacidal activity was affected to a lesser extent. Fatty acid conjugated linear analogs showed antimicrobial activity comparable activity to HD5. Effective surface charge neutralization of bacteria was observed for HD5 as compared to the non-fatty acylated linear analogs. Our results show that HD5 and non-fatty acylated linear analogs enter the bacterial cytoplasm without causing damage to the bacterial inner membrane. Although fatty acylated peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to HD5, their mechanism of action involved permeabilization of the Escherichia coli inner membrane. HD5 and analogs had the ability to bind plasmid DNA. HD5 had greater binding affinity to plasmid DNA as compared to the analogs. The three dimensional structure of HD5 favors greater interaction with the bacterial cell surface and also with DNA. Antibacterial activity of HD5 involves entry into bacterial cytoplasm and binding to DNA which would result in shut down of the bacterial metabolism leading to cell death. We show how a moderately active linear peptide derived from the α-defensin HD5 can be engineered to enhance antimicrobial activity almost comparable to the native peptide. PMID:26206286

  6. Martian weathering processes: Terrestrial analog and theoretical modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, Amy Catherine

    2008-06-01

    Understanding the role of water in the Martian near-surface, and its implications for possible habitable environments, is among the highest priorities of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Characterization of alteration signatures in surface materials provides the best opportunity to assess the role of water on Mars. This dissertation investigates Martian alteration processes through analyses of Antarctic analogs and numerical modeling of mineral-fluid interactions. Analog work involved studying an Antarctic diabase, and associated soils, as Mars analogs to understand weathering processes in cold, dry environments. The soils are dominated by primary basaltic minerals, but also contain phyllosilicates, salts, iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, and zeolites. Soil clay minerals and zeolites, formed primarily during deuteric or hydrothermal alteration of the parent rock, were subsequently transferred to the soil by physical rock weathering. Authigenic soil iron oxides/oxyhydroxides and small amounts of poorly-ordered secondary silicates indicate some contributions from low-temperature aqueous weathering. Soil sulfates, which exhibit a sulfate- aerosol-derived mass-independent oxygen isotope signature, suggest contributions from acid aerosol-rock interactions. The complex alteration history of the Antarctic materials resulted in several similarities to Martian materials. The processes that affected the analogs, including deuteric/ hydrothermal clay formation, may be important in producing Martian surface materials. Theoretical modeling focused on investigating the alteration of Martian rocks under acidic conditions and using modeling results to interpret Martian observations. Kinetic modeling of the dissolution of plagioclase-pyroxene mineral mixtures under acidic conditions suggested that surfaces with high plagioclase/pyroxene, such as several northern regions, could have experienced some preferential dissolution of pyroxenes at a pH less than approximately 3-4. Modeling of the

  7. Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Borodkina, L E; Bagmetova, V V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2016-02-01

    GABA analogs containing phenyl (phenibut) or para-chlorophenyl (baclofen) substituents demonstrated nootropic activity in a dose of 20 mg/kg: they improved passive avoidance conditioning, decelerated its natural extinction, and exerted antiamnestic effect on the models of amnesia provoked by scopolamine or electroshock. Tolyl-containing GABA analog (tolibut, 20 mg/kg) exhibited antiamnestic activity only on the model of electroshock-induced amnesia. Baclofen and, to a lesser extent, tolibut alleviated seizures provoked by electroshock, i.e. both agents exerted anticonvulsant effect. All examined GABA aryl derivatives demonstrated neuroprotective properties on the maximum electroshock model: they shortened the duration of coma and shortened the period of spontaneous motor activity recovery. In addition, these agents decreased the severity of passive avoidance amnesia and behavioral deficit in the open field test in rats exposed to electroshock. The greatest neuroprotective properties were exhibited by phenyl-containing GABA analog phenibut. PMID:26906198

  8. Analog model for thermoviscous propagation in a cylindrical tube.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen C; Gabrielson, Thomas B; Warren, Daniel M

    2014-02-01

    Modeling acoustic propagation in tubes including the effects of thermoviscous losses at the tube walls is important in applications such as thermoacoustics, hearing aids, and wind musical instruments. Frequency dependent impedances for a tube transmission line model in terms of the so-called thermal and viscous functions are well established, and form the basis for frequency domain analysis of systems that include tubes. However, frequency domain models cannot be used for systems in which significant nonlinearities are important, as is the case with the pressure-flow relationship through the reed in a woodwind instrument. This paper describes a cylindrical tube model based on a continued fraction expansion of the thermal and viscous functions. The model can be represented as an analog circuit model which allows its use in time domain system modeling. This model avoids problems with fractional derivatives in the time domain. PMID:25234868

  9. Probability-theoretical analog of the vector Lyapunov function method

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonechnyi, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main ideas of the vector Lyapunov function (VLF) method were advanced in 1962 by Bellman and Matrosov. In this method, a Lyapunov function and a comparison equation are constructed for each subsystem. Then the dependences between the subsystems and the effect of external noise are allowed for by constructing a vector Lyapunov function (as a collection of the scalar Lyapunov functions of the subsystems) and an aggregate comparison function for the entire complex system. A probability-theoretical analog of this method for convergence analysis of stochastic approximation processes has been developed. The abstract approach proposed elsewhere eliminates all restrictions on the system phase space, the system trajectories, the class of Lyapunov functions, etc. The analysis focuses only on the conditions that relate sequences of Lyapunov function values with the derivative and ensure a particular type (mode, character) of stability. In our article, we extend this approach to the VLF method for discrete stochastic dynamic systems.

  10. Methoxylation Enhances Stilbene Bioactivity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Stilbenes are 1,2-diphenylethylene congeners produced by plants in response to stress. Many stilbenes also exhibit xenobiotic activities in animal cells, such as inhibition of cancer cell growth, neuroprotection, and immune modulation. In vivo, hydroxylated stilbenes are metabolized by...

  11. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  12. Not all analogies are created equal: Associative and categorical analogy processing following brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Current research on analogy processing assumes that different conceptual relations are treated similarly. However, just as words and concepts are related in distinct ways, different kinds of analogies may employ distinct types of relationships. An important distinction in how words are related is the difference between associative (dog-bone) and categorical (dog-cat) relations. To test the hypothesis that analogical mapping of different types of relations would have different neural instantiations, we tested patients with left and right hemisphere lesions on their ability to understand two types of analogies, ones expressing an associative relationship and others expressing a categorical relationship. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and behavioral analyses revealed that associative analogies relied on a large left-lateralized language network while categorical analogies relied on both left and right hemispheres. The verbal nature of the task could account for the left hemisphere findings. We argue that categorical relations additionally rely on the right hemisphere because they are more difficult, abstract, and fragile; and contain more distant relationships. PMID:22402184

  13. Variations in the GLA gene correlate with globotriaosylceramide and globotriaosylsphingosine analog levels in urine and plasma

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Susana; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Boutin, Michel; Lavoie, Pamela; Nunes, José Pedro; Martins, Elisabete; Garman, Scott; Oliveira, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Recent data have shown that lyso-Gb3, the deacylated derivative of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), is possibly involved in the pathogenesis of Fabry disease (FD) and might be a clinically useful biomarker of its metabolic load. To test this hypothesis, we assayed Gb3 and lyso-Gb3 and related analogs in plasma and/or urine samples of 12 clinically well-characterized subjects carrying several different GLA variant alleles associated with a wide range of residual α-galactosidase A activities. Urinary Gb3 was measured by HPLC–MS/MS; plasma and urinary lyso-Gb3 and related analogs were measured by UPLC–MS/MS. Individual profiles of Gb3 and lyso-Gb3 and related analogs closely correlated with the phenotypic data for each subject, discerning the classical FD patient from the two patients carrying cardiac variants as well as these from all the others without FD. The lyso-Gb3 analog at m/z 836 was found at increased levels only in patients manifesting clinically severe heart disease, irrespective of the pathogenicity of the GLA variant they carried. This finding suggests that this lyso-Gb3 analog might be an earlier biomarker of progressive heart disease, non-specific of the FD cardiomyopathy. The possibility that urinary Gb3 is a specific marker of kidney involvement in FD deserves further study. PMID:26070511

  14. Blood Outflow from Capillary under Forced Pressure: Comparison between Electric Circuit Analog and Optical Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Yamanaka, Yohei

    2007-12-01

    An electric circuit analog is proposed for blood outflow from a skin capillary when static pressure higher than the highest blood pressure of the artery is applied to the capillary. The proposed electric circuit analog consists of a capacitor and a variable resistor. The resistance of the variable resistor changes depending on the charge stored in the capacitor, which models the increase in blood flow resistance due to less blood in the capillary. In order to evaluate the electric circuit analog, the analytical solution is compared with in vivo data. In vivo data are measured using an inherent optical sensor, which consists of a light-emitting diode and a photodetector mounted on a mechanical actuator that applies static pressure to the skin surface. The change of the received light during pressurization is recorded. A parameter that is related to blood concentration is estimated from the Lambert-Beer law. In vivo data are measured for fingertips of 30 healthy volunteers, and the square errors of the fitting curves derived using an exponential function model, third-order function model, and the proposed electric circuit analog are compared. It is shown that the proposed electric circuit analog gives the best approximation among the three models. This result confirms that the blood outflow from the capillary under forced pressure can be evaluated using the proposed model.

  15. General Reynolds Analogy for Blunt-Nosed Bodies in Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing-Xing; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Yu, Yong-Liang

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the relation between skin friction and heat transfer along windward sides of blunt-nosed bodies in hypersonic flows is investigated. The self-similar boundary layer analysis is accepted to figure out the distribution of the ratio of skin friction to heat transfer coefficients along the wall. It is theoretically obtained that the ratio depends linearly on the local slope angle of the wall surface, and an explicit analogy expression is presented for circular cylinders, although the linear distribution is also found for other nose shapes and even in gas flows with chemical reactions. Furthermore, based on the theoretical modelling of the second order shear and heat transfer terms in Burnett equations, a modified analogy is derived in the near continuum regime by considering the rarefied gas effects. And a bridge function is also constructed to describe the nonlinear analogy in the transition flow regime. At last, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is used to validate the theoretical results. The general analogy, beyond the classical Reynolds analogy, is applicable to both flat plates and blunt-nosed bodies, in either continuous or rarefied hypersonic flows.

  16. Playing with a double-edged sword: Analogies in biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgill, Marykay

    Analogy pervades our everyday reasoning. No situation we encounter is exactly like a situation we have encountered previously, and our ability to learn and survive in the world is based on our ability to find similarities between past and present situations and use the knowledge we have gained from past situations to manage current situations. Analogies can be powerful teaching tools because they can make new material intelligible to students by comparing it to material that is already familiar. It is clear, though, that not all analogies are good and that not all good analogies are useful to all students. In this study, I have used textbook analysis, classroom observations, student interviews and instructor interviews to determine the role that analogies play in biochemistry learning. Analogies are an important teaching technique in biochemistry classes, being used more often in both biochemistry classes and textbooks than they are in high school chemistry classes and textbooks. Most biochemistry students like, pay particular attention to, and remember the analogies their instructors provide; and they use these analogies to understand, visualize, and recall information from class. Even though students like and use analogies, they do not understand what analogies are or the mechanism by which they improve learning. For the students, analogies are simply any teaching technique that eases understanding, visualization, or recall. Instructors, on the other hand, have a good understanding of what analogies are and of how they should be presented in class; but they do not use analogies as effectively as they should. They do not plan, explain or identify the limitations of the analogies they use in class. However, regardless of how effectively instructors present analogies in class, this study indicates that, in general, analogies are useful in promoting understanding, visualization, recall, and motivation in biochemistry students at all levels. They would be even more

  17. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture. PMID:27363950

  18. A new program on digitizing analog seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maofa; Jiang, Qigang; Liu, Qingjie; Huang, Meng

    2016-08-01

    Historical seismograms contain a great variety of useful information which can be used in the study of earthquakes. It is necessary for researchers to digitize analog records and extract the information just as modern computing analysis requires. Firstly, an algorithm based on color scene filed method is presented in order to digitize analog seismograms. Secondly, an interactive software program using C# has been developed to digitize seismogram traces from raster files quickly and accurately. The program can deal with gray-scale images stored in a suitable file format and it offers two different methods: manual digitization and automatic digitization. The test result of the program shows that the methods presented in this paper can lead to good performance.

  19. Submarine Analogs to Venusian Pancake Domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Nathan T.

    1995-01-01

    The morphology and dimensions of the large diameter, steep-sided, flat-topped "pancake domes" on Venus make them unlike any type of terrestrial subaerial volcano. Comparisons between images of Hawaiian seamounts and pancake domes show similarities in shapes and secondary features. The morphometry of pancake domes is closer to that of Pacific seamounts than subaerial lava domes. Considering both morphology and morphometry, seamounts seem a better analog to the pancake domes. The control of volatile exsolution by pressure on Venus and the seafloor can cause lavas to have similar viscosities and densities, although the latter will be counteracted by high buoyancy underwater. However, analogous effects of the Venusian and seafloor alone are probably not sufficient to produce similar volcanoes. Rather, Venusian lavas of various compositions may behave like basalt on the seafloor if appropriate rates and modes of extrusion and planetary thermal structure are also considered.

  20. Optimal neural computations require analog processors

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses some of the limitations of hardware implementations of neural networks. The authors start by presenting neural structures and their biological inspirations, while mentioning the simplifications leading to artificial neural networks. Further, the focus will be on hardware imposed constraints. They will present recent results for three different alternatives of parallel implementations of neural networks: digital circuits, threshold gate circuits, and analog circuits. The area and the delay will be related to the neurons` fan-in and to the precision of their synaptic weights. The main conclusion is that hardware-efficient solutions require analog computations, and suggests the following two alternatives: (i) cope with the limitations imposed by silicon, by speeding up the computation of the elementary silicon neurons; (2) investigate solutions which would allow the use of the third dimension (e.g. using optical interconnections).

  1. Observing spin optodynamical analog of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Justin; Kohler, Jonathan; Spethmann, Nicolas; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cavity Optomechanics has been realized in many diverse systems and led to many interesting results such as ponderomotive squeezing of light, beyond-SQL measurement sensitivity, and squeezing of mechanical oscillators. Optical cavities also allow sensitive measurements of the spin of an atomic ensemble. It has been proposed to utilize this sensitivity to realize an analog of optomechanics by measuring the precession of small excitations of a spin-oscillator around a transverse magnetic field. I will present our recent work in which we realize optomechanical analogs in our system such as cavity-assisted cooling and amplification and optical spring shifts. In addition, the presence of a high-energy `ground state' of the spin oscillator allows the realization of an effective negative mass oscillator which is demonstrated by an inverted sideband asymmetry. In our ongoing work we attempt to realize coherent quantum noise cancelation by coupling spin oscillation with mechanical oscillation.

  2. Parabolic flight as a spaceflight analog.

    PubMed

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    Ground-based analog facilities have had wide use in mimicking some of the features of spaceflight in a more-controlled and less-expensive manner. One such analog is parabolic flight, in which an aircraft flies repeated parabolic trajectories that provide short-duration periods of free fall (0 g) alternating with high-g pullout or recovery phases. Parabolic flight is unique in being able to provide true 0 g in a ground-based facility. Accordingly, it lends itself well to the investigation of specific areas of human spaceflight that can benefit from this capability, which predominantly includes neurovestibular effects, but also others such as human factors, locomotion, and medical procedures. Applications to research in artificial gravity and to effects likely to occur in upcoming commercial suborbital flights are also possible. PMID:26796759

  3. Magnetic Analog Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed integrated, solid-state, analog random-access memory base on principle of magnetic writing and magnetoresistive reading. Current in writing conductor magnetizes storage layer. Remanent magnetization in storage layer penetrates readout layer and detected by magnetoresistive effect or Hall effect. Memory cells are part of integrated circuit including associated reading and writing transistors. Intended to provide high storage density and rapid access, nonvolatile, consumes little power, and relatively invulnerable to ionizing radiation.

  4. Survey of Evaluated Isobaric Analog States

    SciTech Connect

    MacCormick, M.

    2014-06-15

    Isobaric analog states (IAS) can be used to estimate the masses of members belonging to the same isospin multiplet. Experimental and estimated IAS have been used frequently within the Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) in the past, but the associated set of evaluated masses have been published for the first time in AME2012 and NUBASE2012. In this paper the current trends of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) coefficients are shown. The T = 2 multiplet is used as a detailed illustration.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Furanonaphthoquinone Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kumiko; Hirai, Kei-Ichi; Koyama, Junko; Wada, Yasunao; Tamura, Toshihide

    1998-01-01

    Analogs of furanonaphthoquinone (FNQ) from Tecoma ipe Mart had MICs ranging from 1.56 to 25 μg/ml against gram-positive bacteria. FNQ showed significantly lower MICs against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus than against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. FNQ inhibited Helicobacter pylori with an MIC of 0.1 μg/ml. Fungi, including pathogenic species, were sensitive to FNQ with MICs similar to those of amphotericin B. PMID:9517956

  6. Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

  7. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  8. Biomedical sensor design using analog compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    The main drawback of current healthcare systems is the location-specific nature of the system due to the use of fixed/wired biomedical sensors. Since biomedical sensors are usually driven by a battery, power consumption is the most important factor determining the life of a biomedical sensor. They are also restricted by size, cost, and transmission capacity. Therefore, it is important to reduce the load of sampling by merging the sampling and compression steps to reduce the storage usage, transmission times, and power consumption in order to expand the current healthcare systems to Wireless Healthcare Systems (WHSs). In this work, we present an implementation of a low-power biomedical sensor using analog Compressed Sensing (CS) framework for sparse biomedical signals that addresses both the energy and telemetry bandwidth constraints of wearable and wireless Body-Area Networks (BANs). This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of biomedical signals that are suitable for a variety of diagnostic and treatment purposes. At the transmitter side, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in order to generate the compressed version of the input analog bio-signal. At the receiver side, a reconstruction algorithm based on Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) condition is applied in order to reconstruct the original bio-signals form the compressed bio-signals with high probability and enough accuracy. We examine the proposed algorithm with healthy and neuropathy surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The proposed algorithm achieves a good level for Average Recognition Rate (ARR) at 93% and reconstruction accuracy at 98.9%. In addition, The proposed architecture reduces total computation time from 32 to 11.5 seconds at sampling-rate=29 % of Nyquist rate, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD)=26 %, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)=3 %.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of platensimycin analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Hong C.; Ding, Fa-Xiang; Singh, Sheo B.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnan; Soisson, Stephen M.; Ha, Sookhee N.; Chen, Xun; Kodali, Srinivas; Wang, Jun; Dorso, Karen; Tata, James R.; Hammond, Milton L.; MacCoss, Malcolm; Colletti, Steven L.

    2009-07-23

    Platensimycin (1) displays antibacterial activity due to its inhibition of the elongation condensing enzyme (FabF), a novel mode of action that could potentially lead to a breakthrough in developing a new generation of antibiotics. The medicinal chemistry efforts were focused on the modification of the enone moiety of platensimycin and several analogs showed significant activity against FabF and possess antibacterial activity.

  10. Analog optical computing primitives in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunshan; DeVore, Peter T S; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-15

    Optical computing accelerators help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation and the recovery of a signal in the presence of multiplicative distortion. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide. PMID:26977687

  11. Periglacial and glacial analogs for Martian landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1992-01-01

    The list of useful terrestrial analogs for Martian landforms has been expanded to include: features developed by desiccation processes; catastrophic flood features associated with boulder-sized materials; and sorted ground developed at a density boundary. Quantitative analytical techniques developed for physical geography have been adapted and applied to planetary studies, including: quantification of the patterns of polygonally fractured ground to describe pattern randomness independent of pattern size, with possible correlation to the mechanism of origin and quantification of the relative area of a geomorphic feature or region in comparison to planetary scale. Information about Martian geomorphology studied in this project was presented at professional meetings world-wide, at seven colleges and universities, in two interactive televised courses, and as part of two books. Overall, this project has expanded the understanding of the range of terrestrial analogs for Martian landforms, including identifying several new analogs. The processes that created these terrestrial features are characterized by both cold temperatures and low humidity, and therefore both freeze-thaw and desiccation processes are important. All these results support the conclusion that water has played a significant role in the geomorphic history of Mars.

  12. Periglacial and glacial analogs for Martian landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1992-12-01

    The list of useful terrestrial analogs for Martian landforms has been expanded to include: features developed by desiccation processes; catastrophic flood features associated with boulder-sized materials; and sorted ground developed at a density boundary. Quantitative analytical techniques developed for physical geography have been adapted and applied to planetary studies, including: quantification of the patterns of polygonally fractured ground to describe pattern randomness independent of pattern size, with possible correlation to the mechanism of origin and quantification of the relative area of a geomorphic feature or region in comparison to planetary scale. Information about Martian geomorphology studied in this project was presented at professional meetings world-wide, at seven colleges and universities, in two interactive televised courses, and as part of two books. Overall, this project has expanded the understanding of the range of terrestrial analogs for Martian landforms, including identifying several new analogs. The processes that created these terrestrial features are characterized by both cold temperatures and low humidity, and therefore both freeze-thaw and desiccation processes are important. All these results support the conclusion that water has played a significant role in the geomorphic history of Mars.

  13. Multiphoton excitation of fluorescent DNA base analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katilius, Evaldas; Woodbury, Neal W.

    2006-07-01

    Multiphoton excitation was used to investigate properties of the fluorescent DNA base analogs, 2-aminopurine (2AP) and 6-methylisoxanthopterin (6MI). 2-aminopurine, a fluorescent analog of adenine, was excited by three-photon absorption. Fluorescence correlation measurements were attempted to evaluate the feasibility of using three-photon excitation of 2AP for DNA-protein interaction studies. However, high excitation power and long integration times needed to acquire high signal-to-noise fluorescence correlation curves render three-photon excitation FCS of 2AP not very useful for studying DNA base dynamics. The fluorescence properties of 6-methylisoxanthopterin, a guanine analog, were investigated using two-photon excitation. The two-photon absorption cross-section of 6MI was estimated to be about 2.5×10-50 cm4s (2.5 GM units) at 700 nm. The two-photon excitation spectrum was measured in the spectral region from 700 to 780 nm; in this region the shape of the two-photon excitation spectrum is very similar to the shape of single-photon excitation spectrum in the near-UV spectral region. Two-photon excitation of 6MI is suitable for fluorescence correlation measurements. Such measurements can be used to study DNA base dynamics and DNA-protein interactions over a broad range of time scales.

  14. Backtracking quantum trajectories with analog feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange*, G.; Ristè*, D.; Tiggelman, M. J.; Eichler, C.; Tornberg, L.; Johansson, G.; Wallraff, A.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, L.

    2014-03-01

    Circuit quantum electrodynamics offers a nearly ideal platform for the fundamental study of continuous quantum measurement. A nondemolition measurement of a superconducting qubit can be performed via homodyne detection of microwave transmission through a dispersively coupled cavity. By boosting the homodyne signal with a nearly noiseless phase-sensitive parametric amplifier, we experimentally show that a form of measurement backaction, consisting of stochastic quantum phase kicks on the measured qubit, is highly correlated with the fluctuations in the continuous homodyne record. We demonstrate a real-time analog feedback scheme that counteracts these phase kicks and thereby reduces measurement-induced dephasing. We develop a numerical optimization technique to overcome the bandwidth limitations of the amplification chain and provide a theoretical model for the optimization result. A quantum efficiency of 50% is extracted for the complete analog feedback loop. Finally, we discuss the integration of this analog feedback technique to improve performance in our recent demonstration of entanglement by dispersive parity measurement. *equal contribution. Research funded by NWO and the EU projects SOLID and SCALEQIT.

  15. Automated D/3 to Visio Analog Diagrams

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-08-10

    ADVAD1 reads an ASCII file containing the D/3 DCS MDL input for analog points for a D/3 continuous database. It uses the information in the files to create a series of Visio files representing the structure of each analog chain, one drawing per Visio file. The actual drawing function is performed by Visio (requires Visio version 4.5+). The user can configure the program to select which fields in the database are shown on the diagrammore » and how the information is to be presented. This gives a visual representation of the structure of the analog chains, showing selected fields in a consistent manner. Updating documentation can be done easily and the automated approach eliminates human error in the cadding process. The program can also create the drawings far faster than a human operator is capable, able to create approximately 270 typical diagrams in about 8 minutes on a Pentium II 400 MHz PC. The program allows for multiple option sets to be saved to provide different settings (i.e., different fields, different field presentations, and /or different diagram layouts) for various scenarios or facilities on one workstation. Option sets may be exported from the Windows registry to allow duplication of settings on another workstation.« less

  16. Clinical utility of insulin and insulin analogs

    PubMed Central

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Altunbas, Hasan Ali; Balci, Mustafa Kemal; Griffith, Thomas S.; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease characterized by autoimmune, genetic and metabolic abnormalities. While insulin deficiency manifested as hyperglycemia is a common sequel of both Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM), it does not result from a single genetic defect—rather insulin deficiency results from the functional loss of pancreatic β cells due to multifactorial mechanisms. Since pancreatic β cells of patients with T1DM are destroyed by autoimmune reaction, these patients require daily insulin injections. Insulin resistance followed by β cell dysfunction and β cell loss is the characteristics of T2DM. Therefore, most patients with T2DM will require insulin treatment due to eventual loss of insulin secretion. Despite the evidence of early insulin treatment lowering macrovascular (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease and stroke) and microvascular (diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy) complications of T2DM, controversy exists among physicians on how to initiate and intensify insulin therapy. The slow acting nature of regular human insulin makes its use ineffective in counteracting postprandial hyperglycemia. Instead, recombinant insulin analogs have been generated with a variable degree of specificity and action. Due to the metabolic variability among individuals, optimum blood glucose management is a formidable task to accomplish despite the presence of novel insulin analogs. In this article, we present a recent update on insulin analog structure and function with an overview of the evidence on the various insulin regimens clinically used to treat diabetes. PMID:23584214

  17. CAPE Analogs Induce Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Harquail, Jason; Lassalle-Claux, Grégoire; Belbraouet, Mehdi; Jean-Francois, Jacques; Touaibia, Mohamed; Robichaud, Gilles A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death amongst women worldwide. As a result, many have turned their attention to new alternative approaches to treat this disease. Caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE), a well-known active compound from bee propolis, has been previously identified as a strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer molecule. In fact, CAPE is well documented as inducing cell death by inhibiting NFκB and by inducing pro-apoptotic pathways (i.e., p53). With the objective of developing stronger anticancer compounds, we studied 18 recently described CAPE derivatives for their ability to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Five of the said compounds, including CAPE, were selected and subsequently characterised for their anticancer mechanism of action. We validated that CAPE is a potent inducer of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, some newly synthesized CAPE derivatives also showed greater cell death activity than the lead CAPE structure. Similarly to CAPE, analog compounds elicited p53 activation. Interestingly, one compound in particular, analog 10, induced apoptosis in a p53-mutated cell line. These results suggest that our new CAPE analog compounds may display the capacity to induce breast cancer apoptosis in a p53-dependent and/or independent manner. These CAPE analogs could thus provide new therapeutic approaches for patients with varying genotypic signatures (such as p53 mutations) in a more specific and targeted fashion. PMID:26184141

  18. Nonlinear feedback reduces analog-to-digital converter error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, R. M.

    1965-01-01

    Nonlinear analog-to-digital converter measures the analog input level and continuously adjusts the digital readout scale sensitivity to effectively increase the accuracy. It is able to acquire more accurate low-level data.

  19. Mars Analog Simulations for Future Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, S. T.; Binsted, K.

    2014-07-01

    The NASA funded HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) is a planetary surface exploration analog site at ~8500 feet on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii.

  20. Comparison of the activity and distribution of analog II and related compounds in the mouse and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pento, J.T.; Koenig, K.K.; Magarian, R.A.; Shridhar, R.; Griffin, M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have reported that 1,1-dichloro-Cis-2,3-diphenylcyclopropane (Analog II) is antiestrogenic in the mouse and inhibits the initiation and promotion of DMBA-induced tumors in the rat. Recently the authors have synthesized related cyclopropyl derivative of stilbene and stilbenediol. The object of the present study was to compare the activity of these compounds in the mouse and rat. Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of each compound was determined using the 3-day uterotropic assay and uterine histology in immature female Swiss Webster mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. (/sup 3/H)-Analog II was used in the tissue distribution studies. It was found that whereas Analog II was antiestrogenic in the mouse, this compound and related cis-stilbene analogs produced no antiestrogenic activity in the rat. However, trans-stilbenediol derivatives were estrogenic in both the mouse and rat with relatively equivalent activity in both species. In the tissue distribution study (/sup 3/H)-Analog II was found to be specifically concentrated in uterine tissue of the mouse but not the rat. This observation may explain, in part, the difference in antiestrogenic activity of Analog II between these two rodent species.

  1. Symbolic representation for analog realization of a family of fractional order controller structures via continued fraction expansion.

    PubMed

    Pakhira, Anindya; Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu

    2015-07-01

    This paper uses the Continued Fraction Expansion (CFE) method for analog realization of fractional order differ-integrator and few special classes of fractional order (FO) controllers viz. Fractional Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller, FO[PD] controller and FO lead-lag compensator. Contemporary researchers have given several formulations for rational approximation of fractional order elements. However, approximation of the controllers studied in this paper, due to having fractional power of a rational transfer function, is not available in analog domain; although its digital realization already exists. This motivates us for applying CFE based analog realization technique for complicated FO controller structures to get equivalent rational transfer functions in terms of the controller tuning parameters. The symbolic expressions for rationalized transfer function in terms of the controller tuning parameters are especially important as ready references, without the need of running CFE algorithm every time and also helps in the synthesis of analog circuits for such FO controllers. PMID:25661163

  2. Modern Communication: Exploring Physiological Transmission through Tech-Savvy Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollabaugh, Christopher R.; Milanick, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogies are often helpful for students to grasp key physiological concepts; sometimes the technical jargon makes the concept seem more complex than it actually is. In this article the authors provide several analogies for information transfer processes that sometimes confuse students. For an analogy to be useful, of course, it needs to be…

  3. When Reasoning Modifies Memory: Schematic Assimilation Triggered by Analogical Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendetti, Michael S.; Wu, Aaron; Rowshanshad, Ebi; Knowlton, Barbara J.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Analogical mapping highlights shared relations that link 2 situations, potentially at the expense of information that does not fit the dominant pattern of correspondences. To investigate whether analogical mapping can alter subsequent recognition memory for features of a source analog, we performed 2 experiments with 4-term proportional analogies…

  4. Analogies in Medicine: Valuable for Learning, Reasoning, Remembering and Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Gil Patrus; Andrade-Filho, Jose de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are important tools in human reasoning and learning, for resolving problems and providing arguments, and are extensively used in medicine. Analogy and similarity involve a structural alignment or mapping between domains. This cognitive mechanism can be used to make inferences and learn new abstractions. Through analogies, we try to…

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new jasplakinolide (jaspamide) analogs

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Dawson, Zachary L.; Moon, Deuk Kyu; Bai, Ruoli; Hamel, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis and biological evaluation of jasplakinolide analogs are described. The synthesis of analogs utilized a diastereoselective syn-aldol reaction and an orthoester Claisen rearrangement as key steps. All synthetic analogs were evaluated for their ability to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 essentially displayed similar activity to jasplakinolide. PMID:20678932

  6. Functional DNA: Teaching Infinite Series through Genetic Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, R. Travis

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an extended analogy that connects infinite sequences and series to the science of genetics, by identifying power series as "DNA for a function." This analogy allows standard topics such as convergence tests or Taylor approximations to be recast in a "forensic" light as mathematical analogs of genetic concepts such as DNA…

  7. Can Pupils Use Taught Analogies for Electric Current?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David; Solomon, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of analogies and models for teaching about electric current. Reports on a study in which one group of students used analogies to learn about electric current and one did not. Results indicate that, in this case, analogies did not play a significant role in student understanding. (TW)

  8. Using Analogies as an Experiential Learning Technique in Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthakaran, V.; Filsinger, Keri; White, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors specifically address the use of narratives in the form of analogies as an experiential learning activity. The use of analogies as an experiential learning tool in multicultural education can be helpful in a number of ways. Analogies provide an alternative tool for processing multicultural topics with students who have…

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate and dithioate analogs.

    PubMed

    Talaat, Roba; El-Sayed, Waheba; Agwa, Hussein S; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moawia, Shaden; Zahran, Magdy A H

    2015-08-01

    Thalidomide has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. It has been used to treat a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory activities of novel thalidomide analogs by exploring their effects on splenocytes proliferation and macrophage functions and their antioxidant activity. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effect of thalidomide analogs against splenocytes. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-P65) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nitric oxide (NO) was estimated by colorimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was examined by ORAC assay. Our results demonstrated that thalidomide dithioate analog 2 and thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 4 produced a slight increase in splenocyte proliferation compared with thalidomide. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 1 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α production, whereas thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 5 is a potent inhibitor of both TNF-α and NO. Analog 2 has a pronounced inhibitory effect on NF-κB-P65 production level. All thalidomide analogs showed prooxidant activity against hydroxyl (OH) radical. Analog 1 and thalidomide dithioate analog 3 have prooxidant activity against peroxyl (ROO) radical in relation to thalidomide. On the other hand, analog 4 has a potent scavenging capacity against peroxyl (ROO) radical compared with thalidomide. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide analogs might have valuable anti-inflammatory activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide itself. PMID:26051520

  10. Interactive Optical Disc Systems: Part 1: Analog Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Details distinction between digital and analog data, advantages of analog storage, and optical disc use to store analog data. Configuration and potential of three levels of laser disc systems are explained. Selection of display devices for use with laser disc systems and accessing audio data are addressed. (Continued in next issue.) (EJS)

  11. Analogical Instruction in Statistics: Implications for Social Work Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of analogies in statistics instruction. Much has been written about the difficulty social work students have with statistics. To address this concern, Glisson and Fischer (1987) called for the use of analogies. Understanding of analogical problem solving has surged in the last few decades with the integration of…

  12. A possible explanation for the discrepancy in electron persistent current amplitudes: A superfluid persistent current analog

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, J.D. )

    1992-10-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in normal electron persistent currents' that result from the wave nature of electrons in a normal metal ring for which inelastic electron-phonon scattering has been reduced so that the electron maintains phase coherence around the ring. The application of the current theory of electron transport, which includes the effects of elastic scattering in a disordered potential field, produces an expression that disagrees with the experimental measurements by Webb, et al. The author presents here an acoustic analog of wave mechanical electrons in a disordered circular waveguide and derives an expression that agrees with the results of the electron persistent current measurements. The acoustic analog shows that the expression derived from electron transport is also correct, but only under conditions that do not correspond to the actual method used in measuring the electron persistent currents. A proposed experiment to test the model using superfluid helium in a disordered scattering field is presented.

  13. Multiple Analogies for Complex Concepts: Antidotes for Analogy-Induced Misconception in Advanced Knowledge Acquisition. Technical Report No. 439.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rand J.; And Others

    This report argues that there exists a pervasive tendency for analogies to contribute to the development of entrenched misconceptions in the form of reducing complex new knowledge to the core of a source analogy. The report presents a taxonomy of ways that simple analogy induces conceptual error and an alternative approach involving integrated…

  14. Inviting Argument by Analogy: Analogical-Mapping-Based Comparison Activities as a Scaffold for Small-Group Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emig, Brandon R.; McDonald, Scott; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Strauss, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    This study invited small groups to make several arguments by analogy about simple machines. Groups were first provided training on analogical (structure) mapping and were then invited to use analogical mapping as a scaffold to make arguments. In making these arguments, groups were asked to consider three simple machines: two machines that they had…

  15. Mechanical analogy of the nonlinear dynamics of a driven unstable mode near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleśny, J.; Marczyński, S.; Lisak, M.; Anderson, D.; Gałkowski, A.; Berczyński, P.; Berczyński, S.; Rogowski, R.

    2009-02-01

    The universal integrodifferential model equation derived by Berk et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1256 (1996)] for studying the nonlinear evolution of unstable modes driven by kinetic wave particle resonances near the instability threshold is reduced to a differential equation and next as a further simplification to a nonlinear oscillator equation. This mechanical analogy properly reproduces most of the essential physics of the system and allows an understanding of the qualitative features of the theory of Berk et al.

  16. Microstore: the Stanford analog memory unit

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.T.; Chae, S.I.; Shapiro, S.; Larsen, R.S.

    1984-11-01

    An NMOS device has been developed which provides high speed analog signal storage and readout for time expansion of transient signals. This device takes advantage of HMOS-1 VLSI technology to implement an array of 256 storage cells. Sequential samples of an input waveform can be taken every 5 ns while providing an effective sampling aperture time of less than 1 ns. The design signal-to-noise ratio is 1 part in 2000. Digital control circuitry is provided on the chip for controlling the read-in and read-out processes. A reference circuit is incorporated in the chip for first order compensation of leakage drifts, sampling pedestals, and temperature effects.

  17. Scalable analog wavefront sensor with subpixel resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Standard Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors use a CCD element to sample position and distortion of a target or guide star. Digital sampling of the element and transfer to a memory space for subsequent computation adds significant temporal delay, thus, limiting the spatial frequency and scalability of the system as a wavefront sensor. A new approach to sampling uses information processing principles in an insect compound eye. Analog circuitry eliminates digital sampling and extends the useful range of the system to control a deformable mirror and make a faster, more capable wavefront sensor.

  18. Analog/Digital System for Germanium Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodhouse, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    Electronic system containing analog and digital circuits makes high-precision, four-wire measurements of resistance of each germanium resistance thermometer (GRT) in array of devices, using alternating current (ac) of 1 micro-A. At end measurement interval, contents of negative register subtracted from positive one, resulting in very-narrow-band synchronous demodulation of carrier wave and suppression of out-of-band noise. Microprocessor free to perform other duties after measurement complete. Useful in noisy terrestrial environments encountered in factories.

  19. Bosonic analog of the Klein paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R. E.; Ware, M. R.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2010-02-15

    The standard Klein paradox describes how an incoming electron scatters off a supercritical electrostatic barrier that is so strong that it can generate electron-positron pairs. This fermionic system has been widely discussed in textbooks to illustrate some of the discrepancies between quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretical descriptions for the pair creation process. We compare the fermionic dynamics with that of the corresponding bosonic system. We point out that the direct counterpart of the Pauli exclusion principle (the central mechanism to resolve the fermionic Klein paradox) is stimulated emission, which leads to the resolution of the analogous bosonic paradox.

  20. Analogy among microfluidics, micromechanics, and microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Shian; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-10-01

    We wish to illuminate the analogous link between microfluidic-based devices, and the already established pairing of micromechanics and microelectronics to create a triangular/three-way scientific relationship as a means of interlinking familial disciplines and accomplishing two primary goals: (1) to facilitate the modeling of multidisciplinary domains; and, (2) to enable us to co-simulate the entire system within a compact circuit simulator (e.g., Cadence or SPICE). A microfluidic channel-like structure embedded in a micro-electro-mechanical resonator via our proposed CMOS-MEMS technology is used to illustrate the connections among microfluidics, micromechanics, and microelectronics. PMID:23963526

  1. Analog synthesized fast-variable linear load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1991-01-01

    A several kilowatt power level, fast-variable linear resistor was synthesized by using analog components to control the conductance of power MOSFETs. Risetimes observed have been as short as 500 ns with respect to the control signal and 1 to 2 microseconds with respect to the power source voltage. A variant configuration of this load that dissipates a constant power set by a control signal is indicated. Replacement of the MOSFETs by static induction transistors (SITs) to increase power handling, speed and radiation hardness is discussed.

  2. ANALOG QUANTUM NEURON FOR FUNCTIONS APPROXIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    A. EZHOV; A. KHROMOV; G. BERMAN

    2001-05-01

    We describe a system able to perform universal stochastic approximations of continuous multivariable functions in both neuron-like and quantum manner. The implementation of this model in the form of multi-barrier multiple-silt system has been earlier proposed. For the simplified waveguide variant of this model it is proved, that the system can approximate any continuous function of many variables. This theorem is also applied to the 2-input quantum neural model analogical to the schemes developed for quantum control.

  3. High-speed analog achromatic intensity modulator.

    PubMed

    Stockley, J E; Sharp, G D; Doroski, D; Johnson, K M

    1994-05-15

    We report what is to our knowledge the first implementation of a broadband analog intensity modulator composed of two chiral smectic liquid-crystal half-wave retarders. A reflection-mode intensity modulator employing a single active device has also demonstrated achromatic transmission. A quantitative theory for chromatic compensation is presented. By optimum selection of liquid-crystal retardance and orientation, intensity transmission is uniform throughout the visible. The chiral smectic liquid-crystal devices used in the implementation are capable of switching in less than 20 micros. PMID:19844436

  4. Foam analogy in charged colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Kung, William; Ziherl, P; Kamien, Randall D

    2002-05-01

    We model charged colloidal suspensions using an analogy with foams. We study the solid-solid phase transitions of these systems as a function of particle volume fraction and ionic strength. The screened-Coulomb interaction is replaced by an interaction between walls of the Voronoi cells around each particle. We fit the surface charge to reproduce the phase diagram for the charged suspension studied by Sirota et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1524 (1989)]. With this fit parameter we are able to calculate the elastic moduli of the system and find good agreement with the available data. PMID:12059512

  5. Article for analog vector algebra computation.

    PubMed

    Mills, A P; Yurke, B; Platzman, P M

    1999-10-01

    We introduce the concept of an analog neural network represented by chemical operations performed on strands of DNA. This new type of DNA computing has the advantage that it should be fault tolerant and thus more immune to DNA hybridization errors than a Boolean DNA computer. We describe a particular set of DNA operations to effect the interconversion of electrical and DNA data and to represent the Hopfield associative memory and the feed-forward neural network of Rumelhart et al. We speculate that networks containing as many as 10(9) neurons might be feasible. PMID:10636042

  6. Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

    1986-01-01

    The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

  7. Continuous-time analog filter in CMOS nanoscale era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baschirotto, A.; De Matteis, M.; Pezzotta, A.; D'Amico, S.

    2014-04-01

    Analog filters are key blocks in analog signal processing. They are widely employed in many systems, like wireless transceivers, detectors read-out, sensors interfaces, etc. The IC technology choice for such systems is mainly dictated by the requirements of high speed and low power consumption of digital circuits. This pushed an impressive movement towards scaled technology and this has important consequences on the analog circuits design. The impact of technology scaling down to nanometre scale on analog filters design is here investigated. For instance, supply voltage reduction in analog filters limits circuits design solutions and could result in higher power consumption. Moreover, at the same time, innovative systems push analog filters to get higher and higher operation frequencies, due to the increasing bandwidth/speed requirements. Recent solutions for efficient low-voltage and high frequency analog filters in nanometre technology are described.

  8. Polynomial modeling of analog-to-digital converters

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, O.M. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Analog-to-digital converters are frequently modeled as a linear polynomial plus a random process. The parameters of the linear polynomial are the familiar gain and offset of the analog-to-digital converter. The output of the random process is uniformly distributed on plus or minus the least significant bit of the analog-to-digital converter. In this paper, the transfer function of an analog-to-digital converter is modeled as a nonlinear polynomial plus a random process. This model can explain the generation of harmonics by the analog-to-digital converter, but the simpler linear model cannot. The parameters of the nonlinear polynomial are estimated from the response to the analog-to-digital converter to a sine wave. The model parameters are used to estimate the nonlinear part of the transfer function of the analog-to-digital converter.

  9. New Verapamil Analogs Inhibit Intracellular Mycobacteria without Affecting the Functions of Mycobacterium-Specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruminiski, Peter G.; Kumar, Malkeet; Singh, Kawaljit; Hamzabegovic, Fahreta; Hoft, Daniel F.; Eickhoff, Christopher S.; Selimovic, Asmir; Campbell, Mary; Chibale, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in repurposing mycobacterial efflux pump inhibitors, such as verapamil, for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. To aid in the design of better analogs, we studied the effects of verapamil on macrophages and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells. Macrophage activation was evaluated by measuring levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Since verapamil is a known autophagy inducer, the roles of autophagy induction in the antimycobacterial activities of verapamil and norverapamil were studied using bone marrow-derived macrophages from ATG5flox/flox (control) and ATG5flox/flox Lyz-Cre mice. Our results showed that despite the well-recognized effects of verapamil on calcium channels and autophagy, its action on intracellular M. tuberculosis does not involve macrophage activation or autophagy induction. Next, the effects of verapamil and norverapamil on M. tuberculosis-specific T cells were assessed using flow cytometry following the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from TB-skin-test-positive donors with M. tuberculosis whole-cell lysate for 7 days in the presence or absence of drugs. We found that verapamil and norverapamil inhibit the expansion of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells. Additionally, three new verapamil analogs were found to inhibit intracellular Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and one of the three analogs (KSV21) inhibited intracellular M. tuberculosis replication at concentrations that did not inhibit M. tuberculosis-specific T cell expansion. KSV21 also inhibited mycobacterial efflux pumps to the same degree as verapamil. More interestingly, the new analog enhances the inhibitory activities of isoniazid and rifampin on intracellular M. tuberculosis. In conclusion, KSV21 is a promising verapamil analog on which to base structure-activity relationship studies aimed at identifying more effective analogs. PMID:26643325

  10. The gravitational analog of Faraday's induction law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zile, Daniel; Overduin, James

    2015-04-01

    Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction, was convinced that there must also be a gravitational analog of this law, and he carried out drop-tower experiments in 1849 to look for the electric current induced in a coil by changes in gravitational flux through the coil. This work, now little remembered, was in some ways the first investigation of what we would now call a unified-field theory. We revisit Faraday's experiments in the light of current knowledge and ask what might be learned if they were to be performed today. We then review the gravitational analog for Faraday's law that arises within the vector (or gravito-electromagnetic) approximation to Einstein's theory of general relativity in the weak-field, low-velocity limit. This law relates spinning masses and induced ``mass currents'' rather than spinning charges and electric currents, but is otherwise remarkably similar to its electromagnetic counterpart. The predicted effects are completely unobservable in everyday settings like those envisioned by Faraday, but are thought to be relevant in astrophysical contexts like the accretion disks around collapsed stars, thus bearing out Faraday's remarkable intuition. Undergraduate student.

  11. Laboratory Investigations of Catalysis on Grain Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. C.; Ferrante, R. F.; Moore, M. H.; Hallenbeck, S. L.

    1998-09-01

    We have begun a set of laboratory measurements to study the possible conversion of CO into CH_4 and other alkanes via Fischer-Tropsch catalysis in the presence of interstellar dust analogs containing iron. The dust analogs are sub-micron size iron silicate smokes made in a grain condensation chamber by reacting SiH_4 with O_2 in the presence of Fe (CO)_5 . The smokes are amorphous in phase and composition; based on our gas adsorption measurements they have a surface area of near 125 m(2) g(-1) . In the catalytic experiment, a mixture of H_2 + CO (2 : 1) is continuously circulated in a closed system through 0.1 g of iron silicate smoke. The smoke is heated to near 300 C while the gas reacts for a 3 hour period. The reacted gas is condensed onto a 10 K mirror attached to the tail of a cryostat. The infrared spectrum of the condensed gas is used to identify new species formed by catalysis. There is evidence for the conversion of CO into CH_4, C_2H_6 and C_2H_4. Similarly obtained background spectra not containing the catalyst do not show the same spectral signatures. Further experiments will quantitatively determine the efficiency of this conversion to determine if grain-catalyzed reactions such as these could play an important role in the chemistry of the solar nebula.NASA/Goddard

  12. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. PMID:25447511

  13. Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  14. Digital and analog gene circuits for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells. PMID:24677719

  15. Net order optimization in analog net bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambor, Thomas; Schreiner, Lars; Olbrich, Markus; Barke, Erich

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optimize net order in analog busses. It is used for the PARasitic SYmmetric router (PARSY), which routes net bundles, e.g. busses or differential pairs, maintaining parasitic symmetry and limiting differential coupling. The router is mainly devoted to analog signal interconnect but can also be used for critical digital busses. Net bundles have a fixed order, because wire crossing is not allowed in net bundle segments to enforce symmetry. Wires inside net bundle segments are generated by module generators. Connecting cell terminals to the first or the last net bundle segment is complex, because the cell terminals can vary in geometry and placement. Therefore, an assignment between nets and wires (net order) in a segment is required. This assignment does not affect the order in which nets or net bundles are routed sequentially. The optimization objective for the connections from net bundle segments to terminals is to minimize the number of crossings and the length difference, while maintaining symmetry if possible. Therefore, a net order has to be calculated, which globally optimizes these criteria for all terminal connections. Different net orders can be computed from the placement of terminals, which have to be connected to a net bundle segment. An additional order is calculated from these net orders, which contains the most characteristic features of all net orders. For all net orders costs are evaluated, and the one with the lowest cost is chosen.

  16. Photonically assisted analog-to-digital conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asuri, Bhushan Shanti

    The evolutionary progress in electronic Analog to Digital Converters is not sufficient to meet the needs of high- speed, digital, radar receivers. We present a wide variety of techniques to address the problem of ultra- fast A/D conversion using photonics. We propose architectures, which map an electrical signal into the optical wavelength domain. The wavelength-mapped signal can then be manipulated using dispersive optic devices. The basic architectures based on time-wavelength mapping are Time Stretch, Wavelength Division Sampling and Wavelength Sampling and Shuffle. TS and WSS allow us to process segments of the electrical signal. This segment- interleaving is a potential novel strength of photonic analog-to-digital conversion techniques. The important experimental achievements include demonstration of 130 Gsa/s 7ENOB TSADC, with filtering over 1 GHZ and 30 Gsa/s, 4ENOB TSADC system over 4GHz. In the case of WDS systems we have shown 12 Gsa/s continuous time WDS system and 100 Gsa/s WDS system. We have also performed preliminary experiments to show the viability of a 16 Gsa/s, 4 channel WSS system with time aperture of 500ns. The important analytical milestones include a link level analysis of dynamic range of TSADC. We have also analyzed the effect of fiber dispersion (β2 and β3) on TSADC and the effect of mismatch in sample interleaved systems.

  17. EF-G Activation by Phosphate Analogs.

    PubMed

    Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2016-05-22

    Elongation factor G (EF-G) is a universally conserved translational GTPase that promotes the translocation of tRNA and mRNA through the ribosome. EF-G binds to the ribosome in a GTP-bound form and subsequently catalyzes GTP hydrolysis. The contribution of the ribosome-stimulated GTP hydrolysis by EF-G to tRNA/mRNA translocation remains debated. Here, we show that while EF-G•GDP does not stably bind to the ribosome and induce translocation, EF-G•GDP in complex with phosphate group analogs BeF3(-) and AlF4(-) promotes the translocation of tRNA and mRNA. Furthermore, the rates of mRNA translocation induced by EF-G in the presence of GTP and a non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, GDP•BeF3(-) are similar. Our results are consistent with the model suggesting that GTP hydrolysis is not directly coupled to mRNA/tRNA translocation. Hence, GTP binding is required to induce the activated, translocation-competent conformation of EF-G while GTP hydrolysis triggers EF-G release from the ribosome. PMID:27063503

  18. Antarctic Analog for Dilational Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  19. Phase transitions analogy for cavity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Petru; Kaufman, Miron

    The fluid flow in cavity type systems, in which one of the walls is moving while the others are stationary, is analyzed using computational modeling, under the assumption of no-slip boundary conditions. By iteratively adapting the mesh used, we are able to map with high spatial resolution the complex flow structures that form at the two types of corners of the cavity, i.e. (i) corners defined by stationary walls, and (ii) corners defined by a stationary and the moving wall, respectively. For the structures that form in the vicinity of the fixed points defined by the corners, we observe that the flow magnitudes and spatial distributions follow scaling laws similar with critical phenomena. In particular, the behavior at the first type of corner is analogous to a to a first-order transition (discontinuity) point, while the behavior at the second one is analogous to a thermodynamic critical point (second-order transition). These results provide a unique insight into the solution to Navier-Stokes equations for cavity flows.

  20. Endpoint Distinctiveness Facilitates Analogical Mapping in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511

  1. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Vítor; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems. PMID:20714422

  2. AFEII Analog Front End Board Design Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinov, Paul; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This document describes the design of the 2nd iteration of the Analog Front End Board (AFEII), which has the function of receiving charge signals from the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) and providing digital hit pattern and charge amplitude information from those charge signals. This second iteration is intended to address limitations of the current AFE (referred to as AFEI in this document). These limitations become increasingly deleterious to the performance of the Central Fiber Tracker as instantaneous luminosity increases. The limitations are inherent in the design of the key front end chips on the AFEI board (the SVXIIe and the SIFT) and the architecture of the board itself. The key limitations of the AFEI are: (1) SVX saturation; (2) Discriminator to analog readout cross talk; (3) Tick to tick pedestal variation; and (4) Channel to channel pedestal variation. The new version of the AFE board, AFEII, addresses these limitations by use of a new chip, the TriP-t and by architectural changes, while retaining the well understood and desirable features of the AFEI board.

  3. C-Glycosyl Analogs of Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauzeilles, Boris; Urban, Dominique; Doisneau, Gilles; Beau, Jean-Marie

    This chapter covers the synthesis of a large collection of "C-oligosaccharides ", synthetic analogs of naturally occurring oligosaccharides in which a carbon atom replaces the anomeric, interglycosidic oxygen atom. These non-natural constructs are stable to chemical and enzymatic degradation, and are primarily devised to probe carbohydrate-based biological processes. These mainly target carbohydrate-protein interactions such as the modulation of glycoenzyme (glycosylhydrolases and transferases) activities or the design of ligands for lectin Carbohydrate Recognition Domains. The discussion is based on the key carbon-carbon bond assembling steps on carbohydrate templates: ionic (anionic and cationic chemistries, sigmatropic rearrangements) or radical assemblage, and olefin metathesis. Synthetic schemes in which at least one of the monosaccharide units is constructed by total synthesis or by cyclization of acyclic chiral chains are presented separately in a "partial de novo synthesis" section. The review also provides comments, when they are known, on the conformational and binding properties of these synthetic analogs, as well as their biological behavior when tested.

  4. Operational Lessons Learned from NASA Analog Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.

    2010-01-01

    vehicle and system capabilities are required to support the activities? How will the crew and the Earth-based mission control team interact? During the initial phases of manned planetary exploration, one challenge in particular is virtually the same as during the Apollo program: How can scientific return be maximized during a relatively short surface mission? Today, NASA is investigating solutions to these challenges by conducting analog missions. These Earth-based missions possess characteristics that are analogous to missions on the Moon or Mars. These missions are excellent for testing operational concepts, and the design, configuration, and functionality of spacesuits, robots, rovers, and habitats. Analog mission crews test specific techniques and procedures for surface field geology, biological sample collection, and planetary protection. The process of actually working an analog mission reveals a myriad of small details, which either contribute to or impede efficient operations, many of which would never have been thought about otherwise. It also helps to define the suite of tools, containers, and other small equipment that surface explorers will use. This paper focuses on how analog missions have addressed selected operational considerations for future planetary missions.

  5. Base-Modified Nucleosides: Etheno Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Jahnz-Wechmann, Zofia; Framski, Grzegorz R.; Januszczyk, Piotr A.; Boryski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This review presents synthesis and chemistry of nucleoside analogs, possessing an additional fused, heterocyclic ring of the “etheno” type, such as 1,N6-ethenoadenosine, 1,N4-ethenocytidine, 1,N2-ethenoguanosine, and other related derivatives. Formation of ethenonucleosides, in the presence of α-halocarbonyl reagents and their mechanism, stability, and degradation, reactions of substitution and transglycosylation, as well as their application in the nucleoside synthesis, have been described. Some of the discussed compounds may be applied as chemotherapeutic agents in antiviral and anticancer treatment, acting as pro-nucleosides of already known, biologically active nucleoside analogs. PMID:27200341

  6. Heteroaromatic analogs of the resveratrol analog DMU-212 as potent anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Thakkar, Shraddha; Crooks, Peter A

    2015-07-15

    Heteroaromatic analogs of DMU-212 (8-15) have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines. These novel analogs contain a trans-3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl moiety attached to the C2 position of indole, benzofuran, benzothiazole or benzothiophene ring (8, 11, 13 and 14, respectively) and showed potent growth inhibition in 85% of the cancer cell lines examined, with GI50 values <1 μM. Interestingly, trans-3,4- and trans-3,5-dimethoxystyryl DMU-212 analogs 9, 10, 12 and 15 exhibited significantly less growth inhibition than their 3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl counterparts, suggesting that the trans-3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl moiety is an essential structural element for the potent anti-cancer activity of these heterocyclic DMU-212 analogs. Molecular modeling studies showed that the four most active compounds (8, 11, 13 and 14) all bind to the colchicine binding site on tubulin, and that their binding modes are similar to that of DMU-212. PMID:26022840

  7. Simplification of antitumoral phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids: short synthesis of cytotoxic indolizidinone and pyrrolidine analogs.

    PubMed

    Miguélez, Javier; Boto, Alicia; Marín, Raquel; Díaz, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Hydroxylated seco-analogs of cytotoxic phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids were prepared in good yields from inexpensive 4-hydroxyproline derivatives, in just two steps. Thus, a sequential oxidative radical scission-oxidation was used for the direct conversion of the proline derivative into a 2-(2-aryl-oxoethyl)pyrrolidine with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl groups. The 4R-stereogenic center allowed ready isomer separation, and stereocontrol in the introduction of new chains (interestingly, the 2,4-cis isomers predominated). In the second step, a cyclization reaction afforded alkaloid analogs with an indolizidinone core; a partial isomerization took place but the isomers were readily purified. Then the cytotoxic activity of the bicyclic indolizidinones and the simpler pyrrolidine derivatives was compared against tumorogenic human neuronal SHSY-5Y and breast cancer MCF7 cells. All the biphenyl derivatives displayed a potent activity (one derivative caused >80% cell death in both tumor lines at micromolar dosis), being comparable in the pyrrolidine and indolizidinone series. PMID:23845713

  8. Enhancing USDA's Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Precipitation and Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Shannon, H. D.

    2013-12-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attachés, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly affect crop yields, WAOB has often, as part of its operational process, used historical time series of surface-based precipitation observations to visually identify growing seasons with similar (analog) weather patterns as, and help estimate crop yields for, the current growing season. As part of a larger effort to improve WAOB estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing observations and research results into WAOB's decision-making environment, a more rigorous, statistical method for identifying analog years was developed. This method, termed the analog index (AI), is based on the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient. The AI was computed for five study areas and six growing seasons of data analyzed (2003-2007 as potential analog years and 2008 as the target year). Previously reported results compared the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-retrieved precipitation data. Those results showed that, for all five areas, crop yield estimates derived from satellite-retrieved precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface-based precipitation observations

  9. Crystal structures of arginine kinase in complex with ADP, nitrate, and various phosphagen analogs.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shawn A; Davulcu, Omar; Chapman, Michael S

    2012-10-12

    Arginine kinase catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group between ATP and l-arginine and is a monomeric homolog of the human enzyme creatine kinase. Arginine and creatine kinases belongs to the phosphagen kinase family of enzymes, which consists of eight known members, each of which is specific for its own phosphagen. Here, the source of phosphagen specificity in arginine kinase is investigated through the use of phosphagen analogs. Crystal structures have been determined for Limulus polyphemus arginine kinase with one of four arginine analogs bound in a transition state analog complex: l-ornithine, l-citrulline, imino-l-ornithine, and d-arginine. In all complexes, the enzyme achieves a closed conformation very similar to that of the cognate transition state analog complex, but differences are observed in the configurations of bound ligands. Arginine kinase exhibits no detectable activity towards ornithine, citrulline, or imino-l-ornithine, and only trace activity towards d-arginine. The crystal structures presented here demonstrate that phosphagen specificity is derived neither from a lock-and-key mechanism nor a modulation of induced-fit conformational changes, but potentially from subtle distortions in bound substrate configurations. PMID:22995310

  10. Mosquitocidal Properties of Natural Product Compounds Isolated From Chinese Herbs and Synthetic Analogs of Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    ANSTROM, DAVID M.; ZHOU, XIA; KALK, CODY N.; SONG, BAOAN; LAN, QUE

    2012-01-01

    Because of resistance to current insecticides and to environmental, health, and regulatory concerns, naturally occurring compounds and their derivatives are of increasing interest for the development of new insecticidal compounds against vectors of disease-causing pathogens. Fifty-eight compounds, either extracted and purified from plants native to China or synthetic analogs of curcumin, were evaluated for both their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.) and their ability to inhibit binding of cholesterol to Ae. aegypti sterol carrier protein-2 in vitro. Of the compounds tested, curcumin analogs seem especially promising in that of 24 compounds tested five were inhibitors of Ae. aegyptisterol carrier protein-2 with EC50 values ranging from 0.65 to 62.87 μM, and three curcumin analogs exhibited larvicidal activity against fourth instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 values ranging from 17.29 to 27.90 μM. Adding to the attractiveness of synthetic curcumin analogs is the relative ease of synthesizing a large diversity of compounds; only a small fraction of such diversity has been sampled in this study. PMID:22493854

  11. [Use of the peptide hormone melanostatin and its analogs for the synthesis of new antitumor compounds].

    PubMed

    Lagova, N D; Smirnova, Z S; Sof'ina, Z P; Smirnova, L I; Kashnikova, N M

    1988-01-01

    A hypothalamic hormone--melanostatin H-L-Pro-L-Leu-NH2- and its 9 analogs were synthesized and their antitumor properties studied. Melanostatin caused a 52-72% inhibition of tumor growth (p less than 0.05) in mice bearing adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland Ca-755, cervical carcinoma CC-5 and melanoma B-16. Non-cytotoxic analogs containing D-leucine or L-lysine showed low activity. Among analogs containing sarcolysine stereomers, chlorphenacyl or chlorambucil, derivatives with L-sarcolysin exerted a high antitumor effect on Ca-755, CC-5, Lewis lung carcinoma, lymphoid leukemia L-1210, sarcoma-37, melanoma B-16 and S-91 (80-99% inhibition of tumor growth, p less than 0.05). L-sarcolysin alone had a higher effect on S-91 only (p less than 0.05). Antitumor effect of melanostatin is due to its amino acid sequences. Melanostatin analogs modified by L-phenylalanine retain their antitumor properties. PMID:2893489

  12. Synergistic enhancement of 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity by deoxyuridine analogs in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Rodriguez, Victoria; Whitford, Tracy A.; Beeharry, Neil; Ide, Hiroshi; Tomkinson, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (FU) is a halogenated nucleobase analog that is widely used in chemotherapy. Here we show that 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine (hmUdR) synergistically enhances the activity of FU in cell lines derived from solid tumors but not normal tissues. While the cytotoxicity of FU and hmUdR was not directly related to the amount of the modified bases incorporated into cellular DNA, incubation with this combination resulted in dramatic increase in the number of single strand breaks in replicating cancer cells, leading to NAD-depletion as consequence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis and S phase arrest. Cell death resulting from the base/nucleoside combination did not occur by apoptosis, autophagy or necroptosis. Instead, the cells die via necrosis as a result of NAD depletion. The FU-related nucleoside analog, 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine, also displayed synergy with hmUdR, whereas hmUdR could not be replaced by 5-hydroxymethyluracil. Among other 5-modified deoxyuridine analogs tested, 5-formyl-2′-deoxyuridine and, to a lesser extent, 5-hydroxy-2′-deoxyuridine, also acted synergistically with FU, whereas 5-hydroxyethyl-2′-deoxyuridine did not. Together, our results have revealed an unexpected synergistic interaction between deoxyuridine analogs and FU in a cancer cell-specific manner, and suggest that these novel base/nucleoside combinations could be developed into improved FU-based chemotherapies. PMID:25897430

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of a triple-bond resveratrol analog: structure and function relationship.

    PubMed

    Antus, Csenge; Radnai, Balazs; Dombovari, Peter; Fonai, Fruzsina; Avar, Peter; Matyus, Peter; Racz, Boglarka; Sumegi, Balazs; Veres, Balazs

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, showing well-characterized anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities. In order to exceed resveratrol׳s biological effects and to reveal the structural determinants of the molecule׳s activity, numerous derivatives were synthesized recently. Most of these resveratrol analogs vary from the original molecule in the number, position or identity of the phenolic functional groups. Investigation of the analogs provided important data regarding structure-activity relationship of the molecule. With the exception of cis- and trans-resveratrol and the reduced form dihydroresveratrol, little is known about the molecular effects of the stilbene backbone. In the present study we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of a new, triple-bond resveratrol analog, 3,4',5-trihydroxy-diphenylacetylene (TDPA) on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW macrophages. We found that the analog had weaker antioxidant activity and stronger inhibitory effect on nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and on cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 production. It also prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. In contrast to resveratrol, TDPA increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases. In summary, we identified a novel compound with better anti-inflammatory properties than resveratrol. Our results contributed to a better understanding of the structural determinants of resveratrol׳s biological activities. PMID:25528327

  14. AMOC Predictability estimated through best analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Victor Estella; Sevellec, Florian; Germe, Agathe

    2015-04-01

    AMOC Predictability estimated through best analog Since Lorenz's work on the atmospheric circulation, we know that even with a hypothetically perfect numerical model, representing all the physical processes without any error, the inherent uncertainties in the initial conditions of the atmospheric problem will grow and disturb the numerical simulation of the transient atmospheric systems. This property, known as sensitive dependence to initial conditions, is a characteristic property of chaotic systems. This property could be generalised to longer timescale (from decadal to centennial) when looking at the climate system as a whole. In this context, a standard approach to estimate predictability in realistic climate models is based on random perturbations of the initial conditions. This method, which time integrates the model with each individual perturbed initial conditions, requires intensive numerical computation to estimate the impact of error growth due to initial condition. To overcome this difficulty, we test a slightly different approach only based on "offline" diagnostic of a single long simulation (long enough to cover the full attractor of the system). This method considers best analog or similar initial condition (i.e. condition that are close in the phase space). The predictability is thus assessed by diagnosing the divergence of these trajectories. To compare these two methodologies, we choose an idealised context. We use a chaotic model representing the long timescale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. We tested the performance of this approach on initial conditions located in different regions of the attractor of the system. We further studied the dependency on the number of elements required to obtain a estimation of the error growth (i.e. the size of the ensemble). The results suggest that the analog method can be a good tool to estimate predictability in the idealised model. Future work will be directed towards the

  15. Comprehending speaker intent in rebuttal analogy use: the role of irony mapping, absurdity comparison and argumentative convention.

    PubMed

    Colston, H L

    2000-01-01

    Rebuttal analogies (e.g., "Politicians arguing over the renaming of an airport is like watering your petunias when your house is on fire") are commonly used as responses in verbal conflicts. The following study investigated the role that irony mapping, absurdity comparison, and argumentative convention play in interpreters' derivations of speaker's intentions in using rebuttal analogies. In general, these intentions are to demonstrate the unsoundness of the opposed proposition ("argument") and its advocate ("social attack"), (Whaley & Holloway, 1996). Three rebuttal analogy types were rated on argumentativeness and social attack in verbal conflict and nonverbal conflict scenarios. The results of six experiments on 120 participants found that analogies with ironic bases (e.g., "Doubling the defense budget in order to intimidate North Korea is like using a chainsaw to file your nails") were perceived as more of a social attack and as more argumentative than analogies with absurd (e.g., "... using ketchup to wax your car") and nonironic (e.g., "... using a nailfile to file your nails") bases. No difference was found between the two scenario types. Norming data confirmed equivalence of absurdity of ironic and absurd bases, and greater irony of ironic over absurd bases. The results thus implicate hearers' use of the ironic structure between bases and targets in the interpretation of rebuttal analogies rather than mere absurdity comparison or argumentative convention. PMID:11419221

  16. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attach s, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly affect crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Historically, these analog years are visually identified; however, the qualitative nature of this method sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. Thus, one goal of this study is to derive a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years, based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). A second goal is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data).

  17. Discovery and Rational Design of Natural-Product-Derived 2-Phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[f]chromen-3-amine Analogs as Novel and Potent Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiliang; Xu, Hongling; Cui, Shichao; Wu, Fangshu; Zhang, Youli; Su, Mingbo; Gong, Yinghui; Qiu, Shaobing; Jiao, Qian; Qin, Chun; Shan, Jiwei; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Qiao; Xu, Minghao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Lili; Li, Jia; Xu, Yufang; Jiang, Hualiang; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Li, Jingya; Li, Honglin

    2016-07-28

    Starting from the lead isodaphnetin, a natural product inhibitor of DPP-4 discovered through a target fishing docking based approach, a series of novel 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[f]chromen-3-amine derivatives as potent DPP-4 inhibitors are rationally designed utilizing highly efficient 3D molecular similarity based scaffold hopping as well as electrostatic complementary methods. Those ingenious drug design strategies bring us approximate 7400-fold boost in potency. Compounds 22a and 24a are the most potent ones (IC50 ≈ 2.0 nM) with good pharmacokinetic profiles. Compound 22a demonstrated stable pharmacological effect. A 3 mg/kg oral dose provided >80% inhibition of DPP-4 activity within 24 h, which is comparable to the performance of the long-acting control omarigliptin. Moreover, the efficacy of 22a in improving the glucose tolerance is also comparable with omarigliptin. In this study, not only promising DPP-4 inhibitors as long acting antidiabetic that are clinically on demand are identified, but the target fish docking and medicinal chemistry strategies were successfully implemented. PMID:27396490

  18. Superconducting circuit probe for analog quantum simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Liang-Hui; You, J. Q.; Tian, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Analog quantum simulators can be used to study quantum correlation in novel many-body systems by emulating the Hamiltonian of these systems. One essential question in quantum simulation is to probe the properties of an emulated many-body system. Here we present a circuit QED scheme for probing such properties by measuring the spectrum of a superconducting resonator coupled to a quantum simulator. We first study a general framework of this approach and show that the spectrum of the resonator is directly related to the correlation function of the coupling operator between the resonator and the simulator. We then apply this scheme to a simulator of the transverse field Ising model implemented with superconducting qubits, where the resonance peaks in the resonator spectrum correspond to the frequencies of the elementary excitations. The effects of resonator damping, qubit decoherence, and resonator backaction are also discussed. This setup can be used to probe a broad range of many-body models.

  19. Four-gate transistor analog multiplier circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A differential output analog multiplier circuit utilizing four G.sup.4-FETs, each source connected to a current source. The four G.sup.4-FETs may be grouped into two pairs of two G.sup.4-FETs each, where one pair has its drains connected to a load, and the other par has its drains connected to another load. The differential output voltage is taken at the two loads. In one embodiment, for each G.sup.4-FET, the first and second junction gates are each connected together, where a first input voltage is applied to the front gates of each pair, and a second input voltage is applied to the first junction gates of each pair. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  20. Simple analogs of the toxin callicarpone.

    PubMed

    McChesney, J D; Kabra, P M; Fraher, P

    1979-09-01

    Callicarpone, a component 10 times as toxic to fish as rotenone, has been isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa candicans. It is reasonable to assume that callicarpone will act as an insecticidal agent as does rotenone. Therefore, the structure-activity relationship of callicarpone was examined by synthesizing a series of compounds having certain of its structural features. Those compounds were tested for insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. A study of synthetic analogs elucidated the functional group chemistry of callicarpone so that a synthesis might be undertaken. Piperitone oxide showed approximately 1/100th the activity of rotenone against Daphnia magna. 1-(alpha-Hydroxyisopropyl)-3-oxocyclohexene oxide showed activity against myobacterium while 2,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalene-1,4-dione showed inhibitory activity against the mycobacterium and two yeasts. PMID:501532

  1. Analog circuit for controlling acoustic transducer arrays

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1991-01-01

    A simplified ananlog circuit is presented for controlling electromechanical transducer pairs in an acoustic telemetry system. The analog circuit of this invention comprises a single electrical resistor which replaces all of the digital components in a known digital circuit. In accordance with this invention, a first transducer in a transducer pair of array is driven in series with the resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is then amplified and used to drive the second transducer. The voltage drop across the resistor is proportional and in phase with the current to the transducer. This current is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the driving voltage to the transducer. This phase shift replaces the digital delay required by the digital control circuit of the prior art.

  2. X-Rays from Green Pea Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    X-rays may have contributed to the heating and reionization of the IGM in the early universe. High mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) within small, low-metallicity galaxies are expected to be the main source of X-rays at this time. Since studying these high-redshift galaxies is currently impossible, we turn to local analogs that have the same properties the galaxies in the early are expected to have. A number of recent studies have shown an enhanced number of HMXBs in nearby low metallicity galaxies. We propose to observe a sample of metal-deficient luminous compact galaxies (LCG) in order to determine if the X-ray luminosity is enhanced relative to SFR, thereby providing further evidence to the importance of X-rays in the early universe.

  3. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

    2013-01-08

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  4. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Rashi; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

    2011-12-06

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  5. Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sekhwal, Manoj Kumar; Li, Pingchuan; Lam, Irene; Wang, Xiue; Cloutier, Sylvie; You, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have developed effective mechanisms to recognize and respond to infections caused by pathogens. Plant resistance gene analogs (RGAs), as resistance (R) gene candidates, have conserved domains and motifs that play specific roles in pathogens’ resistance. Well-known RGAs are nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeats, receptor like kinases, and receptor like proteins. Others include pentatricopeptide repeats and apoplastic peroxidases. RGAs can be detected using bioinformatics tools based on their conserved structural features. Thousands of RGAs have been identified from sequenced plant genomes. High-density genome-wide RGA genetic maps are useful for designing diagnostic markers and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) or markers associated with plant disease resistance. This review focuses on recent advances in structures and mechanisms of RGAs, and their identification from sequenced genomes using bioinformatics tools. Applications in enhancing fine mapping and cloning of plant disease resistance genes are also discussed. PMID:26287177

  6. Test signal generation for analog circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdiek, B.; Mathis, W.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper a new test signal generation approach for general analog circuits based on the variational calculus and modern control theory methods is presented. The computed transient test signals also called test stimuli are optimal with respect to the detection of a given fault set by means of a predefined merit functional representing a fault detection criterion. The test signal generation problem of finding optimal test stimuli detecting all faults form the fault set is formulated as an optimal control problem. The solution of the optimal control problem representing the test stimuli is computed using an optimization procedure. The optimization procedure is based on the necessary conditions for optimality like the maximum principle of Pontryagin and adjoint circuit equations.

  7. Analog computing using graphene-based metalines.

    PubMed

    AbdollahRamezani, Sajjad; Arik, Kamalodin; Khavasi, Amin; Kavehvash, Zahra

    2015-11-15

    We introduce the new concept of "metalines" for manipulating the amplitude and phase profile of an incident wave locally and independently. Thanks to the highly confined graphene plasmons, a transmit-array of graphene-based metalines is used to realize analog computing on an ultra-compact, integrable, and planar platform. By employing the general concepts of spatial Fourier transformation, a well-designed structure of such meta-transmit-array, combined with graded index (GRIN) lenses, can perform two mathematical operations, i.e., differentiation and integration, with high efficiency. The presented configuration is about 60 times shorter than the recent structure proposed by Silva et al. [Science343, 160 (2014)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1242818]; moreover, our simulated output responses are in better agreement with the desired analytical results. These findings may lead to remarkable achievements in light-based plasmonic signal processors at nanoscale, instead of their bulky conventional dielectric lens-based counterparts. PMID:26565844

  8. Analog VLSI system for active drag reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.; Goodman, R.; Jiang, F.; Tai, Y.C.; Tung, S.; Ho, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    In today`s cost-conscious air transportation industry, fuel costs are a substantial economic concern. Drag reduction is an important way to reduce costs. Even a 5% reduction in drag translates into estimated savings of millions of dollars in fuel costs. Drawing inspiration from the structure of shark skin, the authors are building a system to reduce drag along a surface. Our analog VLSI system interfaces with microfabricated, constant-temperature shear stress sensors. It detects regions of high shear stress and outputs a control signal to activate a microactuator. We are in the process of verifying the actual drag reduction by controlling microactuators in wind tunnel experiments. We are encouraged that an approach similar to one that biology employs provides a very useful contribution to the problem of drag reduction. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  9. Photoracemization of Blestriarene C and Its Analogs.

    PubMed

    Natori, Koichi; Iwayama, Taizo; Yamabe, Osamu; Kitamoto, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Kenkichi; Hattori, Tetsutaro; Miyano, Sotaro

    2015-08-01

    Two analogs of blestriarene C (4,4'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenanthrene-2,2',7,7'-tetraol) bearing no 7,7'-dihydroxy (3) and 4,4'-dimethoxy groups were prepared. Unlike blestriarene C (1), compounds and , as well as 1,1'-biphenanthrene-2,2'-diol (5), do not racemize under fluorescent lamp illumination. Cyclic voltammetry analysis reveals that compound has a lower half-wave potential (E(1/2)) than compounds , suggesting that a redox cycle is involved in the racemization. Compound racemizes by absorbing UV light corresponding to the (1) L(b) band. During the reaction, no side products are observed. The racemization is significantly inhibited under nitrogen. Based on these observations, we propose a feasible mechanism for the easy racemization of compound , which is mediated by a cation radical generated in situ by a reversible photo-induced oxygen oxidation. PMID:25944278

  10. Classical analogs of double electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-03-01

    Double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in a four-level atomic system with tripod-type energy-level configuration is modeled by using two classical systems. The first is a set of three coupled harmonic oscillators subject to frictional forces and external drives and the second is a set of three coupled RLC circuits with electric resistors and alternating voltage sources. It is shown that both of the two classical systems have absorption spectra of DEIT similar to that of the four-level tripod-type atomic system. These classical analogies provide simple and intuitive physical description of quantum interference processes and can be used to illustrate experimental observations of the DEIT in quantum systems.

  11. [Immunological analogies between ovarian cancer and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hanssen, S; Collinet, P; Leblanc, E; Salzet, M; Vinatier, D

    2013-05-01

    During pregnancy an environment allowing installation of tolerance toward the fetus is set up locally at the materno-fetal interface. Numerous effectors of immunity are involved in this tolerance (NK cell, T cell, Macrophages, dendritic cell). Specific mechanisms during pregnancy attract locally these immunological cells. In the decidua, they are educated toward tolerance. These mechanisms evolve during the pregnancy because at the end of the pregnancy, tolerance is broken to prepare and activate the labor. Ovarian tumors, after having surmounted the immunosurveillance, like trophoblast, chair the installation of a tolerance of their host facilitating the development of the disease. The blocking of these mechanisms of tolerance coupled with activation of mechanisms of defenses offer new perspectives in the treatment of the ovarian cancer. The authors suggest showing the analogies of the tolerance observed during ovarian cancer and pregnancy. The knowledge of the orchestration of the physiological mechanisms observed during pregnancy will offer new therapeutic targets. PMID:23182791

  12. Automatic digital-analog impedance plethysmograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goy, C. B.; Mauro, K. A.; Yanicelli, L. M.; Parodi, N. F.; Gómez López, M. A.; Herrera, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    Venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) is a traditional method widely used to assess limb blood circulation. One common mode to record VOP is by means of evaluating limb volume changes using impedance plethysmography (IP). In this paper the design and implementation of an automatic digital-analog impedance plethysmograph (ADAIP) for VOP is presented. The system is tested using precision resistances in order to calculate its repeatability. Then its global performance is assessed by means of VOP recordings on the upper and me lower limb of a healthy volunteer. The obtained repeatability was very high (95%), and the VOP recordings where the expected ones. It can be concluded that the whole system performs well and that it is suitable for automatic VOP recording.

  13. Base pair analogs in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Roscioli, Joseph R; Pratt, David W

    2003-11-25

    A rotationally resolved electronic spectrum of the gas-phase dimer 2-aminopyridine.2-pyridone, an analog of the adenine.thymine base pair, has been observed and assigned, leading to precise measurements of its moments of inertia and preliminary determinations of its structure. A Watson-Crick configuration results, with N...H-N and N-H...O hydrogen bond lengths of 2.898 and 2.810 A, respectively. The two bases are found not to be coplanar; a dihedral angle of 6.1 degrees between the base planes is also estimated from the measured moments of inertia. Possible chemical and biological implications of these results are discussed. PMID:14612563

  14. Holographic brain: a good analogy gone bad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2002-07-01

    One way of honoring the world's two greatest holographers is to remove from their field the association with the offbeat world of the holographic mind. Basing itself on analogical musings of two very creative scientists who were themselves not holographers, this 'field' of the holographic brain has strayed far from science and into the absurd. So much absurdity has been written by so many people that the one legitimate study of holographic principle in dolphins has been grouped too often with the nonsense. Here is taken most of the 'target statements' form one book. We could not bear to read them all this closely. We will attempt to determine what tidbit of fact led to the statements and to suggest alternative explanations when there is something to explain.

  15. Analogy between fluid cavitation and fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    When the stresses imposed on a fluid are sufficiently large, rupture or cavitation can occur. Such conditions can exist in many two-phase flow applications, such as the choked flows, which can occur in seals and bearings. Nonspherical bubbles with large aspect ratios have been observed in fluids under rapid acceleration and high shear fields. These bubbles are geometrically similar to fracture surface patterns (Griffith crack model) existing in solids. Analogies between crack growth in solid and fluid cavitation are proposed and supported by analysis and observation (photographs). Healing phenomena (void condensation), well accepted in fluid mechanics, have been observed in some polymers and hypothesized in solid mechanics. By drawing on the strengths of the theories of solid mechanics and cavitation, a more complete unified theory can be developed.

  16. Synthesis and biodistribution of radioiodinated nicotine analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.M.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Marten, D.F.; Sadek, S.; Magarian, R.A.; Grunder, J.R.; Ice, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reported previously on the synthesis and biodistribution of radioiodinated 5-iodonicotine. In their continuous effort to search for a potential brain as well as adrenal medulla imaging agent, the authors synthesized four radioiodinated nicotine analogs. The labeled compounds were prepared by brominating nicotinic acid, and reacting the acylated product with the appropriate amines to give the respective amides which were then reduced with diborane to the amines. I-125 labeling was done by halogen exchange. Biodistribution studies performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats showed that all these compounds were taken up rapidly by the brain and the adrenal. The highest uptake of all these compounds in both organs occurred at 2 minutes after tail vein injections. The organ:blood ratios at 2 minutes and the T/sub 1/3/ (min.) of radioactivity in these organs were compared.

  17. Analog VLSI neural network integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kub, F. J.; Moon, K. K.; Just, E. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two analog very large scale integration (VLSI) vector matrix multiplier integrated circuit chips were designed, fabricated, and partially tested. They can perform both vector-matrix and matrix-matrix multiplication operations at high speeds. The 32 by 32 vector-matrix multiplier chip and the 128 by 64 vector-matrix multiplier chip were designed to perform 300 million and 3 billion multiplications per second, respectively. An additional circuit that has been developed is a continuous-time adaptive learning circuit. The performance achieved thus far for this circuit is an adaptivity of 28 dB at 300 KHz and 11 dB at 15 MHz. This circuit has demonstrated greater than two orders of magnitude higher frequency of operation than any previous adaptive learning circuit.

  18. ANIMAL ANALOGIES IN FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF FACES

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Wadlinger, Heather A.; Luevano, Victor X.; White, Benjamin M.; Xing, Cai; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Analogies between humans and animals based on facial resemblance have a long history. We report evidence for reverse anthropomorphism and the extension of facial stereotypes to lions, foxes, and dogs. In the stereotype extension, more positive traits were attributed to animals judged more attractive than con-specifics; more childlike traits were attributed to those judged more babyfaced. In the reverse anthropomorphism, human faces with more resemblance to lions, ascertained by connectionist modeling of facial metrics, were judged more dominant, cold, and shrewd, controlling attractiveness, babyfaceness, and sex. Faces with more resemblance to Labradors were judged warmer and less shrewd. Resemblance to foxes did not predict impressions. Results for lions and dogs were consistent with trait impressions of these animals and support the species overgeneralization hypothesis that evolutionarily adaptive reactions to particular animals are overgeneralized, with people perceived to have traits associated with animals their faces resemble. Other possible explanations are discussed. PMID:25339791

  19. The Cannabinoid Acids, Analogs and Endogenous Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sumner H.

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid acids are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds some of which are endogenous molecules and others that are metabolites of phytocannabinoids. The prototypic endogenous substance is N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAgly) that is closely related in structure to the cannabinoid agonist anandamide. The most studied phytocannabinoid is Δ9–THC-11-oic acid, the principal metabolite of Δ9–THC. Both types of acids have in common several biological actions such as low affinity for CB1, anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic properties. This suggests that there may be similarities in their mechanism of action, a point that is discussed in this review. Also presented are reports on analogs of the acids that provide opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic agents, such as ajulemic acid. PMID:24731541

  20. On analog implementations of discrete neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.; Moore, K.R.

    1998-12-01

    The paper will show that in order to obtain minimum size neural networks (i.e., size-optimal) for implementing any Boolean function, the nonlinear activation function of the neutrons has to be the identity function. The authors shall shortly present many results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, and detail several bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions they will show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity nonlinear function. It follows that size-optimal solutions can be obtained only using analog circuitry. Conclusions, and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  1. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  2. Optical analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanchuk, Vincent L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting the intensity of an unknown optical signal (B) into an electrical signal in digital form utilizes two elongated optical attenuators (11, 13), one for the unknown optical signal from a source (10) and one for a known optical signal (A) from a variable source (12), a plurality of photodetectors (e.g., 17, 18) along each attenuator for detecting the intensity of the optical signals, and a plurality of comparators (e.g., 21) connected to the photodetectors in pairs to determine at what points being compared the attenuated known signal equals the attenuated unknown signal. The intensity of the unknown relative to the known is thus determined by the output of a particular comparator. That output is automatically encoded to a relative intensity value in digital form through a balancing feedback control (24) and encoder (23). The digital value may be converted to analog form in a D-to-A converter (27) and used to vary the source of the known signal so that the attenuated intensity of the known signal at a predetermined point (comparator 16) equals the attenuated intensity of the unknown signal at the predetermined point of comparison. If the known signal is then equal to the unknown, there is verification of the analog-to-digital conversion being complete. Otherwise the output of the comparator indicating equality at some other point along the attenuators will provide an output which is encoded and added, through an accumulator comprised of a register (25) and an adder (26), to a previous relative intensity value thereby to further vary the intensity of the known signal source. The steps are repeated until full conversion is verified.

  3. [Reasoning by analogy in chemical history: fallacies and guidelines].

    PubMed

    Snelders, H A

    1994-01-01

    In chemistry (and natural science in general) reasoning in terms of analogy may be of great practical value as well as of theoretical significance. At the same, however, the use of analogy is risky and the results are uncertain. In alchemy and iatrochemistry analogies between the living and the non-living nature have been carried too far. At the end of the 19th century an analogy was drawn between chemical phenomena and the Darwinian theory of evolution. Another example of an overexaggerated analogy can be found in Lavoisier's theory of acids, where oxygen was considered to be the general principle of acidity. Reasoning by analogy is mostly based on an inner conviction. It leads to provisional predictions in such cases where the required facts are not, or incompletely, at our disposal. PMID:11640379

  4. Derivation of Hawking radiation in dispersive dielectric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Malte F.; Schützhold, Ralf; Unruh, William G.

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by recent experimental efforts, we study a black hole analog induced by the propagation of a strong laser pulse in a nonlinear dielectric medium. Based on the Hopfield model (one pair of Sellmeier coefficients), we perform an analytic and fully relativistic microscopic derivation of the analog of Hawking radiation in this setup. The Hawking temperature is determined by the analog of the surface gravity (as expected), but we also find a frequency-dependent gray-body factor (i.e., a nonthermal spectrum at infinity) due to the breaking of conformal invariance in this setup.

  5. Hardware Evolution of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA). The performance of these evolved controllers is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller.

  6. Somatostatin Analog Therapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tartarone, Alfredo; Lerose, Rosa; Aieta, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Chemotherapy represents the cornerstone of treatment for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC); however, standard therapy has reached a plateau in improving patient survival with overall disappointing results. The demonstration that SCLC expresses neuroendocrine markers, such as somatostatin (SST) receptors, has led to use SST analogs or radiolabeled SST analogs in the treatment of SCLC patients. In the current review, we would focus on the possible role of SST analogs in SCLC. PMID:27067504

  7. ROTATION PERIODS AND AGES OF SOLAR ANALOGS AND SOLAR TWINS REVEALED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Do Nascimento Jr, J.-D.; Meibom, S.; García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T.; Anthony, F.; Da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Barnes, S. A.

    2014-08-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  8. PET measurement of glucose membrane transport using labeled analogs: Distinction of transport from metabolic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.E.; Koeppe, R.A.; Gatley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Carrier mediated glucose transport rates across brain capillary and myocardial cell membranes are many times higher than those expected for simple diffusion, and transport regulation can be an important determinant of tissue metabolic status. The authors have investigated the use of glucose analogs and dynamic positron tomography for the non-invasive measurement of unidirectional membrane transport rates. If analog extraction is sufficiently low, transport rates can be inferred directly from fitted kinetic rate constants. Fitting calculations were seen to be sensitive to the difficult to measure rapid components of the arterial input curves, to contributions from blood-borne label in the early data points, and to interference from other chemical forms in cases of significant phosphorylation. This last uncertainty was studied using serial scans of normal brain after venous injection of the well-transported but poorly phosphorylated analog 3-deoxy-3-fluoroglucose. Transport rate constants derived from 4-parameter fits of three hours of data were compared to those derived from 2-parameter fits of the first 12-20 minutes of data. Errors due to trapped label were absorbed primarily into the apparent distribution volume, allowing accurate estimation of transport rate constants from a brief data acquisition period. The study of the distinction of transport from phosphorylation also bears on the important question of the significance of the individual rate constants in the four-parameter fitting of brief dynamic scan sequences in studies of metabolic rate using 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose.

  9. Analog solar system model relates celestial bodies spatially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerg, H. R.

    1966-01-01

    Portable analog planetarium indicates the relative time and space angular locations of the sun and planets. Distance measuring scales, angular direction indicators, and typical probe trajectories are included.

  10. Non-analog Monte Carlo estimators for radiation momentum deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Densmore, Jeffery D; Hykes, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    The standard method for calculating radiation momentum deposition in Monte Carlo simulations is the analog estimator, which tallies the change in a particle's momentum at each interaction with the matter. Unfortunately, the analog estimator can suffer from large amounts of statistical error. In this paper, we present three new non-analog techniques for estimating momentum deposition. Specifically, we use absorption, collision, and track-length estimators to evaluate a simple integral expression for momentum deposition that does not contain terms that can cause large amounts of statistical error in the analog scheme. We compare our new non-analog estimators to the analog estimator with a set of test problems that encompass a wide range of material properties and both isotropic and anisotropic scattering. In nearly all cases, the new non-analog estimators outperform the analog estimator. The track-length estimator consistently yields the highest performance gains, improving upon the analog-estimator figure of merit by factors of up to two orders of magnitude.

  11. ISS Update: ISTAR -- International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Sandra Fletcher, EVA Systems Flight Controller. They discuss the International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) activity that...

  12. CRC handbook of neurohypophyseal hormone analogs. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, K.; Lebl, M.; Brtnik, F.

    1987-01-01

    This book is discussed in two parts. The Part 1 discusses the: Prohormones and Hormonogens of Neuro-hypophyseal Hormones, Analogs with Inhibitory properties. Analogs with Dissociated and/or High activities. Introduction. Uterotonic Activity. Galactogogic Activity. Pressor Activity. Antidiuretic Activity. References. Part 2 discusses the Other Important Activities. CNS Activities. Corticotropin- and ..beta..-Entriuretic Action. Natriferic Action. References. Practical Use in Human and Veterinary Medicine. Introduction. Methyloxytocin. Deamino-Oxytocin. Cargutocin. Glypressin. Octapressin. Desmopressin. Analogs Clinically Tried But Not Introduced into Production and Routine Clinical Practice. References. Tables of Analogs and Index.

  13. Superconducting analog-to-digital converters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schoen, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include: superconducting analog-to-digital converter work at MITRE; development of a rapidly tunable microwave source; design and evaluation of a Josephson array oscillator; obtaining high-accuracy measurements from low-accuracy measurements; superconducting microwave transmission lines; high performance, superconducting analog-to-digital converter; edge sharpening with Josephson Junction; design evaluation of a subranging superconducting analog-to-digital converter; feasibility study of a superconducting sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter, and VHDL simulation study of superconducting sigma delta modulators.

  14. Teaching nerve conduction to undergraduates: the "traveling flame" analogy revisited.

    PubMed

    Sircar, S S; Tandon, O P

    1996-06-01

    A familiar analogy to the propagation of the electric wave in a nerve lies in the burning of a cigarette. This analogy, which has persisted through several editions of popular textbooks of physiology, has never been elaborated beyond a cursory mention. In this article, the analogy is reinvoked and refined to explain the cable properties of nerve, saltatory conduction, and some other factors affecting nerve conduction velocity. Experience in lecture classes and feedback obtained through class tests indicate that the analogy, if suitably elaborated and judiciously applied, can increase the retention of the subject by the students. PMID:8712257

  15. Is the Link from Working Memory to Analogy Causal? No Analogy Improvements following Working Memory Training Gains

    PubMed Central

    Richey, J. Elizabeth; Phillips, Jeffrey S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Schneider, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data [1], but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation [2]. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants’ performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks [3], [4]. Participants’ improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning. PMID:25188356

  16. Partitioning, diffusion, and ligand binding of raft lipid analogs in model and cellular plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Erdinc; Levental, Ilya; Grzybek, Michal; Schwarzmann, Günter; Mueller, Veronika; Honigmann, Alf; Belov, Vladimir N; Eggeling, Christian; Coskun, Unal; Simons, Kai; Schwille, Petra

    2012-07-01

    Several simplified membrane models featuring coexisting liquid disordered (Ld) and ordered (Lo) lipid phases have been developed to mimic the heterogeneous organization of cellular membranes, and thus, aid our understanding of the nature and functional role of ordered lipid-protein nanodomains, termed "rafts". In spite of their greatly reduced complexity, quantitative characterization of local lipid environments using model membranes is not trivial, and the parallels that can be drawn to cellular membranes are not always evident. Similarly, various fluorescently labeled lipid analogs have been used to study membrane organization and function in vitro, although the biological activity of these probes in relation to their native counterparts often remains uncharacterized. This is particularly true for raft-preferring lipids ("raft lipids", e.g. sphingolipids and sterols), whose domain preference is a strict function of their molecular architecture, and is thus susceptible to disruption by fluorescence labeling. Here, we analyze the phase partitioning of a multitude of fluorescent raft lipid analogs in synthetic Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) and cell-derived Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles (GPMVs). We observe complex partitioning behavior dependent on label size, polarity, charge and position, lipid headgroup, and membrane composition. Several of the raft lipid analogs partitioned into the ordered phase in GPMVs, in contrast to fully synthetic GUVs, in which most raft lipid analogs mis-partitioned to the disordered phase. This behavior correlates with the greatly enhanced order difference between coexisting phases in the synthetic system. In addition, not only partitioning, but also ligand binding of the lipids is perturbed upon labeling: while cholera toxin B binds unlabeled GM1 in the Lo phase, it binds fluorescently labeled GMI exclusively in the Ld phase. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) by stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy on intact

  17. Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Introduction: Field sites on Earth are routinely used to simulate planetary environments so that we can try to understand the evidence of processes such as sedimentary deposition, weathering, evolution of habitable environments, and behavior of spacecraft and instrumentation prior to selection of mission architectures, payload investigations and landing sites for in situ exploration of other planets. The rapid evolution of astrobiology science drivers for space exploration as well as increasing capability to explore planetary surfaces in situ has led to a proliferation of declarations that various Earth environments are analogs for less accessible planetary environments. We have not yet progressed to standardized measures of analog fidelity, and the analog value of field sites can be variable de-pending upon a variety of factors. Here we present a method of evaluating the fidelity and hence utility of analog environments by using an ontological approach to evaluating how well the analogs work. The use of ontologies as specification constructs is now quite common in artificial intelligence, systems engineering, business development and various informatics systems. We borrow from these developments just as they derive from the original use of ontology in philosophy, where it was meant as a systematic approach to describing the fundamental elements that define “being,” or existence [1]. An ontology is a framework for the specification of a concept or domain of interest. The knowledge regarding that domain, eg., inventory of objects, hierarchical classes, relationships and functions is what describes and defines the domain as a declarative formalism [2]. In the case of planetary environments, one can define a list of fundamen-tal attributes without which the domain (environment) in question must be defined (classified) otherwise. In particu-lar this is problematic when looking at ancient environments because of their alteration over time. In other words, their

  18. Cholesterol Analogs with Degradation-resistant Alkyl Side Chains Are Effective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel J; Zhao, Yan; Wong, Siew Hoon; Basudhar, Debashree; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Cholest-4-en-3-one, whether added exogenously or generated intracellularly from cholesterol, inhibits the growth ofMycobacterium tuberculosiswhen CYP125A1 and CYP142A1, the cytochrome P450 enzymes that initiate degradation of the sterol side chain, are disabled. Here we demonstrate that a 16-hydroxy derivative of cholesterol, which was previously reported to inhibit growth ofM. tuberculosis, acts by preventing the oxidation of the sterol side chain even in the presence of the relevant cytochrome P450 enzymes. The finding that (25R)-cholest-5-en-3β,16β,26-triol (1) (and its 3-keto metabolite) inhibit growth suggests that cholesterol analogs with non-degradable side chains represent a novel class of anti-mycobacterial agents. In accord with this, two cholesterol analogs with truncated, fluorinated side chains have been synthesized and shown to similarly block the growth in culture ofM. tuberculosis. PMID:26833565

  19. Resonant electrodynamic heating of stellar coronal loops - An LRC circuit analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionson, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of electrodynamic coupling of stellar coronal loops where beta is less than 1 to underlying velocity fields where beta is greater than approximately 1 is treated. A rigorous analysis reveals that the physics can be represented by a simple yet equivalent LRC circuit analog. This derived analog suggests the existence of global structure oscillations which resonantly excite internal field line oscillations at a spatial resonance within the coronal loop. Even though the width of this spatial resonance, as well as the induced currents and coronal velocity field, within the resonance region explicitly depends on viscosity and resistivity, the resonant form of the generalized electrodynamic heating functions is virtually independent of irreversibilities. This is a classic feature of high-quality resonators that are driven externally by a broad-band source of spectral power.

  20. Analogy, Cognitive Architecture and Universal Construction: A Tale of Two Systematicities

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive science recognizes two kinds of systematicity: (1) as the property where certain cognitive capacities imply certain other related cognitive capacities (Fodor and Pylyshyn); and (2) as the principle that analogical mappings based on collections of connected relations are preferred over relations in isolation (Gentner). Whether these kinds of systematicity are two aspects of a deeper property of cognition is hitherto unknown. Here, it is shown that both derive from the formal, category-theoretic notion of universal construction. In conceptual/psychological terms, a universal construction is a form of optimization of cognitive resources: optimizing the re-utilization of common component processes for common task components. Systematic cognitive capacity and the capacity for analogy are hallmarks of human cognition, which suggests that universal constructions (in the category-theoretic sense) are a crucial component of human cognitive architecture. PMID:24586555

  1. Voiced-speech representation by an analog silicon model of the auditory periphery.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Andreou, A G; Goldstein, M H

    1992-01-01

    An analog CMOS integration of a model for the auditory periphery is presented. The model consists of middle ear, basilar membrane, and hair cell/synapse modules which are derived from neurophysiological studies. The circuit realization of each module is discussed, and experimental data of each module's response to sinusoidal excitation are given. The nonlinear speech processing capabilities of the system are demonstrated using the voiced syllable |ba|. The multichannel output of the silicon model corresponds to the time-varying instantaneous firing rates of auditory nerve fibers that have different characteristic frequencies. These outputs are similar to the physiologically obtained responses. The actual implementation uses subthreshold CMOS technology and analog continuous-time circuits, resulting in a real-time, micropower device with potential applications as a preprocessor of auditory stimuli. PMID:18276451

  2. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Analogs and their Effects on Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Tudurí, Eva; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nadal, Angel; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts many actions that improve glycemic control. GLP-1 stimulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protects β cells, while its extrapancreatic effects include cardioprotection, reduction of hepatic glucose production, and regulation of satiety. Although an appealing antidiabetic drug candidate, the rapid degradation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) means that its therapeutic use is unfeasible, and this prompted the development of two main GLP-1 therapies: long-acting GLP-1 analogs and DPP-4 inhibitors. In this review, we focus on the pancreatic effects exerted by current GLP-1 derivatives used to treat diabetes. Based on the results from in vitro and in vivo studies in humans and animal models, we describe the specific actions of GLP-1 analogs on the synthesis, processing, and secretion of insulin, islet morphology, and β cell proliferation and apoptosis. PMID:27062006

  3. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  4. How strategists really think. Tapping the power of analogy.

    PubMed

    Gavetti, Giovanni; Rivkin, Jan W

    2005-04-01

    Leaders tend to be so immersed in the specifics of strategy that they rarely stop to think how much of their reasoning is done by analogy. As a result, they miss useful insights that psychologists and other scientists have generated about analogies' pitfalls. Managers who pay attention to their own analogical thinking will make better strategic decisions and fewer mistakes. Charles Lazarus was inspired by the supermarket when he founded Toys R Us; Intel promoted its low-end chips to avoid becoming like U.S. Steel; and Circuit City created CarMax because it saw the used-car market as analogous to the consumer-electronics market. Each example displays the core elements of analogical reasoning: a novel problem or a new opportunity, a specific prior context that managers deem to be similar in its essentials, and a solution that managers can transfer from its original setting to the new one. Analogical reasoning is a powerful tool for sparking breakthrough ideas. But dangers arise when analogies are built on surface similarities (headlong diversification based on loose analogies played a role in Enron's collapse, for instance). Psychologists have discovered that it's all too easy to overlook the superficiality of analogies. The situation is further complicated by people's tendency to hang on to beliefs even after contrary evidence comes along (a phenomenon known as anchoring) and their tendency to seek only the data that confirm their beliefs (an effect known as the confirmation bias). Four straightforward steps can improve a management team's odds of using an analogy well: Recognize the analogy and identify its purpose; thoroughly understand its source; determine whether the resemblance is more than superficial; and decide whether the original strategy, properly translated, will work in the target industry. PMID:15807039

  5. The Acoustic Analogy and the Prediction of the Noise of Rotating Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    The acoustic analogy was introduced into acoustics by Lighthill in 1952 to understand and predict the noise generated by the jet of an aircraft turbojet engine. The idea behind the acoustic analogy is simple but powerful. The entire noise generation process is mathematically reduced to the study of wave propagation in a quiescent medium with the effect of flow replaced by quadrupole sources. In jet noise theory, Lighthill was able to obtain significant and useful qualitative results from the acoustic analogy. The acoustic analogy has influenced the theoretical and experimental research on jet noise since the early 1950s. This paper, however, focuses on another area in which the acoustic analogy has had a significant impact, namely, the prediction of the noise of rotating machinery. The governing equation for this problem was derived by Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings in 1969. This equation is a wave equation for perturbation density with three source terms, which have become known as thickness, loading, and the quadrupole source terms, respectively. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation has been used for the successful prediction of the noise of helicopter rotors, propellers, and fans. Several reasons account for the success and popularity of the acoustic analogy. First, the problems of acoustics and aerodynamics are separated. Second, because the FW-H equation is linear, powerful analytical methods from linear operator theory can be used to obtain closed-form solutions. Third, advances in digital computers and computational fluid dynamics algorithms have resulted in high-resolution near-field aerodynamic calculations that are suitable for noise prediction. We present some of the mathematical results for noise prediction based on the FW-H equation, including examples for helicopter rotors. In particular, we discuss the prediction of blade-vortex interaction noise and high-speed impulsive noise of helicopter rotors. For high-speed propellers, we briefly discuss

  6. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within each criteria. To conclude, the problems of a 19th century form of empiricism in medicine are related to current practices in applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478557

  7. Synthesis of active nitroguaiacol ether derivatives of streptomycin.

    PubMed Central

    Abad, J P; Amils, R

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis, purification, and biological properties of nitroguaiacol ether derivatives of streptomycin and their corresponding radioactive reduced products were examined. These derivatives are biologically active against gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and they are also photoreactive because of the presence of the nitroguaiacol group in the molecule. We demonstrated that these derivatives can be used as streptomycin analogs in photoaffinity labeling of the macromolecular structures related to the mode of action of the antibiotic. Images PMID:2127172

  8. Resonant Tunneling Analog-To-Digital Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broekaert, T. P. E.; Seabaugh, A. C.; Hellums, J.; Taddiken, A.; Tang, H.; Teng, J.; vanderWagt, J. P. A.

    1995-01-01

    As sampling rates continue to increase, current analog-to-digital converter (ADC) device technologies will soon reach a practical resolution limit. This limit will most profoundly effect satellite and military systems used, for example, for electronic countermeasures, electronic and signal intelligence, and phased array radar. New device and circuit concepts will be essential for continued progress. We describe a novel, folded architecture ADC which could enable a technological discontinuity in ADC performance. The converter technology is based on the integration of multiple resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and hetero-junction transistors on an indium phosphide substrate. The RTD consists of a layered semiconductor hetero-structure AlAs/InGaAs/AlAs(2/4/2 nm) clad on either side by heavily doped InGaAs contact layers. Compact quantizers based around the RTD offer a reduction in the number of components and a reduction in the input capacitance Because the component count and capacitance scale with the number of bits N, rather than by 2 (exp n) as in the flash ADC, speed can be significantly increased, A 4-bit 2-GSps quantizer circuit is under development to evaluate the performance potential. Circuit designs for ADC conversion with a resolution of 6-bits at 25GSps may be enabled by the resonant tunneling approach.

  9. Vitamin E Analogs as Radiation Response Modifiers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj K; Krishnan, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    The potentially life-threatening effects of total body ionizing radiation exposure have been known for more than a century. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of the effects of radiation over the past six decades, efforts to identify effective radiation countermeasures for use in case of a radiological/nuclear emergency have been largely unsuccessful. Vitamin E is known to have antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals, which have critical roles in radiation injuries. Tocopherols and tocotrienols, vitamin E analogs together known as tocols, have shown promise as radioprotectors. Although the pivotal mechanisms of action of tocols have long been thought to be their antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging activities, other alternative mechanisms have been proposed to drive their activity as radioprotectors. Here we provide a brief overview of the effects of ionizing radiation, the mechanistic mediators of radiation-induced damage, and the need for radiation countermeasures. We further outline the role for, efficacy of, and mechanisms of action of tocols as radioprotectors, and we compare and contrast their efficacy and mode of action with that of another well-studied chemical radioprotector, amifostine. PMID:26366184

  10. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  11. Interstellar and Planetary Analogs in the Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the unique capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to investigate the interaction of ionizing radiation (UV, charged particles) with molecular species (neutral molecules, radicals and ions) and carbonaceous grains in the Solar System and in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). COSmIC stands for Cosmic Simulation Chamber, a laboratory chamber where interstellar and planetary analogs are generated, processed and analyzed. It is composed of a pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a free jet supersonic expansion in a plasma cavity coupled to two ultrahigh-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for photonic detection and a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection. This setup allows the study of molecules, ions and solids under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate some interstellar, circumstellar and planetary physical environments providing new fundamental insights on the molecular level into the processes that are critical to the chemistry in the ISM, circumstellar and planet forming regions, and on icy objects in the Solar System. Recent laboratory results that were obtained using COSmIC will be discussed, in particular the progress that have been achieved in monitoring in the laboratory the formation of solid particles from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as circumstellar outflow and planetary atmospheres.

  12. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on consolidated Soil Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiferlin, K.; Heimberg, M.; Thomas, N.

    2007-08-01

    Heat transport in porous media such as soils and regolith is significantly reduced compared to the properties of compact samples of the same material. The bottle neck for solid state heat transport is the contact area between adjacent grains. For "dry" and unconsolidated materials the contact areas and thus the thermal conductivity are extremely small. Sintering and cementation are two processes that can increase the cross section of interstitial bonds signifcantly. On Mars, cementation can be caused by condensation of water or carbon dioxide ice from the vapor phase, or from salts and minerals that fall out from aqueous solutions. We produced several artificially cemented samples, using small glass beads of uniform size as soil analog. The cementation is achieved by initially molten wax that is mixed with the glass beads while liqiud. The wax freezes preferably at the contact points between grains, thus minimizing surface energy, and consolidates the samples. The thermal conductivity of these samples is then measured in vacuum. We present the results of these measurements and compare them with theoretical models. The observed range of thermal conductivity values can explain some, but not all of the variations in thermal intertia that can be seen in TES remote sensing data.

  13. Terrestrial Analog Studies for Martian Patterned Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A recurring problem in understanding Martian patterned ground is explaining its large size. Terrestrial patterned ground in Swedish Lapland offers an analog that may help explain this. In cold, arid regions with strong winds, polygonal features are accentuated paralled to the dominant wind direction. Preliminary results of a comparison between Martian polygonal troughs and dominant wind directions suggests a good correlation. This evolutionary model involving aeolian modification of Martian polygonal ground helps explain the large size features without requiring multiple, deep freeze-thaw cycles. A well-established geographical technique, nearest neighbor analysis, can be modified and applied to the distribution of patterned ground on Earth and Mars. The procedure determines the R-statistic, which reflects the degree to which on observation departs from an expected random pattern. The R-statistic is independent of scale, and therefore it can be applied to any size of type of pattern. Preliminary results indicate that there may be a correlation between the R-statistic and the process that create the polygons.

  14. Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Beck, P.; Okubo, C.; McEwen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the bidirectional reflectance of analogs of dry, wet, and frozen Martian soils over a wide range of phase angles in the visible spectral range. All samples were produced from two geologic samples: the standard JSC Mars-1 soil simulant and Hawaiian basaltic sand. In a first step, experiments were conducted with the dry samples to investigate the effects of surface texture. Comparisons with results independently obtained by different teams with similar samples showed a satisfying reproducibility of the photometric measurements as well as a noticeable influence of surface textures resulting from different sample preparation procedures. In a second step, water was introduced to produce wet and frozen samples and their photometry investigated. Optical microscope images of the samples provided information about their microtexture. Liquid water, even in relatively low amount, resulted in the disappearance of the backscattering peak and the appearance of a forward-scattering peak whose intensity increases with the amount of water. Specular reflections only appeared when water was present in an amount large enough to allow water to form a film at the surface of the sample. Icy samples showed a wide variability of photometric properties depending on the physical properties of the water ice. We discuss the implications of these measurements in terms of the expected photometric behavior of the Martian surface, from equatorial to circum-polar regions. In particular, we propose some simple photometric criteria to improve the identification of wet and/or icy soils from multiple observations under different geometries.

  15. Phonon analog of topological nodal semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2016-05-01

    Topological band structures in electronic systems like topological insulators and semimetals give rise to highly unusual physical properties. Analogous topological effects have also been discussed in bosonic systems, but the novel phenomena typically occur only when the system is excited by finite-frequency probes. A mapping recently proposed by C. L. Kane and T. C. Lubensky [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2835], however, establishes a closer correspondence. It relates the zero-frequency excitations of mechanical systems to topological zero modes of fermions that appear at the edges of an otherwise gapped system. Here we generalize the mapping to systems with an intrinsically gapless bulk. In particular, we construct mechanical counterparts of topological semimetals. The resulting gapless bulk modes are physically distinct from the usual acoustic Goldstone phonons and appear even in the absence of continuous translation invariance. Moreover, the zero-frequency phonon modes feature adjustable momenta and are topologically protected as long as the lattice coordination is unchanged. Such protected soft modes with tunable wave vector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.

  16. Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Beck, P.; Okubo, C.; McEwen, A. S.

    2013-10-01

    We have measured the bidirectional reflectance of analogs of dry, wet, and frozen Martian soils over a wide range of phase angles in the visible spectral range. All samples were produced from two geologic samples: the standard JSC Mars-1 soil simulant and Hawaiian basaltic sand. In a first step, experiments were conducted with the dry samples to investigate the effects of surface texture. Comparisons with results independently obtained by different teams with similar samples showed a satisfying reproducibility of the photometric measurements as well as a noticeable influence of surface textures resulting from different sample preparation procedures. In a second step, water was introduced to produce wet and frozen samples and their photometry investigated. Optical microscope images of the samples provided information about their microtexture. Liquid water, even in relatively low amount, resulted in the disappearance of the backscattering peak and the appearance of a forward-scattering peak whose intensity increases with the amount of water. Specular reflections only appeared when water was present in an amount large enough to allow water to form a film at the surface of the sample. Icy samples showed a wide variability of photometric properties depending on the physical properties of the water ice. We discuss the implications of these measurements in terms of the expected photometric behavior of the Martian surface, from equatorial to circum-polar regions. In particular, we propose some simple photometric criteria to improve the identification of wet and/or icy soils from multiple observations under different geometries.

  17. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  18. The halogen analogs of thiolated gold nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Deen; Walter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to replace all the thiolates in a thiolated gold nanocluster with halogens while still maintaining the geometry and the electronic structure? In this work, we show from density functional theory that such halogen analogs of thiolated gold nanoclusters are highly likely. Using Au{sub 25}X{sub 18}{sup -} as an example, where X = F, Cl, Br, or I replaces -SR, we find that Au{sub 25}Cl{sub 18}{sup -} demonstrates a high similarity to Au{sub 25}(SR){sub 18}{sup -} by showing Au-Cl distances, Cl-Au-Cl angles, band gap, and frontier orbitals similar to those in Au{sub 25}(SR){sub 18}{sup -}. DFT-based global minimization also indicates the energetic preference of staple formation for the Au{sub 25}Cl{sub 18}{sup -} cluster. The similarity between Au{sub m}(SR){sub n} and Au{sub m}X{sub n} could be exploited to make viable Au{sub m}X{sub n} clusters and to predict structures for Au{sub m}(SR){sub n}.

  19. Weathering of Mars - Antarctic analog studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkley, J. L.; Drake, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Subaerial extrusion of lavas above permafrost is proposed as a possible weathering regime leading to the presence of Martian surface fines, and the characteristics of this process are examined through a study of the analogous altered terrestrial basalts from Antarctica. On the basis of mineralogical and petrological analyses of samples obtained from core cuttings recovered by the Dry Valley Drilling Program from rocks predominantly of an aklalic basalt-phonolite suite, it is found that in the absence of liquid water, weathering is geologically slow, and that zeolites predominate over clays as secondary mineral. Of the possible weathering processes proposed for Mars, it is concluded that both subaerial extrusion and subpermafrost intrusion of lavas involving liquid water would be less important volumetrically than the hydrothermal alteration of impact melt sheets if water were present during an intense phase of early bombardment, or than subsequent solid-gas alteration reactions. It is thus predicted that the present Martian fines should contain a major contribution from the ancient crust as typified by the southern cratered highlands, and a lesser contribution from the younger basaltic lavas.

  20. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.