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Sample records for derived plant sterol

  1. The spectrum of plant and animal sterols in different oil-derived intravenous emulsions.

    PubMed

    Forchielli, Maria Luisa; Bersani, Germana; Tala, Sara; Grossi, Gabriele; Puggioli, Cristina; Masi, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous lipid constituents have different effects on various biological processes. Some of these effects are protective, while others are potentially adverse. Phytosterols, in particular, seem to be implicated with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of plant and animal sterols present in lipid formulations derived from different oil sources. To this end, animal (cholesterol) and plant (beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) sterols in seven different commercially available intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) were quantified by capillary gas chromatography after performing a lipid extraction procedure. The two major constituents of the lipid emulsions were cholesterol (range 14-57% of total lipids) and beta-sitosterol (range 24-55%), followed by campesterol (range 8-18%) and stigmasterol (range 5-16%). The fish oil-derived formulation was an exception, as it contained only cholesterol. The mean values of the different sterols were statistically different across ILEs (P = 0.0000). A large percentage of pairwise comparisons were also statistically significant (P = 0.000), most notably for cholesterol and stigmasterol (14 out of 21 for both), followed by campesterol (12 out 21) and beta-sitosterol (11 out 21). In conclusion, most ILEs combined significant amounts of phytosterols and cholesterol. However, their phytosterols:cholesterol ratios were reversed compared to the normal human diet. PMID:20049583

  2. Plant Sterol Diversity in Pollen from Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Villette, Claire; Berna, Anne; Compagnon, Vincent; Schaller, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    Here we have examined the composition of free sterols and steryl esters of pollen from selected angiosperm species, as a first step towards a comprehensive analysis of sterol biogenesis in the male gametophyte. We detected four major sterol structural groups: cycloartenol derivatives bearing a 9β,19-cyclopropyl group, sterols with a double bond at C-7(8), sterols with a double bond at C-5(6), and stanols. All these groups were unequally distributed among species. However, the distribution of sterols as free sterols or as steryl esters in pollen grains indicated that free sterols were mostly Δ(5)-sterols and that steryl esters were predominantly 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. In order to link the sterol composition of a pollen grain at anthesis with the requirement for membrane lipid constituents of the pollen tube, we germinated pollen grains from Nicotiana tabacum, a model plant in reproductive biology. In the presence of radiolabelled mevalonic acid and in a time course series of measurements, we showed that cycloeucalenol was identified as the major neosynthesized sterol. Furthermore, the inhibition of cycloeucalenol neosynthesis by squalestatin was in full agreement with a de novo biogenesis and an apparent truncated pathway in the pollen tube. PMID:25820807

  3. Plant Sterols, Stanols, and Sitosterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Ajagbe, Bridget O.; Othman, Rgia A.; Myrie, Semone B.

    2015-01-01

    Phytosterolemia (sitosterolemia) is a rare autosomal recessive sterol storage disease caused by mutations in either of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporter genes; (ABC)G5 or ABCG8, leading to impaired elimination of plant sterols and stanols, with their increased accumulation in the blood and tissues. Thus the disease is characterized by substantially elevated serum plant sterols and stanols, with moderate to high plasma cholesterol levels, and increased risk of premature atherosclerosis. Hematologic abnormalities including macrothrombocytopenia, stomatocytosis and hemolysis are frequently observed in sitosterolemia patients. Currently, ezetimibe, a sterol absorption inhibitor, is used as the routine treatment for sitosterolemia, with reported improvement in plant sterol levels and hemolytic parameters. This review summarizes the research related to the health impact of plant sterols and stanols on sitosterolemia. PMID:25941971

  4. Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.

    PubMed

    AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-12-01

    Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact, plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested the efficacy of plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents incorporated plant sterols into fat spreads. Later on, plant sterols were added to other food matrices, including juices, nonfat beverages, milk and yogurt, cheese, meat, croissants and muffins, and cereal and chocolate bars. The beneficial physiologic effects of plant sterols could be further enhanced by combining them with other beneficial substances, such as olive and fish oils, fibers, and soy proteins, or with exercise. The addition of plant sterols to the diet is suggested by health experts as a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:18937893

  5. Plant sterols, marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids and other functional ingredients: a new frontier for treating hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As hyperlipidemia, including hypercholesterolemia (HC) and hypertriglyceridemia (HTN), continue to challenge North America's healthcare systems, patients continue to seek efficacious and safe natural therapies that complement pharmaceutical interventions. However, despite the ever-growing body of research supporting the use of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFN) for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia, reception amongst the medical community regarding the implementation of FFN into clinical guidelines continues to lag. Research demonstrates that specific FFN target and modulate molecular processes that perpetuate hyperlipidemia. In addition, studies consistently demonstrate that combining certain FFN such as marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids or plant sterols/stanols with statins enhances triglyceride and cholesterol-lowering efficacy, respectively. Thus, the purpose of this commentary is to contend that efficacious FFN not only reduce HC and HTG but also boost the lipid-lowering effects of pharmaceutical hypolipidemic medications. Finally, this editorial aims to challenge current medical guidelines to emphasize efficacious FFN during all stages of treatment of hyperlipidemias as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy. PMID:20920192

  6. Occurrence of plant sterols in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Takagi, T; Sakai, A; Hayashi, K; Itabashi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Plant sterols were found by gas liquid chromatography in the sterols of five species of aquatic vertebrates; mackerel (Scomber japonicus), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), smelt (Osmerus dentex), sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) and chimera (Chimera phantasma). The sterols of chimera liver, sardine flesh and sardine viscera contained 9.0, 2.4 and 3.1% of C28 and C29 sterols in addition to 86.7, 96.6 and 95.2% of cholesterol. The occurrence of norcholestandienol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and C28 stanol was shown by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sperm whale (Physeter catodon) sterols consisted of more than 99% cholesterol with only traces of 22-dehydrocholesterol. PMID:423710

  7. Dietary intake of plant sterols stably increases plant sterol levels in the murine brain.

    PubMed

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Weingärtner, Oliver; van der Pol, Susanne; Husche, Constanze; Kerksiek, Anja; Friedrichs, Silvia; Sijbrands, Eric; Steinbusch, Harry; Grimm, Marcus; Hartmann, Tobias; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael; de Vries, Helga E; Mulder, Monique; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    Plant sterols such as sitosterol and campesterol are frequently administered as cholesterol-lowering supplements in food. Recently, it has been shown in mice that, in contrast to the structurally related cholesterol, circulating plant sterols can enter the brain. We questioned whether the accumulation of plant sterols in murine brain is reversible. After being fed a plant sterol ester-enriched diet for 6 weeks, C57BL/6NCrl mice displayed significantly increased concentrations of plant sterols in serum, liver, and brain by 2- to 3-fold. Blocking intestinal sterol uptake for the next 6 months while feeding the mice with a plant stanol ester-enriched diet resulted in strongly decreased plant sterol levels in serum and liver, without affecting brain plant sterol levels. Relative to plasma concentrations, brain levels of campesterol were higher than sitosterol, suggesting that campesterol traverses the blood-brain barrier more efficiently. In vitro experiments with brain endothelial cell cultures showed that campesterol crossed the blood-brain barrier more efficiently than sitosterol. We conclude that, over a 6-month period, plant sterol accumulation in murine brain is virtually irreversible. PMID:22279184

  8. Plant sterols in food: No consensus in guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Baber, Ronny; Teupser, Daniel

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Plant sterols are used as food supplement to reduce serum cholesterol levels. • Reductions in serum cholesterol levels are achieved at the expense of increased plant sterol levels. • The potential atherogenicity of increased serum plant sterol levels is controversially debated. • This dispute is reflected by different guideline recommendations in regard to plant sterols. - Abstract: Plant sterols are supplemented in foods to reduce cardiovascular risk. Randomized controlled trials show 2 g of plant sterols a day reduce serum cholesterol by about 10%. This reduction in serum cholesterol levels is achieved at the expense of increased serum plant sterol levels. Findings in patients with phytosterolemia, in experimental studies and in clinical trials have lead to speculations that plant sterols might be atherogenic. In view of emerging safety issues the role of plant sterols in cardiovascular prevention has become controversial. This review reflects the ongoing controversial scientific debate and points out recent developments in guidelines of national and international societies.

  9. Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Ishizaki, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol) to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing 40 ?g Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ?40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25759593

  10. Cycloartenol-derived sterol biosynthesis in the Peronosporales

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Steven A.; Eierman, David F.; Sovocool, G. Wayne; Domnas, Aristotle J.

    1982-01-01

    Selected species of the order Peronosporales, which are unable to epoxidize squalene and thus synthesize sterols, are able to metabolize exogenous cycloartenol to lanosterol and in some organisms to fucosterol, ergosterol, and cholesterol. Lanosterol was less effectively utilized but some ergosterol and cholesterol were yielded. Fucosterol was very efficiently metabolized by most species to ergosterol, ?7-ergostenol, ?5-ergostenol, cholestanol, and cholesterol. Several unknown sterols were observed in most trials. These data suggest a vestigial sterol synthetic pathway derived from cycloartenol, followed by possible isomerization to lanosterol and then to other sterols. PMID:16593196

  11. Determination of sterol lipids in plant tissues by gas chromatography and Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wewer, Vera; Drmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sterols are an abundant lipid class in the extraplastidic membranes of plant cells. In addition to free sterols, plants contain different conjugated sterols, i.e. sterol esters, sterol glucosides, and acylated sterol glucosides. Sterol lipids can be measured by gas chromatography after separation via thin-layer chromatography. Here, we describe a comprehensive technique based on the quantification of all four sterol classes by direct infusion quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. PMID:24777793

  12. Composition of Plant Sterols and Stanols in Supplemented Food Products.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    All fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant materials contain small amounts of plant sterols, which are essential for the function of the biological membranes in living cells. The average human consumption of plant sterols has been estimated to be about 150-350 mg/day and trace amounts of stanols (which are defined as saturated sterols such as sitostanol), but this number varies regionally and is higher for vegetarians. When consumed in the diet, plant sterols reduce the levels of serum cholesterol. In 1995 the first functional food product, Benecol spread (enriched in plant stanol fatty acid esters), was developed by Raisio and marketed, first in Finland and then globally. Since then many other functional food products have been developed and are now available globally. In addition to stanol esters, other functional food products contain plant sterol esters and/or free (unesterified) plant sterols and stanols. In essentially all of the current functional foods that are enriched in sterols and stanols, the feedstock from which the sterols and stanols are obtained is either tall oil (a byproduct/coproduct of the pulping of pine wood) or vegetable oil deodorizer distillate (a byproduct/coproduct of the refining of vegetable oils). PMID:25942633

  13. Distribution of free and glycosylated sterols within Cycas micronesica plants

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Shaw, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Flour derived from Cycas micronesica seeds was once the dominant source of starch for Guam's residents. Cycad consumption has been linked to high incidence of human neurodegenerative diseases. We determined the distribution of the sterols stigmasterol and ?-sitosterol and their derived glucosides stigmasterol ?-d-glucoside and ?-sitosterol ?-d-glucoside among various plant parts because they have been identified in cycad flour and have been shown to elicit neurodegenerative outcomes. All four compounds were common in seeds, sporophylls, pollen, leaves, stems, and roots. Roots contained the greatest concentration of both free sterols, and photosynthetic leaflet tissue contained the greatest concentration of both steryl glucosides. Concentration within the three stem tissue categories was low compared to other organs. Reproductive sporophyll tissue contained free sterols similar to seeds, but greater concentration of steryl glucosides than seeds. One of the glucosides was absent from pollen. Concentration in young seeds was higher than old seeds as reported earlier, but concentration did not differ among age categories of leaf, sporophyll, or vascular tissue. The profile differences among the various tissues within these organs may help clarify the physiological role of these compounds. PMID:20157629

  14. Use of Animal Models in Plant Sterol and Stanol Research.

    PubMed

    Solati, Zahra; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol-lowering properties of plant sterols were reported approximately six decades ago. However, over the past couple of decades we have learnt more about other cardiovascular benefits of regular consumption of plant sterols and/or plant stanols. In particular a series of animal studies has consistently reported that dietary plant sterols and/or plant stanols or their fatty acid esters can reduce atherogenesis to a different extent in different animal models. Such effects may be mediated not only through reductions in LDL cholesterol levels, but also through other mechanisms including anti-inflammatory effects. In this manuscript, various animal models including mice, rabbits, hamsters, and others which have been used to establish cardiovascular benefits of plant sterols are discussed. PMID:25942701

  15. Plant sterols and stanols: their role in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shailendra B

    2008-04-01

    Mammalian physiological processes, and likely any organism with a biliary tree, can distinguish between dietary cholesterol and non-cholesterols, retaining very little of the non-cholesterol in their bodies. Historically, the distinction between plant sterols and cholesterol has been known about for a century or more. That plants sterols were not 'absorbed' has been investigated for almost half a century. Indeed, the oral of plant sterols in gram quantities was shown to interfere with cholesterol absorption and is one of the oldest pharmacological therapies for hypercholesterolemia. Although the basis for the latter was shown to be caused by exclusion of cholesterol from intestinal micelles by plant sterols, it was not until the identification of the a rare genetic disease, sitosterolemia, first described in 1974, that led to the hypothesis that specific molecular mechanism(s) governed both the entry and excretion of sterols by the body. This talk will cover the physiology of dietary sterol metabolism, genetics and pathophysiology of sitosterolemia. Additionally, the role of plant sterols in normal and abnormal metabolism in humans as well as selected animal models will be discussed. PMID:19343077

  16. Reminiscences of research on the chemistry and biology of natural sterols in insects, plants and humans

    PubMed Central

    IKEKAWA, Nobuo; FUJIMOTO, Yoshinori; ISHIGURO, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Natural sterols often occur as a heterogeneous mixture of homologs, which had disturbed the progress of steroid research. Development and application of GC methodology overcame this difficulty and enabled us to obtain detailed sterol profiles. Together, fine synthesis of stereo-defined isomers and homologs of steroids having oxygenated side chains allowed us to compare them with natural samples as well as to investigate structure-activity relationship. Advance of HPLC technology also facilitated the determination of the stereochemical structure of naturally occurring steroidal compounds, which were obtained only in minute amounts. This review highlights three topics out of our steroid research that have been performed mainly at Tokyo Institute of Technology around 19701990. These are sterol metabolism in insects focusing on the mechanism of the conversion of plant sterols to cholesterol and ecdysone biosynthesis, the synthesis and biochemical research of active forms of vitamin D3 derivatives, and the synthesis and microanalysis of plant hormone brassinosteroids. PMID:24126284

  17. Plant Sterol Metabolism. ?7-Sterol-C5-Desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), ?5,7-Sterol-?7-Reductase (DWARF5) and ?24-Sterol-?24-Reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) Show Multiple Subcellular Localizations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh) L

    PubMed Central

    Silvestro, Daniele; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Schaller, Hubert; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2013-01-01

    Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document cellular aspects of sterol biosynthesis in plants, we addressed the question of the subcellular localization of the enzymes implicated in the final steps of the post-squalene biosynthetic pathway. In order to create a clear localization map of steroidogenic enzymes in cells, the coding regions of ?7-sterol-C5-desaturase (STE1/DWARF7), ?24-sterol-?24-reductase (DIMINUTO/DWARF1) and ?5,7-sterol-?7-reductase (DWARF5) were fused to the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lines deficient in the corresponding enzymes. All fusion proteins were found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum in functionally complemented plants. The results show that both ?5,7-sterol-?7-reductase and ?24-sterol-?24-reductase are in addition localized to the plasma membrane, whereas ?7-sterol-C5-desaturase was clearly detected in lipid particles. These findings raise new challenging questions about the spatial and dynamic cellular organization of sterol biosynthesis in plants. PMID:23409184

  18. Effect of plant sterols on the lipid profile of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Randomised, experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have been conducted on supplementing the daily diet with plant sterol ester-enriched milk derivatives in order to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels and, consequently, cardiovascular risk. However, clinical practice guidelines on hypercholesterolaemia state that there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The main objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the intake of 2 g of plant sterol esters a day in lowering LDL-cholesterol levels in patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolaemia. The specific objectives are: 1) to quantify the efficacy of the daily intake of plant sterol esters in lowering LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypercholesterolaemia; 2) to evaluate the occurrence of adverse effects of the daily intake of plant sterol esters; 3) to identify the factors that determine a greater reduction in lipid levels in subjects receiving plant sterol ester supplements. Methods/Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled experimental trial carried out at family doctors' surgeries at three health centres in the Health Area of Albacete (Spain). The study subjects will be adults diagnosed with "limit" or "defined" hypercholesterolaemia and who have LDL cholesterol levels of 130 mg/dl or over. A dairy product in the form of liquid yoghurt containing 2 g of plant sterol ester per container will be administered daily after the main meal, for a period of 24 months. The control group will receive a daily unit of yogurt not supplemented with plant sterol esters that has a similar appearance to the enriched yoghurt. The primary variable is the change in lipid profile at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The secondary variables are: change in cardiovascular risk, adherence to the dairy product, adverse effects, adherence to dietary recommendations, frequency of food consumption, basic physical examination data, health problems, lipid-lowering medication, physical activity, smoking habits and socio-demographic variables. Discussion If plant sterol ester supplements were effective a sounder recommendation for the consumption of plant sterols in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia could be made. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials NCT01406106. PMID:21910898

  19. Protective Role of Plant Sterol and Stanol Esters in Liver Inflammation: Insights from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Plat, Jogchum; Hendrikx, Tim; Bieghs, Veerle; Jeurissen, Mike L. J.; Walenbergh, Sofie M. A.; van Gorp, Patrick J.; De Smet, Els; Konings, Maurice; Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Guichot, Yasmin Dias; Rensen, Sander S.; Buurman, Wim A.; Greve, Jan Willem M.; Ltjohann, Dieter; Mensink, Ronald P.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory component of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can lead to irreversible liver damage. Therefore there is an urgent need to identify novel interventions to combat hepatic inflammation. In mice, omitting cholesterol from the diet reduced hepatic inflammation. Considering the effects of plant sterol/stanol esters on cholesterol metabolism, we hypothesized that plant sterol/stanol esters reduces hepatic inflammation. Indeed, adding plant sterol/stanol esters to a high-fat-diet reduced hepatic inflammation as indicated by immunohistochemical stainings and gene expression for inflammatory markers. Finally, adding sterol/stanol esters lowered hepatic concentrations of cholesterol precursors lathosterol and desmosterol in mice, which were highly elevated in the HFD group similarly as observed in severely obese patients with NASH. In vitro, in isolated LPS stimulated bone marrow derived macrophages desmosterol activated cholesterol efflux whereas sitostanol reduced inflammation. This highly interesting observation that plant sterol/stanol ester consumption leads to complete inhibition of HFD-induced liver inflammation opens new venues in the treatment and prevention of hepatic inflammation. PMID:25356831

  20. Plant Oxidosqualene Metabolism: Cycloartenol Synthase–Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Berna, Anne; Bach, Thomas J.; Schaller, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The plant sterol pathway exhibits a major biosynthetic difference as compared with that of metazoans. The committed sterol precursor is the pentacyclic cycloartenol (9β,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3β-ol) and not lanosterol (lanosta-8,24-dien-3β-ol), as it was shown in the late sixties. However, plant genome mining over the last years revealed the general presence of lanosterol synthases encoding sequences (LAS1) in the oxidosqualene cyclase repertoire, in addition to cycloartenol synthases (CAS1) and to non-steroidal triterpene synthases that contribute to the metabolic diversity of C30H50O compounds on earth. Furthermore, plant LAS1 proteins have been unambiguously identified by peptidic signatures and by their capacity to complement the yeast lanosterol synthase deficiency. A dual pathway for the synthesis of sterols through lanosterol and cycloartenol was reported in the model Arabidopsis thaliana, though the contribution of a lanosterol pathway to the production of 24-alkyl-Δ5-sterols was quite marginal (Ohyama et al. (2009) PNAS 106, 725). To investigate further the physiological relevance of CAS1 and LAS1 genes in plants, we have silenced their expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We used virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) based on gene specific sequences from a Nicotiana tabacum CAS1 or derived from the solgenomics initiative (http://solgenomics.net/) to challenge the respective roles of CAS1 and LAS1. In this report, we show a CAS1-specific functional sterol pathway in engineered yeast, and a strict dependence on CAS1 of tobacco sterol biosynthesis. PMID:25343375

  1. Clinical Application of Plant Sterol and Stanol Products.

    PubMed

    Cofn, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Plant sterols and stanols (PS) are natural, non-nutritive compounds that play important structural roles in plant membranes and abound in seeds and oils derived from them. Because they act within the intestinal lumen and undergo minimal absorption into the enterocytes, PS are non-systemic agents. Their physiological role in plants, natural origin, and non-systemic action, together with their proven capacity to lower serum total and LDL-cholesterol, make them quite attractive as non-pharmacological agents for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Recent meta-analyses have summarized the results of >100 randomized clinical trials and have clearly established that LDL-cholesterol is reduced by 9-12% with consumption of PS-fortified foods in different formats at doses of 2-3 g per day. PS are effective and safe cholesterol-lowering agents with many clinical applications: adjuncts to a healthy diet, common hypercholesterolemia, combination treatment with statins, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. The cholesterol-lowering efficacy appears to be similar in all clinical situations. PS are also ideal agents to treat hypercholesterolemic children who are still not candidates to statin therapy or receive only low-dose statins. In the setting of statin treatment, the expected LDL-cholesterol reduction with PS is equivalent to up titrating twice the statin dose. There is not enough information on the efficacy of PS as add-on therapy to ezetimibe, fibrates, or bile acid binding resins. Attesting to the consistent scientific evidence on the cholesterol-lowering efficacy and safety of functional foods supplemented with PS, several national and international clinical societies have endorsed their use as adjuncts to a healthy diet. PMID:25941811

  2. Plant stanol and sterol esters in prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Tatu A; Gylling, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Statin trials have indicated that effective reduction of serum cholesterol should last up to one year before reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases can be detected. This observation can be applied most probably also to the use of plant stanol/sterol ester spreads for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, despite the fact that the two spreads lower serum cholesterol similarly in short term studies, a comparison of one year results reveals an inconsistent effect of plant sterol spread as compared with that of plant stanol spread on cholesterol concentration in both men and women. This favors the use of plant stanol ester spread for long-term lowering of serum cholesterol. Doses of about 2 g/day of plant stanols as fatty acid ester spread enhances fecal elimination of cholesterol, but not of bile acids, through inhibition of cholesterol absorption by about 40%. This lowers serum total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol despite enhanced compensatory increase in cholesterol synthesis by about 10% and 15% as compared with control spread, respectively, and by up to 20% as compared with the baseline diet. About one-third of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects reach an accepted cholesterol level. A small dose of statin should be added to treatment in individuals resistant to monotherapy with plant stanol ester spread. A life-long consumption of plant stanol ester spread has been predicted to lower coronary events by about 20%. PMID:15119832

  3. Serum lipid and antioxidant responses in hypercholesterolemic men and women receiving plant sterol esters vary by apolipoprotein E genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant sterol esters reduce serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but with striking inter-individual variability. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled study, serum lipid, plant sterol, fat-soluble vitamin, and carotenoid responses to plant sterols were studied according to...

  4. Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acquisition of plant sterols, mediated via elicitins, is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. In this paper, we looked at the interaction between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. When ground leaf tissue was added to growth media, P. ramorum growth and sporulation was greates...

  5. Effects of plant sterols and stanols on intestinal cholesterol metabolism: suggested mechanisms from past to present.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Els; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2012-07-01

    Plant sterols and stanols are natural food ingredients found in plants. It was already shown in 1950 that they lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Meta-analysis has reported that a daily intake of 2.5 g plant sterols/stanols reduced serum LDL-C concentrations up to 10%. Despite many studies, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the proposed mechanisms that have been presented over the past decades will be described and discussed in the context of the current knowledge. In the early days, it was suggested that plant sterols/stanols compete with intestinal cholesterol for incorporation into mixed micelles as well as into chylomicrons. Next, the focus shifted toward cellular processes. In particular, a role for sterol transporters localized in the membranes of enterocytes was suggested. All these processes ultimately lowered intestinal cholesterol absorption. More recently, the existence of a direct secretion of cholesterol from the circulation into the intestinal lumen was described. First results in animal studies suggested that plant sterols/stanols activate this pathway, which also explains the increased fecal neutral sterol content and as such could explain the cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols/stanols. PMID:22623436

  6. Plant Sterols as Dietary Adjuvants in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk: Theory and Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G; Gordon, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Plant sterol-enriched foods are an effective dietary adjuvant in reducing cardiovascular risk by lowering total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum by up to ?15%. The mechanism of action of plant sterols is different from those of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (statins) and thus their effect is additive. Combining plant sterols with other dietary components known to reduce cholesterol in a portfolio approach has proven to be most effective for reduction of hypercholesterolemia and provide an alternative treatment option for clinicians. Plant sterol-enriched foods provides clinicians with a relatively cheap, safe, and effective way to help patients manage their cardiovascular risk. PMID:17319460

  7. Bioaccessibility study of plant sterol-enriched fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Vaghini, Silvia; Cilla, Antonio; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús

    2016-01-20

    The bioaccessibility (BA) of total and individual plant sterols (PS) of four commercial PS-enriched fermented milk beverages (designated as A to D) was evaluated using in vitro gastrointestinal digestion including the formation of mixed micelles. The fat content of the samples ranged from 1.1 to 2.2% (w/w), and PS enrichment was between 1.5 and 2.9% (w/w). β-Sitosterol, contained in all samples, was higher in samples A and B (around 80% of total PS). The campesterol content was C (22%) > A (7%) > B (5%). Sitostanol was the most abundant in sample D (85%). Stigmasterol was only present in sample C (33%). The greatest BA percentage for total PS corresponded to samples A and B (16-17%), followed by sample D (11%) and sample C (9%). The total BA was not related to the protein, lipid or PS content of the beverages, whereas samples with higher carbohydrates and fiber contents showed lower BA. The BA of the individual PS differed according to the sample considered, and was not related to the PS profile of the sample, thus indicating strong dependency upon the matrix (PS ingredient and other components). Although in vivo studies should be carried out to better assess the functionality of PS in functional foods such as enriched fermented milk beverages, our in vitro study is a useful preliminary contribution to evaluation of the efficacy of these products. PMID:26447847

  8. Postprandial plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations after consumption of plant sterol or stanol enriched mixed meals in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Konings, Maurice; Schött, Hans-F; Friedrichs, Silvia; Husche, Constanze; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent results on the relationship between increased plant sterol concentrations with cardiovascular risk, which might be related to the formation of oxyphytosterols (plant sterol oxidation products) from plant sterols. However, determinants of oxyphytosterol formation and metabolism are largely unknown. It is known, however, that serum plant sterol concentrations increase after daily consumption of plant sterol enriched products, while concentrations decrease after plant stanol consumption. Still, we have earlier reported that fasting oxyphytosterol concentrations did not increase after consuming a plant sterol- or a plant stanol enriched margarine (3.0g/d of plant sterols or stanols) for 4weeks. Since humans are in a non-fasting state for most part of the day, we have now investigated effects on oxyphytosterol concentrations during the postprandial state. For this, subjects consumed a shake (50g of fat, 12g of protein, 67g of carbohydrates), containing no, or 3.0g of plant sterols or plant stanols. Blood samples were taken up to 8h and after 4h subjects received a second shake (without plant sterols or plant stanols). Serum oxyphytosterol concentrations were determined in BHT-enriched EDTA plasma via GC-MS/MS. 7β-OH-campesterol and 7β-OH-sitosterol concentrations were significantly higher after consumption of a mixed meal enriched with plant sterol esters compared to the control and plant stanol ester meal. These increases were seen only after consumption of the second shake, illustrative for a second meal effect. Non-oxidized campesterol and sitosterol concentrations also increased after plant sterol consumption, in parallel with 7β-OH concentrations and again only after the second meal. Apparently, plant sterols and oxyphytosterols follow the same second meal effect as described for dietary cholesterol. However, the question remains whether the increase in oxyphytosterols in the postprandial phase is due to absorption or endogenous formation. PMID:25656784

  9. Plant Growth Retardants as Inhibitors of Sterol Biosynthesis in Tobacco Seedlings 12

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Trevor J.; Paleg, Leslie G.

    1974-01-01

    Three plant-growth retardants 2?-isopropy1-4?-(trimethylammonium chloride)-5-methylphenylpiperidine carboxylate (Amo 1618), ?-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride, and tributyl-2, 4-dichlorobenzylphosphonium chloride were tested for their effects on sterol production in, and growth of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. As the concentration of each retardant increased, there was an increased inhibition of the incorporation of dl-2-14C-mevalonic acid into sterol (particularly desmethylsterol) fractions and an increased retardation of stem growth. Growth retardation was observed with both single and repeated retardant treatments, and with Amo 1618, in particular, a close quantitative relationship between inhibition of sterol biosynthesis and stem growth was obtained. Gibberellic acid completely overcame retardant effects and application of sterols also restored normal growth. It is concluded that the concept of causality in the relationship between growth retardation and gibberellin biosynthesis is probably premature, since growth retardants have a more general inhibitory action on isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. PMID:16658867

  10. Influence of the nature of the sterol on the behavior of palmitic acid/sterol mixtures and their derived liposomes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhong-Kai; Bastiat, Guillaume; Jin, Chester; Keyvanloo, Amir; Lafleur, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The phase behavior of mixtures formed with palmitic acid (PA) and one of the following sterols (dihydrocholesterol, ergosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, stigmasterol and stigmastanol), in a PA/sterol molar ratio of 3/7, has been characterized by IR and (2)H NMR spectroscopy at different pH. Our study shows that it is possible to form liquid-ordered (lo) lamellar phases with these binary non-phospholipid mixtures. The characterization of alkyl chain dynamics of PA in these systems revealed the large ordering effect of the sterols. It was possible to extrude these systems, using standard extrusion techniques, to form large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), except in the case of ergosterol-containing mixture. The resulting LUVs displayed a very limited passive permeability consistent with the high sterol concentration. In addition, the stability of these PA/sterol self-assembled bilayers was also found to be pH-sensitive, therefore, potentially useful as nanovectors. By examining different sterols, we could establish some correlations between the structure of these bilayers and their permeability properties. The structure of the side chain at C17 of the sterol appears to play a prime role in the mixing properties with fatty acid. PMID:20153720

  11. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter J H; Abumweis, Suhad S

    2004-04-01

    Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8-1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

  12. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

    2004-01-01

    Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

  13. Plant sterols and risk of stomach cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, E; Boffetta, P; Ronco, A L; Brennan, P; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Carzoglio, J C; Mendilaharsu, M

    2000-01-01

    In 1997-1999, 120 incident and histologically verified cases of stomach cancer were frequency matched on age, gender, residence, and urban/rural status with 360 controls to study the role of diet in gastric cancer in Uruguay. We focused on the role of plant sterols (beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and total plant sterols) after controlling for major confounders. Total phytosterols were associated with a strong inverse relationship with stomach cancer (odds ratio of stomach cancer for total phytosterol intake in the highest tertile = 0.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.65). Joint exposure to high intake of total phytosterol and alpha-carotene was also inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.09, 95% confidence interval = 0.02-0.32). High intake of total plant sterols explained most of the attenuation in risk of gastric cancer associated with vegetable and fruit intakes. PMID:11142085

  14. Plant Sterols as Anticancer Nutrients: Evidence for Their Role in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    While many factors are involved in the etiology of cancer, it has been clearly established that diet significantly impacts one’s risk for this disease. More recently, specific food components have been identified which are uniquely beneficial in mitigating the risk of specific cancer subtypes. Plant sterols are well known for their effects on blood cholesterol levels, however research into their potential role in mitigating cancer risk remains in its infancy. As outlined in this review, the cholesterol modulating actions of plant sterols may overlap with their anti-cancer actions. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women and there remains a need for effective adjuvant therapies for this disease, for which plant sterols may play a distinctive role. PMID:23434903

  15. Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Stong, Rachel A; Kolodny, Eli; Kelsey, Rick G; Gonzlez-Hernndez, M P; Vivanco, Jorge M; Manter, Daniel K

    2013-06-01

    Elicitin-mediated acquisition of plant sterols is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. This study examined the interactions between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. Ground leaf tissue, sterols, and tannin-enriched extracts were obtained from three different plant species (California bay laurel, California black oak, and Oregon white oak) in order to evaluate the effect of differing sterol/tannin contents on Phytophthora ramorum growth. For all three species, high levels of foliage inhibited P. ramorum growth and sporulation, with a steeper concentration dependence for the two oak samples. Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation were inhibited by either phytosterols or tannin-enriched extracts. High levels of sterols diminished elicitin gene expression in P. ramorum; whereas the tannin-enriched extract decreased the amount of 'functional' or ELISA-detectable elicitin, but not gene expression. Across all treatment combinations, P. ramorum growth and sporulation correlated strongly with the amount of ELISA-detectable elicitin (R (2)?= 0.791 and 0.961, respectively). PMID:23689874

  16. History and development of plant sterol and stanol esters for cholesterol-lowering purposes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gilbert R; Grundy, Scott M

    2005-07-01

    Plant stanol esters provide a novel approach to lowering plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by dietary means. Their development was preceded by a long period of research into the cholesterol-lowering properties of plant sterols and, recently, plant stanols. Both classes of compound competitively inhibit the absorption of cholesterol and thus lower its level in plasma. Initial impressions were that stanols were more effective and safer than sterols, but the negative outcome of a study led to the recognition that the lipid solubility of free stanols was very limited. This was overcome by esterifying them with fatty acids, with the resultant stanol esters being freely soluble in fat spreads. This led to the launch of Benecol (margarine; Raisio Group, Raisio, Finland) in 1995. The coincident publication of the year-long North Karelia study conclusively demonstrated the long-term LDL-lowering efficacy of plant stanol esters. Variables that might influence the efficacy of stanol esters include dose, frequency of administration, food vehicle in which the stanol ester is incorporated, and background diet. The effective dose is 1 to 3 g/day, expressed as free stanol, which, in placebo-controlled studies, decreased LDL cholesterol by 6% to 15%. This effect is maintained, appears to be similar with once-daily or divided dosage, and is independent of the fat content of the food vehicle. Short-term studies suggest that equivalent amounts of plant sterol and stanol esters are similarly effective in lowering LDL, the main difference being that plasma plant sterol levels increase on plant sterols and decrease on plant stanols. The clinical significance of these changes remains to be determined. PMID:15992509

  17. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  18. Effect of frequency of dosing of plant sterols on plasma cholesterol levels and synthesis rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the effects of plant sterols (PS) consumed as a single dose (single) at breakfast or as three doses consumed with breakfast, lunch and dinner (divided) on plasma lipoprotien levels and cholesterol endogenous fractional synthesis rate (FSR). A randomized, placebo-controll...

  19. Effects of plant stanol and sterol esters on serum phytosterols in a family with familial hypercholesterolemia including a homozygous subject.

    PubMed

    Ketomaki, Anna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A

    2004-04-01

    We studied the concentrations and ratios to cholesterol of noncholesterol sterols reflecting absorption (eg, campesterol) or synthesis (eg, lathosterol) of cholesterol off and on plant sterol and stanol ester spreads in serum and in different lipoproteins of a family with familial hypercholesterolemia, including heterozygous parents receiving no treatment and their homozygous offspring undergoing long-term treatment with statins and apheresis. Serum cholesterol levels were similar in the homozygous and heterozygous individuals, but the concentrations of sterols reflecting cholesterol absorption were as much as 10 times greater in the homozygous child than in the heterozygous parents, whereas the respective markers of cholesterol synthesis only tended to be higher. About 70% of squalene in the homozygous individual (60% in the heterozygous family members) and 85% to 90% of noncholesterol sterols (60%-80% in the heterozygous subjects) were transported by low-density lipoprotein. The ratios of absorption sterols to cholesterol were higher in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) than in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), whereas those of synthesis markers and plant stanols were highest in VLDL. The ratios of absorption sterols in serum were mostly lower than those in HDL but higher than in VLDL, whereas the ratios of synthesis sterols in serum were lower than they were in VLDL. Both spreads reduced serum total cholesterol by about 14% in the heterozygous family members and 9% in the homozygous individual. The sterol ester spread increased serum plant sterol concentrations (eg, campesterol in the homozygous family member increased from 5 to 9 mg/dL) and the ratios to cholesterol, but the stanol ester spread decreased them. Plant sterol esters seemed to similarly decrease serum cholesterol in this family with familial hypercholesterolemia, but the clinical role of increased plant sterol concentrations, almost doubled in the LDL of homozygous individuals, is not known. PMID:15085084

  20. Cell-free transfer of sterols by plant fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Morre, D.J.; Wilkinson, F.E.; Morre, D.M. ); Moreau, P. ); Sandelius, A.S. ); Penel, C.; Greppin, H. )

    1990-05-01

    Microsomes from etiolated hypocotyls of soybean or leaves of light-grown spinach radiolabeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)acetate or in vitro with ({sup 3}H)squalene or ({sup 3}H)cholesterol as donor transferred radioactivity to unlabeled acceptor membranes immobilized on nitrocellulose. Most efficient transfer was with plasma membrane or tonoplast as the acceptor. The latter were highly purified by aqueous two-phase partition (plasma membrane) and preparative free-flow electrophoresis (tonoplast and plasma membrane). Plasma membrane- and tonoplast-free microsomes and purified mitochondria were less efficient acceptors. Sterol transfer was verified by thin-layer chromatography of extracted lipids. Transfer was time- and temperature-dependent, required ATP but was not promoted by cytosol. The nature of the donor (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus or both) and of the transfer mechanism is under investigation.

  1. Unsaturated lipid matrices protect plant sterols from degradation during heating treatment.

    PubMed

    Barriuso, Blanca; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2016-04-01

    The interest in plant sterols enriched foods has recently enhanced due to their healthy properties. The influence of the unsaturation degree of different fatty acids methyl esters (FAME: stearate, oleate, linoletate and linolenate) on a mixture of three plant sterols (PS: campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) was evaluated at 180 °C for up to 180 min. Sterols degraded slower in the presence of unsaturated FAME. Both PS and FAME degradation fit a first order kinetic model (R(2)>0.9). Maximum oxysterols concentrations were achieved at 20 min in neat PS and 120 min in lipid mixtures and this maximum amount decreased with increasing their unsaturation degree. In conclusion, the presence of FAME delayed PS degradation and postponed oxysterols formation. This protective effect was further promoted by increasing the unsaturation degree of FAME. This evidence could help industries to optimize the formulation of sterol-enriched products, so that they could maintain their healthy properties during cooking or processing. PMID:26593514

  2. Effects of calcium and plant sterols on serum lipids in obese Zucker rats on a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Vaskonen, Timo; Mervaala, Eero; Sumuvuori, Ville; Seppnen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Karppanen, Heikki

    2002-03-01

    Ca may interfere with fat and cholesterol metabolism through formation of insoluble soaps with fatty and bile acids in the intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary Ca levels on the serum lipid profile and cholesterol metabolism in obese Zucker rats fed a low-fat diet. We also tested whether dietary Ca interfered with the lipid-lowering effects of a pine oil-derived plant sterol mixture. Increase in dietary Ca intake from 0.2 to 0.8%, and further to 2.1% (w/w) dose-dependently decreased serum total cholesterol (r -0.565, P=0.002, n 27), LDL-cholesterol (r -0.538, P=0.006, n 25), and triacylglycerol (r -0.484, P=0.014, n 25) concentrations, and increased HDL-cholesterol (r -0.478, P=0.016, n 25) and HDL: LDL cholesterol (r 0.672, P<0.001, n 25) in rats fed a 1% cholesterol diet. Analysis of serum campesterol: cholesterol and sitosterol: cholesterol suggested that Ca dose-dependently increased intestinal cholesterol absorption (r 0.913, P<0.001, n 18), whereas serum desmosterol: cholesterol and lathosterol: cholesterol indicated that Ca dose-dependently increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r 0.691, P=0.003, n 18). Therefore, the decrease of serum LDL-cholesterol appeared to be due to Ca-induced increase in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. The increase in Ca intake did not interfere with the beneficial effects of plant sterols on serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The high-Ca diet with plant sterol supplementation further increased the HDL-cholesterol concentration and HDL: LDL cholesterol. The present findings indicate that the beneficial effects of dietary Ca on the serum lipid profile during a low-fat diet are dose-dependent, and resemble those of bile acid sequestrants. Increased dietary Ca did not impede the lipid-lowering effects of natural plant sterols. PMID:12064332

  3. Low-fat formulations of plant stanols and sterols.

    PubMed

    Salo, Pia; Wester, Ingmar

    2005-07-01

    Clinical trials have shown that an intake of 2 to 3 g/day of esterified plant stanol--when incorporated in margarines or spreads--significantly reduces serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations without affecting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels. There is also a growing interest in incorporating cholesterol-lowering ingredients into low-fat foods. Esterification of stanols with long-chain fatty acids increases fat solubility by 10-fold and enables the incorporation of plant stanols into different food products, even low-fat foods. It provides a means of introducing an adequate daily amount of stanol for optimal reduction of cholesterol absorption, while maintaining a high-quality food product. Recent clinical trials show that esterified plant stanols effectively reduce serum total and LDL cholesterol levels, even when used in food vehicles with a low-fat content. PMID:15992517

  4. Potential beneficial effects of marine algal sterols on human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Ta, Quang Van

    2011-01-01

    The importance of bioactive derivatives as functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and characterization of novel functional ingredients with biological activities from marine algae have gained much attention. Sterols are important structural component of cell membranes. It has been reported that plant sterols exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as hypercholesterolemic, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Marine algae with a great diversity can be a very interesting natural resource of sterols. This chapter focuses on biological activities of marine algae derived sterols with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals. PMID:22054947

  5. Role of membrane sterols and cortical microtubules in gravity resistance in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Koizumi, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Kumasaki, S.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Sakaki, T.

    Resistance to the gravitational force is a principal graviresponse in plants comparable to gravitropism Nevertheless only limited information has been obtained for this graviresponse We have examined mechanisms of signal perception transformation and transduction of the perceived signal and response to the transduced signal in gravity resistance using hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation In Arabidopsis hypocotyls hypergravity treatment greatly increased the expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase HMGR which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid a key precursor of terpenoids such as membrane sterols Geranyl diphosphate synthase gene was also up-regulated by hypergravity whereas the expression of other genes involved in membrane lipid metabolism was not influenced Hypergravity caused an increase in sterol content in azuki bean epicotyls but not in phospholipid glycolipid or fatty acid content Also hypergravity did not influence fatty acid composition in any lipid class Thus the effect of hypergravity on membrane lipid metabolism was specific for sterol synthesis On the other hand alpha- and beta-tubulin genes were up-regulated by hypergravity treatment in Arabidopsis hypocotyls Hypergravity also induced reorientation of cortical microtubules in azuki epicotyls the percentage of epidermal cells with transverse microtubles was decreased whereas that with longitudinal microtubules was increased Inhibitors of HMGR action and microtubule-disrupting agents completely prevented the gravity resistance

  6. Involvement of membrane sterols in hypergravity-induced modifications of growth and cell wall metabolism in plant stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, T.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Suzuki, M.; Muranaka, T.; Hoson, T.

    Organisms living on land resist the gravitational force by constructing a tough body Plants have developed gravity resistance responses after having first went ashore more than 500 million years ago The mechanisms of gravity resistance responses have been studied under hypergravity conditions which are easily produced on earth by centrifugation In Arabidopsis hypocotyls hypergravity treatment greatly increased the expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase HMGR which is involved in synthesis of terpenoids such as membrane sterols In the present study we examined the role of membrane sterols in gravity resistance in plants by analyzing sterol levels of stem organs grown under hypergravity conditions and by analyzing responses to hypergravity of the organs whose sterol level was modulated Hypergravity inhibited elongation growth but stimulated lateral expansion of Arabidopsis hypocotyls and azuki bean epicotyls Under hypergravity conditions sterol levels were kept high as compared with 1 g controls during incubation Lovastatin an inhibitor HMGR prevented lateral expansion as the gravity resistance response in azuki bean epicotyls Similar results were obtained in analyses with loss of function mutants of HMGR in Arabidopsis It has been shown that sterols play a role in cellulose biosynthesis probably as the primer In wild type Arabidopsis hypocotyls hypergravity increased the cellulose content but it did not influence the content in HMGR mutants These results suggest that hypergravity increases

  7. Differential effects of plant sterols on water permeability and on acyl chain ordering of soybean phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, I; Milon, A; Nakatani, Y; Ourisson, G; Albrecht, A M; Benveniste, P; Hartman, M A

    1991-01-01

    To gain some insight into the structural and functional roles of sterols in higher plant cells, various plant sterols have been incorporated into soybean phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) bilayers and tested for their ability to regulate water permeability and acyl chain ordering. Sitosterol was the most efficient sterol in reducing the water permeability of these vesicles and stigmasterol appeared to have no significant effect. Vesicles containing 24zeta-methylcholesterol exhibited an intermediate behavior, similar to that of vesicles containing cholesterol. Cycloartenol, the first cyclic biosynthetic precursor of plant sterols, reduced the water permeability in a very effective way. Of two unusual plant sterols, 24-methylpollinastanol and 14alpha,24zeta-dimethylcholest-8-en-3beta-ol, the former was found to be functionally equivalent to sitosterol and the latter was found to be relatively inefficient. 2H NMR experiments have been performed with oriented bilayers consisting of soybean PtdCho with sitosterol, stigmasterol, or 24-methylpollinastanol. The results provided clear evidence that sitosterol and 24zeta-methylpollinastanol exhibit a high efficiency to order PtdCho acyl chains that closely parallels their ability to reduce water permeability. By contrast, stigmasterol shows a low efficiency for both functions. These results show that sitosterol and stigmasterol, two major 24-ethylsterols differing only by the absence or presence of the Delta22 double bond in the side chain, probably play different roles in regulating plant membrane properties; they also may explain why 9beta,19-cyclopropylsterols behave as good surrogates of sitosterol. PMID:11607205

  8. Common sources and estimated intake of plant sterols in the Spanish diet.

    PubMed

    Jimnez-Escrig, Antonio; Santos-Hidalgo, Ana B; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2006-05-01

    Plant sterols (PS) are minor lipid components of plants, which may have potential health benefits, mainly based in their cholesterol-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of PS in plant-based foods commonly consumed in Spain and to estimate the PS intake in the Spanish diet. For this purpose, the determination of PS content, using a modern methodology to measure free, esterified, and glycosidic sterol forms, was done. Second, an estimation of the intake of PS, using the Spanish National Food Consumption data, was made. The daily intake per person of PS--campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmastanol--in the Spanish diet was estimated at 276 mg, the largest component being beta-sitosterol (79.7%). Other unknown compounds, tentatively identified as PS, may constitute a considerable potential intake (99 mg). When the daily PS intake among European diets was compared in terms of campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmastanol, the PS intake in the Spanish diet was in the same range of other countries such as Finland (15.7% higher) or The Netherlands (equal). However, some qualitative differences in the PS sources were detected, that is, the predominant brown bread and vegetable fat consumption in the northern diets versus the white bread and vegetable oil consumption in the Spanish diet. These differences may help to provide a link between the consumption of PS and healthy effects of the diet. PMID:16637708

  9. Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov., a sterol-requiring mollicute from a plant surface.

    PubMed

    Rose, D L; Kocka, J P; Somerson, N L; Tully, J G; Whitcomb, R F; Carle, P; Bov, J M; Colflesh, D E; Williamson, D L

    1990-04-01

    Strain 831-C4T (T = type strain), isolated from the surface of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) obtained from a retail food market, was shown to be a sterol-requiring mollicute. Morphological examination of this organism by electron and dark-field microscopic techniques showed that it consists of small, nonhelical, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccoid cells, with individual cells surrounded by a single cytoplasmic membrane. No evidence of a cell wall was observed. The organism grew rapidly in all conventional culture medium formulations for mollicutes in either aerobic or anaerobic environments. The optimum temperature for growth was 30 degrees C, but multiplication occurred at 18 to 37 degrees C. Strain 831-C4T catabolized glucose, but hydrolysis of arginine or urea could not be demonstrated. The genome size of strain 831-C4T was determined to be about 569 megadaltons, while the base composition (guanine-plus-cytosine content) of the DNA was 30.0 mol%. Recent studies in which we compared the 16S rRNA sequences of strain 831-C4T with those of more than 40 other mollicutes indicated that this organism is phylogenetically related to the Spiroplasma-Mycoplasma mycoides clade. Strain 831-C4T was serologically unrelated to the type strains of previously described Mycoplasma species and to 18 other unclassified sterol-requiring isolates cultivated from various animal, plant, or insect sources. Strain 831-C4T (= ATCC 49193) is the type strain of Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov. PMID:2223606

  10. Cholesterol lowering effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols in a French population with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Christina; Krempf, Michel; Bard, Jean-Marie; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Bell, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Background Plant sterols are an established non-pharmacological means to reduce total and LDL blood cholesterol concentrations and are therefore recommended for cholesterol management by worldwide-renown health care institutions. Their efficacy has been proven in many types of foods with the majority of trials conducted in spreads or dairy products. As an alternative to dairy products, soy based foods are common throughout the world. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of plant sterols in soy-based foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols on blood lipid profiles in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind mono-centric study, 50 subjects were assigned to 200 ml of soy drink either enriched with 2.6 g plant sterol esters (1.6 g/d free plant sterol equivalents) or without plant sterols (control) for 8 weeks. Subjects were instructed to maintain stable diet pattern and physical activity. Plasma concentrations of lipids were measured at initial visit, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks. The primary measurement was the change in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Secondary measurements were changes in total cholesterol (TC), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Results Regular consumption of the soy drink enriched with plant sterols for 8 weeks significantly reduced LDL- C by 0.29 mmol/l or 7% compared to baseline (p < 0.05). TC and non-HDL-C concentrations decreased by 0.26 mmol/l and 0.31 mmol/l (each p < 0.05), respectively. Mean reductions in total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the placebo group (p < 0.05). HDL-C and triglycerides were not affected. Compliance was very high (>96%), and products were well tolerated. Conclusion Daily consumption of a plant sterol-enriched soy drink significantly decreased total, non-HDL and LDL cholesterol and is therefore an interesting and convenient aid in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18837970

  11. Intake of a Single Morning Dose of Standard and Novel Plant Sterol Preparations for 4 Weeks Does Not Dramatically Affect Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for decreasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease include increasing the intake of plant sterols and fish oil. The cholesterol-lowering action of plant sterols, when provided in a fish-oil fatty acids vehicle, remains to be investigated in humans. A randomized, crossover-f...

  12. Pigmented Rice Bran and Plant Sterol Combination Reduces Serum Lipids in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kitts, David D.; Zawistowski, Jerzy; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Kopeć, Aneta; Pope, Benjamin T.; Buchowski, Maciej S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the dietary effect of including pigmented rice bran with or without plant sterols on lipid profiles during energy restriction–induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults not taking cholesterol-lowering medication. In addition, the study examined the effect of intervention on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods A group of 24 overweight and obese adults (age: 43 ± 6 years, body mass index 32 ± 1 kg/m2, 18 females) were randomized to a 25% calorie-restricted diet containing either pigmented rice bran (RB) or the RB with addition of plant sterols (RB + PS) snack bars for 8 weeks. The individualized nutrient-balanced diet contained ~70% of daily energy needs assessed from indirect calorimetry measured resting energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity-related EE assessed using accelerometry. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, urinary F2-isoprostanes, C-reactive protein, insulin, and leptin were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results Participants lost approximately 4.7 ± 2.2 kg (p < 0.001). Weight loss was not significant between the RB + PS and RB group (p = 0.056). Changes in body fat corresponded to changes in body weight. Average decrease in total cholesterol was significantly higher in the RB + PS group than in the RB group (difference 36 ± 25 g/dL vs 7 ± 16 g/dL; p = 0.044). A similar pattern was observed for the decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (difference 22.3 ± 25.2 g/dL vs 4.4 ± 18.9 g/dL; p = 0.062). Changes in systolic blood pressure, serum levels of leptin, and F2-isoprostanes were significant between baseline values and after 8 weeks on the diet in both groups (p < 0.05) but did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusions A nutrient-balanced and energy-restricted diet supplemented with rice bran and plant sterols resulted in a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol in overweight and obese adults. PMID:24955613

  13. SHORT-TERM EFFICACY OF PLANT STEROLS CONSUMED AT BREAKFAST OR AT EACH MEAL IN LOWERING BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To compare under controlled conditions the effect of plant sterol consumed as a single morning dose or divided through the day on blood lipid profile. Method: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover-feeding, single blind trial was conducted in 19 subjects with LDL- cholesterol level...

  14. 21 CFR 101.83 - Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 2000. The method, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Center for Food Safety and... stigmasterol (combined weight). (2) FDA will measure plant sterol esters by the method entitled...

  15. Plant sterol oxides in functional beverages: influence of matrix and storage.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Larena, Marina; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Clemente, Gonzalo; Barber, Reyes; Lagarda, Mara Jess

    2015-04-15

    Three plant sterol (PS)-enriched beverages, milk based fruit juice (MFJPS), fruit juice (FJPS) and milk beverage (MPS), were stored at 4, 24, or 37 C and analysed at regular time intervals of 2 months until 6 months. PS stability was analysed from the production of phytosterol oxidation products (POPs). The ?-sitosterol oxides (7?/7?-hydroxy, ?/?-epoxy, triol, and 7-keto) and campesterol oxides (?/?-epoxy, and 7-keto) were detected in all beverages and at all storage times and temperatures. Total POP contents followed the order MPS?FJPS>MFJPS. In general, the beverages showed low PS oxidation levels (<0.17%). Predictive models of POP content versus storage time were established. These models explain total POP content by over 75% and individual POP content by over 50%. We propose 7-ketositosterol and 7-ketocampesterol as PS oxidation markers during storage of beverages of this kind. PMID:25466102

  16. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products. PMID:26697919

  17. Plant sterols regulate rat vascular smooth muscle cell growth and prostacyclin release in culture.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Smith, A J; Fink, C S

    2001-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the USA and other industrialized countries. A large number of epidemiological studies have established a direct correlation between diet and the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Several studies have shown the incidence of CVD to be lower in populations consuming a predominantly plant-based diet, as compared to meat-based diets. Besides being low in fat and cholesterol, vegetarian and Asian diets contain a large variety of phytochemicals, which may function in the body. For example, phytosterols (PS) are plant sterols that interfere with the absorption of cholesterol from the intestine when present in adequate amounts. Although PS may also function at a cellular level in the body, there are few studies examining the action of PS on cells involved in atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dietary PS on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and function, since VSMC play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis. VSMC were treated with 16 microM cholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol (SIT) using an ethanol as a vehicle. Cell growth was determined by cell counting and cell proliferation by DNA synthesis, which was measured by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Cholesterol supplementation had no effect on cell growth and proliferation. 25-Hydroxycholesterol decreased cell growth by 68% and DNA synthesis by 99%. SIT was found to inhibit VSMC growth more effectively than campesterol. Of the two PS, campesterol decreased cell growth by 16% and SIT decreased cell growth by 30%. DNA synthesis was decreased 25% by SIT supplementation but was not influenced by campesterol or cholesterol supplementation. Cholesterol, campesterol and SIT were not cytotoxic to VSMC and did not significantly alter cell viability. 25-Hydroxycholesterol, however, was cytotoxic and decreased cell viability by 45% as determined by lactate dehydrogenase release and a trypan blue dye exclusion test. De novo cholesterol synthesis was decreased 28% by campesterol, 49% by SIT and 23% by cholesterol. Beta-sitosterol exhibited a greater effect on cholesterol synthesis than campesterol or cholesterol supplementation. Measurement of cell sterol content demonstrated incorporation of PS into VSMC at the expense of cholesterol. Campesterol decreased VSMC cholesterol content by 36%, representing 40% of the total sterol content following treatment. Beta-sitosterol decreased VSMC cholesterol by 41% following supplementation and represented 49% of the total sterol amount. Cholesterol treatment did not alter the cholesterol content of the cells. Prostacyclin production was significantly altered by PS treatment. Basal prostacyclin release was increased 43% by campesterol and 81% by SIT. A23187 stimulated prostacyclin release was increased 25% by campesterol and 54% by SIT. SIT supplementation induced a greater effect on prostacyclin release from VSMC than cholesterol or campesterol supplementation. The in vitro results presented here suggest that dietary PS, especially SIT, may offer protection from the VSMC hyperproliferation found in atherosclerosis. Further in vivo research is needed to support these observations. PMID:11427042

  18. Sterol-dependent induction of plant defense responses by a microbe-associated molecular pattern from Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Sharfman, Miya; Bar, Maya; Schuster, Silvia; Leibman, Meirav; Avni, Adi

    2014-02-01

    Plant-microbe interactions involve numerous regulatory systems essential for plant defense against pathogens. An ethylene-inducing xylanase (Eix) of Trichoderma viride is a potent elicitor of plant defense responses in specific cultivars of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We demonstrate that tomato cyclopropyl isomerase (SlCPI), an enzyme involved in sterol biosynthesis, interacts with the LeEix2 receptor. Moreover, we examined the role of SlCPI in signaling during the LeEix/Eix defense response. We found that SlCPI is an important factor in the regulation of the induction of defense responses such as the hypersensitive response, ethylene biosynthesis, and the induction of pathogenesis-related protein expression in the case of LeEix/Eix. Our results also suggest that changes in the sterol composition reduce LeEix internalization, thereby attenuating the induction of plant defense responses. PMID:24351686

  19. Genetic Variation in Plant CYP51s Confers Resistance against Voriconazole, a Novel Inhibitor of Brassinosteroid-Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Husar, Sigrid; Kalaivanan, Florian; Khan, Mamoona; Idlhammer, Markus; Shumilina, Daria; Lange, Theo; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Fujioka, Shozo; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones with structural similarity to mammalian sex steroids and ecdysteroids from insects. The BRs are synthesized from sterols and are essential regulators of cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. In this work we show that voriconazole, an antifungal therapeutic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, severely impairs plant growth by inhibiting sterol-14?-demethylation and thereby interfering with BR production. The plant growth regulatory properties of voriconazole and related triazoles were identified in a screen for compounds with the ability to alter BR homeostasis. Voriconazole suppressed growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and of a wide range of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We uncover that voriconazole toxicity in plants is a result of a deficiency in BRs that stems from an inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP51, which catalyzes a step of BR-dependent sterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca, a member of the Rosaceae, is naturally voriconazole resistant and that this resistance is conferred by the specific CYP51 variant of F. vesca. The potential of voriconazole as a novel tool for plant research is discussed. PMID:23335967

  20. Sterol Distribution in Intracellular Organelles Isolated from Tobacco Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, C.

    1970-01-01

    All membrane-containing fractions isolated from tobacco leaves contained free sterols, sterol glycosides, and sterol esters. The three sterol forms increased, on a dry weight basis, with a decrease in particle size. The supernatant fraction contained only trace amounts of sterol. The major sterols in all cellular fractions, in the order of decreasing amounts, were: stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol, campesterol, and cholesterol. The 500g pellet contained the largest percentage of free sterol, while the 46,000g pellet contained the largest percentage of esterified sterol. The individual sterol composition of the free sterol and sterol glycoside fraction was very similar; however, the composition of the sterol ester fraction varied widely among intracellular fraction. The intracellular distribution pattern of cholesterol-14C added to the isolation medium provided evidence that the intracellular sterol distribution pattern is not an artifact. These results support the suggestion that sterols in plant cells may have a physiological function associated with membranes. PMID:16657369

  1. 21 CFR 101.83 - Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 2000. The method, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Center for Food Safety and... requirements—(i) Nature of the claim. A health claim associating diets that include plant sterol/stanol...

  2. Miscibility and interactions of animal and plant sterols with choline plasmalogen in binary and multicomponent model systems.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Luty, Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    In this work miscibility and interactions of sterols with choline plasmalogen (PC-plasm) in Langmuir monolayers were studied. Moreover, the properties of cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine/plasmalogen mixtures of different PC-plasm concentration were investigated. The foregoing systems were treated as a model of cancer cell membranes, which are of higher plasmalogen level than normal cells. Finally, the influence of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (phytosterols differing in anticancer potency) on these mixtures was verified. The properties of monolayers were analyzed based on the parameters derived from the surface pressure-area isotherms and images taken with Brewster Angle Microscope. It was found that at 30% of sterol in sterol/plasmalogen monolayer the lipids are immiscible and 3D crystallites are formed within the film. Cholesterol molecules mix favorably with PC-plasm at Xchol ≥ 0.5, while the investigated phytosterols only at their prevailing proportion in binary system. The increase of choline plasmalogen in cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine monolayer causes destabilization of the system. Moreover, the incorporation of phytosterols into cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine+PC-plasm mixtures disturbed membrane morphology and this effect was stronger for β-sitosterol as compared to stigmasterol. It was concluded that the presence of vinyl ether bond at sn-1 position in PC-plasm molecule strongly affects miscibility of choline plasmalogen with sterols. The comparison of the collected data with those reported in literature allowed one to conclude that miscibility and interactions of sterols with PC-plasm are less favorable than those with phosphatidylcholine. It was also suggested that overexpression of plasmalogens in cancer cell membranes may be a factor differentiating sensitivity of cells to anticancer effect of phytosterols. PMID:24463150

  3. Effects of plant sterols on human multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Yamaki, Takeshi; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2008-05-01

    The effects of dietary plant sterols on human drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) were investigated using P-gp-overexpressing human carcinoma KB-C2 cells and human MRP1 gene-transfected KB/MRP cells. The effects of natural phytosterols found in foods, herbs, and dietary supplements such as beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, fucosterol, and z-guggulsterone were investigated. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-gp, increased in the presence of guggulsterone in KB-C2 cells. The efflux of rhodamine 123 from KB-C2 cells was inhibited by guggulsterone. Guggulsterone also increased the accumulation of calcein, a fluorescent substrate of MRP1, in KB/MRP cells. The ATPase activities of P-gp and MRP1 were stimulated by guggulsterone. These results suggest that guggulsterone, a natural dietary hypolipidemic agent have dual inhibitory effects on P-gp and MRP1 and the potencies to cause food-drug interactions. PMID:18280247

  4. The associations of cholesterol metabolism and plasma plant sterols with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality[S

    PubMed Central

    Silbernagel, Guenther; Fauler, Guenter; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Ltjohann, Dieter; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Mrz, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    Moderately elevated levels of plasma plant sterols have been suspected to be causally involved in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plant sterols and other markers of sterol metabolism predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular health (LURIC) study. A total of 1,257 individuals who did not use statins and at baseline had a mean ( SD) age of 62.8 ( 11.0) years were included in the present analysis. Lathosterol, cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol were measured to estimate cholesterol synthesis and absorption. The mean ( SD) time of the follow-up for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was 7.32 ( 2.3) years. All-cause (P = 0.001) and cardiovascular (P = 0.006) mortality were decreased in the highest versus the lowest lathosterol to cholesterol tertile. In contrast, subjects in the third cholestanol to cholesterol tertile had increased all-cause (P < 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.010) compared with individuals in the first tertile. The third campesterol to cholesterol tertile was associated with increased all-cause mortality (P = 0.025). Sitosterol to cholesterol tertiles were not significantly related to all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. The data suggest that high absorption and low synthesis of cholesterol predict increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in LURIC participants. PMID:20228406

  5. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  6. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  7. Systematic haplotype analysis resolves a complex plasma plant sterol locus on the Micronesian Island of Kosrae

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Eimear E.; Gusev, Alexander; Riegel, Kaitlin; Ltjohann, Dieter; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Salit, Jacqueline; Maller, Julian B.; Stoffel, Markus; Daly, Mark J.; Altshuler, David M.; Friedman, Jeffrey M.; Breslow, Jan L.; Pe'er, Itsik; Sehayek, Ephraim

    2009-01-01

    Pinpointing culprit causal variants along signal peaks of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is challenging. To overcome confounding effects of multiple independent variants at such a locus and narrow the interval for causal allele capture, we developed an approach that maps local shared haplotypes harboring a putative causal variant. We demonstrate our method in an extreme isolate founder population, the pacific Island of Kosrae. We analyzed plasma plant sterol (PPS) levels, a surrogate measure of cholesterol absorption from the intestine, where previous studies have implicated 2p21 mutations in the ATP binding cassette subfamily G members 5 or 8 (ABCG5 or ABCG8) genes. We have previously reported that 11.1% of the islanders are carriers of a frameshift ABCG8 mutation increasing PPS levels in carriers by 50%. GWAS adjusted for this mutation revealed genomewide significant signals along 11 Mb around it. To fine-map this signal, we detected pairwise identity-by-descent haplotypes using our tool GERMLINE and implemented a clustering algorithm to identify haplotypes shared across multiple samples with their unique shared boundaries. A single 526-kb haplotype mapped strongly to PPS levels, dramatically refining the mapped interval. This haplotype spans the ABCG5/ABCG8 genes, is carried by 1.8% of the islanders, and results in a striking 100% increase of PPS in carriers. Resequencing of ABCG5 in these carriers found a D450H missense mutation along the associated haplotype. These findings exemplify the power of haplotype analysis for mapping mutations in isolated populations and specifically for dissecting effects of multiple variants of the same locus. PMID:19667188

  8. Comparison of Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Acid Hydrolysis of Sterol Glycosides from Foods Rich in Δ(7)-Sterols.

    PubMed

    Münger, Linda H; Jutzi, Sabrina; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Nyström, Laura

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present the difference in sterol composition of extracted steryl glycosides (SG) hydrolyzed by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis. SG were analyzed from foods belonging to the plant families Cucurbitaceae (melon and pumpkin seeds) and Amaranthaceae (amaranth and beetroot), both of which are dominated by Δ(7)-sterols. Released sterols were quantified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All Δ(7)-sterols identified (Δ(7)-stigmastenyl, spinasteryl, Δ(7)-campesteryl, Δ(7)-avenasteryl, poriferasta-7,25-dienyl and poriferasta-7,22,25-trienyl glucoside) underwent isomerization under acidic conditions and high temperature. Sterols with an ethylidene or methylidene side chain were found to form multiple artifacts. The artifact sterols coeluted with residues of incompletely isomerized Δ(7)-sterols, or Δ(5)-sterols if present, and could be identified as Δ(8(14))-sterols on the basis of relative retention time, and their MS spectra as trimethylsilyl (TMS) and acetate derivatives. For instance, SG from melon were composed of 66% Δ(7)-stigmastenol when enzymatic hydrolysis was performed, whereas with acid hydrolysis only 8% of Δ(7)-stigmastenol was determined. The artifact of Δ(7)-stigmastenol coeluted with residual non-isomerized spinasterol, demonstrating the high risk of misinterpretation of compositional data obtained after acid hydrolysis. Therefore, the accurate composition of SG from foods containing sterols with a double bond at C-7 can only be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis or by direct analysis of the intact SG. PMID:25757602

  9. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    te Velde, Anje A; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Meijer, Sybren L; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner. PMID:26501315

  10. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    te Velde, Anje A.; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E. M.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner. PMID:26501315

  11. Sterols of a contemporary lacustrine sediment. [in English postglacial lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskell, S. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for detailed sterol analyses of several depths (corresponding to between zero and about 150 yr in age) in a contemporary lacustrine sediment from a freshwater lake of postglacial origin in England. Delta 5-, delta 22-, and delta 5,22-sterols are identified along with 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanols as well as a C26 stanol with a C7 side chain. Solvent extraction yields carbon number distributions for the 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanol sediment constituents that parallel the corresponding delta 5-sterol distributions. The amounts of 5 alpha-stanols are found to exceed those of 5 beta-stanols in the sediment, and variations in the ratio of 5 alpha- to 5 beta-stanol between sediment samples from similar depths are shown to suggest an inhomogeneity of the sediment. It is found that the sterol composition of sediment cores varies markedly with depth, reflecting both the effects of a sterol hydrogenation process and a changing input to the sediment. It is concluded that C29 sterols, of probable higher-plant origin, predominate at lower sediment depths while C27 sterols, possibly derived from autochthonous sources, are more abundant in the surface sediment.

  12. Determination of plant stanols and plant sterols in phytosterol enriched foods with a gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection method: NMKL collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Pivi H

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative study with nine participating laboratories was conducted to determine the total plant sterol and/or plant stanol contents in phytosterol fortified foods with a gas chromatographic method. Four practice and 12 test samples representing mainly commercially available foodstuffs were analyzed as known replicates. Twelve samples were enriched with phytosterols, whereas four samples contained only natural contents of phytosterols. The analytical procedure consisted of two alternative approaches: hot saponification method, and acid hydrolysis treatment prior to hot saponification. As a result, sterol/stanol compositions and contents in the samples were measured. The amounts of total plant sterols and total plant stanols varying from 0.005 to 8.04 g/100 g product were statistically evaluated after outliers were eliminated. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) varied from 1.34 to 17.13%. The reproducibility RSD (RSDR) ranged from 3.03 to 17.70%, with HorRat values ranging from 0.8 to 2.1. When only phytosterol enriched food test samples are considered, the RSDr ranged from 1.48 to 6.13%, the RSD, ranged from 3.03 to 7.74%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.8 to 2.1. Based on the results of this collaborative study, the study coordinator concludes the method is fit for its purpose. PMID:25145144

  13. Trichodiene production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-silenced strain provides evidence of the importance of the sterol biosynthetic pathway in inducing plant defense-related gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both ...

  14. Lipid-lowering Activity of Natural and Semi-Synthetic Sterols and Stanols.

    PubMed

    Taha, Dhiaa A; Wasan, Ellen K; Wasan, Kishor M; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of plant sterols/ stanols has long been demonstrated to reduce plasma cholesterol levels. The objective of this review is to demonstrate the lipid-lowering activity and anti-atherogenic effects of natural and semi-synthetic plant sterols/ stanols based on evidence from cell-culture studies, animal studies and clinical trials. Additionally, this review highlights certain molecular mechanisms by which plant sterols/ stanols lower plasma cholesterol levels with a special emphasis on factors that affect the cholesterol-lowering activity of plant sterols/stanols. The crystalline nature and the poor oil solubility of these natural products could be important factors that limit their cholesterol-lowering efficiency. Several attempts have been made to improve the cholesterol-lowering activity by enhancing the bioavailability of crystalline sterols and stanols. Approaches involved reduction of the crystal size and/or esterification with fatty acids from vegetable or fish oils. However, the most promising approach in this context is the chemical modification of plant sterols /stanols into water soluble disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphates analogue by esterification with ascorbic acid. This novel semi-synthetic stanol derivative has improved efficacy over natural plant sterols/ stanols and can provide additional benefits by combining the cholesterol-lowering properties of plant stanols with the antioxidant potential of ascorbic acid. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID:26626241

  15. Impact of quality of dietary fat on serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease: focus on plant sterols and other non-glyceride components.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease; dietary as well as therapeutic regimens target reduction of serum LDL cholesterol to decrease the morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease. The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has a marked impact on serum LDL cholesterol and other risk factors of diet-related chronic diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes and coronary heart disease). Besides fatty acids, which constitute > 95% of their content, fats in foods contain other fat-soluble chemicals collectively called non-glyceride components. Sterols are a major part of the non-glyceride components of fats in plant foods and get concentrated in vegetable oils. Current evidence suggests that properly solubilized plant sterols or stanols incorporated in ester or free form in various food formulations effectively restrict the absorption of both dietary and biliary cholesterol causing 10%-14% reduction in serum LDL cholesterol in normal, hyperlipidaemic and diabetic subjects. The carotenoid-lowering effect of foods enriched with plant sterols can be corrected by increasing the intake of foods rich in carotenoids. The use of foods enriched with plant sterols as a part of a heart-healthy diet is recommended only after consulting a clinician. Recent studies strongly suggest that even smaller amounts of sterols available from natural plant foods and vegetable oils are important dietary components for lowering serum LDL cholesterol. Furthermore, some of the other non-glyceride components of food fats have one or more of the following functions-vitamin activity, serum LDL cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant activity. Since the hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects ofa combination of the non-glyceride components may be more than their individual effects, increasing dietary plant sterols and non-glyceride components from natural plant foods and vegetable oils could provide an additional dietary means for prevention/correction of dyslipidaemia and increasing the antioxidant potential of human diets. The food-based dietary guidelines recommended to ensure an optimal fat quality in the diet of Indians provide high levels of natural plant sterols and other health-promoting non-glyceride components in addition to adequate absolute levels of individual fatty acids and their optimal balance. National policies to promote these dietary guidelines may contribute to the prevention of coronary heart disease and other diet-related chronic diseases. PMID:19764688

  16. CYP7A1 rs3803607 and ApoE isoform associate with LDL-C lowering following plant sterol consumption in a randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefits of plant sterols (PS) for cholesterol lowering are hampered by large heterogeneity across individuals, potentially due to genetic polymorphisms. We investigated the impact of candidate genetic variations on cholesterol response to PS, in a trial which recruited individuals with high or ...

  17. Lathosterol to cholesterol ratio in serum predicts cholesterol lowering response to plant sterol consumption in a dual center, randomized, single-blind placebo controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benefits of plant sterols (PS) for cholesterol lowering are compromised by large variability in efficacy across individuals. High fractional cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation has been associated with non-response to PS consumption; however, prospective studies showing this as...

  18. Analysis of plant sterol and stanol esters in cholesterol-lowering spreads and beverages using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mezine, Igor; Zhang, Huizhen; Macku, Carlos; Lijana, Robert

    2003-09-10

    Plant sterol and stanol esters were separated on a Luna hexyl-phenyl column using a gradient of acetonitrile (90-100%) in water. The eluted compounds were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-mass spectroscopy (MS) in the positive mode. Sterol and stanol esters produced [M + H - HOOCR](+) ions. Application of the hyphenated technique-LC-MS-allowed differentiation between a number of esters of sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and (tentatively) avenasterol, as well as sitostanol and campestanol esters. With cholesteryl decanoate used as the internal standard, the method showed good linearity, precision, and reproducibility. The method required minimal sample pretreatment and can be applied to samples with high water content (juices) as well as samples with high oil content (margarine spreads). The method could be useful for the analysis of sterol and stanol esters in fortified food products. PMID:12952413

  19. Sterol-Derived Hormone(s) Controls Entry into Diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans by Consecutive Activation of DAF-12 and DAF-16

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Upon starvation or overcrowding, Caenorhabditis elegans interrupts its reproductive cycle and forms a specialised larva called dauer (enduring). This process is regulated by TGF-? and insulin-signalling pathways and is connected with the control of life span through the insulin pathway components DAF-2 and DAF-16. We found that replacing cholesterol with its methylated metabolite lophenol induced worms to form dauer larvae in the presence of food and low population density. Our data indicate that methylated sterols do not actively induce the dauer formation but rather that the reproductive growth requires a cholesterol-derived hormone that cannot be produced from methylated sterols. Using the effect of lophenol on growth, we have partially purified activity, named gamravali, which promotes the reproduction. In addition, the effect of lophenol allowed us to determine the role of sterols during dauer larva formation and longevity. In the absence of gamravali, the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 is activated and thereby initiates the dauer formation program. Active DAF-12 triggers in neurons the nuclear import of DAF-16, a forkhead domain transcription factor that contributes to dauer differentiation. This hormonal control of DAF-16 activation is, however, independent of insulin signalling and has no influence on life span. PMID:15383841

  20. Higher sterol content regulated by CYP51 with concomitant lower phospholipid content in membranes is a common strategy for aluminium tolerance in several plant species

    PubMed Central

    Wagatsuma, Tadao; Khan, Md. Shahadat Hossain; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maejima, Eriko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Nakano, Takeshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Tawaraya, Keitaro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Matsuo; Ishikawa, Satoru; Ikka, Takashi; Ishikawa, Akifumi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Ueki, Nozomi; Umetsu, Asami; Kannari, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the accumulation of positively charged Al3+ ions. The phospholipids will be balanced by other electrically neutral lipids, such as sterols. In the present research, Al tolerance was compared among pea (Pisum sativum) genotypes. Compared with Al-tolerant genotypes, the Al-sensitive genotype accumulated more Al in the root tip, had a less intact plasma membrane, and showed a lower expression level of PsCYP51, which encodes obtusifoliol-14?-demethylase (OBT 14DM), a key sterol biosynthetic enzyme. The ratio of phospholipids to sterols was higher in the sensitive genotype than in the tolerant genotypes, suggesting that the sterol biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in Al tolerance. Consistent with this idea, a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with knocked-down AtCYP51 expression showed an Al-sensitive phenotype. Uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of OBT 14DM, suppressed the Al tolerance of Al-tolerant genotypes of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and triticale (Triticosecale Wittmark cv. Currency). These results suggest that increased sterol content, regulated by CYP51, with concomitant lower phospholipid content in the root tip, results in lower negativity of the plasma membrane. This appears to be a common strategy for Al tolerance among several plant species. PMID:25416794

  1. Higher sterol content regulated by CYP51 with concomitant lower phospholipid content in membranes is a common strategy for aluminium tolerance in several plant species.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Tadao; Khan, Md Shahadat Hossain; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maejima, Eriko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Nakano, Takeshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Tawaraya, Keitaro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Matsuo; Ishikawa, Satoru; Ikka, Takashi; Ishikawa, Akifumi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Ueki, Nozomi; Umetsu, Asami; Kannari, Takayuki

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the accumulation of positively charged Al(3+) ions. The phospholipids will be balanced by other electrically neutral lipids, such as sterols. In the present research, Al tolerance was compared among pea (Pisum sativum) genotypes. Compared with Al-tolerant genotypes, the Al-sensitive genotype accumulated more Al in the root tip, had a less intact plasma membrane, and showed a lower expression level of PsCYP51, which encodes obtusifoliol-14α-demethylase (OBT 14DM), a key sterol biosynthetic enzyme. The ratio of phospholipids to sterols was higher in the sensitive genotype than in the tolerant genotypes, suggesting that the sterol biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in Al tolerance. Consistent with this idea, a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with knocked-down AtCYP51 expression showed an Al-sensitive phenotype. Uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of OBT 14DM, suppressed the Al tolerance of Al-tolerant genotypes of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmark cv. Currency). These results suggest that increased sterol content, regulated by CYP51, with concomitant lower phospholipid content in the root tip, results in lower negativity of the plasma membrane. This appears to be a common strategy for Al tolerance among several plant species. PMID:25416794

  2. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE. PMID:25842314

  3. Flaxseed Oil Containing α-Linolenic Acid Ester of Plant Sterol Improved Atherosclerosis in ApoE Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hao; Yan, Peipei; Chen, Li; Luo, Cheng; Gao, Hui; Deng, Qianchun; Zheng, Mingming; Shi, Yong; Liu, Liegang

    2015-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) have potential preventive function in atherosclerosis due to their cholesterol-lowering ability. Dietary α-linolenic acid in flaxseed oil is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events through its hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of flaxseed oil containing α-linolenic acid ester of PS (ALA-PS) on atherosclerosis and investigate the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were administered a regular diet and apoE knockout (apoE-KO) mice were given a high fat diet alone or supplemented with 5% flaxseed oil with or without 3.3% ALA-PS for 18 weeks. Results demonstrated that flaxseed oil containing ALA-PS was synergistically interaction in ameliorating atherosclerosis as well as optimizing overall lipid levels, inhibiting inflammation and reducing oxidative stress. These data were associated with the modification effects on expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism (PPARα, HMGCR, and SREBPs), inflammation (IL-6, TNF, MCP-1, and VCAM-1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase). PMID:26180602

  4. ABCA1-dependent sterol release: sterol molecule specificity and potential membrane domain for HDL biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shinji; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells synthesize various sterol molecules, including the C30 sterol, lanosterol, as cholesterol precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum. The build-up of precursor sterols, including lanosterol, displays cellular toxicity. Precursor sterols are found in plasma HDL. How these structurally different sterols are released from cells is poorly understood. Here, we show that newly synthesized precursor sterols arriving at the plasma membrane (PM) are removed by extracellular apoA-I in a manner dependent on ABCA1, a key macromolecule for HDL biogenesis. Analysis of sterol molecules by GC-MS and tracing the fate of radiolabeled acetate-derived sterols in normal and mutant Niemann-Pick type C cells reveal that ABCA1 prefers newly synthesized sterols, especially lanosterol, as the substrates before they are internalized from the PM. We also show that ABCA1 resides in a cholesterol-rich membrane domain resistant to the mild detergent, Brij 98. Blocking ACAT activity increases the cholesterol contents of this domain. Newly synthesized C29/C30 sterols are transiently enriched within this domain, but rapidly disappear from this domain with a half-life of less than 1 h. Our work shows that substantial amounts of precursor sterols are transported to a certain PM domain and are removed by the ABCA1-dependent pathway. PMID:26497474

  5. No changes in serum fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations with the intake of plant sterol/stanol esters in the context of a controlled diet.

    PubMed

    Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Ntanios, Fady Y; Vanstone, Catherine A; Jones, Peter J H

    2002-05-01

    Spreads enriched with plant sterol and stanol esters have been shown to possess similar cholesterol-lowering properties; however, their comparative capacity to alter circulating levels of other fat-soluble compounds has not been fully assessed. To compare actions of sterol and stanol ester consumption on serum fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations, 15 hypercholesterolemic subjects were fed each of 3 fixed foods treatment diets over 21 days using a randomized crossover controlled design. Diets contained either (1) margarine (M), (2) margarine with sterol esters (MSE; 1.92 g/d), or (3) margarine with stanol esters (MSA; 1.76 g/d). No significant differences were found in initial or final serum fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations among the 3 phases. Serum retinol and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations at baseline and endpoint and percentage changes relative to baseline for MSE and MSA were not significantly different from those of the M diet. After adjusting for total cholesterol reduction, no changes for alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were found. Serum vitamins D and K, lycopene, and lutein concentrations and percentage changes did not differ across diets. Serum concentrations at baseline and endpoint and percentage changes for alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin and alpha- and gamma-carotene were not different among the diets, nor did serum alpha- and gamma-carotene concentrations to total cholesterol ratios differ. Serum lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene concentrations increased over time. In conclusion, our results show no effect of consumption of esterified plant sterols or stanols on serum fat-soluble vitamin or carotenoid concentrations compared with a control diet. PMID:11979401

  6. Effect of a plant sterol, fish oil and B vitamin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors can predict clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis in adulthood. In this pilot study with hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents, we investigated the effects of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins on the levels of four independent risk factors for CVD; LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein and homocysteine. Methods Twenty five participants (mean age 16 y, BMI 23 kg/m2) received daily for a period of 16 weeks an emulsified preparation comprising plant sterols esters (1300 mg), fish oil (providing 1000 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and vitamins B12 (50 ?g), B6 (2.5 mg), folic acid (800 ?g) and coenzyme Q10 (3 mg). Atherogenic and inflammatory risk factors, plasma lipophilic vitamins, provitamins and fatty acids were measured at baseline, week 8 and 16. Results The serum total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, subfractions LDL-2, IDL-1, IDL-2 and plasma homocysteine levels were significantly reduced at the end of the intervention period (p<0.05). The triacylglycerols levels decreased by 17.6%, but did not reach significance. No significant changes in high sensitivity C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-1 were observed during the study period. After standardisation for LDL cholesterol, there were no significant changes in the levels of plasma ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene and retinol, except for reduction in ?-tocopherol levels. The plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids increased significantly with the dietary supplementation (p<0.05). Conclusions Daily intake of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins may modulate the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89549017 PMID:23297818

  7. Brassinosteroid/Sterol Synthesis and Plant Growth as Affected by lka and lkb Mutations of Pea1

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Takahito; Kitasaka, Yukiko; Takatsuto, Suguru; Reid, James B.; Fukami, Motohiro; Yokota, Takao

    1999-01-01

    The dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) mutants lka and lkb are brassinosteroid (BR) insensitive and deficient, respectively. The dwarf phenotype of the lkb mutant was rescued to wild type by exogenous application of brassinolide and its biosynthetic precursors. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the endogenous sterols in this mutant revealed that it accumulates 24-methylenecholesterol and isofucosterol but is deficient in their hydrogenated products, campesterol and sitosterol. Feeding experiments using 2H-labeled 24-methylenecholesterol indicated that the lkb mutant is unable to isomerize and/or reduce the ?24(28) double bond. Dwarfism of the lkb mutant is, therefore, due to BR deficiency caused by blocked synthesis of campesterol from 24-methylenecholesterol. The lkb mutation also disrupted sterol composition of the membranes, which, in contrast to those of the wild type, contained isofucosterol as the major sterol and lacked stigmasterol. The lka mutant was not BR deficient, because it accumulated castasterone. Like some gibberellin-insensitive dwarf mutants, overproduction of castasterone in the lka mutant may be ascribed to the lack of a feedback control mechanism due to impaired perception/signal transduction of BRs. The possibility that castasterone is a biologically active BR is discussed. PMID:10198111

  8. Effects of diet and metamorphosis upon the sterol composition of the butterfly Morpho peleides.

    PubMed

    Connor, William E; Wang, Yingming; Green, Mike; Lin, Don S

    2006-07-01

    Whole body sterol metabolism in insects has seldom been studied. We were able to design an appropriate study at a butterfly farm in Belize. We collected six larvas of butterfly (Morpho peleides), their food (leaves of Pterocarpus bayessii), and their excretions. In addition, six adult butterflies were collected. The sterols of the diet, the larva, and adult butterfly were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The structures of these sterols were identified by digitonin precipitation, GC-MS, and NMR. Four sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) and a sterol mixture were found in the food, the body, and the excreta of the larva. The tissue sterol content of the larva was 326 microg. They consumed 276 microg of sterols per day. Their excretion was 185 microg per day as sterols. The total tissue sterol contents of the larva and butterfly were similar, but they had different sterol compositions, which indicated interconversion of sterols during development. There was a progressive increase in the cholesterol content from larva to butterfly and a decrease in the content of sitosterol and other plant sterols, which were likely converted to cholesterol. Our data indicated an active sterol metabolism in butterfly larva. Diet played an important role in determining its sterol composition. During metamorphosis, there was an interconversion of sterols. This is the first paper documenting the fecal sterol excretion in insects as related to dietary intakes. PMID:16582035

  9. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutirrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp. PMID:26168138

  10. Effects of sterol-binding agent nystatin on wheat roots: the changes in membrane permeability, sterols and glycoceramides.

    PubMed

    Valitova, Julia N; Minibayeva, Farida V; Kotlova, Ekaterina R; Novikov, Alexander V; Shavarda, Alexey L; Murtazina, Lyaisan I; Ryzhkina, Irina S

    2011-10-01

    Plant sterols are important multifunctional lipids, which are involved in determining membrane properties. Biophysical characteristics of model lipid and isolated animal membranes with altered sterol component have been intensively studied. In plants however, the precise mechanisms of involvement of sterols in membrane functioning remain unclear. In present work the possible interactions between sterols and other membrane lipids in plant cells were studied. A useful experimental approach for elucidating the roles of sterols in membrane activity is to use agents that specifically bind with endogenous sterols, for example the antibiotic nystatin. Membrane characteristics and the composition of membrane lipids in the roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings treated with nystatin were analyzed. The application of nystatin greatly increased the permeability of the plasma membrane for ions and SH-containing molecules and decreased the total sterol level mainly as a consequence of a reduction in the amount of β-sitosterol and campesterol. Dynamic light-scattering was used to confirm the in vitro formation of stable complexes between nystatin and β-sitosterol or cholesterol. Sterol depletion was accompanied by a significant rise in total glycoceramide (GlCer) content after 2h treatment with nystatin. Analysis of the GlCer composition using mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization demonstrated that nystatin induced changes in the ratio of molecular species of GlCer. Our results suggest that changes in the sphingolipid composition can contribute to the changes in plasma membrane functioning induced by sterol depletion. PMID:21726881

  11. Influence of Food Matrix on Sterol and Stanol Activity.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The format and matrix in which functional food ingredients are delivered may influence their bioactivity in vivo. Therefore, this paper will review studies which have examined plant sterols and stanols being consumed in varying formats and matrices, i.e., fat-containing foods versus low or non-fat foods, solid foods versus liquid foods, capsules or tables versus foods. Furthermore, this paper will examine the issue of providing plant sterols and stanols in either free or esterified form. Finally, a discussion on the importance of microemulsion stability of the sterols and stanols is elaborated. Based on the reviewed information, it would seem that plant sterols and stanols are effective in all food and capsule/tablet formats, and in both free and esterified form. Some failures in clinical trials may be due to unstable microemulsion of sterols. PMID:25942377

  12. Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...

  13. A comparative calorimetric and spectroscopic study of the effects of cholesterol and of the plant sterols β-sitosterol and stigmasterol on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Mannock, David A; Benesch, Matthew G K; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2015-08-01

    We performed comparative DSC and FTIR spectroscopic measurements of the effects of β-sitosterol (Sito) and stigmasterol (Stig) on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of DPPC bilayers. Sito and Stig are the major sterols in the biological membranes of higher plants, whereas cholesterol (Chol) is the major sterol in mammalian membranes. Sito differs in structure from Chol in having an ethyl group at C24 of the alkyl side-chain, and Stig in having both the C24 ethyl group and trans-double bond at C22. Our DSC studies indicate that the progressive incorporation of Sito and Stig decrease the temperature and cooperativity of the pretransition of DPPC to a slightly lesser and greater extent than Chol, respectively, but the pretransition persists to 10 mol % sterol concentration in all cases. All three sterols produce essentially identical effects on the thermodynamic parameters of the sharp component of the DPPC main phase transition. However, the ability to increase the temperature and decrease the cooperativity and enthalpy of the broad component decreases in the order Chol>Sito>Stig. Nevertheless, at higher Sito/Stig concentrations, there is no evidence of sterol crystallites. Our FTIR spectroscopic studies demonstrate that Sito and especially Stig incorporation produces a smaller ordering of the hydrocarbon chains of fluid DPPC bilayers than does Chol. In general, the presence of a C24 ethyl group in the alkyl side-chain reduces the characteristic effects of Chol on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of DPPC bilayer membranes, and a trans-double bond at C22 magnifies this effect. PMID:25911208

  14. Plant-derived antigens as mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mason, H S; Herbst-Kralovetz, M M

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, researchers have developed robust systems for recombinant subunit vaccine production in plants. Stably and transiently transformed plants have particular advantages that enable immunization of humans and animals via mucosal delivery. The initial goal to immunize orally by ingestion of plant-derived antigens has proven difficult to attain, although many studies have demonstrated antibody production in both humans and animals, and in a few cases, protection against pathogen challenge. Substantial hurdles for this strategy are low-antigen content in crudely processed plant material and limited antigen stability in the gut. An alternative is intranasal delivery of purified plant-derived antigens expressed with robust viral vectors, especially virus-like particles. The use of pattern recognition receptor agonists as adjuvants for mucosal delivery of plant-derived antigens can substantially enhance serum and mucosal antibody responses. In this chapter, we briefly review the methods for recombinant protein expression in plants, and describe progress with human and animal vaccines that use mucosal delivery routes. We do not attempt to compile a comprehensive list, but focus on studies that progressed to clinical trials or those that showed strong indications of efficacy in animals. Finally, we discuss some regulatory concerns regarding plant-based vaccines. PMID:21811930

  15. Diversification of sterol methyltransferase enzymes in plants and a role for β-sitosterol in oriented cell plate formation and polarized growth.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Schmit, Anne-Catherine; Heintz, Dimitri; Schaller, Hubert; Ohta, Daisaku

    2015-12-01

    Phytosterols are classified into C24-ethylsterols and C24-methylsterols according to the different C24-alkylation levels conferred by two types of sterol methyltransferases (SMTs). The first type of SMT (SMT1) is widely conserved, whereas the second type (SMT2) has diverged in charophytes and land plants. The Arabidopsis smt2 smt3 mutant is defective in the SMT2 step, leading to deficiency in C24-ethylsterols while the C24-methylsterol pathway is unchanged. smt2 smt3 plants exhibit severe dwarfism and abnormal development throughout their life cycle, with irregular cell division followed by collapsed cell files. Preprophase bands are occasionally formed in perpendicular directions in adjacent cells, and abnormal phragmoplasts with mislocalized KNOLLE syntaxin and tubulin are observed. Defects in auxin-dependent processes are exemplified by mislocalizations of the PIN2 auxin efflux carrier due to disrupted cell division and failure to distribute PIN2 asymmetrically after cytokinesis. Although endocytosis of PIN2-GFP from the plasma membrane (PM) is apparently unaffected in smt2 smt3, strong inhibition of the endocytic recycling is associated with a remarkable reduction in the level of PIN2-GFP on the PM. Aberrant localization of the cytoplasmic linker associated protein (CLASP) and microtubules is implicated in the disrupted endocytic recycling in smt2 smt3. Exogenous C24-ethylsterols partially recover lateral root development and auxin distribution in smt2 smt3 roots. These results indicate that C24-ethylsterols play a crucial role in division plane determination, directional auxin transport, and polar growth. It is proposed that the divergence of SMT2 genes together with the ability to produce C24-ethylsterols were critical events to achieve polarized growth in the plant lineage. PMID:26426526

  16. Sterols and oxysterols in immune cell function.

    PubMed

    Spann, Nathanael J; Glass, Christopher K

    2013-09-01

    Intermediates in the cholesterol-biosynthetic pathway and oxysterol derivatives of cholesterol regulate diverse cellular processes. Recent studies have expanded the appreciation of their roles in controlling the functions of cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review recent literature reporting on the biological functions of sterol intermediates and oxysterols, acting through transcription factors such as the liver X receptors (LXRs), sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and the G protein-coupled receptor EBI2, in regulating the differentiation and population expansion of cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, their responses to inflammatory mediators, their effects on the phagocytic functions of macrophages and their effects on antiviral activities and the migration of immune cells. Such findings have raised many new questions about the production of endogenous bioactive sterols and oxysterols and their mechanisms of action in the immune system. PMID:23959186

  17. Recent advances in sterol research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1970, the AOCS has been a regular host to the sterol symposia. The 2008 Sterol Symposium, “Recent Advances in Sterol Research,” was held at the AOCS Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington. This year the symposium held special significance, for it hosted the presentation of the fourth G.J. Schro...

  18. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Bouvaine, Sophie; T Behmer, Spencer; Lin, George G; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-11-01

    The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three sterols, cholesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, in a 2:2:1 ratio. To investigate the nutritional value of these sterols, pea aphids were reared on chemically-defined diets containing each sterol at 0.1, 1 and 10?gml(-1) with a sterol-free diet as control. Larval growth rate and aphid lifespan did not vary significantly across the diets, indicating that sterol reserves can buffer some performance indices against a shortfall in dietary sterol over at least one generation. However, lifetime reproductive output was depressed in aphids on diets containing stigmasterol or no sterol, relative to diets supplemented with cholesterol or sitosterol. The cholesterol density of embryos in teneral adults was significantly higher than in the total body; and the number and biomass of embryos in aphids on diets with stigmasterol and no sterols were reduced relative to diets with cholesterol or sitosterol, indicating that the reproductive output of the pea aphid can be limited by the amount and composition of dietary sterol. In a complementary RNA-seq analysis of pea aphids reared on plants and diets with different sterol contents, 7.6% of the 17,417 detected gene transcripts were differentially expressed. Transcript abundance of genes with annotated function in sterol utilization did not vary significantly among treatments, suggesting that the metabolic response to dietary sterol may be mediated primarily at the level of enzyme function or metabolite concentration. PMID:22878342

  19. Sterol Composition in Infant Formulas and Estimated Intake.

    PubMed

    Claumarchirant, Lorena; Matencio, Esther; Sanchez-Siles, Luis Manuel; Alegría, Amparo; Lagarda, María Jesús

    2015-08-19

    Sterol contents in infant formulas (IFs) from the European market were determined, and their intakes by infants between 0 and 6 months were evaluated. Total animal sterols (mg/100 mL) ranged from 1.71 to 5.46, cholesterol being the main animal sterol (1.46-5.1). In general, cholesterol and desmosterol were lower than the human milk (HM) values indicated by other authors. Total plant sterol (mg/100 mL) ranged from 3.1 to 5.0. β-Sitosterol, the most abundant phytosterol, ranged from 1.82 to 3.01, followed by campesterol (0.72-1.15), stigmasterol (0.27-0.53), and brassicasterol (0.14-0.28). Cholesterol intake (mg/day) ranged from 9 to 51 and plant sterol intake (mg/day) from 19 to 50. The sterol profile of IFs is highly dependent on the type and quantity of fats used in their formula. The use of bovine milk fat and milk fat globule membrane in the IFs can approximate the profile of animal sterols to those found in HM, though cholesterol intakes in breastfed infants are still higher than in formula-fed infants. PMID:26242905

  20. Intracellular Sterol Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mesmin, Bruno; Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    We review the cellular mechanisms implicated in cholesterol trafficking and distribution. Recent studies have provided new information about the distribution of sterols within cells, including analysis of its transbilayer distribution. The cholesterol interaction with other lipids and its engagement in various trafficking processes will determine its proper level in a specific membrane; making the cholesterol distribution uneven among the various intracellular organelles. The cholesterol content is important since cholesterol plays an essential role in membranes by controlling their physicochemical properties as well as key cellular events such as signal transduction and protein trafficking. Cholesterol movement between cellular organelles is highly dynamic, and can be achieved by vesicular and non-vesicular processes. Various studies have analyzed the proteins that play a significant role in these processes, giving us new information about the relative importance of these two trafficking pathways in cholesterol transport. Although still poorly characterized in many trafficking routes, several potential sterol transport proteins have been described in detail; as a result, molecular mechanisms for sterol transport among membranes start to be appreciated. PMID:19286471

  1. Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols.

    PubMed

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors regulated by small molecules. The functions of NHRs range from development of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, to regulation of differentiation and function of DCs, macrophages and T cells. The human genome has 48 classic (hormone and vitamin receptors) and nonclassic (all others) NHRs; 17 nonclassic receptors are orphans, meaning that the endogenous ligand is unknown. Understanding the function of orphan NHRs requires the identification of their natural ligands. The mevalonate pathway, including its sterol and nonsterol intermediates and derivatives, is a source of ligands for many classic and nonclassic NHRs. For example, cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates (CBIs) are natural ligands for ROR?/?t. CBIs are universal endogenous metabolites in mammalian cells, and to study NHRs that bind CBIs requires ligand-free reporters system in sterol auxotroph cells. Furthermore, ROR?/?t shows broad specificity to sterol lipids, suggesting that ROR?/?t is either a general sterol sensor or specificity is defined by an abundant endogenous ligand. Unlike other NHRs, which regulate specific metabolic pathways, there is no connection between the genetic programs induced by ROR?/?t and ligand biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the roles of nonclassic NHRs and their potential ligands in the immune system. PMID:26222181

  2. Final report of the amended safety assessment of PEG-5, -10, -16, -25, -30, and -40 soy sterol.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    PEGs Soy Sterol are polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives of soybean oil sterols used in a variety of cosmetic formulations as surfactants and emulsifying agents, skin-conditioning agents, and cleansing and solubilizing agents. When the safety of these ingredients were first reviewed, the available data were insufficient to support safety. New data have since been received and the safety of these ingredients in cosmetics has been substantiated. Current concentration of use ranges from a low of 0.05% in makeup preparations to 2% in moisturizers and several other products. PEGs Soy Sterol are produced by the reaction of the soy sterol hydroxyl with ethylene oxide. In general, ethoxylated fatty acids can contain 1,4-dioxane as a byproduct of ethoxylation. The soy sterols include campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol. The distribution of sterols found in oils derived from common plants is similar, with beta-sitosterol comprising a major component. Impurities include sterol hydrocarbons and cholesterol (4% to 6%) and triterpine alcohols, keto-steroids, and other steroid-like substances (4% to 6%). No pesticide residues were detected. PEGS: Because PEGs are an underlying structure in PEGs Soy Sterols, the previous assessment of PEGs was considered. It is generally recognized that the PEG monomer, ethylene glycol, and certain of its monoalkyl ethers are reproductive and developmental toxins. Given the methods of manufacture of PEGs Soy Sterol, there is no likelihood of ethylene glycol or its alkyl ethers being present. Also, the soybean oil sterol ethers in this ingredient are chemically different from the ethylene glycol alkyl ethers of concern. PEGs are not carcinogenic, although sensitization and nephrotoxicity were observed in burn patients treated with a PEG-based cream. No evidence of systemic toxicity or sensitization was found in studies with intact skin. Plant Phytosterols: Intestinal absorption of ingested plant phytosterols is on the order of 5%, with 95% of the material entering the colon. Absorbed plant phytosterols are transported to the blood. Although there are some data suggesting that sulfates of beta-sitosterol can act as abortifacients in rats and rabbits, other studies of well-characterized plant phytosterols and phytosterol esters demonstrated no effect in an estrogen-binding study, a recombinant yeast assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity, or a juvenile rat uterotrophic assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity. In a two-generation reproduction study using rats, plant phytosterol esters in the diet had no effect on any parameter of reproduction or fertility. Subcutaneous injections of beta-sitosterol did reduce sperm concentrations and fertility in rats. Sitosterol inhibited tumor promoting activity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and reduced the tumors produced by N-methylnitrosourea in rats. Phytosterols were not genotoxic in several bacterial, mammalian, and in vitro assay systems. Phytosterols decreased epithelial cell proliferation in the colon of mice and rats, and were cytotoxic for human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx. PEGs Soy Sterols: The acute oral LD50 in rats of PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was >10 g/kg. The acute dermal LD50 of a liquid eyeliner containing 2%PEG-5 Soy Sterol was >2 g/kg in rabbits. PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was not a primary irritant in rabbits when applied undiluted. Undiluted PEG-5 Soy Sterol did not cause sensitization in guinea pigs. PEGs Soy Sterol did not produce ocular toxicity in rabbits. PEG-5 Soy Sterol was negative in the Ames mutagenicity test, with or without metabolic activation. PEG-5 Soy Sterol, at concentrations up to 2%in formulation, did not cause dermal or ocular irritation, dermal sensitization, or photosensitization in clinical studies. Because of the possible presence of 1,4-dioxane reaction product and unreacted ethylene oxide residues, it was considered necessary to use appropriate procedures to remove these from PEGs Soy Sterol before blending them

  3. Effect of fermented milk product containing lactotripeptides and plant sterol esters on haemodynamics in subjects with the metabolic syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hautaniemi, Elina J; Tikkakoski, Antti J; Tahvanainen, Anna; Nordhausen, Klaus; Kähönen, Mika; Mattsson, Tiina; Luhtala, Satu; Turpeinen, Anu M; Niemelä, Onni; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta; Pörsti, Ilkka H

    2015-08-14

    We investigated the effects of fermented milk product containing isoleucine-proline-proline, valine-proline-proline and plant sterol esters (Pse) on plasma lipids, blood pressure (BP) and its determinants systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 104 subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were allocated to three groups in order to receive fermented milk product containing (1) 5 mg/d lactotripeptides (LTP) and 2 g/d plant sterols; (2) 25 mg/d LTP and 2 g/d plant sterols; (3) placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids and home BP were monitored. Haemodynamics were examined in a laboratory using radial pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography in the supine position and during orthostatic challenge. There were no differences between the effects of the two treatments and placebo on the measurements of BP at home or on BP, systemic vascular resistance index and cardiac index in the laboratory, neither in the supine nor in the upright position. The changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration were - 0.1 (95% CI - 0.3, 0.1 and - 0.3, 0.0) mmol/l in the 5 and 25 mg/d LTP groups, respectively, and +0.1 (95% CI - 0.1, 0.3) mmol/l during placebo (P= 0.024). Both at baseline and at week 12, the increase in systemic vascular resistance during head-up tilt was lower in the 25 mg/d LTP group than in the 5 mg/d LTP group (P< 0.01), showing persistent differences in cardiovascular regulation between these groups. In subjects with the MetS, intake of LTP and Pse in fermented milk product showed a lipid-lowering effect of borderline significance, while no antihypertensive effect was observed at home or in the laboratory. PMID:26168857

  4. Sterol C-24 Methyltransferase Type 1 Controls the Flux of Carbon into Sterol Biosynthesis in Tobacco Seed

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Niklas; Harker, Mark; Gibbard, Carl L.; Wallace, Andrew D.; Clayton, John C.; Rawlins, Sally; Hellyer, Amanda; Safford, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The first committed step in the conversion of cycloartenol into Δ5 C24-alkyl sterols in plants is catalyzed by an S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent sterol-C24-methyltransferase type 1 (SMT1). We report the consequences of overexpressing SMT1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), under control of either the constitutive carnation etched ring virus promoter or the seed-specific Brassica napus acyl-carrier protein promoter, on sterol biosynthesis in seed tissue. Overexpression of SMT1 with either promoter increased the amount of total sterols in seed tissue by up to 44%. The sterol composition was also perturbed with levels of sitosterol increased by up to 50% and levels of isofucosterol and campesterol increased by up to 80%, whereas levels of cycloartenol and cholesterol were decreased by up to 53% and 34%, respectively. Concomitant with the enhanced SMT1 activity was an increase in endogenous 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity, from which one can speculate that reduced levels of cycloartenol feed back to up-regulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and thereby control the carbon flux into sterol biosynthesis. This potential regulatory role of SMT1 in seed sterol biosynthesis is discussed. PMID:12226510

  5. Arabidopsis ERG28 Tethers the Sterol C4-Demethylation Complex to Prevent Accumulation of a Biosynthetic Intermediate That Interferes with Polar Auxin Transport[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Jadid, Nurul; Brunel, Julien; Di Pascoli, Thomas; Heintz, Dimitri; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jrme; Bergdoll, Marc; Ayoub, Daniel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rahier, Alain; Nkeng, Paul; Geoffroy, Philippe; Miesch, Michel; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Sterols are vital for cellular functions and eukaryotic development because of their essential role as membrane constituents. Sterol biosynthetic intermediates (SBIs) represent a potential reservoir of signaling molecules in mammals and fungi, but little is known about their functions in plants. SBIs are derived from the sterol C4-demethylation enzyme complex that is tethered to the membrane by Ergosterol biosynthetic protein28 (ERG28). Here, using nonlethal loss-of-function strategies focused on Arabidopsis thaliana ERG28, we found that the previously undetected SBI 4-carboxy-4-methyl-24-methylenecycloartanol (CMMC) inhibits polar auxin transport (PAT), a key mechanism by which the phytohormone auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth, including development and responses to environmental factors. The induced accumulation of CMMC in Arabidopsis erg28 plants was associated with diagnostic hallmarks of altered PAT, including the differentiation of pin-like inflorescence, loss of apical dominance, leaf fusion, and reduced root growth. PAT inhibition by CMMC occurs in a brassinosteroid-independent manner. The data presented show that ERG28 is required for PAT in plants. Furthermore, it is accumulation of an atypical SBI that may act to negatively regulate PAT in plants. Hence, the sterol pathway offers further prospects for mining new target molecules that could regulate plant development. PMID:24326590

  6. Distribution of sterols and the sources of pollution in surface sediments of Ulungur lake, Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaorui; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zilong; Ran, Dan; Huang, Yating

    2013-01-01

    Domestic sewage discharged into lakes brings great pressure to the ecological environment. This study selected sediment from an inland lake as a research object to evaluate pollution of the environment. Eight sterols were used to evaluate the content of pollutants, while the ratios of sterols were used as the index to analyze the sources of pollution. The correlations were analyzed between sterols and total organic carbon (TOC), salinity and particle size. The distribution and composition of sterol compounds were determined in 12 surface sediment samples collected from Ulungur lake. The total concentrations of detected sterols in the sediments ranged from 1.3 to 36.3 ?g/g.dw. The most abundant sterol detected was ?-sitosterol (STI) with average concentrations of 2.6 ?g/g.dw, followed by cholesterol (CHOE), stigmasterol (STIG) and stigmastanol (STAN). The concentration of coprostanol (COP) was between 0.03 and 1.66 ?g/g.dw. Through correlation analysis, it was found that there was a significant correlation between fecal sterols and plant sterols. So the plant sterols shall not be neglected in evaluating the sources of pollution for their impact to identify the fecal sources. The study suggests that the composition and distribution of sterols in surface sediment provide useful information for environmental contamination monitoring and assessment in the inland lake. PMID:23676408

  7. Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Abourashed, Ehab A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belonging to the above mentioned classes of natural antioxidants. In addition, related reviews published during the same period have been cited. A brief introduction to general bioavailability-related definitions, procedures and considerations is also included. PMID:26784467

  8. Sterol Biosynthesis Is Required for Heat Resistance but Not Extracellular Survival in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Baykal, Eda; Huang, Juyang; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sterol biosynthesis is a crucial pathway in eukaryotes leading to the production of cholesterol in animals and various C24-alkyl sterols (ergostane-based sterols) in fungi, plants, and trypanosomatid protozoa. Sterols are important membrane components and precursors for the synthesis of powerful bioactive molecules, including steroid hormones in mammals. Their functions in pathogenic protozoa are not well characterized, which limits the development of sterol synthesis inhibitors as drugs. Here we investigated the role of sterol C14?-demethylase (C14DM) in Leishmania parasites. C14DM is a cytochrome P450 enzyme and the primary target of azole drugs. In Leishmania, genetic or chemical inactivation of C14DM led to a complete loss of ergostane-based sterols and accumulation of 14-methylated sterols. Despite the drastic change in lipid composition, C14DM-null mutants (c14dm?) were surprisingly viable and replicative in culture. They did exhibit remarkable defects including increased membrane fluidity, failure to maintain detergent resistant membrane fraction, and hypersensitivity to heat stress. These c14dm? mutants showed severely reduced virulence in mice but were highly resistant to itraconazole and amphotericin B, two drugs targeting sterol synthesis. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of toxic sterol intermediates in c14dm? causes strong membrane perturbation and significant vulnerability to stress. The new knowledge may help improve the efficacy of current drugs against pathogenic protozoa by exploiting the fitness loss associated with drug resistance. PMID:25340392

  9. Sterols of the cultured dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula.

    PubMed

    Kokke, W C; Fenical, W; Djerassi, C

    1982-09-01

    Eighteen components of the sterol fraction of Pyrocystis lunula have been identified. In addition to 4 alpha-methyl sterols (typical dinoflagellate sterols), regular sterols, both with a saturated and delta 5-unsaturated skeleton, were isolated, together with delta 4-3-keto steroids including the hitherto unknown 23,24R-dimethyl-4,22E-cholestadien-3-one. PMID:6892172

  10. Study of Behavior of Sterols at Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, P. D.; Knight, J. C.; Szczepanik, P. A.

    1968-01-01

    Behavior of sterols and sterol acetates on various types of interfaces indicates that the function of a sterol depends upon a surface orientation and surface energy of the interface. Column-chromatographic techniques determine the retention volume of various sterols under standard conditions.

  11. Delta opioid peptides derived from plant proteins.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Takahashi, M; Yang, S

    2003-01-01

    Opioid peptides showing selectivity for delta receptor have been isolated from enzymatic digests of plant proteins. Five peptides were derived from wheat gluten, and named gluten exorphins A5, A4, B5, B4 and C. Two opioid peptides were also released from spinach ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), and named rubiscolins-5 and -6. Among them, gluten exorphin 5A (Gly-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Thr) and rubiscolin 6 (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu-Phe) improved learning performance in step-through type passive avoidance test after post-training oral administration in mice at doses of 300 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, which are smaller than those required for antinociceptive activity. PMID:12769740

  12. Osh proteins regulate membrane sterol organization but are not required for sterol movement between the ER and PM

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander; Sullivan, David P.; Kersting, Michael C.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Beh, Christopher T.; Menon, Anant K.

    2011-01-01

    Sterol transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM) occurs by an ATP-dependent, non-vesicular mechanism that is presumed to require sterol transport proteins (STPs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologues of the mammalian oxysterol-binding protein (Osh1–7) have been proposed to function as STPs. To evaluate this proposal we took two approaches. First we used dehydroergosterol (DHE) to visualize sterol movement in living cells by fluorescence microscopy. DHE was introduced into the PM under hypoxic conditions and observed to redistribute to lipid droplets on growing the cells aerobically. Redistribution required ATP and the sterol acyltransferase Are2, but did not require PM-derived transport vesicles. DHE redistribution occurred robustly in a conditional yeast mutant (oshΔ osh4-1ts) that lacks all functional Osh proteins at 37°C. In a second approach we used a pulse-chase protocol to analyze the movement of metabolically radiolabeled ergosterol from the ER to the PM. Arrival of radiolabeled ergosterol at the PM was assessed in isolated PM-enriched fractions as well by extracting sterols from intact cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. These experiments revealed that whereas ergosterol is transported effectively from the ER to the PM in Osh-deficient cells, the rate at which it moves within the PM to equilibrate with the methyl-β-cyclodextrin extractable sterol pool is slowed. We conclude (i) that the role of Osh proteins in nonvesicular sterol transport between the PM, ER and lipid droplets is either minimal, or subsumed by other mechanisms and (ii) that Osh proteins regulate the organization of sterols at the PM. PMID:21689253

  13. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    PubMed

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol?+?24-ethylcoprostanol?+?24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ?0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol?+?coprostanol?+?epicoprostanol) is ?0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed. PMID:26370196

  14. Molecular Pathways: Sterols and receptor signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gabitova, Linara; Gorin, Andrei; Astsaturov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated cholesterol and lipid metabolism are the hallmarks of cancer and contribute to malignant transformation due to the obligatory requirement for cholesterol for the function of eukaryotic membranes. To build new membranes and maintain active signaling, cancer cells depend on high intensity of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake of lipid particles. This metabolic dependency of cancer cells on cholesterol and other lipids is tightly regulated by the cholesterol homeostasis network including: 1) sterol response element binding proteins (SREBP), master transcriptional regulators of cholesterol and fatty acid pathway genes; 2) nuclear sterol receptors (liver X receptors, LXR) which coordinate growth with the availability of cholesterol; 3) lipid particle receptors such as LDL receptor providing exogenous sterols and lipids to cancer cells. In addition, activity of oncogenic receptors such as MUC1 or EGFR, accelerates sterols uptake and biosynthesis. Therefore, a general strategy of reducing the cholesterol pool in cancer cell is challenged by the highly efficient feedback loops compensating for a blockade at a single point in the cholesterol homeostatic network. Besides the well-established structural role of cholesterol in membranes, recent studies uncovered potent biological activities of certain cholesterol metabolic precursors and its oxidized derivatives, oxysterols. The former, meiosis activating sterols, exert effects on trafficking and signaling of oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cholesterol epoxides, the highly active products of cholesterol oxidation, are being neutralized by the distal sterol pathway enzymes, EBP and DHCR7. These recently discovered moonlighting activities of the cholesterol pathway genes and metabolites expand our understanding of the uniquely conserved roles these sterol molecules play in the regulation of cellular proliferation and in cancer. PMID:24158702

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules

    PubMed Central

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Nathoo, Naeem; Klimov, Eugene; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2014-01-01

    As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. The complexity of Agrobacterium–plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant nucleus. The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CK), and opines. IAA and CK stimulate plant growth, resulting in tumor formation. Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS) to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also recognizes plant-derived signals including γ-amino butyric acid and salicylic acid (SA) to activate quorum quenching that reduces the level of QS signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of plant defense and preserving energy. In addition, Agrobacterium hijacks plant-derived signals including SA, IAA, and ethylene to down-regulate its virulence genes located on the Ti plasmid. Moreover, certain metabolites from corn (Zea mays) also inhibit the expression of Agrobacterium virulence genes. Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium–plant interactions. PMID:25071805

  16. Phylogenomics of Sterol Synthesis: Insights into the Origin, Evolution, and Diversity of a Key Eukaryotic Feature

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, Elie

    2009-01-01

    The availability of complete genomes from a wide sampling of eukaryotic diversity has allowed the application of phylogenomics approaches to study the origin and evolution of unique eukaryotic cellular structures, but these are still poorly applied to study unique eukaryotic metabolic pathways. Sterols are a good example because they are an essential feature of eukaryotic membranes. The sterol pathway has been well dissected in vertebrates, fungi, and land plants. However, although different types of sterols have been identified in other eukaryotic lineages, their pathways have not been fully characterized. We have carried out an extensive analysis of the taxonomic distribution and phylogeny of the enzymes of the sterol pathway in a large sampling of eukaryotic lineages. This allowed us to tentatively indicate features of the sterol pathway in organisms where this has not been characterized and to point out a number of steps for which yet-to-discover enzymes may be at work. We also inferred that the last eukaryotic common ancestor already harbored a large panel of enzymes for sterol synthesis and that subsequent evolution over the eukaryotic tree occurred by tinkering, mainly by gene losses. We highlight a high capacity of sterol synthesis in the myxobacterium Plesiocystis pacifica, and we support the hypothesis that the few bacteria that harbor homologs of the sterol pathway have likely acquired these via horizontal gene transfer from eukaryotes. Finally, we propose a potential candidate for the elusive enzyme performing C-3 ketoreduction (ERG27 equivalent) in land plants and probably in other eukaryotic phyla. PMID:20333205

  17. Insect molting hormone and sterol biosynthesis in spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Grebenok, R.J.; Adler, J.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Insect molting hormones, which are produced by plants and are effective molecules in the control of insect crop pests, are biosynthesized in developing spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.). The major sterols biosynthesized by spinach are avenasterol (24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,24(28)-dien-3{beta}-ol), spinasterol (24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,22-dien-3{beta}-ol), and 22-dihydrospinasterol (24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholest-7-en-3{beta}-ol). The major ecdysteroids biosynthesized are ecdysterone (2{beta},3{beta},14{alpha},20R,22R,25-hexahydroxy-5{beta}-cholest-7-en-6-one) and polypodine B (2{beta},3{beta},5{beta},14{alpha},20R,22R,25-heptahycroxycholest-7-en-6-one) and polypodine B (2{beta},3{beta},5{beta},14{alpha},20R,22R,25-heptahydroxycholest-7-en-6-one). When labeled 2-{sup 14}C-mevalonic acid was incorporated into young leaves isolated squalene, sterols and ecdysteroids contained the label. During a short (16 h) incorporation period in intact young leaves of 100 day old plants, the avenasterol has the highest specific activity in counts per minute per {mu}g of sterol followed by 22-dihydrospinasterol which is more highly labeled than spinasterol. The ecdysteroids synthesized, on an entire plant basis, account for 20% of the total steroid (sterol and ecdysteroid) isolated from the plant.

  18. Non-vesicular sterol transport in cells

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Sterols such as cholesterol are important components of cellular membranes. They are not uniformly distributed among organelles and maintaining the proper distribution of sterols is critical for many cellular functions. Both vesicular and non-vesicular pathways move sterols between membranes and into and out of cells. There is growing evidence that a number of non-vesicular transport pathways operate in cells and, in the past few years, a number of proteins have been proposed to facilitate this transfer. Some are soluble sterol transfer proteins that may move sterol between membranes. Others are integral membranes proteins that mediate sterol efflux, uptake from cells, and perhaps intracellular sterol transfer as well. In most cases, the mechanisms and regulation of these proteins remains poorly understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge of these proteins and how they could contribute to intracellular sterol trafficking and distribution. PMID:17709145

  19. The mucosal immune response to plant-derived vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen Laura

    2010-10-01

    Transgenic plants present enormous potential as one of the most cost-effective and safe systems for large-scale production of proteins for industrial, pharmaceutical, veterinary and agricultural uses. Heat-stable plant-derived vaccines that are administered orally could in effect enhance vaccine coverage in children and infants, particularly in developing countries. Here we discuss the current status of plant-derived vaccines and their potential to champion the battle against infectious diseases in the least developed countries. PMID:20467887

  20. Delivery of plant-derived vaccines.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Many protein subunit vaccine candidates have been expressed in transgenic plants, and in a few cases the recombinant material has entered early phase clinical or target animal trials. The expressed protein can be purified prior to formulation for any preferred delivery approach. However, there are major cost advantages associated with avoiding protein purification and pursuing the oral delivery of a processed plant product containing the recombinant protein. Grains and dry products that are processed from fresh plant tissues can stably store expressed proteins for extended periods of time at room temperature, making refridgeration unnecessary during storage and distribution. Encapsulation of recombinant proteins in plant tissues guards against their rapid degradation in the gut, therefore facilitating the uptake and induction of appropriate immune responses. Early trial data with plant-based vaccine candidates has shown promising safety and efficacy. PMID:16296796

  1. Future for Aero turbine derived cogeneration plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Cogeneration installations in the Hague and Rotterdam in the Netherlands illustrate the growing emphasis on using highly efficient aero-derived gas turbines in energy conservation schemes such as district heating and power generation.

  2. Mediation of Elicitin Activity on Tobacco Is Assumed by Elicitin-Sterol Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Hanan; Vauthrin, Sébastien; Mikes, Vladimir; Milat, Marie-Louise; Panabières, Franck; Marais, Antoine; Brunie, Simone; Maume, Bernard; Ponchet, Michel; Blein, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Elicitins secreted by phytopathogenic Phytophthora spp. are proteinaceous elicitors of plant defense mechanisms and were demonstrated to load, carry, and transfer sterols between membranes. The link between elicitor and sterol-loading properties was assessed with the use of site-directed mutagenesis of the 47 and 87 cryptogein tyrosine residues, postulated to be involved in sterol binding. Mutated cryptogeins were tested for their ability to load sterols, bind to plasma membrane putative receptors, and trigger biological responses. For each mutated elicitin, the chemical characterization of the corresponding complexes with stigmasterol (1:1 stoichiometry) demonstrated their full functionality. However, these proteins were strongly altered in their sterol-loading efficiency, specific binding to high-affinity sites, and activities on tobacco cells. Ligand replacement experiments strongly suggest that the formation of a sterol-elicitin complex is a requisite step before elicitins fasten to specific binding sites. This was confirmed with the use of two sterol-preloaded elicitins. Both more rapidly displaced labeled cryptogein from its specific binding sites than the unloaded proteins. Moreover, the binding kinetics of elicitins are related to their biological effects, which constitutes the first evidence that binding sites could be the biological receptors. The first event involved in elicitin-mediated cell responses is proposed to be the protein loading with a sterol molecule. PMID:11553720

  3. Mediation of elicitin activity on tobacco is assumed by elicitin-sterol complexes.

    PubMed

    Osman, H; Vauthrin, S; Mikes, V; Milat, M L; Panabières, F; Marais, A; Brunie, S; Maume, B; Ponchet, M; Blein, J P

    2001-09-01

    Elicitins secreted by phytopathogenic Phytophthora spp. are proteinaceous elicitors of plant defense mechanisms and were demonstrated to load, carry, and transfer sterols between membranes. The link between elicitor and sterol-loading properties was assessed with the use of site-directed mutagenesis of the 47 and 87 cryptogein tyrosine residues, postulated to be involved in sterol binding. Mutated cryptogeins were tested for their ability to load sterols, bind to plasma membrane putative receptors, and trigger biological responses. For each mutated elicitin, the chemical characterization of the corresponding complexes with stigmasterol (1:1 stoichiometry) demonstrated their full functionality. However, these proteins were strongly altered in their sterol-loading efficiency, specific binding to high-affinity sites, and activities on tobacco cells. Ligand replacement experiments strongly suggest that the formation of a sterol-elicitin complex is a requisite step before elicitins fasten to specific binding sites. This was confirmed with the use of two sterol-preloaded elicitins. Both more rapidly displaced labeled cryptogein from its specific binding sites than the unloaded proteins. Moreover, the binding kinetics of elicitins are related to their biological effects, which constitutes the first evidence that binding sites could be the biological receptors. The first event involved in elicitin-mediated cell responses is proposed to be the protein loading with a sterol molecule. PMID:11553720

  4. Sterol metabolism in the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, a legume root pathogen.

    PubMed

    Madoui, Mohammed-Amine; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Gaulin, Elodie; Dumas, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are isoprenoid-derived molecules that have essential functions in eukaryotes but whose metabolism remains largely unknown in a large number of organisms. Oomycetes are fungus-like microorganisms that are evolutionarily related to stramenopile algae, a large group of organisms for which no sterol metabolic pathway has been reported. Here, we present data that support a model of sterol biosynthesis in Aphanomyces euteiches, an oomycete species causing devastating diseases in legume crops. In silico analyses were performed to identify genes encoding enzymes involved in the conversion of the isoprenoid precursor 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A to isoprenoids. Several metabolic intermediates and two major sterol end-products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We show that A. euteiches is able to produce fucosterol (a sterol initially identified in brown algae) and cholesterol (the major animal sterol). Mycelium development is inhibited by two sterol demethylase inhibitors used as fungicides, namely tebuconazole and epoxiconazole. We propose the first sterol biosynthetic pathway identified in a stramenopile species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close relationships between A. euteiches enzyme sequences and those found in stramenopile algae, suggesting that part of this pathway could be conserved in the Stramenopila kingdom. PMID:19496952

  5. Plant-derived triterpenoid sweetness inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Suttisri, R; Lee, I S; Kinghorn, A D

    1995-06-23

    Considerable recent attention has been focused on naturally occurring compounds with taste-modifying activity, which are of potential use in both dietary sweetness management and in gaining a better understanding of the sweet taste sensation. This review summarizes information on the phytochemistry and biological activity of more than 40 triterpenoid sweetness inhibitors that have been isolated from the leaves of three medicinal plants, namely, Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Ziziphus jujuba P. Miller (Rhamnaceae), and Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae). PMID:7564423

  6. Sterols with antileishmanial activity isolated from the roots of Pentalinon andrieuxii.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Pan L; Lezama-Davila CM; Isaac-Marquez AP; Calomeni EP; Fuchs JR; Satoskar AR; Kinghorn AD

    2012-10-01

    A new cholesterol derivative, pentalinonsterol (cholest-4,20,24-trien-3-one, 1), and a new polyoxygenated pregnane sterol glycoside, pentalinonside (2), together with 18 known compounds, including 14 sterols (3-16), three coumarins (17-19), and a triterpene (20), were isolated from a n-hexane partition of a methanol extract of the roots of the Mexican medicinal plant Pentalinon andrieuxii. Structure elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 was accomplished by spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated in vitro for their antileishmanial activity. Among these compounds, 6,7-dihydroneridienone (15) was found to be the most potent principle against promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana (L. mexicana). The cholesterol analogue, pentalinonsterol (1), together with two known sterols, 24-methylcholest-4,24(28)-dien-3-one (3) and neridienone (16), also exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity in this same bioassay. Compounds 1, 3, 15, 16, cholest-4-en-3-one (4), and cholest-5,20,24-trien-3?-ol (7), showed strong antileishmanial activity against amastigotes of L. mexicana, and 4 was found to be the most potent agent with an IC(50) value of 0.03?M. All the isolates were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity in non-infected bone marrow-derived macrophages, but none of these compounds was found active towards this cell line. The intracellular parasites treated with compounds 1, 3, 4, 15, and 16 were further studied by electron microscopy; morphological abnormalities and destruction of the amastigotes were observed, as a result of treatment with these compounds.

  7. Sterols with antileishmanial activity isolated from the roots of Pentalinon andrieuxii.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Lezama-Davila, Claudio M; Isaac-Marquez, Angelica P; Calomeni, Edward P; Fuchs, James R; Satoskar, Abhay R; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2012-10-01

    A new cholesterol derivative, pentalinonsterol (cholest-4,20,24-trien-3-one, 1), and a new polyoxygenated pregnane sterol glycoside, pentalinonside (2), together with 18 known compounds, including 14 sterols (3-16), three coumarins (17-19), and a triterpene (20), were isolated from a n-hexane partition of a methanol extract of the roots of the Mexican medicinal plant Pentalinon andrieuxii. Structure elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 was accomplished by spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated in vitro for their antileishmanial activity. Among these compounds, 6,7-dihydroneridienone (15) was found to be the most potent principle against promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana (L. mexicana). The cholesterol analogue, pentalinonsterol (1), together with two known sterols, 24-methylcholest-4,24(28)-dien-3-one (3) and neridienone (16), also exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity in this same bioassay. Compounds 1, 3, 15, 16, cholest-4-en-3-one (4), and cholest-5,20,24-trien-3?-ol (7), showed strong antileishmanial activity against amastigotes of L. mexicana, and 4 was found to be the most potent agent with an IC(50) value of 0.03?M. All the isolates were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity in non-infected bone marrow-derived macrophages, but none of these compounds was found active towards this cell line. The intracellular parasites treated with compounds 1, 3, 4, 15, and 16 were further studied by electron microscopy; morphological abnormalities and destruction of the amastigotes were observed, as a result of treatment with these compounds. PMID:22840389

  8. Sterols with antileishmanial activity isolated from the roots of Pentalinon andrieuxii

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Lezama-Davila, Claudio M.; Isaac-Marquez, Angelica P.; Calomeni, Edward P.; Fuchs, James R.; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A new cholesterol derivative, pentalinonsterol (cholest-4,20,24-trien-3-one, 1), and a new polyoxygenated pregnane sterol glycoside, pentalinonside (2), together with 18 known compounds, including 14 sterols (316), three coumarins (1719), and a triterpene (20), were isolated from a n-hexane partition of a methanol extract of the roots of the Mexican medicinal plant Pentalinon andrieuxii. Structure elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 was accomplished by spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated in vitro for their antileishmanial activity. Among these compounds, 6,7-dihydroneridienone (15) was found to be the most potent principle against promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana (L. mexicana). The cholesterol analogue, pentalinonsterol (1), together with two known sterols, 24-methylcholest-4,24(28)-dien-3-one (3) and neridienone (16), also exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity in this same bioassay. Compounds 1, 3, 15, 16, cholest-4-en-3-one (4), and cholest-5,20,24-trien-3?-ol (7), showed strong antileishmanial activity against amastigotes of L. mexicana, and 4 was found to be the most potent agent with an IC50 value of 0.03 ?M. All the isolates were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity in non-infected bone marrow-derived macrophages, but none of these compounds was found active towards this cell line. The intracellular parasites treated with compounds 1, 3, 4, 15, and 16 were further studied by electron microscopy; morphological abnormalities and destruction of the amastigotes were observed, as a result of treatment with these compounds. PMID:22840389

  9. Cyclopropyl Sterol and Phospholipid Composition of Membrane Fractions from Maize Roots Treated with Fenpropimorph

    PubMed Central

    Grandmougin, Anne; Bouvier-Nav, Pierrette; Ullmann, Pascaline; Benveniste, Pierre; Hartmann, Marie-Andre

    1989-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) caryopses were grown in the presence of fenpropimorph, a systemic fungicide, for 7 days in the dark. Membrane fractions enriched, respectively, in endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and mitochondria were isolated from control and treated maize roots and analyzed for their free sterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid composition. In treated plants, the intracellular distribution of free sterols was dramatically modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The normally occurring ?5-sterols disappeared almost completely and were replaced by 9?, 19-cyclopropyl sterols, mainly cycloeucalenol and 24-methyl pollinastanol. These new compounds were found to accumulate in all the membrane fractions in such a way that the endoplasmic reticulum-rich fraction became the richest one in free sterols instead of the plasma membrane. In contrast, the fenpropimorph treatment of maize roots was shown not to affect either the relative proportions or the amounts of the individual phospholipids, but an increase in the unsaturation index of phospholipid-fatty acyl chains of the endoplasmic reticulum-rich fraction was observed. The present data suggest that, in higher plant membranes, cyclopropyl sterols could play a structural role similar to that of the bulk of ?5-sterols. PMID:16666813

  10. Potential of the desert locust schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an unconventional source of dietary and therapeutic sterols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are increasingly being recognized not only as a source of food to feed the ever growing world population but also as potential sources of new products and therapeutic agents, among which are sterols. In this study, we sought to profile sterols and their derivatives present in the desert locu...

  11. Biosynthesis of Phytosterol Esters: Identification of a Sterol O-Acyltransferase in Arabidopsis1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qilin; Steinhauer, Lee; Hammerlindl, Joe; Keller, Wilf; Zou, Jitao

    2007-01-01

    Fatty acyl esters of phytosterols are a major form of sterol conjugates distributed in many parts of plants. In this study we report an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene, AtSAT1 (At3g51970), which encodes for a novel sterol O-acyltransferase. When expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), AtSAT1 mediated production of sterol esters enriched with lanosterol. Enzyme property assessment using cell-free lysate of yeast expressing AtSAT1 suggested the enzyme preferred cycloartenol as acyl acceptor and saturated fatty acyl-Coenyzme A as acyl donor. Taking a transgenic approach, we showed that Arabidopsis seeds overexpressing AtSAT1 accumulated fatty acyl esters of cycloartenol, accompanied by substantial decreases in ester content of campesterol and β-sitosterol. Furthermore, fatty acid components of sterol esters from the transgenic lines were enriched with saturated and long-chain fatty acids. The enhanced AtSAT1 expression resulted in decreased level of free sterols, but the total sterol content in the transgenic seeds increased by up to 60% compared to that in wild type. We conclude that AtSAT1 mediates phytosterol ester biosynthesis, alternative to the route previously described for phospholipid:sterol acyltransferase, and provides the molecular basis for modification of phytosterol ester level in seeds. PMID:17885082

  12. Consumption and biochemical impact of commercially available plant-derived nutritional supplements. An observational pilot-study on recreational athletes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing consumption of natural (plant-derived) dietary supplements with ergogenic aims, with particular regard for ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens and vegetal sterols, has been registered over the last years among “recreational” athletes. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the real knowledge of plant-derived nutritional supplements among physically active people as well as their real consumption. Additional aim was to evaluate the effects of these supplements on the health profile of the users. Methods Twenty-three trained subjects who habitually used natural dietary supplements, and 30 matched controls were analyzed for plasma biochemical markers and hormonal profile. Results The laboratory tests revealed the absence of any sign of organ toxicity/damage in both athletes and controls. On the contrary, hormone profiles revealed marked alterations in 15 (65%) out of the 23 of investigated athletes. Specifically, 10 males presented increased plasma levels of progesterone, 15 subjects presented abnormal estrogen levels, including 5 (2 F and 3 M) presenting a “dramatic” increased estrogen values and 2 two males with increased estrogen levels, increased testosterone levels and associated suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Conclusions The results of the present study highlighted that the habitual consumption of plant-derived nutritional supplements is frequently associated with significant hormonal alterations both in male and female subjects. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of organ toxicity/damage at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Further large scale studies are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study as well as to investigate the biological mechanisms at the base of the observed hormonal alterations. PMID:22713127

  13. Sedimentary hydrocarbons and sterols in a South Atlantic estuarine/shallow continental shelf transitional environment under oil terminal and grain port influences.

    PubMed

    Bet, Rafael; Bcego, Marcia C; Martins, Csar C

    2015-06-15

    Sterols and hydrocarbons were determined in the surface sediments from the transitional environment between Paranagu Bay and the shallow continental shelf in the South Atlantic to assess the sources of organic matter (OM) and the contamination status of an area exposed to multiple anthropogenic inputs. Total aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were less than 10?gg(-1), which is typical of unpolluted sediments, and related to recent inputs from higher terrestrial plants. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ranged from

    derived from combustion with non-detectable levels occurring in 65% of the samples. Sterols typically related to marine sources predominated in the analysed sediments. Hence, the study area was protected from human activity. The relative absence of anthropogenic input and OM preservation clearly indicate that the organic markers analysed can be used to investigate the biogenic input of sedimentary OM in the study area. PMID:25935801

  14. Excretion of sterols from the skin of normal and hypercholesterolemic humans

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Ashim K.; Connor, William E.; Spector, Arthur A.

    1972-01-01

    The 24 hr sterol excretion from the entire skin surface was determined in six normal and five hypercholesterolemic (Type II) patients fed a controlled, eucaloric diet containing 400 mg of plant sterols. All subjects received radiolabeled cholesterol intravenously in order to measure cholesterol turnover and exchange. The 24 hr skin surface lipids were collected subsequently at intervals of 7-10 days. Sterols were quantified and identified by a combination of thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic methods. The mean 24 hr excretion of cholesterol in milligrams was 82.6 in the normal subjects and 82.7 in the hypercholesterolemic patients. Cholesterol constituted 89% of the total sterol excretion through the skin surface in both groups. The specific radioactivity of cholesterol in the skin surface lipids increased gradually after the intravenous administration of the isotope. Within 4-5 wk the specific activity equaled and then remained higher than that of the plasma up to 10 wk. These specific activity curves suggested that, for at least some of skin surface cholesterol, there was a precursor-product relationship between the plasma cholesterol and the skin cholesterol. The presence of plant sterols, ?-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol in the skin surface lipids of man has not been reported previously. We identified these sterols in the skin surface lipids of all of our subjects. They constituted about 7% of the total skin surface sterols. The occurrence of plant sterols in the skin surface lipids suggested that plasma sterols were transferred from the plasma into the skin. 1-2% of the skin surface sterols were tentatively identified as lathosterol and lanosterol. The present study documented that a significant amount of cholesterol was excreted from the skin surface and that probably there was a net transfer of plasma cholesterol into the skin surface lipids. Both normal subjects and hypercholesterolemic patients excreted similar amounts of cholesterol per day into the skin surface lipids. We suggest that this daily loss of cholesterol from the skin surface may need to be considered in sterol balance studies. PMID:5054464

  15. Comparative molecular modelling of biologically active sterols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Mariusz; Mazerski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Membrane sterols are targets for a clinically important antifungal agent - amphotericin B. The relatively specific antifungal action of the drug is based on a stronger interaction of amphotericin B with fungal ergosterol than with mammalian cholesterol. Conformational space occupied by six sterols has been defined using the molecular dynamics method to establish if the conformational features correspond to the preferential interaction of amphotericin B with ergosterol as compared with cholesterol. The compounds studied were chosen on the basis of structural features characteristic for cholesterol and ergosterol and on available experimental data on the ability to form complexes with the antibiotic. Statistical analysis of the data obtained has been performed. The results show similarity of the conformational spaces occupied by all the sterols tested. This suggests that the conformational differences of sterol molecules are not the major feature responsible for the differential sterol - drug affinity.

  16. Plant-derived virus-like particles as vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Lai, Huafang

    2013-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are self-assembled structures derived from viral antigens that mimic the native architecture of viruses but lack the viral genome. VLPs have emerged as a premier vaccine platform due to their advantages in safety, immunogenicity, and manufacturing. The particulate nature and high-density presentation of viral structure proteins on their surface also render VLPs as attractive carriers for displaying foreign epitopes. Consequently, several VLP-based vaccines have been licensed for human use and achieved significant clinical and economical success. The major challenge, however, is to develop novel production platforms that can deliver VLP-based vaccines while significantly reducing production times and costs. Therefore, this review focuses on the essential role of plants as a novel, speedy and economical production platform for VLP-based vaccines. The advantages of plant expression systems are discussed in light of their distinctive posttranslational modifications, cost-effectiveness, production speed, and scalability. Recent achievements in the expression and assembly of VLPs and their chimeric derivatives in plant systems as well as their immunogenicity in animal models are presented. Results of human clinical trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy of plant-derived VLPs are also detailed. Moreover, the promising implications of the recent creation of “humanized” glycosylation plant lines as well as the very recent approval of the first plant-made biologics by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for plant production and commercialization of VLP-based vaccines are discussed. It is speculated that the combined potential of plant expression systems and VLP technology will lead to the emergence of successful vaccines and novel applications of VLPs in the near future. PMID:22995837

  17. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion. PMID:25863633

  18. The Potential for Plant Derivatives against Acrylamide Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Adewale, O O; Brimson, J M; Odunola, O A; Gbadegesin, M A; Owumi, S E; Isidoro, C; Tencomnao, T

    2015-07-01

    Certain industrial chemicals and food contaminants have been demonstrated to possess neurotoxic activity and have been suspected to cause brain-related disorders in humans. Acrylamide (ACR), a confirmed neurotoxicant, can be found in trace amount in commonly consumed human aliments as a result of food processing or cooking. This discovery aroused a great concern in the public, and increasing efforts are continuously geared towards the resolution of this serious threat. The broad chemical diversity of plants may offer the resources for novel antidotes against neurotoxicants. With the goal of attenuating neurotoxicity of ACR, several plants extracts or derivatives have been employed. This review presents the plants and their derivatives that have been shown most active against ACR-induced neurotoxicity, with a focus on their origin, pharmacological activity, and antidote effects. PMID:25886076

  19. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munn-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role. PMID:24368523

  20. Plant-derived pharmaceuticals for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Plant-produced vaccines and therapeutic agents offer enormous potential for providing relief to developing countries by reducing the incidence of infant mortality caused by infectious diseases. Vaccines derived from plants have been demonstrated to effectively elicit an immune response. Biopharmaceuticals produced in plants are inexpensive to produce, require fewer expensive purification steps, and can be stored at ambient temperatures for prolonged periods of time. As a result, plant-produced biopharmaceuticals have the potential to be more accessible to the rural poor. This review describes current progress with respect to plant-produced biopharmaceuticals, with a particular emphasis on those that target developing countries. Specific emphasis is given to recent research on the production of plant-produced vaccines toward human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis B virus, Ebola virus, human papillomavirus, rabies virus and common diarrheal diseases. Production platforms used to express vaccines in plants, including nuclear and chloroplast transformation, and the use of viral expression vectors, are described in this review. The review concludes by outlining the next steps for plant-produced vaccines to achieve their goal of providing safe, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines to the developing world. PMID:23857915

  1. Plant-derived recombinant human serum transferrin demonstrates multiple functions.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Martin E; Diao, Hong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Ma, Shengwu

    2010-05-01

    Human serum transferrin (hTf) is the major iron-binding protein in human plasma, having a vital role in iron transport. Additionally, hTf has many other uses including antimicrobial functions and growth factor effects on mammalian cell proliferation and differentiation. The multitask nature of hTf makes it highly valuable for different therapeutic and commercial applications. However, the success of hTf in these applications is critically dependent on the availability of high-quality hTf in large amounts. In this study, we have developed plants as a novel platform for the production of recombinant (r)hTf. We show here that transgenic plants are an efficient system for rhTf production, with a maximum accumulation of 0.25% total soluble protein (TSP) (or up to 33.5 microg/g fresh leaf weight). Furthermore, plant-derived rhTf retains many of the biological activities synonymous with native hTf. In particular, rhTf reversibly binds iron in vitro, exhibits bacteriostatic activity, supports cell proliferation in serum-free medium and can be internalized into mammalian cells in vitro. The success of this study validates the future application of plant rhTf in a variety of fields. Of particular interest is the use of plant rhTf as a novel carrier for cell-specific or oral delivery of protein/peptide drugs for the treatment of human diseases such as diabetes.To demonstrate this hypothesis, we have additionally expressed an hTf fusion protein containing glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or its derivative in plants. Here, we show that plant-derived hTf-GLP-1 fusion proteins retain the ability to be internalized by mammalian cells when added to culture medium in vitro. PMID:20432512

  2. Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone.

    PubMed

    Al-Babili, Salim; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental processes that adapt plant architecture to nutrient availability. Highly branched/tillered mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, and rice have enabled the identification of four SL biosynthetic enzymes: a cis/trans-carotene isomerase, two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, and a cytochrome P450 (MAX1). In vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and analysis of mutants have shown that the pathway involves a combination of new reactions leading to carlactone, which is converted by a rice MAX1 homolog into an SL parent molecule with a tricyclic lactone moiety. In this review, we focus on SL biosynthesis, describe the hormonal and environmental factors that determine this process, and discuss SL transport and downstream signaling as well as the role of SLs in regulating plant development. PMID:25621512

  3. Sterol Composition and Ecdysteroid Content of Eggs of the Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, David J.; McClure, Michael A.; Feldlaufer, Mark F.; Lusby, William R.; Oliver, Tames E.

    1987-01-01

    Free and esterified sterols of eggs of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 2 and 3 and M. arenaria race 1 were isolated and identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major sterols of eggs of each race were 24-ethylcholesterol (33.4-38.8% of total sterol), 24-ethylcholestanol (18.3-25.3%), 24-methylcholesterol (8.6-11.7%), 24-methylcholestanol (7.7-12.5%), and cholesterol (4.6-11.6%). Consequently, the major metabolic transformation performed by Meloidogyne females or eggs upon host sterols appeared to be saturation of the sterol nucleus. The free and esterified sterols of the same race did not differ appreciably, except for a slight enrichment of the steryl esters in cholesterol. Although the sterol composition of Meloidogyne eggs differed from that of other life stages of other genera of plant-parasitic nematodes, the three Meloidogyne races could not be distinguished from each other by their egg sterols. Ecdysteroids, compounds with hormonal function in insects, were not detected by radioimmunoassay in the Meloidogyne eggs either as free ecdysteroids or as polar conjugates. PMID:19290155

  4. FACKEL is a sterol C-14 reductase required for organized cell division and expansion in Arabidopsis embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schrick, Kathrin; Mayer, Ulrike; Horrichs, Andrea; Kuhnt, Christine; Bellini, Catherine; Dangl, Jeff; Schmidt, Jrgen; Jrgens, Gerd

    2000-01-01

    In flowering plants, the developing embryo consists of growing populations of cells whose fates are determined in a position-dependent manner to form the adult organism. Mutations in the FACKEL (FK) gene affect body organization of the Arabidopsis seedling. We report that FK is required for cell division and expansion and is involved in proper organization of the embryo. We isolated FK by positional cloning. Expression analysis in embryos revealed that FK mRNA becomes localized to meristematic zones. FK encodes a predicted integral membrane protein related to the vertebrate lamin B receptor and sterol reductases across species, including yeast sterol C-14 reductase ERG24. We provide functional evidence that FK encodes a sterol C-14 reductase by complementation of erg24. GC/MS analysis confirmed that fk mutations lead to accumulation of intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway preceding the C-14 reductase step. Although fk represents a sterol biosynthetic mutant, the phenotype was not rescued by feeding with brassinosteroids (BRs), the only plant sterol signaling molecules known so far. We propose that synthesis of sterol signals in addition to BRs is important in mediating regulated cell growth and organization during embryonic development. Our results indicate a novel role for sterols in the embryogenesis of plants. PMID:10859166

  5. Effects of high molecular weight alcohols from sugar cane fed alone or in combination with plant sterols on lipid profile and antioxidant status of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kitts, David D; Kopec, Aneta; Zawistowski, Jerzy; Popovich, David G

    2012-10-01

    The effect of feeding a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols derived from sugarcane (SCA), both alone and in combination with phytosterols (PS), on changes in plasma lipids, organ cholesterol accumulation, and antioxidant status of Wistar rats was undertaken. Three separate experiments were conducted and each experiment had 3 subsets. In experiment 1, rats were fed on an AIN-76, semi-synthetic diet supplemented with 0%, 0.5%, and 5% SCA w/w. The second experiment consisted of feeding rats an atherogenic diet (AIN-76+0.5% cholesterol) containing 0%, 0.5%, and 5% SCA w/w. The third experiment consisted of feeding rats an atherogenic diet that contained 2% PS in combination with 0%, 0.5%, and 5% SCA. Rats fed the atherogenic diet exhibited significant elevations in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant reductions in the high-density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio, regardless of the presence of 0.5% or 5% SCA mixture. Serum cholesterol increased 29% to 35% in these animals compared with animals fed the nonatherogenic diets. In contrast, animals fed atherogenic diets that contained 2% PS exhibited no difference in serum lipids compared with counterparts fed nonatherogenic diets. The combined presence of SCA with PS had no effect on further lowering plasma cholesterol. No changes in C-reactive protein were observed, but plasma oxygen radical scavenging capacity values significantly (p< 0.05) decreased when rats were fed the atherogenic diets that contained the combination of PS and SCA. This result corresponded to an apparent greater (p< 0.05) susceptibility of red blood cells to oxidative stress. PMID:22803783

  6. Free, esterified and residual bound sterols in Black Sea Unit I sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, J. W.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Schenck, P. A.; Volkman, J. K.

    1983-03-01

    Detailed compositional data for the sterols isolated from a surface, Unit I, sediment from the Black Sea are reported. A procedure based on digitonin precipitation has been used to separate the more abundant free sterols from those occurring in esterified forms. Saponification of the solvent extracted sediment residue liberated only a small quantity of residual bound sterols in contrast to studies of other sediments. 4-Methylsterols are much more abundant than 4-desmethylsterols in both the free and esterified sterol fractions which we attribute to a major dinoflagellate input, as in deeper Unit II sediment. The desmethylsterol fraction appears to derive from a variety of sources including dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, diatoms, terrigenous detritus and perhaps invertebrates. 5?(H)-Stanols are particularly abundant in the free sterol fraction. An analysis of the stanol/stenol ratios suggests that the 4-desmethyl-5?(H)-stanols are the result of specific microbial reductions of ? 5-sterols and/or the reflection of a contribution of stanol containing source organisms.

  7. Derivative spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Lastra, Olga C

    2003-01-01

    A derivative spectrophotometric method was developed to determine NO3(-)-N in plant tissues. The method is based on measurement of the first-derivative spectrum of nitrosalicylic acid in basic solution. The nitrosalicylic acid was obtained by reaction of samples with salicylic acid in concentrated sulfuric acid and was used by Cataldo et al. in nonderivative spectrophotometry. The main strength of this technique is the lack of matrix background interference, typical of plant extracts in traditional spectrophotometric methods. This method is fast, inexpensive, easy-to-apply, and highly selective. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L N as NO3(-). Average recovery in real matrixes (lettuce and spinach) was 102.6%; average standard deviation was 3.3. This method has been applied to leaves of 4 types of lettuce. PMID:14979689

  8. Extraction and downstream processing of plant-derived recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2015-11-01

    Plants offer the tantalizing prospect of low-cost automated manufacturing processes for biopharmaceutical proteins, but several challenges must be addressed before such goals are realized and the most significant hurdles are found during downstream processing (DSP). In contrast to the standardized microbial and mammalian cell platforms embraced by the biopharmaceutical industry, there are many different plant-based expression systems vying for attention, and those with the greatest potential to provide inexpensive biopharmaceuticals are also the ones with the most significant drawbacks in terms of DSP. This is because the most scalable plant systems are based on the expression of intracellular proteins in whole plants. The plant tissue must therefore be disrupted to extract the product, challenging the initial DSP steps with an unusually high load of both particulate and soluble contaminants. DSP platform technologies can accelerate and simplify process development, including centrifugation, filtration, flocculation, and integrated methods that combine solid-liquid separation, purification and concentration, such as aqueous two-phase separation systems. Protein tags can also facilitate these DSP steps, but they are difficult to transfer to a commercial environment and more generic, flexible and scalable strategies to separate target and host cell proteins are preferable, such as membrane technologies and heat/pH precipitation. In this context, clarified plant extracts behave similarly to the feed stream from microbes or mammalian cells and the corresponding purification methods can be applied, as long as they are adapted for plant-specific soluble contaminants such as the superabundant protein RuBisCO. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins cannot yet compete directly with established platforms but they are beginning to penetrate niche markets that allow the beneficial properties of plants to be exploited, such as the ability to produce 'biobetters' with tailored glycans, the ability to scale up production rapidly for emergency responses and the ability to produce commodity recombinant proteins on an agricultural scale. PMID:25922318

  9. Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

  10. Andrographolide: a new plant-derived antineoplastic entity on horizon.

    PubMed

    Varma, Astha; Padh, Harish; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipodophyllotoxin, and so forth, are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for identification of prospective anticancer agents. In this regard, Andrographis paniculata Nees, a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. Andrographolide, the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer potential in various investigations around the globe. In vitro studies demonstrate the capability of the compound of inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells at different concentrations. Andrographolide also shows potent immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activities in tumorous tissues. Synthetic analogues of the compound have also been created and analyzed, which have also shown similar activities. Although it is too early to predict its future in cancer chemotherapy, the prologue strongly recommends further research on this molecule to assess its potential as a prospective anticancer agent. PMID:19752167

  11. Andrographolide: A New Plant-Derived Antineoplastic Entity on Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Astha; Padh, Harish; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipodophyllotoxin, and so forth, are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for identification of prospective anticancer agents. In this regard, Andrographis paniculata Nees, a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. Andrographolide, the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer potential in various investigations around the globe. In vitro studies demonstrate the capability of the compound of inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells at different concentrations. Andrographolide also shows potent immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activities in tumorous tissues. Synthetic analogues of the compound have also been created and analyzed, which have also shown similar activities. Although it is too early to predict its future in cancer chemotherapy, the prologue strongly recommends further research on this molecule to assess its potential as a prospective anticancer agent. PMID:19752167

  12. Free sterol composition of species in the dinoflagellate genus Pyrocystis: a spectrum of sterol diversity.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Jeremy L; Leblond, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    The dinoflagellate genus Pyrocystis includes a small number of marine species, which spend the majority of their life cycles as nonmotile cells within a carbohydrate sheath, and which are found ubiquitously throughout the world's oceans. The biochemistry of this model dinoflagellate genus has been widely studied due to its ability to bioluminesce. However, Pyrocystis has been comparatively understudied with respect to its lipid biochemistry, in particular that of sterols. To date, examination of the sterols of Pyrocystis has focused primarily upon Pyrocystis lunula, which produces cholesterol and 4,24-dimethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol as its predominant sterols, while it lacks the common dinoflagellate sterol, dinosterol. We have examined the sterol composition of the two other commercially available species of Pyrocystis, Pyrocystis fusiformis and Pyrocystis noctiluca. Pyrocystis noctiluca possesses dinosterol as its most abundant sterol, while P. fusiformis possesses dinosterol and 4,24-dimethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol as the predominant sterols, placing it at an intermediate position between P. lunula and P. noctiluca, as based on sterol composition. The potential limitations of the dinoflagellate sterol biomarker dinosterol are also explored in this study due to its notable absence in P. lunula. PMID:21895837

  13. Sterol composition of yeast organelle membranes and subcellular distribution of enzymes involved in sterol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Zinser, E; Paltauf, F; Daum, G

    1993-01-01

    Organelles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and analyzed for sterol composition and the activity of three enzymes involved in sterol metabolism. The plasma membrane and secretory vesicles, the fractions with the highest sterol contents, contain ergosterol as the major sterol. In other subcellular membranes, which exhibit lower sterol contents, intermediates of the sterol biosynthetic pathway were found at higher percentages. Lipid particles contain, in addition to ergosterol, large amounts of zymosterol, fecosterol, and episterol. These sterols are present esterified with long-chain fatty acids in this subcellular compartment, which also harbors practically all of the triacylglycerols present in the cell but very little phospholipids and proteins. Sterol delta 24-methyltransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes one of the late steps in sterol biosynthesis, was localized almost exclusively in lipid particles. Steryl ester formation is a microsomal process, whereas steryl ester hydrolysis occurs in the plasma membrane and in secretory vesicles. The fact that synthesis, storage, and hydrolysis of steryl esters occur in different subcellular compartments gives rise to the view that ergosteryl esters of lipid particles might serve as intermediates for the supply of ergosterol from internal membranes to the plasma membrane. PMID:8491706

  14. Transient expression systems for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Tatiana V; Baschieri, Selene; Donini, Marcello; Marusic, Carla; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Dorokhov, Yuri L

    2010-08-01

    In the molecular farming area, transient expression approaches for pharmaceutical proteins production, mainly recombinant monoclonal antibodies and vaccines, were developed almost two decades ago and, to date, these systems basically depend on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery and virus expression machinery. We survey here the current state-of-the-art of this research field. Several vectors have been designed on the basis of DNA- and RNA-based plant virus genomes and viral vectors are used both as single- and multicomponent expression systems in different combinations depending on the protein of interest. The obvious advantages of these systems are ease of manipulation, speed, low cost and high yield of proteins. In addition, Agrobacterium-mediated expression also allows the production in plants of complex proteins assembled from subunits. Currently, the transient expression methods are preferential over any other transgenic system for the exploitation of large and unrestricted numbers of plants in a contained environment. By designing optimal constructs and related means of delivery into plant cells, the overall technology plan considers scenarios that envisage high yield of bioproducts and ease in monitoring the whole spectrum of upstream production, before entering good manufacturing practice facilities. In this way, plant-derived bioproducts show promise of high competitiveness towards classical eukaryotic cell factory systems. PMID:20673010

  15. Gas chromatographic analysis of plant sterols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosterols are well-known for their ability to lower blood cholesterol by competing with absorption of cholesterol from the diet and reabsorption of bile cholesterol. Phytosterols as food ingredients are “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) by the FDA, and they are increasingly incorporated into ...

  16. In vivo studies of sterol and squalene secretion by human skin.

    PubMed

    Nikkari, T; Schreibman, P H; Ahrens, E H

    1974-11-01

    This work was aimed at studying the quantity and composition of sterols and squalene secreted by the human skin. Lipids secreted by the entire skin were recovered by Soxhlet extraction of the clothing worn by a patient for 24 hr with a chloroform-methanol azeotrope and by extracting the water of a shower taken by the patient at the end of the 24-hr period. Squalene and sterols were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Plant sterols were separated from total sterols by thin-layer chromatography. Free and esterified cholesterol were separated by digitonin precipitation. In eight adults, seven of them with hyperlipoproteinemia, the total skin secretion of cholesterol ranged from 59 to 108 mg/day, with a mean of 88 +/- 17 (SD) mg/day. There was no difference in cholesterol secretion between the normocholesterolemic individual and the hypercholesterolemic ones, nor were there any differences according to type of hyperlipoproteinemia. Free cholesterol amounted to 54 +/- 5% of the total cholesterol. The secretion of squalene ranged from 125 to 475 mg/day in five patients. The secretion of both squalene and cholesterol was quite constant for any individual on a given diet. Cholesterol constituted 95.6 +/- 0.5% of the digitonin-precipitable total body surface sterols of eight patients, and lathosterol, the next largest fraction, 3.4 +/- 0.4%. Total plant sterols formed only 0.65 +/- 0.38% and beta-sitosterol 0.35 +/- 0.23% of the skin surface sterols in six patients whose dietary beta-sitosterol intake ranged from 230 to 3400 mg/day. PMID:4430879

  17. Overview of Major Classes of Plant-Derived Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Amr; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Ocker, Matthias; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional cancer therapies cause serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient’s lifespan by a few years. Cancer control may therefore benefit from the potential that resides in alternative therapies. The demand to utilize alternative concepts or approaches to the treatment of cancer is therefore escalating. There is compelling evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that highlight the importance of compounds derived from plants “phytochemicals” to reduce the risk of colon cancer and inhibit the development and spread of tumors in experimental animals. More than 25% of drugs used during the last 20 years are directly derived from plants, while the other 25% are chemically altered natural products. Still, only 5-15% of the approximately 250,000 higher plants have ever been investigated for bioactive compounds. The advantage of using such compounds for cancer treatment is their relatively non-toxic nature and availability in an ingestive form. An ideal phytochemical is one that possesses anti-tumor properties with minimal toxicity and has a defined mechanism of action. As compounds that target specific signaling pathways are identified, researchers can envisage novel therapeutic approaches as well as a better understanding of the pathways involved in disease progression. Here, we focus on 4 classes of natural anticancer drugs: methyltransferase inhibitors, DNA damaging/pro-oxidant drugs, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), and mitotic disrupters, and we will focus on the mode of action for one promising example per group. PMID:23675107

  18. Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Park, K S; Kang, K C; Kim, J H; Adams, D J; Johng, T N; Paik, Y K

    1999-05-01

    The anti-Candida potentials of 12 Korean medicinal plants were explored: methanol extracts from Coptis rhizoma and Phellodendron amurense caused significant inhibition of growth of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. The predominant active components of the extracts were the protoberberines berberine and palmatine; the most potent inhibition of growth was exhibited by berberine on C. krusei (MIC <4 mg/L) and palmatine on C. parapsilosis (MIC 16 mg/L). Both berberine and palmatine inhibited the in-vivo rate of incorporation of L-[methyl-14C]methionine into C-24 of ergosterol in C. albicans (50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values), 25 microM and 300 microM, respectively); this result suggests that sterol 24-methyl transferase (24-SMT) is one of the cellular targets for the antifungal activity of the protoberberines. In-vitro 24-SMT activity in microsomes from the yeast growth form of C. albicans was inhibited by both berberine (inhibition constant (Ki) 232 microM) and palmatine (Ki 257 microM) in a non-competitive manner; inhibition of 24-SMT was more marked for the mycelial form than for the yeast growth form of this organism. Palmatine inhibited chitin synthase from both the yeast and mycelial growth phases of C. albicans in a non-competitive manner (Ki 780 microM). The effects of protoberberines, extracted from established medicinal plants, on both sterol and cell wall biosyntheses in pathogenic fungi indicate that the potential of these compounds, or their semi-synthetic derivatives, as a novel class of antifungal agents should be investigated more fully. PMID:10382888

  19. Plant derived alternatives for hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

    PubMed

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has undisputable positive effects on climacteric complaints, in the bone and on body weight but also several undesired side effects. Therefore, plant-derived alternatives are currently promoted. Phytoestrogens - primarily the isoflavones genistein, daidzein and coumestrol, stemming from soy (Glycine max) or red clover (Trifolium pratense) - were suggested to have the desired but not the undesired effects of estrogens. Most recently published placebo-controlled studies question the beneficial effects. When taken at the time of puberty however, phytoestrogens appear to protect against mammary cancer later in life. Extracts from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) have no estrogenic effects. In a narrow dose range they have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints, which are due to several compounds with dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic actions that act together in the hypothalamus. Ecdysone is produced by several plants, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and was very early on shown to increase muscle mass. Later it became apparent that spinach extracts containing ecdysone decreased body fat load, thereby reducing secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by visceral adipocytes and oxidative stress. This had beneficial effects on body weight and serum lipids not only in obese postmenopausal but also in premenopausal women and in men. For the above-described plant extracts, solid placebo-controlled clinical trials are available. For other plant extracts claiming beneficial effects on climacteric complaints or postmenopausal diseases, no solid data are available. PMID:25436745

  20. Microbial symbionts shape the sterol profile of the xylem-feeding woodwasp, Sirex noctilio.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brian M; Grebenok, Robert J; Behmer, Spencer T; Gruner, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    The symbiotic fungus Amylostereum areolatum is essential for growth and development of larvae of the invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio. In the nutrient poor xylem of pine trees, upon which Sirex feeds, it is unknown whether Amylostereum facilitates survival directly through consumption (mycetophagy) and/or indirectly through digestion of recalcitrant plant polymers (external rumen hypothesis). We tested these alternative hypotheses for Amylostereum involvement in Sirex foraging using the innate dependency of all insects on dietary sources of sterol and the unique sterols indicative of fungi and plants. We tested alternative hypotheses by using GC-MS to quantify concentrations of free and bound sterol pools from multiple life-stages of Sirex, food sources, and waste products in red pine (Pinus resinosa). Cholesterol was the primary sterol found in all life-stages of Sirex. However, cholesterol was not found in significant quantities in either plant or fungal resources. Ergosterol was the most prevalent sterol in Amylostereum but was not detectable in either wood or insect tissue (<0.001?g/g). Phytosterols were ubiquitous in both pine xylem and Sirex. Therefore, dealkylation of phytosterols (sitosterol and campesterol) is the most likely pathway to meet dietary demand for cholesterol in Sirex. Ergosterol concentrations from fungal-infested wood demonstrated low fungal biomass, which suggests mycetophagy is not the primary source of sterol or bulk nutrition for Sirex. Our findings suggest there is a potentially greater importance for fungal enzymes, including the external digestion of recalcitrant plant polymers (e.g., lignin and cellulose), shaping this insect-fungal symbiosis. PMID:23224570

  1. Tracking plant-derived biomarkers from source to sink in the Miners River, Upper Peninsula of Michigan (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, S. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.

    2012-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycling of terrestrial organic matter and it subsequent burial plays a vital role in the global carbon cycle. Rivers provide a pathway for terrestrial organic carbon dispersal and integration into sediments. Terrestrial plant biomarkers are useful tools for studying carbon cycling because they can provide an indication of the source of organic carbon in both modern and ancient sediments. Biomarkers can also be used as paleovegetation proxies in geologic sediments where fossils are absent. However, limited information is available about the dispersal and deposition of plant biomarkers in modern river systems, especially for compounds that provide taxonomic specificity such as di- and triterpenoids (diagnostic for conifers and angiosperms, respectively). To better resolve the modes of biomarker transport within fluvial and riparian systems, we characterized plant biomarker transport in the Miners River, a small river basin within a mixed angiosperm-conifer forest at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (MI, USA). To assess the transport of biomarkers in river systems, we collected plants, soils, river sediments, and filtered particulate and dissolved organic carbon from seven sites from the headwaters to Lake Superior along the Miners River (~20 km pathway). All samples contained long-chain n-alkyl lipids, sterols, diterpenoids (abietane and pimarane classes), and triterpenoids (oleanane, ursane, and lupane classes). With the exception of a soil sample taken at a depth of 30 cm, triterpenoids are found in higher concentrations than diterpenoids in riparian soils and river sediments. Biomarker compositions in riparian soils, point bar, and overbank deposits are similar to the surrounding vegetation, albeit much lower in concentration. The composition of di- and triterpenoids in the river-suspended particulate organic carbon is similar in composition to the surrounding vegetation and soils. We developed a method to isolate biomarkers in the dissolved organic carbon fraction in river waters using solid-phase extraction and the preliminary data suggests that di- and triterpenoids are transported as dissolved organic carbon, however concentrations are lower than in the particulate organic carbon fraction. Results from the Miners River will help to better define terrestrial organic matter cycling in small river catchments. Characterizing how plant biomarkers are transported in river systems will enhance our interpretations of plant biomarkers in the geologic record. This will provide new insights into biomarker transport and potential source/sink biases in fluvial systems and thus identify potential complications for using plant-derived biomarkers as quantitative paleovegetation indicators and will enhance the use of biomarker-specific isotope analyses.

  2. STARD4 Membrane Interactions and Sterol Binding.

    PubMed

    Iaea, David B; Dikiy, Igor; Kiburu, Irene; Eliezer, David; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2015-08-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain family is defined by a conserved 210-amino acid sequence that folds into an ?/? helix-grip structure. Members of this protein family bind a variety of ligands, including cholesterol, phospholipids, sphingolipids, and bile acids, with putative roles in nonvesicular lipid transport, metabolism, and cell signaling. Among the soluble START proteins, STARD4 is expressed in most tissues and has previously been shown to transfer sterol, but the molecular mechanisms of membrane interaction and sterol binding remain unclear. In this work, we use biochemical techniques to characterize regions of STARD4 and determine their role in membrane interaction and sterol binding. Our results show that STARD4 interacts with anionic membranes through a surface-exposed basic patch and that introducing a mutation (L124D) into the Omega-1 (?1) loop, which covers the sterol binding pocket, attenuates sterol transfer activity. To gain insight into the attenuating mechanism of the L124D mutation, we conducted structural and biophysical studies of wild-type and L124D STARD4. These studies show that the L124D mutation reduces the conformational flexibility of the protein, resulting in a diminished level of membrane interaction and sterol transfer. These studies also reveal that the C-terminal ?-helix, and not the ?1 loop, partitions into the membrane bilayer. On the basis of these observations, we propose a model of STARD4 membrane interaction and sterol binding and release that requires dynamic movement of both the ?1 loop and membrane insertion of the C-terminal ?-helix. PMID:26168008

  3. The biosynthetic incorporation of the intact leucine skeleton into sterol by the trypanosomatid Leishmania mexicana.

    PubMed

    Ginger, M L; Chance, M L; Sadler, I H; Goad, L J

    2001-04-13

    The amino acid leucine is efficiently used by the trypanosomatid Leishmania mexicana for sterol biosynthesis. The incubation of [2-(13)C]leucine with L. mexicana promastigotes in the presence of ketoconazole gave 14alpha-methylergosta-8,24(24(1))-3beta-ol as the major sterol, which was shown by mass spectrometry to contain up to six atoms of (13)C per molecule. (13)C NMR analysis of the 14alpha-methylergosta-8,24(24(1))-3beta-ol revealed that it was labeled in only six positions: C-2, C-6, C-11, C-12, C-16, and C-23. This established that the leucine skeleton is incorporated intact into the isoprenoid pathway leading to sterol; it is not converted first to acetyl-CoA, as in animals and plants, with utilization of the acetyl-CoA to regenerate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA). An inhibitor of HMG-CoA synthase (L-659,699) blocked the incorporation of [1-(14)C]acetate into sterol but had no inhibitory effect on [U-(14)C]leucine incorporation. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin inhibited promastigote growth and [U-(14)C]leucine incorporation into sterol. The addition of unlabeled mevalonic acid (MVA) overcame the lovastatin inhibition of growth and also diluted the incorporation of [1-(14)C]leucine into sterol. These results are compatible with two routes by which the leucine skeleton may enter intact into the isoprenoid pathway. The catabolism of leucine could generate HMG-CoA that is then directly reduced to MVA for incorporation into sterol. Alternatively, a compound produced as an intermediate in leucine breakdown to HMG-CoA (e.g. dimethylcrotonyl-CoA) could be directly reduced to produce an isoprene alcohol followed by phosphorylation to enter the isoprenoid pathway post-MVA. PMID:11148203

  4. Influence of salinity and natural organic matter on the solid phase extraction of sterols and stanols: application to the determination of the human sterol fingerprint in aqueous matrices.

    PubMed

    Jeanneau, L; Jard, E; Gruau, G

    2011-05-01

    Faecal sterols have been proposed as direct chemical markers for the determination of faecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. In this study, we assess the impact of (a) the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), (b) the nature of DOC, (c) the salinity and (d) the concentration of sterols and stanols on their solid phase extraction. When natural organic matter (NOM) is modelled by humic acid, increasing DOC concentration from 2.7 to 15.4 mg/L has no significant impact on the recovery of sterols and stanols. The modelling of NOM by a mixture of humic acid and succinoglycan induces a significant (24%) decrease in the recovery of sterols and stanols. For all concentrations of target compounds, no significant increase in recovery is associated with increasing the salinity. Moreover, an increase in the recovery of target compounds is induced by an increase in their concentration. The nine target compounds and the recovery standard (RS) exhibit the same behaviour during the extraction step. Thus, we propose that (a) the concentration of target compounds can be corrected by the RS to calculate more realistic concentrations without modifying their profile and (b) the sterol fingerprint can be investigated in the colloidal fraction of aqueous samples without altering the information it could provide about the source. The application of this analytical method to waste water treatment plant influent and effluents yields results in agreement with previous studies concerning the use of those compounds to differentiate between sources of faecal contamination. We conclude that this analytical method is fully applicable to the determination of sterol fingerprints in the dissolved phase (<0.7 ?m) of natural aqueous samples. PMID:21420686

  5. Characterization, mutagenesis and mechanistic analysis of an ancient algal sterol C24-methyltransferase: Implications for understanding sterol evolution in the green lineage.

    PubMed

    Haubrich, Brad A; Collins, Emily K; Howard, Alicia L; Wang, Qian; Snell, William J; Miller, Matthew B; Thomas, Crista D; Pleasant, Stephanie K; Nes, W David

    2015-05-01

    Sterol C24-methyltransferases (SMTs) constitute a group of sequence-related proteins that catalyze the pattern of sterol diversity across eukaryotic kingdoms. The only gene for sterol alkylation in green algae was identified and the corresponding catalyst from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) was characterized kinetically and for product distributions. The properties of CrSMT were similar to those predicted for an ancient SMT expected to possess broad C3-anchoring requirements for substrate binding and formation of 24β-methyl/ethyl Δ(25(27))-olefin products typical of primitive organisms. Unnatural Δ(24(25))-sterol substrates, missing a C4β-angular methyl group involved with binding orientation, convert to product ratios in favor of Δ(24(28))-products. Remodeling the active site to alter the electronics of Try110 (to Leu) results in delayed timing of the hydride migration from methyl attack of the Δ(24)-bond, that thereby produces metabolic switching of product ratios in favor of Δ(25(27))-olefins or impairs the second C1-transfer activity. Incubation of [27-(13)C]lanosterol or [methyl-(2)H3]SAM as co-substrates established the CrSMT catalyzes a sterol methylation pathway by the "algal" Δ(25(27))-olefin route, where methylation proceeds by a conserved SN2 reaction and de-protonation proceeds from the pro-Z methyl group on lanosterol corresponding to C27. This previously unrecognized catalytic competence for an enzyme of sterol biosynthesis, together with phylogenomic analyses, suggest that mutational divergence of a promiscuous SMT produced substrate- and phyla-specific SMT1 (catalyzes first biomethylation) and SMT2 (catalyzes second biomethylation) isoforms in red and green algae, respectively, and in the case of SMT2 selection afforded modification in reaction channeling necessary for the switch in ergosterol (24β-methyl) biosynthesis to stigmasterol (24α-ethyl) biosynthesis during the course of land plant evolution. PMID:25132279

  6. Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  7. Effects of sterols on the development and aging of caenorhabditis elegans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because Caenorhabditis elegans lacks several components of the de novo sterol biosynthesis pathway, it requires sterols as essential nutrients. Supplemented cholesterol undergoes extensive enzymatic modification in C. elegans to form other sterols of unknown function. Because sterol metabolism in ...

  8. Potential of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an Unconventional Source of Dietary and Therapeutic Sterols.

    PubMed

    Cheseto, Xavier; Kuate, Serge Philibert; Tchouassi, David P; Ndung'u, Mary; Teal, Peter E A; Torto, Baldwyn

    2015-01-01

    Insects are increasingly being recognized not only as a source of food to feed the ever growing world population but also as potential sources of new products and therapeutic agents, among which are sterols. In this study, we sought to profile sterols and their derivatives present in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, focusing on those with potential importance as dietary and therapeutic components for humans. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we analyzed and compared the quantities of sterols in the different sections of the gut and tissues of the locust. In the gut, we identified 34 sterols which showed a patchy distribution, but with the highest composition in the foregut (55%) followed by midgut (31%) and hindgut (14%). Fed ad libitum on wheat seedlings, five sterols unique to the insect were detected. These sterols were identified as 7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, fucosterol, (3?, 5?) cholesta-8, 14, 24-trien-3-ol, 4, 4-dimethyl, and (3?, 20R) cholesta-5, 24-dien-3, 20-diol with the first three having known health benefits in humans. Incubation of the fore-, mid- and hindgut with cholesterol-[4-13C] yielded eight derivatives, three of these were detected in the gut of the desert locust after it had consumed the vegetative diet but were not detected in the diet. Our study shows that the desert locust ingests phytosterols from a vegetative diet and, amplifies and metabolizes them into derivatives with potential salutary benefits and we discuss our findings in this context. PMID:25970517

  9. Systemic activity of simeconazole and its derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Mikio; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Kato, Shigehiro

    2004-09-01

    The systemic activity of simeconazole (RS-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3-trimethylsilylpropan-2-ol) and a number of its derivatives in plants has been investigated to establish which portion of the structure of the molecule contributes to this outstanding activity. The results revealed that the hydroxyl group of the simeconazole moiety is essential for vapour-phase activity and translocation from roots of the compound. They showed that the presence of a fluorine atom in the structure was not indispensable for vapour-phase activity or translocation from roots, although the fluorine atom contributed to these systemic movements. In addition, it was found that the fungicidal activity of simeconazole against Rhizoctonia solani Khn and Blumeria graminis DC fsp hordei Marchal is potentiated by the fluorine atom, since the activity of a compound which lacked fluorine in the 4-position of the phenyl ring was inferior to that of simeconazole. A compound in which the silicon atom of simeconazole was replaced by a carbon atom showed lower antifungal activity than simeconazole, while phytotoxicity was caused in rice plants by soil drench of the compound. Therefore, the silicon atom of simeconazole may contribute to its selectivity between fungi and plants. PMID:15382502

  10. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant.

    PubMed

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam; Feizi, Amir; Buskov, Steen; Hallstrm, Bjrn M; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-10-01

    Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ?40C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ?40C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol desaturase gene, and increased expression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Additionally, large chromosome III rearrangements and mutations in genes associated with DNA damage and respiration were found, but contributed less to the thermotolerant phenotype. PMID:25278608

  11. How sterol tilt regulates properties and organization of lipid membranes and membrane insertions

    PubMed Central

    Khelashvili, George; Harries, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Serving as a crucial component of mammalian cells, cholesterol critically regulates the functions of biomembranes. This review focuses on a specific property of cholesterol and other sterols: the tilt modulus χ that quantifies the energetic cost of tilting sterol molecules inside the lipid membrane. We show how χ is involved in determining properties of cholesterol-containing membranes, and detail a novel approach to quantify its value from atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Specifically, we link χ with other structural, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of cholesterol-containing lipid membranes, and delineate how this useful parameter can be obtained from the sterol tilt probability distributions derived from relatively small-scale unbiased MD simulations. We demonstrate how the tilt modulus quantitatively describes the aligning field that sterol molecules create inside the phospholipid bilayers, and we relate χ to the bending rigidity of the lipid bilayer through effective tilt and splay energy contributions to the elastic deformations. Moreover, we show how χ can conveniently characterize the “condensing effect” of cholesterol on phospholipids. Finally, we demonstrate the importance of this cholesterol aligning field to the proper folding and interactions of membrane peptides. Given the relative ease of obtaining the tilt modulus from atomistic simulations, we propose that χ can be routinely used to characterize the mechanical properties of sterol/lipid bilayers, and can also serve as a required fitting parameter in multi-scaled simulations of lipid membrane models to relate the different levels of coarse-grained details. PMID:23291283

  12. The biological activity of a-mangostin, a larvicidal botanic mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. Alpha-mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against 3rd instar larvae of six mosquito species and the LC50 values range from 0.84 to 2.90 ppm....

  13. Indomethacin Amides as a Novel Molecular Scaffold for Targeting Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14α-Demethylase

    PubMed Central

    Konkle, Mary E.; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Kleshchenko, Yuliya Y.; von Kries, Jens P.; Ridenour, Whitney; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Caprioli, Richard M.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Nes, W. David; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R.; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) causes Chagas disease, which in its chronic stage remains incurable. We have shown recently that specific inhibition of TC sterol 14α-demethylase (TCCYP51) with imidazole derivatives is effective in killing both extracellular and intracellular human stages of TC. An alternative set of TCCYP51 inhibitors has been identified using optical high throughput screening followed by web-database search for similar structures. The best TCCYP51 inhibitor from this search was found to have structural similarity to a class of cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors, the indomethacin-amides. A number of indomethacin-amides were found to bind to TCCYP51, inhibit its activity in vitro and produce strong antiparasitic effects in the cultured TC cells. Analysis of TC sterol composition indicated that the mode of action of the compounds is by inhibition of sterol biosynthesis in the parasite. PMID:19354253

  14. Pentacyclic hemiacetal sterol with antifouling and cytotoxic activities from the soft coral Nephthea sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Liang-Chun; Wang, Kai-Ling; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Deng, Zhou; Xu, Shi-Hai

    2013-02-15

    A novel unusual pentacyclic hemiacetal sterol nephthoacetal (1), was isolated from soft coral Nephthea sp. The structure of this sterol was inferred from its two acetyl derivatives (2) and (3), by means of spectroscopic methods, and quantum chemical calculations. Anti-fouling activity of compounds 1-3 against Bugula neritina larvae was evaluated, sterol (1) exhibited significant inhibitory effect with EC(50) value of 2.5 μg/mL, while having low toxicity with LC(50)>25.0 μg/mL. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of compounds 1-3 against HeLa cells was also evaluated, all of them exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC(50) values of 12.3 (1), 10.1 (2), and 19.6 μg/mL (3), respectively. PMID:23294699

  15. Visualization of sterol-rich membrane domains with fluorescently-labeled theonellamides.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shinichi; Ishii, Kumiko; Iwamoto, Kunihiko; Arita, Yuko; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Sato, Satoshi B; Kakeya, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Yoshida, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol plays important roles in biological membranes. The cellular location where cholesterol molecules work is prerequisite information for understanding their dynamic action. Bioimaging probes for cholesterol molecules would be the most powerful means for unraveling the complex nature of lipid membranes. However, only a limited number of chemical or protein probes have been developed so far for cytological analysis. Here we show that fluorescently-labeled derivatives of theonellamides act as new sterol probes in mammalian cultured cells. The fluorescent probes recognized cholesterol molecules and bound to liposomes in a cholesterol-concentration dependent manner. The probes showed patchy distribution in the plasma membrane, while they stained specific organelle in the cytoplasm. These data suggest that fTNMs will be valuable sterol probes for studies on the role of sterols in the biological membrane under a variety of experimental conditions. PMID:24386262

  16. Assessing anthropogenic contamination in surface sediments of Niger Delta, Nigeria with fecal sterols and n-alkanes as indicators.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, Samuel O; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-12-15

    The occurrence of sterols and n-alkanes in surface sediments from rivers and canals in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the area. The concentrations of total sterols (??Sterol) and n-alkanes (???n-alkane) in the sediments ranged from 133 to 2040 ng/g and 474 to 79,200 ng/g, respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were the main contributor of n-alkanes in the samples, with minor contribution from higher plants waxes (biogenic), while the sterols were mainly of biogenic origin. The ratio of ?-cholestanone/(?-cholestanone+?-cholestanone), a commonly used source diagnostic index, implicated no fecal contamination in most of the sediment samples under investigation. These results have established the occurrence of anthropogenic contamination in Niger Delta sediments with significant contributions from petrogenic sources. PMID:23137973

  17. Plant extracts and plant-derived compounds: promising players in a countermeasure strategy against radiological exposure.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure leads to several pathophysiological conditions, including oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, thereby affecting the survival of organisms. This review explores the radiation countermeasure properties of fourteen (14) plant extracts or plant-derived compounds against these cellular manifestations. It was aimed at evaluating the possible role of plants or its constituents in radiation countermeasure strategy. All the 14 plant extracts or compounds derived from it and considered in this review have shown some radioprotection in different in vivo, ex-vivo and or in vitro models of radiological injury. However, few have demonstrated advantages over the others. C. majus possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects appears to be promising in radioprotection. Its crude extracts as well as various alkaloids and flavonoids derived from it, have shown to enhance survival rate in irradiated mice. Similarly, curcumin with its antioxidant and the ability to ameliorate late effect of radiation exposure, combined with improvement in survival in experimental animal following irradiation, makes it another probable candidate against radiological injury. Furthermore, the extracts of P. hexandrum and P. kurroa in combine treatment regime, M. piperita, E. officinalis, A. sinensis, nutmeg, genistein and ginsan warrants further studies on their radioprotective potentials. However, one that has received a lot of attention is the dietary flaxseed. The scavenging ability against radiation-induced free radicals, prevention of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, reduction in radiation cachexia, level of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis, are some of the remarkable characteristics of flaxseed in animal models of radiation injury. While countering the harmful effects of radiation exposure, it has shown its ability to enhance survival rate in experimental animals. Further, flaxseed has been tested and found to be equally effective when administered before or after irradiation, and against low doses (≤ 5 Gy) to the whole body or high doses (12-13.5 Gy) to the whole thorax. This is particularly relevant since apart from the possibility of using it in pre-conditioning regime in radiotherapy, it could also be used during nuclear plant leakage/accidents and radiological terrorism, which are not pre-determined scenarios. However, considering the infancy of the field of plant-based radioprotectors, all the above-mentioned plant extracts/plant-derived compounds deserves further stringent study in different models of radiation injury. PMID:24761841

  18. Sterols as markers of sewage contamination in a tropical urban estuary (Guanabara Bay, Brazil): space-time variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Renato S.; Wagener, Angela L. R.; Readman, James W.

    2004-08-01

    Guanabara Bay, located adjacent to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, is highly contaminated by substances derived from domestic and industrial effluents as well as from agricultural runoff. In the present work, sedimentary coprostanol and other faecal sterols were used to investigate historical trends in sewage contamination. Sediment cores were collected from eight different (and characterized) locations in the bay and were sectioned into dated segments. Organic carbon was determined by dry combustion and sterols were separated and quantified by GC/MS. The space-distribution of organic carbon and faecal sterol concentrations generally coincided with the presence of known pollution sources. Concentrations of coprostanol as high as 40 ?g g -1 were found, indicating areas of severe sewage contamination. Faecal sterol ratios, commonly used as tools to investigate contamination in temperate environments, however, were found to have limited applicability to this tropical estuarine system, probably due to the influence of intensive primary production and microbial processes.

  19. Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

    2013-12-15

    Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 μg/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high. PMID:24211569

  20. Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens.

    PubMed

    Breiteneder, H; Ebner, C

    2000-07-01

    Molecular biology and biochemical techniques have significantly advanced the knowledge of allergens derived from plant foods. Surprisingly, many of the known plant food allergens are homologous to pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), proteins that are induced by pathogens, wounding, or certain environmental stresses. PRs have been classified into 14 families. Examples of allergens homologous to PRs include chitinases (PR-3 family) from avocado, banana, and chestnut; antifungal proteins such as the thaumatin-like proteins (PR-5) from cherry and apple; proteins homologous to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (PR-10) from vegetables and fruits; and lipid transfer proteins (PR-14) from fruits and cereals. Allergens other than PR homologs can be allotted to other well-known protein families such as inhibitors of alpha-amylases and trypsin from cereal seeds, profilins from fruits and vegetables, seed storage proteins from nuts and mustard seeds, and proteases from fruits. As more clinical data and structural information on allergenic molecules becomes available, we may finally be able to answer what characteristics of a molecule are responsible for its allergenicity. PMID:10887301

  1. Health benefits of plant-derived ?-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Sujatha

    2014-07-01

    ?-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n-3 (?-3) fatty acid found mostly in plant foods such as flaxseed, walnuts, and vegetable oils, including canola and soybean oils. Most of the health benefits observed for n-3 fatty acids have been attributed to the marine-derived long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, because of the strength of evidence from both epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, the observed cardioprotective and other health effects of ALA have been credited to its precursor role in converting to EPA in the body. The promotion of fatty fish consumption for its documented health benefits may not be practical for those who are concerned with the unsustainability of marine sources or who avoid eating fish for a variety of reasons. ALA-rich plant sources are more abundant and may serve as a suitable alternate. It is therefore worthwhile to consider the evidence for the health benefits of ALA. The purpose of this review is to present the evidence from recent studies on the association between ALA and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and fracture risk. The potential mechanisms that explain these associations will also be briefly discussed. PMID:24898228

  2. Characterization of sterol uptake in leaf tissues of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Rossard, Stphanie; Bonmort, Janine; Guinet, Frdric; Ponchet, Michel; Roblin, Gabriel

    2003-12-01

    The uptake of cholesterol has been characterized in leaf discs from mature leaves of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). This transport system exhibited a simple saturable phase with an apparent Michaelis constant ranging from 30 to 190 microM depending on the sample. When present at 10 M excess, other sterols were able to inhibit cholesterol uptake. Moreover, binding assays demonstrated the presence of high-affinity binding sites for cholesterol in purified plasma membrane vesicles. In the range 1-60 microM, cholesterol uptake showed an active component evidenced by action of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Energy was required as shown by the inhibition of uptake induced by respiration inhibitors (NaN(3)), darkness and photosynthesis inhibitors [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, methyl viologen]. Moreover, the process was strongly dependent on the experimental temperature. Uptake was optimal at acidic pH (4.0), sensitive to ATPase modulators, inhibited by thiol reagents (N-ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, Mersalyl) and by the histidyl-group reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate. The addition of cholesterol did not modify H(+) flux from tissues, indicating that H(+)-co-transport was unlikely to be involved. MgATP did not increase the uptake, arguing against involvement of an ABC cassette-type transporter. By contrast, cryptogein, a sterol carrier protein from the Oomycete Phytophtora cryptogea, greatly increased absorption. Taken together, the results reported in this work suggest that plant cells contain a specific plasma membrane transport system for sterols. PMID:12920595

  3. Serum sterol profiling reveals increased cholesterol biosynthesis in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, Shin Hye; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Bong Chul; Park, Mi Jung; Choi, Man Ho

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative sterol profiling in obese children and their clinical implications have not been fully investigated. The aim of study was to evaluate the metabolic changes in serum cholesterol and its precursors and metabolites, and their associations with clinical characteristics of childhood obesity. A total of 253 children aged 6-14 years (72 obese, 39 overweight, and 72 normal controls; 147 girls and 106 boys) were recruited. Anthropometric indices, body composition, and fasting total lipid profiles were determined. Serum concentrations of 20 sterols, as their free fraction, were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling. There were no significant differences in total- and LDL-cholesterols between groups. Serum levels of the main cholesterol precursors, lanosterol (P<0.02) and lathosterol (P<0.0001), were significantly higher in obese children. In addition, they showed positive correlations with waist to hip ratio, body fat percent, and body fat mass. The metabolic ratios of lanosterol and lathosterol to cholesterol were also elevated (P<0.01 both), indicating the up-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis with childhood obesity. In contrast, the absorption of plant sterols tended to show a compensatory decrease in obese children. Strong correlations between free cholesterol and total- and LDL-cholesterols were observed (r>0.760, P<0.001), while there was no correlation with HDL-cholesterols. The levels of total cholesteryl ester were closely associated with triglyceride (r=0.763, P<0.001). Quantitative results indicate that childhood obesity may increase cholesterol synthesis while maintaining overall cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:25725317

  4. Plasma membrane sterol complexation, generated by filipin, triggers signaling responses in tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Laurent; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Thomas, Dominique; Der, Christophe; Lherminier, Jeannine; Bourque, Stéphane; Roche, Yann; Simon-Plas, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    The effects of changes in plasma membrane (PM) sterol lateral organization and availability on the control of signaling pathways have been reported in various animal systems, but rarely assessed in plant cells. In the present study, the pentaene macrolide antibiotic filipin III, commonly used in animal systems as a sterol sequestrating agent, was applied to tobacco cells. We show that filipin can be used at a non-lethal concentration that still allows an homogeneous labeling of the plasma membrane and the formation of filipin-sterol complexes at the ultrastructural level. This filipin concentration triggers a rapid and transient NADPH oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species, together with an increase in both medium alkalinization and conductivity. Pharmacological inhibition studies suggest that these signaling events may be regulated by phosphorylations and free calcium. By conducting FRAP experiments using the di-4-ANEPPDHQ probe and spectrofluorimetry using the Laurdan probe, we provide evidence for a filipin-induced increase in PM viscosity that is also regulated by phosphorylations. We conclude that filipin triggers ligand-independent signaling responses in plant cells. The present findings strongly suggest that changes in PM sterol availability could act as a sensor of the modifications of cell environment in plants leading to adaptive cell responses through regulated signaling processes. PMID:20674542

  5. Deficiency in the Lipid Exporter ABCA1 Impairs Retrograde Sterol Movement and Disrupts Sterol Sensing at the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yoshio; Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Rogers, Maximillian A; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Fujimoto, Toyoshi; Chang, Catherine C Y; Ishigami, Masato; Kishimoto, Takuma; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Furukawa, Koichi; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2015-09-25

    Cellular cholesterol homeostasis involves sterol sensing at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and sterol export from the plasma membrane (PM). Sterol sensing at the ER requires efficient sterol delivery from the PM; however, the macromolecules that facilitate retrograde sterol transport at the PM have not been identified. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates cholesterol and phospholipid export to apolipoprotein A-I for the assembly of high density lipoprotein (HDL). Mutations in ABCA1 cause Tangier disease, a familial HDL deficiency. Several lines of clinical and experimental evidence suggest a second function of ABCA1 in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in addition to mediating cholesterol efflux. Here, we report the unexpected finding that ABCA1 also plays a key role in facilitating retrograde sterol transport from the PM to the ER for sterol sensing. Deficiency in ABCA1 delays sterol esterification at the ER and activates the SREBP-2 cleavage pathway. The intrinsic ATPase activity in ABCA1 is required to facilitate retrograde sterol transport. ABCA1 deficiency causes alternation of PM composition and hampers a clathrin-independent endocytic activity that is required for ER sterol sensing. Our finding identifies ABCA1 as a key macromolecule facilitating bidirectional sterol movement at the PM and shows that ABCA1 controls retrograde sterol transport by modulating a certain clathrin-independent endocytic process. PMID:26198636

  6. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  7. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  8. Sterol Structure Determines Miscibility versus Melting Transitions in Lipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Mary Elizabeth; Veatch, Sarah L.; Stottrup, Benjamin L.; Keller, Sarah L.

    2005-01-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes composed of DOPC, DPPC, and a series of sterols demix into coexisting liquid phases below a miscibility transition temperature. We use fluorescence microscopy to directly observe phase transitions in vesicles of 1:1:1 DOPC/DPPC/sterol within giant unilamellar vesicles. We show that vesicles containing the promoter sterols cholesterol, ergosterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, epicholesterol, or dihydrocholesterol demix into coexisting liquid phases as temperature is lowered through the miscibility transition. In contrast, vesicles containing the inhibitor sterols androstenolone, coprostanol, cholestenone, or cholestane form coexisting gel (solid) and liquid phases. Vesicles containing lanosterol, a sterol found in the cholesterol and ergosterol synthesis pathways, do not exhibit coexisting phases over a wide range of temperatures and compositions. Although more detailed phase diagrams and precise distinctions between gel and liquid phases are required to fully define the phase behavior of these sterols in vesicles, we find that our classifications of promoter and inhibitor sterols are consistent with previous designations based on fluorescence quenching and detergent resistance. We find no trend in the liquid-liquid or gel-liquid transition temperatures of membranes with promoter or inhibitor sterols and measure the surface fraction of coexisting phases. We find that the vesicle phase behavior is related to the structure of the sterols. Promoter sterols have flat, fused rings, a hydroxyl headgroup, an alkyl tail, and a small molecular area, which are all attributes of membrane active sterols. PMID:15951379

  9. Changes in membrane lipid composition in azuki bean epicotyls under hypergravity conditions: Possible role of membrane sterols in gravity resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, T.; Sakaki, T.; Usui, S.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hoson, T.

    Seedlings of azuki bean ( Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) were cultivated under hypergravity conditions, and changes in membrane lipid composition in their epicotyls were analyzed. Under hypergravity conditions at 300 g, the levels of total sterols, phospholipids, and fatty acids per fresh weight were kept higher, as compared with 1 g controls. In particular, sterol levels were prominently increased by hypergravity. On the other hand, hypergravity did not clearly influence the levels of each phospholipid and glycolipid class, or their fatty acid compositions. Thus, the effect of hypergravity on membrane lipid metabolism was specific for sterol biosynthesis. In various regions of azuki epicotyls, high growth rate was associated with high sterol levels. Hypergravity suppressed elongation growth and stimulated lateral expansion of azuki epicotyls. In the presence of lovastatin, an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis, at 30 ?M, such changes in growth parameters occurred even under 1 g conditions, suggesting that lovastatin made epicotyls hypersensitive to the gravitational force. These results support the hypothesis that membrane sterols are involved in maintenance of normal growth capacity of plant organs against gravity.

  10. Plasma membrane lipidprotein interactions affect signaling processes in sterol-biosynthesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zauber, Henrik; Burgos, Asdrubal; Garapati, Prashanth; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important organelle providing structure, signaling and transport as major biological functions. Being composed of lipids and proteins with different physicochemical properties, the biological functions of membranes depend on specific proteinprotein and proteinlipid interactions. Interactions of proteins with their specific sterol and lipid environment were shown to be important factors for protein recruitment into sub-compartmental structures of the plasma membrane. System-wide implications of altered endogenous sterol levels for membrane functions in living cells were not studied in higher plant cells. In particular, little is known how alterations in membrane sterol composition affect protein and lipid organization and interaction within membranes. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the plasma membrane protein and lipid composition in Arabidopsis sterol-biosynthesis mutants smt1 and ugt80A2;B1. smt1 shows general alterations in sterol composition while ugt80A2;B1 is significantly impaired in sterol glycosylation. By systematically analyzing different cellular fractions and combining proteomic with lipidomic data we were able to reveal contrasting alterations in lipidprotein interactions in both mutants, with resulting differential changes in plasma membrane signaling status. PMID:24672530

  11. High lipid order of Arabidopsis cell-plate membranes mediated by sterol and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A function

    PubMed Central

    Frescatada-Rosa, Márcia; Stanislas, Thomas; Backues, Steven K; Reichardt, Ilka; Men, Shuzhen; Boutté, Yohann; Jürgens, Gerd; Moritz, Thomas; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Grebe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Membranes of eukaryotic cells contain high lipid-order sterol-rich domains that are thought to mediate temporal and spatial organization of cellular processes. Sterols are crucial for execution of cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division, in diverse eukaryotes. The cell plate of higher-plant cells is the membrane structure that separates daughter cells during somatic cytokinesis. Cell-plate formation in Arabidopsis relies on sterol- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A (DRP1A)-dependent endocytosis. However, functional relationships between lipid membrane order or lipid packing and endocytic machinery components during eukaryotic cytokinesis have not been elucidated. Using ratiometric live imaging of lipid order-sensitive fluorescent probes, we show that the cell plate of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a dynamic, high lipid-order membrane domain. The cell-plate lipid order was found to be sensitive to pharmacological and genetic alterations of sterol composition. Sterols co-localize with DRP1A at the cell plate, and DRP1A accumulates in detergent-resistant membrane fractions. Modifications of sterol concentration or composition reduce cell-plate membrane order and affect DRP1A localization. Strikingly, DRP1A function itself is essential for high lipid order at the cell plate. Our findings provide evidence that the cell plate represents a high lipid-order domain, and pave the way to explore potential feedback between lipid order and function of dynamin-related proteins during cytokinesis. PMID:25234576

  12. An update on plant derived anti-androgens.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul; Ramasamy, Shamin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-androgens are an assorted group of drugs and compounds that reduce the levels or activity of androgen hormones within the human body. Disease states in which this is relevant include polycystic ovarian syndrome, hirsutism, acne, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and endocrine related cancers such as carcinoma of the prostate. We provide an overview and discussion of the use of anti-androgen medications in clinical practice and explore the increasing recognition of the benefits of plant-derived anti-androgens, for example, spearmint tea in the management of PCOS, for which some evidence about efficacy is beginning to emerge. Other agents covered include red reishi, which has been shown to reduce levels 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that facilitates conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT); licorice, which has phytoestrogen effects and reduces testosterone levels; Chinese peony, which promotes the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen; green tea, which contains epigallocatechins and also inhibits 5-alpha reductase, thereby reducing the conversion of normal testosterone into the more potent DHT; black cohosh, which has been shown to kill both androgenresponsive and non-responsive human prostate cancer cells; chaste tree, which has a reduces prolactin from the anterior pituitary; and saw palmetto extract, which is used as an anti-androgen although it shown no difference in comparison to placebo in clinical trials. PMID:23843810

  13. An Update on Plant Derived Anti-Androgens

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paul; Ramasamy, Shamin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-androgens are an assorted group of drugs and compounds that reduce the levels or activity of androgen hormones within the human body. Disease states in which this is relevant include polycystic ovarian syndrome, hirsutism, acne, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and endocrine related cancers such as carcinoma of the prostate. We provide an overview and discussion of the use of anti-androgen medications in clinical practice and explore the increasing recognition of the benefits of plant-derived anti-androgens, for example, spearmint tea in the management of PCOS, for which some evidence about efficacy is beginning to emerge. Other agents covered include red reishi, which has been shown to reduce levels 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that facilitates conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT); licorice, which has phytoestrogen effects and reduces testosterone levels; Chinese peony, which promotes the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen; green tea, which contains epigallocatechins and also inhibits 5-alpha reductase, thereby reducing the conversion of normal testosterone into the more potent DHT; black cohosh, which has been shown to kill both androgenresponsive and non-responsive human prostate cancer cells; chaste tree, which has a reduces prolactin from the anterior pituitary; and saw palmetto extract, which is used as an anti-androgen although it shown no difference in comparison to placebo in clinical trials. PMID:23843810

  14. A new triazole, voriconazole (UK-109,496), blocks sterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans and Candida krusei.

    PubMed Central

    Sanati, H; Belanger, P; Fratti, R; Ghannoum, M

    1997-01-01

    Voriconazole (UK-109,496) is a novel triazole derivative with potent broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including some that are inherently resistant to fluconazole, such as Candida krusei. In this study we compared the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of voriconazole and fluconazole on sterol biosynthesis of fluconazole-resistant and -susceptible Candida albicans strains, as well as C. krusei, in an effort to delineate the precise mode of action of voriconazole. Voriconazole MICs ranged from 0.003 to 4 microg/ml, while fluconazole MICs ranged from 0.25 to >64 microg/ml. To investigate the effects of voriconazole and fluconazole on candidal sterols, yeast cells were grown in the absence and presence of antifungals. In untreated C. albicans controls, ergosterol was the major sterol (accounting for 53.6% +/- 2.2% to 71.7% +/- 7.8% of the total) in C. albicans and C. krusei strains. There was no significant difference between the sterol compositions of the fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans isolates. Voriconazole treatment led to a decrease in the total sterol content of both C. albicans strains tested. In contrast, exposure to fluconazole did not result in a significant reduction in the total sterol content of the three candidal strains tested (P > 0.5). Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis revealed profound changes in the sterol profiles of both C. albicans strains and of C. krusei in response to voriconazole. This antifungal agent exerted a similar effect on the sterol compositions of both fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans strains. Interestingly, a complete inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and accumulation of its biosynthetic precursors were observed in both strains treated with voriconazole. In contrast, fluconazole partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis. Analysis of sterols obtained from a fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of voriconazole showed that this agent inhibits ergosterol synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In C. krusei, voriconazole significantly inhibited ergosterol synthesis (over 75% inhibition). C. krusei cells treated with voriconazole accumulated the following biosynthetic intermediates: squalene, 4,14-dimethylzymosterol, and 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol. Accumulation of these methylated sterols is consistent with the premise that this agent functions by inhibiting fungal P-450-dependent 14alpha-demethylase. As expected, treating C. krusei with fluconazole minimally inhibited ergosterol synthesis. Importantly, our data indicate that voriconazole is more effective than fluconazole in blocking candidal sterol biosynthesis, consistent with the different antifungal potencies of these compounds. PMID:9371355

  15. Mechanisms and genetic determinants regulating sterol absorption, circulating LDL levels, and sterol elimination: implications for classification and disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Calandra, Sebastiano; Tarugi, Patrizia; Speedy, Helen E.; Dean, Andrew F.; Bertolini, Stefano; Shoulders, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    This review integrates historical biochemical and modern genetic findings that underpin our understanding of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) dyslipidemias that bear on human disease. These range from life-threatening conditions of infancy through severe coronary heart disease of young adulthood, to indolent disorders of middle- and old-age. We particularly focus on the biological aspects of those gene mutations and variants that impact on sterol absorption and hepatobiliary excretion via specific membrane transporter systems (NPC1L1, ABCG5/8); the incorporation of dietary sterols (MTP) and of de novo synthesized lipids (HMGCR, TRIB1) into apoB-containing lipoproteins (APOB) and their release into the circulation (ANGPTL3, SARA2, SORT1); and receptor-mediated uptake of LDL and of intestinal and hepatic-derived lipoprotein remnants (LDLR, APOB, APOE, LDLRAP1, PCSK9, IDOL). The insights gained from integrating the wealth of genetic data with biological processes have important implications for the classification of clinical and presymptomatic diagnoses of traditional LDL dyslipidemias, sitosterolemia, and newly emerging phenotypes, as well as their management through both nutritional and pharmaceutical means. PMID:21862702

  16. Determining the Origin and Fate of Particulate Plant-Derived Organic Matter in the Rhone River (France) : A Lipid Tracer Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeron, M. A.; Amiraux, R.; Charriere, B.; Radakovitch, O.; Raimbault, P.; Garcia, N.; Lagadec, V.; Vaultier, F.; Rontani, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    A number of lipid tracers including fatty acids, hydroxyacids, n-alkanols, sterols and triterpenoids were used to determine the origin and fate of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) collected in the Rhone River (France), with a main focus on phytosterols, such as sitosterol, desmosterol, brassicasterol and cholesterol. This seasonal survey (April 2011 to May 2013) revealed a year-round strong terrigenous contribution to the plant derived particulate organic matter (POM) with significant algal inputs observed in March and attributed to phytoplanktonic blooms likely dominated by diatoms. Specific sitosterol and cholesterol degradation products were quantified and used to estimate the part of biotic and abiotic degradation of POM within the river. Plant-derived organic matter appears to be mainly affected by photo-oxidation and autoxidation (free radical oxidation), while organic matter of human origin, evidenced by the presence of coprostanol, is clearly more prone to bacterial degradation. Despite the involvement of an intense autoxidation inducing homolytic cleavage of peroxy bonds, a significant proportion of hydroperoxides is still intact in higher plant debris. These compounds could play a role in the degradation of terrestrial material by inducing an intense autoxidation upon its arrival at sea. Although sitosterol has been commonly used as a tracer of the terrestrial origin of POM in rivers, we show here that is it also found in phytoplankton, which highlights the need to use different tracers to determine the origin of POM in rivers. As part of the set of tracers we use, we have identified betulin to be an interesting candidate, although limited to a number of angiosperms species. Not only can we trace betulin to an unequivocal terrestrial origin, we also identified its specific degradation products, allowing us to trace the degradation state of angiosperm particulate debris in rivers, as well as the type of degradation undergone.

  17. Foliar Fatty Acids and Sterols of Soybean Field Fumigated with SO2

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Claus

    1981-01-01

    Sixty-day-old soybean plants were exposed in the field to 78.7 parts per one-hundred million of SO2 in an open-air fumigation system for 20 days. Leaves from the top one-fourth and bottom one-fourth of the plants were analyzed for chlorophyll, free fatty acids, fatty acid esters, polar lipid fatty acids, and sterols. Fumigated plants had a lower chlorophyll, free fatty acid, and polar lipid content, but a higher fatty acid ester content. Of the individual fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acid increased with SO2 fumigation while palmitic acid decreased. SO2 fumigations had only a minor effect on leaf sterols. In general, the lower, more mature leaves showed a greater response to SO2 exposure. PMID:16662015

  18. Antibiofilm effect of plant derived antimicrobials on Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Abhinav; Upadhyaya, Indu; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs, concentrations not inhibiting bacterial growth) and bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of four, generally recognized as safe (GRAS), plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs) in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes (LM) biofilm formation and inactivating mature LM biofilms, at 37, 25 and 4C on polystyrene plates and stainless-steel coupons. In addition, the effect of SICs of PDAs on the expression of LM genes critical for biofilm synthesis was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The PDAs and their SICs used for inhibition of biofilm were trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC 0.50, 0.75mM), carvacrol (CR 0.50, 0.65mM), thymol (TY 0.33, 0.50mM), and eugenol (EG 1.8, 2.5mM), whereas the PDA concentrations used for inactivating mature biofilms were 5.0 and 10.0mM (TC, CR), 3.3 and 5.0mM (TY), 18.5 and 25.0mM (EG). All PDAs inhibited biofilm synthesis and inactivated fully formed LM biofilms on both matrices at three temperatures tested (P<0.05). Real-time quantitative PCR data revealed that all PDAs down-regulated critical LM biofilm-associated genes (P<0.05). Results suggest that TC, CR, TY, and EG could potentially be used to control LM biofilms in food processing environments, although further studies under commercial settings are necessary. PMID:23764223

  19. Characterization of Arabidopsis sterol glycosyltransferase TTG15/UGT80B1 role during freeze and heat stress.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manoj K; Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Shalini; Singh, Ruchi; Kumari, Nishi; Misra, Pratibha

    2015-12-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases regulate the properties of sterols by catalyzing the transfer of carbohydrate molecules to the sterol moiety for the synthesis of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides. We have analyzed the functional role of TTG15/UGT80B1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in freeze/thaw and heat shock stress using T-DNA insertional sgt knockout mutants. Quantitative study of spatial as well as temporal gene expression showed tissue-specific and dynamic expression patterns throughout the growth stages. Comparative responses of Col-0, TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines were analyzed under heat and freeze stress conditions. Heat tolerance was determined by survival of plants at 42°C for 3 h, MDA analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence image (CFI) analysis. Freezing tolerance was determined by survival of the plants at -1°C temperature in non-acclimatized (NA) and cold acclimatized (CA) conditions and also by CFI analysis, which revealed that, p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored plants were more adapted to freeze stress than TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant under CA condition. HPLC analysis of the plants showed reduced sterol glycoside in mutant seedlings as compared to other genotypes. Following CA condition, both β-sitosterol and sitosterol glycoside quantity was more in Col-0 and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines, whereas it was significantly less in TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutants. From these results, it may be concluded that due to low content of free sterols and sterol glycosides, the physiology of mutant plants was more affected during both, the chilling and heat stress. PMID:26382564

  20. Sterols and triterpenes in cell culture of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Zuzanna; Wysoki?ska, Halina

    2003-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures from hypocotyl-derived callus of Hyssopus officinalis were found to produce two sterols i. e. beta-sitosterol (1) and stigmasterol (2), as well as several known pentacyclic triterpenes with an oleanene and ursene skeleton. The triterpenes were identified as oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), and 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (8). Compounds 5-8 were isolated as their acetates (6, 8) or bromolactone acetates (5, 7). PMID:12872919

  1. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

  2. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  3. Cultivating fertile ground for the introduction of plant-derived vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Castle, David; Dalgleish, Jean

    2005-03-01

    Like any biotechnology innovation, the production of human vaccines in plants will succeed partly on its technical merits, and partly on the social acceptance of the new technology. The latter is harder to predict than the former, and may pose the most significant challenges to plant-derived vaccines' (PDVs) success. To realize the potential benefits of plant-derived vaccines, especially for developing countries in which health inequities are most acute, social challenges must be anticipated and addressed in a way that will foster concrete policy alternatives. The ultimate aim is to minimize the risk of premature social rejection of plant-derived vaccines. PMID:15734060

  4. Plants as bioindicators of natural and anthropogenically derived contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, S.; Clifton, S.; Roberts., R.D.

    1994-07-01

    The visual appearance of plants, in combination with the presence of particular key species or assemblages, may provide clues to the occurrence of contaminants in the underlying strata. Chemical analysis of plant material, either collected from the field or from laboratory-based plant growth trials, can also provide a measure of the environmental mobility of a contaminant. This article discusses the role of plants as bioinidicators with reference to examples of preliminary contaminated-land-assessment, air pollution monitoring, and studies into the environmental significance of contaminants in domestic and codisposed refuse. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Distribution of sterols in the fungi. I - Fungal spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Laseter, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Mass spectrometry was used to examine freely extractable sterols from spores of several species of fungi. Ergosterol was the most common sterol produced by any individual species, but it was completely absent from two species belonging to apparently distantly related groups of fungi: the aquatic Phycomycetes and the rust fungi. This fact could have taxonomic or phylogenetic implications. The use of glass capillary columns in the resolution of the sterols is shown to eliminate some of the difficulty inherent in this process.

  6. PLANT-DERIVED COMPOUNDS ACTIVE AGAINST MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Products from two plant genera, Plantago and Eugenia, were tested for effects on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Extracts from P. lanceolata and P. rugelii were also evaluated for toxicity to the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ...

  7. Concentration of sterols of Porphyridium cruentum biomass at stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Yasar; Monteiro, Margarida; Koru, Edis; Bandarra, Narcisa

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate sterols content of Porphyridium cruentum batch cultured in laboratory at 18 degrees C and harvested in the stationary. The sterol distribution of this species is characterized by a predominance of cholesterol, with values as 199.0 mg 100 g(-1) freeze dry weight (92.2%). The second most important sterol was stigmasterol (4.9%) followed by beta-sitosterol (2.2%). Studied sterols give to this species a special importance in for being used in food as supplements/nutraceuticals (including aquaculture). PMID:19070069

  8. Seasonal changes in minor membrane phospholipid classes, sterols and tocopherols in overwintering insect, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Kotl, Vladimr; Urban, Tom; Rimn?ov, Lucie; Berkov, Petra; Simek, Petr

    2013-09-01

    Ectotherm animals including insects are known to undergo seasonal restructuring of the cell membranes in order to keep their functionality and/or protect their structural integrity at low body temperatures. Studies on insects so far focused either on fatty acids or on composition of molecular species in major phospholipid classes. Here we extend the scope of analysis and bring results on seasonal changes in minor phospholipid classes, lysophospholipids (LPLs), free fatty acids, phytosterols and tocopherols in heteropteran insect, Pyrrhocoris apterus. We found that muscle tissue contains unusually high amounts of LPLs. Muscle and fat body tissues also contain high amounts of ?-sitosterol and campesterol, two phytosterols derived from plant food, while only small amounts of cholesterol are present. In addition, two isomers (? and ?) of tocopherol (vitamin E) are present in quantities comparable to, or even higher than phytosterols in both tissues. Distinct seasonal patterns of sterol and tocopherol concentrations were observed showing a minimum in reproductively active bugs in summer and a maximum in diapausing, cold-acclimated bugs in winter. Possible adaptive meanings of such changes are discussed including: preventing the unregulated transition of membrane lipids from functional liquid crystalline phase to non-functional gel phase; decreasing the rates of ion/solute leakage; silencing the activities of membrane bound enzymes and receptors; and counteracting the higher risk of oxidative damage to PUFA in winter membranes. PMID:23845405

  9. Tomatidine promotes the inhibition of 24-alkylated sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dysfunction in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Medina, J M; Rodrigues, J C F; De Souza, W; Atella, G C; Barrabin, H

    2012-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a set of clinically distinct infectious diseases caused by Leishmania, a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites, that affects ~12 million people worldwide, with ~2 million new infections annually. Plants are known to produce substances to defend themselves against pathogens and predators. In the genus Lycopersicon, which includes the tomato, L. esculentum, the main antimicrobial compound is the steroidal glycoalkaloid ?-tomatine. The loss of the saccharide side-chain of tomatine yields the aglycone tomatidine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tomatidine on the growth, mitochondrial membrane potential, sterol metabolism, and ultrastructure of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Tomatidine (01 to 5 ?M) inhibited parasite growth in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50)=12459 nM). Transmission electron microscopy revealed lesions in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the presence of large vacuoles and lipid storage bodies in the cytoplasm. These structural changes in the mitochondria were accompanied by an effective loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in ATP levels. An analysis of the neutral lipid content revealed a large depletion of endogenous 24-alkylated sterols such as 24-methylene-cholesta-5, 7-dien-3?-ol (5-dehydroepisterol), with a concomitant accumulation of cholesta-8, 24-dien-3?-ol (zymosterol), which implied a perturbation in the cellular lipid content. These results are consistent with an inhibition of 24-sterol methyltransferase, an important enzyme responsible for the methylation of sterols at the 24 position, which is an essential step in the production of ergosterol and other 24-methyl sterols. PMID:22716777

  10. The role of sterol-C4-methyl oxidase in epidermal biology

    PubMed Central

    He, Miao; Smith, Laurie D.; Chang, Richard; Li, Xueli; Vockley, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of sterol C4 methyl oxidase, encoded by the SC4MOL gene, has recently been described in four patients from three different families. All of the patients presented with microcephaly, congenital cataracts, and growth delay in infancy. The first patient has suffered since the age of six years from severe, diffuse, psoriasiform dermatitis, sparing only her palms. She is now 20 years old. The second patient is a 5 year old girl who has just started to develop dry skin and hair changes. The third and fourth patients are a pair of affected siblings with a severe skin condition since infancy. Quantitative sterol analysis of plasma and skin scales from all four patients showed marked elevation of 4?-methyl- and 4, 4?-dimethylsterols, consistent with a deficiency in the first step of sterol C4 demethylation in cholesterol biosynthesis. Mutations in the SC4MOL have been identified in all of the patients. SC4MOL deficiency is the first autosomal recessive disorder identified in the sterol demethylation complex. Cellular studies with patient-derived fibroblasts have shown a higher mitotic rate than control cells in cholesterol-depleted medium, with increased de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and accumulation of methylsterols. Immunologic analyses of granulocytes and B cells from patients and obligate carriers in the patients families indicated dysregulation of immune-related receptors. Inhibition of sterol C4 methyl oxidase in human transformed lymphoblasts induced activation of the cell cycle. Additional studies also demonstrated diminished EGFR signaling and disrupted vesicular trafficking in cells from the affected patients. These findings suggest that methylsterols play an important role in epidermal biology by their influence on cell proliferation, intracellular signaling, vesicular trafficking and immune response. SC4MOL is situated within the psoriasis susceptibility locus PSORS9, and may be a genetic risk factor for common skin conditions. PMID:24144731

  11. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs/SOATs): Enzymes with multiple sterols as substrates and as activators.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Maximillian A; Liu, Jay; Song, Bao-Liang; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C Y; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Cholesterol is essential to the growth and viability of cells. The metabolites of cholesterol include: steroids, oxysterols, and bile acids, all of which play important physiological functions. Cholesterol and its metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases, including: atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Thus, understanding how cells maintain the homeostasis of cholesterol and its metabolites is an important area of study. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs, also abbreviated as SOATs) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and play key roles in the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. ACATs are most unusual enzymes because (i) they metabolize diverse substrates including both sterols and certain steroids; (ii) they contain two different binding sites for steroidal molecules. In mammals, there are two ACAT genes that encode two different enzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2. Both are allosteric enzymes that can be activated by a variety of sterols. In addition to cholesterol, other sterols that possess the 3-beta OH at C-3, including PREG, oxysterols (such as 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, etc.), and various plant sterols, could all be ACAT substrates. All sterols that possess the iso-octyl side chain including cholesterol, oxysterols, various plant sterols could all be activators of ACAT. PREG can only be an ACAT substrate because it lacks the iso-octyl side chain required to be an ACAT activator. The unnatural cholesterol analogs epi-cholesterol (with 3-alpha OH in steroid ring B) and ent-cholesterol (the mirror image of cholesterol) contain the iso-octyl side chain but do not have the 3-beta OH at C-3. Thus, they can only serve as activators and cannot serve as substrates. Thus, within the ACAT holoenzyme, there are site(s) that bind sterol as substrate and site(s) that bind sterol as activator; these sites are distinct from each other. These features form the basis to further pursue ACAT structure-function analysis, and can be explored to develop novel allosteric ACAT inhibitors for therapeutic purposes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol signaling'. PMID:25218443

  12. Potential of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an Unconventional Source of Dietary and Therapeutic Sterols

    PubMed Central

    Cheseto, Xavier; Kuate, Serge Philibert; Tchouassi, David P.; Ndung’u, Mary; Teal, Peter E. A.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2015-01-01

    Insects are increasingly being recognized not only as a source of food to feed the ever growing world population but also as potential sources of new products and therapeutic agents, among which are sterols. In this study, we sought to profile sterols and their derivatives present in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, focusing on those with potential importance as dietary and therapeutic components for humans. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we analyzed and compared the quantities of sterols in the different sections of the gut and tissues of the locust. In the gut, we identified 34 sterols which showed a patchy distribution, but with the highest composition in the foregut (55%) followed by midgut (31%) and hindgut (14%). Fed ad libitum on wheat seedlings, five sterols unique to the insect were detected. These sterols were identified as 7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, fucosterol, (3β, 5α) cholesta-8, 14, 24-trien-3-ol, 4, 4-dimethyl, and (3β, 20R) cholesta-5, 24-dien-3, 20-diol with the first three having known health benefits in humans. Incubation of the fore-, mid- and hindgut with cholesterol-[4-13C] yielded eight derivatives, three of these were detected in the gut of the desert locust after it had consumed the vegetative diet but were not detected in the diet. Our study shows that the desert locust ingests phytosterols from a vegetative diet and, amplifies and metabolizes them into derivatives with potential salutary benefits and we discuss our findings in this context. PMID:25970517

  13. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy sterols and bile acids.

    PubMed

    John, Clara; Werner, Philipp; Worthmann, Anna; Wegner, Katrin; Tdter, Klaus; Scheja, Ludger; Rohn, Sascha; Heeren, Joerg; Fischer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Recently, hydroxy sterols and bile acids have gained growing interest as they are important regulators of energy homoeostasis and inflammation. The high number of different hydroxy sterols and bile acid species requires powerful analytical tools to quantify these structurally and chemically similar analytes. Here, we introduce a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for rapid quantification of 34 sterols (hydroxy sterols, primary, secondary bile acids as well as their taurine and glycine conjugates). Chromatographic baseline separation of isomeric hydroxy sterols and bile acids is obtained using a rugged amide embedded C18 (polar embedded) stationary phase. The current method features a simple extraction protocol validated for blood plasma, urine, gall bladder, liver, feces, and adipose tissue avoiding solid phase extraction as well as derivatization procedures. The total extraction recovery for representative analytes ranged between 58-86% in plasma, 85% in urine, 79-92% in liver, 76-98% in adipose tissue, 93-104% in feces and 62-79% in gall bladder. The validation procedure demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges for 97% of the analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R2) of greater than 0.99. A feeding study in wild type mice with a standard chow and a cholesterol-enriched Western type diet illustrated that the protocol described here provides a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify cholesterol derivatives and bile acids in metabolically active tissues and to follow the enterohepatic circulation. PMID:25456597

  14. STEROLS AS BIOMARKERS IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE DISTRIBUTION IN DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sterol composition of marine microalgae has been shown to be a chemotaxonomic property potentially of value in distinguishing members of different algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae display sterol compositions ranging from as few as two (cholesterol ...

  15. Spectral Characterization of Plant-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from fresh or early-stage decomposing soil amendment materials may play an important role in the process of organic matter accumulation. The DOM can influence many chemical processes, due to its reactivity with both soil solution components and soil surfaces. W...

  16. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production. PMID:26041193

  17. Fluorescent sterols as tools in membrane biophysics and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Cholesterol is an important constituent of cellular membranes playing a fundamental role in many biological processes. This sterol affects membrane permeability, lateral lipid organization, signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Intracellular sterol transport modes and pathways as well as the regulation of sterol metabolism and disposition in various tissues are areas of intense research. Progress is intimately linked to development and use of appropriate analogs, which closely mimic the properties of cholesterol while allowing to be detected by spectroscopic or microscopic methods. This review provides an overview of various fluorescent sterols used in membrane biophysics and cell biology including analogs of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. Attention is paid to the natural fluorescent sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE). A survey of the many applications of DHE in biological research is presented. Special emphasis is on recent developments in fluorescence microscopy instrumentation to visualize DHE as an intrinsically fluorescent analog of cholesterol in living cells. PMID:17241621

  18. A search for mosquito larvicidal compounds by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2, through computational screening and docking strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R. Barani; Shanmugapriya, B.; Thiyagesan, K.; Kumar, S. Raj; Xavier, Suresh M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sterol is a very vital compound for most of the insects and mosquitoes to complete their life cycle. Unfortunately mosquitoes cannot synthesize the sterol, it depends on mammals for the same. Mosquitoes take the sterol from the plant decays during their larval stage in the form of phytosterol, which is then converted to cholesterol for further growth and reproduction. This conversion occurs with the help of the sterol carrier protein 2(SCP2). Methods: Mosquito populations are controlled by plant-based inhibitors, which inhibit sterol carrier protein (SCPI-Sterol carrier protein inhibitor) activity. In this article, we explain the methods of inhibiting Aedes aegypti SCP2 by insilico methods including natural inhibitor selection and filtrations by virtual screening and interaction studies. Results: In this study protein-ligand interactions were carried out with various phytochemicals, as a result of virtual screening Alpha-mangostin and Panthenol were found to be good analogs, and were allowed to dock with the mosquito cholesterol carrier protein AeSCP-2. Conclusion: Computational selections of SCPIs are highly reliable and novel methods for discovering new and more effective compounds to control mosquitoes. PMID:21808576

  19. Substrate Preferences and Catalytic Parameters Determined by Structural Characteristics of Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Nes, W. David; Waterman, Michael R.; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2012-05-14

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects populations of {approx}90 countries worldwide, with no vaccine and only a few moderately effective drugs. Here we report the structure/function characterization of sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum. The enzyme catalyzes removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from sterol precursors. The reaction is essential for membrane biogenesis and therefore has great potential to become a target for antileishmanial chemotherapy. Although L. infantum CYP51 prefers C4-monomethylated sterol substrates such as C4-norlanosterol and obtusifoliol (V{sub max} of {approx}10 and 8 min{sup -1}, respectively), it is also found to 14{alpha}-demethylate C4-dimethylated lanosterol (V{sub max} = 0.9 min{sup -1}) and C4-desmethylated 14{alpha}-methylzymosterol (V{sub max} = 1.9 min{sup -1}). Binding parameters with six sterols were tested, with K{sub d} values ranging from 0.25 to 1.4 {mu}m. Thus, L. infantum CYP51 is the first example of a plant-like sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase, where requirements toward the composition of the C4 atom substituents are not strict, indicative of possible branching in the postsqualene portion of sterol biosynthesis in the parasite. Comparative analysis of three CYP51 substrate binding cavities (Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and L. infantum) suggests that substrate preferences of plant- and fungal-like protozoan CYP51s largely depend on the differences in the enzyme active site topology. These minor structural differences are also likely to underlie CYP51 catalytic rates and drug susceptibility and can be used to design potent and specific inhibitors.

  20. Profiling and Metabolism of Sterols in the Weaver Ant Genus Oecophylla.

    PubMed

    Vidkjær, Nanna H; Jensen, Karl-Martin V; Gislum, René; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-01-01

    Sterols are essential to insects because they are vital for many biochemical processes, nevertheless insects cannot synthesize sterols but have to acquire them through their diet. Studies of sterols in ants are sparse and here the sterols of the weaver ant genus Oecophylla are identified for the first time. The sterol profile and the dietary sterols provided to a laboratory Oecophylla longinoda colony were analyzed. Most sterols originated from the diet, except one, which was probably formed via dealkylation in the ants and two sterols of fungal origin, which likely originate from hitherto unidentified endosymbionts responsible for supplying these two compounds. The sterol profile of a wild Oecophylla smaragdina colony was also investigated. Remarkable qualitative similarities were established between the two species despite the differences in diet, species, and origin. This may reflect a common sterol need/aversion in the weaver ants. Additionally, each individual caste of both species displayed unique sterol profiles. PMID:26996016

  1. Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain.

  2. Plants' use of leachate derived from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Revel, J.C.; Morard, P.; Bailly, J.R.; Labbe, H.; Berthout, C.; Kaemmerer, M.

    1999-08-01

    Leachate was collected from a watertight pit at a landfill center dealing mainly with household refuse and plant waste. This effluent was characterized by a moderate organic matter content, a pH slightly higher than neutral and strong electrical conductivity. This latter was due to the presence of chlorides, Na, K, and ammonium. The organic content could be divided into two fractions: Fraction A consisting of large molecules and Fraction B of smaller, more acidic molecules. The presence of phenols could be identified in the leachate as a whole. A biological treatment of this leachate, involving methanization followed by aerated lagooning, was set up on the site: this led to a reduction of nearly 60% in the organic content and almost total elimination of the ammonium. This treatment was not however sufficient to allow direct evacuation of the resulting effluent into the surface ground water. As heavy metals were absent from this effluent, the leachates from this landfill site could possibly be envisaged in the fertilization of soil-grown crops or for furrow irrigation-fertilization of tree plantations. The effect of irrigating soil-grown plants with a solution of leachate was examined using pots of ryegrass (Lolium sp.). Application of solutions containing dilutions of 1 to 400 mL L{sup {minus}1} of this effluent had a highly favorable effect on plant growth. Toxicity phenomena were apparent above this concentration. The optimum effect on ryegrass growth, under the conditions of this trial, was obtained by watering each pot with 30 mL of a solution containing 400 mL L{sup {minus}1} of leachate, every 2 d. This solution improved water and N nutrition in these plants.

  3. The Evolution of Sterol Biosynthesis in Bacteria: In Situ Fluorescence Localization of Sterols in the Nucleoid Bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budin, M.; Jorgenson, T. L.; Pearson, A.

    2004-12-01

    The biosynthesis of sterols is generally regarded as a eukaryotic process. The first enzymatic step in the production of sterols requires molecular oxygen. Therefore, both the origin of eukaryotes and the evolution of sterol biosynthesis were thought to postdate the rise of oxygen in earth's atmosphere, until Brocks et al. discovered steranes in rocks aged 2.7 Ga (1). Many prokaryotes produce hopanoids, sterol-like compounds that are synthesized from the common precursor squalene without the use of molecular oxygen. However, a few bacterial taxa are also known to produce sterols, suggesting this pathway could precede the rise of oxygen (2, 3). Recently, we discovered the shortest sterol-producing biosynthetic pathway known to date in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus (4). Using genomic searches, we found that Gemmata has the enzymes necessary for synthesis of sterols, and lipid analyses showed that the sterols produced are lanosterol and its isomer parkeol. Gemmata is a member of the Planctomycetes, an unusual group of bacteria, all of the known species of which contain intracellular compartmentalization. Among the Planctomycetes, Gemmata uniquely is the only prokaryote known to contain a double-membrane-bounded nuclear body (5). Since sterols usually are found in eukaryotes, and Gemmata has a eukaryote-like nuclear organelle, we investigated the location of the sterols within Gemmata to postulate whether they play a role in stabilization of the nuclear membrane and control of genomic organization. We used the sterol-specific fluorescent dye Filipin III in conjunction with fluorescent dyes for internal and external cellular membranes in order to determine whether the sterols are located in the nuclear body membrane, external membrane, or both. We found that sterols in Gemmata are concentrated in the internal membrane, implying that they function in maintaining this unusual cellular component. It is notable that Gemmata also produce hopanoids, suggesting that they acquired the ability to produce sterols for a specialized function related to their nuclear membrane. 1. Brocks, J.J., et al., Science 285:1033-36 (1999). 2. Bird, C.W., et al., Nature 230:473-74 (1971). 3. Bode, H.B., et al., Mol. Microbiol. 47:471-81 (2003). 4. Pearson, A., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:15352-57 (2003). 5. Fuerst, J.A. and R.I. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:8184-88 (1991).

  4. Cycads: evolutionary innovations and the role of plant-derived neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eric D; Stevenson, Dennis W; Twigg, Richard W

    2003-09-01

    Cycads are an important relic from the past and represent the oldest living seed plants. Cycads have been instrumental in our understanding the evolution of angiosperms and gymnosperms because they have recognizable morphological characteristics intermediate between less-recently evolved plants such as ferns and more-derived (advanced) plants including the angiosperms. Cycads also produce several compounds that are carcinogenic and neurotoxic. Because of their unique placement in terrestrial plant evolution, molecular studies should help to define the origins of structures that led to the rise of seed plants and the role of neurotoxic compounds that are found in cycads. PMID:13678912

  5. How Plants Sense Wounds: Damaged-Self Recognition Is Based on Plant-Derived Elicitors and Induces Octadecanoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Martin; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Adame-lvarez, Rosa M.; Martnez, Octavio; Ramirez-Chvez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal-derived elicitors can be used by plants to detect herbivory but they function only in specific insectplant interactions. How can plants generally perceive damage caused by herbivores? Damaged-self recognition occurs when plants perceive molecular signals of damage: degraded plant molecules or molecules localized outside their original compartment. Methodology/Principal Findings Flame wounding or applying leaf extract or solutions of sucrose or ATP to slightly wounded lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves induced the secretion of extrafloral nectar, an indirect defense mechanism. Chemically related molecules that would not be released in high concentrations from damaged plant cells (glucose, fructose, salt, and sorbitol) did not elicit a detectable response, excluding osmotic shock as an alternative explanation. Treatments inducing extrafloral nectar secretion also enhanced endogenous concentrations of the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA). Endogenous JA was also induced by mechanically damaging leaves of lima bean, Arabidopsis, maize, strawberry, sesame and tomato. In lima bean, tomato and sesame, the application of leaf extract further increased endogenous JA content, indicating that damaged-self recognition is taxonomically widely distributed. Transcriptomic patterns obtained with untargeted 454 pyrosequencing of lima bean in response to flame wounding or the application of leaf extract or JA were highly similar to each other, but differed from the response to mere mechanical damage. We conclude that the amount or concentration of damaged-self signals can quantitatively determine the intensity of the wound response and that the full damaged-self response requires the disruption of many cells. Conclusions/Significance Numerous compounds function as JA-inducing elicitors in different plant species. Most of them are, contain, or release, plant-derived molecular motifs. Damaged-self recognition represents a taxonomically widespread mechanism that contributes to the perception of herbivore feeding by plants. This strategy is independent of insect-derived elicitors and, therefore, allows plants to maintain evolutionary control over their interaction with herbivores. PMID:22347382

  6. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice.

    PubMed

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity. PMID:26483815

  7. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice

    PubMed Central

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70–95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity. PMID:26483815

  8. Efficient chimeric plant promoters derived from plant infecting viral promoter sequences.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sefali; Ranjan, Rajiv; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we developed a set of three chimeric/hybrid promoters namely FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt incorporating different important domains of Figwort Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FSgt, -270 to -60), Mirabilis Mosaic Virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (MSgt, -306 to -125) and Peanut Chlorotic Streak Caulimovirus full-length transcript promoter (PFlt-, -353 to +24 and PFlt-UAS, -353 to -49). We demonstrated that these chimeric/hybrid promoters can drive the expression of reporter genes in different plant species including tobacco, Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and spinach. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 4.2, 1.5 and 1.2 times stronger GUS activities compared to the activity of the CaMV35S promoter, respectively, in tobacco protoplasts. Protoplast-derived recombinant promoter driven GFP showed enhanced accumulation compared to that obtained under the CaMV35S promoter. FSgt-PFlt, PFlt-UAS-2X and MSgt-PFlt promoters showed 3.0, 1.3 and 1.0 times stronger activities than the activity of the CaMV35S (a modified version of the CaMV35S promoter with double enhancer domain) promoter, respectively, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var. Samsun NN). Alongside, we observed a fair correlation between recombinant promoter-driven GUS accumulation with the corresponding uidA-mRNA level in transgenic tobacco. Histochemical (X-gluc) staining of whole transgenic seedlings and fluorescence images of ImaGene Green treated floral parts expressing the GUS under the control of recombinant promoters also support above findings. Furthermore, we confirmed that these chimeric promoters are inducible in the presence of 150 ?M salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Taken altogether, we propose that SA/ABA inducible chimeric/recombinant promoters could be used for strong expression of gene(s) of interest in crop plants. PMID:24178585

  9. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag 1

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Shyamala; Smith, Roberta H.; Finer, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. `Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663273

  10. Fecal Sterol and Runoff Analysis for Nonpoint Source Tracking.

    PubMed

    Fahrenfeld, N L; Del Monaco, N; Coates, J T; Elzerman, A W

    2016-01-01

    Fecal pollution source identification is needed to quantify risk, target installation of source controls, and assess performance of best management practices in impaired surface waters. Sterol analysis is a chemical method for fecal source tracking that allows for differentiation between several fecal pollution sources. The objectives of this study were to use these chemical tracers for quantifying human fecal inputs in a mixed-land-use watershed without point sources of pollution and to determine the relationship between land use and sterol ratios. Fecal sterol analysis was performed on bed and suspended sediment from impaired streams. Human fecal signatures were found at sites with sewer overflow and septic inputs. Different sterol ratios used to indicate human fecal pollution varied in their sensitivity. Next, geospatial data was used to determine the runoff volumes associated with each land-use category in the watersheds. Fecal sterol ratios were compared between sampling locations and correlations were tested between ratio values and percentage of runoff for a given land-use category. Correlation was not observed between percentage of runoff from developed land and any of the five tested human-indicating sterol ratios in streambed sediments, confirming that human fecal inputs were not evenly distributed across the urban landscape. Several practical considerations for adopting this chemical method for microbial source tracking in small watersheds are discussed. Results indicate that sterol analysis is useful for identifying the location of human fecal nonpoint-source inputs. PMID:26828187

  11. An overview of tuberculosis plant-derived vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Ros-Huerta, Regina; Angulo, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading fatal infectious disease to which the current BCG vaccine has a questionable efficacy in adults. Thus, the development of improved vaccines against TB is needed. In addition, decreasing the cost of vaccine formulations is required for broader vaccination coverage through global vaccination programs. In this regard, the use of plants as biofactories and delivery vehicles of TB vaccines has been researched over the last decade. These studies are systematically analyzed in the present review and placed in perspective. It is considered that substantial preclinical trials are still required to address improvements in expression levels as well as immunological data. Approaches for testing additional antigenic configurations with higher yields and improved immunogenic properties are also discussed. PMID:25683476

  12. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual’s likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:20872313

  13. Lipids of a Sterol-Nonrequiring Mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Plackett, P.; Smith, P. F.; Mayberry, W. R.

    1970-01-01

    The lipids of the sterol nonrequiring Mycoplasma strain S743 were found to include both ester glycerophosphatides (phosphatidylglycerol, acylphosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol) and ceramide glycerophosphate compounds containing N-hydroxyacyl groups. The major phosphosphingolipid was tentatively identified as a hydroxyceramidephosphorylglycerol containing an O-acyl group. These compounds became labeled during growth in the presence of 32P-orthophosphate, 14C-glycerol, or 14C-palmitate. The lipid fraction also contained free long-chain base. 14C-palmitate was converted to labeled sphinganine. The long-chain base composition of the lipids was modified by growing the organisms in media containing different fatty acids, which were converted to bases containing two more C atoms per molecule. Ninety per cent of the long-chain base from cells grown in medium supplemented with elaidate consisted of monounsaturated C20 base. Images PMID:5489436

  14. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

  15. Recent advances in understanding carotenoid-derived signaling molecules in regulating plant growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids (C40) are synthesized in plastids and perform numerous important functions in these organelles. In addition, carotenoids can be processed into smaller signaling molecules that regulate various phases of the plants life cycle. Besides the relatively well-studied phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones (SLs), additional carotenoid-derived signaling molecules have been discovered and shown to regulate plant growth and development. As a few excellent reviews summarized recent research on ABA and SLs, this mini review will focus on progress made on identification and characterization of the emerging carotenoid-derived signals. Overall, a better understanding of carotenoid-derived signaling molecules has immediate applications in improving plant biomass production which in turn will have far reaching impacts on providing food, feed, and fuel for the growing world population. PMID:26442092

  16. Interaction of the P-Glycoprotein Multidrug Transporter with Sterols.

    PubMed

    Clay, Adam T; Lu, Peihua; Sharom, Frances J

    2015-11-01

    The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) actively exports structurally diverse substrates from within the lipid bilayer, leading to multidrug resistance. Many aspects of Pgp function are altered by the phospholipid environment, but its interactions with sterols remain enigmatic. In this work, the functional interaction between purified Pgp and various sterols was investigated in detergent solution and proteoliposomes. Fluorescence studies showed that dehydroergosterol, cholestatrienol, and NBD-cholesterol interact intimately with Pgp, resulting in both quenching of protein Trp fluorescence and enhancement of sterol fluorescence. Kd values indicated binding affinities in the range of 3-9 ?M. Collisional quenching experiments showed that Pgp-bound NBD-cholesterol was protected from the external milieu, resonance energy transfer was observed between Pgp Trp residues and the sterol, and the fluorescence emission of bound sterol was enhanced. These observations suggested an intimate interaction of bound sterols with the transporter at a protected nonpolar site. Cholesterol hemisuccinate altered the thermal unfolding of Pgp and greatly stabilized its basal ATPase activity in both a detergent solution and reconstituted proteoliposomes of certain phospholipids. Other sterols, including dehydroergosterol, did not stabilize the basal ATPase activity of detergent-solubilized Pgp, which suggests that this is not a generalized sterol effect. The phospholipid composition and cholesterol hemisuccinate content of Pgp proteoliposomes altered the basal ATPase and drug transport cycles differently. Sterols may interact with Pgp and modulate its structure and function by occupying part of the drug-binding pocket or by binding to putative consensus cholesterol-binding (CRAC/CARC) motifs located within the transmembrane domains. PMID:26484739

  17. CLUES TO STEROL FUNCTION IN NEMATODES: RECENT STUDIES WITH CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS AND THE SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes possess a nutritional requirement for sterol because of their inability to biosynthesize sterols de novo. Consequently, parasitic nematodes must obtain sterols from their hosts and then metabolize them to other sterols and steroids required for nematode growth, development and reproductio...

  18. Cell death mechanisms of plant-derived anticancer drugs: beyond apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Hmadi, Raed; Kareh, Mike; Tohme, Rita; Darwiche, Nadine

    2015-12-01

    Despite remarkable progress in the discovery and development of novel cancer therapeutics, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the world. For many years, compounds derived from plants have been at the forefront as an important source of anticancer therapies and have played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer because of their availability, and relatively low toxicity when compared with chemotherapy. More than 3000 plant species have been reported to treat cancer and about thirty plant-derived compounds have been isolated so far and have been tested in cancer clinical trials. The mechanisms of action of plant-derived anticancer drugs are numerous and most of them induce apoptotic cell death that may be intrinsic or extrinsic, and caspase and/or p53-dependent or independent mechanisms. Alternative modes of cell death by plant-derived anticancer drugs are emerging and include mainly autophagy, necrosis-like programmed cell death, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence leading to cell death. Considering that the non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms of plant-derived anticancer drugs are less reviewed than the apoptotic ones, this paper attempts to focus on such alternative cell death pathways for some representative anticancer plant natural compounds in clinical development. In particular, emphasis will be on some promising polyphenolics such as resveratrol, curcumin, and genistein; alkaloids namely berberine, noscapine, and colchicine; terpenoids such as parthenolide, triptolide, and betulinic acid; and the organosulfur compound sulforaphane. The understanding of non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms induced by these drugs would provide insights into the possibility of exploiting novel molecular pathways and targets of plant-derived compounds for future cancer therapeutics. PMID:26362468

  19. Variation amongst protoplast-derived potato plants (Solatium tuberosum cv. 'Maris Bard').

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Bright, S W; Franklin, J; Lancaster, V A; Miflin, B J; Gibson, R

    1982-03-01

    Plants were obtained from protoplasts of shoot cultures of potato (Solarium tuberosum L. cv. 'Maris Bard') and from in situ calluses upon plants of cv. 'Majestic'. None of the protoplast-derived plants resembled each other in all of ten morphological characteristics scored and only one resembled the parental 'Maris Bard' type. As there were a number of plants regenerated from each of ten protoplast-derived calluses it is concluded that variation arose after protoplast isolation during the cell culture phase. Plants regenerated from in situ calluses of cv. 'Majestic' were quite uniform. Reported cases of variation and uniformity from cultured potato tissues are discussed. It is concluded that the variation is not a consequence of using protoplasts and that the expression or induction of variation is controllable. PMID:24270537

  20. Combating Pathogenic Microorganisms Using Plant-Derived Antimicrobials: A Minireview of the Mechanistic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in exploring the potential of plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy to combat microbial infections. Historically, plant extracts have been used as a safe, effective, and natural remedy for ailments and diseases in traditional medicine. Extensive research in the last two decades has identified a plethora of PDAs with a wide spectrum of activity against a variety of fungal and bacterial pathogens causing infections in humans and animals. Active components of many plant extracts have been characterized and are commercially available; however, research delineating the mechanistic basis of their antimicrobial action is scanty. This review highlights the potential of various plant-derived compounds to control pathogenic bacteria, especially the diverse effects exerted by plant compounds on various virulence factors that are critical for pathogenicity inside the host. In addition, the potential effect of PDAs on gut microbiota is discussed. PMID:25298964

  1. Research progress of genome editing and derivative technologies in plants.

    PubMed

    Qiwei, Shan; Caixia, Gao

    2015-10-01

    Genome editing technologies using engineered nucleases have been widely used in many model organisms. Genome editing with sequence-specific nuclease (SSN) creates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the genomic target sites that are primarily repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways, which can be employed to achieve targeted genome modifications such as gene mutations, insertions, replacements or chromosome rearrangements. There are three major SSNs─zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. In contrast to ZFN and TALEN, which require substantial protein engineering to each DNA target, the CRISPR/Cas9 system requires only a change in the guide RNA. For this reason, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple, inexpensive and versatile tool for genome engineering. Furthermore, a modified version of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been developed to recruit heterologous domains that can regulate endogenous gene expression, such as activation, depression and epigenetic regulation. In this review, we summarize the development and applications of genome editing technologies for basic research and biotechnology, as well as highlight challenges and future directions, with particular emphasis on plants. PMID:26496748

  2. BYPASS1 negatively regulates a root-derived signal that controls plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Van Norman, Jaimie M; Frederick, Rebecca L; Sieburth, Leslie E

    2004-10-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by endogenous developmental programs, but it can also be strongly influenced by cues derived from the environment. For example, rhizosphere conditions such as water and nutrient availability affect shoot and root architecture; this implicates the root as a source of signals that can override endogenous developmental programs. Cytokinin, abscisic acid, and carotenoid derivatives have all been implicated as long-distance signals that can be derived from the root. However, little is known about how root-derived signaling pathways are regulated. Here, we show that BYPASS1 (BPS1), an Arabidopsis gene of unknown function, is required to prevent constitutive production of a root-derived graft-transmissible signal that is sufficient to inhibit leaf initiation, leaf expansion, and shoot apical meristem activity. We show that this root-derived signal is likely to be a novel carotenoid-derived molecule that can modulate both root and shoot architecture. PMID:15458645

  3. Recent advances and safety issues of transgenic plant-derived vaccines.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-jun; Guo, Bin; Huo, Yan-lin; Guan, Zheng-ping; Dai, Jia-kun; Wei, Ya-hui

    2013-04-01

    Transgenic plant-derived vaccines comprise a new type of bioreactor that combines plant genetic engineering technology with an organism's immunological response. This combination can be considered as a bioreactor that is produced by introducing foreign genes into plants that elicit special immunogenicity when introduced into animals or human beings. In comparison with traditional vaccines, plant vaccines have some significant advantages, such as low cost, greater safety, and greater effectiveness. In a number of recent studies, antigen-specific proteins have been successfully expressed in various plant tissues and have even been tested in animals and human beings. Therefore, edible vaccines of transgenic plants have a bright future. This review begins with a discussion of the immune mechanism and expression systems for transgenic plant vaccines. Then, current advances in different transgenic plant vaccines will be analyzed, including vaccines against pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic parasites. In view of the low expression levels for antigens in plants, high-level expression strategies of foreign protein in transgenic plants are recommended. Finally, the existing safety problems in transgenic plant vaccines were put forward will be discussed along with a number of appropriate solutions that will hopefully lead to future clinical application of edible plant vaccines. PMID:23447052

  4. Chemometric approach to validating faecal sterols as source tracer for faecal contamination in water.

    PubMed

    Saim, Norashikin; Osman, Rozita; Sari Abg Spian, Dayang Ratena; Jaafar, Mohd Zuli; Juahir, Hafizan; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Ghani, Fuzziawati Ab

    2009-12-01

    Faecal sterols detection is a promising method for identifying sources of faecal pollution. In this study, faecal contamination in water samples from point source (sewage treatment plants, chicken farms, quail farms and horse stables) was extracted using the solid phase extraction (SPE) technique. Faecal sterols (coprostanol, cholesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol and stigmastanol) were selected as parameters to differentiate the source of faecal pollution. The results indicated that coprostanol, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were the most significant parameters that can be used as source tracers for faecal contamination. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were applied to the data set on faecal contamination in water from various pollution sources in order to validate the faecal sterols' profiles. Cluster analysis generated three clusters: coprostanol was in cluster 1, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol formed cluster 2, while cluster 3 contained stigmasterol and stigmastanol. Discriminant analysis suggested that coprostanol, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol were the most significant parameters to discriminate between the faecal pollution source. The use of chemometric techniques provides useful and promising indicators in tracing the source of faecal contamination. PMID:19896157

  5. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  6. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  7. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  8. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    1997-09-16

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

  9. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    1998-09-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

  10. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-23

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  11. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by oxygenated sterol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.I.; Bass, J.; Yachnin, S.

    1980-07-01

    When preincubated with certain oxygenated sterol compounds in lipoprotein-depleted serum (20% (vol/vol)), human polymorphonuclear leukocytes show inhibition of chemotaxis toward the synthetic dipeptide N-formylmethionylphenylalinine without alteration of random movement or loss of cell viability. These effects can occur at sterol concentrations as low as 6.25 ..mu..M and after as little as 5 min of preincubation, but they are increased at higher concentrations and longer preincubation times. The inhibition can be almost completely reversed by preincubation in lipoprotein-replete serum (human AB serum, 20% (vol/vol)) and may be partially corrected by addition of free cholesterol (0.125 mM) to the medium. These effects are unlikely to be due to inhibition of cellular sterol synthesis, competition for chemotaxin membrane binding sites, or deactivation of the leukocytes but they may be a consequence of insertion of the sterol molecule into the leukocyte plasma membranes.

  12. Digitonide precipitable sterols: a reevaluation with special attention to lanosterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cenedella, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The ability of digitonin to precipitate lanosterol from prepared mixtures and biological sources was evaluated. Commercially available lanosterol was determined to be composed of about 60% lanosterol and 40% dihydrolanosterol. Both sterols were only partially precipitated by digitonin under all conditions examined. The presence of cholesterol increased the precipitation of lanosterol, but never to completion. About 40% of the lanosterols from saponified sheep's-wool fat was not precipitated by digitonin. Also /sup 14/C-labeled lanosterol recovered from rat brain following intracerebral injection of 2-(/sup 14/C)mevalonate was only 70% precipitated by digitonin. Steric hinderance by the methyl groups at carbon -4 is suggesed to explain the poor precipitability of this sterol. In conclusion, lanosterol can not be considered to be a digitonide-precipitable sterol equivalent to cholesterol. Caution should be exercised in situations where digitonin-precipitable sterols are being prepared from sources containing significant concentrations of lanosterol (i.e., mass and/or radiolabel).

  13. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  14. N-Glycosylation Modification of Plant-Derived Virus-Like Particles: An Application in Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jae-Heung; Lee, Kyung Jin; Ko, Kisung

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been developed as an alternative system to mammalian cells for production of recombinant prophylactic or therapeutic proteins for human and animal use. Effective plant expression systems for recombinant proteins have been established with the optimal combination of gene expression regulatory elements and control of posttranslational processing of recombinant glycoproteins. In plant, virus-like particles (VLPs), viral empty shells which maintain the same structural characteristics of virions but are genome-free, are considered extremely promising as vaccine platforms and therapeutic delivery systems. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out N-glycosylation as a posttranslational modification of glycoproteins. Recent advances in the glycoengineering in plant allow human-like glycomodification and optimization of desired glycan structures for enhancing safety and functionality of recombinant pharmaceutical glycoproteins. In this review, the current plant-derived VLP approaches are focused, and N-glycosylation and its in planta modifications are discussed. PMID:24971324

  15. Sterols in a unicellular relative of the metazoans.

    PubMed

    Kodner, Robin B; Summons, Roger E; Pearson, Ann; King, Nicole; Knoll, Andrew H

    2008-07-22

    Molecular clocks suggest that animals originated well before they first appear as macroscopic fossils, but geologic tests of these hypotheses have been elusive. A rare steroid hydrocarbon, 24-isopropylcholestane, has been hypothesized to be a biomarker for sponges or their immediate ancestors because of its relatively high abundance in pre-Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks and oils. Biolipid precursors of this sterane have been reported to be prominent in several demosponges. Whether 24-isopropylcholestane can be interpreted as a sponge (and, hence, animal) biomarker, and so provide clues about early metazoan history, depends on an understanding of the distribution of sterol biosynthesis among animals and their protistan relatives. Accordingly, we characterized the sterol profile of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, a representative of the unicellular sister group of animals. M. brevicollis does not produce a candidate sterol precursor for 24-isopropylcholestane under our experimental growth conditions. It does, however, produce a number of other sterols, and comparative genomics confirms its biosynthetic potential to produce the full suite of compounds recovered. Consistent with the phylogenetic position of choanoflagellates, the sterol profile and biosynthetic pathway of M. brevicollis display characteristics of both fungal and poriferan sterol biosynthesis. This is an example in which genomic and biochemical information have been used together to investigate the taxonomic specificity of a fossil biomarker. PMID:18632573

  16. Sterols in a unicellular relative of the metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Kodner, Robin B.; Summons, Roger E.; Pearson, Ann; King, Nicole; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular clocks suggest that animals originated well before they first appear as macroscopic fossils, but geologic tests of these hypotheses have been elusive. A rare steroid hydrocarbon, 24-isopropylcholestane, has been hypothesized to be a biomarker for sponges or their immediate ancestors because of its relatively high abundance in pre-Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks and oils. Biolipid precursors of this sterane have been reported to be prominent in several demosponges. Whether 24-isopropylcholestane can be interpreted as a sponge (and, hence, animal) biomarker, and so provide clues about early metazoan history, depends on an understanding of the distribution of sterol biosynthesis among animals and their protistan relatives. Accordingly, we characterized the sterol profile of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, a representative of the unicellular sister group of animals. M. brevicollis does not produce a candidate sterol precursor for 24-isopropylcholestane under our experimental growth conditions. It does, however, produce a number of other sterols, and comparative genomics confirms its biosynthetic potential to produce the full suite of compounds recovered. Consistent with the phylogenetic position of choanoflagellates, the sterol profile and biosynthetic pathway of M. brevicollis display characteristics of both fungal and poriferan sterol biosynthesis. This is an example in which genomic and biochemical information have been used together to investigate the taxonomic specificity of a fossil biomarker. PMID:18632573

  17. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  18. SURVEY OF THE STEROL COMPOSITION OF THE MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES KARENIA BREVIS, KARENIA MIKIMOTOI, AND KARLODINIUM MICRUM: DISTRIBUTION OF STEROLS WITHIN OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLASS DINOPHYCEAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sterol composition of different marine microalgae was examined to determine the utility of sterols as biomarkers to distinguish members of various algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae possess certain 4-methyl sterols, such as dinosterol, which are rare...

  19. Mutations in UDP-Glucose:Sterol Glucosyltransferase in Arabidopsis Cause Transparent Testa Phenotype and Suberization Defect in Seeds1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    DeBolt, Seth; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Schrick, Kathrin; Auer, Manfred; Beisson, Fred; Bischoff, Volker; Bouvier-Navé, Pierrette; Carroll, Andrew; Hematy, Kian; Li, Yonghua; Milne, Jennifer; Nair, Meera; Schaller, Hubert; Zemla, Marcin; Somerville, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In higher plants, the most abundant sterol derivatives are steryl glycosides (SGs) and acyl SGs. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1, that encode UDP-Glc:sterol glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of SGs. Lines having mutations in UGT80A2, UGT80B1, or both UGT80A2 and UGT8B1 were identified and characterized. The ugt80A2 lines were viable and exhibited relatively minor effects on plant growth. Conversely, ugt80B1 mutants displayed an array of phenotypes that were pronounced in the embryo and seed. Most notable was the finding that ugt80B1 was allelic to transparent testa15 and displayed a transparent testa phenotype and a reduction in seed size. In addition to the role of UGT80B1 in the deposition of flavanoids, a loss of suberization of the seed was apparent in ugt80B1 by the lack of autofluorescence at the hilum region. Moreover, in ugt80B1, scanning and transmission electron microscopy reveals that the outer integument of the seed coat lost the electron-dense cuticle layer at its surface and displayed altered cell morphology. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of lipid polyester monomers confirmed a drastic decrease in aliphatic suberin and cutin-like polymers that was associated with an inability to limit tetrazolium salt uptake. The findings suggest a membrane function for SGs and acyl SGs in trafficking of lipid polyester precursors. An ancillary observation was that cellulose biosynthesis was unaffected in the double mutant, inconsistent with a predicted role for SGs in priming cellulose synthesis. PMID:19641030

  20. Lanostane triterpenoids and sterols from Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Hseu, You-Cheng; Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Tsai, Yao-Ching; Chien, Shih-Chang; Amagaya, Sakae; Chen, Yu-Chang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2012-12-01

    Four lanostane triterpenes, 3,7,11-trioxo-5α-lanosta-8,24(E)-dien-26-oic acid, methyl 11α-3,7-dioxo-5α-lanosta-8,24(E)-dien-26-oate, methyl 3,7,11,12,15,23-hexaoxo-5α-lanost-8-en-26-oate, and ethyl 3,7,11,12,15,23-hexaoxo-5α-lanost-8-en-26-oate, two sterols, (14α,22E)-14-hydroxyergosta-7,22-diene-3,6-dione and a steroid named as camphosterol A were isolated from a mixture of fruiting bodies and mycelia of solid cultures of Antrodia camphorata. The ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectra of all compounds were fully assigned using a combination of 2D NMR experiments, including COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY sequences. Six compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines, all of which has moderate activity. PMID:22999074

  1. Fate of Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Some Carboxylated Derivatives in Three American Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of a comprehensive group of nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates and several of their carboxylated derivatives was studied in three American wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), two of which included advanced treatment. In spite of being located in three different metropolitan areas, wa...

  2. 29-Norcucurbitacin derivatives isolated from the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Dikdik; Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo

    2008-02-01

    The new 29-norcucurbitacin, desacetylfevicordin A (1), together with three known 29-norcucurbitacin derivatives (2-4) were isolated from seeds of the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical transformation. These compounds exhibited toxicity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). PMID:18256498

  3. A combination of plant-derived odors reduces corticosterone and oxidative indicators of stress.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we measured typical stress markers in addition to oxidative status and reduced glutathione in erythrocytes, and plasma lipid peroxidation of restraint-stressed animals exposed to a combination of plant-derived odors (0.03% Z-3-hexen-1-ol, 0.03% E-2-hexenal, and 0.015% α-pinene in triethyl citrate). Male Wistar rats aged 6-7 weeks postnatal were exposed to vehicle (triethyl citrate, n = 12), plant-derived odors (n = 12), or 1% propionic acid odor (n = 12) under control or stress conditions, and blood samples were collected. Restraint stress increased plasma glucose and plasma corticosterone concentrations by approximately 10% (P < 0.01) and 125% (P < 0.001), respectively, in vehicle-exposed animals. Similar increases were observed in animals exposed to a 1% propionic acid odor, indicating the novelty of odor exposure does not alter stress responsiveness. There was also an increase of approximately 15% in both erythrocytic oxidative status (P < 0.001) and plasma lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05), and a decrease of approximately the same magnitude in reduced glutathione (P < 0.05) in restrained animals with vehicle exposure. There were no differences observed between control and stress treatment with plant-derived odor exposure in any of the measured parameters. It was concluded that exposure to plant-derived odors reduce corticosterone, glucose, and redox responses elicited by psychological stress. PMID:24935864

  4. Acetylamine derivative of diospyrin, a plant-derived binaphthylquinonoid, inhibits human colon cancer growth in Nod-Scid mice.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Sudipta; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B N; Hazra, Banasri

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer activity of diospyrin and its derivatives (1-5) was evaluated against thirteen human cell lines. Compared to diospyrin (1), the acetylamine derivative (4) exhibited increase in cytotoxicity, particularly in HT-29 colon cancer cells, showing GI50 values of 33.90 and 1.96 ?M, respectively. Also, enhanced toxicity was observed when cells, pre-treated with compound 4, were exposed to radiation. In vivo assessment of 4 was undertaken on tumour-bearing Nod-Scid mice treated at 4 mg/kg/day. Significant reduction in relative tumour volume (~86-91 %) was observed during the 12th-37th days after drug treatment. Increased caspase-3 activity and DNA ladder formation was observed in HT-29 cells after treatment with 4, suggesting induction of apoptotic death after drug treatment. Moreover, flow cytometric determination of Annexin V- FITC positive and PI negative cells demonstrated 17.4, 26.4, and 27.9 % of early apoptosis, respectively, upon treatment with 5, 10 and 25 ?M of 4. HT-29 cells after treatment with 4 (1-25 ?M) revealed ~2.5- 3- folds generation of ROS. Furthermore, concentration dependent decrease of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential (??m), and expression of Bcl-2/Bax and other marker proteins suggested involvement of mitochondrial pathway of cell death. Overall, our results demonstrated the underlying cell-death mechanism of the plant-derived naphthoquinonoid (4), and established it as a prospective chemotherapeutic 'lead' molecule against colon cancer. PMID:25262983

  5. The role of sterol-C4-methyl oxidase in epidermal biology.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Smith, Laurie D; Chang, Richard; Li, Xueli; Vockley, Jerry

    2014-03-01

    Deficiency of sterol C4 methyl oxidase, encoded by the SC4MOL gene, has recently been described in four patients from three different families. All of the patients presented with microcephaly, congenital cataracts, and growth delay in infancy. The first patient has suffered since the age of six years from severe, diffuse, psoriasiform dermatitis, sparing only her palms. She is now 20 years old. The second patient is a 5 year old girl who has just started to develop dry skin and hair changes. The third and fourth patients are a pair of affected siblings with a severe skin condition since infancy. Quantitative sterol analysis of plasma and skin scales from all four patients showed marked elevation of 4α-methyl- and 4, 4'-dimethylsterols, consistent with a deficiency in the first step of sterol C4 demethylation in cholesterol biosynthesis. Mutations in the SC4MOL have been identified in all of the patients. SC4MOL deficiency is the first autosomal recessive disorder identified in the sterol demethylation complex. Cellular studies with patient-derived fibroblasts have shown a higher mitotic rate than control cells in cholesterol-depleted medium, with increased de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and accumulation of methylsterols. Immunologic analyses of granulocytes and B cells from patients and obligate carriers in the patients' families indicated dysregulation of immune-related receptors. Inhibition of sterol C4 methyl oxidase in human transformed lymphoblasts induced activation of the cell cycle. Additional studies also demonstrated diminished EGFR signaling and disrupted vesicular trafficking in cells from the affected patients. These findings suggest that methylsterols play an important role in epidermal biology by their influence on cell proliferation, intracellular signaling, vesicular trafficking and immune response. SC4MOL is situated within the psoriasis susceptibility locus PSORS9, and may be a genetic risk factor for common skin conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. PMID:24144731

  6. Derivative Analysis of AVIRIS Hyperspectral Data for the Detection of Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Lee; Berglund, Judith

    2001-01-01

    A remote sensing campaign was conducted over a U.S. Department of Agriculture test site at Shelton, Nebraska. The test field was set off in blocks that were differentially treated with nitrogen. Four replicates of 0-kg/ha to 200-kg/ha, in 50-kg/ha increments, were present. Low-altitude AVIRIS hyperspectral data were collected over the site in 224 spectral bands. Simultaneously, ground data were collected to support the airborne imagery. In an effort to evaluate published, derivative-based algorithms for the detection of plant stress, different derivative-based approaches were applied to the collected AVIRIS image cube. The results indicate that, given good quality hyperspectral imagery, derivative techniques compare favorably with simple, well known band ratio algorithms for detection of plant stress.

  7. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ?2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy. PMID:25022682

  8. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, R M; Lee, S; Edwards, C A; Arancon, N Q; Metzger, J D

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, and 4,000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1,000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates. PMID:12137272

  9. Male-derived butterfly anti-aphrodisiac mediates induced indirect plant defense.

    PubMed

    Fatouros, Nina E; Broekgaarden, Colette; Bukovinszkine'Kiss, Gabriella; van Loon, Joop J A; Mumm, Roland; Huigens, Martinus E; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika

    2008-07-22

    Plants can recruit parasitic wasps in response to egg deposition by herbivorous insects-a sophisticated indirect plant defense mechanism. Oviposition by the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae on Brussels sprout plants induces phytochemical changes that arrest the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae. Here, we report the identification of an elicitor of such an oviposition-induced plant response. Eliciting activity was present in accessory gland secretions released by mated female butterflies during egg deposition. In contrast, gland secretions from virgin female butterflies were inactive. In the male ejaculate, P. brassicae females receive the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) that reduces the females' attractiveness for subsequent mating. We detected this pheromone in the accessory gland secretion released by mated female butterflies. When applied onto leaves, BC alone induced phytochemical changes that arrested females of the egg parasitoid. Microarray analyses revealed a similarity in induced plant responses that may explain the arrest of T. brassicae to egg-laden and BC-treated plants. Thus, a male-derived compound endangers the offspring of the butterfly by inducing plant defense. Recently, BC was shown to play a role in foraging behavior of T. brassicae, by acting as a cue to facilitate phoretic transport by mated female butterflies to oviposition sites. Our results suggest that the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone incurs fitness costs for the butterfly by both mediating phoretic behavior and inducing plant defense. PMID:18626017

  10. Plant-derived sweetening agents: saccharide and polyol constituents of some sweet-tasting plants.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R A; Lin, Y M; Poveda, L J; Bordas, E; Chung, B S; Pezzuto, J M; Soejarto, D D; Kinghorn, A D

    1990-02-01

    Samples of the sweet-tasting species Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (Compositae) (aerial parts), Boscia salicifolia Oliv. (Capparidaceae) (stem bark), Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) (peduncles) and Inga spectabilis Willd. (Leguminosae) (arils) were acquired as part of a continuing search for high-intensity natural sweeteners of plant origin. Following their preliminary safety evaluation, the sweetness of these plants was traced to large amounts of sugars and polyols by taste-guided fractionation, which were identified and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The combined yields of sugars and polyols in the A. hispidum, B. salicifolia, H. dulcis, and I. spectabilis samples investigated were 6.9, 10.1, 18.4 and 12.1% w/w, respectively. These yields are much higher than the total saccharide and polyol content (2.4% w/w) of the sweet dried fruits of Thladiantha grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), a species which has previously been reported to contain more than 1% w/w of the intensely sweet triterpene, mogroside V. The dried leaves of Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Hrit. (Symplocaceae), which were not appreciably sweet, were found to contain only 2.0% w/w of sugars. The results of this investigation, therefore, suggest that unless the saccharide and/or polyol content of a plant part is well over 5% w/w, then it is unlikely to exhibit an overtly sweet taste, unless an intense sweetener is present. PMID:2314108

  11. Lipid, FA, and sterol composition of New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) and Tasmanian blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karen J; Mooney, Ben D; Mann, Neil J; Nichols, Peter D; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2002-06-01

    The lipid, FA, and sterol composition of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (NZGLM, Perna canaliculus) and of the Tasmanian blue mussel (TBM, Mytilus edulis) were compared using TLC-FID and GC-MS. The respective mussel species were obtained from three different sites in both New Zealand (NZ) and Tasmania. Lipid class distribution of both mussel species was characterized by a high proportion of phospholipid (PL, 57-79%) and TG (10-25%), FFA (7-12%), and sterols (ST, 12-18%). The NZGLM had higher proportions of TG, FFA, and ST (P < 0.01), whereas the TBM had a higher proportion of PL (P < 0.01). There were higher proportions of total PUFA, saturated FA, n-3 FA, and hydroxy and nonmethylene-interrupted FA (P < 0.05) in the TBM compared with the NZGLM. The major FA in the NZGLM were 16:0 (15-17%), 20:5n-3 (14-20%), and 22:6n-3 (11-17%). The same FA dominated lipids in the TBM, although there were significantly higher proportions of 16:0 (P = 0.000) and 22:6 n-3 (P = 0.003) and lower proportions of 20:5n-3 (P = 0.0072) in the TBM. A novel PUFA, 28:8n-3, was detected in both mussels with higher amounts in the TBM, which probably reflects a greater dietary contribution of dinoflagellates for this species. Cholesterol was the dominant sterol in both mussels. Other major sterols included brassicasterol, 22-methylcholesterol, trans-22-dehydrocholesterol, and desmosterol. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the NZGLM and TBM for 12 of the 20 sterols measured. Six sterols showed significant site differences for the NZGLM, and 10 for the TBM. The differences in the FA and sterol composition between the two species may be due to the diet of the NZGLM being more diatom-derived and the diet of the TBM having a greater dinoflagellate component. PMID:12120958

  12. De novo production of the plant-derived alkaloid strictosidine in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephanie; Clastre, Marc; Courdavault, Vincent; OConnor, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The monoterpene indole alkaloids are a large group of plant-derived specialized metabolites, many of which have valuable pharmaceutical or biological activity. There are ?3,000 monoterpene indole alkaloids produced by thousands of plant species in numerous families. The diverse chemical structures found in this metabolite class originate from strictosidine, which is the last common biosynthetic intermediate for all monoterpene indole alkaloid enzymatic pathways. Reconstitution of biosynthetic pathways in a heterologous host is a promising strategy for rapid and inexpensive production of complex molecules that are found in plants. Here, we demonstrate how strictosidine can be produced de novo in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host from 14 known monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway genes, along with an additional seven genes and three gene deletions that enhance secondary metabolism. This system provides an important resource for developing the production of more complex plant-derived alkaloids, engineering of nonnatural derivatives, identification of bottlenecks in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis, and discovery of new pathway genes in a convenient yeast host. PMID:25675512

  13. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Plants interact with the environment by sensing non-self molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

  14. Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants.

    PubMed

    Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

    2011-12-01

    Plants interact with the environment by sensing "non-self" molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

  15. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1 000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  16. Potential of Plant-Derived Natural Products in the Treatment of Leukemia and Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, David M.; Still, Patrick C.; Prez, Lynette Bueno; Grever, Michael R.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies account for a substantial percentage of cancers worldwide, and the heterogeneity and biological characteristics of leukemias and lymphomas present unique therapeutic challenges. Although treatment options exist for most of these diseases, many types remain incurable and the emergence of drug resistance is pervasive. Thus, novel treatment approaches are essential to improve outcome. Nearly half of the agents used in cancer therapy today are either natural products or derivatives of natural products. The enormous chemical diversity in nature, coupled with millennia of biological selection, has generated a vast and underexplored reservoir of unique chemical structures with biologic activity. This review will describe the investigation and application of natural products derived from higher plants in the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma and the rationale behind these efforts. In addition to the approved vinca alkaloids and the epipodophyllotoxin derivatives, a number of other plant compounds have shown promise in clinical trials and in preclinical investigations. In particular, we will focus on the discovery and biological evaluation of the plant-derived agent silvestrol, which shows potential for additional development as a new therapeutic agent for B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:20370646

  17. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703

  18. The Arabidopsis dwf7/ste1 mutant is defective in the delta7 sterol C-5 desaturation step leading to brassinosteroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Choe, S; Noguchi, T; Fujioka, S; Takatsuto, S; Tissier, C P; Gregory, B D; Ross, A S; Tanaka, A; Yoshida, S; Tax, F E; Feldmann, K A

    1999-01-01

    Lesions in brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthetic genes result in characteristic dwarf phenotypes in plants. Understanding the regulation of BR biosynthesis demands continued isolation and characterization of mutants corresponding to the genes involved in BR biosynthesis. Here, we present analysis of a novel BR biosynthetic locus, dwarf7 (dwf7). Feeding studies with BR biosynthetic intermediates and analysis of endogenous levels of BR and sterol biosynthetic intermediates indicate that the defective step in dwf7-1 resides before the production of 24-methylenecholesterol in the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, results from feeding studies with 13C-labeled mevalonic acid and compactin show that the defective step is specifically the Delta7 sterol C-5 desaturation, suggesting that dwf7 is an allele of the previously cloned STEROL1 (STE1) gene. Sequencing of the STE1 locus in two dwf7 mutants revealed premature stop codons in the first (dwf7-2) and the third (dwf7-1) exons. Thus, the reduction of BRs in dwf7 is due to a shortage of substrate sterols and is the direct cause of the dwarf phenotype in dwf7. PMID:9927639

  19. Different bacterial populations associated with the roots and rhizosphere of rice incorporate plant-derived carbon.

    PubMed

    Hernndez, Marcela; Dumont, Marc G; Yuan, Quan; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    Microorganisms associated with the roots of plants have an important function in plant growth and in soil carbon sequestration. Rice cultivation is the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric CH4, which is a significant greenhouse gas. Up to 60% of fixed carbon formed by photosynthesis in plants is transported below ground, much of it as root exudates that are consumed by microorganisms. A stable isotope probing (SIP) approach was used to identify microorganisms using plant carbon in association with the roots and rhizosphere of rice plants. Rice plants grown in Italian paddy soil were labeled with (13)CO2 for 10 days. RNA was extracted from root material and rhizosphere soil and subjected to cesium gradient centrifugation followed by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to identify microorganisms enriched with (13)C. Thirty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were labeled and mostly corresponded to Proteobacteria (13 OTUs) and Verrucomicrobia (8 OTUs). These OTUs were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria and the "Spartobacteria" and Opitutae classes of Verrucomicrobia. In general, different bacterial groups were labeled in the root and rhizosphere, reflecting different physicochemical characteristics of these locations. The labeled OTUs in the root compartment corresponded to a greater proportion of the 16S rRNA sequences (?20%) than did those in the rhizosphere (?4%), indicating that a proportion of the active microbial community on the roots greater than that in the rhizosphere incorporated plant-derived carbon within the time frame of the experiment. PMID:25616793

  20. Different Bacterial Populations Associated with the Roots and Rhizosphere of Rice Incorporate Plant-Derived Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Marcela; Yuan, Quan; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the roots of plants have an important function in plant growth and in soil carbon sequestration. Rice cultivation is the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric CH4, which is a significant greenhouse gas. Up to 60% of fixed carbon formed by photosynthesis in plants is transported below ground, much of it as root exudates that are consumed by microorganisms. A stable isotope probing (SIP) approach was used to identify microorganisms using plant carbon in association with the roots and rhizosphere of rice plants. Rice plants grown in Italian paddy soil were labeled with 13CO2 for 10 days. RNA was extracted from root material and rhizosphere soil and subjected to cesium gradient centrifugation followed by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to identify microorganisms enriched with 13C. Thirty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were labeled and mostly corresponded to Proteobacteria (13 OTUs) and Verrucomicrobia (8 OTUs). These OTUs were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria and the “Spartobacteria” and Opitutae classes of Verrucomicrobia. In general, different bacterial groups were labeled in the root and rhizosphere, reflecting different physicochemical characteristics of these locations. The labeled OTUs in the root compartment corresponded to a greater proportion of the 16S rRNA sequences (∼20%) than did those in the rhizosphere (∼4%), indicating that a proportion of the active microbial community on the roots greater than that in the rhizosphere incorporated plant-derived carbon within the time frame of the experiment. PMID:25616793

  1. Response of γδ T cells to plant-derived tannins

    PubMed Central

    Holderness, Jeff; Hedges, Jodi F.; Daughenbaugh, Katie; Kimmel, Emily; Graff, Jill; Freedman, Brett; Jutila, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical drugs are isolated from plants used in traditional medicines. Through screening plant extracts, both traditional medicines and compound libraries, new pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Currently, two plant-derived agonists for γδ T cells are described. These plant-derived agonists impart innate effector functions upon distinct γδ T cell subsets. Plant tannins represent one class of γδ T cell agonist and preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal γδ T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair. Select tannins, isolated from apple peel, rapidly induce immune gene transcription in γδ T cells, leading to cytokine production and increased responsiveness to secondary signals. Activity of these tannin preparations tracks to the procyanidin fraction, with the procyanidin trimer (C1) having the most robust activity defined to date. The response to the procyanidins is evolutionarily conserved in that responses are seen with human, bovine, and murine γδ T cells. Procyanidin-induced responses described in this review likely account for the expansion of mucosal γδ T cells seen in mice and rats fed soluble extracts of tannins. Procyanidins may represent a novel approach for treatment of tissue damage, chronic infection, and autoimmune therpies. PMID:19166386

  2. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

  3. Strategies to protect crop plants against viruses: pathogen-derived resistance blossoms.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T M

    1993-01-01

    Since 1986, the ability to confer resistance against an otherwise devastating virus by introducing a single pathogen-derived or virus-targeted sequence into the DNA of a potential host plant has had a marked influence on much of the research effort, focus, and short-term objectives of plant virologists throughout the world. The vast literature on coat protein-mediated protection, for example, attests to our fascination for unraveling fundamental molecular mechanism(s), our (vain) search for a unifying hypothesis, our pragmatic interest in commercially exploitable opportunities for crop protection, and our ingenuity in manipulating transgene constructions to broaden their utility and reduce real or perceived environmental risk issues. Other single dominant, pathogen-derived plant resistance genes have recently been discovered from a wide variety of viruses and are operative in an ever-increasing range of plant species. Additional candidates seem limited only by the effort invested in experimentation and by our ingenuity and imagination. This review attempts to consider, in a critical way, the current state of the art, some exceptions, and some proposed rules. The final impression, from all the case evidence considered, is that normal virus replication requires a subtle blend of host- and virus-coded proteins, present in critical relative concentrations and at specific times and places. Any unregulated superimposition of interfering protein or nucleic acid species can, therefore, result in an apparently virus-resistant plant phenotype. PMID:8475051

  4. A dietary test of putative deleterious sterols for the aphid Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Bouvaine, Sophie; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Behmer, Spencer T; Douglas, Angela E

    2014-01-01

    The aphid Myzus persicae displays high mortality on tobacco plants bearing a transgene which results in the accumulation of the ketosteroids cholestan-3-one and cholest-4-en-3-one in the phloem sap. To test whether the ketosteroids are the basis of the plant resistance to the aphids, M. persicae were reared on chemically-defined diets with different steroid contents at 0.1-10 g ml(-1). Relative to sterol-free diet and dietary supplements of the two ketosteroids and two phytosterols, dietary cholesterol significantly extended aphid lifespan and increased fecundity at one or more dietary concentrations tested. Median lifespan was 50% lower on the diet supplemented with cholest-4-en-3-one than on the cholesterol-supplemented diet. Aphid feeding rate did not vary significantly across the treatments, indicative of no anti-feedant effect of any sterol/steroid. Aphids reared on diets containing equal amounts of cholesterol and cholest-4-en-3-one showed fecundity equivalent to aphids on diets containing only cholesterol. Aphids were reared on diets that reproduced the relative steroid abundance in the phloem sap of the control and modified tobacco plants, and their performance on the two diet formulations was broadly equivalent. We conclude that, at the concentrations tested, plant ketosteroids support weaker aphid performance than cholesterol, but do not cause acute toxicity to the aphids. In plants, the ketosteroids may act synergistically with plant factors absent from artificial diets but are unlikely to be solely responsible for resistance of modified tobacco plants. PMID:24465993

  5. A Dietary Test of Putative Deleterious Sterols for the Aphid Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Bouvaine, Sophie; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J.; Behmer, Spencer T.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    The aphid Myzus persicae displays high mortality on tobacco plants bearing a transgene which results in the accumulation of the ketosteroids cholestan-3-one and cholest-4-en-3-one in the phloem sap. To test whether the ketosteroids are the basis of the plant resistance to the aphids, M. persicae were reared on chemically-defined diets with different steroid contents at 0.110 g ml?1. Relative to sterol-free diet and dietary supplements of the two ketosteroids and two phytosterols, dietary cholesterol significantly extended aphid lifespan and increased fecundity at one or more dietary concentrations tested. Median lifespan was 50% lower on the diet supplemented with cholest-4-en-3-one than on the cholesterol-supplemented diet. Aphid feeding rate did not vary significantly across the treatments, indicative of no anti-feedant effect of any sterol/steroid. Aphids reared on diets containing equal amounts of cholesterol and cholest-4-en-3-one showed fecundity equivalent to aphids on diets containing only cholesterol. Aphids were reared on diets that reproduced the relative steroid abundance in the phloem sap of the control and modified tobacco plants, and their performance on the two diet formulations was broadly equivalent. We conclude that, at the concentrations tested, plant ketosteroids support weaker aphid performance than cholesterol, but do not cause acute toxicity to the aphids. In plants, the ketosteroids may act synergistically with plant factors absent from artificial diets but are unlikely to be solely responsible for resistance of modified tobacco plants. PMID:24465993

  6. Sterols and sphingolipids: Dynamic duo or partners in crime?

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sonia; Liu, Ying; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Wilcox, Lisa; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    One manner in which eukaryotic cells respond to their environments is by optimizing the composition and proportions of sterols and sphingolipids in membranes. The physical association of the planar ring of sterols with the acyl chains of phospholipids, particularly sphingolipids, produces membrane micro-heterogeneity that is exploited to coordinate several crucial pathways. We hypothesize that these lipid molecules play an integrated role in human disease; when one of the partners is mis-regulated, pathology frequently ensues. Sterols and sphingolipid levels are not coordinated by the action of a single master regulator, however the cross talk between their metabolic pathways is considerable. We describe our perspectives on the key components of synthesis, catabolism and transport of these lipid partners with an emphasis on evolutionarily conserved reactions that produce disease states when defective. PMID:20362613

  7. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  8. Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

    2012-01-01

    The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase. PMID:23275691

  9. Phytochemical Investigation of the Constituents Derived from the Australian Plant Macropidia fuliginosa.

    PubMed

    Brklja?a, Robert; White, Jonathan M; Urban, Sylvia

    2015-07-24

    A phytochemical study of the flowers and bulbs derived from the Australian plant Macropidia fuliginosa, involving hyphenated spectroscopic methodologies (HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS), together with conventional isolation strategies, resulted in the identification of 16 constituents (1, 2, 4-17) representative of six different structural classes. Six new compounds (12-17) were identified from the bulbs of the plant. The isolated compounds were assessed for antimicrobial activity, and compound 8 was found to be more potent against P. aeruginosa than ampicillin. PMID:26151487

  10. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  11. Sterol and genomic analyses validate the sponge biomarker hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gold, David A; Grabenstatter, Jonathan; de Mendoza, Alex; Riesgo, Ana; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Summons, Roger E

    2016-03-01

    Molecular fossils (or biomarkers) are key to unraveling the deep history of eukaryotes, especially in the absence of traditional fossils. In this regard, the sterane 24-isopropylcholestane has been proposed as a molecular fossil for sponges, and could represent the oldest evidence for animal life. The sterane is found in rocks ∼650-540 million y old, and its sterol precursor (24-isopropylcholesterol, or 24-ipc) is synthesized today by certain sea sponges. However, 24-ipc is also produced in trace amounts by distantly related pelagophyte algae, whereas only a few close relatives of sponges have been assayed for sterols. In this study, we analyzed the sterol and gene repertoires of four taxa (Salpingoeca rosetta, Capsaspora owczarzaki, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Creolimax fragrantissima), which collectively represent the major living animal outgroups. We discovered that all four taxa lack C30 sterols, including 24-ipc. By building phylogenetic trees for key enzymes in 24-ipc biosynthesis, we identified a candidate gene (carbon-24/28 sterol methyltransferase, or SMT) responsible for 24-ipc production. Our results suggest that pelagophytes and sponges independently evolved C30 sterol biosynthesis through clade-specific SMT duplications. Using a molecular clock approach, we demonstrate that the relevant sponge SMT duplication event overlapped with the appearance of 24-isopropylcholestanes in the Neoproterozoic, but that the algal SMT duplication event occurred later in the Phanerozoic. Subsequently, pelagophyte algae and their relatives are an unlikely alternative to sponges as a source of Neoproterozoic 24-isopropylcholestanes, consistent with growing evidence that sponges evolved long before the Cambrian explosion ∼542 million y ago. PMID:26903629

  12. Properties, structure, and applications of microbial sterol esterases.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Maria Eugenia; Barriuso, Jorge; Martínez, María Jesús; Prieto, Alicia

    2016-03-01

    According to their substrate preferences, carboxylic ester hydrolases are organized in smaller clusters. Among them, sterol esterases (EC 3.1.1.13), also known as cholesterol esterases, act on fatty acid esters of cholesterol and other sterols in aqueous media, and are also able to catalyze synthesis by esterification or transesterification in the presence of organic solvents. Mammalian cholesterol esterases are intracellular enzymes that have been extensively studied since they are essential in lipid metabolism and cholesterol absorption, and the natural role of some microbial sterol esterases is supposed to be similar. However, besides these intracellular enzymes, a number of microbes produce extracellular sterol esterases, which show broad stability, selectivity, or wide substrate specificity, making them interesting for the industry. In spite of this, there is little information about microbial sterol esterases, and only a small amount of them have been characterized. Some of the most commercially exploited cholesterol esterases are produced by Pseudomonas species and by Candida rugosa, although in the last case they are usually described and named as "high substrate versatility lipases." From a structural point of view, most of them belong to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily and have a conserved "catalytic triad" formed by His, an acidic amino acid and a Ser residue that is located in a highly conserved GXSXG sequence. In this review, the information available on microbial sterol esterases has been gathered, taking into account their origin, production and purification, heterologous expression, structure, stability, or substrate specificity, which are the main properties that make them attractive for different applications. Moreover, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis on available sequences of cholesterol esterases has been done, including putative sequences deduced from public genomes. PMID:26743653

  13. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and sterol composition of the marine algae, Sargassum glaucescens

    PubMed Central

    Payghami, Nasrin; Jamili, Shahla; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Nikan, Marjan; Gohari, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sargassum species (phaeophyceae) are economically important brown algae in southern parts of Iran. Sargassum is mainly harvested as a row material in alginate production industries and is a source of plant foods or plant bio-stimulants even a component of animal foods. Objective: In this study, Sargassum glaucescens, collected from the seashore of Chabahar, was employed for phytochemical and biological evaluations. Materials and Methods: For that purpose, the dried algae was extracted by methanol and subjected to different chromatographic separation methods. Results: Six sterols, fucosterol (1), 24(S)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (2), 24(R)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (3), stigmasterol (4), β-sitosterol (5) and cholesterol (6) were identified by spectroscopic methods including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibitory test was performed on the methanolic extract and the results revealed a potent inhibition (IC50 = 8.9 ± 2.4 mg/mL) of the enzyme compared to acarbose as a positive control. Conclusion: Various biological activities and distribution of sterols in Sargassum genus have been critically reviewed here. The results concluded that these algae are a good candidate for further anti-diabetic investigations in animals and human. PMID:26692744

  14. Citrus genus plants contain N-methylated tryptamine derivatives and their 5-hydroxylated forms.

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

    2013-05-29

    The occurrence and distribution in Citrus genus plants of N-methylated derivatives of tryptamine and their 5-hydroxylated forms are reported. Tryptamine, N-methyltryptamine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), 5-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (bufotenine), and 5-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine (bufotenidine) were quantitated by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Leaves of all citrus plants examined contained N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine, a compound that we first discovered in the bergamot plant. Interestingly, we also found out that all plants examined contained 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine, compounds never described so far in the Citrus genus. As N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine and 5-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine possess nicotine-like activity by exerting their action on acetylcholine receptors, it is conceivable that both represent the arrival point of a biosynthetic pathway aimed to provide Citrus plants with chemical defense against aggressors. This hypothesis is supported by our finding that leaves and seeds, which are more frequently attacked by biotic agents, are the parts of the plant where the highest levels of those compounds were found. PMID:23682903

  15. Molecular docking based screening of GABA (A) receptor inhibitors from plant derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sahila, Mohammed Marunnan; Babitha, Pallikkara Pulikkal; Bandaru, Srinivas; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Doss, Victor Arokia

    2015-01-01

    The present antipsychotic drugs have known to show serious concerns like extra pyramidal side effects therefore, pursuit for novel antipsychotic GABAnergic drugs has lately focused on the folkloric medicine from plant derivatives as better treatment option of schizophrenia. The present study centers to identify potential inhibitors of plant origin for GABA receptor through in silico approaches. Three compound datasets were undertaken in the study. The first set consisted of seven compounds which included Magnolol, Honokiol and other plant derivatives. The second set consisted of 16 derivatives of N-diarylalkenyl-piperidinecarboxylic acid synthesized by Zheng et al., 2006. The third dataset had thirty two compounds which were Magnolol and Honokiol analogues synthesized by Fuchs et al., 2014. All the compounds were docked at the allosteric site of the GABA (A) receptor. The compounds were further tested for ADMET and biological activity. We observed Honokiol and its derivatives demonstrated superior druglike properties than any compound undertaken in the study. Further, compound 61 [2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-propylphenol] of dataset three - a synthetic derivative of honokiol had better profile than its parent compound. In a possible attempt to identify compound with even better efficacious compound than 61, virtual screening was performed, 135 compounds akin to compound 61 were retrieved. Interestingly none of the 135 compounds showed better druggable properties than compound 61. Our in silico pharmacological profiling of compounds is in coherence and is complemented by the findings of Fuchs et al, which also revealed compound 61 to be the good potentiator of GABA receptor. Abbreviations GABA (A) R - Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Receptor, subtype A, GPCR - G Protein Coupled Receptor, OPLS - Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations, PDB - Protein Data Bank, PLP - Piece wise Linear Potential, T.E.S.T - Toxicity Estimation Software Tool, TCM - Traditional Chinese Medicine. PMID:26229288

  16. Plant-Derived Phenolics Inhibit the Accrual of Structurally Characterised Protein and Lipid Oxidative Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Cassany, Anna; Serrano, Jos C. E.; Arola, Lluis; Valls, Josep; Bellmunt, Maria Josep; Prat, Joan; Pamplona, Reinald; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Motilva, Maria-Jos

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that plant-derived phenolics beneficial effects include an inhibition of LDL oxidation. After applying a screening method based on 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine- protein carbonyl reaction to 21 different plant-derived phenolic acids, we selected the most antioxidant ones. Their effect was assessed in 5 different oxidation systems, as well as in other model proteins. Mass-spectrometry was then used, evidencing a heterogeneous effect on the accumulation of the structurally characterized protein carbonyl glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes as well as for malondialdehyde-lysine in LDL apoprotein. After TOF based lipidomics, we identified the most abundant differential lipids in Cu++-incubated LDL as 1-palmitoyllysophosphatidylcholine and 1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Most of selected phenolic compounds prevented the accumulation of those phospholipids and the cellular impairment induced by oxidized LDL. Finally, to validate these effects in vivo, we evaluated the effect of the intake of a phenolic-enriched extract in plasma protein and lipid modifications in a well-established model of atherosclerosis (diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in hamsters). This showed that a dietary supplement with a phenolic-enriched extract diminished plasma protein oxidative and lipid damage. Globally, these data show structural basis of antioxidant properties of plant-derived phenolic acids in protein oxidation that may be relevant for the health-promoting effects of its dietary intake. PMID:22952663

  17. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; Zhang, Changkuan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd(2+)/NH4(+) sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500°C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH4(+) and Cd(2+), with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8mgg(-1), respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3mgg(-1)) for Cd(2+). Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd(2+) sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. PMID:26386447

  18. Characterization of siRNAs derived from cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in infected cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Shang, Qiaoxia; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Xingliang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, were characterised in cucumber plants by deep sequencing. CGMMV vsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length predominated, suggesting that there might be a conserved mechanism of DCL2 and DCL4 involvement in the biogenesis of vsiRNAs, as well as a common RNA silencing pathway in CGMMV-infected cucumber plants. The 5'-terminal base of vsiRNAs was biased towards C/A/U, suggesting that CGMMV vsiRNAs might be loaded into diverse AGO-containing RISCs to disturb the gene expression of host plants. Possible targets for some of the vsiRNAs were also predicted. PMID:26586331

  19. Sorption of ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from phytoremediation plants*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zheng; Zhang, Song-da; Li, Ting-qiang; Zhao, Feng-liang; He, Zhen-li; Zhao, He-ping; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Hai-long; Zhao, Jing; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The study on biochar derived from plant biomass for environmental applications is attracting more and more attention. Twelve sets of biochar were obtained by treating four phytoremediation plants, Salix rosthornii Seemen, Thalia dealbata, Vetiveria zizanioides, and Phragmites sp., sequentially through pyrolysis at 500 C in a N2 environment, and under different temperatures (500, 600, and 700 C) in a CO2 environment. The cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of biochar varied with both plant species and pyrolysis temperature. The magnesium (Mg) content of biochar derived from T. dealbata (TC) was obviously higher than that of the other plant biochars. This biochar also had the highest sorption capacity for phosphate and ammonium. In terms of biomass yields, adsorption capacity, and energy cost, T. dealbata biochar produced at 600 C (TC600) is the most promising sorbent for removing contaminants (N and P) from aqueous solution. Therefore, T. dealbata appears to be the best candidate for phytoremediation application as its biomass can make a good biochar for environmental cleaning. PMID:24302715

  20. Sorption of ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from phytoremediation plants.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng; Zhang, Song-da; Li, Ting-qiang; Zhao, Feng-liang; He, Zhen-li; Zhao, He-ping; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Hai-long; Zhao, Jing; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq

    2013-12-01

    The study on biochar derived from plant biomass for environmental applications is attracting more and more attention. Twelve sets of biochar were obtained by treating four phytoremediation plants, Salix rosthornii Seemen, Thalia dealbata, Vetiveria zizanioides, and Phragmites sp., sequentially through pyrolysis at 500 °C in a N2 environment, and under different temperatures (500, 600, and 700 °C) in a CO2 environment. The cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of biochar varied with both plant species and pyrolysis temperature. The magnesium (Mg) content of biochar derived from T. dealbata (TC) was obviously higher than that of the other plant biochars. This biochar also had the highest sorption capacity for phosphate and ammonium. In terms of biomass yields, adsorption capacity, and energy cost, T. dealbata biochar produced at 600 °C (TC600) is the most promising sorbent for removing contaminants (N and P) from aqueous solution. Therefore, T. dealbata appears to be the best candidate for phytoremediation application as its biomass can make a good biochar for environmental cleaning. PMID:24302715

  1. Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2014-02-01

    Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

  2. Benzothiadiazole (BTH) activates sterol pathway and affects vitamin D3 metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Burlini, Nedda; Iriti, Marcello; Daghetti, Anna; Faoro, Franco; Ruggiero, Antonietta; Bernasconi, Silvana

    2011-11-01

    Benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), a particularly efficient inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was developed as an immunizing agent to sensitize various crop species against pathogen infections. Recent works highlighted its activating effect on different metabolic pathways, concerning both primary and secondary metabolites. In this study, we investigated the effect of BTH treatment on sterol levels and vitamin D(3) metabolism in Solanum malacoxylon cultures. Calli of S. malacoxylon were incubated in Gamborg B5 liquid medium alone or added with 50?M BTH for different times (one, two or three cycles of light). Histocytochemical investigations performed on our experimental system using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) for hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) detection and phloroglucinol for lignin staining showed that BTH causes H(2)O(2) accumulation and lignin deposition in treated calli. Gas chromatographic analysis of principal cell membrane sterols (?-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol) showed that BTH transiently increases their cellular levels. Callus cultures were found to contain also cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, the putative precursor of vitamin D(3), and the hydroxylated metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1?,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. BTH treatment enhanced 7-dehydrocholesterol while reduced cholesterol. HPLC analysis of sample extracts showed that BTH does not affect the cell content of vitamin D(3), though results of ELISA tests highlighted that this elicitor moderately enhances the levels of 25(OH)D(3) and 1?,25(OH)(2)D(3) metabolites. In conclusion, BTH treatment not only causes cell wall strengthening, a typical plant defence response, as just described in other experimental models, but in the same time increases the cellular level of the main sterols and 7-dehydrocholesterol. PMID:21779826

  3. Structural and Functional Analyses of a Sterol Carrier Protein in Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Zheng, Sichun; He, Hongwu; Wan, Jian; Feng, Qili

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds In insects, cholesterol is one of the membrane components in cells and a precursor of ecdysteroid biosynthesis. Because insects lack two key enzymes, squalene synthase and lanosterol synthase, in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, they cannot autonomously synthesize cholesterol de novo from simple compounds and therefore have to obtain sterols from their diet. Sterol carrier protein (SCP) is a cholesterol-binding protein responsible for cholesterol absorption and transport. Results In this study, a model of the three-dimensional structure of SlSCPx-2 in Spodoptera litura, a destructive polyphagous agricultural pest insect in tropical and subtropical areas, was constructed. Docking of sterol and fatty acid ligands to SlSCPx-2 and ANS fluorescent replacement assay showed that SlSCPx-2 was able to bind with relatively high affinities to cholesterol, stearic acid, linoleic acid, stigmasterol, oleic acid, palmitic acid and arachidonate, implying that SlSCPx may play an important role in absorption and transport of these cholesterol and fatty acids from host plants. Site-directed mutation assay of SlSCPx-2 suggests that amino acid residues F53, W66, F89, F110, I115, T128 and Q131 are critical for the ligand-binding activity of the SlSCPx-2 protein. Virtual ligand screening resulted in identification of several lead compounds which are potential inhibitors of SlSCPx-2. Bioassay for inhibitory effect of five selected compounds showed that AH-487/41731687, AG-664/14117324, AG-205/36813059 and AG-205/07775053 inhibited the growth of S. litura larvae. Conclusions Compounds AH-487/41731687, AG-664/14117324, AG-205/36813059 and AG-205/07775053 selected based on structural modeling showed binding affinity to SlSCPx-2 protein and inhibitory effect on the growth of S. litura larvae. PMID:24454688

  4. Triglyceride-Lowering Response To Plant Sterol and Stanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, Todd C; Marinangeli, Christopher PF; Harding, Scott V

    2015-01-01

    Phytosterols (PS) have long been recognized for their cholesterol-lowering action, however, recent work has highlighted triglyceride (TG)-lowering responses to PS that may have been overlooked in previous human interventions and mechanistic animal model studies. This review assesses the current state of knowledge regarding the effect of dietary PS supplementation on blood TG concentrations by examining the average therapeutic response, potential mechanisms, and metabolic and genetic factors that may contribute to inter-individual variability. Data from human intervention trials demonstrates that, compared to baseline concentrations, PS supplementation results in a variable TG-lowering response ranging from 0.8 to 28%. It is evident that hypertriglyceridemic individuals (>1.7 mmol/L) have a greater TG-lowering response to PS (11–28%) than subjects with normal plasma TG concentrations (0.8–7%). Although a genetic basis for the variable TG-lowering effects of PS is probable, there are only limited studies to draw on. The available data suggest that polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene may affect responsiveness, with PS-induced reductions in TG more readily evident in apoE2 than apoE3 or E4 subjects. Although only a minimal number of animal model studies have been conducted to specifically examine the mechanisms whereby PS may reduce blood TG concentrations, it appears that there may be multiple mechanisms involved including interruption of intestinal fatty acid absorption and modulation of hepatic lipogenesis and VLDL packaging and secretion. In summary, the available data suggest that PS may be an effective therapy to lower blood TG, particularly in hypertriglyceridemic individuals. However, before PS can be widely recommended as a TG-lowering therapy, studies that are specifically powered and designed to fully access therapeutic responses and the mechanisms involved are required. PMID:25941890

  5. Inhibitory effects of various oxygenated sterols on the differentiation and function of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Spangrude, G.J.; Sherris, D.; Daynes, R.A.

    1982-05-01

    Irradiation of skin with ultraviolet light (UVL) is capable of causing many biological and biochemical changes in this complex organ. One early consequence is the oxidation of epidermal plasma membrane cholesterol, causing the induction of a wide variety of photoproducts. It is well recognized that some oxygenated sterols possess potent biological activity on mammalian cells by their ability to inhibit endogeneous mevalonate and cholesterol biosynthesis. In the few immunological systems that have been studied, there is general agreement that lymphocyte function is lacking, as both afferent and efferent blockades have been suggested. These studies were undertaken to determine the effect of various oxygenated sterols (representing a number of known cholesterol-derived photoproducts) on the generation (afferent) and function (efferent) of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Cell-mediated immune responses which result in the generation of both alloantigen-specific and syngeneic tumor-specific CTLs were evaluated.

  6. INHIBITION OF STEROL METABOLISM IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS BY AY-9944

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caenorhabditis elegans and some other nematodes are capable of attaching a methyl group to the nucleus of sterols at the C-4 position. In C. elegans, 4-methylcholest-8(14)-enol is the most abundant 4-methylsterol produced, and smaller quantities of 4-methylcholest-7-enol also occur. The purpose of...

  7. Relationship Between the Sterol Content of Yeast Cells and Their Fermentation Activity in Grape Must

    PubMed Central

    Larue, F.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribereau-Gayon, P.

    1980-01-01

    In grape must of high sugar concentration, yeast growth, the viability rate of resting yeast cells, and fermentation activity were stimulated under certain conditions of aeration and temperature. This stimulation might be interpreted as being a result of the yeast cell sterol content. The addition of certain sterols to the fermenting medium was able to increase this sterol content. According to aeration conditions of the medium, which determined the sterol content of yeasts, the sterols added in the medium acted as (i) growth factors, (ii) fermentation inhibitors, and (iii) survival factors for the yeast. PMID:16345545

  8. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides formation in W. somnifera leaves. PMID:25809293

  9. Immunotherapy of HPV-associated cancer: DNA/plant-derived vaccines and new orthotopic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Venuti, Aldo; Curzio, Gianfranca; Mariani, Luciano; Paolini, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    Under the optimistic assumption of high-prophylactic HPV vaccine coverage, a significant reduction of cancer incidence can only be expected after decades. Thus, immune therapeutic strategies are needed for persistently infected individuals who do not benefit from the prophylactic vaccines. However, the therapeutic strategies inducing immunity to the E6 and/or E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 are more effective for curing HPV-expressing tumours in animal models than for treating human cancers. New strategies/technologies have been developed to improve these therapeutic vaccines. Our studies focussed on preparing therapeutic vaccines with low-cost technologies by DNA preparation fused to either plant-virus or plant-toxin genes, such as saporin, and by plant-produced antigens. In particular, plant-derived antigens possess an intrinsic adjuvant activity that makes these preparations especially attractive for future development. Additionally, discrepancy in vaccine effectiveness between animals and humans may be due to non-orthotopic localization of animal models. Orthotopic transplantation leads to tumours giving a more accurate representation of the parent tumour. Since HPV can cause cancer in two main localizations, anogenital and oropharynx area, we developed two orthotopic tumour mouse models in these two sites. Both models are bioluminescent in order to follow up the tumour growth by imaging and are induced by cell injection without the need to intervene surgically. These models were utilized for immunotherapies with genetic or plant-derived therapeutic vaccines. In particular, the head/neck orthotopic model appears to be very promising for studies combining chemo-radio-immune therapy that seems to be very effective in patients. PMID:26138695

  10. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

  11. A Plant-Derived Morphinan as a Novel Lead Compound Active against Malaria Liver Stages

    PubMed Central

    Carraz, Malle; Jossang, Akino; Franetich, Jean-Franois; Siau, Anthony; Ciceron, Liliane; Hannoun, Laurent; Sauerwein, Robert; Frappier, Franois; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Snounou, Georges; Mazier, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Background The global spread of multidrugresistant malaria parasites has led to an urgent need for new chemotherapeutic agents. Drug discovery is primarily directed to the asexual blood stages, and few drugs that are effective against the obligatory liver stages, from which the pathogenic blood infection is initiated, have become available since primaquine was deployed in the 1950s. Methods and Findings Using bioassay-guided fractionation based on the parasite's hepatic stage, we have isolated a novel morphinan alkaloid, tazopsine, from a plant traditionally used against malaria in Madagascar. This compound and readily obtained semisynthetic derivatives were tested for inhibitory activity against liver stage development in vitro (P. falciparum and P. yoelii) and in vivo (P. yoelii). Tazopsine fully inhibited the development of P. yoelii (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] 3.1 ?M, therapeutic index [TI] 14) and P. falciparum (IC50 4.2 ?M, TI 7) hepatic parasites in cultured primary hepatocytes, with inhibition being most pronounced during the early developmental stages. One derivative, N-cyclopentyl-tazopsine (NCP-tazopsine), with similar inhibitory activity was selected for its lower toxicity (IC50 3.3 ?M, TI 46, and IC50 42.4 ?M, TI 60, on P. yoelii and P. falciparum hepatic stages in vitro, respectively). Oral administration of NCP-tazopsine completely protected mice from a sporozoite challenge. Unlike the parent molecule, the derivative was uniquely active against Plasmodium hepatic stages. Conclusions A readily obtained semisynthetic derivative of a plant-derived compound, tazopsine, has been shown to be specifically active against the liver stage, but inactive against the blood forms of the malaria parasite. This unique specificity in an antimalarial drug severely restricts the pressure for the selection of drug resistance to a parasite stage limited both in numbers and duration, thus allowing researchers to envisage the incorporation of a true causal prophylactic in malaria control programs. PMID:17194195

  12. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases. PMID:26648961

  13. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases. PMID:26648961

  14. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  15. Methodological considerations for the harmonization of non-cholesterol sterol bio-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Dylan S; Jones, Peter J H; Myrie, Semone B; Plat, Jogchum; Ltjohann, Dieter

    2014-04-15

    Non-cholesterol sterols (NCS) are used as surrogate markers of cholesterol metabolism which can be measured from a single blood sample. Cholesterol precursors are used as markers of endogenous cholesterol synthesis and plant sterols are used as markers of cholesterol absorption. However, most aspects of NCS analysis show wide variability among researchers within the area of biomedical research. This variability in methodology is a significant contributor to variation between reported NCS values and hampers the confidence in comparing NCS values across different research groups, as well as the ability to conduct meta-analyses. This paper summarizes the considerations and conclusions of a workshop where academic and industrial experts met to discuss NCS measurement. Highlighted is why each step in the analysis of NCS merits critical consideration, with the hopes of moving toward more standardized and comparable NCS analysis methodologies. Alkaline hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction of NCS followed by parallel detection on GC-FID and GC-MS is proposed as an ideal methodology for the bio-analysis of NCS. Furthermore the importance of cross-comparison or round robin testing between various groups who measure NCS is critical to the standardization of NCS measurement. PMID:24674990

  16. Sterol composition of Cryptococcus neoformans in the presence and absence of fluconazole.

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, M A; Spellberg, B J; Ibrahim, A S; Ritchie, J A; Currie, B; Spitzer, E D; Edwards, J E; Casadevall, A

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the sterol compositions of 13 clinical isolates of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans obtained from five patients with recurring cryptococcal meningitis showed that, unlike Candida albicans, the major sterols synthesized by this yeast were obtusifoliol (range, 21.1 to 68.2%) and ergosterol (range, 0.0 to 46.5%). There was considerable variation in the sterol contents among the 13 isolates, with total sterol contents ranging from 0.31 to 5.9% of dry weight. The isolates from the five patients who had relapses had different total sterol contents and compositions in comparison with those of the pretreatment isolates, indicating either that the sterols had been changed by therapy or that the patients were infected with new isolates with different sterol compositions. Growth of the cryptococcal isolates in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole (0.25x the MIC) significantly altered the sterol content and pattern. The total sterol content decreased in nine isolates and increased in four isolates in response to pretreatment with fluconazole. Fluconazole had no consistent effect on ergosterol levels. In contrast, fluconazole caused a decrease in obtusifoliol levels and an increase in 4,14-dimethylzymosterol levels in all isolates. These results indicate extensive diversity in sterol content, sterol composition, and sterol synthesis in response to subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole in C. neoformans strains. We propose that fluconazole inhibits the sterol synthesis of C. neoformans by interfering with both 14 alpha-demethylase-dependent and -independent pathways. No correlation between the sterol compositions of C. neoformans isolates and their susceptibilities to fluconazole was found. PMID:7811014

  17. A plant derived multifunctional tool for nanobiotechnology based on Tomato bushy stunt virus.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Simone; Lico, Chiara; Imperatori, Francesca; Santi, Luca

    2013-06-01

    Structure, size, physicochemical properties and production strategies make many plant viruses ideal protein based nanoscaffolds, nanocontainers and nano-building blocks expected to deliver a multitude of applications in different fields such as biomedicine, pharmaceutical chemistry, separation science, catalytic chemistry, crop pest control and biomaterials science. Functionalization of viral nanoparticles through modification by design of their external and internal surfaces is essential to fully exploit the potentiality of these objects. In the present paper we describe the development of a plant derived multifunctional tool for nanobiotechnology based on Tomato bushy stunt virus. We demonstrate the ability of this system to remarkably sustain genetic modifications and in vitro chemical derivatizations of its outer surface, which resulted in the successful display of large chimeric peptides fusions and small chemical molecules, respectively. Moreover, we have defined physicochemical conditions for viral swelling and reversible viral pore gating that we have successfully employed for foreign molecules loading and retention in the inner cavity of this plant virus nanoparticles system. Finally, a production and purification strategy from Nicotiana benthamiana plants has been addressed and optimized. PMID:23108557

  18. Plant-Derived Compounds Targeting Pancreatic Beta Cells for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a global health problem and a national economic burden. Although several antidiabetic drugs are available, the need for novel therapeutic agents with improved efficacy and few side effects remains. Drugs derived from natural compounds are more attractive than synthetic drugs because of their diversity and minimal side effects. This review summarizes the most relevant effects of various plant-derived natural compounds on the functionality of pancreatic beta cells. Published data suggest that natural compounds directly enhance insulin secretion, prevent pancreatic beta cell apoptosis, and modulate pancreatic beta cell differentiation and proliferation. It is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of novel pharmaceuticals. Therefore, more studies into these compounds' mechanisms of action are warranted for their development as potential anti-diabetics. PMID:26587047

  19. Plant-Derived Compounds Targeting Pancreatic Beta Cells for the Treatment of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoon Sin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a global health problem and a national economic burden. Although several antidiabetic drugs are available, the need for novel therapeutic agents with improved efficacy and few side effects remains. Drugs derived from natural compounds are more attractive than synthetic drugs because of their diversity and minimal side effects. This review summarizes the most relevant effects of various plant-derived natural compounds on the functionality of pancreatic beta cells. Published data suggest that natural compounds directly enhance insulin secretion, prevent pancreatic beta cell apoptosis, and modulate pancreatic beta cell differentiation and proliferation. It is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of novel pharmaceuticals. Therefore, more studies into these compounds' mechanisms of action are warranted for their development as potential anti-diabetics. PMID:26587047

  20. Four new tetramic acid and one new furanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shasha; Chen, Shenxi; Wang, Bo; Niu, Shubin; Wu, Wenping; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-01

    Four new tetramic acid analogues neopestalotins A-D (1-4), one new furanone derivative neopestalotin E (6), and the known compound hymenosetin have been isolated from the solid cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp. The structures of the new compounds were determined mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by circular dichroism (CD) data, whereas those of 3 and 4 were deduced by a combination of CD and heteronuclear long range coupling (HETLOC) data. Compound 2 showed modest antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus col, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:25818228

  1. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics. PMID:25323218

  2. Concentration of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Its Derivatives in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    1977-01-01

    Seeds of oat, coconut, soybean, sunflower, rice, millet, kidney bean, buckwheat, wheat, and corn and vegetative tissue of oat, pea, and corn were assayed for free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), esterified IAA, and peptidyl IAA. Three conclusions were drawn: (a) all plant tissues examined contained most of their IAA as derivatives, either esterified or as a peptide; (b) the cereal grains examined contained mainly ester IAA; (c) the legume seeds examined contained mainly peptidyl IAA. Errors in analysis of free and bound IAA are discussed. PMID:16660061

  3. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas G; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Linder, Thomas; Wawrosch, Christoph; Uhrin, Pavel; Temml, Veronika; Wang, Limei; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H; Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Breuss, Johannes M; Bochkov, Valery; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a "screening hit" through a "drug lead" to a "marketed drug" is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future. PMID:26281720

  4. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Thomas; Wawrosch, Christoph; Uhrin, Pavel; Temml, Veronika; Wang, Limei; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H.; Rollinger, Judith M.; Schuster, Daniela; Breuss, Johannes M.; Bochkov, Valery; Mihovilovic, Marko D.; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a “screening hit” through a “drug lead” to a “marketed drug” is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future. PMID:26281720

  5. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  6. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  7. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352, and 355. (1) Appendix-III...) Personal and household effects as provided in § 23.15. (6) Urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA...

  8. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  9. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  10. Inhibitory effects of various oxygenated sterols on the differentiation and function of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Spangrude, G.J.; Sherris, D.; Daynes, R.A.

    1982-05-01

    Irradiation of skin with ultraviolet light (UVL) is capable of causing many biological and biochemical changes in this complex organ. One early consequence is the oxidation of epidermal plasma membrane cholesterol, causing the induction of a wide variety of photoproducts. It is well recognized that some oxygenated sterols possess potent biological activity on mammalian cells by their ability to inhibit endogeneous mevalonate and cholesterol biosynthesis. In the few immunological systems that have been studied, there is general agreement that lymphocyte function is altered in the presence of certain oxygenated sterols. Insight into the biochemical basis for altered lymphocyte function is lacking, as both afferent and efferent blockades have been suggested. These studies were undertaken to determine the effect of various oxygenated sterols (representing a number of known cholesterol-derived photoproducts) on the generation (afferent) and function (efferent) of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Cell-mediated immune responses which result in the generation of both alloantigen-specific and syngeneic tumor-specific CTLs were evaluated. (JMT)

  11. Plant regeneration from immature inflorescence derived callus cultures of salt tolerant kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca L.).

    PubMed

    Praveena, M; Giri, C C

    2012-10-01

    Efficient plant regeneration has been achieved from immature inflorescence derived callus cultures of salt tolerant grass Leptochloa fusca (L.). Young inflorescence explants displayed wide-ranging responses for callus induction and plant regeneration when subjected to different cold treatment durations and without cold treatment exposure (control) prior to its inoculation to MS medium supplemented with different concentrations/combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The PGRs included auxins: 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D), picloram (Pic), 3, 6-dichloro-2-methoxy benzoic acid (dicamba) and cytokinins: Kinetin (KN), N6-benzyl adenine (BA). These treatments promoted different callus induction frequencies as well as various callus types such as type 1, type 2 and type 3. Induction of type 2 callus (white and compact) with potential for regeneration was obtained from cold treated (3days at 10C) immature inflorescence cultured on MS medium containing 2.0mg/l dicamba and 0.25mg/l BA. The study demonstrated that 2.0mg/l dicamba and 0.25mg/l BA induced callus promoted improved frequency compared to zilch shoot regeneration response with other combinations involving 2, 4-D, picloram, KN and BA. Full strength MS supplemented with 2.0mg/l NAA and 0.5mg/l BA was found to be optimal for plant regeneration. The regeneration frequencies ranged from 13.8??1.366 to 55.5??2.766 with highest number of shoots (19.1??0.560) per 50-60mg of callus as explants after 28 days of inoculation. Plant regeneration was also obtained on the dicamba callus induction medium itself within 21days inoculation of immature inflorescence explants. Half strength MS medium both semisolid and liquid devoid of plant growth regulators promoted highest frequency (92.8??4.099 and 100??0.00) of rooting in regenerated shoots. Plants with well developed roots were successfully transferred to pots and grown to maturity with normal flowering and seed set. This is the first report on induction of callus and subsequent plant regeneration in kallar grass using immature inflorescence explants. PMID:24082497

  12. Plant-derived immunomodulators: an insight on their preclinical evaluation and clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Waqas; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    The phagocyte–microbe interactions in the immune system is a defense mechanism but when excessively or inappropriately deployed can harm host tissues and participate in the development of different non-immune and immune chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune problems, allergies, some rheumatoid disorders, cancers and others. Immunodrugs include organic synthetics, biological agents such as cytokines and antibodies acting on single targets or pathways have been used to treat immune-related diseases but with limited success. Most of immunostimulants and immunosuppressants in clinical use are the cytotoxic drugs which possess serious side effects. There is a growing interest to use herbal medicines as multi-component agents to modulate the complex immune system in the prevention of infections rather than treating the immune-related diseases. Many therapeutic effects of plant extracts have been suggested to be due to their wide array of immunomodulatory effects and influence on the immune system of the human body. Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, polysaccharides, lactones, alkaloids, diterpenoids and glycosides, present in several plants, have been reported to be responsible for the plants immunomodulating properties. Thus the search for natural products of plant origin as new leads for development of potent and safe immunosuppressant and immunostimulant agents is gaining much major research interest. The present review will give an overview of widely investigated plant-derived compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechol-3-gallate, quercetin, colchicine, capsaicin, andrographolide, and genistein) which have exhibited potent effects on cellular and humoral immune functions in pre-clinical investigations and will highlight their clinical potential. PMID:26379683

  13. Selective Binding of Glutathione Conjugates of Fatty Acid Derivatives by Plant Glutathione Transferases*

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P.; Edwards, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic studies with Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed that the plant-specific Tau (U) class glutathione transferases (GSTs) are selectively retained by S-hexylglutathione affinity supports. Overexpression of members of the Arabidopsis GST superfamily in Escherichia coli showed that 25 of the complement of 28 GSTUs caused the aberrant accumulation of acylated glutathione thioesters in vivo, a perturbation that was not observed with other GST classes. Each GSTU caused a specific group of fatty acyl derivatives to accumulate, which varied in chain length (C6 to C18), additional oxygen content (0 or 1), and desaturation (0 or 1). Thioesters bound tightly to recombinant GSTs (Kd ∼ 1 μm), explaining their accumulation. Transient expression of GSTUs in Nicotiana benthamiana followed by recovery by Strep-tag affinity chromatography allowed the respective plant ligands to be extracted and characterized. Again, each GST showed a distinct profile of recovered metabolites, notably glutathionylated oxophytodienoic acid and related oxygenated fatty acids. Similarly, the expression of the major Tau protein GSTU19 in the endogenous host Arabidopsis led to the selective binding of the glutathionylated oxophytodienoic acid-glutathione conjugate, with the enzyme able to catalyze the conjugation reaction. Additional ligands identified in planta included other fatty acid derivatives including divinyl ethers and glutathionylated chlorogenic acid. The strong and specific retention of various oxygenated fatty acids by each GSTU and the conservation in binding observed in the different hosts suggest that these proteins have selective roles in binding and conjugating these unstable metabolites in vivo. PMID:19520850

  14. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced. PMID:25947054

  15. Bioprocessing of plant-derived virus-like particles of Norwalk virus capsid protein under current Good Manufacture Practice regulations

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Huafang; Chen, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Despite the success in expressing a variety of subunit vaccine proteins in plants and the recent stride in improving vaccine accumulation levels by transient expression systems, there is still no plant-derived vaccine that has been licensed for human use. The lack of commercial success of plant-made vaccines lies in several technical and regulatory barriers that remain to be overcome. These challenges include the lack of scalable downstream processing procedures, the uncertainty of regulatory compliance of production processes, and the lack of demonstration of plant-derived products that meet the required standards of regulatory agencies in identity, purity, potency and safety. In this study, we addressed these remaining challenges and successfully demonstrate the ability of using plants to produce a pharmaceutical grade Norwalk virus (NV) vaccine under current Good Manufacture Practice (cGMP) guidelines at multiple gram scales. Our results demonstrate that an efficient and scalable extraction and purification scheme can established for processing virus-like particles (VLP) of NV capsid protein (NVCP). We successfully operated the upstream and downstream NVCP production processes under cGMP regulations. Furthermore, plant-derived NVCP VLP demonstrates the identity, purity, potency and safety that meet the preset release specifications. This material is being tested in a Phase I human clinical trial. This research provides the first report of producing a plant-derived vaccine at scale under cGMP regulations in an academic setting and an important step for plant-produced vaccines to become a commercial reality. PMID:22134876

  16. First Report of Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis from Shoot Apex-derived Callus of Hedychium muluense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of Hedychium muluense R.M. Smith, an important monocotyledonous ornamental ginger plant. Callus was induced on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 9.05 µM 2-4, D and 4.6µM kinetin. ...

  17. Plant-derived natural medicines for the management of depression: an overview of mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Marzieh Sarbandi; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious widespread psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 17% of people all over the world. Exploring the neurological mechanisms of the antidepressant activity of plant-derived agents could have a crucial role in developing natural drugs for the management of depression. The aim of the present study is to review the neurological mechanisms of action of antidepressant plants and their constituents. For this purpose, electronic databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Cochrane Library, were searched from 1966 to October 2013. The results showed that several molecular mechanisms could be proposed for the antidepressant activity of medicinal plants and their constituents. Hypericum species could normalize brain serotonin level. Liquiritin and isoliquiritin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis rhizome act via the noradrenergic system. Rosmarinus officinalis and curcumin from Curcuma longa interact with D1 and D2 receptors as well as elevate the brain dopamine level. Sida tiagii and Aloysia gratissima involve γ-aminobutyric acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, respectively. Fuzi polysaccharide-1 from Aconitum carmichaeli could affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. Psoralidin from Psoralea corylifolia seed modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The total glycosides of Paeonia lactiflora demonstrate an inhibitory effect on both subtypes of monoamine oxidase. 3,6'-Di-o-sinapoyl-sucrose and tenuifoliside A from Polygala tenuifolia exhibit cytoprotective effects on neuronal cells. Further preclinical and clinical trials evaluating their safety, bioefficacy, and bioavailability are suggested to prove the valuable role of natural drugs in the management of depressive disorders. PMID:25719303

  18. [Sterol extracts from Begonia Sinensis Rhizome against respiratory inflammation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yu-shan

    2015-08-01

    The acute and chronic respiratory tract inflammation models were made to investigate the effect and mechanism of sterol extracts from Begonia Sinensis Rhizome (BSR). The first model of acute lung injury was made with Kunming mice by inhaling cigarette smoke, then the mice were treated with different concentrations of BSR sterol extracts. Lung tissue morphology was detected by HE staining, TNF-alpha/MPO were detected by Elisa, and cPLA2 protein were, detected by Western blotting respectively. Results showed that in model group, lung sheet became real, alveolar space shrank or disappeared, alveolar septum was thickened, plenty of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, capillary blood vessels were congestive and the expression of TNF-?, MPO, cPLA2 increased; after administration, a small amount of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, alveolar septum became obvious, capillary congestion status was significantly relieved and the expression of TNF-?, MPO, cPLA2 decreased (P < 0.05). The second model of chronic respiratory tract inflammation in BALB/c mice with bronchial asthma was induced by OVA, then the mice were treated with different concentrations of BSR sterol extracts. Lung tissue morphology was detected by HE staining, indexes such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 were detected by Elisa, and the cPLA2 protein expression was detected by Western blotting respectively. Results showed that in model group, a lot of inflammatory cells around lung vessels and bronchi exuded, bronchial goblet cells proliferated and the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, cPLA2 increased; after administration, inflammatory and goblet cell hyperplasia reduced, the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, cPLA2 also decreased (P < 0.05). The above results showed BSR sterol extracts could resist against respiratory inflammation by inhibiting cPLA2 in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26790308

  19. Biogenesis, Function, and Applications of Virus-Derived Small RNAs in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Zujian; Li, Yi; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing, an evolutionarily conserved and sequence-specific gene-inactivation system, has a pivotal role in antiviral defense in most eukaryotic organisms. In plants, a class of exogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) originating from the infecting virus called virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) are predominantly responsible for RNA silencing-mediated antiviral immunity. Nowadays, the process of vsiRNA formation and the role of vsiRNAs in plant viral defense have been revealed through deep sequencing of sRNAs and diverse genetic analysis. The biogenesis of vsiRNAs is analogous to that of endogenous sRNAs, which require diverse essential components including dicer-like (DCL), argonaute (AGO), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins. vsiRNAs trigger antiviral defense through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of viral RNA, and they hijack the host RNA silencing system to target complementary host transcripts. Additionally, several applications that take advantage of the current knowledge of vsiRNAs research are being used, such as breeding antiviral plants through genetic engineering technology, reconstructing of viral genomes, and surveying viral ecology and populations. Here, we will provide an overview of vsiRNA pathways, with a primary focus on the advances in vsiRNA biogenesis and function, and discuss their potential applications as well as the future challenges in vsiRNAs research. PMID:26617580

  20. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  1. Biogenesis, Function, and Applications of Virus-Derived Small RNAs in Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Zujian; Li, Yi; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing, an evolutionarily conserved and sequence-specific gene-inactivation system, has a pivotal role in antiviral defense in most eukaryotic organisms. In plants, a class of exogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) originating from the infecting virus called virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) are predominantly responsible for RNA silencing-mediated antiviral immunity. Nowadays, the process of vsiRNA formation and the role of vsiRNAs in plant viral defense have been revealed through deep sequencing of sRNAs and diverse genetic analysis. The biogenesis of vsiRNAs is analogous to that of endogenous sRNAs, which require diverse essential components including dicer-like (DCL), argonaute (AGO), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins. vsiRNAs trigger antiviral defense through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of viral RNA, and they hijack the host RNA silencing system to target complementary host transcripts. Additionally, several applications that take advantage of the current knowledge of vsiRNAs research are being used, such as breeding antiviral plants through genetic engineering technology, reconstructing of viral genomes, and surveying viral ecology and populations. Here, we will provide an overview of vsiRNA pathways, with a primary focus on the advances in vsiRNA biogenesis and function, and discuss their potential applications as well as the future challenges in vsiRNAs research. PMID:26617580

  2. Derivation of predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for HHCB to terrestrial species (plants and invertebrates).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Zhengtao; Wang, Wanhua; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    The 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-(γ)-2-benzopyrane (HHCB) is a synthetic musk which is used as a fragrance in a variety of personal care products, and due to this it is widely spread in the environment. However, there is no paper dealing with the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for HHCB to terrestrial species using the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method, mainly results from the shortage of species toxicity data of different taxonomic levels. In this study, toxicity data were obtained from 10 chronic toxicity tests using 10 terrestrial species (3 dicotyledonous plants, 5 monocotyledonous plants and 2 terrestrial invertebrates) from 3 Phyla and 9 Families. The PNEC of HHCB was derived using the SSD method. The result of present research showed that the dicotyledonous Solanum lycopersicum was the most sensitive plants to HHCB contamination. The PNEC ranged between 0.70 and 3.52 mg HHCB/kg when using the log-logistic SSD method. It is recommended to use toxicity data of different taxonomic levels for the development of PNEC values in terrestrial environment due to different species sensitivity. PMID:25474169

  3. Large-scale Gene Ontology analysis of plant transcriptome-derived sequences retrieved by AFLP technology

    PubMed Central

    Botton, Alessandro; Galla, Giulio; Conesa, Ana; Bachem, Christian; Ramina, Angelo; Barcaccia, Gianni

    2008-01-01

    Background After 10-year-use of AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technology for DNA fingerprinting and mRNA profiling, large repertories of genome- and transcriptome-derived sequences are available in public databases for model, crop and tree species. AFLP marker systems have been and are being extensively exploited for genome scanning and gene mapping, as well as cDNA-AFLP for transcriptome profiling and differentially expressed gene cloning. The evaluation, annotation and classification of genomic markers and expressed transcripts would be of great utility for both functional genomics and systems biology research in plants. This may be achieved by means of the Gene Ontology (GO), consisting in three structured vocabularies (i.e. ontologies) describing genes, transcripts and proteins of any organism in terms of their associated cellular component, biological process and molecular function in a species-independent manner. In this paper, the functional annotation of about 8,000 AFLP-derived ESTs retrieved in the NCBI databases was carried out by using GO terminology. Results Descriptive statistics on the type, size and nature of gene sequences obtained by means of AFLP technology were calculated. The gene products associated with mRNA transcripts were then classified according to the three main GO vocabularies. A comparison of the functional content of cDNA-AFLP records was also performed by splitting the sequence dataset into monocots and dicots and by comparing them to all annotated ESTs of Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. On the whole, the statistical parameters adopted for the in silico AFLP-derived transcriptome-anchored sequence analysis proved to be critical for obtaining reliable GO results. Such an exhaustive annotation may offer a suitable platform for functional genomics, particularly useful in non-model species. Conclusion Reliable GO annotations of AFLP-derived sequences can be gathered through the optimization of the experimental steps and the statistical parameters adopted. The Blast2GO software was shown to represent a comprehensive bioinformatics solution for an annotation-based functional analysis. According to the whole set of GO annotations, the AFLP technology generates thorough information for angiosperm gene products and shares common features across angiosperm species and families. The utility of this technology for structural and functional genomics in plants can be implemented by serial annotation analyses of genome-anchored fragments and organ/tissue-specific repertories of transcriptome-derived fragments. PMID:18652646

  4. Expression of the Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Mull. Arg. 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase 1 in Tobacco Results in Sterol Overproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, H.; Grausem, B.; Benveniste, P.; Chye, M. L.; Tan, C. T.; Song, Y. H.; Chua, N. H.

    1995-01-01

    A genomic fragment encoding one (HMGR1) of the three 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductases (HMGRs) from Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Mull. Arg. (M.-L. Chye, C.-T. Tan, N.-H. Chua [1992] Plant Mol Biol 19: 473-484) was introduced into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv xanthi via Agrobacterium transformation to study the influence of the hmg1 gene product on plant isoprenoid biosynthesis. Transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from control wild-type plants and displayed the same developmental pattern. Transgenic lines showed an increase in the level of total sterols up to 6-fold, probably because of an increased expression level of hmg1 mRNA and a corresponding increased enzymatic activity for HMGR, when compared with the level of total sterols from control lines not expressing the hmg1 transgene. In addition to the pathway end products, campesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol, some biosynthetic intermediates such as cycloartenol also accumulated in transgenic tissues. Most of the overproduced sterols were detected as steryl-esters and were likely to be stored in cytoplasmic lipid bodies. These data strongly support the conclusion that plant HMGR is a key limiting enzyme in phytosterol biosynthesis. PMID:12228630

  5. Building Synthetic Sterols Computationally Unlocking the Secrets of Evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Rg, Tomasz; Pyry, Sanja; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is vital in regulating the physical properties of animal cell membranes. While it remains unclear what renders cholesterol so unique, it is known that other sterols are less capable in modulating membrane properties, and there are membrane proteins whose function is dependent on cholesterol. Practical applications of cholesterol include its use in liposomes in drug delivery and cosmetics, cholesterol-based detergents in membrane protein crystallography, its fluorescent analogs in studies of cholesterol transport in cells and tissues, etc. Clearly, in spite of their difficult synthesis, producing the synthetic analogs of cholesterol is of great commercial and scientific interest. In this article, we discuss how synthetic sterols non-existent in nature can be used to elucidate the roles of cholesterols structural elements. To this end, we discuss recent atomistic molecular dynamics simulation studies that have predicted new synthetic sterols with properties comparable to those of cholesterol. We also discuss more recent experimental studies that have vindicated these predictions. The paper highlights the strength of computational simulations in making predictions for synthetic biology, thereby guiding experiments. PMID:26347865

  6. Attenuation of Leishmania infantum chagasi Metacyclic Promastigotes by Sterol Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Barker, Jason H.; Teesch, Lynn M.; Love-Homan, Laurie; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The infectious metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania protozoa establish infection in a mammalian host after they are deposited into the dermis by a sand fly vector. Several Leishmania virulence factors promote infection, including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane-anchored major surface protease (MSP). Metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes were treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M?CD), a sterol-chelating reagent, causing a 3-fold reduction in total cellular sterols as well as enhancing MSP release without affecting parasite viability in vitro. M?CD-treated promastigotes were more susceptible to complement-mediated lysis than untreated controls and reduced the parasite load 3-fold when inoculated into BALB/c mice. Paradoxically, M?CD-treated promastigotes caused a higher initial in vitro infection rate in human or murine macrophages than untreated controls, although their intracellular multiplication was hindered upon infection establishment. There was a corresponding larger amount of covalently bound C3b than iC3b on the parasite surfaces of M?CD-treated promastigotes exposed to healthy human serum in vitro, as well as loss of MSP, a protease that enhances C3b cleavage to iC3b. Mass spectrometry showed that M?CD promotes the release of proteins into the extracellular medium, including both MSP and MSP-like protein (MLP), from virulent metacyclic promastigotes. These data support the hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for the virulence of Leishmania protozoa at least in part through retention of membrane virulence proteins. PMID:23630964

  7. Effects of plant-derived anti-leukemic drugs on individualized leukemic cell population profiles in Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A. M.; EL-SHEMY, HANY A.; ABOUL-ENEIN, KHALID M.; MAHMOUD, ALI M.; AL-ABD, AHMED M.; LIGHTFOOT, DAVID A.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemias are a group of cancer types that originate from blood-forming tissues. In this disease, an abnormally large number of immature white blood cells is produced by the bone marrow. The relationship between treatments with plant-derived drugs and leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) of clinically isolated leukemia cells has yet to be established. The aim of the present study was to develop a preliminary clinical prognostic map for commonly expressed LAIPs in patients clinically diagnosed with leukemia, as well as to assess the potential involvement of LAIPs in the response rate to 10 natural products of plant origin. An increased expression of LAIPs, including CD4, CD14, CD33 and CD34, was considered a surrogate marker of the desired response of leukemia cells to treatment with plant-derived drugs. By contrast, the increased expression of the LAIPs, MPO and DR, was associated with poor prognostic outcomes following treatment with the plant-derived drugs. The results showed that 5 of the 10 plant-derived drugs tested induced the expression of several desirable LAIPs biomarkers. These findings clearly highlight the potential treatment efficacy of certain plant-derived drugs against leukemic cell types. PMID:26870259

  8. Structural complex of sterol 14[alpha]-demethylase (CYP51) with 14[alpha]-methylenecyclopropyl-[delta]7-24, 25-dihydrolanosterol[S

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Waterman, Michael R.; Nes, W. David; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2012-06-28

    Sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) that catalyzes the removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from the sterol nucleus is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, a primary target for clinical and agricultural antifungal azoles and an emerging target for antitrypanosomal chemotherapy. Here, we present the crystal structure of Trypanosoma (T) brucei CYP51 in complex with the substrate analog 14{alpha}-methylenecyclopropyl-{Delta}7-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (MCP). This sterol binds tightly to all protozoan CYP51s and acts as a competitive inhibitor of F105-containing (plant-like) T. brucei and Leishmania (L) infantum orthologs, but it has a much stronger, mechanism-based inhibitory effect on I105-containing (animal/fungi-like) T. cruzi CYP51. Depicting substrate orientation in the conserved CYP51 binding cavity, the complex specifies the roles of the contact amino acid residues and sheds new light on CYP51 substrate specificity. It also provides an explanation for the effect of MCP on T. cruzi CYP51. Comparison with the ligand-free and azole-bound structures supports the notion of structural rigidity as the characteristic feature of the CYP51 substrate binding cavity, confirming the enzyme as an excellent candidate for structure-directed design of new drugs, including mechanism-based substrate analog inhibitors.

  9. Inorganic Nitrogen Derived from Foraging Honey Bees Could Have Adaptive Benefits for the Plants They Visit

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Archana; Afik, Ohad; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Delaplane, Keith S.; Mowrer, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    In most terrestrial ecosystems, nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. Honey bees may help alleviate this limitation because their feces (frass) have high concentration of organic nitrogen that may decompose in soil and provide inorganic N to plants. However, information on soil N processes associated with bee frass is not available. The objectives of this work were to 1) estimate the amount of bee frass produced by a honey bee colony and 2) evaluate nitrogen mineralization and ammonia volatilization from bee frass when surface applied or incorporated into soil. Two cage studies were conducted to estimate the amount of frass produced by a 5000-bee colony, and three laboratory studies were carried out in which bee frass, surface-applied or incorporated into soil, was incubated at 25oC for 15 to 45 days. The average rate of bee frass production by a 5,000-bee colony was estimated at 2.27 to 2.69 g N month?1. Nitrogen mineralization from bee frass during 30 days released 20% of the organic N when bee frass was surface applied and 34% when frass was incorporated into the soil. Volatilized NH3 corresponded to 1% or less of total N. The potential amount of inorganic N released to the soil by a typical colony of 20,000 bees foraging in an area similar to that of the experimental cages (3.24 m2) was estimated at 0.62 to 0.74 g N m?2 month?1 which may be significant at a community scale in terms of soil microbial activity and plant growth. Thus, the deposition of available N by foraging bees could have adaptive benefits for the plants they visit, a collateral benefit deriving from the primary activity of pollination. PMID:23923006

  10. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  11. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  12. Dialkylimidazole inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi sterol 14?-demethylase as anti-Chagas disease agents.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Racherla, Kishore Kumar; Olepu, Srinivas; Norcross, Neil R; Tatipaka, Hari Babu; Arif, Jennifer A; Planer, Joseph D; Lepesheva, Galina I; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Buckner, Frederick S; Gelb, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    New dialkylimidazole based sterol 14?-demethylase inhibitors were prepared and tested as potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents. Previous studies had identified compound 2 as the most potent and selective inhibitor against parasite cultures. In addition, animal studies had demonstrated that compound 2 is highly efficacious in the acute model of the disease. However, compound 2 has a high molecular weight and high hydrophobicity, issues addressed here. Systematic modifications were carried out at four positions on the scaffold and several inhibitors were identified which are highly potent (EC50 <1 nM) against T. cruzi in culture. The halogenated derivatives 36j, 36k, and 36p, display excellent activity against T. cruzi amastigotes, with reduced molecular weight and lipophilicity, and exhibit suitable physicochemical properties for an oral drug candidate. PMID:24120539

  13. Dialkylimidazole inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi sterol 14?-demethylase as anti-Chagas disease agents

    PubMed Central

    Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Racherla, Kishore Kumar; Olepu, Srinivas; Norcross, Neil R.; Tatipaka, Hari Babu; Arif, Jennifer A.; Planer, Joseph D.; Lepesheva, Galina; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    New dialkylimidazole based sterol 14?-demethylase inhibitors were prepared and tested as potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents. Previous studies had identified compound 2 as the most potent and selective inhibitor against parasite cultures. In addition, animal studies had demonstrated that compound 2 is highly efficacious in the acute model of the disease. However, compound 2 has a high molecular weight and high hydrophobicity, issues addressed here. Systematic modifications were carried out at four positions on the scaffold and several inhibitors were identified which are highly potent (EC50<1 nM) against T. cruzi in culture. The halogenated derivatives 36j, 36k, and 36p, display excellent activity against T.cruzi amastigotes, with reduced molecular weight and lipophilicity, and exhibit suitable physicochemical properties for an oral drug candidate. PMID:24120539

  14. Two novel C29-5beta-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianqin; Li, Yanfang; Chen, Zhen; Min, Zhida; Lou, Fengchang

    2006-12-01

    Two novel C29-5beta-sterols, opuntisterol [(24R)-24-ethyl-5beta-cholest-9-ene-6beta,12alpha-diol] (1) and opuntisteroside [(24R)-24-ethyl-6beta-[(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5beta-cholest-9-ene-12alpha-ol] (2), together with nine known compounds, beta-sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), friedelin (5), methyl linoleate (6), 7-oxositosterol (7), 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (8), daucosterol (9), methyl eucomate (10) and eucomic acid (11), were isolated from the stems of Opuntia dillenii collected in Guizhou Province, China. Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 were deduced from comparative 1H NMR data of the (S)- and (R)-methoxyphenyl acetate derivatives. Compounds 6-8, 10 and 11 were isolated from O. dillenii for the first time. PMID:17112557

  15. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.

    PubMed

    Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts. PMID:16555134

  16. Conversion of Exogenous Cholesterol into Glycoalkaloids in Potato Shoots, Using Two Methods for Sterol Solubilisation

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Erik V.; Nahar, Nurun; Dahlin, Paul; Broberg, Anders; Tröger, Rikard; Dutta, Paresh C.; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke

    2013-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are toxic secondary metabolites naturally occurring in the potato, as well as in certain other Solanaceous plant species, such as tomato, eggplant and pepper. To investigate the steroidal origin of SGA biosynthesis, cut potato shoots were fed cholesterol labelled with deuterium (D) in the sterol ring structure (D5- or D6-labelled), or side chain (D7-labelled), and analysed after three or five weeks. The labelled cholesterol and presence of D-labelled SGA were analysed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. When feeding D-labelled cholesterol solubilised in Tween-80, labelled cholesterol in free form became present in both leaves and stems, although the major part was recovered as steryl esters. Minor amounts of D-labelled SGA (α-solanine and α-chaconine) were identified in cholesterol-treated shoots, but not in blank controls, or in shoots fed D6-27-hydroxycholesterol. Solubilising the labelled cholesterol in methyl-β-cyclodextrin instead of Tween-80 increased the levels of labelled SGA up to 100-fold, and about 1 mole% of the labelled cholesterol was recovered as labelled SGA in potato leaves. Both side chain and ring structure D labels were retained in SGA, showing that the entire cholesterol molecule is converted to SGA. However, feeding side chain D7-labelled cholesterol resulted in D5-labelled SGA, indicating that two hydrogen atoms were released during formation of the SGA nitrogen-containing ring system. Feeding with D7-sitosterol did not produce any labelled SGA, indicating that cholesterol is a specific SGA precursor. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a superior performance of methyl-β-cyclodextrin for delivery of cholesterol in plant tissue feeding experiments, and given firm evidence for cholesterol as a specific sterol precursor of SGA in potato. PMID:24349406

  17. Endiandric Acid Derivatives and Other Constituents of Plants from the Genera Beilschmiedia and Endiandra (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ndjakou Lenta, Bruno; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the Lauraceae family are widely used in traditional medicine and are sources of various classes of secondary metabolites. Two genera of this family, Beilschmiedia and Endiandra, have been the subject of numerous investigations over the past decades because of their application in traditional medicine. They are the only source of bioactive endiandric acid derivatives. Noteworthy is that their biosynthesis contains two consecutive non-enzymatic electrocyclic reactions. Several interesting biological activities for this specific class of secondary metabolites and other constituents of the two genera have been reported, including antimicrobial, enzymes inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. This review compiles information on the structures of the compounds described between January 1960 and March 2015, their biological activities and information on endiandric acid biosynthesis, with 104 references being cited. PMID:26117852

  18. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf derived callus of winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC].

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R; Dutta Gupta, S; De, D N

    1996-03-01

    Somatic embryos were obtained from callus cultures derived from leaf explants of the winged bean, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. Initiation and development of the somatic embryos occurred with a two-step culture method. Callus cultures initiated on MS medium with NAA and BAP, upon transfer to a new medium with IAA and BAP, produced somatic embryos. Maximum embryogenesis of 60% was obtained on induction medium with 0.5 mg/l NAA plus 1.0 mg/l BAP followed by transfer to a secondary medium with 0.1 mg/l IAA and 2.0 mg/l BAP. Optimal embryo germination and plantlet development was achieved on MS medium with 0.2 mg/l BAP plus 0.1 mg/l IBA. The regenerated plants were successfully transferred to glasshouse conditions. PMID:24178467

  19. Posaconazole is a potent inhibitor of sterol 14alpha-demethylation in yeasts and molds.

    PubMed

    Munayyer, Hanan K; Mann, Paul A; Chau, Andrew S; Yarosh-Tomaine, Taisa; Greene, Jonathan R; Hare, Roberta S; Heimark, Larry; Palermo, Robert E; Loebenberg, David; McNicholas, Paul M

    2004-10-01

    Posaconazole (POS; SCH 56592) is a novel triazole that is active against a wide variety of fungi, including fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates and fungi that are inherently less susceptible to approved azoles, such as Candida glabrata. In this study, we compared the effects of POS, itraconazole (ITZ), fluconazole (FLZ), and voriconazole (VOR) on sterol biosynthesis in strains of C. albicans (both azole-sensitive and azole-resistant strains), C. glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus. Following exposure to azoles, nonsaponifiable sterols were extracted and resolved by liquid chromatography and sterol identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Ergosterol was the major sterol in all but one of the strains; C. glabrata strain C110 synthesized an unusual sterol in place of ergosterol. Exposure to POS led to a decrease in the total sterol content of all the strains tested. The decrease was accompanied by the accumulation of 14alpha-methylated sterols, supporting the contention that POS inhibits the cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase enzyme. The degree of sterol inhibition was dependent on both dose and the susceptibility of the strain tested. POS retained activity against C. albicans isolates with mutated forms of the 14alpha-demethylase that rendered these strains resistant to FLZ, ITZ, and VOR. In addition, POS was a more potent inhibitor of sterol synthesis in A. fumigatus and A. flavus than either ITZ or VOR. PMID:15388421

  20. [Sources, Migration and Conversion of Dissolved Sterols in Qingmuguan Underground River].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zuo-bing; Shen, Li-cheng; Sun, Yu-chuan; Wang, Zun-bo; Jiang, Ze-li; Zhang Mei; LIAO, Yu; Xie, Zheng-lan; Zhang, Yuan-zhu

    2015-11-01

    Water samples were collected from the Qinmuguan underground river from July to November in 2013. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), dissolved sterols were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that the average variation content of dissolved sterols ranges from 415 to 629 ng x L(-1), with the increasing migration distance of dissolved sterols in underground river, its contents are decreased. Between the inlet and outlet of Qingmuguan underground river, the average variation contents of dissolved sterol are between 724 and 374 ng x L(-1), and the average variation ratios of the content of stigmasterol with cholesterol range from 0.29 to 0.12. In short, their values are decreased accompanied by the increasing migration distance of underground river. The composing component in dissolved sterols varied differently between July to December, and the main component of dissolved sterols is cholesterin, the ratios of the content of dissolved sterols with cholesterin to the total dissolved sterols range from 37.30% to 94.85%. In addition, the ratios of the content of dissolved sterols with coprostanol to cholesterin, coprostanol to cholesterin are below 0.2 respectively, indicating the water quality of underground river is not contaminated by domestic sewage, but with the passage of time water quality tends to deterioration. PMID:26910992

  1. The role of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) in intestinal sterol absorption

    PubMed Central

    Turley, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption of cholesterol by the proximal small intestine represents a major pathway for the entry of cholesterol into the body pools. This cholesterol is derived primarily from the bile and the diet. In adult humans, typically several hundred milligrams of cholesterol reach the liver from the intestine daily, with the potential to impact the plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. There are three main phases involved in cholesterol absorption. The first occurs intraluminally and culminates in micellar solubilization of unesterified cholesterol which facilitates its movement up to the brush border membrane (BBM) of the enterocyte. The second phase involves the transport of cholesterol across the BBM by Niemann-Pick C1 Like-1 (NPC1L1), while the third phase entails a series of steps within the enterocyte involving the esterification of cholesterol and its incorporation, along with other lipids and apolipoprotein B48 (apo B48), into nascent chylomicrons (CM). The discovery of the role of NPC1L1 in intestinal sterol transport occurred directly as a consequence of efforts to identify the molecular target of ezetimibe, a novel, potent, and specific inhibitor of sterol absorption that is now widely used in combination therapy with statins for the management of hypercholesterolemia in the general population. Some aspects of the role of NPC1L1 in cholesterol absorption nevertheless remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing research. For example, one report suggests that NPC1L1 is located not in the plasma membrane but intracellularly where it is thought to be involved in cytosolic trafficking of cholesterol, while another concludes that a protein other than NPC1L1 is responsible for the high affinity binding of cholesterol on intestinal BBM. However, other new studies which show that the in vivo responsiveness of different species to ezetimibe correlates with NPC1L1 binding affinity further support the widely held belief that NPC1L1 does facilitate sterol uptake by the enterocyte and is the target of ezetimibe. Added to this is the unequivocal finding that deletion of the gene for NPC1L1 in mice results in a near complete prevention of cholesterol absorption and an accelerated rate of fecal neutral sterol excretion. In summary, the development of ezetimibe and the identification of NPC1L1 as a key player in sterol absorption have taken research on the molecular control of this pathway to an exciting new level. From this it is hoped that we will now be able to determine more precisely what effect, if any, other classes of lipid lowering agents, particularly the statins, might exert on the amount of intestinal cholesterol reaching the liver. PMID:18496605

  2. Deriving a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajalla, Nadim; Assaf, Eleni; Bashour, Issam; Talhouk, Salma

    2014-05-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which were locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been followed by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste problem. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Matiolla, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays, which is commonly known used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored and assessed. The leachate from the irrigation of the pots is also monitored and assessed to ensure that if selected for field trials, the mix will not pose a threat to water bodies. The presentation at the conference will aim to report the latest results from the on-going experiment.

  3. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part II: Reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes.

    PubMed

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathways are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have only been recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss in detail the recent strategies and achievements used in the reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes in an effort to be able to attain higher amounts of the desired flavonoids and stilbenoids exploiting their beneficial properties as analyzed extensively in Part I of this review. PMID:17935118

  4. Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Sarabjeet Singh; Goyal, Dinesh

    2007-09-01

    Discharge of heavy metals from metal processing industries is known to have adverse effects on the environment. Conventional treatment technologies for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution are not economical and generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Biosorption of heavy metals by metabolically inactive non-living biomass of microbial or plant origin is an innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution. Due to unique chemical composition biomass sequesters metal ions by forming metal complexes from solution and obviates the necessity to maintain special growth-supporting conditions. Biomass of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus nigricans, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum natans, Chlorella fusca, Oscillatoria anguistissima, Bacillus firmus and Streptomyces sp. have highest metal adsorption capacities ranging from 5 to 641 mg g(-1) mainly for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni. Biomass generated as a by-product of fermentative processes offers great potential for adopting an economical metal-recovery system. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information on various attributes of utilization of microbial and plant derived biomass and explores the possibility of exploiting them for heavy metal remediation. PMID:16427277

  5. Fate of octyl- and nonylphenol ethoxylates and some carboxylated derivatives in three american wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Torrents, Alba

    2007-10-01

    The fate of a comprehensive group of nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) and several of their carboxylated derivatives was studied in three American wastewatertreatment plants (WWTPs), two of which included advanced treatment. Influent and effluent concentrations of the alkylphenolic compounds (APEs) in the three plants were very similar, but effluent concentrations showed a seasonal dependency: both carboxylate and ethoxylate concentrations in the effluents were higher in winter than in summer. Sorption to particulate matter was higher for nonylphenolic compounds than for their octylphenolic counterparts, in agreement with their difference in Kow values. Both effluent concentrations and the removal efficiency of the APEOs were strongly correlated to water temperature, but no correlation was found with suspended solids or organic carbon removal. Although APEO removal from wastewater was high, overall removal from the WWTPs, including APEOs in waste sludge and transformation products, was relatively low and suggested that advanced treatment does not invariably result in better APEO removal. Additionally, a survey of urban sewers suggested that household products still constitute an important source of the APEOs reaching WWTPs. PMID:17969700

  6. Proteomics Analyses of Bacillus subtilis after Treatment with Plumbagin, a Plant-Derived Naphthoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Ray, Sandipan; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Rapole, Srikanth; Panda, Dulal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infectious diseases and increasing antibiotic resistance among diverse classes of microbes are global health concerns and a prime focus of omics systems science applications in novel drug discovery. Plumbagin is a plant-derived naphthoquinone, a natural product that exhibits antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of plumbagin against Bacillus subtilis using two complementary proteomics techniques: two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Comparative quantitative proteomics analysis of plumbagin treated and untreated control samples identified differential expression of 230 proteins (1% FDR, 1.5 fold-change and ≥2 peptides) in B. subtilis after plumbagin treatment. Pathway analysis involving the differentially expressed proteins suggested that plumbagin effectively increases heme and protein biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid synthesis was significantly reduced. Gene expression and metabolic activity assays further corroborated the proteomics findings. We anticipate that plumbagin blocks the cell division by altering the membrane permeability required for energy generation. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, offering new insights, at proteome level, for the putative mode(s) of action of plumbagin and attendant cellular targets in B. subtilis. The findings also suggest new ways forward for the modern omics-guided drug target discovery, building on traditional plant medicine. PMID:25562197

  7. Oleate potentiates oxysterol inhibition of transcription from sterol regulatory element-1-regulated promoters and maturation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thewke, D P; Panini, S R; Sinensky, M

    1998-08-14

    Activation of genes containing SRE-1 (sterol regulatory element 1) sequences is known to be under the regulation of sterols through modulation of the proteolytic maturation of SREBPs (SRE-1-binding proteins). Previous work has demonstrated SREBP-mediated transcriptional activation of genes encoding enzymes of sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Because synthesis of both sterols and C18 fatty acids are required for cell growth, in the absence of exogenous supplements of these lipids, we examined the hypothesis that fatty acid can also be regulatory in SREBP maturation. Our data indicate that C18 fatty acids can potentiate the biological activities of a typical, regulatory sterol: 25-hydroxycholesterol. Inhibition of C18 fatty acid synthesis in cells cultured in serum-free medium renders them resistant to killing by 25-hydroxycholesterol. Repression of expression of reporter constructs driven by promoters bearing SRE-1 element(s) by 25-hydroxycholesterol is increased by C18 fatty acid supplementation. C18 fatty acids also increase the inhibitory effect of 25-hydroxycholesterol on proteolytic maturation and nuclear localization of SREBPs. Furthermore, we also show that C18 fatty acid supplementation can enhance the inhibitory effect of 25-hydroxycholesterol on sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that maximal down-regulation of SREBP maturation and the consequent repression of SRE-1 promoters occurs in response to both a regulatory sterol and fatty acid. PMID:9694903

  8. The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-03-01

    We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. However, in vivo trials indicated far less efficacy of stem bromelain and fruit bromelain than that expected from the in vitro experiments (24.5% and 22.4% reduction in worm burdens, respectively) against H. bakeri. Scanning electron microscopy revealed signs of cuticular damage on worms incubated in fruit bromelain, stem bromelain and actinidain, but this was far less extensive than on those incubated in papaya latex supernatant. We conclude that, on the basis of presently available data, CPs derived from pineapples and kiwi fruits are not suitable for development as novel anthelmintics for intestinal nematode infections. PMID:24176056

  9. Plant-derived foods for the attenuation of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Gould, Elaine M; Hurst, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is an allergy-mediated inflammatory disease characterised by infiltration of the airway with mast cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The disease is induced by co-ordination of T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of polyphenolic bioactive compounds, which have been observed to have health-promoting properties when consumed by humans. In particular, fruit-derived proanthocyanins and anthocyanins have been found to attenuate lung inflammation. Epidemiological studies have revealed correlations between fruit consumption and a lower prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lower incidence of non-specific lung diseases. In this review we summarise the current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanism(s) involved in the development of allergic airway disease. We also review evidence of the beneficial effects of plant-derived foods, their components and metabolites in allergic airway inflammation arising from in vitro and rodent studies, epidemiological studies and human intervention trials. The mechanism, biological relevance and functional benefits, such as immune modulation (e.g. reduction in cytokine and eotaxin production), antioxidant ability, tissue remodelling and tight junction function are also discussed. PMID:23701570

  10. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)-derived national discharge loads of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Im, Jong-Kwon; Kang, Young-Min; Jung, Se-Young; Kho, Yeong Lim; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2012-01-30

    The discharge of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) was investigated for 15 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), comprising 25% of total domestic wastewater and 23% of total industrial wastewater produced in Korea. PFCs concentrations in influent, effluent, and sludge were greater in industrial wastewater than in the majority of domestic wastewater. Individual PFCs were found to have differing industrial sources, with perfluorocarboxylates used in fabric/textiles, paper-mill, and dyeing industries, and perfluoroalkylsulfonates occurring in oil/chemical and metal-plating/processing industries. Total WWTP-derived national discharge loads were calculated based on the average concentrations in effluents and the total volume of wastewaters produced in Korea. The average WWTP-derived national discharge loads of individual PFCs were 0.04-0.61 ton/year, with 63% of perfluorooctanoate being from domestic wastewater, and 75% of perfluorooctanesulfonate being from industrial wastewater. These estimates accounted for the majority of national emissions, based on measurements in major river mouths, indicating the major contribution of WWTPs to PFC occurrence in Korean aquatic environments. Both the per capita emission factor (μg/capita/day) for domestic discharge, and area-normalized national discharge loads (g/capita/km(2)/day) for all wastewaters were several factors lower in Korea than in Japan or Europe, which is consistent with the lower levels of human exposure to PFCs in Korea. PMID:22169145

  11. Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Novo, Alexandria; Ableson, Ian; Barbehenn, Raymond V; Vannette, Rachel L

    2014-11-01

    In plant-ant-hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners, Asclepias curassavica and Asclepias incarnata, and we measured the responses of experimental Linepithema humile ant colonies to these honeydews. The compositions of secondary metabolites, sugars, and amino acids differed significantly in the honeydews from the two plant species. Ant colonies feeding on honeydew derived from A. incarnata recruited in higher numbers to artificial diet, maintained higher queen and worker dry weight, and sustained marginally more workers than ants feeding on honeydew derived from A. curassavica. Ants feeding on honeydew from A. incarnata were also more exploratory in behavioral assays than ants feeding from A. curassavica. Despite performing better when feeding on the A. incarnata honeydew, ant workers marginally preferred honeydew from A. curassavica to honeydew from A. incarnata when given a choice. Our results demonstrate that plant congeners can exert strong indirect effects on ant colonies by means of plant-species-specific differences in aphid honeydew chemistry. Moreover, these effects changed ant behavior and thus could feed back to affect plant performance in the field. PMID:25505534

  12. A multiplex, bead-based array for profiling plant-derived components in complex food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Elena; Breviario, Diego; Mautino, Alessandro; Gian, Silvia; Morello, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Authentication of processed food ingredients is becoming an important issue for customers, and some DNA-based analytical methods have been developed, especially for animal products. As food products typically contain several different ingredients, a current challenge is to increase the multiplexing capacity of DNA-based methods, to develop "all-in-one" assays. Oligonucleotide-coupled, bead-based suspension arrays are sensitive and reproducible multiplex analytical tools. We applied the Multi-Analyte Profile (xMAP) technology to develop an assay able to concurrently detect five different plant components in mixed flours and in processed feed and food. Capture probes were targeted to species-specific DNA polymorphisms present within the first intron of plant ?-tubulin genes, which can be amplified by the tubulin-based polymorphism-amplification method (TBP-PCR). The workflow is very simple and straightforward, consisting of a PCR amplification step with universal primers, followed by the direct hybridization assay. Results are highly reproducible. For each single plant species, the absolute detection limit was as low as one target DNA copy. In complex mixtures of flours derived from seeds or from commercial dry "pasta," relative limits of detection ranged, in weight, from 2% for soybean to less than 0.5% for wheat. The specificity of the capture probes and the high sensitivity of the method allowed the successful determination of the analytical composition of three feeds as well as eleven food samples, such as snacks, biscuits, and pasta. The multiplexing ability of the assay (up to 100 different analytes) provides scalability and flexibility, in response to specific needs. PMID:24190615

  13. Preparation and biological activity of 6-benzylaminopurine derivatives in plants and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Karel; Popa, Igor; Krystof, Vladimír; Spíchal, Lukás; Fojtíková, Martina; Holub, Jan; Lenobel, René; Schmülling, Thomas; Strnad, Miroslav

    2006-02-01

    To study the structure-activity relationships of aromatic cytokinins, the cytokinin activity at both the receptor and cellular levels, as well as CDK inhibitory and anticancer properties of 38 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) derivatives were compared in various in vitro assays. The compounds were prepared by the condensation of 6-chloropurine with corresponding substituted benzylamines. The majority of synthesised derivatives exhibited high activity in all three of the cytokinin bioassays employed (tobacco callus, wheat senescence and Amaranthus bioassay). The highest activities were obtained in the senescence bioassay. For some compounds tested, significant differences of activity were found in the bioassays used, indicating that diverse recognition systems may operate and suggesting that it may be possible to modulate particular cytokinin-dependent processes with specific compounds. Position-specific steric and hydrophobic effects of different phenyl ring substituents on the variation of biological activity were confirmed. In contrast to their high activity in bioassays, the BAP derivatives were recognised with much lower sensitivity than trans-zeatin in both Arabidopsis thaliana AHK3 and AHK4 receptor assays. The compounds were also investigated for their effects on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and for antiproliferative properties on cancer and normal cell lines. Several of the tested compounds showed stronger inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity than BAP. There was also a significant positive correlation of the inhibitory effects on human and plant CDKs with cell proliferation of cancer and cytokinin-dependent tobacco cells, respectively. This suggests that at least a part of the antiproliferative effect of the new cytokinins was due to the inhibition of CDK activity. PMID:16214355

  14. Sterol-inhibiting fungicide impacts on soil microbial ecology in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. M.; Potter, T. L.; Strickland, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the peanuts (Arachus hypogaia) produced in the United States are grown in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region. Portions of this area, including Alabama and Georgia, exhibit a subtropical climate that promotes soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Most fields receive repeated fungicide applications during the growing season to suppress the disease causing organisms, such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Information regarding fungicide effects on the soil microbial community, with components principally responsible for transformation and fate of fungicides and other soil-applied pesticides, is limited. The objectives of the study were to assess soil microbial community response to (1) varying rates of the sterol-inhibiting fungicide tebuconazole (0, single application, season max, 2x season max), and (2) field rates of the sterol-inhibitors cyproconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, and flutriafol, and thiol-competitor chlorothalonil. The sterol-inhibitors exhibited different half lives, as listed in the FOOTPRINT database, ranging from <1 day to >1300 d. Chlorothalonil was chosen because it is the most frequently applied fungicide to peanut. Shifts in the fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, were monitored during the experiments using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Ergosterol levels and pesticide decay rates were also monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and soil residence time, respectively. In the rate study, the highest rate of tebuconazole reduced the fungal biomarker 18:2?6,9c to 2.6 nmol g-1 dry soil at 17 d, as compared to the control (4.1 nmol g-1 dry soil). However, levels of the fungal PLFA biomarker were similar regardless of rate at 0 and 32 d. The gram negative bacterial PLFA mole percent was greater at 17 d for the two highest rates of tebuconazole, but was similar at 0 and 32 d. Gram positive and fungal mole percents were not affected at any time point. Tebuconazole half life was approximately 10 d regardless of rate. A principle components analysis revealed negligible fungicide impact on PLFA. In the field rate study soil samples were collected immediately following fungicide application to peanut. A laboratory dissipation study, accompanied by PLFA and ergosterol analysis is currently being conducted. Results from the rate experiment indicate that tebuconazole's effect was transient due to rapid dissipation and suggest a gram negative bacterial role. Results obtained from both studies will be useful in predicting the environmental fate and impact of fungicides commonly used for production of peanut and other crops on soil microorganisms.

  15. Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using (/sup 3/H)water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, N.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of (/sup 3/H)water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels.

  16. Sterol and squalene content of a docosahexaenoic-acid-producing thraustochytrid: influence of culture age, temperature, and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T E; Nichols, P D; McMeekin, T A

    2001-09-01

    Thraustochytrid strain ACEM 6063, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was cultured at 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C in high (>40%) and low (<5%) dissolved oxygen (DO), and at 25 degrees C in low-DO media. Samples were taken 4, 2, and 0 days before each culture reached peak biomass (T(-4), T(-2), and T(p), respectively). Twenty sterols, 13 of which were identified, were detected. Predominant were cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, 24-ethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3 beta-ol, 24-methylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3 beta-ol, and 2 coeluting sterols, one of which was 24-ethylcholesta-5,7,22-trien-3 beta-ol. These 4 sterols comprised 50% to 90% of total sterols. Cultures grown at high DO had simpler sterol profiles than those grown at low DO. Only the 4 sterols mentioned above were present at more than 3% of total sterols in high-DO cultures. In low-DO cultures, up to 6 additional sterols were present at more than 3% of total sterols. Culture age, temperature, and DO influenced squalene and sterol content. Total sterols (as a proportion of total lipids) decreased with increasing culture age. If organisms such as ACEM 6063 are to be used for commercial production of lipid products for human consumption, both their sterol content and factors influencing sterol production need to be characterized thoroughly. PMID:14961336

  17. The mechanism of radical-trapping antioxidant activity of plant-derived thiosulfinates.

    PubMed

    Lynett, Philip T; Butts, Krista; Vaidya, Vipraja; Garrett, Graham E; Pratt, Derek A

    2011-05-01

    It has long been recognized that garlic and petiveria, two plants of the Allium genus--which also includes onions, leeks and shallots--possess great medicinal value. In recent times, the biological activities of extracts of these plants have been ascribed to the antioxidant properties of the thiosulfinate secondary metabolites allicin and S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (BPT), respectively. Herein we describe our efforts to probe the mechanism of the radical-trapping antioxidant activity of these compounds, as well as S-propyl propanethiosulfinate (PPT), a saturated analog representative of the thiosulfinates that predominate in non-medicinal alliums. Our experimental results, which include thiosulfinate-inhibited autoxidations of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (ester) methyl linoleate, investigations of their decomposition kinetics, and radical clock experiments aimed at obtaining some quantitative insights into their reactions with peroxyl radicals, indicate that the radical-trapping activity of thiosulfinates is paralleled by their propensity to undergo Cope elimination to yield a sulfenic acid. Since sulfenic acids are transient species, we complement our experimental studies with the results of theoretical calculations aimed at understanding the radical-trapping behaviour of the sulfenic acids derived from allicin, BPT and PPT, and contrasting the predicted thermodynamics and kinetics of their reactions with those of the parent thiosulfinates. The calculations reveal that sulfenic acids have among the weakest O-H bonds known (ca. 70 kcal mol(-1)), and that their reactions with peroxyl radicals take place by a near diffusion-controlled proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism. As such, it is proposed that the abundance of a thiosulfinate in a given plant species, and the ease with which it undergoes Cope elimination to form a sulfenic acid, accounts for the differences in antioxidant activity, and perhaps medicinal value, of extracts of these plants. Interestingly, while the Cope elimination of 2-propenesulfenic acid from allicin is essentially irreversible, the analogous reaction of BPT is readily reversible. Thus, in the absence of chain-carrying peroxyl radicals (or other appropriately reactive trapping agent), BPT is reformed. PMID:21445384

  18. Biochemical and molecular analysis of plants derived from embryogenic tissue cultures of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum).

    PubMed

    Shenoy, V B; Vasil, I K

    1992-05-01

    We have investigated the extent of biochemical and molecular variation in 63 plants of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum.) regenerated from 3- to 24-week-old embryogenic callus cultures. The calli were derived from cultured basal segments of young leaves and immature inflorescences obtained from a single fieldgrown donor plant. The entire population was analyzed for the activity of 14 isozyme systems, but no qualitative variation was found at any of the loci examined. Similarly, no restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were detected in the mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes in a representative sample of regenerated plants. Our results confirm earlier reports of the genetic uniformity of plants derived from somatic embryos and highlight their value both for clonal propagation and for genetic transformation. PMID:24202918

  19. Effect of biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban on the colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Prosser, R S; Lissemore, L; Shahmohamadloo, R S; Sibley, P K

    2015-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a symbiotic relationship with the majority of crop plants. AMF provide plants with nutrients (e.g., P), modulate the effect of metal and pathogen exposure, and increase tolerance to moisture stress. The benefits of AMF to plant growth make them important to the development of sustainable agriculture. The land application of biosolids is becoming an increasingly common practice in sustainable agriculture, as a source of nutrients. However, biosolids have been found to contain numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products including antimicrobial chemicals such as triclosan and triclocarban. The potential risks that these two compounds may pose to plant-AMF interactions are poorly understood. The current study investigated whether biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban affect the colonization of the roots of lettuce and corn plants by AMF. Plants were grown in soil amended with biosolids that contained increasing concentrations of triclosan (0 to 307 μg/g dw) or triclocarban (0 to 304 μg/g dw). A relationship between the concentration of triclosan or triclocarban and colonization of plants roots by AMF was not observed. The presence of biosolids did not have a significant (p>0.05) effect on percent colonization of corn roots but had a significant, positive effect (p<0.05) on lettuce roots. Biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban did not inhibit the colonization of crop plant roots by AMF. PMID:25497682

  20. Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Novo, Alexandria; Ableson, Ian; Barbehenn, Raymond V; Vannette, Rachel L

    2014-01-01

    In plant–ant–hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners, Asclepias curassavica and Asclepias incarnata, and we measured the responses of experimental Linepithema humile ant colonies to these honeydews. The compositions of secondary metabolites, sugars, and amino acids differed significantly in the honeydews from the two plant species. Ant colonies feeding on honeydew derived from A. incarnata recruited in higher numbers to artificial diet, maintained higher queen and worker dry weight, and sustained marginally more workers than ants feeding on honeydew derived from A. curassavica. Ants feeding on honeydew from A. incarnata were also more exploratory in behavioral assays than ants feeding from A. curassavica. Despite performing better when feeding on the A. incarnata honeydew, ant workers marginally preferred honeydew from A. curassavica to honeydew from A. incarnata when given a choice. Our results demonstrate that plant congeners can exert strong indirect effects on ant colonies by means of plant-species-specific differences in aphid honeydew chemistry. Moreover, these effects changed ant behavior and thus could feed back to affect plant performance in the field. PMID:25505534

  1. Respiratory allergenic potential of plant-derived proteins: Understanding the relationship between exposure and potency for risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Karen; N'jai, Alhaji U; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian; Gerberick, G Frank

    2015-10-01

    Botanical ingredients (ingredients derived from plants) are finding increasing application in personal care products and the public perceives these ingredients to be safe. However, some proteins in botanicals have the potential to cause immediate-type (IgE-mediated) respiratory allergic reactions. Although reports of such reactions are uncommon, when they do occur, they can be severe. Experience with soap containing wheat proteins illustrated that under certain specific conditions, consumers may be affected. Establishing safe exposure levels for botanical proteins has been challenging. Industrial enzymes provide a rich reference dataset based on their historical association with allergic reactions among workers, which includes robust dose-response information. In the absence of similar data on the potency of plant proteins, a conservative default approach has historically been applied based on information derived from allergenic enzymes. In this article we review the historical default approach and dataset for setting limits for plant proteins in botanical ingredients based on analogy to industrial enzymes followed by a synthesis of literature data on allergic reactions following inhalation exposure to plant-derived proteins. The aim is to share relevant background information and display the relationship between exposure and potency as a first step in the development of a strategy for the development of an improved approach to support the risk assessment of plant-derived proteins. PMID:26565768

  2. Transmembrane Peptides Influence the Affinity of Sterols for Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Nystrm, Joel H.; Lnnfors, Max; Nyholm, Thomas K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cholesterol is distributed unevenly between different cellular membrane compartments, and the cholesterol content increases from the inner bilayers toward the plasma membrane. It has been suggested that this cholesterol gradient is important in the sorting of transmembrane proteins. Cholesterol has also been to shown play an important role in lateral organization of eukaryotic cell membranes. In this study the aim was to determine how transmembrane proteins influence the lateral distribution of cholesterol in phospholipid bilayers. Insight into this can be obtained by studying how cholesterol interacts with bilayer membranes of different composition in the presence of designed peptides that mimic the transmembrane helices of proteins. For this purpose we developed an assay in which the partitioning of the fluorescent cholesterol analog CTL between LUVs and m?CD can be measured. Comparison of how cholesterol and CTL partitioning between m?CD and phospholipid bilayers with different composition suggests that CTL sensed changes in bilayer composition similarly as cholesterol. Therefore, the results obtained with CTL can be used to understand cholesterol distribution in lipid bilayers. The effect of WALP23 on CTL partitioning between DMPC bilayers and m?CD was measured. From the results it was clear that WALP23 increased both the order in the bilayers (as seen from CTL and DPH anisotropy) and the affinity of the sterol for the bilayer in a concentration dependent way. Although WALP23 also increased the order in DLPC and POPC bilayers the effects on CTL partitioning was much smaller with these lipids. This indicates that proteins have the largest effect on sterol interactions with phospholipids that have longer and saturated acyl chains. KALP23 did not significantly affect the acyl chain order in the phospholipid bilayers, and inclusion of KALP23 into DMPC bilayers slightly decreased CTL partitioning into the bilayer. This shows that transmembrane proteins can both decrease and increase the affinity of sterols for the lipid bilayers surrounding proteins. This is likely to affect the sterol distribution within the bilayer and thereby the lateral organization in biomembranes. PMID:20643071

  3. Transmembrane peptides influence the affinity of sterols for phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Nystrm, Joel H; Lnnfors, Max; Nyholm, Thomas K M

    2010-07-21

    Cholesterol is distributed unevenly between different cellular membrane compartments, and the cholesterol content increases from the inner bilayers toward the plasma membrane. It has been suggested that this cholesterol gradient is important in the sorting of transmembrane proteins. Cholesterol has also been to shown play an important role in lateral organization of eukaryotic cell membranes. In this study the aim was to determine how transmembrane proteins influence the lateral distribution of cholesterol in phospholipid bilayers. Insight into this can be obtained by studying how cholesterol interacts with bilayer membranes of different composition in the presence of designed peptides that mimic the transmembrane helices of proteins. For this purpose we developed an assay in which the partitioning of the fluorescent cholesterol analog CTL between LUVs and mbetaCD can be measured. Comparison of how cholesterol and CTL partitioning between mbetaCD and phospholipid bilayers with different composition suggests that CTL sensed changes in bilayer composition similarly as cholesterol. Therefore, the results obtained with CTL can be used to understand cholesterol distribution in lipid bilayers. The effect of WALP23 on CTL partitioning between DMPC bilayers and mbetaCD was measured. From the results it was clear that WALP23 increased both the order in the bilayers (as seen from CTL and DPH anisotropy) and the affinity of the sterol for the bilayer in a concentration dependent way. Although WALP23 also increased the order in DLPC and POPC bilayers the effects on CTL partitioning was much smaller with these lipids. This indicates that proteins have the largest effect on sterol interactions with phospholipids that have longer and saturated acyl chains. KALP23 did not significantly affect the acyl chain order in the phospholipid bilayers, and inclusion of KALP23 into DMPC bilayers slightly decreased CTL partitioning into the bilayer. This shows that transmembrane proteins can both decrease and increase the affinity of sterols for the lipid bilayers surrounding proteins. This is likely to affect the sterol distribution within the bilayer and thereby the lateral organization in biomembranes. PMID:20643071

  4. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Goto, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (mol m?2 s?1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

  5. Effect of smoke derivatives on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube elongation of species from different plant families.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Papenfus, H B; Kulkarni, M G; Pota, M; Van Staden, J

    2015-07-01

    Plant-derived smoke stimulates seed germination in numerous plant species. Smoke also has a positive stimulatory effect on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. The range of plant families affected my smoke still needs to be established since the initial study was restricted to only three species from the Amaryllidaceae. The effects of smoke-water (SW) and the smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB) on pollen growth characteristics were evaluated in seven different plant families. Smoke-water (1:1000 and 1:2000 v:v) combined with either Brewbaker and Kwack's (BWK) medium or sucrose and boric acid (SB) medium significantly improved pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Aloe maculata All., Kniphofia uvaria Oken, Lachenalia aloides (L.f.) Engl. var. aloides and Tulbaghia simmleri P. Beauv. Karrikinolide (10(-6) and 10(-7) m) treatment significantly improved pollen tube growth in A. maculata, K. uvaria, L. aloides and Nematanthus crassifolius (Schott) Wiehle compared to the controls. BWK or SB medium containing TMB (10(-3) m) produced significantly longer pollen tubes in A. maculata, K. uvaria and N. crassifolius. These results indicate that plant-derived smoke and the smoke-isolated compounds may stimulate pollen growth in a wide range of plant species. PMID:25545791

  6. Analysis of the action of euxanthone, a plant-derived compound that stimulates neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Naidu, M; Kuan, C-Y K; Lo, W-L; Raza, M; Tolkovsky, A; Mak, N-K; Wong, R N-S; Keynes, R

    2007-09-21

    We have investigated the neurite growth-stimulating properties of euxanthone, a xanthone derivative isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Polygala caudata. Euxanthone was shown to exert a marked stimulatory action on neurite outgrowth from chick embryo dorsal root ganglia explanted in collagen gels, in the absence of added neurotrophins. It was also shown to promote cell survival in explanted chick embryo ganglia, and to stimulate neurite outgrowth from isolated adult rat primary sensory neurons in vitro. The further finding that euxanthone stimulates neurite outgrowth from explants of chick embryo retina and ventral spinal cord suggests an action on signaling pathways downstream of neuronal receptors for specific neurotrophic factors. Consistent with this, euxanthone did not promote neurite outgrowth from non-transfected PC12 cells, or from PC12 cells transfected with TrkB or TrkC, under conditions in which these cells extended neurites in response to, respectively, the neurotrophins nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 3. Western blot analysis of euxanthone-stimulated dorsal root ganglion explants showed that expression of phospho-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase was up-regulated after 1 h of euxanthone-treatment. Inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway using PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase, blocked all euxanthone-stimulated neurite outgrowth. However, analysis of phospho-Akt expression indicated that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-Akt pathway, another major signaling pathway engaged by neurotrophins, is not significantly activated by euxanthone. These results suggest that euxanthone promotes neurite outgrowth by selectively activating the MAP kinase pathway. PMID:17825492

  7. Inhaled tobacco sterols: uptake by the lungs and disposition to selected organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Holden, W E; Maier, J M; Liebler, J M; Malinow, M R

    1988-08-01

    Tobacco sterols (cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) are present in tobacco smoke and appear in plasma of mammals exposed to cigarette smoke. Because tobacco sterols may be important in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced lung and vascular diseases, we studied the pattern of deposition of cigarette sterols in the lungs and appearance of cigarette sterols in plasma and body organs of rats. After exposure to twenty 5 ml "puffs" of smoke from tobacco labeled with [4-14C]cholesterol or beta-[4-14C]sitosterol, rats were killed just after exposure (day 0) and on days 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, and 30, and the lungs and selected body organs analyzed for activity. We found that cigarette sterols are associated with particulates in cigarette smoke, deposited mostly in distal airspaces and parenchyma of the lungs, and appear in plasma and several body organs for more than 30 days after this single exposure to cigarette smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contained relatively small amounts of radiolabel for only the first few days, suggesting that most of the sterols were rapidly incorporated in lung parenchyma. Because disorders of sterol metabolism have been implicated in a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer, the significance of tobacco sterols to human smoking-induced diseases deserves further study. PMID:3397625

  8. A potential biochemical mechanism underlying the influence of sterol deprivation stress on Caenorhabditis elegans longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the biochemical mechanism for sterol-mediated alteration in aging in Caenorhabditis elegans, we established sterol depletion conditions by treating worms with azacoprostane, which reduced mean lifespan of adult C. elegans by 35%. Proteomic analyses of egg proteins from treated and un...

  9. Applying Clustering and Phylogeny Analysis to Study Dinoflagellates based on Sterol Composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterol compositions of dinoflagellates have been studied for several decades as a means of assessing whether certain species possess unique chemical biomarkers. However, no attempt has been made to compile the results from numerous studies to examine how sterol compositions may relate to the phylog...

  10. Inhaled tobacco sterols: uptake by the lungs and disposition to selected organs of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Liebler, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1988-08-01

    Tobacco sterols (cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) are present in tobacco smoke and appear in plasma of mammals exposed to cigarette smoke. Because tobacco sterols may be important in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced lung and vascular diseases, we studied the pattern of deposition of cigarette sterols in the lungs and appearance of cigarette sterols in plasma and body organs of rats. After exposure to twenty 5 ml puffs of smoke from tobacco labeled with (4-/sup 14/C)cholesterol or beta-(4-/sup 14/C)sitosterol, rats were killed just after exposure (day 0) and on days 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, and 30, and the lungs and selected body organs analyzed for activity. We found that cigarette sterols are associated with particulates in cigarette smoke, deposited mostly in distal airspaces and parenchyma of the lungs, and appear in plasma and several body organs for more than 30 days after this single exposure to cigarette smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contained relatively small amounts of radiolabel for only the first few days, suggesting that most of the sterols were rapidly incorporated in lung parenchyma. Because disorders of sterol metabolism have been implicated in a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer, the significance of tobacco sterols to human smoking-induced diseases deserves further study.

  11. Evaluation of the anti-Listeria potentials of some plant-derived triterpenes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a fatal disease caused by pathogenic Listeria bacteria and it is most prevalent in immune-compromised individuals. The increase in numbers of immune-compromised individuals against a background of Listeria antibiotic resistance, limits listeriosis treatment options. This therefore calls for research into substitute treatments, of which, medicinal plants derived compounds offer a viable alternative. Methods The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of three plant triterpenes namely 3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid, methyl-3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate and 3?-acetylursolic acid, against Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria grayi species. The chequerboard method was used to assess the interactions between the triterpenes and conventional antibiotics: ampicillin, neomycin, gentamicin and penicillin G. The lactate dehydrogenase membrane damage method was used to assess the triterpenes membrane damaging potentials against the Listeria bacteria. Results The triterpenes MIC values were found to range from 0.185 to 1.67mg/ml while, the MBC determination assay results revealed that the test triterpenes were bacteriostatic against the Listeria bacteria. The interactions involving 3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid were mainly additive with ampicillin and synergistic with neomycin, gentamicin and penicillin G. The interactions involving methyl-3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate were mainly antagonistic with ampicillin, indifferent with neomycin, ranging from synergistic to indifference with gentamicin and synergistic with penicillin G. The interactions involving 3?-acetylursolic acid were mainly indifferent with ampicillin, synergistic with neomycin and gentamicin while ranging between synergistic and additive with penicillin G. The low levels of cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase released from the cells treated with 4 MIC concentration of the triterpenes in comparison to that of cells treated with 3% Triton X-100 proved that membrane damage was not the mode of action of the triterpenes. Conclusion This study therefore shows the potential that these plant triterpenes have in listeriosis chemotherapy especially as shown by the favourable interactions they had with penicillin G, one of the antibiotics of choice in listeriosis treatment. PMID:25056181

  12. Fungal genomes mining to discover novel sterol esterases and lipases as catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterol esterases and lipases are enzymes able to efficiently catalyze synthesis and hydrolysis reactions of both sterol esters and triglycerides and due to their versatility could be widely used in different industrial applications. Lipases with this ability have been reported in the yeast Candida rugosa that secretes several extracellular enzymes with a high level of sequence identity, although different substrate specificity. This versatility has also been found in the sterol esterases from the ascomycetes Ophiostoma piceae and Melanocarpus albomyces. Results In this work we present an in silico search of new sterol esterase and lipase sequences from the genomes of environmental fungi. The strategy followed included identification and search of conserved domains from these versatile enzymes, phylogenetic studies, sequence analysis and 3D modeling of the selected candidates. Conclusions Six potential putative enzymes were selected and their kinetic properties and substrate selectivity are discussed on the basis of their similarity with previously characterized sterol esterases/lipases with known structures. PMID:24138290

  13. Gracilariopsis persica from Persian Gulf Contains Bioactive Sterols

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Permeh, Parisa; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Mashinchian-Moradi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Gracilariopsis Persica (Rhodophyta) is one of the most abundant algae, introduced newly from the Indian Ocean. In this study, the main sterols of the algae have been isolated and identified. Separation and purification of the compounds was carried out on silica gel and sephadex LH20 column chromatography (CC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to obtain five pure compounds 1-5. Structural elucidation of the compounds was based on the data obtained from H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT and Mass spectroscopy. The separated compounds from Gp. Persica were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1), cholesterol (2), stigmasterol (3), ?-sitosterol (4) and fucosterol (5) based on the spectral data compared to those reported in literatures. Most of these sterols are noteworthy for their effectiveness in decreasing the plasma cholesterol, glucose and inflammation. The results of Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity Assay indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of Gp. Persica showed a high cytotoxic effect against A. salina nauplii (LC50 = 4 ?g/mL). The methanol extract was no effective but the aqueous methanol extract was moderately effective (LC50 = 40 ?g/mL) compared to berberine hydrochloride as a positive control (LC50 = 26 ?g/mL). PMID:24250511

  14. The Endocannabinoid System and Plant-Derived Cannabinoids in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Horvth, Bla; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Hask, Gyrgy; Pacher, Pl

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play critical roles in the development of diabetes and its complications. Recent studies provided compelling evidence that the newly discovered lipid signaling system (ie, the endocannabinoid system) may significantly influence reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, and subsequent tissue injury, in addition to its well-known metabolic effects and functions. The modulation of the activity of this system holds tremendous therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, ranging from cancer, pain, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases to obesity and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in primary diabetes and its effects on various diabetic complications, such as diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, particularly highlighting the mechanisms beyond the metabolic consequences of the activation of the endocannabinoid system. The therapeutic potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system and certain plant-derived cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol and ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, which are devoid of psychotropic effects and possess potent anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties, in diabetes and diabetic complications is also discussed. PMID:22155112

  15. Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar).

    PubMed

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter S; Johnson, Mark G; Kleber, Markus

    2010-02-15

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ("biochar"). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-N(2) surface area (SA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 degrees C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars, the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved; (ii) in amorphous chars, the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed; (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases; and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. Molecular variations among the different char categories likely translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents. PMID:20099810

  16. In silico approach for the discovery of new PPARγ modulators among plant-derived polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Encinar, José Antonio; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; Galiano-Ibarra, Vicente; Micol, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a well-characterized member of the PPAR family that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and plays a significant role in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitization. Full agonists of synthetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been therapeutically used in clinical practice to treat type 2 diabetes for many years. Although it can effectively lower blood glucose levels and improve insulin sensitivity, the administration of TZDs has been associated with severe side effects. Based on recent evidence obtained with plant-derived polyphenols, the present in silico study aimed at finding new selective human PPARγ (hPPARγ) modulators that are able to improve glucose homeostasis with reduced side effects compared with TZDs. Docking experiments have been used to select compounds with strong binding affinity (ΔG values ranging from −10.0±0.9 to −11.4±0.9 kcal/mol) by docking against the binding site of several X-ray structures of hPPARγ. These putative modulators present several molecular interactions with the binding site of the protein. Additionally, most of the selected compounds have favorable druggability and good ADMET properties. These results aim to pave the way for further bench-scale analysis for the discovery of new modulators of hPPARγ that do not induce any side effects. PMID:26604687

  17. Attenuation of Oxidative Stress of Erythrocytes by Plant-Derived Flavonoids, Orientin and Luteolin.

    PubMed

    An, Fang; Wang, Shulin; Yuan, Danhua; Gong, Yuewen; Wang, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocytes are easy to be injured by oxidative stress in their lifespan. Although there are several chemicals such as vitamin C (VC) that would be able to reduce oxidative stress, natural herbal products still remain an interesting research area. The current study investigated the effects of two plant-derived flavonoids, orientin and luteolin, on erythrocytes and their possible mechanisms. This experiment was divided into nine groups, which were normal group, model group, VC control group, and treated groups with different doses of orientin and luteolin (10, 20, and 40 μg/mL), respectively. Hemolysis rate was determined by spectrophotometry. Antioxidative enzyme and products were evaluated by different methods. Erythrocyte cell surface and cellular structure were observed with scanning or transmission electron microscope, respectively. Oxidative stress induced significant increase in hemolysis rate of erythrocytes. Orientin or luteolin ameliorated hemolysis of erythrocytes in oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Both orientin and luteolin reduced oxidative products and increased antioxidative enzyme activities. Moreover, orientin and luteolin attenuated oxidative stress induced damage of erythrocyte cell surface morphology and cellular structure. In conclusion, orientin and luteolin could protect human erythrocytes from oxidative damage by attenuating oxidative stress, protecting antioxidative enzyme activities, and preserving integrity of erythrocyte structure. PMID:26966458

  18. Neutral monosaccharide composition analysis of plant-derived oligo- and polysaccharides by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Ruimin; Li, Ning; Chen, Yonglin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-01-20

    A novel analytical method for neutral monosaccharide composition analysis of plant-derived oligo- and polysaccharides was developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to a charged aerosol detector. The effects of column type, additives, pH and column temperature on retention and separation were evaluated. Additionally, the method could distinguish potential impurities in samples, including chloride, sulfate and sodium, from sugars. The results of validation demonstrated that this method had good linearity (R(2) ? 0.9981), high precision (relative standard deviation ? 4.43%), and adequate accuracy (94.02-103.37% recovery) and sensitivity (detection limit: 15-40 ng). Finally, the monosaccharide compositions of the polysaccharide from Eclipta prostrasta L. and stachyose were successfully profiled through this method. This report represents the first time that all of these common monosaccharides could be well-separated and determined simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography without additional derivatization. This newly developed method is convenient, efficient and reliable for monosaccharide analysis. PMID:26572471

  19. A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Tai, Wendi

    2003-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability of effective conventional medical treatments, plant-derived and herbal remedies continue to provide a popular alternative for men and women seeking to improve their sex life. Nevertheless, the efficacy of most herbal agents in treating sexual problems remains uncertain. Therapists and consumers alike would benefit from an increased understanding of commonly used herbal agents on the market, their purported or supported effects, and their potential side effects. To this end, we cataloged the major prosexual herbal agents currently sold in several representative health food stores. We also specify the sexual problem purportedly ameliorated by each herbal agent. Finally, we evaluate eight herbal agents commonly promoted for the treatment of sexual problems. This evaluation includes a review of the research supporting the use, efficacy, dose, adverse effects, contraindications, and possible mechanism of action of each. We conclude by commenting on the quality of current research, pointing out gaps in our knowledge, and noting the need for rigorous research and product control to adequately address questions regarding the efficacy of these agents. PMID:12851124

  20. Sensitization of HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Cells to Lapatinib Using Plants-Derived Isothiocyanates.

    PubMed

    Kaczy?ska, Angelika; ?wierczy?ska, Joanna; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 25% of all breast cancer is characterized by overexpression of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) which leads to overactivation of prosurvival signal transduction pathways, especially through Akt-mTOR-S6K kinases, and results in enhanced proliferation, migration, induction of angiogenesis, and apoptosis inhibition. Anti-HER2 targeted therapies, such as specific monoclonal antibodies or small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, even in combination, still seem to be insufficient due to incidence of primary or acquired resistance and prevalence of serious side-effects of these drugs. We assumed that combination of compounds that target different levels of the above-mentioned signal transduction pathway might be more effective in eradication of breast cancer cells. In our in vitro research we used a commercially available drug, lapatinib, acting at the level of the receptor in combination with 1 of the plant-derived isothiocyanates: sulforaphane, erucin, or sulforaphene, as it has been shown previously that sulforaphane inhibits Akt-mTOR-S6K1 pathway in breast cancer cells. We used 2 HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cell lines, SKBR-3 and BT-474. Combinations of the drug and isothiocyanates considerably decreased their viability. This action was synergistic and was accompanied by a decrease in phosphorylation of HER2, Akt, and S6. Combined treatment induced apoptosis more efficiently than either agent alone; however the most effective was a combination of lapatinib with erucin. These findings might support the optimization of therapy based on lapatinib treatment. PMID:26134366

  1. Attenuation of Oxidative Stress of Erythrocytes by Plant-Derived Flavonoids, Orientin and Luteolin

    PubMed Central

    An, Fang; Wang, Shulin; Yuan, Danhua; Gong, Yuewen; Wang, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocytes are easy to be injured by oxidative stress in their lifespan. Although there are several chemicals such as vitamin C (VC) that would be able to reduce oxidative stress, natural herbal products still remain an interesting research area. The current study investigated the effects of two plant-derived flavonoids, orientin and luteolin, on erythrocytes and their possible mechanisms. This experiment was divided into nine groups, which were normal group, model group, VC control group, and treated groups with different doses of orientin and luteolin (10, 20, and 40 μg/mL), respectively. Hemolysis rate was determined by spectrophotometry. Antioxidative enzyme and products were evaluated by different methods. Erythrocyte cell surface and cellular structure were observed with scanning or transmission electron microscope, respectively. Oxidative stress induced significant increase in hemolysis rate of erythrocytes. Orientin or luteolin ameliorated hemolysis of erythrocytes in oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Both orientin and luteolin reduced oxidative products and increased antioxidative enzyme activities. Moreover, orientin and luteolin attenuated oxidative stress induced damage of erythrocyte cell surface morphology and cellular structure. In conclusion, orientin and luteolin could protect human erythrocytes from oxidative damage by attenuating oxidative stress, protecting antioxidative enzyme activities, and preserving integrity of erythrocyte structure. PMID:26966458

  2. Plant-Derived Tick Repellents Activate the Honey Bee Ectoparasitic Mite TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guangda; Kashio, Makiko; Morimoto, Tomomi; Li, Tianbang; Zhu, Jingting; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2015-07-14

    We have identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Varroa destructor (VdTRPA1), a major ectoparasitic mite of honey bee. One of the two VdTRPA1 isoforms, VdTRPA1L, was activated by a variety of plant-derived compounds, including electrophilic compounds, suggesting that chemical activation profiles are mostly shared between arthropod TRPA1 channels. Nevertheless, carvacrol and ?-terpineol activated VdTRPA1L but not a honey bee noxious-stimuli-sensitive TRPA, AmHsTRPA, and Drosophila melanogaster TRPA1. Activation of VdTRPA1L in D. melanogaster taste neurons by the above compounds was sufficient to modify the gustatory behaviors. Carvacrol and ?-terpineol repelled V. destructor in a laboratory assay, and ?-terpineol repressed V. destructor entry for reproduction into the brood cells in hives. Understanding the functions of parasite TRP channels not only gives clues about the evolving molecular and cellular mechanisms of parasitism but also helps in the development of control methods. PMID:26146083

  3. In silico approach for the discovery of new PPAR? modulators among plant-derived polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Encinar, Jos Antonio; Fernndez-Ballester, Gregorio; Galiano-Ibarra, Vicente; Micol, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a well-characterized member of the PPAR family that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and plays a significant role in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitization. Full agonists of synthetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been therapeutically used in clinical practice to treat type 2 diabetes for many years. Although it can effectively lower blood glucose levels and improve insulin sensitivity, the administration of TZDs has been associated with severe side effects. Based on recent evidence obtained with plant-derived polyphenols, the present in silico study aimed at finding new selective human PPAR? (hPPAR?) modulators that are able to improve glucose homeostasis with reduced side effects compared with TZDs. Docking experiments have been used to select compounds with strong binding affinity (?G values ranging from -10.00.9 to -11.40.9 kcal/mol) by docking against the binding site of several X-ray structures of hPPAR?. These putative modulators present several molecular interactions with the binding site of the protein. Additionally, most of the selected compounds have favorable druggability and good ADMET properties. These results aim to pave the way for further bench-scale analysis for the discovery of new modulators of hPPAR? that do not induce any side effects. PMID:26604687

  4. The Promise of Plant-Derived Substances as Inhibitors of Arginase.

    PubMed

    Girard-Thernier, C; Pham, T-N; Demougeot, C

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme arginase catalyses the divalent cation dependent hydrolysis of L-arginine to produce L-ornithine and urea. Two isoforms of arginases have been identified in mammalian (including human) cells. Moreover, some infectious pathogens (e.g. Leishmania) synthesize their own arginase. Work over the last decades has revealed that elevated arginase activity both decreases cellular availability in nitric oxide (NO) by competing with NO synthases (NOS) and increases concentration in L-ornithine, a precursor in the biosynthesis of polyamines which are important for cell differentiation and proliferation. From these data emerged the concept that selective arginase inhibitors might be a valuable strategy for treatment of various diseases associated with decreased NO and/or increased polyamines production. Consistent with this, recent research provides compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of arginase inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, ischemia reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus), asthma, cancer, immunologically-mediated diseases or leishmaniasis. Despite active programs to identify potent arginase inhibitors, effective chemical compounds with reliable pharmacokinetics and toxicological properties are rare. The present review summarizes available data on the discovery of new arginase inhibitors from natural origin. Current knowledge on plant-derived compounds or extracts with arginase inhibitory properties as well as available data on structure-activity relationship (SAR) will be presented. Lastly, the present review will open up new prospects in order to improve the discovery of novel arginase inhibitors from natural sources. PMID:25963565

  5. The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Sean D; Soroceanu, Liliana; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2015-06-01

    As a therapeutic agent, most people are familiar with the palliative effects of the primary psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (CS), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a molecule active at both the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor subtypes. Through the activation primarily of CB1 receptors in the central nervous system, THC can reduce nausea, emesis and pain in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. During the last decade, however, several studies have now shown that CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists can act as direct antitumor agents in a variety of aggressive cancers. In addition to THC, there are many other cannabinoids found in CS, and a majority produces little to no psychoactivity due to the inability to activate cannabinoid receptors. For example, the second most abundant cannabinoid in CS is the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Using animal models, CBD has been shown to inhibit the progression of many types of cancer including glioblastoma (GBM), breast, lung, prostate and colon cancer. This review will center on mechanisms by which CBD, and other plant-derived cannabinoids inefficient at activating cannabinoid receptors, inhibit tumor cell viability, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and the stem-like potential of cancer cells. We will also discuss the ability of non-psychoactive cannabinoids to induce autophagy and apoptotic-mediated cancer cell death, and enhance the activity of first-line agents commonly used in cancer treatment. PMID:25916739

  6. Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)

    SciTech Connect

    Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

    2009-11-15

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

  7. Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    PubMed

    Fraňková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, Věra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klouček, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0 mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp. PMID:25062020

  8. Effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients on the genome-wide profiles and coccidiosis resistance in the broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and Capsicum oleoresin, on the translational regulation of genes associated with immunology, physiology and metabolism using high-throughput microarray analysis and in vivo d...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle; exemption from the requirement of a... Rhizophoria mangle; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  10. Safety assessment considerations for food and feed derived from plants with genetic modifications that modulate endogenous gene expression and pathways.

    PubMed

    Kier, Larry D; Petrick, Jay S

    2008-08-01

    The current globally recognized comparative food and feed safety assessment paradigm for biotechnology-derived crops is a robust and comprehensive approach for evaluating the safety of both the inserted gene product and the resulting crop. Incorporating many basic concepts from food safety, toxicology, nutrition, molecular biology, and plant breeding, this approach has been used effectively by scientists and regulatory agencies for 10-15 years. Current and future challenges in agriculture include the need for improved yields, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improved nutrition. The next generation of biotechnology-derived crops may utilize regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors that modulate gene expression and/or endogenous plant pathways. In this review, we discuss the applicability of the current safety assessment paradigm to biotechnology-derived crops developed using modifications involving regulatory proteins. The growing literature describing the molecular biology underlying plant domestication and conventional breeding demonstrates the naturally occurring genetic variation found in plants, including significant variation in the classes, expression, and activity of regulatory proteins. Specific examples of plant modifications involving insertion or altered expression of regulatory proteins are discussed as illustrative case studies supporting the conclusion that the current comparative safety assessment process is appropriate for these types of biotechnology-developed crops. PMID:18602733

  11. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect. PMID:26784701

  12. Electron Beam Lithography Using Highly Sensitive Negative Type of Plant-Based Resist Material Derived from Biomass on Hardmask Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Oshima, Akihiro; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Yanamori, Naomi; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2011-10-01

    We investigated electron beam (EB) lithography using a novel highly sensitive negative type of plant-based resist material derived from biomass on a hardmask layer for trilayer processes. The chemical design concept for using the plant-based resist material with glucose and dextrin derivatives was first demonstrated in the EB lithography. The 1 m line patterning images with highly efficient crosslinking properties and low film thickness shrinkage were provided under specific process conditions of EB lithography. The results shown reveal that the alpha-linked disaccharide formed by a 1,1-glucoside bond between two glucose units in dextrin derivatives was an important factor in controlling the highly sensitive EB patterning and developer properties.

  13. New phenyl derivatives from endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria sp. SCSIO KcF6 derived of mangrove plant Kandelia candel.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhi-ran; Qin, Xiaochu; Lin, Xiu-ping; Wang, Jun-feng; Kaliyaperumal, Kumaravel; Tian, Yong-qi; Liu, Juan; Liu, Fen; Tu, Zhengchao; Xu, Shi-hai; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Two new phenyl derivatives (1 and 3), along with two new natural products (4 and 5), and three known compounds (2, 6 and 7), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria sp. SCSIO KcF6. The structures of these compounds 1-7 were elucidated by the extensive 1D and 2D-NMR and HRESIMS Data analysis, and compared with those of reported data. The absolute configuration of the compounds 1 and 3 were assigned by optical rotation and CD data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory (COX-2) and antimicrobial activities. Compound 3 exhibited a specific COX-2 inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 1.12 μM. PMID:26156623

  14. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a recombinant sterol 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glucosides.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pragya; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Mishra, B N; Sabir, Farzana; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., a pharmacologically important herb vernacularly called Gur-Mar (sugar eliminator), is widely known for its antidiabetic action. This property of the herb has been attributed to the presence of bioactive triterpene glycosides. Although some information regarding pharmacology and phytochemical profiles of the plant are available, no attempts have been made so far to decipher the biosynthetic pathway and key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of steryl glucosides. The present report deals with the identification and catalytic characterization of a glucosyltransferase, catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glycosides. The full length cDNA (2572 bp) contained an open reading frame of 2106 nucleotides that encoded a 701 amino acid protein, falling into GT-B subfamily of glycosyltransferases. The GsSGT was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme suggested its key role in the biosynthesis of steryl glucosides with catalytic preference for C-3 hydroxyl group of sterols. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on cloning and biochemical characterization of a sterol metabolism gene from G. sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing glucosylation of a variety of sterols of biological origin from diverse organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. PMID:25250339

  15. Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of a Recombinant Sterol 3-O-Glucosyltransferase from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Catalyzing Biosynthesis of Steryl Glucosides

    PubMed Central

    Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Mishra, B. N.; Sangwan, Neelam S.

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., a pharmacologically important herb vernacularly called Gur-Mar (sugar eliminator), is widely known for its antidiabetic action. This property of the herb has been attributed to the presence of bioactive triterpene glycosides. Although some information regarding pharmacology and phytochemical profiles of the plant are available, no attempts have been made so far to decipher the biosynthetic pathway and key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of steryl glucosides. The present report deals with the identification and catalytic characterization of a glucosyltransferase, catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glycosides. The full length cDNA (2572 bp) contained an open reading frame of 2106 nucleotides that encoded a 701 amino acid protein, falling into GT-B subfamily of glycosyltransferases. The GsSGT was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme suggested its key role in the biosynthesis of steryl glucosides with catalytic preference for C-3 hydroxyl group of sterols. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on cloning and biochemical characterization of a sterol metabolism gene from G. sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing glucosylation of a variety of sterols of biological origin from diverse organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. PMID:25250339

  16. Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic α-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der) was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM) plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP), had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic α-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM plants expressing, for example, BP100 based on inverted repeats, have adequate agronomic performance and resistant phenotypes as a result of a complex equilibrium between bp100der toxicity to plant cells, antimicrobial activity and transgene-derived plant stress response. It is likely that these results can be extended to other peptides with similar characteristics. PMID:22947243

  17. Plant-derived anti-Lewis Y mAb exhibits biological activities for efficient immunotherapy against human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Brodzik, Robert; Glogowska, Magdalena; Bandurska, Katarzyna; Okulicz, Monika; Deka, Deepali; Ko, Kisung; van der Linden, Joke; Leusen, Jeanette H. W.; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Golovkin, Maxim; Steplewski, Zenon; Koprowski, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    Although current demands for therapeutic mAbs are growing quickly, production methods to date, including in vitro mammalian tissue culture and transgenic animals, provide only limited quantities at high cost. Several tumor-associated antigens in tumor cells have been identified as targets for therapeutic mAbs. Here we describe the production of mAb BR55-2 (IgG2a) in transgenic plants that recognizes the nonprotein tumor-associated antigen Lewis Y oligosaccharide overexpressed in human carcinomas, particularly breast and colorectal cancers. Heavy and light chains of mAb BR55-2 were expressed separately and assembled in plant cells of low-alkaloid tobacco transgenic plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. LAMD609). Expression levels of plant-derived mAb (mAbP) were high (30 mg/kg of fresh leaves) in T1 generation plants. Like the mammalian-derived mAbM, the plant mAbP bound specifically to both SK-BR3 breast cancer cells and SW948 colorectal cancer cells. The Fc domain of both mAbP and mAbM showed the similar binding to FcγRI receptor (CD64). Comparable levels of cytotoxicity against SK-BR3 cells were also shown for both mAbs in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Furthermore, plant-derived BR55-2 efficiently inhibited SW948 tumor growth xenografted in nude mice. Altogether, these findings suggest that mAbP originating from low-alkaloid tobacco exhibit biological activities suitable for efficient immunotherapy. PMID:16720700

  18. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F.; Velázquez-Tavera, N.; Fargher, L.; Derrien, M.; Noreña-Barroso, E.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g- 1) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g- 1). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate that defining a relationship among sources and fecal sterols levels is highly difficult and this could be the result of the absorption or migration through an intricate conduit, crack, or fracture karst system. Nevertheless, the “source-levels approach”, used in this study, was consistent for the northeast edge and the middle western part of the RC. New and more extensive research should be done to assess the environmental fate of fecal sterols, especially considering the intricate karstic system and its compound retention capacity.

  19. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreña-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate that defining a relationship among sources and fecal sterols levels is highly difficult and this could be the result of the absorption or migration through an intricate conduit, crack, or fracture karst system. Nevertheless, the "source-levels approach", used in this study, was consistent for the northeast edge and the middle western part of the RC. New and more extensive research should be done to assess the environmental fate of fecal sterols, especially considering the intricate karstic system and its compound retention capacity. PMID:25282019

  20. Deriving the optimal scale for relating topographic attributes and cover crop plant biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Juan D.; Kravchenko, Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    The use of cover crops generates a number of agro-ecological benefits for sustainable row-crop agriculture. However, their performance across agricultural fields is often highly spatially variable and there is insufficient information on factors affecting this variability and on tools to manage it. Topography is one of the main factors affecting spatial patterns of plant growth in the American Midwest. Digital elevation models are readily available for deriving topographic attributes; also sensor digital data can be used to indirectly assess cover crop biomass. However, processing procedures for identifying the proper scale of topographic and biomass representations are not well defined. The objectives of this study are to examine how relationships between cover crop biomass, assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and topography depend on the neighborhood size used for deriving topographic attributes and creating NDVI maps; and identify the optimal neighborhood size for correlation and regression analyses. Slope, relative elevation and the potential solar radiation index were the variables that contributed the most to explaining variability in NDVI for raw data. However, other topographic attributes became significant predictors of NDVI at larger neighborhood sizes. We demonstrated that neighborhood size greatly affects some topographic attributes, i.e. curvature, flow accumulation, flow length and the wetness index; and changing the neighborhood size in both topography and NDVI considerably changes the strength of the prediction performance in multiple regression models. We studied six neighborhood sizes from 1 to 40 m and the original raw data. On average, across all studied fields the best performance of multiple regression, as determined by the adjusted-R2, was obtained at neighborhood sizes 20 and 40 m. Parameters of semivariogram models for terrain slope, such as the spatial autocorrelation range and the nugget/sill ratio, were found to be good indicators of prediction performance and optimum neighborhood size for filtering the raw data. The results demonstrate that topographic effects on growth and biomass production of cover crops are most pronounced at certain spatial scales, and topographic model predictions will be most accurate when used at the optimal scales.

  1. Boosting Crop Yields with Plant Steroids[W

    PubMed Central

    Vriet, Cécile; Russinova, Eugenia; Reuzeau, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Plant sterols and steroid hormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), are compounds that exert a wide range of biological activities. They are essential for plant growth, reproduction, and responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Given the importance of sterols and BRs in these processes, engineering their biosynthetic and signaling pathways offers exciting potentials for enhancing crop yield. In this review, we focus on how alterations in components of sterol and BR metabolism and signaling or application of exogenous steroids and steroid inhibitors affect traits of agronomic importance. We also discuss areas for future research and identify the fine-tuning modulation of endogenous BR content as a promising strategy for crop improvement. PMID:22438020

  2. Classification of Plant Associated Bacteria Using RIF, a Computationally Derived DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kevin L.; Marrero, Glorimar; Alvarez, Anne M.; Presting, Gernot G.

    2011-01-01

    A DNA marker that distinguishes plant associated bacteria at the species level and below was derived by comparing six sequenced genomes of Xanthomonas, a genus that contains many important phytopathogens. This DNA marker comprises a portion of the dnaA replication initiation factor (RIF). Unlike the rRNA genes, dnaA is a single copy gene in the vast majority of sequenced bacterial genomes, and amplification of RIF requires genus-specific primers. In silico analysis revealed that RIF has equal or greater ability to differentiate closely related species of Xanthomonas than the widely used ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ITS). Furthermore, in a set of 263 Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter strains, the RIF marker was directly sequenced in both directions with a success rate approximately 16% higher than that for ITS. RIF frameworks for Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter were constructed using 682 reference strains representing different species, subspecies, pathovars, races, hosts and geographic regions, and contain a total of 109 different RIF sequences. RIF sequences showed subspecific groupings but did not place strains of X. campestris or X. axonopodis into currently named pathovars nor R. solanacearum strains into their respective races, confirming previous conclusions that pathovar and race designations do not necessarily reflect genetic relationships. The RIF marker also was sequenced for 24 reference strains from three genera in the Enterobacteriaceae: Pectobacterium, Pantoea and Dickeya. RIF sequences of 70 previously uncharacterized strains of Ralstonia, Clavibacter, Pectobacterium and Dickeya matched, or were similar to, those of known reference strains, illustrating the utility of the frameworks to classify bacteria below the species level and rapidly match unknown isolates to reference strains. The RIF sequence frameworks are available at the online RIF database, RIFdb, and can be queried for diagnostic purposes with RIF sequences obtained from unknown strains in both chromatogram and FASTA format. PMID:21533033

  3. Regulation of late cornified envelope genes relevant to psoriasis risk by plant-derived cyanidin.

    PubMed

    Austin, Heather R; Hoss, Elika; Batie, Shane F; Moffet, Eric W; Jurutka, Peter W; Haussler, Mark R; Whitfield, G Kerr

    2014-01-24

    The PSORS4 genetic risk factor for psoriasis is a deletion of two late cornified envelope (LCE) genes (LCE3C_LCE3Bdel) in a cluster of five LCE3 genes with a proposed role in skin repair. We previously showed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) modestly upregulates transcripts from all five LCE3 genes as monitored by real time PCR in primary human keratinocytes. Herein we report that cyanidin, a plant-derived compound with anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant properties, upregulates expression of all five LCE3 genes in cultures of differentiating primary human keratinocytes to a greater extent that does 1,25D. This action of cyanidin is dependent on the differentiation state of the keratinocytes, with a stronger effect after the cells have been incubated with 1.2mM calcium for 24h. Competition displacement assays using radiolabeled 1,25D revealed that cyanidin directly competes as a ligand for vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding with an estimated IC50 of 500?M. However, 20?M cyanidin is sufficient to upregulate LCE3 genes. The 25-fold discrepancy between the cyanidin concentration required for upregulating LCE3 genes in intact keratinocytes vs. that required for direct binding to VDR in vitro suggests that cyanidin may be: (a) metabolized to a more active VDR ligand in keratinocytes and/or (b) functioning via a non-VDR mediated mechanism. The fact that cyanidin is the most potent upregulator of global LCE3 gene expression reported to date suggests that this or related compounds may have potential in psoriasis therapy. PMID:24393842

  4. Reduction of Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets by plant-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Nair, Divek V T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Schilling, Wes; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2014-12-01

    The foodborne illnesses associated with poultry meat due to Salmonella are a major concern in the United States. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of carvacrol, eugenol, thyme essential oil, and trans-cinnamaldehyde was determined against different Salmonella serotypes in vitro and on turkey breast cutlets. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of antimicrobial agents were determined using a microdilution colorimetric assay. Carvacrol was the most effective antimicrobial agent since it exhibited the lowest MIC and MBC (0.313??L/mL, respectively) in culture media against Salmonella. Turkey breast cutlets inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Typhimurium were dip treated with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 5% vol/vol) of carvacrol, eugenol, thyme essential oil, and trans-cinnamaldehyde for 2?min. Samples were analyzed after 24-h storage at 4C for recovery of Salmonella. Significant reductions of Salmonella (p?0.05) on turkey breast cutlets were obtained with 1, 2, and 5% treatments. These compounds exhibited a concentration-dependent response on turkey breast cutlets against Salmonella. For example, 1% carvacrol resulted in 1.0 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g reduction of Salmonella whereas 5% carvacrol caused 2.6 log CFU/g reduction. Based on its efficacy in the 2-min dip study, carvacrol was selected for 30-s and 60-s dip treatments of Salmonella-inoculated turkey breast cutlets. Dipping turkey breast cutlets in 5% carvacrol for 30?s and 60?s resulted in 1.0 and 1.8 log reductions of Salmonella (p?0.05), respectively. None of the antimicrobial agents caused any changes in the meat pH (p>0.05). In conclusion, this study revealed that plant-derived compounds such as carvacrol can reduce Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets without changing the pH of meat. PMID:25405806

  5. CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic (CDOM) in aquatic environments is derived from the microbial decomposition of terrestrial and microbial organic matter. Here we present results of studies of the spectral properties and photoreactivity of the CDOM derived from several organic matter...

  6. Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

    2003-12-31

    This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

  7. Highly sensitive image-derived indices of water-stressed plants using hyperspectral imaging in SWIR and histogram analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, David M.; Zhang, Hairong; Zhou, Haiying; Du, Tommy; Wu, Qian; Mockler, Todd C.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2015-11-01

    The optical signature of leaves is an important monitoring and predictive parameter for a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought. Such signatures derived from spectroscopic measurements provide vegetation indices – a quantitative method for assessing plant health. However, the commonly used metrics suffer from low sensitivity. Relatively small changes in water content in moderately stressed plants demand high-contrast imaging to distinguish affected plants. We present a new approach in deriving sensitive indices using hyperspectral imaging in a short-wave infrared range from 800 nm to 1600 nm. Our method, based on high spectral resolution (1.56 nm) instrumentation and image processing algorithms (quantitative histogram analysis), enables us to distinguish a moderate water stress equivalent of 20% relative water content (RWC). The identified image-derived indices 15XX nm/14XX nm (i.e. 1529 nm/1416 nm) were superior to common vegetation indices, such as WBI, MSI, and NDWI, with significantly better sensitivity, enabling early diagnostics of plant health.

  8. Highly sensitive image-derived indices of water-stressed plants using hyperspectral imaging in SWIR and histogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, David M; Zhang, Hairong; Zhou, Haiying; Du, Tommy; Wu, Qian; Mockler, Todd C; Berezin, Mikhail Y

    2015-01-01

    The optical signature of leaves is an important monitoring and predictive parameter for a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought. Such signatures derived from spectroscopic measurements provide vegetation indices - a quantitative method for assessing plant health. However, the commonly used metrics suffer from low sensitivity. Relatively small changes in water content in moderately stressed plants demand high-contrast imaging to distinguish affected plants. We present a new approach in deriving sensitive indices using hyperspectral imaging in a short-wave infrared range from 800 nm to 1600 nm. Our method, based on high spectral resolution (1.56 nm) instrumentation and image processing algorithms (quantitative histogram analysis), enables us to distinguish a moderate water stress equivalent of 20% relative water content (RWC). The identified image-derived indices 15XX nm/14XX nm (i.e. 1529 nm/1416 nm) were superior to common vegetation indices, such as WBI, MSI, and NDWI, with significantly better sensitivity, enabling early diagnostics of plant health. PMID:26531782

  9. Highly sensitive image-derived indices of water-stressed plants using hyperspectral imaging in SWIR and histogram analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David M.; Zhang, Hairong; Zhou, Haiying; Du, Tommy; Wu, Qian; Mockler, Todd C.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2015-01-01

    The optical signature of leaves is an important monitoring and predictive parameter for a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought. Such signatures derived from spectroscopic measurements provide vegetation indices – a quantitative method for assessing plant health. However, the commonly used metrics suffer from low sensitivity. Relatively small changes in water content in moderately stressed plants demand high-contrast imaging to distinguish affected plants. We present a new approach in deriving sensitive indices using hyperspectral imaging in a short-wave infrared range from 800 nm to 1600 nm. Our method, based on high spectral resolution (1.56 nm) instrumentation and image processing algorithms (quantitative histogram analysis), enables us to distinguish a moderate water stress equivalent of 20% relative water content (RWC). The identified image-derived indices 15XX nm/14XX nm (i.e. 1529 nm/1416 nm) were superior to common vegetation indices, such as WBI, MSI, and NDWI, with significantly better sensitivity, enabling early diagnostics of plant health. PMID:26531782

  10. A 2h-nmr Study Of Popc/sterol Membranes: Some Exciting Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaghaghi, Mehran; Zuckermann, Martin; Thewalt, Jenifer

    2009-05-01

    In a recent article [1], Y-W Hsueh et al showed that the 2H-NMR order parameter, M1, of 1-[2H31]palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/ergosterol multi-bilayers at 25oC increased linearly as a function of ergosterol concentration to 25 mol%, but did not increase further when more ergosterol was added. By contrast, M1 for POPC/cholesterol bilayers increases linearly to at least 50% sterol. The structural difference between cholesterol and ergosterol is that ergosterol has an additional double bond in its fused ring (C7-8) and a trans double bond (C22-23) plus a methyl group (at C24) in its alkyl chain. We study which of these structural changes is responsible for the observed saturation of the order parameter in POPC/ergosterol bilayers. In [1] it was shown that the M1 of POPC/7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) multilayers behaves similarly to that of POPC/cholesterol, increasing linearly with [7-DHC]. 7-DHC has an ergosterol fused ring structure but a cholesterol alkyl tail. To explore this phenomenon, we determined the sterol concentration dependence of POPC containing two different sterols with structural similarities with respect to the before studied sterols. Other sterols are also being investigated in order to understand the sensitivity of POPC/sterol membranes to the sterol's alkyl tail structure. [1] Y-W Hsueh et al., (2007) Biophys. J. 92:1606-1615.

  11. Genome profiling of sterol synthesis shows convergent evolution in parasites and guides chemotherapeutic attack.

    PubMed

    Fügi, Matthias A; Gunasekera, Kapila; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Guan, Xueli; Wenk, Markus R; Mäser, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Sterols are an essential class of lipids in eukaryotes, where they serve as structural components of membranes and play important roles as signaling molecules. Sterols are also of high pharmacological significance: cholesterol-lowering drugs are blockbusters in human health, and inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis are widely used as antifungals. Inhibitors of ergosterol synthesis are also being developed for Chagas's disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we develop an in silico pipeline to globally evaluate sterol metabolism and perform comparative genomics. We generate a library of hidden Markov model-based profiles for 42 sterol biosynthetic enzymes, which allows expressing the genomic makeup of a given species as a numerical vector. Hierarchical clustering of these vectors functionally groups eukaryote proteomes and reveals convergent evolution, in particular metabolic reduction in obligate endoparasites. We experimentally explore sterol metabolism by testing a set of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors against trypanosomatids, Plasmodium falciparum, Giardia, and mammalian cells, and by quantifying the expression levels of sterol biosynthetic genes during the different life stages of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The phenotypic data correlate with genomic makeup for simvastatin, which showed activity against trypanosomatids. Other findings, such as the activity of terbinafine against Giardia, are not in agreement with the genotypic profile. PMID:24627128

  12. Genome profiling of sterol synthesis shows convergent evolution in parasites and guides chemotherapeutic attack

    PubMed Central

    Fgi, Matthias A.; Gunasekera, Kapila; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Guan, Xueli; Wenk, Markus R.; Mser, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Sterols are an essential class of lipids in eukaryotes, where they serve as structural components of membranes and play important roles as signaling molecules. Sterols are also of high pharmacological significance: cholesterol-lowering drugs are blockbusters in human health, and inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis are widely used as antifungals. Inhibitors of ergosterol synthesis are also being developed for Chagass disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we develop an in silico pipeline to globally evaluate sterol metabolism and perform comparative genomics. We generate a library of hidden Markov model-based profiles for 42 sterol biosynthetic enzymes, which allows expressing the genomic makeup of a given species as a numerical vector. Hierarchical clustering of these vectors functionally groups eukaryote proteomes and reveals convergent evolution, in particular metabolic reduction in obligate endoparasites. We experimentally explore sterol metabolism by testing a set of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors against trypanosomatids, Plasmodium falciparum, Giardia, and mammalian cells, and by quantifying the expression levels of sterol biosynthetic genes during the different life stages of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The phenotypic data correlate with genomic makeup for simvastatin, which showed activity against trypanosomatids. Other findings, such as the activity of terbinafine against Giardia, are not in agreement with the genotypic profile. PMID:24627128

  13. Cholesterol biosynthesis by the cornea. Comparison of rates of sterol synthesis with accumulation during early development

    SciTech Connect

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R. )

    1989-07-01

    The origin of the cholesterol needed by the cornea for growth and cell turnover was addressed by comparing absolute rates of sterol synthesis with rates of sterol accumulation during early development of the rabbit. Linearity of incorporation of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O and ({sup 14}C)mevalonate into digitonin-precipitable sterols with time of incubation in vitro and a lack of accumulation of {sup 14}C in intermediates of sterol biosynthesis indicated that tritiated water can validly be used to measure rates of sterol synthesis by the cornea. The rate of sterol synthesis per unit weight of rabbit cornea was constant between 14 and 60 days of age at an average 1.03 nmol of {sup 3}H of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O incorporated/mg dry cornea per 8 h. Essentially all of the synthesized cholesterol and most of the cholesterol mass was present in corneal epithelium. The cumulative sterol synthesized over the 46-day period studied exceeded the observed rate of cholesterol accumulation by sixfold. Cholesterol synthesized in excess of the growth requirement was likely used to support turnover of the epithelium which was estimated at 9 days. Removal of cholesterol from the cornea by excretion into tear fluid and clearance by high density lipoproteins are also considered.

  14. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  15. Novel benzo-1,2,3-thiadiazole-7-carboxylate derivatives as plant activators and the development of their agricultural applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingshan; Zhu, Weiping; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Qian, Xuhong; Xu, Yufang

    2012-01-11

    Plant activators are a novel kind of agrochemicals that could induce resistance in many plants against a broad spectrum of diseases. To date, only few plant activators have been commercialized. In order to develop novel plant activators, a series of benzo-1,2,3-thiadiazole-7-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized, and the structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, elemental analyses, and HRMS or MS. Their potential systemic acquired resistance as plant activators was evaluated as well. Most of them showed good activity, especially, fluoro-containing compounds 3d and 3e, which displayed excellent SAR-inducing activity against cucumber Erysiphe cichoracearum and Colletotrichum lagenarium in assay screening. Field test results illustrated that compounds 3d and 3e were more potent than the commercial plant activator, S-methyl benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH) toward these pathogens. Further, the preparation of compound 3d is more facile than BTH with lower cost, which will be helpful for further applications in agricultural plant protection. PMID:22142181

  16. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  17. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  18. Sterol affinity for bilayer membranes is affected by their ceramide content and the ceramide chain length.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Thomas K M; Grandell, Pia-Maria; Westerlund, Bodil; Slotte, J Peter

    2010-05-01

    It is known that ceramides can influence the lateral organization in biological membranes. In particular ceramides have been shown to alter the composition of cholesterol and sphingolipid enriched nanoscopic domains, by displacing cholesterol, and forming gel phase domains with sphingomyelin. Here we have investigated how the bilayer content of ceramides and their chain length influence sterol partitioning into the membranes. The effect of ceramides with saturated chains ranging from 4 to 24 carbons in length was investigated. In addition, unsaturated 18:1- and 24:1-ceramides were also examined. The sterol partitioning into bilayer membranes was studied by measuring the distribution of cholestatrienol, a fluorescent cholesterol analogue, between methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and large unilamellar vesicle with defined lipid composition. Up to 15 mol% ceramide was added to bilayers composed of DOPC:PSM:cholesterol (3:1:1), and the effect on sterol partitioning was measured. Both at 23 and 37 degrees C addition of ceramide affected the sterol partitioning in a chain length dependent manner, so that the ceramides with intermediate chain lengths were the most effective in reducing sterol partitioning into the membranes. At 23 degrees C the 18:1-ceramide was not as effective at inhibiting sterol partitioning into the vesicles as its saturated equivalent, but at 37 degrees C the additional double bond had no effect. The longer 24:1-ceramide behaved as 24:0-ceramide at both temperatures. In conclusion, this work shows how the distribution of sterols within sphingomyelin-containing membranes is affected by the acyl chain composition in ceramides. The overall membrane partitioning measured in this study reflects the differential partitioning of sterol into ordered domains where ceramides compete with the sterol for association with sphingomyelin. PMID:20044977

  19. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Displaced SREBP Proteins as the Major Sterol Regulators during Saccharomycotina Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L.; Wang, Can; Holland, Linda M.; Brunel, François; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs), which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1) and C. albicans (Cph2) have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1) and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina. PMID:24453983

  20. Derivatives of diterpen labdane-8?,15-diol as photosynthetic inhibitors in spinach chloroplasts and growth plant inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Morales-Flores, Flix; Aguilar, Mara Isabel; King-Daz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2013-08-01

    In a search of new efficient herbicides of natural origin, four derivatives were prepared from labdane-8?,15-diol (1) and 15-O-acetyl-8?-hydroxy labdane (2) isolated from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus. Their inhibitory activity on photosynthetic electron transport on fresh, broken spinach chloroplasts and on the growth of plants were determined. Derivative 15-O-benzoyl-8?-hydroxy labdane (5) was seven times more active than 2 as reaction Hill inhibitor. Complex of 5 with the adjuvant 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (5:HPB) (200 ?M) was sprayed on Physalys ixocarpa (green tomato) plants; 48 h later the complex inhibited PS II by transforming the active reaction centers to silent reaction centers or "heat sinks". After 72 h this effect disappeared, probably 5:HPB was metabolized by the plant. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of Trifolium alexandrinum (clover) leaves was affected with 5:HPB at the level of PQ pool reduction. 5:HPB decreases the tomato and clover dry-biomass, without affecting Lolium perenne (grass) plants, suggesting that complex 5 acts as selective herbicide for dicotyledonous plants. PMID:23733160

  1. NPC1L1 (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1) mediates sterol-specific unidirectional transport of non-esterified cholesterol in McArdle-RH7777 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, J Mark; Rudel, Lawrence L; Yu, Liqing

    2007-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that NPC1L1 (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1) is critical for intestinal sterol absorption in mice, yet mechanisms by which NPC1L1 regulates cellular sterol transport are lacking. In the study we used a McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cell line stably expressing NPC1L1 to examine the sterol-specificity and directionality of NPC1L1-mediated sterol transport. As previously described, cholesterol-depletion-driven recycling of NPC1L1 to the cell surface facilitates cellular uptake of non-esterified (free) cholesterol. However, it has no impact on the uptake of esterified cholesterol, indicating free sterol specificity. Interestingly, the endocytic recycling of NPC1L1 was also without effect on beta-sitosterol uptake, indicating that NPC1L1 can differentiate between free sterols of animal and plant origin in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, NPC1L1-driven free cholesterol transport was unidirectional, since cellular cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein or serum was unaffected by NPC1L1 expression or localization. Additionally, NPC1L1 facilitates mass non-esterified-cholesterol uptake only when it is located on the cell surface and not when it resides intracellularly. Finally, NPC1L1-dependent cholesterol uptake required adequate intracellular K(+), yet did not rely on intracellular Ca(2+), the cytoskeleton or signalling downstream of protein kinase A, protein kinase C or pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors. Collectively, these findings support the notion that NPC1L1 can selectively recognize non-esterified cholesterol and promote its unidirectional transport into hepatoma cells. PMID:17523925

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  3. Analysis of monoglycerides, diglycerides, sterols, and free fatty acids in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) oil by 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dayrit, Fabian M; Buenafe, Olivia Erin M; Chainani, Edward T; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S

    2008-07-23

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( (31)P NMR) was used to differentiate virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached, deodorized coconut oil (RCO). Monoglycerides (MGs), diglycerides (DGs), sterols, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in VCO and RCO were converted into dioxaphospholane derivatives and analyzed by (31)P NMR. On the average, 1-MG was found to be higher in VCO (0.027%) than RCO (0.019%). 2-MG was not detected in any of the samples down to a detection limit of 0.014%. On the average, total DGs were lower in VCO (1.55%) than RCO (4.10%). When plotted in terms of the ratio [1,2-DG/total DGs] versus total DGs, VCO and RCO samples grouped separately. Total sterols were higher in VCO (0.096%) compared with RCO (0.032%), and the FFA content was 8 times higher in VCO than RCO (0.127% vs 0.015%). FFA determination by (31)P NMR and titration gave comparable results. Principal components analysis shows that the 1,2-DG, 1,3-DG, and FFAs are the most important parameters for differentiating VCO from RCO. PMID:18576656

  4. Unraveling sterol-dependent membrane phenotypes by analysis of protein abundance-ratio distributions in different membrane fractions under biochemical and endogenous sterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Zauber, Henrik; Szymanski, Witold; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2013-12-01

    During the last decade, research on plasma membrane focused increasingly on the analysis of so-called microdomains. It has been shown that function of many membrane-associated proteins involved in signaling and transport depends on their conditional segregation within sterol-enriched membrane domains. High throughput proteomic analysis of sterol-protein interactions are often based on analyzing detergent resistant membrane fraction enriched in sterols and associated proteins, which also contain proteins from these microdomain structures. Most studies so far focused exclusively on the characterization of detergent resistant membrane protein composition and abundances. This approach has received some criticism because of its unspecificity and many co-purifying proteins. In this study, by a label-free quantitation approach, we extended the characterization of membrane microdomains by particularly studying distributions of each protein between detergent resistant membrane and detergent-soluble fractions (DSF). This approach allows a more stringent definition of dynamic processes between different membrane phases and provides a means of identification of co-purifying proteins. We developed a random sampling algorithm, called Unicorn, allowing for robust statistical testing of alterations in the protein distribution ratios of the two different fractions. Unicorn was validated on proteomic data from methyl-β-cyclodextrin treated plasma membranes and the sterol biosynthesis mutant smt1. Both, chemical treatment and sterol-biosynthesis mutation affected similar protein classes in their membrane phase distribution and particularly proteins with signaling and transport functions. PMID:24030099

  5. Potential applications of plant based derivatives as fat replacers, antioxidants and antimicrobials in fresh and processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hygreeva, Desugari; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K

    2014-09-01

    Growing concern about diet and health has led to development of healthier food products. In general consumer perception towards the intake of meat and meat products is unhealthy because it may increase the risk of diseases like cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer, because of its high fat content (especially saturated fat) and added synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobials. Addition of plant derivatives having antioxidant components including vitamins A, C and E, minerals, polyphenols, flavanoids and terpenoids in meat products may decrease the risk of several degenerative diseases. To change consumer attitudes towards meat consumption, the meat industry is undergoing major transformations by addition of nonmeat ingredients as animal fat replacers, natural antioxidants and antimicrobials, preferably derived from plant sources. PMID:24845336

  6. Rapid inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs by plant-derived antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a common foodborne pathogen transmitted to humans largely by consumption of contaminated eggs. The external surface of eggs becomes contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis from various sources on farms, the main sources being hens' droppings and contaminated litter. Therefore, effective egg surface disinfection is critical to reduce pathogens on eggs and potentially control egg-borne disease outbreaks. This study investigated the efficacy of GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDA), namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and eugenol (EUG), as an antimicrobial wash for rapidly killing Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs in the presence or absence of chicken droppings. White-shelled eggs inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of nalidixic acid (NA) resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (8.0 log cfu/mL) were washed in sterile deionized water containing each PDA (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75%) or chlorine (200 mg/kg) at 32 or 42C for 30 s, 3 min, or 5 min. Approximately 6.0 log cfu/mL of Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from inoculated and unwashed eggs. The wash water control and chlorine control decreased Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs by only 2.0 log cfu/mL even after washing for 5 min. The PDA were highly effective in killing Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs compared with controls (P < 0.05). All treatments containing CR and EUG reduced Salmonella Enteritidis to undetectable levels as rapidly as within 30 s of washing, whereas TC (0.75%) completely inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs washed at 42C for 30 s (P < 0.05). No Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in any PDA or chlorine wash solution; however, substantial pathogen populations (~4.0 log cfu/mL) survived in the antibacterial-free control wash water (P < 0.05). The CR and EUG were also able to eliminate Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs to undetectable levels in the presence of 3% chicken droppings at 32C (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that PDA could effectively be used as a wash treatment to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs. Sensory and quality studies of PDA-washed eggs need to be conducted before recommending their use. PMID:24235233

  7. New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 Derived from the Mangrove Plant Acanthus ilicifolius

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Xiuping; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefeng; Liu, Juan; Yang, Bin; Yang, Xianwen; Liao, Shengrong; Wang, Lishu; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Four new meroterpenoids (25), along with three known analogues (1, 6, and 7) were isolated from mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analysis, the configurations were assigned by CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 17 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:25574738

  8. GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE8 and STEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 Are Required for Ploidy Consistency of the Sexual Reproduction System in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; De Schrijver, Joachim; Van Criekinge, Wim; Wewer, Vera; Drmann, Peter; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In sexually reproducing plants, the meiocyte-producing archesporal cell lineage is maintained at the diploid state to consolidate the formation of haploid gametes. In search of molecular factors that regulate this ploidy consistency, we isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, called enlarged tetrad2 (et2), which produces tetraploid meiocytes through the stochastic occurrence of premeiotic endomitosis. Endomitotic polyploidization events were induced by alterations in cell wall formation, and similar cytokinetic defects were sporadically observed in other tissues, including cotyledons and leaves. ET2 encodes GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE8 (GSL8), a callose synthase that mediates the deposition of callose at developing cell plates, root hairs, and plasmodesmata. Unlike other gsl8 mutants, in which defects in cell plate formation are seedling lethal, cytokinetic defects in et2 predominantly occur in flowers and have little effect on vegetative growth and development. Similarly, mutations in STEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 (SMT2), a major sterol biosynthesis enzyme, also lead to weak cytokinetic defects, primarily in the flowers. In addition, SMT2 allelic mutants also generate tetraploid meiocytes through the ectopic induction of premeiotic endomitosis. These observations demonstrate that appropriate callose and sterol biosynthesis are required for maintaining the ploidy level of the premeiotic germ lineage and that subtle defects in cytokinesis may lead to diploid gametes and polyploid offspring. PMID:23404886

  9. Genomic stability of Palmer amaranth plants derived by macro-vegetative propagation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Q-PCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were utilized to investigate genetic stability of Palmer amaranth cloned plants over 10 generations. Q-PCR analysis of DNA from parent Palmer amaranth plants was repeated and confidence levels for determining ...

  10. N-methylated tryptamine derivatives in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine in bergamot.

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Castaldo, Domenico

    2012-09-19

    The occurrence of N-methylated tryptamine derivatives in bergamot plant (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit) is reported for the first time. Interestingly, the most abundant of these substances is N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine, which has not been previously identified in any citrus plant. The N-methylated tryptamine derivatives were identified and quantitated in leaves, peel, juice, and seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. N,N,N-Trimethyltryptamine was confirmed by MS(3) and comparison with the synthesized authentic standard. In addition, the study of the distribution of tryptophan, tryptamine, N-methyltryptamine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, and N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine indicated that these compounds are differently expressed in the various tissues of the bergamot plant. Intriguingly, chemically synthesized N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine was reported to possess nicotine-like activity being a stimulant of parasympathetic ganglia by exerting its action on acetylcholine receptors. On this basis, the identification of N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine at a relatively high level in leaves suggests a possible role in a physiological mechanism of plant defense. PMID:22957740

  11. Plant regeneration and biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in Hypoxis hemerocallidea organ and callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Mack; Amoo, Stephen O; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Jiří; Subrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Micropropagation of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. and C.A. Mey was used as a model system to study the influence of cytokinins (CKs) on plant regeneration and biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in organ and callus cultures and their antioxidant activity. Fourteen free phenolic acids were detected using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) while antioxidant activity was evaluated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Cytokinins had a significant effect on the biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in H. hemerocallidea organ cultures. In particular, meta-topolin-treated organ cultures produced high concentrations of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic, chlorogenic and trans-cinnamic acids. The isoprenoid CK, N(6)-(2-isopentenyl)-adenine significantly increased the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, namely, caffeic, p-coumaric, sinapic and ferulic acids. Cytokinin-treated organ cultures exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant activity, particularly in the ORAC model. In callus cultures, CKs decreased the concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and antioxidant activity when compared to the control. Overall, both CK type and concentration had a significant effect on plant regeneration, callus proliferation, biochemical accumulation of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of the resultant extracts. PMID:25219317

  12. ?14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X. T.; Ding, X. F.; Fu, D. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Liu, K. X.

    2013-01-01

    The 14C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14C/12C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO2 was estimated by comparing the measured ?14C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric ?14C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low ?14C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  13. Plant-Derived Sucrose Is a Key Element in the Symbiotic Association between Trichoderma virens and Maize Plants1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Walter A.; Mandawe, John C.; Kenerley, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Fungal species belonging to the genus Trichoderma colonize the rhizosphere of many plants, resulting in beneficial effects such as increased resistance to pathogens and greater yield and productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the recognition and association between Trichoderma and their hosts are still largely unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that plant-derived sucrose (Suc) is an important resource provided to Trichoderma cells and is also associated with the control of root colonization. We describe the identification and characterization of an intracellular invertase from Trichoderma virens (TvInv) important for the mechanisms that control the symbiotic association and fungal growth in the presence of Suc. Gene expression studies revealed that the hydrolysis of plant-derived Suc in T. virens is necessary for the up-regulation of Sm1, the Trichoderma-secreted elicitor that systemically activates the defense mechanisms in leaves. We determined that as a result of colonization of maize (Zea mays) roots by T. virens, photosynthetic rate increases in leaves and the functional expression of tvinv is crucial for such effect. In agreement, the steady-state levels of mRNA for Rubisco small subunit and the oxygen-evolving enhancer 3-1 were increased in leaves of plants colonized by wild-type T. virens. We conclude that during the symbiosis, the sucrolytic activity in the fungal cells affects the sink activity of roots, directing carbon partitioning toward roots and increasing the rate of photosynthesis in leaves. A discussion of the role of Suc in controlling the fungal proliferation on roots and its pivotal role in the coordination of plant-microbe associations is provided. PMID:19675155

  14. Corresponding changes in kynurenine hydroxylase activity, membrane fluidity, and sterol composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    McLean-Bowen, C A; Parks, L W

    1981-01-01

    The effect of sterol composition on the properties of the mitochondrial membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The physical state of mitochondrial membranes from wild-type strains and sterol mutants was compared, using a fluorescence polarization technique with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3-5-hexatriene. Changes in the rate of depolarization of the probe molecule as a function of temperature suggest the occurrence of a phase transition in the mitochondrial membranes isolated from the sterol mutants but not in the membranes isolated from the wild types. Arrhenius kinetics of the mitochondrial membrane-bound enzyme L-kynurenine-3-hydroxylase exhibited changes in activation energy at temperatures similar to those observed in the fluorescence polarization study. The ratio of mitochondrial sterol to phospholipid and the phospholipid fatty acid composition of the organisms were characterized. PMID:7009578

  15. Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase.

    PubMed Central

    Zarn, Jürg A; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Schlatter, Josef R

    2003-01-01

    Azole compounds play a key role as antifungals in agriculture and in human mycoses and as non-steroidal antiestrogens in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors in postmenopausal women. This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition of certain pathways of steroidogenesis by high-affinity binding to the enzymes sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase. Sterol 14-alpha-demethylase is crucial for the production of meiosis-activating sterols, which recently were shown to modulate germ cell development in both sexes of mammals. Aromatase is responsible for the physiologic balance of androgens and estrogens. At high doses, azole fungicides and other azole compounds affect reproductive organs, fertility, and development in several species. These effects may be explained by inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and/or aromatase. In fact, several azole compounds were shown to inhibit these enzymes in vitro, and there is also strong evidence for inhibiting activity in vivo. Furthermore, the specificity of the enzyme inhibition of several of these compounds is poor, both with respect to fungal versus nonfungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylases and versus other P450 enzymes including aromatase. To our knowledge, this is the first review on sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase as common targets of azole compounds and the consequence for steroidogenesis. We conclude that many azole compounds developed as inhibitors of fungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylase are inhibitors also of mammalian sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and mammalian aromatase with unknown potencies. For human health risk assessment, data on comparative potencies of azole fungicides to fungal and human enzymes are needed. PMID:12611652

  16. The mannoprotein TIR3 (CAGL0C03872g) is required for sterol uptake in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Inukai, Tatsuya; Nagi, Minoru; Morita, Akihiro; Tanabe, Koichi; Aoyama, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Bard, Martin; Nakayama, Hironobu

    2015-02-01

    Sterol uptake in the pathogenic fungus, Candida glabrata, occurs via the sterol transporter, CgAus1p. Azole inhibition of sterol biosynthesis can under certain circumstances be reversed by adding exogenously sterol. Here we demonstrate that the CgTIR3 (CAGL0C03872g) gene product is also required for sterol uptake, since Cgtir3? strains fail to take up sterol both aerobically and under hypoxic conditions. Western analysis using an HA-tagged TIR3 strain showed that CgTir3p localizes to the cell wall, and its expression is induced by serum. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR also showed that two transcription regulatory genes, CgUPC2A and CgUPC2B, control CgTIR3 as well as CgAUS1 gene expression. Interestingly, complementation studies using Cgtir3? showed that ScDAN1, a mannoprotein required for sterol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, could not complement the C. glabrata TIR3 function. Furthermore, sterol analyses, in which both the CgAUS1 and CgTIR3 genes were constitutively expressed, resulted in aerobic sterol uptake although the amount of uptake was considerably less than that of cells cultured aerobically with serum. These results suggest that additional factors other than CgAUS1 and CgTIR3 are required for sterol uptake in C. glabrata. PMID:25463012

  17. Fluconazole Binding and Sterol Demethylation in Three CYP51 Isoforms Indicate Differences in Active Site Topology

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamine, A.; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Waterman, Mike

    2010-11-16

    14{alpha}-Demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in all sterol biosynthetic pathways (animals, fungi, plants, protists, and some bacteria), catalyzing the removal of the C-14 methyl group following cyclization of squalene. Based on mutations found in CYP51 genes from Candida albicans azole-resistant isolates obtained after fluconazole treatment of fungal infections, and using site-directed mutagenesis, we have found that fluconazole binding and substrate metabolism vary among three different CYP51 isoforms: human, fungal, and mycobacterial. In C. albicans, the Y132H mutant from isolates shows no effect on fluconazole binding, whereas the F145L mutant results in a 5-fold increase in its IC{sub 50} for fluconazole, suggesting that F145 (conserved only in fungal 14{alpha}-demethylases) interacts with this azole. In C. albicans, F145L accounts, in part, for the difference in fluconazole sensitivity reported between mammals and fungi, providing a basis for treatment of fungal infections. The C. albicans Y132H and human Y145H CYP51 mutants show essentially no effect on substrate metabolism, but the Mycobacterium tuberculosis F89H CYP51 mutant loses both its substrate binding and metabolism. Because these three residues align in the three isoforms, the results indicate that their active sites contain important structural differences, and further emphasize that fluconazole and substrate binding are uncoupled properties.

  18. Synthesis of Plant Auxin Derivatives and Their Effects on Ceratopteris Richardii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stilts, Corey E.; Fisher, Roxanne

    2007-01-01

    Bioassays are commonly used to test the biological activity of chemicals and other exercises are presented in which students synthesize plant hormones. Lab exercise is conducted using commercially available auxins and auxin regulating compounds.

  19. Gene-enzyme telationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R. A.

    1980-04-21

    Progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) chemistry of the arogenate molecule; (2) plant enzymology at the organismal level; (3) isolation of regulatory mutants in tobacco; and (4) stability of the haploid state in Nicotiana sylvestris.

  20. Brocazines A-F, Cytotoxic Bisthiodiketopiperazine Derivatives from Penicillium brocae MA-231, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from the Marine Mangrove Plant Avicennia marina.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Li, Xiao-Ming; Lv, Cui-Ting; Huang, Cai-Guo; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2014-08-22

    Six new disulfide-bridged diketopiperazine derivatives, brocazines A-F (1-6), along with one known analogue (7), were isolated and identified from the cytotoxic extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, a fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of 1 and established the structure and absolute configuration of 5, while the absolute configurations for compounds 1, 4, and 6 were deduced by comparison of the CD data with those of 5. Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 showed cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines. PMID:25105722

  1. Generation and Analysis of Novel Plant-Derived Antibody-Based Therapeutic Molecules against West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    He, Junyun; Lai, Huafang; Engle, Michael; Gorlatov, Sergey; Gruber, Clemens; Steinkellner, Herta; Diamond, Michael S.; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Previously, our group engineered a plant-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb) (pHu-E16) that efficiently treated West Nile virus (WNV) infection in mice. In this study, we developed several pHu-E16 variants to improve its efficacy. These variants included a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of pHu-E16 fused to the heavy chain (HC) constant domains (CH1-3) of human IgG (pHu-E16scFv-CH1-3) and a tetravalent molecule (Tetra pHu-E16) assembled from pHu-E16scFv-CH1-3 with a second pHu-E16scFv fused to the light chain (LC) constant region. pHu-E16scFv-CH1-3 and Tetra pHu-E16 were efficiently expressed and assembled in plants. To assess the impact of differences in N-linked glycosylation on pHu-E16 variant assembly and function, we expressed additional pHu-E16 variants with various combinations of HC and LC components. Our study revealed that proper pairing of HC and LC was essential for the complete N-glycan processing of antibodies in both plant and animal cells. Associated with their distinct N-glycoforms, pHu-E16, pHu-E16scFv-CH1-3 and Tetra pHu-E16 exhibited differential binding to C1q and specific Fc? receptors (Fc?R). Notably, none of the plant-derived Hu-E16 variants showed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) activity in CD32A+ human cells, suggesting the potential of plant-produced antibodies to minimize the adverse effect of ADE. Importantly, all plant-derived MAb variants exhibited at least equivalent in vitro neutralization and in vivo protection in mice compared to mammalian cell-produced Hu-E16. This study demonstrates the capacity of plants to express and assemble a large, complex and functional IgG-like tetravalent mAb variant and also provides insight into the relationship between MAb N-glycosylation, Fc?R and C1q binding, and ADE. These new insights may allow the development of safer and cost effective MAb-based therapeutics for flaviviruses, and possibly other pathogens. PMID:24675995

  2. Cloning, mechanistic and functional analysis of a fungal sterol C24-methyltransferase implicated in brassicasterol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maristela; Song, Zhihong; Santos-Silva, Ludier Kesser; Richards, Mathew H; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Minh; Liu, JiaLin; de Almeida Soares, Celia Maria; da Silva Cruz, Aline Helena; Ganapathy, Kulothungan; Nes, W David

    2010-10-01

    The first committed step in the formation of 24-alkylsterols in the ascomycetous fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis (Pb) has been shown to involve C24-methylation of lanosterol to eburicol (24(28)-methylene-24,25-dihydro-lanosterol) on the basis of metabolite co-occurrence. A similarity-based cloning strategy was employed to obtain the cDNA clone corresponding to the sterol C24-methyltransferase (SMT) implicated in the C24-methylation reaction. The resulting catalyst, prepared as a recombinant fusion protein (His/Trx/S), was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(C43) and shown to possess a substrate specificity for lanosterol and to generate a single exocyclic methylene product. The full-length cDNA has an open reading frame of 1131 base pairs and encodes a protein of 377 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 42,502Da. The enzymatic C24-methylation gave a K(mapp) of 38microM and k(catapp) of 0.14min(-1). Quite unexpectedly, "plant" cycloartenol was catalyzed in high yield to 24(28)-methylene cycloartanol consistent with conformational arguments that favor that both cycloartenol and lanosterol are bound pseudoplanar in the ternary complex. Incubation of [27-(13)C]- or [24-(2)H]cycloartenol with PbSMT and analysis of the enzyme-generated product by a combination of (1)H and (13)CNMR and mass spectroscopy established the regiospecific conversion of the pro-Z methyl group of the Delta(24(25))-substrate to the pro-R isopropyl methyl group of the product and the migration of H24 to C25 on the Re-face of the original substrate double bond undergoing C24-methylation. Inhibition kinetics and products formed from the substrate analogs 25-azalanosterol (K(i) 14nM) and 26,27-dehydrolanosterol (K(i) 54muM and k(inact) of 0.24min(-1)) provide direct evidence for distinct reaction channeling capitalized by structural differences in the C24- and C26-sterol acceptors. 25-Azalanosterol was a potent inhibitor of cell growth (IC(50), 30nM) promoting lanosterol accumulation and 24-alkyl sterol depletion. Phylogenetic analysis of PbSMT with related SMTs of diverse origin together with the results of the present study indicate that the enzyme may have a similar complement of active-site amino acid residues compared to related yeast SMTs affording monofunctional C(1)-transfer behavior, yet there are sufficient differences in its overall amino acid composition and substrate-dependent partitioning pathways to group PbSMT into a fourth and new class of SMT. PMID:20624480

  3. Sterol superlattice affects antioxidant potency and can be used to assess adverse effects of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Michelle; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2008-11-01

    We have developed a fluorescence method to examine how membrane sterol lateral organization affects the potency of antioxidants, and used this information to evaluate possible adverse effects of lipid-soluble antioxidants seen in recent clinical studies. In the presence of an antioxidant, the lag time (tau) produced during free radical-induced sterol oxidation in lipid vesicles reflects the potency of the antioxidant. The ascorbic acid-induced tau value varies with sterol mol% in a biphasic manner, showing a minimum at the critical sterol mole fraction for maximal superlattice formation (C r), in ascorbic acid concentrations sterol superlattice affects antioxidant potency. In contrast, the biphasic change in tau at C r was observed only at doses of ascorbyl palmitate <15 microM, above which the biphasic change at Cr is abolished. Our data suggest that while ascorbyl palmitate is a more efficient antioxidant than its water-soluble counterpart as judged by the tau value, it can easily perturb sterol lateral organization by insertion into membrane bilayers, which could impose detrimental effects on cells. The threshold antioxidant concentration (C th) to abolish biphasic change in tau at C r may vary with antioxidant and could be used to assess potential adverse effects of other lipid-soluble antioxidants. PMID:18694720

  4. Characterization of plant-derived lactococci on the basis of their volatile compounds profile when grown in milk.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Debebe; Hannon, John A; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R Paul

    2014-02-17

    A total of twelve strains of lactococci were isolated from grass and vegetables (baby corn and fresh green peas). Ten of the isolates were classified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and two as Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Most of the plant-derived strains were capable of metabolising a wide range of carbohydrates in that they fermented D-mannitol, amygdalin, potassium gluconate, l-arabinose, d-xylose, sucrose and gentibiose. None of the dairy control strains (i.e. L. lactis subsp. cremoris HP, L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 and Lactococcus lactis 303) were able to utilize any of these carbohydrates. The technological potential of the isolates as flavour-producing lactococci was evaluated by analysing their growth in milk and their ability to produce volatile compounds using solid phase micro-extraction of the headspace coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the volatile compounds clearly separated the dairy strains from the plant derived strains, with higher levels of most flavour rich compounds. The flavour compounds produced by the plant isolates among others included; fatty acids such as 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acids, and hexanoic acid, several esters (e.g. butyl acetate and ethyl butanoate) and ketones (e.g. acetoin, diacetyl and 2-heptanone), all of which have been associated with desirable and more mature flavours in cheese. As such the production of a larger number of volatile compounds is a distinguishing feature of plant-derived lactococci and might be a desirable trait for the production of dairy products with enhanced flavour and/or aroma. PMID:24361833

  5. High frequency production of rapeseed transgenic plants via combination of microprojectile bombardment and secondary embryogenesis of microspore-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Moieni, A; Mousavi, A; Salmanian, A H

    2011-02-01

    Transgenic doubled haploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L. cvs. Global and PF(704)) plants were obtained from microspore-derived embryo (MDE) hypocotyls using the microprojectile bombardment. The binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing the gus and bar genes under control of CaMV 35S promoter was used for bombardment experiments. Transformed plantlets were selected and continuously maintained on selective medium containing 10 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin (PPT) and transgenic plants were obtained by selecting transformed secondary embryos. The presence, copy numbers and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, RT-PCR and histochemical GUS analyses. In progeny test, three out of four primary transformants for bar gene produced homozygous lines. The ploidy level of transformed plants was confirmed by flow cytometery analysis before colchicine treatment. All of the regenerated plants were haploid except one that was spontaneous diploid. High frequency of transgenic doubled haploid rapeseeds (about 15.55% for bar gene and 11.11% for gus gene) were considerably produced after colchicines treatment of the haploid plantlets. This result show a remarkable increase in production of transgenic doubled haploid rapeseed plants compared to previous studies. PMID:20419350

  6. Plant-Derived Natural Products as Sources of Anti-Quorum Sensing Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tan, Li Ying; Krishnan, Thiba; Chong, Yee Meng; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a system of stimuli and responses in relation to bacterial cell population density that regulates gene expression, including virulence determinants. Consequently, quorum sensing has been an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective measures that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-quorum sensing has been a promising strategy to combat bacterial infections as it is unlikely to develop multidrug resistant pathogens since it does not impose any selection pressure. A number of anti-quorum sensing approaches have been documented and plant-based natural products have been extensively studied in this context. Plant matter is one of the major sources of chemicals in use today in various industries, ranging from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food biotechnology to the textile industries. Just like animals and humans, plants are constantly exposed to bacterial infections, it is therefore logical to expect that plants have developed sophisticated of chemical mechanisms to combat pathogens. In this review, we have surveyed the various types of plant-based natural products that exhibit anti-quorum sensing properties and their anti-quorum sensing mechanisms. PMID:23669710

  7. Plant growth in Arabidopsis is assisted by compost soil-derived microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Muzzi, Frederico; Tan, Chin-Hong; Hsien-Choo, Jin; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants in natural and agricultural environments are continuously exposed to a plethora of diverse microorganisms resulting in microbial colonization of roots and the rhizosphere. This process is believed to be accompanied by an intricate network of ongoing simultaneous interactions. In this study, we examined Arabidopsis thaliana roots and shoots in the presence or absence of whole microbial communities extracted from compost soil. The results show a clear growth promoting effect on Arabidopsis shoots in the presence of soil microbes compared to plants grown in microbe-free soil under otherwise identical conditions. Element analyses showed that iron uptake was facilitated by these mixed microbial communities which also led to transcriptional downregulation of genes required for iron transport. In addition, soil microbial communities suppressed the expression of marker genes involved in nitrogen uptake, oxidative stress/redox signaling, and salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense while upregulating jasmonate (JA) signaling, cell wall organization/biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Multi-species analyses such as simultaneous transcriptional profiling of plants and their interacting microorganisms (metatranscriptomics) coupled to metagenomics may further increase our understanding of the intricate networks underlying plant-microbe interactions. PMID:23847639

  8. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  9. Plant-Derived Anti-Inflammatory Compounds: Hopes and Disappointments regarding the Translation of Preclinical Knowledge into Clinical Progress

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Robert; Zündorf, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Many diseases have been described to be associated with inflammatory processes. The currently available anti-inflammatory drug therapy is often not successful or causes intolerable side effects. Thus, new anti-inflammatory substances are still urgently needed. Plants were the first source of remedies in the history of mankind. Since their chemical characterization in the 19th century, herbal bioactive compounds have fueled drug development. Also, nowadays, new plant-derived agents continuously enrich our drug arsenal (e.g., vincristine, galantamine, and artemisinin). The number of new, pharmacologically active herbal ingredients, in particular that of anti-inflammatory compounds, rises continuously. The major obstacle in this field is the translation of preclinical knowledge into evidence-based clinical progress. Human trials of good quality are often missing or, when available, are frequently not suitable to really prove a therapeutical value. This minireview will summarize the current situation of 6 very prominent plant-derived anti-inflammatory compounds: curcumin, colchicine, resveratrol, capsaicin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and quercetin. We will highlight their clinical potential and/or pinpoint an overestimation. Moreover, we will sum up the planned trials in order to provide insights into the inflammatory disorders that are hypothesized to be beneficially influenced by the compound. PMID:24987194

  10. Plant-derived flavones as inhibitors of aurora B kinase and their quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yearam; Shin, Soon Young; Yong, Yeonjoong; Jung, Hyeryoung; Ahn, Seunghyun; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho

    2015-05-01

    Although several plant-derived flavones inhibit aurora B kinase (aurB), quantitative relationships between the structural properties of plant-derived flavones and their inhibitory effects on aurB remain unclear. In this report, these quantitative structure-activity relationships were obtained. For quercetagetin, found in the Eriocaulon species, showing the best IC50 value among the flavone derivatives tested in this report, further biological tests were performed using cell-based assays, including Western blot analysis, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence microscopy. In vitro cellular experiments demonstrated that quercetagetin inhibits aurB. The molecular-binding mode between quercetagetin and aurB was elucidated using in silico docking. Quercetagetin binds to aurB, aurA, and aurC and prevents the active phosphorylation of all three aurora kinases. In addition, quercetagetin triggers mitotic arrest and caspase-mediated apoptosis. These observations suggest that quercetagetin is an aurora kinase inhibitor. Induction of mitosis-associated tumor cell death by quercetagetin is a promising strategy for developing novel chemotherapeutic anticancer agents. PMID:25298094

  11. DEVELOPING SITE-SPECIFIC DERIVED CONCENTRATION GUIDELINE LEVELS FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA AT THE CONNECTICUT YANKEE HADDAM NECK PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.W.; Smith, L.C.; Carr, R.K.; Carson, A.; Darois, E.

    2003-02-27

    As part of the license termination process, site-specific Derived Concentration Guideline Levels for the Haddam Neck Plant site are developed for soil, groundwater, concrete left standing, and concrete demolished that satisfy the radiological criteria for unrestricted use as defined in 10 CFR 20.1402. Background information on the license termination process and characteristics of the Haddam Neck Plant site are presented. The dose models and associated resident farmer and building occupancy scenarios, applicable pathways, and critical groups developed to establish the Derived Concentration Guideline Levels are described. A parameter assignment process is introduced wherein general population values are used to establish behavioral and metabolic parameters representative of an average member of the critical group, while the uncertainty associated with important physical parameters is considered. A key element of the parameter assignment process is the use of sensitivity analysis to identify the dose sensitive physical parameters and to ensure that such parameters are assigned conservative values. Structuring the parameter assignment process, completing the formal sensitivity analyses, and assigning conservative values to the sensitive physical parameters in a consistent way establishes a calculation framework that lead to Derived Concentration Guideline Levels with a uniform level of conservatism across all media and all radionuclides.

  12. Virus-Derived Vectors for the Expression of Multiple Proteins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pooja; Thuenemann, Eva C; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P

    2016-01-01

    This chapter constitutes a practical guide to using the "pEAQ" vector series for transient or stable expression of one or more protein(s) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The pEAQ vectors are a series of small binary vectors designed for controlled expression of multiple proteins in plants. To achieve high levels of expression, an expression system based on translational enhancement by the untranslated regions of RNA-2 from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), named CPMV-HT, is used. The expression vector pEAQ-HT combines the user-friendly pEAQ plasmid with CPMV-HT to provide a system for high-level expression of proteins in plants. PMID:26614280

  13. Plant disease resistance triggered by pathogen-derived molecules: refined models of specific recognition.

    PubMed

    Bonas, Ulla; Lahaye, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    Plant disease resistance is often determined by complementary pairs of resistance genes (from the plant) and avirulence genes (from the invading pathogen). This gene-for-gene interaction has generally been interpreted as a receptor-ligand model in which the avirulence protein binds to the corresponding resistance protein, which in turn initiates plant defense. Recent studies indicate that co-localization of avirulence and resistance proteins is essential for their function. However, there is also accumulating evidence that resistance proteins are not the primary receptor for the avirulence protein. We review advances in our understanding of gene-for-gene resistance and examine validity of the receptor-ligand model and other proposed models in the context of the most recent findings. PMID:11834368

  14. Plasma non-cholesterol sterols in primary hypobetalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Noto, Davide; Cefal, Angelo B; Barraco, Giacoma; Fayer, Francesca; Min, Mariangela; Yue, Pin; Tarugi, Patrizia; Schonfeld, Gustav; Averna, Maurizio R

    2011-06-01

    Primary hypobetalipoproteinemia (pHBL) is characterized by plasma cholesterol levels <5th percentile of a population distribution. Plasma non-cholesterol sterols (NCS) are markers of cholesterol liver synthesis and intestinal absorption. Plasma NCS were measured in 111 pHBL subjects, 108 low cholesterol (LC) and 253 normal cholesterol (NC) controls to gain information on cholesterol metabolism in pHBL, and to assess whether NCS measurements may aid in distinguishing pHBL from LC controls. pHBL subjects compared with LC controls were characterized by increased cholesterol absorption (campesterol/TC) while the synthesis (lathosterol/TC) was not increased. The analysis of pHBL subjects divided by gene defect showed a high campesterol/TC ratio in familial HBL (FHBL) carriers of apolipoproteinB (ApoB) truncations longer than ApoB48 and in FHBL without known gene defect ("not linked"). One not linked kindred was characterized by an increase of the 7-dehydrocholesterol/latho ratio. In a discriminant analysis plasma NCS did not improve the power of TC levels to distinguish FHBL from LC controls. In conclusion, increased cholesterol absorption was found in FHBL subjects harbouring truncations of ApoB>ApoB48, and FHBL harbouring as yet unknown molecular defects. Not linked FHBL kindred are not homogeneous in terms of plasma NCS levels. NCS cannot replace genetic HBL analysis. PMID:21492858

  15. Nuclear Envelope Remnants: Fluid Membranes Enriched in STEROLS and Polyphosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Garnier-Lhomme, Marie; Byrne, Richard D.; Hobday, Tina M. C.; Gschmeissner, Stephen; Woscholski, Rudiger; Poccia, Dominic L.; Dufourc, Erick J.; Larijani, Banafshé

    2009-01-01

    Background The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is a highly dynamic compartment where membranes readily undergo fission and fusion to reorganize the cytoplasmic architecture, and to import, export and transport various cargos within the cell. The double membrane of the nuclear envelope that surrounds the nucleus, segregates the chromosomes from cytoplasm and regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport through pores. Many details of its formation are still unclear. At fertilization the sperm devoid of nuclear envelope pores enters the egg. Although most of the sperm nuclear envelope disassembles, remnants of the envelope at the acrosomal and centriolar fossae do not and are subsequently incorporated into the newly forming male pronuclear envelope. Remnants are conserved from annelid to mammalian sperm. Methodology/Principal Findings Using lipid mass spectrometry and a new application of deuterium solid-state NMR spectroscopy we have characterized the lipid composition and membrane dynamics of the sperm nuclear envelope remnants in isolated sperm nuclei. Conclusions/Significance We report nuclear envelope remnants are relatively fluid membranes rich in sterols, devoid of sphingomyelin, and highly enriched in polyphosphoinositides and polyunsaturated phospholipids. The localization of the polybasic effector domain of MARCKS illustrates the non-nuclear aspect of the polyphosphoinositides. Based on their atypical biophysical characteristics and phospholipid composition, we suggest a possible role for nuclear envelope remnants in membrane fusion leading to nuclear envelope assembly. PMID:19165341

  16. Traditional West African pharmacopeia, plants and derived compounds for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, Wamtinga Richard; Schumacher, Marc; Teiten, Marie-Hlne; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2012-11-15

    Traditional pharmacopeia is strongly involved in the continuous search for the well being of African populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80% of the population of developing countries relies on traditional medicine for their primary care needs. Medicinal plants are the major resource of this folk medicine where several species are used for the treatment of diseases with an inflammatory and/or infectious component as it is the case of old wounds, skin diseases and malfunctions affecting internal organs such as liver, lung, prostate and kidney. Many of these pathologies described by practitioners of traditional medicine have similarities with certain cancers, but the lack of training of many of these healers does not allow them to establish a link with cancer. However, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys conducted by several researchers allowed to identify plants of interest for cancer treatment. Most scientific investigations on these plants demonstrated an anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effect, and sometimes, antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells were reported as well. The emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy has forced researchers to turn to natural products of plant and marine origin. In the West African sub-region, research on natural anti-cancer molecules is still in its infancy stage because of very limited financial resources and the scarcity of adequate technical facilities. However, several plants were investigated for their anticancer properties through north-south or south-south partnerships. In this review, we will review the role of West African traditional pharmacopeia in cancer treatment as well as medicinal plants with anti-cancer properties. PMID:22846603

  17. New Coffee Plant-Infecting Xylella fastidiosa Variants Derived via Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Marie-Agns; Denanc, Nicolas; Legendre, Bruno; Morel, Emmanuelle; Briand, Martial; Mississipi, Stelly; Durand, Karine; Olivier, Valrie; Portier, Perrine; Poliakoff, Franoise; Crouzillat, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited phytopathogenic bacterium endemic to the Americas that has recently emerged in Asia and Europe. Although this bacterium is classified as a quarantine organism in the European Union, importation of plant material from contaminated areas and latent infection in asymptomatic plants have engendered its inevitable introduction. In 2012, four coffee plants (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) with leaf scorch symptoms growing in a confined greenhouse were detected and intercepted in France. After identification of the causal agent, this outbreak was eradicated. Three X. fastidiosa strains were isolated from these plants, confirming a preliminary identification based on immunology. The strains were characterized by multiplex PCR and by multilocus sequence analysis/typing (MLSA-MLST) based on seven housekeeping genes. One strain, CFBP 8073, isolated from C. canephora imported from Mexico, was assigned to X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa/X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi. This strain harbors a novel sequence type (ST) with novel alleles at two loci. The two other strains, CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8074, isolated from Coffea arabica imported from Ecuador, were allocated to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. These two strains shared a novel ST with novel alleles at two loci. These MLST profiles showed evidence of recombination events. We provide genome sequences for CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8073 strains. Comparative genomic analyses of these two genome sequences with publicly available X. fastidiosa genomes, including the Italian strain CoDiRO, confirmed these phylogenetic positions and provided candidate alleles for coffee plant adaptation. This study demonstrates the global diversity of X. fastidiosa and highlights the diversity of strains isolated from coffee plants. PMID:26712553