Sample records for derived plant sterol

  1. Plant Sterols, Stanols, and Sitosterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Ajagbe, Bridget O.; Othman, Rgia A.; Myrie, Semone B.

    2015-01-01

    Phytosterolemia (sitosterolemia) is a rare autosomal recessive sterol storage disease caused by mutations in either of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporter genes; (ABC)G5 or ABCG8, leading to impaired elimination of plant sterols and stanols, with their increased accumulation in the blood and tissues. Thus the disease is characterized by substantially elevated serum plant sterols and stanols, with moderate to high plasma cholesterol levels, and increased risk of premature atherosclerosis. Hematologic abnormalities including macrothrombocytopenia, stomatocytosis and hemolysis are frequently observed in sitosterolemia patients. Currently, ezetimibe, a sterol absorption inhibitor, is used as the routine treatment for sitosterolemia, with reported improvement in plant sterol levels and hemolytic parameters. This review summarizes the research related to the health impact of plant sterols and stanols on sitosterolemia. PMID:25941971

  2. Cholesterol and plant sterol absorption: recent insights.

    PubMed

    von Bergmann, Klaus; Sudhop, Thomas; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2005-07-01

    The recent discovery of transporters in the intestinal mucosa and the canalicular membrane has given new insights into the regulation of intestinal absorption as well as the biliary output of cholesterol and plant sterols. The 2 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 are expressed in the mucosa cells and the canalicular membrane, and they resecrete sterols, especially absorbed plant sterols, back into the intestinal lumen and from the liver into bile. Defects of either of these cotransporters lead to the rare inherited disease of phytosterolemia, which is clinically defined by hyperabsorption and diminished biliary excretion of plant sterols. Furthermore, it has been recently demonstrated that the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) transporter is most likely responsible for the transport of cholesterol and plant sterols from the brush border membrane into the intestinal mucosa. Ezetimibe interferes with NPC1L1, reducing the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and plant sterols. These new findings contribute to our understanding of cholesterol and plant sterol concentrations in serum, and the effect of dietary and drug intervention to reduce serum concentrations of sterols. PMID:15992510

  3. Composition of Plant Sterols and Stanols in Supplemented Food Products.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    All fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant materials contain small amounts of plant sterols, which are essential for the function of the biological membranes in living cells. The average human consumption of plant sterols has been estimated to be about 150-350 mg/day and trace amounts of stanols (which are defined as saturated sterols such as sitostanol), but this number varies regionally and is higher for vegetarians. When consumed in the diet, plant sterols reduce the levels of serum cholesterol. In 1995 the first functional food product, Benecol spread (enriched in plant stanol fatty acid esters), was developed by Raisio and marketed, first in Finland and then globally. Since then many other functional food products have been developed and are now available globally. In addition to stanol esters, other functional food products contain plant sterol esters and/or free (unesterified) plant sterols and stanols. In essentially all of the current functional foods that are enriched in sterols and stanols, the feedstock from which the sterols and stanols are obtained is either tall oil (a byproduct/ coproduct of the pulping of pine wood) or vegetable oil deodorizer distillate (a byproduct/coproduct of the refining of vegetable oils). PMID:25942633

  4. Use of Animal Models in Plant Sterol and Stanol Research.

    PubMed

    Solati, Zahra; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2015-05-01

    Cholesterol-lowering properties of plant sterols were reported approximately six decades ago. However, over the past couple of decades we have learnt more about other cardiovascular benefits of regular consumption of plant sterols and/or plant stanols. In particular a series of animal studies has consistently reported that dietary plant sterols and/or plant stanols or their fatty acid esters can reduce atherogenesis to a different extent in different animal models. Such effects may be mediated not only through reductions in LDL cholesterol levels, but also through other mechanisms including anti-inflammatory effects. In this manuscript, various animal models including mice, rabbits, hamsters, and others which have been used to establish cardiovascular benefits of plant sterols are discussed. PMID:25942701

  5. Plant sterols: Friend or foe in CNS disorders?

    PubMed

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Bogie, Jeroen F J; Mailleux, Jo; Vanmol, Jasmine; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mulder, Monique; Hendriks, Jerome J A

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, the central nervous system (CNS) is the most cholesterol rich organ by weight. Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated in the CNS and all cholesterol available is synthesized in situ. Deficits in cholesterol homeostasis at the level of synthesis, transport, or catabolism result in severe disorders featured by neurological disability. Recent studies indicate that a disturbed cholesterol metabolism is involved in CNS disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In contrast to circulating cholesterol, dietary plant sterols, can cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the membranes of CNS cells. Plant sterols are well-known for their ability to lower circulating cholesterol levels. The finding that they gain access to the CNS has fueled research focusing on the physiological roles of plant sterols in the healthy and diseased CNS. To date, both beneficial and detrimental effects of plant sterols on CNS disorders are defined. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding the impact of plant sterols on homeostatic and pathogenic processes in the CNS, and elaborate on the therapeutic potential of plant sterols in CNS disorders. PMID:25623279

  6. Quantification of sterol lipids in plants by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wewer, Vera; Dombrink, Isabel; vom Dorp, Katharina; Dörmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Glycerolipids, sphingolipids, and sterol lipids constitute the major lipid classes in plants. Sterol lipids are composed of free and conjugated sterols, i.e., sterol esters, sterol glycosides, and acylated sterol glycosides. Sterol lipids play crucial roles during adaption to abiotic stresses and plant-pathogen interactions. Presently, no comprehensive method for sterol lipid quantification in plants is available. We used nanospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) to resolve and identify the molecular species of all four sterol lipid classes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Free sterols were derivatized with chlorobetainyl chloride. Sterol esters, sterol glycosides, and acylated sterol glycosides were ionized as ammonium adducts. Quantification of molecular species was achieved in the positive mode after fragmentation in the presence of internal standards. The amounts of sterol lipids quantified by Q-TOF MS/MS were validated by comparison with results obtained with TLC/GC. Quantification of sterol lipids from leaves and roots of phosphate-deprived A. thaliana plants revealed changes in the amounts and molecular species composition. The Q-TOF method is far more sensitive than GC or HPLC. Therefore, Q-TOF MS/MS provides a comprehensive strategy for sterol lipid quantification that can be adapted to other tandem mass spectrometers. PMID:21382968

  7. Common sequence variations in ABCG8 are related to plant sterol metabolism in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jogchum Plat; Marjolijn C. E. Bragt; Ronald P. Mensink

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 are related to plasma plant sterol concentrations. It is not known whether these poly- morphisms are also associated with variations in serum plant sterol concentrations during interventions affecting plant sterol metabolism. We therefore decided to study changes in serum plant sterol concentrations with ABCG5\\/G8 poly- morphisms after consumption of

  8. Plant phloem sterol content: forms, putative functions, and implications for phloem-feeding insects 

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.; Olszewski, Nathan; Sebastiani, John; Palka, Sydney; Sparacino, Gina; Sciarrno, Elizabeth; Grebenok, Robert J.

    2013-09-24

    their food, or via endosymbionts. Our paper starts by providing a very brief overview of variation in plant sterol content, and how different sterols can affect insect herbivores, including those specializing on phloem. We then describe an experiment, where...

  9. Plant Oxidosqualene Metabolism: Cycloartenol Synthase–Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Berna, Anne; Bach, Thomas J.; Schaller, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The plant sterol pathway exhibits a major biosynthetic difference as compared with that of metazoans. The committed sterol precursor is the pentacyclic cycloartenol (9?,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3?-ol) and not lanosterol (lanosta-8,24-dien-3?-ol), as it was shown in the late sixties. However, plant genome mining over the last years revealed the general presence of lanosterol synthases encoding sequences (LAS1) in the oxidosqualene cyclase repertoire, in addition to cycloartenol synthases (CAS1) and to non-steroidal triterpene synthases that contribute to the metabolic diversity of C30H50O compounds on earth. Furthermore, plant LAS1 proteins have been unambiguously identified by peptidic signatures and by their capacity to complement the yeast lanosterol synthase deficiency. A dual pathway for the synthesis of sterols through lanosterol and cycloartenol was reported in the model Arabidopsis thaliana, though the contribution of a lanosterol pathway to the production of 24-alkyl-?5-sterols was quite marginal (Ohyama et al. (2009) PNAS 106, 725). To investigate further the physiological relevance of CAS1 and LAS1 genes in plants, we have silenced their expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We used virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) based on gene specific sequences from a Nicotiana tabacum CAS1 or derived from the solgenomics initiative (http://solgenomics.net/) to challenge the respective roles of CAS1 and LAS1. In this report, we show a CAS1-specific functional sterol pathway in engineered yeast, and a strict dependence on CAS1 of tobacco sterol biosynthesis. PMID:25343375

  10. Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis†

    PubMed Central

    Genser, Bernd; Silbernagel, Günther; De Backer, Guy; Bruckert, Eric; Carmena, Rafael; Chapman, M. John; Deanfield, John; Descamps, Olivier S.; Rietzschel, Ernst R.; Dias, Karen C.; März, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased serum concentrations of plant sterols on cardiovascular risk is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether there is an association between serum concentrations of two common plant sterols (sitosterol, campesterol) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We systematically searched the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE for studies published between January 1950 and April 2010 that reported either risk ratios (RR) of CVD in relation to serum sterol concentrations (either absolute or expressed as ratios relative to total cholesterol) or serum sterol concentrations in CVD cases and controls separately. We conducted two meta-analyses, one based on RR of CVD contrasting the upper vs. the lower third of the sterol distribution, and another based on standardized mean differences between CVD cases and controls. Summary estimates were derived by fixed and random effects meta-analysis techniques. We identified 17 studies using different designs (four case–control, five nested case–control, three cohort, five cross-sectional) involving 11 182 participants. Eight studies reported RR of CVD and 15 studies reported serum concentrations in CVD cases and controls. Funnel plots showed evidence for publication bias indicating small unpublished studies with non-significant findings. Neither of our meta-analyses suggested any relationship between serum concentrations of sitosterol and campesterol (both absolute concentrations and ratios to cholesterol) and risk of CVD. Our systematic review and meta-analysis did not reveal any evidence of an association between serum concentrations of plant sterols and risk of CVD. PMID:22334625

  11. Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification of two distinct families of sterol 4alpha-methyl oxidases.

    PubMed Central

    Darnet, Sylvain; Rahier, Alain

    2004-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of cycloartenol into functional phytosterols requires the removal of the two methyl groups at C-4 by an enzymic complex including a sterol 4alpha-methyl oxidase (SMO). We report the cloning of candidate genes for SMOs in Arabidopsis thaliana, belonging to two distinct families termed SMO1 and SMO2 and containing three and two isoforms respectively. SMO1 and SMO2 shared low sequence identity with each other and were orthologous to the ERG25 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which encodes the SMO. The plant SMO amino acid sequences possess all the three histidine-rich motifs (HX3H, HX2HH and HX2HH), characteristic of the small family of membrane-bound non-haem iron oxygenases that are involved in lipid oxidation. To elucidate the precise functions of SMO1 and SMO2 gene families, we have reduced their expression by using a VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) approach in Nicotiana benthamiana. SMO1 and SMO2 cDNA fragments were inserted into a viral vector and N. benthamiana inoculated with the viral transcripts. After silencing with SMO1, a substantial accumulation of 4,4-dimethyl-9beta,19-cyclopropylsterols (i.e. 24-methylenecycloartanol) was obtained, whereas qualitative and quantitative levels of 4alpha-methylsterols were not affected. In the case of silencing with SMO2, a large accumulation of 4alpha-methyl-Delta7-sterols (i.e. 24-ethylidenelophenol and 24-ethyllophenol) was found, with no change in the levels of 4,4-dimethylsterols. These clear and distinct biochemical phenotypes demonstrate that, in contrast with animals and fungi, in photosynthetic eukaryotes, these two novel families of cDNAs are coding two distinct types of C-4-methylsterol oxidases controlling the level of 4,4-dimethylsterol and 4alpha-methylsterol precursors respectively. PMID:14653780

  12. Enzyme catalyzed synthesis of structured phospholipids with conjugated linoleic acid and plant sterols 

    E-print Network

    Hossen, Md Monjur

    2006-08-16

    Structured phospholipids with functional ingredients like conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and plant sterols to deliver their physiological effects in different food formulations were synthesized. The lipase and phospholipase ...

  13. Factors affecting intestinal absorption of cholesterol and plant sterols and stanols.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Various factors affect intestinal absorption of cholesterol and plant sterols and stanols. Plant sterols and stanols are generally less absorptive than cholesterol. Differential absorption rates among various plant sterols and stanols have been also reported. Although it was suggested that differential absorption among cholesterol and various plant sterols was determined by difference in excretion rates of sterols and stanols through ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) G5/ABCG8 of intestinal cells, our study suggests that affinity for and solubility in bile salt micelles can be important determinants for differential absorption of plant sterols and stanols. It was also suggested that plant sterols were transiently incorporated into intestinal cells and then excreted to intestinal lumen through ABCG5/ABCG8. However, in a rat study, transient incorporation of sitosterol into intestinal cells was not observed, suggesting that sitosterol is differentiated from cholesterol at the incorporation site of intestinal cells. It is well established that plant sterols inhibit intestinal absorption of cholesterol and exert a hypocholesterolemic activity. Plant sterols are solubilized in bile salt micelles as cholesterol. Our study clearly showed that because the sterol-solubilizing capacity of bile salt micelles was limited, plant sterols solubilized in micelles reduced the solubility of cholesterol. This can be the major cause of inhibition of cholesterol absorption by plant sterols. Pancreatic cholesterol esterase accelerates intestinal absorption of unesterified cholesterol. Although it was suggested that cholesterol esterase accelerated esterification of cholesterol incorporated into intestinal cells and acted as a transporter at the surface of intestinal cells, our research revealed that the accelerated cholesterol absorption was caused by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in bile salt micelles. It is thought that hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine reduces the affinity of cholesterol for the micelles and accelerates the incorporation of cholesterol released from the micelles into intestinal cells. PMID:25742922

  14. 65 FR 54686 - Food Labeling: Health Claims; Plant Sterol/Stanol Esters and Coronary Heart Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-09-08

    ...Plant Sterol/Stanol Esters and Coronary Heart Disease; Interim Final Rule Federal Register...Plant Sterol/Stanol Esters and Coronary Heart Disease AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...stanol esters and reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). FDA is taking this...

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of a plant sterol containing low-fat margarine for cholesterol reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gerber; T. Evers; H. Haverkamp; K. W. Lauterbach

    2006-01-01

    For decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) it has been proposed to enrich food such as margarine with plant sterol esters which have been shown to reduce total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, two of the major risk factors. A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and benefits of consuming a low-fat plant sterol containing margarine (PS

  16. Sterols of Delphinium ajacis; production and metabolic relationships in whole plants and callus tissue.

    PubMed

    Waller, G R; Mangiafico, S; Foster, R C; Lawrence, R H

    1981-08-01

    Sterols from whole nonsterile Delphinium ajacis plants and from sterile tissue cultures (callus) were identified and determined quantitatively. The major sterols in the whole plant tissues were sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, whereas those in the callus tissue were stigmastanol, 24-ethylidenelophenol and Delta (7)-stigmastanol. Of the 21 compounds identified in callus tissue, 5 were not present in the whole plant, most notably Delta (7)-stigmastanol. For both sources of tissue, the sterol predominating in one was a minor component in the other (whole plant/tissue cultures: sitosterol 57%/5%; stigmastanol 2%/35%). On a tissue dry-weight basis, the amount of sterols isolated from callus tissue culture was ten to twenty times that obtained from the whole plant. Qualitatively the sterols from both sources fit into a metabolic scheme which proceeds from cycloartenol through 4,4-dimethylsterols and 4-methylsterols to sterols. A proposed metabolic pathway shows the differences in accumulation of sterols in the two types of tissue. The increase in sterol production in cultured cells, especially when favored by growth conditions, has promise for industrial application and in organic synthesis. PMID:17401988

  17. Regulatory approval of plant sterols in Canada: implications for health care and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Awad, Atif B

    2012-01-01

    Health Canada's recent approval of plant sterols as food ingredients to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is believed to be a significant step toward improving Canadians' cardiovascular health and reducing the economic burden of heart disease. When dyslipidemic patients consume plant sterols at a recommended daily dose of 2 g, they can reduce LDL-C by 10% to 15%, with no deleterious effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A 10% LDL-C reduction in response to plant sterol consumption is projected to reduce heart disease risk by 25%. Because they are available without a prescription, plant sterols are an option for dietitians who wish to provide cholesterol-lowering guidance beyond traditional dietary advice (i.e., lowering saturated fat intake and restricting dietary cholesterol). In addition, plant sterols can be used in combination with a statin or when statin use is contraindicated, and they have recently emerged as a potentially valuable triglyceride-lowering option. However, the projected improvement in public health and health care savings will be realized only if impediments to daily use are removed. One such impediment is the higher cost of fortified food products, such as yogurt and margarine. If the cost of plant sterol food products is to decline, cost-effective sources must be investigated and a larger range of foods containing plant sterols must be made available. PMID:22397963

  18. Differential Effects of Plant Sterols on Water Permeability and on Acyl Chain Ordering of Soybean Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Schuler; Alain Milon; Yoichi Nakatani; Guy Ourisson; Anne-Marie Albrecht; Pierre Benveniste; Marie-Andree Hartman

    1991-01-01

    To gain some insight into the structural and functional roles of sterols in higher plant cells, various plant sterols have been incorporated into soybean phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) bilayers and tested for their ability to regulate water permeability and acyl chain ordering. Sitosterol was the most efficient sterol in reducing the water permeability of these vesicles and stigmasterol appeared to have no

  19. Postprandial plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations after consumption of plant sterol or stanol enriched mixed meals in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Konings, Maurice; Schött, Hans-F; Friedrichs, Silvia; Husche, Constanze; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent results on the relationship between increased plant sterol concentrations with cardiovascular risk, which might be related to the formation of oxyphytosterols (plant sterol oxidation products) from plant sterols. However, determinants of oxyphytosterol formation and metabolism are largely unknown. It is known, however, that serum plant sterol concentrations increase after daily consumption of plant sterol enriched products, while concentrations decrease after plant stanol consumption. Still, we have earlier reported that fasting oxyphytosterol concentrations did not increase after consuming a plant sterol- or a plant stanol enriched margarine (3.0g/d of plant sterols or stanols) for 4weeks. Since humans are in a non-fasting state for most part of the day, we have now investigated effects on oxyphytosterol concentrations during the postprandial state. For this, subjects consumed a shake (50g of fat, 12g of protein, 67g of carbohydrates), containing no, or 3.0g of plant sterols or plant stanols. Blood samples were taken up to 8h and after 4h subjects received a second shake (without plant sterols or plant stanols). Serum oxyphytosterol concentrations were determined in BHT-enriched EDTA plasma via GC-MS/MS. 7?-OH-campesterol and 7?-OH-sitosterol concentrations were significantly higher after consumption of a mixed meal enriched with plant sterol esters compared to the control and plant stanol ester meal. These increases were seen only after consumption of the second shake, illustrative for a second meal effect. Non-oxidized campesterol and sitosterol concentrations also increased after plant sterol consumption, in parallel with 7?-OH concentrations and again only after the second meal. Apparently, plant sterols and oxyphytosterols follow the same second meal effect as described for dietary cholesterol. However, the question remains whether the increase in oxyphytosterols in the postprandial phase is due to absorption or endogenous formation. PMID:25656784

  20. Sterol composition of the woody plant pathogenic fungus Eutypa lata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Chapuis; Marie-France Corio-Costet; Christian Malosse

    1996-01-01

    Mycelium of Eutypa lata grown in solid and liquid cultures contained C28-sterols, mainly ergosterol, accompanied by much smaller amounts of episterol, ergostatetraenol, ergosta-7,22-dien-3?-ol and minor 4?-methyl and 4,4-dimethylsterols.

  1. Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Stong, Rachel A; Kolodny, Eli; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P; Vivanco, Jorge M; Manter, Daniel K

    2013-06-01

    Elicitin-mediated acquisition of plant sterols is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. This study examined the interactions between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. Ground leaf tissue, sterols, and tannin-enriched extracts were obtained from three different plant species (California bay laurel, California black oak, and Oregon white oak) in order to evaluate the effect of differing sterol/tannin contents on Phytophthora ramorum growth. For all three species, high levels of foliage inhibited P. ramorum growth and sporulation, with a steeper concentration dependence for the two oak samples. Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation were inhibited by either phytosterols or tannin-enriched extracts. High levels of sterols diminished elicitin gene expression in P. ramorum; whereas the tannin-enriched extract decreased the amount of 'functional' or ELISA-detectable elicitin, but not gene expression. Across all treatment combinations, P. ramorum growth and sporulation correlated strongly with the amount of ELISA-detectable elicitin (R (2)?= 0.791 and 0.961, respectively). PMID:23689874

  2. Plant sterols in seeds of two species of Vaccinium ( V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea ) naturally distributed in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baoru Yang; Jani Koponen; Raija Tahvonen; Heikki Kallio

    2003-01-01

    Sterols in the seeds of wild Finnish blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were analyzed as TMS derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free and esterified sterols constituted 0.7% and 0.3% of the seed oil of V. myrtillus, respectively, whereas in the seed oil of V. vitis-idaea the sterols in the two fractions were equally represented at 0.5-0.6%. Sitosterol (85%

  3. 66 FR 50824 - Food Labeling: Health Claims; Plant Sterol/Stanol Esters and Coronary Heart Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-10-05

    ...Plant Sterol/Stanol Esters and Coronary Heart Disease AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...stanol esters and reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This interim final rule...a recent publication from the American Heart Association (AHA) (Ref. 1)...

  4. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  5. Effect of frequency of dosing of plant sterols on plasma cholesterol levels and synthesis rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the effects of plant sterols (PS) consumed as a single dose (single) at breakfast or as three doses consumed with breakfast, lunch and dinner (divided) on plasma lipoprotien levels and cholesterol endogenous fractional synthesis rate (FSR). A randomized, placebo-controll...

  6. 21 CFR 101.83 - Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...plant sterol/stanol esters and the risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common and serious forms of cardiovascular disease...

  7. 21 CFR 101.83 - Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...plant sterol/stanol esters and the risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common and serious forms of cardiovascular disease...

  8. 21 CFR 101.83 - Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...plant sterol/stanol esters and the risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common and serious forms of cardiovascular disease...

  9. 21 CFR 101.83 - Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...plant sterol/stanol esters and the risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common and serious forms of cardiovascular disease...

  10. 21 CFR 101.83 - Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...plant sterol/stanol esters and the risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common and serious forms of cardiovascular disease...

  11. Increased flux of the plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol across a disrupted blood brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Ahmed A; Genové, Guillem; Li, Tian; Hülshorst, Frank; Betsholtz, Christer; Björkhem, Ingemar; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2015-07-01

    The intact blood-brain barrier in mammalians prevents exchange of cholesterol loaden particles between periphery and brain and thus nearly all cholesterol in this organ originates from de novo synthesis. Dietary cholesterol homologues from plants, campesterol and sitosterol, are known to get enriched to some extent in the mammalian brain. We recently showed that Pdgfb(ret)(/)(ret) mice, with a pericyte deficiency and a leaking blood-brain barrier phenotype, have significantly higher levels of plant sterols in the brain compared to their heterozygous Pdgfb(ret)(/)(+) controls keeping the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In order to further study the protective functionality of the BBB we synthesized a mixture of [(2)H6]campesterol/sitosterol and fed it for 10-40days to genetically different types of animals. There was a significant enrichment of both deuterium stable isotope labeled plant sterols in the brain of both strains of mice, however, with a lower enrichment in the controls. As expected, the percentage and absolute enrichment was higher for [(2)H6]campesterol than for the more lipophilic [(2)H6]sitosterol. The results confirm that a leaking BBB causes increased flux of plant sterols into the brain. The significant flux of the labeled plant sterols into the brain of the control mice illustrates that the presence of an alkyl group in the 24-position of the steroid side chain markedly increases the ability of cholesterol to pass an intact BBB. We discuss the possibility that there is a specific transport mechanism involved in the flux of alkylated cholesterol species across the BBB. PMID:25683892

  12. Pigmented Rice Bran and Plant Sterol Combination Reduces Serum Lipids in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kitts, David D.; Zawistowski, Jerzy; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Kope?, Aneta; Pope, Benjamin T.; Buchowski, Maciej S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the dietary effect of including pigmented rice bran with or without plant sterols on lipid profiles during energy restriction–induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults not taking cholesterol-lowering medication. In addition, the study examined the effect of intervention on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods A group of 24 overweight and obese adults (age: 43 ± 6 years, body mass index 32 ± 1 kg/m2, 18 females) were randomized to a 25% calorie-restricted diet containing either pigmented rice bran (RB) or the RB with addition of plant sterols (RB + PS) snack bars for 8 weeks. The individualized nutrient-balanced diet contained ~70% of daily energy needs assessed from indirect calorimetry measured resting energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity-related EE assessed using accelerometry. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, urinary F2-isoprostanes, C-reactive protein, insulin, and leptin were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results Participants lost approximately 4.7 ± 2.2 kg (p < 0.001). Weight loss was not significant between the RB + PS and RB group (p = 0.056). Changes in body fat corresponded to changes in body weight. Average decrease in total cholesterol was significantly higher in the RB + PS group than in the RB group (difference 36 ± 25 g/dL vs 7 ± 16 g/dL; p = 0.044). A similar pattern was observed for the decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (difference 22.3 ± 25.2 g/dL vs 4.4 ± 18.9 g/dL; p = 0.062). Changes in systolic blood pressure, serum levels of leptin, and F2-isoprostanes were significant between baseline values and after 8 weeks on the diet in both groups (p < 0.05) but did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusions A nutrient-balanced and energy-restricted diet supplemented with rice bran and plant sterols resulted in a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol in overweight and obese adults. PMID:24955613

  13. SHORT-TERM EFFICACY OF PLANT STEROLS CONSUMED AT BREAKFAST OR AT EACH MEAL IN LOWERING BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To compare under controlled conditions the effect of plant sterol consumed as a single morning dose or divided through the day on blood lipid profile. Method: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover-feeding, single blind trial was conducted in 19 subjects with LDL- cholesterol level...

  14. Cholesterol lowering effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols in a French population with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Weidner; Michel Krempf; Jean-Marie Bard; Murielle Cazaubiel; Doris Bell

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plant sterols are an established non-pharmacological means to reduce total and LDL blood cholesterol concentrations and are therefore recommended for cholesterol management by worldwide-renown health care institutions. Their efficacy has been proven in many types of foods with the majority of trials conducted in spreads or dairy products. As an alternative to dairy products, soy based foods are common

  15. Genetic Variation in Plant CYP51s Confers Resistance against Voriconazole, a Novel Inhibitor of Brassinosteroid-Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Husar, Sigrid; Kalaivanan, Florian; Khan, Mamoona; Idlhammer, Markus; Shumilina, Daria; Lange, Theo; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Fujioka, Shozo; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones with structural similarity to mammalian sex steroids and ecdysteroids from insects. The BRs are synthesized from sterols and are essential regulators of cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. In this work we show that voriconazole, an antifungal therapeutic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, severely impairs plant growth by inhibiting sterol-14?-demethylation and thereby interfering with BR production. The plant growth regulatory properties of voriconazole and related triazoles were identified in a screen for compounds with the ability to alter BR homeostasis. Voriconazole suppressed growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and of a wide range of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We uncover that voriconazole toxicity in plants is a result of a deficiency in BRs that stems from an inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP51, which catalyzes a step of BR-dependent sterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca, a member of the Rosaceae, is naturally voriconazole resistant and that this resistance is conferred by the specific CYP51 variant of F. vesca. The potential of voriconazole as a novel tool for plant research is discussed. PMID:23335967

  16. Genetic variation in plant CYP51s confers resistance against voriconazole, a novel inhibitor of brassinosteroid-dependent sterol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Husar, Sigrid; Kalaivanan, Florian; Khan, Mamoona; Idlhammer, Markus; Shumilina, Daria; Lange, Theo; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Fujioka, Shozo; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones with structural similarity to mammalian sex steroids and ecdysteroids from insects. The BRs are synthesized from sterols and are essential regulators of cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. In this work we show that voriconazole, an antifungal therapeutic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, severely impairs plant growth by inhibiting sterol-14?-demethylation and thereby interfering with BR production. The plant growth regulatory properties of voriconazole and related triazoles were identified in a screen for compounds with the ability to alter BR homeostasis. Voriconazole suppressed growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and of a wide range of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We uncover that voriconazole toxicity in plants is a result of a deficiency in BRs that stems from an inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP51, which catalyzes a step of BR-dependent sterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca, a member of the Rosaceae, is naturally voriconazole resistant and that this resistance is conferred by the specific CYP51 variant of F. vesca. The potential of voriconazole as a novel tool for plant research is discussed. PMID:23335967

  17. Sterol and n-alkane biomarker composition of modern fen plants - potential application for palaeoecological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronkainen, T.; McClymont, E. L.; Väliranta, M.; Tuittila, E.

    2011-12-01

    Acute and contemporary questions related to human-induced changes in climate have emphasized the importance of peatland research because peatlands store large quantities of carbon. Historically, pristine mires have been long-term sinks for atmospheric carbon because of a slow decomposition rate of the organic matter once below the water table. However, the net carbon balance of mires is highly sensitive and reflects changes in moisture conditions and consequent changes in vegetation assemblages. Historical variations in climate and hydrology are recorded in peat layers as alteration in the assemblages of different biological organisms. Past vegetation assemblages are in a key role when reconstructing the past moisture conditions that control peatland carbon dynamics. In order to evaluate the role of northern peatlands as carbon sinks or sources in changing future climate, it is important to understand the past mechanisms: how mires have earlier responded to climate forcing. An especially useful proxy method to reconstruct past environmental changes is the plant macrofossil method. Large parts of northern peatlands are fens, where, as a result of fast surface decay, major parts of the peat below the surface layer is highly humified. Bog peats, in turn, usually contain relatively well preserved plant material for palaeoecological examination, but highly humified layers can also be found underneath the top layers of bog peats. A high degree of humification constrains palaeo-botanical and -climatical studies because reliable identification of different fossil vegetation components is difficult. Previous work has shown that plant biomarkers (compounds that can be linked to specific plant types) can be successfully applied to indentify modern and fossil plant groups from less-humified bog peat. In this study we apply selected organic geochemistry methods to fen plant species to investigate the potential for biomarkers to characterise different fen plants. We focus on plant types that would give insight into major palaeoecological challenges (e.g. Sphagnum subsecundum, Warnstorfia exannulata, Carex livida). We report n-alkane and sterol distributions and concentrations in shoots, stems and roots from 12 plant species common to fens. The primary results are promising, confirming some previously established relationships in peat-forming plants e.g. n-alkane chain length differs between the main plant types (e.g. Sphagnum versus non-Sphagnum). However, we also find that biomarker composition, and thus interpretation of the chemical fingerprints of fen plants, is not as straightforward as in bog plants. The implications of these results for palaeo-ecological investigations are discussed.

  18. Biochemical characterization of a sterol mutant plant regenerated from a tobacco callus resistant to a triazole cytochrome-P-450-obtusifoliol-14-demethylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Maillot-Vernier, P; Schaller, H; Benveniste, P; Belliard, G

    1989-11-30

    We report here, for the first time, the biochemical characterization of a plant mutant impaired in sterol biosynthesis. A fertile plant was regenerated from a tobacco callus resistant to LAB170250F, a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome-P450-obtusifoliol-14-demthylase. The resistant callus and the leaves from the regenerated plant are characterized by profound qualitative and quantitative changes in their sterol content. Self-fertilization of this plant yielded seeds with the same biochemical features, indicating that the new phenotype is of mutational origin. PMID:2590214

  19. Soy protein enhances the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterol esters in cholesterol-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Meijer, Gert W; Vermeer, Mario A; Trautwein, Elke A

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the combination of plant sterol esters (PSE) with soy protein or soy isoflavones may have extra cholesterol-lowering effects. Male hamsters (n=20/group) were fed diets containing (g/100 g diet) (A) 20 casein (control), (B) 0.24 PSE, (C) 20 intact soy protein (replacing casein), (D) 0.02 soy isoflavones, (E) 0.24 PSE plus 20 soy protein (replacing casein), or (F) 0.24 PSE plus 0.02 soy isoflavones, for 5 wk. All diets contained 0.08 g cholesterol/100 g diet. Compared with the control diet, the PSE and soy protein diets significantly lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration by 13% (P<0.05) and 9% (P<0.05), respectively, whereas the isoflavone diet (D) had no effect. The combination of PSE and soy protein (diet E) decreased plasma total cholesterol by 26% (P<0.05). The decrease in plasma cholesterol concentration was mainly in the non-HDL fraction. In addition, the combination of PSE and soy protein significantly decreased plasma triacylglycerol concentration (37%, P<0.05) and reduced cholesterol accumulation in the liver. The abundance of hepatic LDL-receptors was not influenced by any of the test diets. PSE selectively increased fecal excretion of neutral sterols by 190% (P<0.05), whereas soy protein increased fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids by 66% (P<0.05) and 130% (P<0.05), respectively. The combination of PSE and soy protein increased the fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids compared with PSE and soy protein alone. In conclusion, the combination of PSE and soy protein more dramatically lowers plasma lipids than the individual ingredients. PMID:14704307

  20. Plant sterols and host plant suitability for a phloem-feeding insect

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    molecules in both plants and animals (Behmer & Nes 2003). However, their profiles in plants and animals composition varies among plants, most notably at the family level (e.g. Nes et al. 1977; Salt et al. 1991; Behmer & Nes 2003). Most insects are, consequently, dependent on an exogenous source of ster- ols

  1. Sterols of a contemporary lacustrine sediment. [in English postglacial lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskell, S. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for detailed sterol analyses of several depths (corresponding to between zero and about 150 yr in age) in a contemporary lacustrine sediment from a freshwater lake of postglacial origin in England. Delta 5-, delta 22-, and delta 5,22-sterols are identified along with 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanols as well as a C26 stanol with a C7 side chain. Solvent extraction yields carbon number distributions for the 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanol sediment constituents that parallel the corresponding delta 5-sterol distributions. The amounts of 5 alpha-stanols are found to exceed those of 5 beta-stanols in the sediment, and variations in the ratio of 5 alpha- to 5 beta-stanol between sediment samples from similar depths are shown to suggest an inhomogeneity of the sediment. It is found that the sterol composition of sediment cores varies markedly with depth, reflecting both the effects of a sterol hydrogenation process and a changing input to the sediment. It is concluded that C29 sterols, of probable higher-plant origin, predominate at lower sediment depths while C27 sterols, possibly derived from autochthonous sources, are more abundant in the surface sediment.

  2. Increased sterol biosynthesis in tobacco calli resistant to a triazole herbicide which inhibits demethylation of 14?-methyl sterols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Schaller; Pascale Maillot-Vernier; Genevičve Belliard; Pierre Benveniste

    1992-01-01

    The ?-keto triazole derivative 4,4-dimethyl-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-one is toxic to Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi plants or cell cultures. Analysis of the sterol composition of treated wild-type plant material demonstrates that this herbicide is an inhibitor of the C-14a-methyl demethylation process in sterol biosynthesis. Selection experiments, consisting of screening large populations of microcalli derived from UV-mutagenized tobacco protoplasts for resistance to a

  3. Increased plant sterol deposition in vascular tissue characterizes patients with severe aortic stenosis and concomitant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Luister, Alexandra; Schött, Hans Frieder; Husche, Constanze; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Böhm, Michael; Plat, Jogchum; Gräber, Stefan; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich; Weingärtner, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between phytosterols, oxyphytosterols, and other markers of cholesterol metabolism and concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with severe aortic stenosis who were scheduled for elective aortic valve replacement. Markers of cholesterol metabolism (plant sterols and cholestanol as markers of cholesterol absorption and lathosterol as an indicator of cholesterol synthesis) and oxyphytosterols were determined in plasma and aortic valve tissue from 104 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis (n=68 statin treatment; n=36 no statin treatment) using gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry. The extent of CAD was determined by coronary angiography prior to aortic valve replacement. Patients treated with statins were characterized by lower plasma cholesterol, cholestanol, and lathosterol concentrations. However, statin treatment did not affect the sterol concentrations in cardiovascular tissue. The ratio of campesterol-to-cholesterol was increased by 0.46±0.34?g/mg (26.0%) in plasma of patients with CAD. The absolute values for the cholesterol absorption markers sitosterol and campesterol were increased by 18.18±11.59ng/mg (38.8%) and 11.40±8.69ng/mg (30.4%) in the tissues from patients with documented CAD compared to those without concomitant CAD. Campesterol oxides were increased by 0.06±0.02ng/mg (17.1%) in the aortic valve cusps and oxidized sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratios were up-regulated by 0.35±0.2ng/mg (22.7%) in the plasma of patients with CAD. Of note, neither cholestanol nor the ratio of cholestanol-to-cholesterol was associated with CAD. Patients with concomitant CAD are characterized by increased deposition of plant sterols, but not cholestanol in aortic valve tissue. Moreover, patients with concomitant CAD were characterized by increased oxyphytosterol concentrations in plasma and aortic valve cusps. PMID:25814070

  4. Increased sterol biosynthesis in tobacco calli resistant to a triazole herbicide which inhibits demethylation of 14?-methyl sterols.

    PubMed

    Schaller, H; Maillot-Vernier, P; Belliard, G; Benveniste, P

    1992-06-01

    The ?-keto triazole derivative 4,4-dimethyl-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-one is toxic to Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi plants or cell cultures. Analysis of the sterol composition of treated wild-type plant material demonstrates that this herbicide is an inhibitor of the C-14?-methyl demethylation process in sterol biosynthesis. Selection experiments, consisting of screening large populations of microcalli derived from UV-mutagenized tobacco protoplasts for resistance to a lethal dose (1 mg · 1(-1)) of the ?-keto triazole, have resulted in the recovery of two groups of resistant calli. In the first group, selected calli show a sterol composition in the absence or presence of the inhibitor very similar to that of wild-type sensitive calli, whereas in the second group the main feature of the selected calli is a new sterol profile. These calli present an overproduction of sterols with a concomitant esterification of overproduced metaolites, just as it was demonstrated for calli previously selected in our laboratory for resistance to LAB 170250F, a triazole fungicide (Maillot-Vernier et al., 1991, Mol. Gen. Genet. 231, 33-40). PMID:24178071

  5. Key points for maximum effectiveness and safety for cholesterol-lowering properties of plant sterols and use in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Monteferrario, Francesca; Faliva, Milena Anna; Perna, Simone; Antoniello, Neldo

    2013-08-30

    According to the American Diabetes Association and the Adult Treatment Panel III, the starting point for treating metabolic syndrome (MS) is a change of lifestyle. In addition, action on the main symptoms of MS by means of dietary supplements, can be helpful in view of the chronic course of the disease. The term 'phytosterols' refers to sterols and stanols composed of lipophilic triterpenes, a family that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom and whose cholesterol-lowering properties have been amply demonstrated. In the light of the recent literature, the key points for maximum effectiveness and safety of sterols are the following. (A) Plant sterols should be taken with meals: clinical trials have shown that when plant sterols are consumed close to mealtimes, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol may decrease by 9.4%, while when they are taken between meals, the reduction is about 6%. (B) The optimal dosage is 2-2.5 g day(-1) in a single dose. More than 3 g day(-1) has not been found to have any additional beneficial effect and increases the risk of side effects. (C) The food matrix used to dissolve the phytosterols should contain a certain amount of fat. A milk-based matrix appears optimal from this point of view. PMID:23584958

  6. Higher sterol content regulated by CYP51 with concomitant lower phospholipid content in membranes is a common strategy for aluminium tolerance in several plant species.

    PubMed

    Wagatsuma, Tadao; Khan, Md Shahadat Hossain; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maejima, Eriko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Nakano, Takeshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Tawaraya, Keitaro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Matsuo; Ishikawa, Satoru; Ikka, Takashi; Ishikawa, Akifumi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Ueki, Nozomi; Umetsu, Asami; Kannari, Takayuki

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the accumulation of positively charged Al(3+) ions. The phospholipids will be balanced by other electrically neutral lipids, such as sterols. In the present research, Al tolerance was compared among pea (Pisum sativum) genotypes. Compared with Al-tolerant genotypes, the Al-sensitive genotype accumulated more Al in the root tip, had a less intact plasma membrane, and showed a lower expression level of PsCYP51, which encodes obtusifoliol-14?-demethylase (OBT 14DM), a key sterol biosynthetic enzyme. The ratio of phospholipids to sterols was higher in the sensitive genotype than in the tolerant genotypes, suggesting that the sterol biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in Al tolerance. Consistent with this idea, a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with knocked-down AtCYP51 expression showed an Al-sensitive phenotype. Uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of OBT 14DM, suppressed the Al tolerance of Al-tolerant genotypes of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmark cv. Currency). These results suggest that increased sterol content, regulated by CYP51, with concomitant lower phospholipid content in the root tip, results in lower negativity of the plasma membrane. This appears to be a common strategy for Al tolerance among several plant species. PMID:25416794

  7. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (?-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of ?-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ?-3 FA and PSE. PMID:25842314

  8. Flaxseed Oil Containing ?-Linolenic Acid Ester of Plant Sterol Improved Atherosclerosis in ApoE Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hao; Yan, Peipei; Chen, Li; Luo, Cheng; Gao, Hui; Deng, Qianchun; Zheng, Mingming; Shi, Yong; Liu, Liegang

    2015-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) have potential preventive function in atherosclerosis due to their cholesterol-lowering ability. Dietary ?-linolenic acid in flaxseed oil is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events through its hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of flaxseed oil containing ?-linolenic acid ester of PS (ALA-PS) on atherosclerosis and investigate the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were administered a regular diet and apoE knockout (apoE-KO) mice were given a high fat diet alone or supplemented with 5% flaxseed oil with or without 3.3% ALA-PS for 18 weeks. Results demonstrated that flaxseed oil containing ALA-PS was synergistically interaction in ameliorating atherosclerosis as well as optimizing overall lipid levels, inhibiting inflammation and reducing oxidative stress. These data were associated with the modification effects on expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism (PPAR?, HMGCR, and SREBPs), inflammation (IL-6, TNF, MCP-1, and VCAM-1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase).

  9. Sterols of the green-pigmented, freshwater raphidophyte, Gonyostomum semen, from Scandinavian lakes.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Jeffrey D; Dahmen, Aaron S; Lebret, Karen; Rengefors, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Sterols are a class of membrane-reinforcing, ringed lipids which have a long history of examination in algae as a means of deriving chemotaxonomic relationships and as potential lipidic biomarkers. The Raphidophyceae represent a class of harmful, bloom-forming, marine and freshwater algae. To date, there have been four published examinations of their sterol composition, focusing primarily on brown-pigmented, marine species within the genera, Chattonella, Fibrocapsa, and Heterosigma. Lacking in these examinations has been the species Gonyostomum semen Ehrenb., which is a green-pigmented, freshwater raphidophyte with a worldwide distribution. The goal of this study was to examine the sterol composition of this nuisance alga, determine the potential of using its sterol profile as a biomarker, and finally to determine if there is any intraspecific variability between isolates. We have examined 21 isolates of G. semen from a number of Scandinavian lakes, and all were found to produce two major sterols, 24-ethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3?-ol and 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3?-ol, and 24-methylcholest-5-en-3?-ol as a minor sterol; the presence of 24-ethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3?-ol differentiates G. semen from brown-pigmented, marine raphidophytes which generally lack it. The results of this study indicate that isolates of G. semen from geographically separate lakes across Finland and Scandinavia have the same sterol biosynthetic pathway, and that there is no evolutionary divergence between the isolates with regard to sterol composition. The sterols of G. semen are not considered to be useful biomarkers for this particular organism because they are commonly found in other algae and plants. PMID:23731265

  10. Thresholds for sterol-limited growth of Daphnia magna: a comparative approach using 10 different sterols.

    PubMed

    Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik; Oexle, Sarah; Wacker, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Arthropods are incapable of synthesizing sterols de novo and thus require a dietary source to cover their physiological demands. The most prominent sterol in animal tissues is cholesterol, which is an indispensable structural component of cell membranes and serves as precursor for steroid hormones. Instead of cholesterol, plants and algae contain a variety of different phytosterols. Consequently, herbivorous arthropods have to metabolize dietary phytosterols to cholesterol to meet their requirements for growth and reproduction. Here, we investigated sterol-limited growth responses of the freshwater herbivore Daphnia magna by supplementing a sterol-free diet with increasing amounts of 10 different phytosterols and comparing thresholds for sterol-limited growth. In addition, we analyzed the sterol composition of D. magna to explore sterol metabolic constraints and bioconversion capacities. We show that dietary phytosterols strongly differ in their potential to support somatic growth of D. magna. The dietary threshold concentrations obtained by supplementing the different sterols cover a wide range (3.5-34.4 ?g mg C(-1)) and encompass the one for cholesterol (8.9 ?g mg C(-1)), indicating that certain phytosterols are more efficient in supporting somatic growth than cholesterol (e.g., fucosterol, brassicasterol) while others are less efficient (e.g., dihydrocholesterol, lathosterol). The dietary sterol concentration gradients revealed that the poor quality of particular sterols can be alleviated partially by increasing dietary concentrations, and that qualitative differences among sterols are most pronounced at low to moderate dietary concentrations. We infer that the dietary sterol composition has to be considered in zooplankton nutritional ecology to accurately assess potential sterol limitations under field conditions. PMID:25228231

  11. Metabolism of conjugated sterols in eggplant. Part 1. UDP-glucose : sterol glucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Potocka, Anna; Zimowski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A membrane-bound UDP-glucose : sterol glucosyltransferase from Solanum melongena (eggplant) leaves was partially purified and its specificity as well as molecular and kinetic properties were defined. Among a wide spectrum of 3-OH steroids (i.e. typical plant sterols, androstane, pregnane and cholestane derivatives, steroidal alkaloids and sapogenins) and triterpenic alcohols, the highest activity was found with 22-oxycholesterol. UDP-glucose appeared to be the best sugar donor. The enzyme preparation was also able to utilize UDP-galactose, TDP-glucose and CDP-glucose as a sugar source for sterol glucosylation, however, at distinctly lower rates. The investigated glucosyltrasferase was stimulated by 2-mercaptoethanol, Triton X-100 and negatively charged phospholipids, and inhibited in the presence of UDP, mono-, di- and triacylglycerols, divalent cations such as Zn(2+), Co(2+), high ionic strength, cholesteryl glucoside, galactoside and xyloside and some amino acid-modifying reagents (SITS, DIDS, PLP, DEPC, pCMBS, NEM, WRK and HNB). Our results suggest that unmodified residues of lysine, tryptophan, cysteine, histidine and dicarboxylic amino acids are essential for full enzymatic activity and indicate that a glutamic (or aspartic) acid residue is necessary for the binding of sugar donor, i.e. UDP-glucose in the active site of the GT-ase while histidine and cysteine residues are both important for the binding of the nucleotide-sugar as well as of the steroidal aglycone. PMID:18196184

  12. Deciphering the Molecular Functions of Sterols in Cellulose Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schrick, Kathrin; DeBolt, Seth; Bulone, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Sterols play vital roles in plant growth and development, as components of membranes and as precursors to steroid hormones. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants indicates that sterol composition is crucial for cellulose biosynthesis. Sterols are widespread in the plasma membrane (PM), suggesting a possible link between sterols and the multimeric cellulose synthase complex. In one possible scenario, molecular interactions in sterol-rich PM microdomains or another form of sterol-dependent membrane scaffolding may be critical for maintaining the correct subcellular localization, structural integrity and/or activity of the cellulose synthase machinery. Another possible link may be through steryl glucosides, which could act as primers for the attachment of glucose monomers during the synthesis of ??(1???4) glucan chains that form the cellulose microfibrils. This mini-review examines genetic and biochemical data supporting the link between sterols and cellulose biosynthesis in cell wall formation and explores potential approaches to elucidate the mechanism of this association. PMID:22639668

  13. Plant-derived transfer DNAs.

    PubMed

    Rommens, Caius M; Bougri, Oleg; Yan, Hua; Humara, Jaime M; Owen, Joanna; Swords, Kathy; Ye, Jingsong

    2005-11-01

    The transfer of DNA from Agrobacterium to plant cell nuclei is initiated by a cleavage reaction within the 25-bp right border of Ti plasmids. In an effort to develop all-native DNA transformation vectors, 50 putative right border alternatives were identified in both plant expressed sequence tags and genomic DNA. Efficacy tests in a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) model system demonstrated that 14 of these elements displayed at least 50% of the activity of conventional Agrobacterium transfer DNA borders. Four of the most effective plant-derived right border alternatives were found to be associated with intron-exon junctions. Additional elements were embedded within introns, exons, untranslated trailers, and intergenic DNA. Based on the identification of a single right border alternative in Arabidopsis and three in rice (Oryza sativa), the occurrence of this motif was estimated at a frequency of at least 0.8x10(-8). Modification of plasmid DNA sequences flanking the alternative borders demonstrated that both upstream and downstream sequences play an important role in initiating DNA transfer. Optimal DNA transfer required the elements to be preceded by pyrimidine residues interspaced by AC-rich trinucleotides. Alteration of this organization lowered transformation frequencies by 46% to 93%. Despite their weaker resemblance with left borders, right border alternatives also functioned effectively in terminating DNA transfer, if both associated with an upstream A[C/T]T[C/G]A[A/T]T[G/T][C/T][G/T][C/G]A[C/T][C/T][A/T] domain and tightly linked cytosine clusters at their junctions with downstream DNA. New insights in border region requirements were used to construct an all-native alfalfa (Medicago sativa) transfer DNA vector that can be used for the production of intragenic plants. PMID:16244143

  14. Neutral sterols of sawflies (Symphyta): their relationship to other Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Schiff, N M; Feldlaufer, M F

    1996-04-01

    To investigate sterol utilization in sawflies, the neutral sterols of four species of sawflies were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and compared to the respective dietary plant material. Cholesterol was the predominant (55-76%) sterol in all species and stages of sawflies examined. Host plants, however, contained primarily sitosterol (50-88%), along with other 24-alkylsterols and only 0.5-5.9% cholesterol, indicating that the sawflies examined are capable of dealkylating the C28 and C29 phytosterols in their diet to cholesterol. Comparative sterol metabolism in Hymenoptera is discussed. PMID:8743059

  15. A comparative calorimetric and spectroscopic study of the effects of cholesterol and of the plant sterols ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Mannock, David A; Benesch, Matthew G K; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2015-08-01

    We performed comparative DSC and FTIR spectroscopic measurements of the effects of ?-sitosterol (Sito) and stigmasterol (Stig) on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of DPPC bilayers. Sito and Stig are the major sterols in the biological membranes of higher plants, whereas cholesterol (Chol) is the major sterol in mammalian membranes. Sito differs in structure from Chol in having an ethyl group at C24 of the alkyl side-chain, and Stig in having both the C24 ethyl group and trans-double bond at C22. Our DSC studies indicate that the progressive incorporation of Sito and Stig decrease the temperature and cooperativity of the pretransition of DPPC to a slightly lesser and greater extent than Chol, respectively, but the pretransition persists to 10mol % sterol concentration in all cases. All three sterols produce essentially identical effects on the thermodynamic parameters of the sharp component of the DPPC main phase transition. However, the ability to increase the temperature and decrease the cooperativity and enthalpy of the broad component decreases in the order Chol>Sito>Stig. Nevertheless, at higher Sito/Stig concentrations, there is no evidence of sterol crystallites. Our FTIR spectroscopic studies demonstrate that Sito and especially Stig incorporation produces a smaller ordering of the hydrocarbon chains of fluid DPPC bilayers than does Chol. In general, the presence of a C24 ethyl group in the alkyl side-chain reduces the characteristic effects of Chol on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of DPPC bilayer membranes, and a trans-double bond at C22 magnifies this effect. PMID:25911208

  16. Effects of plant sterol and stanol ester consumption on lipid metabolism, antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress, endothelial function and low-grade inflammation in patients on current statin treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A De Jong; J Plat; A Bast; R W L Godschalk; S Basu; R P Mensink

    2008-01-01

    Objective:The present study was designed to examine for the first time, side-by-side, the effects of plant sterol and stanol consumption on lipid metabolism and markers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in subjects on stable statin–treatment.Design:Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, intervention trial.Setting:University.Subjects:Forty-five patients on current statin treatment were recruited via newspaper advertisements. Data of 41 patients were used

  17. Two new polyhydroxylated sterols from Ruppia maritima.

    PubMed

    Dellagreca, M; Fiorentino, A; Monaco, P; Zarrelli, A

    2001-01-01

    Two new sterols have been isolated from the aquatic plant Ruppia maritima and their structures were established as (24R) ergosta-8,22-diene-3 beta,6 beta,7 alpha-triol (1) and (24R) ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3 beta,6 beta,7 alpha-triol (2) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:11561443

  18. Two New Polyhydroxylated Sterols from Ruppia maritima

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Dellagreca; Antonio Fiorentino; Pietro Monaco; Armando Zarrelli

    2001-01-01

    Two new sterols have been isolated from the aquatic plant Ruppia maritima and their structures were established as (24R) ergosta-8,22-diene-3?,6?,7?-triol (1) and (24R) ergosta-8(14),22-diene-3?,6?,7?-triol (2) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  19. Screening of synthetic and plant-derived compounds for (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities.

    PubMed

    Bovee, Toine F H; Schoonen, Willem G E J; Hamers, Astrid R M; Bento, Marta Jorge; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M

    2008-02-01

    Recently we constructed yeast cells that either express the human estrogen receptor alpha or the human androgen receptor in combination with a consensus ERE or ARE repeat in the promoter region of a green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) read-out system. These bioassays were proven to be highly specific for their cognate agonistic compounds. In this study the value of these yeast bioassays was assessed for analysis of compounds with antagonistic properties. Several pure antagonists, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and plant-derived compounds were tested. The pure antiestrogens ICI 182,780 and RU 58668 were also classified as pure ER antagonists in the yeast estrogen bioassay and the pure antiandrogen flutamide was also a pure AR antagonist in the yeast androgen bioassay. The plant-derived compounds flavone and guggulsterone displayed both antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, while 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and equol combined an estrogenic mode of action with an antiandrogenic activity. Indol-3-carbinol (I3C) only showed an antiandrogenic activity. Coumestrol, genistein, naringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin were estrogenic and acted additively, while the plant sterols failed to show any effect. Although hormonally inactive, in vitro and in vivo metabolism of the aforementioned plant sterols may still lead to the formation of active metabolites in other test systems. PMID:18188547

  20. The phylogenetic distribution of sterols in tracheophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Nes; Kenneth Krevitz; John Joseph; William D. Nes; Barry Harris; Geoffrey F. Gibbons; Glenn W. Patterson

    1977-01-01

    The sterols of nine mature plant species in seven families ranging from the subphylum Lycopsida through the Filicopsida and\\u000a the classes Gymnospermae and Angiospermae in the Pteropsida were structurally and stereochemically defined. Two plant categories\\u000a were found. In the first, comprised byDryopteris (Thelypteris) noveboracensis, Polystichum acrostichoides, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Osmunda cinnamomea, Ginkgo\\u000a biloba, Cucurbita pepo, andKalmia latifolia, 24?-alkylsterols were dominant and

  1. Final report of the amended safety assessment of PEG-5, -10, -16, -25, -30, and -40 soy sterol.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    PEGs Soy Sterol are polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives of soybean oil sterols used in a variety of cosmetic formulations as surfactants and emulsifying agents, skin-conditioning agents, and cleansing and solubilizing agents. When the safety of these ingredients were first reviewed, the available data were insufficient to support safety. New data have since been received and the safety of these ingredients in cosmetics has been substantiated. Current concentration of use ranges from a low of 0.05% in makeup preparations to 2% in moisturizers and several other products. PEGs Soy Sterol are produced by the reaction of the soy sterol hydroxyl with ethylene oxide. In general, ethoxylated fatty acids can contain 1,4-dioxane as a byproduct of ethoxylation. The soy sterols include campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol. The distribution of sterols found in oils derived from common plants is similar, with beta-sitosterol comprising a major component. Impurities include sterol hydrocarbons and cholesterol (4% to 6%) and triterpine alcohols, keto-steroids, and other steroid-like substances (4% to 6%). No pesticide residues were detected. PEGS: Because PEGs are an underlying structure in PEGs Soy Sterols, the previous assessment of PEGs was considered. It is generally recognized that the PEG monomer, ethylene glycol, and certain of its monoalkyl ethers are reproductive and developmental toxins. Given the methods of manufacture of PEGs Soy Sterol, there is no likelihood of ethylene glycol or its alkyl ethers being present. Also, the soybean oil sterol ethers in this ingredient are chemically different from the ethylene glycol alkyl ethers of concern. PEGs are not carcinogenic, although sensitization and nephrotoxicity were observed in burn patients treated with a PEG-based cream. No evidence of systemic toxicity or sensitization was found in studies with intact skin. Plant Phytosterols: Intestinal absorption of ingested plant phytosterols is on the order of 5%, with 95% of the material entering the colon. Absorbed plant phytosterols are transported to the blood. Although there are some data suggesting that sulfates of beta-sitosterol can act as abortifacients in rats and rabbits, other studies of well-characterized plant phytosterols and phytosterol esters demonstrated no effect in an estrogen-binding study, a recombinant yeast assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity, or a juvenile rat uterotrophic assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity. In a two-generation reproduction study using rats, plant phytosterol esters in the diet had no effect on any parameter of reproduction or fertility. Subcutaneous injections of beta-sitosterol did reduce sperm concentrations and fertility in rats. Sitosterol inhibited tumor promoting activity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and reduced the tumors produced by N-methylnitrosourea in rats. Phytosterols were not genotoxic in several bacterial, mammalian, and in vitro assay systems. Phytosterols decreased epithelial cell proliferation in the colon of mice and rats, and were cytotoxic for human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx. PEGs Soy Sterols: The acute oral LD50 in rats of PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was >10 g/kg. The acute dermal LD50 of a liquid eyeliner containing 2%PEG-5 Soy Sterol was >2 g/kg in rabbits. PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was not a primary irritant in rabbits when applied undiluted. Undiluted PEG-5 Soy Sterol did not cause sensitization in guinea pigs. PEGs Soy Sterol did not produce ocular toxicity in rabbits. PEG-5 Soy Sterol was negative in the Ames mutagenicity test, with or without metabolic activation. PEG-5 Soy Sterol, at concentrations up to 2%in formulation, did not cause dermal or ocular irritation, dermal sensitization, or photosensitization in clinical studies. Because of the possible presence of 1,4-dioxane reaction product and unreacted ethylene oxide residues, it was considered necessary to use appropriate procedures to remove these from PEGs Soy Sterol before blending them

  2. Steroid and sterol 7-hydroxylation: ancient pathways.

    PubMed

    Lathe, Richard

    2002-11-01

    B-ring hydroxylation is a major metabolic pathway for cholesterols and some steroids. In liver, 7 alpha-hydroxylation of cholesterols, mediated by CYP7A and CYP39A1, is the rate-limiting step of bile acid synthesis and metabolic elimination. In brain and other tissues, both sterols and some steroids including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are prominently 7 alpha-hydroxylated by CYP7B. The function of extra-hepatic steroid and sterol 7-hydroxylation is unknown. Nevertheless, 7-oxygenated cholesterols are potent regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis; 7-oxygenated derivatives of DHEA, pregnenolone, and androstenediol can have major effects in the brain and in the immune system. The receptor targets involved remain obscure. It is argued that B-ring modification predated steroid evolution: non-enzymatic oxidation of membrane sterols primarily results in 7-oxygenation. Such molecules may have provided early growth and stress signals; a relic may be found in hydroxylation at the symmetrical 11-position of glucocorticoids. Early receptor targets probably included intracellular sterol sites, some modern steroids may continue to act at these targets. 7-Hydroxylation of DHEA may reflect conservation of an early signaling pathway. PMID:12398993

  3. Mutations in UDP-Glucose:Sterol Glucosyltransferase in Arabidopsis Cause Transparent Testa Phenotype and Suberization Defect in Seeds1(C)(W)(OA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth DeBolt; Wolf-Rudiger Scheible; Kathrin Schrick; Manfred Auer; Fred Beisson; Volker Bischoff; Pierrette Bouvier-Nave; Andrew Carroll; Kian Hematy; Yonghua Li; Jennifer Milne; Meera Nair; Hubert Schaller; Marcin Zemla; Chris Somerville

    In higher plants, the most abundant sterol derivatives are steryl glycosides (SGs) and acyl SGs. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1, that encode UDP-Glc:sterol glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of SGs. Lines having mutations in UGT80A2, UGT80B1 ,o r bothUGT80A2 and UGT8B1 were identified and characterized. The ugt80A2 lines were viable and exhibited relatively minor effects

  4. Sterol C-24 Methyltransferase Type 1 Controls the Flux of Carbon into Sterol Biosynthesis in Tobacco Seed

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Niklas; Harker, Mark; Gibbard, Carl L.; Wallace, Andrew D.; Clayton, John C.; Rawlins, Sally; Hellyer, Amanda; Safford, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The first committed step in the conversion of cycloartenol into ?5 C24-alkyl sterols in plants is catalyzed by an S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent sterol-C24-methyltransferase type 1 (SMT1). We report the consequences of overexpressing SMT1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), under control of either the constitutive carnation etched ring virus promoter or the seed-specific Brassica napus acyl-carrier protein promoter, on sterol biosynthesis in seed tissue. Overexpression of SMT1 with either promoter increased the amount of total sterols in seed tissue by up to 44%. The sterol composition was also perturbed with levels of sitosterol increased by up to 50% and levels of isofucosterol and campesterol increased by up to 80%, whereas levels of cycloartenol and cholesterol were decreased by up to 53% and 34%, respectively. Concomitant with the enhanced SMT1 activity was an increase in endogenous 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity, from which one can speculate that reduced levels of cycloartenol feed back to up-regulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and thereby control the carbon flux into sterol biosynthesis. This potential regulatory role of SMT1 in seed sterol biosynthesis is discussed. PMID:12226510

  5. Tracing origins of sewage and organic matter using dissolved sterols in Masan and Haengam Bay, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo Jin; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Soon Mo; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-06-01

    Masan and Haengam Bays in Korea are highly polluted and semi-enclosed. Domestic and industrial effluents are directly or indirectly discharged into the bays through sewage treatment plants (STP) and creeks. In this study, 15 dissolved sterol compounds were determined in order to understand their sources and relative contribution. Freshwater samples were taken from 13 creeks and at two STP sites on a monthly basis. Total dissolved sterol concentrations ranged from 993 to 4158 ng/L. The concentrations of sterols in winter were higher than in summer. Among the sterols analyzed, cholesterol, ?-sitosterol, coprostanol and cholestanone were major compounds in creek water. Seawater samples were concurrently collected at 21 stations in Masan Bay. Total sterol concentrations ranged 118-6,956 ng/L. Inner bay showed high concentrations of sterols in summer, while outer bay showed high sterol concentrations in winter. Among the sterols, cholesterol, ?-sitosterol and brassicasterol were major compounds in seawater. In order to examine the contribution of urban sewage, the concentration of coprostanol and fecal sterol ratios were calculated. Most of the creek water, inner bay and near STP outlet samples were affected by sewage. Terrestrial organic matters accounted for a high proportion of dissolved organic matter origin. Fecal origins were relatively high in the inner bay areas and in the STP outlet, while sterols of marine origin were high in the outer bay areas.

  6. Abnormal metabolism of shellfish sterols in a patient with sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, R E; Connor, W E; Lin, D S; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    Sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis together are a disease characterized by premature cardiovascular disease, and by elevated plasma concentrations of total sterols and of plant sterols, especially sitosterol which is hyperabsorbed. In order to determine whether this abnormal metabolism also involved other sterols, a patient with sitosterolemia was fed a diet high in shellfish that contain significant quantities of noncholesterol sterols, some of which are less well absorbed than cholesterol in humans. Compared with control subjects (n = 8), the sitosterolemic subject had an increased absorption of 22-dehydrocholesterol (71.5% vs. 43.8 +/- 11.4%, mean +/- SD), C-26 sterol (80.6% vs. 49.3 +/- 11.4%), brassicasterol (51.8% vs. 4.8 +/- 4.2%), and 24-methylene cholesterol (60.5% vs. 16.0 +/- 8.3%). This enhanced absorption was associated with an increased plasma total shellfish sterol level (13.1 mg/dl vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl in normals). In the sitosterolemic subject, as in normals, the shellfish sterols were not preferentially concentrated in any lipoprotein class, and 50-65% of these sterols were in the esterified form in plasma. Bile acids and neutral sterols were quantitated in bile obtained by duodenal aspiration. The bile acid composition did not differ significantly in the sitosterolemic subject compared with the normal controls. The sitosterolemic subject, though, was unable to concentrate normally the neutral shellfish sterols in bile. The normal controls concentrated the shellfish sterols in bile 6.3 +/- 1.7-fold relative to the plasma shellfish sterol concentration whereas the study subject was only able to concentrate them 2.1-fold. We propose that sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis occur from a generalized abnormality in the usual ability of the gut mucosa and other tissues of the body to discriminate among many different sterols. This has important implications for the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease and for therapeutic recommendations. PMID:3711338

  7. Study of Behavior of Sterols at Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, P. D.; Knight, J. C.; Szczepanik, P. A.

    1968-01-01

    Behavior of sterols and sterol acetates on various types of interfaces indicates that the function of a sterol depends upon a surface orientation and surface energy of the interface. Column-chromatographic techniques determine the retention volume of various sterols under standard conditions.

  8. The occurrence of stanols in various living organisms and the behavior of sterols in contemporary sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsugu Nishimura; Tadashiro Koyama

    1977-01-01

    Unsaturated sterols (stenols) and saturated sterols (stanols) in phytoplankton and Zooplankton from Lake Suwa and from higher plants around the lake were analyzed by combined GLC and MS. In all the organisms investigated, 5 -cholestanol, 24-methylcholestan-3 -ol and 24-ethyl-5 -cholestanol were found, although in low concentrations, together with large quantities of stenols. This strongly suggests the contribution of stanols from

  9. The content and composition of sterols and sterol esters in low erucic acid rapeseed ( Brassica napus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Johansson; Lars-Ĺke Appelqvist

    1978-01-01

    The low temperature crystallization technique for the enrichment of “minor” components, such as sterols and sterol esters,\\u000a from vegetable oils was applied to low erucic acid rapeseed oils. The recovery of free sterols and sterol esters was estimated\\u000a by use of14C-cholesterol and14C-cholesterol oleate. 80% of the free sterols and 45% of the sterol esters were recovered in the liquid fraction,

  10. Plant-derived biomolecules in fermented cabbage.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Marja; Taipale, Marianne; Viander, Britta; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Korhonen, Hannu; Ryhänen, Eeva-Liisa

    2002-11-01

    The formation of plant-derived biomolecules during sauerkraut fermentation was studied. Cabbage was fermented with a starter culture, and the results were compared to the results of spontaneous fermentation. The concentration of flavonoids and glucosinolates was analyzed by HPLC, and that of the glucosinolate breakdown products, by GC-MS. Of the 20 different flavonoids tested, only kaempferol was found (0.9 mg/ kg FW, fresh weight). The content of kaempferol remained constant in the cabbage fiber matrix over the fermentation process. The nitrite concentration was below the detection limit in both fermentations. The total glucosinolate content in the raw material was 3.71 micro mol/g DW, dry weight. Glucosinolates were totally decomposed in both fermentations during two weeks, and different types of breakdown products were formed. Isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, goitrin, allyl cyanide, and nitriles were determined in the fermented cabbage. Isothiocyanates and allyl cyanide were the predominant breakdown products in both fermentations. Sulforaphane nitrile and goitrin were found only in small quantities in the end products. PMID:12405778

  11. Sterols as Complex-forming Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioffe, D. V.

    1986-02-01

    The formation of complexes of sterols with different compounds determines the biological properties of both sterols and various natural substances such as saponins and polyene antibiotics. Complex formation by sterols with phospholipids, steroid saponins, and polyene antibiotics is determined by the same characteristic features of the structure of the sterol molecule. The principal role in complex formation is played by the hydrophobic reaction of the cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring. The formation of a hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group of the sterol and a proton acceptor, which is assumed in most complexes, has been proved only in the complexes of sterols with water and acids. The bibliography contains 122 references.

  12. Andrographolide: A New Plant-Derived Antineoplastic Entity on Horizon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astha Varma; Harish Padh; Neeta Shrivastava

    2009-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemo- therapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipo- dophyllotoxin, etc. are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for

  13. Sterol composition of 19 vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Itoh; T. Tamura; T. Matsumoto

    1973-01-01

    The unsaponifiables from 19 vegetable oils were divided into a sterol and three other fractions by thin-layer chromatography.\\u000a All except olive and palm kernel oils gave the sterol fraction in a large quantity. Compositions of the sterol fractions were\\u000a determined by gas liquid chromatography. Identification of each sterol was carried out by gas liquid chromatography and combined\\u000a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry.

  14. Effects of Sterol Structure on Insect Herbivore Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 

    E-print Network

    Jing, Xiangfeng

    2012-02-14

    -feeding insects. I also study cholesterol homeostasis using a grasshopper species. Modified tobacco plants containing a novel sterol profile negatively affected performance three different caterpillar species, especially in the second generation. Insects reared...

  15. Sterols in pumpkin seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Basti?; Lj. Basti?; J. A. Jovanovi?; G. Spiteller

    1977-01-01

    and summary  The sterol fraction of unsaponifiable matter obtained from a Yugoslav pumpkin seed ripening was investigated by gas liquid\\u000a chromatography on a glass capillary column. It contained at least 14 different sterols ten of which were identified primarily\\u000a by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, 24-methylcholest-7-en-3?-ol,\\u000a ?7,22,25-stimastatrien-3?-ol, ?-spinasterol, ?7,25-stigmastadien-3?-ol, ?7,25-stigmastenol, and ?7-avenasterol. It was shown that the

  16. Sterol composition of the vine powdery mildew fungus, Uncinula necator: Comparison of triadimenol-sensitive and resistant strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Debieu; Marie-France Corio-Costet; Herve Steva; Christian Malosse; Pierre Leroux

    1995-01-01

    Ergosta-5,24(241)-dien-3?-ol was the major sterol of conidia of Uncinula necator, an obligate pathogenic fungus, which is the causal agent of vine powdery mildew. Other ?5-sterols, such as cholesterol, ergost-5-en-3?-ol, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3?-ol and stigmast-5-en-3?-ol found in U. ecator host plant (Vitis vinifera) were detected as minor sterols in conidia of U. necator. The triadimenol-sensitive and resistant strains contained similar sterol compositions. Triadimenol

  17. Comparison of the effects of plant sterol ester and plant stanol ester-enriched margarines in lowering serum cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects on a low-fat diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MA Hallikainen; ES Sarkkinen; H Gylling; AT Erkkilä; MIJ Uusitupa

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cholesterol-lowering effects of stanol ester (STAEST) and sterol ester (STEEST)-enriched margarines as part of a low-fat diet.Design: According to a Latin square model randomized double-blind repeated measures design with three test margarines and three periods.Setting: Outpatient clinical trial with free-living subjects.Subjects: Thirty-four hypercholesterolaemic subjects completed the study.Interventions: Subjects consumed three rapeseed oil-based test margarines (STAEST, STEEST and

  18. Molecular and biochemical classification of plant-derived food allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heimo Breiteneder; Christof Ebner

    2000-01-01

    Molecular biology and biochemical techniques have significantly advanced the knowledge of allergens derived from plant foods. Surprisingly, many of the known plant food allergens are homologous to pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), proteins that are induced by pathogens, wounding, or certain environmental stresses. PRs have been classified into 14 families. Examples of allergens homologous to PRs include chitinases (PR-3 family) from avocado,

  19. Genetic study and further biochemical characterization of a tobacco mutant that overproduces sterols.

    PubMed

    Maillot-Vernier, P; Gondet, L; Schaller, H; Benveniste, P; Belliard, G

    1991-12-01

    A genetic and biochemical characterization is presented of a tobacco mutant that was previously shown to have an increased sterol content with an accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates. We first show that a precise regulation of the membrane sterol composition occurs in this mutant, via a selective esterification process. Indeed, sterols representing the usual end-products of the biosynthetic pathway are preferably integrated into the membranes as free sterols, whereas most of the intermediates pool is esterified and stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. It is further demonstrated that overproduction of sterols by the LAB1-4 mutant is due to a single nuclear and semi-dominant mutation. Finally, increase of biosynthesis and esterification of unusual sterols are shown to be responsible for the resistance of LAB1-4 calli to LAB170 250F, the triazole pesticide used to select this mutant. However, differentiated LAB1-4 tissues do not express the resistance trait, suggesting that sterol biosynthesis might not be the only site of action for the triazole at the plant level. PMID:1753944

  20. LC–MS\\/MS with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation to study the effect of UV treatment on the formation of vitamin D 3 and sterols in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rie Bak Jäpelt; Daniele Silvestro; Jřrn Smedsgaard; Poul Erik Jensen; Jette Jakobsen

    2011-01-01

    Some plant species are known to cause calcium intoxification in grazing animals. This has been attributed to the presence of vitamin D3-like activity. However, research into the presence of vitamin D3 in plants has been limited. One reason for this may be limitations in the analytical methods available for unambiguous detection and quantification of vitamin D3. This paper presents a

  1. Special relationship between sterols and oxygen: Were sterols an adaptation to aerobic life?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. Galea; Andrew J. Brown

    2009-01-01

    A fascinating link between sterols and molecular oxygen (O2) has been a common thread running through the fundamental work of Konrad Bloch, who elucidated the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol, to recent work supporting a role of sterols in the sensing of O2. Synthesis of sterols by eukaryotes is an O2-intensive process. In this review, we argue that increased levels of

  2. Steroleosin, a sterol-binding dehydrogenase in seed oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Jen; Tai, Sorgan S K; Peng, Chi-Chung; Tzen, Jason T C

    2002-04-01

    Besides abundant oleosin, three minor proteins, Sop 1, 2, and 3, are present in sesame (Sesamum indicum) oil bodies. The gene encoding Sop1, named caleosin for its calcium-binding capacity, has recently been cloned. In this study, Sop2 gene was obtained by immunoscreening, and it was subsequently confirmed by amino acid partial sequencing and immunological recognition of its overexpressed protein in Escherichia coli. Immunological cross recognition implies that Sop2 exists in seed oil bodies of diverse species. Along with oleosin and caleosin genes, Sop2 gene was transcribed in maturing seeds where oil bodies are actively assembled. Sequence analysis reveals that Sop2, tentatively named steroleosin, possesses a hydrophobic anchoring segment preceding a soluble domain homologous to sterol-binding dehydrogenases/reductases involved in signal transduction in diverse organisms. Three-dimensional structure of the soluble domain was predicted via homology modeling. The structure forms a seven-stranded parallel beta-sheet with the active site, S-(12X)-Y-(3X)-K, between an NADPH and a sterol-binding subdomain. Sterol-coupling dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in the overexpressed soluble domain of steroleosin as well as in purified oil bodies. Southern hybridization suggests that one steroleosin gene and certain homologous genes may be present in the sesame genome. Comparably, eight hypothetical steroleosin-like proteins are present in the Arabidopsis genome with a conserved NADPH-binding subdomain, but a divergent sterol-binding subdomain. It is indicated that steroleosin-like proteins may represent a class of dehydrogenases/reductases that are involved in plant signal transduction regulated by various sterols. PMID:11950969

  3. Analysis of Sterol Glycosides in Biodiesel and Biodiesel Precipitates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huali Wang; Haiying Tang; Steven Salley; K. Y. Simon Ng

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils with short chain alcohols, usually in the presence of an\\u000a alkali catalyst. Minor components in biodiesel exist as a result of unreacted reagents, by-products, additives, and auto-oxidation\\u000a products, such as water, free glycerin, bonded glycerin, free fatty acids, catalysts, residual alcohol, unsaponifiable matter\\u000a (plant sterols, antioxidants, and hydrocarbons), soaps and polymers.

  4. Sedimentary hydrocarbons and sterols in a South Atlantic estuarine/shallow continental shelf transitional environment under oil terminal and grain port influences.

    PubMed

    Bet, Rafael; Bícego, Marcia C; Martins, César C

    2015-06-15

    Sterols and hydrocarbons were determined in the surface sediments from the transitional environment between Paranaguá Bay and the shallow continental shelf in the South Atlantic to assess the sources of organic matter (OM) and the contamination status of an area exposed to multiple anthropogenic inputs. Total aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were less than 10?gg(-1), which is typical of unpolluted sediments, and related to recent inputs from higher terrestrial plants. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ranged from

    derived from combustion with non-detectable levels occurring in 65% of the samples. Sterols typically related to marine sources predominated in the analysed sediments. Hence, the study area was protected from human activity. The relative absence of anthropogenic input and OM preservation clearly indicate that the organic markers analysed can be used to investigate the biogenic input of sedimentary OM in the study area. PMID:25935801

  5. Plant-derived virus-like particles as vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Lai, Huafang

    2013-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are self-assembled structures derived from viral antigens that mimic the native architecture of viruses but lack the viral genome. VLPs have emerged as a premier vaccine platform due to their advantages in safety, immunogenicity, and manufacturing. The particulate nature and high-density presentation of viral structure proteins on their surface also render VLPs as attractive carriers for displaying foreign epitopes. Consequently, several VLP-based vaccines have been licensed for human use and achieved significant clinical and economical success. The major challenge, however, is to develop novel production platforms that can deliver VLP-based vaccines while significantly reducing production times and costs. Therefore, this review focuses on the essential role of plants as a novel, speedy and economical production platform for VLP-based vaccines. The advantages of plant expression systems are discussed in light of their distinctive posttranslational modifications, cost-effectiveness, production speed, and scalability. Recent achievements in the expression and assembly of VLPs and their chimeric derivatives in plant systems as well as their immunogenicity in animal models are presented. Results of human clinical trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy of plant-derived VLPs are also detailed. Moreover, the promising implications of the recent creation of "humanized" glycosylation plant lines as well as the very recent approval of the first plant-made biologics by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for plant production and commercialization of VLP-based vaccines are discussed. It is speculated that the combined potential of plant expression systems and VLP technology will lead to the emergence of successful vaccines and novel applications of VLPs in the near future. PMID:22995837

  6. Sterol Composition and Ecdysteroid Content of Eggs of the Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, David J.; McClure, Michael A.; Feldlaufer, Mark F.; Lusby, William R.; Oliver, Tames E.

    1987-01-01

    Free and esterified sterols of eggs of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 2 and 3 and M. arenaria race 1 were isolated and identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major sterols of eggs of each race were 24-ethylcholesterol (33.4-38.8% of total sterol), 24-ethylcholestanol (18.3-25.3%), 24-methylcholesterol (8.6-11.7%), 24-methylcholestanol (7.7-12.5%), and cholesterol (4.6-11.6%). Consequently, the major metabolic transformation performed by Meloidogyne females or eggs upon host sterols appeared to be saturation of the sterol nucleus. The free and esterified sterols of the same race did not differ appreciably, except for a slight enrichment of the steryl esters in cholesterol. Although the sterol composition of Meloidogyne eggs differed from that of other life stages of other genera of plant-parasitic nematodes, the three Meloidogyne races could not be distinguished from each other by their egg sterols. Ecdysteroids, compounds with hormonal function in insects, were not detected by radioimmunoassay in the Meloidogyne eggs either as free ecdysteroids or as polar conjugates. PMID:19290155

  7. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion. PMID:25863633

  8. Sterol phylogenesis and algal evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Nes, W.D.; Norton, R.A.; Crumley, F.G. (Richard B. Russell Research Center, Athens, GA (USA)); Madigan, S.J.; Katz, E.R. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The stereochemistry of several sterol precursors and end products synthesized by two fungal-like microorganisms Prototheca wickerhamii (I) and Dictyostelium discoideum (II) have been determined by chromatographic (TLC, GLC, and HPLC) and spectral (UV, MS, and {sup 1}H NMR) methods. From I and II the following sterols were isolated from the cells: cycloartenol, cyclolaudenol, 24(28)-methylenecy-cloartanol, ergosterol, protothecasterol, 4{alpha}-methylergostanol, 4{alpha}-methylclionastanol, clionastanol, 24{beta}-ethylcholesta-8,22-enol, and dictyosterol. In addition, the mechanism of C-24 methylation was investigated in both organisms by feeding to I (2-{sup 3}H)lanosterol, (2-{sup 3}H)cycloartenol, (24{sup 3}H)lanosterol, and (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine and by feeding to II (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine. The results demonstrate that the 24{beta} configuration is formed by different alkylation routes in I and II. The authors conclude that Prototheca is an apoplastic Chlorella (i.e., an alga) and that Dictyostelium as well as the other soil amoebae that synthesize cycloartenol evolved from algal rather than fungal ancestors.

  9. Sterols are required for cell-fate commitment and maintenance of the stomatal lineage in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Pingping; Han, Bing; Forestier, Edith; Hu, Zhihong; Gao, Na; Lu, Wenwen; Schaller, Hubert; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2013-06-01

    Asymmetric cell division is important for regulating cell proliferation and fate determination during stomatal development in plants. Although genes that control asymmetric division and cell differentiation in stomatal development have been reported, regulators controlling the process from asymmetric division to cell differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we report a weak allele (fk-J3158) of the Arabidopsis sterol C-14 reductase gene FACKEL (FK) that shows clusters of small cells and stomata in leaf epidermis, a common phenomenon that is often seen in mutants defective in stomatal asymmetric division. Interestingly, the physical asymmetry of these divisions appeared to be intact in fk mutants, but the cell-fate asymmetry was greatly disturbed, suggesting that the FK pathway links these two crucial events in the process of asymmetric division. Sterol profile analysis revealed that the fk-J3158 mutation blocked downstream sterol production. Further investigation indicated that cyclopropylsterol isomerase1 (cpi1), sterol 14?-demethylase (cyp51A2) and hydra1 (hyd1) mutants, corresponding to enzymes in the same branch of the sterol biosynthetic pathway, displayed defective stomatal development phenotypes, similar to those observed for fk. Fenpropimorph, an inhibitor of the FK sterol C-14 reductase in Arabidopsis, also caused these abnormal small-cell and stomata phenotypes in wild-type leaves. Genetic experiments demonstrated that sterol biosynthesis is required for correct stomatal patterning, probably through an additional signaling pathway that has yet to be defined. Detailed analyses of time-lapse cell division patterns, stomatal precursor cell division markers and DNA ploidy suggest that sterols are required to properly restrict cell proliferation, asymmetric fate specification, cell-fate commitment and maintenance in the stomatal lineage cells. These events occur after physical asymmetric division of stomatal precursor cells. PMID:23551583

  10. Formation of micella containing solubilized sterols during rehydration of active dry yeasts improves their fermenting capacity.

    PubMed

    Soubeyrand, Virginie; Luparia, Valeria; Williams, Pascale; Doco, Thierry; Vernhet, Aude; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2005-10-01

    During their rehydration in aqueous media, active dry yeasts (ADY) may be supplemented with inactive yeasts, yeast derivatives, or other optional complementary nutrients to improve their fermentation capacity. We found that yeast sterols solubilized in situ during ADY rehydration were particularly efficient for stimulating the fermenting capacity of ADY. Spontaneous solubilization of sterols during rehydration occurred by the formation of micelles by membrane phospholipids and specific cell wall polysaccharides and sterols, both compounds being provided by inactive dry yeasts (IDY). These micelles contained a specific distribution of the initial sterols from the inactive yeasts. Above a concentration of 100 mg L(-1) in the rehydration medium, these micelles acted as emulsifiers. Their critical micellar concentration (cmc) was found to be about 4 g L(-1). During rehydration, purified micelles, at a concentration near the cmc, were able to interact quickly with yeast cell membranes by modifying the yeast plasma membrane order [monitored by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene-p-toluenesulfonate (TMA-DPH) probe] and by increasing the sterol contents of ADY. Such an enrichment of ADY by very low concentrations of solubilized sterols was very efficient for the completion of fermentations. This is useful when musts are limited in available phytosterols or when micro-oxygenation is not desirable during fermentation. PMID:16190666

  11. Response of ?? T cells to plant-derived tannins

    PubMed Central

    Holderness, Jeff; Hedges, Jodi F.; Daughenbaugh, Katie; Kimmel, Emily; Graff, Jill; Freedman, Brett; Jutila, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical drugs are isolated from plants used in traditional medicines. Through screening plant extracts, both traditional medicines and compound libraries, new pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Currently, two plant-derived agonists for ?? T cells are described. These plant-derived agonists impart innate effector functions upon distinct ?? T cell subsets. Plant tannins represent one class of ?? T cell agonist and preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal ?? T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair. Select tannins, isolated from apple peel, rapidly induce immune gene transcription in ?? T cells, leading to cytokine production and increased responsiveness to secondary signals. Activity of these tannin preparations tracks to the procyanidin fraction, with the procyanidin trimer (C1) having the most robust activity defined to date. The response to the procyanidins is evolutionarily conserved in that responses are seen with human, bovine, and murine ?? T cells. Procyanidin-induced responses described in this review likely account for the expansion of mucosal ?? T cells seen in mice and rats fed soluble extracts of tannins. Procyanidins may represent a novel approach for treatment of tissue damage, chronic infection, and autoimmune therpies. PMID:19166386

  12. Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

  13. Regeneration of peach plants from callus derived from immature embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Hammerschlag; G. Bauchan; R. Scorza

    1985-01-01

    Peach plants were repeatedly regenerated from immature embryos but not from callus derived from mature embryos. A white, nodular, highly regenerative callus was obtained when friable, primary callus from immature embryos was transferred from medium containing 4.5 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.44 µM benzyladenine (BA) to media containing 0.27 µM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2.2 µM BA. This callus retained

  14. Approaches to the Analysis of Plant-Derived Natural Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionel Hill; Trevor L. Wang

    The term “plant-derived natural product” is extremely broad and the scope of this chapter is determined by the nature of lower-abundance\\u000a secondary metabolites rather than storage proteins, starch, cell walls, and lipids. In some instances, however, similar techniques\\u000a can used to measure both groups of compounds. The bioactivity of secondary metabolites underlines their importance in human\\u000a nutrition, health, pharmacy and

  15. California Plant Names, Word Meanings and Name Derivations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charters, Michael L.

    Created by an enthusiast, this site is a unique compilation of botanical etymology from a broad range of sources. The list focuses on plants found in Southern California, but "many if not most of these names are in general use world-wide." A simple alphabetical listing of botanical words and their meanings and derivations allows for user-friendly navigation. A similar list of botanical terms enhances the usefulness of this resource.

  16. Sterol composition of yeast organelle membranes and subcellular distribution of enzymes involved in sterol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Zinser, E; Paltauf, F; Daum, G

    1993-01-01

    Organelles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and analyzed for sterol composition and the activity of three enzymes involved in sterol metabolism. The plasma membrane and secretory vesicles, the fractions with the highest sterol contents, contain ergosterol as the major sterol. In other subcellular membranes, which exhibit lower sterol contents, intermediates of the sterol biosynthetic pathway were found at higher percentages. Lipid particles contain, in addition to ergosterol, large amounts of zymosterol, fecosterol, and episterol. These sterols are present esterified with long-chain fatty acids in this subcellular compartment, which also harbors practically all of the triacylglycerols present in the cell but very little phospholipids and proteins. Sterol delta 24-methyltransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes one of the late steps in sterol biosynthesis, was localized almost exclusively in lipid particles. Steryl ester formation is a microsomal process, whereas steryl ester hydrolysis occurs in the plasma membrane and in secretory vesicles. The fact that synthesis, storage, and hydrolysis of steryl esters occur in different subcellular compartments gives rise to the view that ergosteryl esters of lipid particles might serve as intermediates for the supply of ergosterol from internal membranes to the plasma membrane. PMID:8491706

  17. Phylogenetic examination of crude drugs derived from Yunnanese Swertia plants.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Nobuko; Iwaki, Naoko; Mikage, Masayuki; Xiao, Huai; Wang, Zhigang; Hattori, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to examine whether the genetic background of the crude drugs derived from four Yunnanese Swertia plants and their chemical constituent profiles correlate, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of their nuclear ribosomal DNA regions including ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and ITS2, together with those of Japanese S. japonica and S. pseudochinensis from Hebei Province. The result that two of the Yunnanese Swertia plants, S. binchuanensis and S. punicea, were genetically similar may explain their similarity in chemical constituent profiles. On the other hand, in spite of differences in chemical profile, S. decora and S. pseudochinensis were genetically close. The other Yunnanese Swertia plants, S. delavayi, and S. japonica, stood at intermediate positions between these two genetically similar pairs. The result suggests that although genetic background would have an influence, environmental factors, e.g., soil and weather conditions, might be critical for their production of secondary metabolites. PMID:23653334

  18. Low doses of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oil dose-dependently decrease serum triglyceride concentrations in the presence of plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ras, Rouyanne T; Demonty, Isabelle; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Quadt, Johan F A; Olsson, Johan; Trautwein, Elke A

    2014-10-01

    Plant sterols (PSs) lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, whereas the n-3 (?-3) fish fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lower triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Incorporating both PSs and EPA+DHA from fish oil (FO) in a single food format was expected to beneficially affect 2 blood lipid risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-response relation between low doses (<2 g/d) of EPA+DHA from FO, incorporated in a low-fat PS-enriched spread, and TG concentrations. In addition, effects on LDL-C were investigated. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study. After a 4-wk run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a control (C) spread (no PSs, no FO) or 1 of 4 intervention spreads containing a fixed amount of PSs (2.5 g/d) and varying amounts of FO (0.0, 0.9, 1.3, and 1.8 g/d of EPA+DHA) for 4 wk. Before and after the intervention, fasting blood samples were drawn for measuring serum lipids and EPA and DHA in erythrocyte membranes. In total, 85 hypercholesterolemic men and 247 women with a mean age of 57.9 y (range: 25-74 y) were included. Eighteen subjects dropped out during the study. At baseline, mean TG and LDL-C concentrations were 1.09 and 4.00 mmol/L, respectively. After the intervention, a significant dose-response relation for the TG-lowering effect of EPA+DHA [?ln (TG) = -0.07 mmol/L per gram of EPA+DHA; P < 0.01] was found. Compared with the C group, TG concentrations were 9.3-16.2% lower in the different FO groups (P < 0.05 for all groups). LDL-C concentrations were 11.5-14.7% lower in the different PS groups than in the C group (P < 0.01 for all groups). EPA and DHA in erythrocyte membranes were dose-dependently higher after FO intake than after the C spread, indicating good compliance. Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with PSs and different low doses of n-3 fatty acids from FO decreased TG concentrations in a dose-dependent manner and decreased LDL-C concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01313988. PMID:25122648

  19. Effect of unialgal diets on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jilin; Zhou, Haibo; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chengxu; Zhu, Peng; Ma, Bin

    2012-04-18

    This study has investigated the effects of six different unialgal diets ( Chaetoceros calcitrans , Platymonas helgolandica , Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana , Nannochloropsis oculata , and Pavlova viridis ) on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. The best feeding effects on the growth of shellfish were found in C. calcitrans, followed by I. galbana and P. viridis, whereas Chlorella sp. and N. oculata exhibited relatively poor effects. The fatty acid and sterol compositions in the six microalgae and the juvenile ark shell after feeding were analyzed, and 39 fatty acids and 18 sterols were identified. Although the results demonstrate a close correlation between the sterol compositions in algal species and juvenile ark shell, a similar correlation was not observed between fatty acids. In the juvenile ark shell fed microalgae, the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) rapidly decreases, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases considerably. The abundances of AA, EPA, and DHA increase most significantly in shellfish with better growth (fed C. calcitrans, I. galbana, and P. viridis). The number of sterol species is reduced, but the total sterol content in groups fed corresponding microalgae increases, and abundant plant sterols, instead of cholesterol, are accumulated in juvenile ark shell fed appropriate microalgae I. galbana and P. viridis. Therefore, to be more conducive to human health, I. galbana and P. viridis, of the six experimental microalgae, are recommended for artificial ark shell culture. PMID:22443233

  20. Tracking plant-derived biomarkers from source to sink in the Miners River, Upper Peninsula of Michigan (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, S. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.

    2012-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycling of terrestrial organic matter and it subsequent burial plays a vital role in the global carbon cycle. Rivers provide a pathway for terrestrial organic carbon dispersal and integration into sediments. Terrestrial plant biomarkers are useful tools for studying carbon cycling because they can provide an indication of the source of organic carbon in both modern and ancient sediments. Biomarkers can also be used as paleovegetation proxies in geologic sediments where fossils are absent. However, limited information is available about the dispersal and deposition of plant biomarkers in modern river systems, especially for compounds that provide taxonomic specificity such as di- and triterpenoids (diagnostic for conifers and angiosperms, respectively). To better resolve the modes of biomarker transport within fluvial and riparian systems, we characterized plant biomarker transport in the Miners River, a small river basin within a mixed angiosperm-conifer forest at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (MI, USA). To assess the transport of biomarkers in river systems, we collected plants, soils, river sediments, and filtered particulate and dissolved organic carbon from seven sites from the headwaters to Lake Superior along the Miners River (~20 km pathway). All samples contained long-chain n-alkyl lipids, sterols, diterpenoids (abietane and pimarane classes), and triterpenoids (oleanane, ursane, and lupane classes). With the exception of a soil sample taken at a depth of 30 cm, triterpenoids are found in higher concentrations than diterpenoids in riparian soils and river sediments. Biomarker compositions in riparian soils, point bar, and overbank deposits are similar to the surrounding vegetation, albeit much lower in concentration. The composition of di- and triterpenoids in the river-suspended particulate organic carbon is similar in composition to the surrounding vegetation and soils. We developed a method to isolate biomarkers in the dissolved organic carbon fraction in river waters using solid-phase extraction and the preliminary data suggests that di- and triterpenoids are transported as dissolved organic carbon, however concentrations are lower than in the particulate organic carbon fraction. Results from the Miners River will help to better define terrestrial organic matter cycling in small river catchments. Characterizing how plant biomarkers are transported in river systems will enhance our interpretations of plant biomarkers in the geologic record. This will provide new insights into biomarker transport and potential source/sink biases in fluvial systems and thus identify potential complications for using plant-derived biomarkers as quantitative paleovegetation indicators and will enhance the use of biomarker-specific isotope analyses.

  1. Transport of Newly Synthesized Sterol to the Sterol-Enriched Plasma Membrane Occurs via Nonvesicular Equilibration

    E-print Network

    Menon, Anant K.

    . We use a cyclodextrin-based sterol capture assay to show that transport of newly synthesized and to a certain extent in the ER, sterols are found in condensed complexes with sphingolipids and other phos- pholipids with saturated fatty acyl chains (9-13). These complexes form the lipid underpinning of rafts

  2. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Rice-Evans, C A; Miller, N J; Bolwell, P G; Bramley, P M; Pridham, J B

    1995-04-01

    The relative antioxidant activities, against radicals generated in the aqueous phase, of a range of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids, constituents of fruit, vegetables, tea and wine, have been assessed. The results show that compounds such as quercetin and cyanidin, with 3',4' dihydroxy substituents in the B ring and conjugation between the A and B rings, have antioxidant potentials four times that of Trolox, the vitamin E analogue. Removing the ortho-dihydroxy substitution, as in kaempferol, or the potential for electron delocalisation by reducing the 2,3 double bond in the C ring, as in catechin and epicatechin, decreases the antioxidant activity by more than 50%, but these structures are still more effective than alpha-tocopherol or ascorbate. The relative significance of the positions and extents of hydroxylation of the A and B rings to the total antioxidant activity of these plant polyphenolics is demonstrated. PMID:7633567

  3. Characterization, mutagenesis and mechanistic analysis of an ancient algal sterol C24-methyltransferase: Implications for understanding sterol evolution in the green lineage.

    PubMed

    Haubrich, Brad A; Collins, Emily K; Howard, Alicia L; Wang, Qian; Snell, William J; Miller, Matthew B; Thomas, Crista D; Pleasant, Stephanie K; Nes, W David

    2015-05-01

    Sterol C24-methyltransferases (SMTs) constitute a group of sequence-related proteins that catalyze the pattern of sterol diversity across eukaryotic kingdoms. The only gene for sterol alkylation in green algae was identified and the corresponding catalyst from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) was characterized kinetically and for product distributions. The properties of CrSMT were similar to those predicted for an ancient SMT expected to possess broad C3-anchoring requirements for substrate binding and formation of 24?-methyl/ethyl ?(25(27))-olefin products typical of primitive organisms. Unnatural ?(24(25))-sterol substrates, missing a C4?-angular methyl group involved with binding orientation, convert to product ratios in favor of ?(24(28))-products. Remodeling the active site to alter the electronics of Try110 (to Leu) results in delayed timing of the hydride migration from methyl attack of the ?(24)-bond, that thereby produces metabolic switching of product ratios in favor of ?(25(27))-olefins or impairs the second C1-transfer activity. Incubation of [27-(13)C]lanosterol or [methyl-(2)H3]SAM as co-substrates established the CrSMT catalyzes a sterol methylation pathway by the "algal" ?(25(27))-olefin route, where methylation proceeds by a conserved SN2 reaction and de-protonation proceeds from the pro-Z methyl group on lanosterol corresponding to C27. This previously unrecognized catalytic competence for an enzyme of sterol biosynthesis, together with phylogenomic analyses, suggest that mutational divergence of a promiscuous SMT produced substrate- and phyla-specific SMT1 (catalyzes first biomethylation) and SMT2 (catalyzes second biomethylation) isoforms in red and green algae, respectively, and in the case of SMT2 selection afforded modification in reaction channeling necessary for the switch in ergosterol (24?-methyl) biosynthesis to stigmasterol (24?-ethyl) biosynthesis during the course of land plant evolution. PMID:25132279

  4. Potential of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an Unconventional Source of Dietary and Therapeutic Sterols.

    PubMed

    Cheseto, Xavier; Kuate, Serge Philibert; Tchouassi, David P; Ndung'u, Mary; Teal, Peter E A; Torto, Baldwyn

    2015-01-01

    Insects are increasingly being recognized not only as a source of food to feed the ever growing world population but also as potential sources of new products and therapeutic agents, among which are sterols. In this study, we sought to profile sterols and their derivatives present in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, focusing on those with potential importance as dietary and therapeutic components for humans. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we analyzed and compared the quantities of sterols in the different sections of the gut and tissues of the locust. In the gut, we identified 34 sterols which showed a patchy distribution, but with the highest composition in the foregut (55%) followed by midgut (31%) and hindgut (14%). Fed ad libitum on wheat seedlings, five sterols unique to the insect were detected. These sterols were identified as 7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, fucosterol, (3?, 5?) cholesta-8, 14, 24-trien-3-ol, 4, 4-dimethyl, and (3?, 20R) cholesta-5, 24-dien-3, 20-diol with the first three having known health benefits in humans. Incubation of the fore-, mid- and hindgut with cholesterol-[4-13C] yielded eight derivatives, three of these were detected in the gut of the desert locust after it had consumed the vegetative diet but were not detected in the diet. Our study shows that the desert locust ingests phytosterols from a vegetative diet and, amplifies and metabolizes them into derivatives with potential salutary benefits and we discuss our findings in this context. PMID:25970517

  5. Potential of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an Unconventional Source of Dietary and Therapeutic Sterols

    PubMed Central

    Cheseto, Xavier; Kuate, Serge Philibert; Tchouassi, David P.; Ndung’u, Mary; Teal, Peter E. A.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2015-01-01

    Insects are increasingly being recognized not only as a source of food to feed the ever growing world population but also as potential sources of new products and therapeutic agents, among which are sterols. In this study, we sought to profile sterols and their derivatives present in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, focusing on those with potential importance as dietary and therapeutic components for humans. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we analyzed and compared the quantities of sterols in the different sections of the gut and tissues of the locust. In the gut, we identified 34 sterols which showed a patchy distribution, but with the highest composition in the foregut (55%) followed by midgut (31%) and hindgut (14%). Fed ad libitum on wheat seedlings, five sterols unique to the insect were detected. These sterols were identified as 7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, fucosterol, (3?, 5?) cholesta-8, 14, 24-trien-3-ol, 4, 4-dimethyl, and (3?, 20R) cholesta-5, 24-dien-3, 20-diol with the first three having known health benefits in humans. Incubation of the fore-, mid- and hindgut with cholesterol-[4-13C] yielded eight derivatives, three of these were detected in the gut of the desert locust after it had consumed the vegetative diet but were not detected in the diet. Our study shows that the desert locust ingests phytosterols from a vegetative diet and, amplifies and metabolizes them into derivatives with potential salutary benefits and we discuss our findings in this context. PMID:25970517

  6. Microbial Symbionts Shape the Sterol Profile of the Xylem-Feeding Woodwasp, Sirex noctilio

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    indicative of fungi and plants. We tested alternative hypotheses by using GC-MS to quantify concentrations is not the primary source of sterol or bulk nutrition for Sirex. Our findings suggest there is a potentially greater fungi serve as direct sources of nutrition and/or as exogenous sources of digestive or otherwise

  7. Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  8. Pentacyclic hemiacetal sterol with antifouling and cytotoxic activities from the soft coral Nephthea sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Liang-Chun; Wang, Kai-Ling; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Deng, Zhou; Xu, Shi-Hai

    2013-02-15

    A novel unusual pentacyclic hemiacetal sterol nephthoacetal (1), was isolated from soft coral Nephthea sp. The structure of this sterol was inferred from its two acetyl derivatives (2) and (3), by means of spectroscopic methods, and quantum chemical calculations. Anti-fouling activity of compounds 1-3 against Bugula neritina larvae was evaluated, sterol (1) exhibited significant inhibitory effect with EC(50) value of 2.5 ?g/mL, while having low toxicity with LC(50)>25.0 ?g/mL. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of compounds 1-3 against HeLa cells was also evaluated, all of them exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC(50) values of 12.3 (1), 10.1 (2), and 19.6 ?g/mL (3), respectively. PMID:23294699

  9. Indomethacin Amides as a Novel Molecular Scaffold for Targeting Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14?-Demethylase

    PubMed Central

    Konkle, Mary E.; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Kleshchenko, Yuliya Y.; von Kries, Jens P.; Ridenour, Whitney; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Caprioli, Richard M.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Nes, W. David; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R.; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) causes Chagas disease, which in its chronic stage remains incurable. We have shown recently that specific inhibition of TC sterol 14?-demethylase (TCCYP51) with imidazole derivatives is effective in killing both extracellular and intracellular human stages of TC. An alternative set of TCCYP51 inhibitors has been identified using optical high throughput screening followed by web-database search for similar structures. The best TCCYP51 inhibitor from this search was found to have structural similarity to a class of cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors, the indomethacin-amides. A number of indomethacin-amides were found to bind to TCCYP51, inhibit its activity in vitro and produce strong antiparasitic effects in the cultured TC cells. Analysis of TC sterol composition indicated that the mode of action of the compounds is by inhibition of sterol biosynthesis in the parasite. PMID:19354253

  10. High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of tobacco and marijuana sterols.

    PubMed

    Novotny, M; Lee, M L; Low, C E; Maskarinec, M P

    1976-05-01

    Components of the sterol fraction of tobacco and marijauna were resolved as trimethylsilyl derivatives by gas chromatography with glass capillary columns. Ten phytosterols in tobacco and five in marijuana were identified by comparisons of their retention with authentic compounds on three different stationary phases and through mass-spectral data. PMID:941185

  11. The biological activity of a-mangostin, a larvicidal botanic mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. Alpha-mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against 3rd instar larvae of six mosquito species and the LC50 values range from 0.84 to 2.90 ppm....

  12. Plant extracts and plant-derived compounds: promising players in a countermeasure strategy against radiological exposure.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure leads to several pathophysiological conditions, including oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, thereby affecting the survival of organisms. This review explores the radiation countermeasure properties of fourteen (14) plant extracts or plant-derived compounds against these cellular manifestations. It was aimed at evaluating the possible role of plants or its constituents in radiation countermeasure strategy. All the 14 plant extracts or compounds derived from it and considered in this review have shown some radioprotection in different in vivo, ex-vivo and or in vitro models of radiological injury. However, few have demonstrated advantages over the others. C. majus possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects appears to be promising in radioprotection. Its crude extracts as well as various alkaloids and flavonoids derived from it, have shown to enhance survival rate in irradiated mice. Similarly, curcumin with its antioxidant and the ability to ameliorate late effect of radiation exposure, combined with improvement in survival in experimental animal following irradiation, makes it another probable candidate against radiological injury. Furthermore, the extracts of P. hexandrum and P. kurroa in combine treatment regime, M. piperita, E. officinalis, A. sinensis, nutmeg, genistein and ginsan warrants further studies on their radioprotective potentials. However, one that has received a lot of attention is the dietary flaxseed. The scavenging ability against radiation-induced free radicals, prevention of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, reduction in radiation cachexia, level of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis, are some of the remarkable characteristics of flaxseed in animal models of radiation injury. While countering the harmful effects of radiation exposure, it has shown its ability to enhance survival rate in experimental animals. Further, flaxseed has been tested and found to be equally effective when administered before or after irradiation, and against low doses (? 5 Gy) to the whole body or high doses (12-13.5 Gy) to the whole thorax. This is particularly relevant since apart from the possibility of using it in pre-conditioning regime in radiotherapy, it could also be used during nuclear plant leakage/accidents and radiological terrorism, which are not pre-determined scenarios. However, considering the infancy of the field of plant-based radioprotectors, all the above-mentioned plant extracts/plant-derived compounds deserves further stringent study in different models of radiation injury. PMID:24761841

  13. Some important aspects of sterol analysis of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki Mäeorga; Peeter Läänistea; Juhan Jőudua; Uno Mäeorgb

    The content and composition of the sterol fraction is an important indicator of the value of vegetable oils, mainly due to the cholesterol-lowering effect of certain sterol compounds. Although many methods have been described in the literature, various steps may still cause errors during sample preparation. The present article covers some of the key steps in sterol analysis that are

  14. Characterization of sterol uptake in leaf tissues of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Rossard, Stéphanie; Bonmort, Janine; Guinet, Frédéric; Ponchet, Michel; Roblin, Gabriel

    2003-12-01

    The uptake of cholesterol has been characterized in leaf discs from mature leaves of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). This transport system exhibited a simple saturable phase with an apparent Michaelis constant ranging from 30 to 190 microM depending on the sample. When present at 10 M excess, other sterols were able to inhibit cholesterol uptake. Moreover, binding assays demonstrated the presence of high-affinity binding sites for cholesterol in purified plasma membrane vesicles. In the range 1-60 microM, cholesterol uptake showed an active component evidenced by action of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Energy was required as shown by the inhibition of uptake induced by respiration inhibitors (NaN(3)), darkness and photosynthesis inhibitors [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, methyl viologen]. Moreover, the process was strongly dependent on the experimental temperature. Uptake was optimal at acidic pH (4.0), sensitive to ATPase modulators, inhibited by thiol reagents (N-ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, Mersalyl) and by the histidyl-group reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate. The addition of cholesterol did not modify H(+) flux from tissues, indicating that H(+)-co-transport was unlikely to be involved. MgATP did not increase the uptake, arguing against involvement of an ABC cassette-type transporter. By contrast, cryptogein, a sterol carrier protein from the Oomycete Phytophtora cryptogea, greatly increased absorption. Taken together, the results reported in this work suggest that plant cells contain a specific plasma membrane transport system for sterols. PMID:12920595

  15. Foliar fatty acids and sterols of soybean field fumigated with SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwald, C.

    1981-01-01

    Sixty-day-old soybean plants were exposed in the field to 78.7 parts per one-hundred million of SO/sub 2/ in an open-air fumigation system for 20 days. Leaves from the top one-fourth and bottom one-fourth of the plants were analyzed for chlorophyll, free fatty acids, fatty acid esters, polar lipid fatty acids, and sterols. Fumigated plants had a lower chlorophyll, free fatty acid, and polar lipid content, but a higher fatty acid ester content. Of the individual fatty acids, linolenic and linolenic acid increased with SO/sub 2/ fumigation while palmitic acid decreased. SO/sub 2/ fumigations had only a minor effect on leaf sterols. In general, the lower, more mature leaves showed a greater response to SO/sub 2/ exposure.

  16. An update on plant derived anti-androgens.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul; Ramasamy, Shamin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-androgens are an assorted group of drugs and compounds that reduce the levels or activity of androgen hormones within the human body. Disease states in which this is relevant include polycystic ovarian syndrome, hirsutism, acne, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and endocrine related cancers such as carcinoma of the prostate. We provide an overview and discussion of the use of anti-androgen medications in clinical practice and explore the increasing recognition of the benefits of plant-derived anti-androgens, for example, spearmint tea in the management of PCOS, for which some evidence about efficacy is beginning to emerge. Other agents covered include red reishi, which has been shown to reduce levels 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that facilitates conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT); licorice, which has phytoestrogen effects and reduces testosterone levels; Chinese peony, which promotes the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen; green tea, which contains epigallocatechins and also inhibits 5-alpha reductase, thereby reducing the conversion of normal testosterone into the more potent DHT; black cohosh, which has been shown to kill both androgenresponsive and non-responsive human prostate cancer cells; chaste tree, which has a reduces prolactin from the anterior pituitary; and saw palmetto extract, which is used as an anti-androgen although it shown no difference in comparison to placebo in clinical trials. PMID:23843810

  17. An Update on Plant Derived Anti-Androgens

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paul; Ramasamy, Shamin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-androgens are an assorted group of drugs and compounds that reduce the levels or activity of androgen hormones within the human body. Disease states in which this is relevant include polycystic ovarian syndrome, hirsutism, acne, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and endocrine related cancers such as carcinoma of the prostate. We provide an overview and discussion of the use of anti-androgen medications in clinical practice and explore the increasing recognition of the benefits of plant-derived anti-androgens, for example, spearmint tea in the management of PCOS, for which some evidence about efficacy is beginning to emerge. Other agents covered include red reishi, which has been shown to reduce levels 5-alpha reductase, the enzyme that facilitates conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT); licorice, which has phytoestrogen effects and reduces testosterone levels; Chinese peony, which promotes the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen; green tea, which contains epigallocatechins and also inhibits 5-alpha reductase, thereby reducing the conversion of normal testosterone into the more potent DHT; black cohosh, which has been shown to kill both androgenresponsive and non-responsive human prostate cancer cells; chaste tree, which has a reduces prolactin from the anterior pituitary; and saw palmetto extract, which is used as an anti-androgen although it shown no difference in comparison to placebo in clinical trials. PMID:23843810

  18. Physiological and proteomic approaches to evaluate the role of sterol binding in elicitin-induced resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dokládal, Ladislav; Obo?il, Michal; Stejskal, Karel; Zdráhal, Zbyn?k; Ptá?ková, Nikola; Chaloupková, Radka; Damborský, Ji?í; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Jeandroz, Sylvain; Žd'árská, Markéta; Lochman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cryptogein is a proteinaceous elicitor secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea that can induce resistance to P. parasitica in tobacco plants. On the basis of previous computer modelling experiments, by site-directed mutagenesis a series of cryptogein variants was prepared with altered abilities to bind sterols, phospholipids or both. The sterol binding and phospholipid transfer activities corresponded well with the previously reported structural data. Induction of the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tobacco cells in suspension and proteomic analysis of intercellular fluid changes in tobacco leaves triggered by these mutant proteins were not proportional to their ability to bind or transfer sterols and phospholipids. However, changes in the intercellular proteome corresponded to transcription levels of defence genes and resistance to P. parasitica and structure-prediction of mutants did not reveal any significant changes in protein structure. These results suggest, contrary to previous proposals, that the sterol-binding ability of cryptogein and its mutants, and the associated conformational change in the ?-loop, might not be principal factors in either ROS production or resistance induction. Nevertheless, the results support the importance of the ?-loop for the interaction of the protein with the high affinity binding site on the plasma membrane. PMID:22223811

  19. Casein Kinase 1 Regulates Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein (SREBP) to Control Sterol Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Brookheart, Rita T.; Lee, Chih-Yung S.; Espenshade, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol homeostasis is tightly controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor that is highly conserved from fungi to mammals. In fission yeast, SREBP functions in an oxygen-sensing pathway to promote adaptation to decreased oxygen supply that limits oxygen-dependent sterol synthesis. Low oxygen stimulates proteolytic cleavage of the SREBP homolog Sre1, generating the active transcription factor Sre1N that drives expression of sterol biosynthetic enzymes. In addition, low oxygen increases the stability and DNA binding activity of Sre1N. To identify additional signals controlling Sre1 activity, we conducted a genetic overexpression screen. Here, we describe our isolation and characterization of the casein kinase 1 family member Hhp2 as a novel regulator of Sre1N. Deletion of Hhp2 increases Sre1N protein stability and ergosterol levels in the presence of oxygen. Hhp2-dependent Sre1N degradation by the proteasome requires Hhp2 kinase activity, and Hhp2 binds and phosphorylates Sre1N at specific residues. Our results describe a role for casein kinase 1 as a direct regulator of sterol homeostasis. Given the role of mammalian Hhp2 homologs, casein kinase 1? and 1?, in regulation of the circadian clock, these findings may provide a mechanism for coordinating circadian rhythm and lipid metabolism. PMID:24327658

  20. Osteolytic Sterol in Human Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert S. Gordan; Theodore J. Cantino; Linda Erhardt; James Hansen; Warren Lubich

    1966-01-01

    Eleven of twelve human breast cancers contained a lipid which increased urinary 45Ca and 40Ca excretion of 45Ca-labeled, parathyroidectomized rats receiving a low Ca diet. The lipid has mobility on thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography close to, but not identical with, that of 7-dehydrocholesterol. Authentic 7-dehydrocholesterol has osteolytic activity similar to that of the extracted sterol. Fluorescence and Lieberman-Burchard reactions

  1. Triterpene alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fedeli; A. Lanzani; P. Capella; G. Jacini

    1966-01-01

    Triterpene alcohols and sterols were separated by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography from the unsaponifiable\\u000a fractions of the following 18 vegetable oils: linseed, peanut, olive, rice bran, palm kernel, corn, sesame, oiticica, palm,\\u000a coconut, rapeseed, grape seed, sunflower, poppy seed, castor, tea seed, cocoa butter and soybean. Two triterpene alcohols,\\u000a cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol, were found in all of the

  2. Plant regeneration from protoplast-derived tissues of Linum usitatissimum L. (Flax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Barakat; E. C. Cocking

    1983-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated enzymatically from seedling roots, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Linum usitatissimum L. which divided to form callus. Plant regeneration was obtained from protoplast-derived tissues of root and cotyledon, but only rhizogenesis was observed in the case of protoplasts derived from hypocotyls. The ability to isolate, culture, and regenerate plants from root and cotyledon protoplasts of Linum usitatissimum L.

  3. Interactions of antiparasitic sterols with sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) of human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Jasmine; Setzer, William N; Ogungbe, Ifedayo Victor

    2014-01-01

    Sterol 14?-demethylase is a validated and an attractive drug target in human protozoan parasites. Pharmacological inactivation of this important enzyme has proven very effective against fungal infections, and it is a target that is being exploited for new antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have used in silico calculations to identify previously reported antiparasitic sterol-like compounds and their structural congeners that have preferential and high docking affinity for CYP51. The sterol 14?-demethylase from Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum, in particular, preferentially dock to taraxerol, epi-oleanolic acid, and ?/?-amyrim structural scaffolds. These structural information and predicted interactions can be exploited for fragment/structure-based antiprotozoal drug design. PMID:25932361

  4. Sterol composition of the macromycete fungus Laetiporus sulphureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Coy B. Ericsson; Jeannette Nieto R. Ivonne

    2009-01-01

    The sterol composition of macromycete fungus Laetiporus sulphureus was analyzed by GC-MS. The fungus contained mainly C16 to C20 fatty acids, C16 to C24 fatty acid ethyl esters, and C28, C29,\\u000a and C30, ?5, ?7, and ?5,7 conventional sterols, and in minor amounts ?0 analogues with saturated and unsaturated side chains. Moreover, ergosterol peroxide and cerevisterol were identified. This\\u000a sterol

  5. Analysis of free and esterified sterols in vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Verleyen; M. Forcades; R. Verhe; K. Dewettinck; A. Huyghebaert; W. De Greyt

    2002-01-01

    In vegetable oils, phytosterols occur as free sterols or as steryl esters. Few analytical methods report the quantification\\u000a of esterified and free sterols in vegetable oils. In this study, esterified and free sterols were separated by silica gel\\u000a column chromatography upon elution with n-hexane\\/ethyl acetate (90?10 vol\\/vol) followed by n-hexane\\/diethyl ether\\/ethanol (25?25?50 by vol). Both fractions were saponified separately and

  6. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

  7. Seasonal changes in minor membrane phospholipid classes, sterols and tocopherols in overwintering insect, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Koštál, Vladimír; Urban, Tomáš; Rimná?ová, Lucie; Berková, Petra; Simek, Petr

    2013-09-01

    Ectotherm animals including insects are known to undergo seasonal restructuring of the cell membranes in order to keep their functionality and/or protect their structural integrity at low body temperatures. Studies on insects so far focused either on fatty acids or on composition of molecular species in major phospholipid classes. Here we extend the scope of analysis and bring results on seasonal changes in minor phospholipid classes, lysophospholipids (LPLs), free fatty acids, phytosterols and tocopherols in heteropteran insect, Pyrrhocoris apterus. We found that muscle tissue contains unusually high amounts of LPLs. Muscle and fat body tissues also contain high amounts of ?-sitosterol and campesterol, two phytosterols derived from plant food, while only small amounts of cholesterol are present. In addition, two isomers (? and ?) of tocopherol (vitamin E) are present in quantities comparable to, or even higher than phytosterols in both tissues. Distinct seasonal patterns of sterol and tocopherol concentrations were observed showing a minimum in reproductively active bugs in summer and a maximum in diapausing, cold-acclimated bugs in winter. Possible adaptive meanings of such changes are discussed including: preventing the unregulated transition of membrane lipids from functional liquid crystalline phase to non-functional gel phase; decreasing the rates of ion/solute leakage; silencing the activities of membrane bound enzymes and receptors; and counteracting the higher risk of oxidative damage to PUFA in winter membranes. PMID:23845405

  8. Transgenic rapeseed plants obtained by the microinjection of DNA into microspore-derived embryoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Neuhaus; G. Spangenberg; O. Mittelsten Scheid; H.-G. Schweiger

    1987-01-01

    A novel method in the field of genetic engineering of higher plants is presented: microinjection into multicellular structures which have a high competence for plant regeneration through embryogenesis. Microspore-derived embryoids of Brassica napus L. were individually selected and microinjected with NPT II gene constructions. High frequency regeneration of haploid plants through embryogenesis was achieved within 8 weeks. Transformation efficiencies between

  9. Plant-Derived Anticancer Agents Used in Western and Oriental Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ah-Reum Han; Ye Deng; Yulin Ren; Li Pan; A. Douglas Kinghorn

    \\u000a Cancer chemotherapeutic agents derived from higher plants are used in Western medicine. Secondary metabolites from plants\\u000a are used in oriental medicine are utilized in anticancer therapy. Immunomodulatory small organic molecules from plant species\\u000a are employed in Chinese traditional medicine are renewed.

  10. Concentration of sterols of Porphyridium cruentum biomass at stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Yasar; Monteiro, Margarida; Koru, Edis; Bandarra, Narcisa

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate sterols content of Porphyridium cruentum batch cultured in laboratory at 18 degrees C and harvested in the stationary. The sterol distribution of this species is characterized by a predominance of cholesterol, with values as 199.0 mg 100 g(-1) freeze dry weight (92.2%). The second most important sterol was stigmasterol (4.9%) followed by beta-sitosterol (2.2%). Studied sterols give to this species a special importance in for being used in food as supplements/nutraceuticals (including aquaculture). PMID:19070069

  11. Tomatidine promotes the inhibition of 24-alkylated sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dysfunction in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Medina, J M; Rodrigues, J C F; De Souza, W; Atella, G C; Barrabin, H

    2012-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a set of clinically distinct infectious diseases caused by Leishmania, a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites, that affects ~12 million people worldwide, with ~2 million new infections annually. Plants are known to produce substances to defend themselves against pathogens and predators. In the genus Lycopersicon, which includes the tomato, L. esculentum, the main antimicrobial compound is the steroidal glycoalkaloid ?-tomatine. The loss of the saccharide side-chain of tomatine yields the aglycone tomatidine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tomatidine on the growth, mitochondrial membrane potential, sterol metabolism, and ultrastructure of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Tomatidine (0·1 to 5 ?M) inhibited parasite growth in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50)=124±59 nM). Transmission electron microscopy revealed lesions in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the presence of large vacuoles and lipid storage bodies in the cytoplasm. These structural changes in the mitochondria were accompanied by an effective loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in ATP levels. An analysis of the neutral lipid content revealed a large depletion of endogenous 24-alkylated sterols such as 24-methylene-cholesta-5, 7-dien-3?-ol (5-dehydroepisterol), with a concomitant accumulation of cholesta-8, 24-dien-3?-ol (zymosterol), which implied a perturbation in the cellular lipid content. These results are consistent with an inhibition of 24-sterol methyltransferase, an important enzyme responsible for the methylation of sterols at the 24 position, which is an essential step in the production of ergosterol and other 24-methyl sterols. PMID:22716777

  12. The effect of sterol structure on the permeability of lipomes to glucose, glycerol and Rb+

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Demel; K. R. Bruckdorfer; L. L. M. van Deenen

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The effect of 3?-, 3?-hydroxysterol and ketosteroids on the permeability properties of (egg lecithin) liposomes towards glucose, glycerol and Rb+ has been studied.\\u000a\\u000a2. 2. The 3?-hydroxysterols, cholesterol, cholestanol, lathosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol and B-norcholesterol affect the most pronounced reduction in permeability of glucose, glycerol and Rb+.\\u000a\\u000a3. 3. The plant sterols, ergosterol and stigmasterol are less effective whereas compounds

  13. Plant regeneration from mesophyll-and cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Dianthus acicularis and characterization of regenerated plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomonori Shiba; Masahiro Mii

    2005-01-01

    Summary  Plant regeneration systems from mesophyll- and cell suspension-derived protoplasts were established in Dianthus acicularis (2n=90), a species with resistance to Burkholderia caryophylli (Psedomonas caryophylli). Protoplasts were isolated from both leaves of in vitro-grown plants and cell suspension cultures established from the calluses originated from leaves of in vitro-grown plants. Protoplasts isolated from both sources showed about the same response to

  14. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy sterols and bile acids.

    PubMed

    John, Clara; Werner, Philipp; Worthmann, Anna; Wegner, Katrin; Tödter, Klaus; Scheja, Ludger; Rohn, Sascha; Heeren, Joerg; Fischer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Recently, hydroxy sterols and bile acids have gained growing interest as they are important regulators of energy homoeostasis and inflammation. The high number of different hydroxy sterols and bile acid species requires powerful analytical tools to quantify these structurally and chemically similar analytes. Here, we introduce a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for rapid quantification of 34 sterols (hydroxy sterols, primary, secondary bile acids as well as their taurine and glycine conjugates). Chromatographic baseline separation of isomeric hydroxy sterols and bile acids is obtained using a rugged amide embedded C18 (polar embedded) stationary phase. The current method features a simple extraction protocol validated for blood plasma, urine, gall bladder, liver, feces, and adipose tissue avoiding solid phase extraction as well as derivatization procedures. The total extraction recovery for representative analytes ranged between 58-86% in plasma, 85% in urine, 79-92% in liver, 76-98% in adipose tissue, 93-104% in feces and 62-79% in gall bladder. The validation procedure demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges for 97% of the analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R2) of greater than 0.99. A feeding study in wild type mice with a standard chow and a cholesterol-enriched Western type diet illustrated that the protocol described here provides a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify cholesterol derivatives and bile acids in metabolically active tissues and to follow the enterohepatic circulation. PMID:25456597

  15. Substrate Preferences and Catalytic Parameters Determined by Structural Characteristics of Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Nes, W. David; Waterman, Michael R.; Lepesheva, Galina I. (Vanderbilt); (TTU); (NWU)

    2012-05-14

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects populations of {approx}90 countries worldwide, with no vaccine and only a few moderately effective drugs. Here we report the structure/function characterization of sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum. The enzyme catalyzes removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from sterol precursors. The reaction is essential for membrane biogenesis and therefore has great potential to become a target for antileishmanial chemotherapy. Although L. infantum CYP51 prefers C4-monomethylated sterol substrates such as C4-norlanosterol and obtusifoliol (V{sub max} of {approx}10 and 8 min{sup -1}, respectively), it is also found to 14{alpha}-demethylate C4-dimethylated lanosterol (V{sub max} = 0.9 min{sup -1}) and C4-desmethylated 14{alpha}-methylzymosterol (V{sub max} = 1.9 min{sup -1}). Binding parameters with six sterols were tested, with K{sub d} values ranging from 0.25 to 1.4 {mu}m. Thus, L. infantum CYP51 is the first example of a plant-like sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase, where requirements toward the composition of the C4 atom substituents are not strict, indicative of possible branching in the postsqualene portion of sterol biosynthesis in the parasite. Comparative analysis of three CYP51 substrate binding cavities (Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and L. infantum) suggests that substrate preferences of plant- and fungal-like protozoan CYP51s largely depend on the differences in the enzyme active site topology. These minor structural differences are also likely to underlie CYP51 catalytic rates and drug susceptibility and can be used to design potent and specific inhibitors.

  16. Sterols and triterpenoids from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-Rui Zhang; Sheng-Ping Yang; Jian-Min Yue

    2008-01-01

    A new highly oxygenated sterol, 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?,9?,14?-pentol (1), as well as four known sterols (2–5) and seven known triterpenoids, have been isolated from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic method.

  17. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production. PMID:26041193

  18. Immunogenicity of Transgenic Plant-Derived Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Thanavala; Y.-F. Yang; P. Lyons; H. S. Mason; C. Arntzen

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the Children's Vaccine Initiative is to encourage the discovery of technology that will make vaccines more readily available to developing countries. Our strategy has been to genetically engineer plants so that they can be used as inexpensive alternatives to fermentation systems for production of subunit antigens. In this paper we report on the immunological response elicited in

  19. Regeneration of anther-derived plants of Hyoscyamus niger L.

    PubMed

    Corduan, G

    1975-01-01

    Anthers of Hyoscyamus niger L. were cultured by two different methods. In the first method anthers were cultured in the dark in the late tetrad stage of microspore development on the basal medium of Nitsch and Nitsch (Science 163, 85-87; 1969) supplemented with 5 or 10 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The callus which developed was able to produce a large number of plants under photoperiodic conditions of 16 h light from fluorescent tubes at 28° and 20° during the dark cycle. Cytological analysis revealed that about 50% of these plants were haploid. A further imporvement to raise the level of haploids by the use of p-fluorophenylalanine was not achieved. In the second method anthers were cultured in the early mononucleate stage of microspore development on the basal medium of Nitsch and Nitsch which was little modified under various conditions. The largest number of plants which developed directly by embryoids was observed on the medium of Nitsch without indolylacetic acid under photoperiodic conditions of 16 h fluorescent light at 28° and 8 h dark at 20°. Cytological examination determined that approximately 70% of the plants were diploid. A genetic marker was used to ensure homozygoty of the diploid regenerates. 98% of the regenerates which developed via callus as well as by direct formation of embryoids were found to be homozygous and originated therefore from generative cells. PMID:24430282

  20. Requirement for a second sterol biosynthetic mutation for viability of a sterol C-14 demethylation defect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, F R; Rodriguez, R J; Parks, L W

    1983-01-01

    Genetic analysis of a nystatin-resistant sterol mutant (strain JR4) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in C-14 demethylation revealed the presence of a second mutation in 5,6-desaturation. It appeared from complementation tests that a defect in delta 5-desaturase enzyme activity was required for the viability of the C-14 demethylation mutant. Growth studies with a sterol auxotrophic strain indicated that the major sterol of strain JR4, 14 alpha-methyl-ergosta-8,24(28)-dien-3 beta-ol, could satisfy "bulk" membrane requirements but not the second, structurally specific, sterol function that we defined previously (Rodriguez et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 106:435-441, 1982). Leakiness in the sterol mutations in strain JR4 provided a small amount of ergosterol which could satisfy this second function. PMID:6345514

  1. Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion

    E-print Network

    Louchouarn, Patrick

    to photochemical degradation, thermal alteration is an important abiotic lignin degradation process. Ó 2008Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion natural chars originating from combustion of angiosperm/gymnosperm and woody/non-woody plants. The lignin

  2. Toxicological Actions of Plant-Derived and Anthropogenic Methylenedioxyphenyl-Substituted Chemicals in Mammals and Insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Murray

    2012-01-01

    The methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) substituent is a structural feature present in many plant chemicals that deter foraging by predatory insects and herbivores. With increasing use of herbal extracts in alternative medicine, human exposure to MDP-derived plant chemicals may also be significant. Early studies found that most MDP agents themselves possess relatively low intrinsic toxicity, but strongly influence the actions of other

  3. Regeneration of fertile plants from protoplasts derived from embryogenic cell suspensions of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jähne; P. A. Lazzeri; H. Lörz

    1991-01-01

    We report regeneration of fertile plants from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Igri) protoplasts isolated from regenerable suspension cultures initiated from anther-derived embryogenic callus. Plants were routinely regenerated from these suspension cultures, which maintained their regenerative capacity for several months. It was first possible to isolate protoplasts from suspensions after three months of culture and after four months protoplasts capable

  4. 1504 VOLUME 24 NUMBER 12 DECEMBER 2006 NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Prospects for plant-derived antibacterials

    E-print Network

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    -derived antibacterials Kim Lewis & Frederick M Ausubel Can weakly active phytochemicals be combined synergistically to produce new antibacterial treatments? The scarcity of disease in wild plants indi- cates that the success defense response and discuss the potential for developing plant antibacterials into useful antibiotics

  5. Efficient production of doubled haploid plants through colchicine treatment of anther-derived maize callus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wan; J. F. Petolino; J. M. Widholm

    1989-01-01

    A chromosome doubling technique, involving colchicine treatment of an embryogenic, haploid callus line of maize (Zea mays L., derived through anther culture), was evaluated. Two colchicine levels (0.025% and 0.05%) and three treatment durations (24, 48, and 72 h) were used and compared to untreated controls. Chromosome counts and seed recovery from regenerated plants were determined. No doubled haploid plants

  6. Virus-induced silencing of sterol biosynthetic genes: identification of a Nicotiana tabacum L. obtusifoliol-14 -demethylase (CYP51) by genetic manipulation of the sterol biosynthetic pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celine Burger; Sabine Rondet; Pierre Benveniste; Hubert Schaller

    2003-01-01

    Obtusifoliol-14a-demethylase (CYP51) is implicated in plant sterol biosynthesis. An Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag encoding a CYP51 was used as a probe to isolate Nicotiana tabacum L. cDNAs. Two types of cDNA clones were identified. Nt CYP51-1 and Nt CYP51-2 shared 97% identity together and around 75% with other plant CYP51s. The function of the encoded enzyme has been demonstrated in

  7. Fertile Indica rice plants regenerated from protoplasts isolated from microspore derived cell suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swapan K. Datta; Karabi Datta; Ingo Potrykus

    1990-01-01

    Rice plants (Oryza sativa L., Chinsurah Boro II var. Indica) were regenerated from protoplasts isolated from microspore derived cell suspensions. A simple procedure for the establishment of such cell suspension cultures from embryogenic microcallus derived from cultured isolated microspores of Indica-type rice is described. Regenerating protoplasts could readily be isolated from 5–12 months old cell suspensions showing visible colony formation

  8. Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide by plant-derived products.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christoph A; Dirsch, Verena M

    2009-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is recognised as a central anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic principle in the vasculature. Decreased availability of NO in the vasculature promotes the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, may improve vascular function by enhancing NO bioavailability. In this article we first outline common pathways modulating endothelial NO production or bioavailability to provide a basis for subsequent mechanistic discussions. Then we comprehensively review natural products and plant extracts known to positively influence eNOS activity and/or endothelial function in vitro or in vivo. We will discuss red wine, highlighting polyphenols, oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) and resveratrol as modulators of endothelial NO production. Other dietary products and their active components known to activate eNOS include cocoa (OPC and its monomer (-)-epicatechin), pomegranates (polyphenols), black and green tea (flavanoids, especially epigallocatechin gallate), olive oil (oleic acid and polyphenols), soy (genistein), and quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in plants. In addition, phytomedical preparations made from ginkgo, hawthorn and ginseng, as well as formulations used in traditional Chinese Medicine, have been shown to affect endothelial NO production. Recurring phytochemical patterns among active fractions and purified compounds are discussed. In summary, there is increasing evidence that several single natural products and plant extracts influence endothelial NO production. Identification of such compounds and characterisation of their cellular actions may increase our knowledge of the regulation of endothelial NO production and could provide valuable clues for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19497380

  9. Sterol Composition of the Arthrospores and Mycelium of the Fungus Mucor hiemalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Mysyakina; N. S. Funtikova; F. A. Medvedev

    2002-01-01

    Sterol composition of the arthrospores and mycelium of the fungus Mucor hiemalis 1156 was studied by the method of chromatography–mass spectrometry. Along with ergosterol, the major sterol of the culture studied, ten minor sterols were identified, which were either precursors or products of ergosterol degradation. The content of individual sterols differed substantially in arthrospores and mycelium, which represent different stages

  10. CLUES TO STEROL FUNCTION IN NEMATODES: RECENT STUDIES WITH CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS AND THE SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes possess a nutritional requirement for sterol because of their inability to biosynthesize sterols de novo. Consequently, parasitic nematodes must obtain sterols from their hosts and then metabolize them to other sterols and steroids required for nematode growth, development and reproductio...

  11. Genetic instability in calamondin ( Citrus madurensis Lour.) plants derived from somatic embryogenesis induced by diphenylurea derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirko Siragusa; Angela Carra; Lidia Salvia; Anna Maria Puglia; Fabio De Pasquale; Francesco Carimi

    2007-01-01

    Somatic embryos were regenerated in vitro from calamondin style–stigma explants cultured in the presence of N\\u000a 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) cytokinin and three synthetic phenylurea derivatives, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (4-CPPU), N-phenyl-N?-benzothiazol-6-ylurea (PBU) and N,N?-bis-(2,3-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (2,3-MDPU). The phenylurea derivative compounds tested at micromolar level (12 ?M) were\\u000a able to induce a percentage of responsive explants significantly higher from that obtained with BAP and hormone-free (HF)\\u000a conditions.

  12. Evidence that the intra-amoebal Legionella drancourtii acquired a sterol reductase gene from eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Moliner, Claire; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2009-01-01

    Background Free-living amoebae serve as a natural reservoir for some bacteria that have evolved into «amoeba-resistant» bacteria. Among these, some are strictly intra-amoebal, such as Candidatus "Protochlamydia amoebophila" (Candidatus "P. amoebophila"), whose genomic sequence is available. We sequenced the genome of Legionella drancourtii (L. drancourtii), another recently described intra-amoebal bacterium. By comparing these two genomes with those of their closely related species, we were able to study the genetic characteristics specific to their amoebal lifestyle. Findings We identified a sterol delta-7 reductase-encoding gene common to these two bacteria and absent in their relatives. This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyses the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes, and is probably functional within L. drancourtii since it is transcribed. The phylogenetic analysis of this protein suggests that it was acquired horizontally by a few bacteria from viridiplantae. This gene was also found in the Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus genome, a virus that grows in amoebae and possesses the largest viral genome known to date. Conclusion L. drancourtii acquired a sterol delta-7 reductase-encoding gene of viridiplantae origin. The most parsimonious hypothesis is that this gene was initially acquired by a Chlamydiales ancestor parasite of plants. Subsequently, its descendents transmitted this gene in amoebae to other intra-amoebal microorganisms, including L. drancourtii and Coxiella burnetii. The role of the sterol delta-7 reductase in prokaryotes is as yet unknown but we speculate that it is involved in host cholesterol parasitism. PMID:19327142

  13. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

  14. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum L. with Rhizobium strains. 2. Changes in sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentăo, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are consumed worldwide, imparting flavor, aroma, and color to foods, additionally containing high concentrations of biofunctional compounds. This is the first report about the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds of leaves and fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Generally, inoculation with strain TVP08 led to the major changes, being observed a decrease of sterols and triterpenes and an increase of fatty acids, which are related to higher biomass, growth, and ripening of pepper fruits. The increase of volatile compounds may reflect the elicitation of plant defense after inoculation, since the content on methyl salicylate was significantly increased in inoculated material. The findings suggest that inoculation with Rhizobium strains may be employed to manipulate the content of interesting metabolites in pepper leaves and fruits, increasing potential health benefits and defense abilities of inoculated plants. PMID:24405510

  15. BYPASS1 negatively regulates a root-derived signal that controls plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Van Norman, Jaimie M; Frederick, Rebecca L; Sieburth, Leslie E

    2004-10-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by endogenous developmental programs, but it can also be strongly influenced by cues derived from the environment. For example, rhizosphere conditions such as water and nutrient availability affect shoot and root architecture; this implicates the root as a source of signals that can override endogenous developmental programs. Cytokinin, abscisic acid, and carotenoid derivatives have all been implicated as long-distance signals that can be derived from the root. However, little is known about how root-derived signaling pathways are regulated. Here, we show that BYPASS1 (BPS1), an Arabidopsis gene of unknown function, is required to prevent constitutive production of a root-derived graft-transmissible signal that is sufficient to inhibit leaf initiation, leaf expansion, and shoot apical meristem activity. We show that this root-derived signal is likely to be a novel carotenoid-derived molecule that can modulate both root and shoot architecture. PMID:15458645

  16. Identification of microspore-derived plants in anther culture of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) using molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chen; G. Hausner; E. Kenaschuk; D. Procunier; P. Dribnenki; G. Penner

    1998-01-01

    The microspore origin of anther-culture-derived plants of flax was determined using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and\\u000a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Polymorphic fragments between the two parents of the F1 donor plants were identified and their segregation patterns in anther-culture-derived plants were used to elucidate the origin\\u000a of those plants and to determine the degree of independence of plants

  17. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25?m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  18. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2007-04-23

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  19. Digitonide precipitable sterols: a reevaluation with special attention to lanosterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cenedella, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The ability of digitonin to precipitate lanosterol from prepared mixtures and biological sources was evaluated. Commercially available lanosterol was determined to be composed of about 60% lanosterol and 40% dihydrolanosterol. Both sterols were only partially precipitated by digitonin under all conditions examined. The presence of cholesterol increased the precipitation of lanosterol, but never to completion. About 40% of the lanosterols from saponified sheep's-wool fat was not precipitated by digitonin. Also /sup 14/C-labeled lanosterol recovered from rat brain following intracerebral injection of 2-(/sup 14/C)mevalonate was only 70% precipitated by digitonin. Steric hinderance by the methyl groups at carbon -4 is suggesed to explain the poor precipitability of this sterol. In conclusion, lanosterol can not be considered to be a digitonide-precipitable sterol equivalent to cholesterol. Caution should be exercised in situations where digitonin-precipitable sterols are being prepared from sources containing significant concentrations of lanosterol (i.e., mass and/or radiolabel).

  20. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    1998-09-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

  1. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    1997-09-16

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

  2. Terrestrial Plant-Derived Anticancer Agents and Plant Species Used in Anticancer Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spiridon E. Kintzios

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of death and the number of new cases, as well as the number of individuals living with cancer, is expanding continuously. Due to the enormous propensity of plants that synthesize mixtures of structurally diverse bioactive compounds, the plant kingdom is potentially a very diverse source of chemical constituents with tumor cytotoxic activity. Despite the successful

  3. Mutations in UDP-Glucose:Sterol Glucosyltransferase in Arabidopsis Cause Transparent Testa Phenotype and Suberization Defect in Seeds1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    DeBolt, Seth; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Schrick, Kathrin; Auer, Manfred; Beisson, Fred; Bischoff, Volker; Bouvier-Navé, Pierrette; Carroll, Andrew; Hematy, Kian; Li, Yonghua; Milne, Jennifer; Nair, Meera; Schaller, Hubert; Zemla, Marcin; Somerville, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In higher plants, the most abundant sterol derivatives are steryl glycosides (SGs) and acyl SGs. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1, that encode UDP-Glc:sterol glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of SGs. Lines having mutations in UGT80A2, UGT80B1, or both UGT80A2 and UGT8B1 were identified and characterized. The ugt80A2 lines were viable and exhibited relatively minor effects on plant growth. Conversely, ugt80B1 mutants displayed an array of phenotypes that were pronounced in the embryo and seed. Most notable was the finding that ugt80B1 was allelic to transparent testa15 and displayed a transparent testa phenotype and a reduction in seed size. In addition to the role of UGT80B1 in the deposition of flavanoids, a loss of suberization of the seed was apparent in ugt80B1 by the lack of autofluorescence at the hilum region. Moreover, in ugt80B1, scanning and transmission electron microscopy reveals that the outer integument of the seed coat lost the electron-dense cuticle layer at its surface and displayed altered cell morphology. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of lipid polyester monomers confirmed a drastic decrease in aliphatic suberin and cutin-like polymers that was associated with an inability to limit tetrazolium salt uptake. The findings suggest a membrane function for SGs and acyl SGs in trafficking of lipid polyester precursors. An ancillary observation was that cellulose biosynthesis was unaffected in the double mutant, inconsistent with a predicted role for SGs in priming cellulose synthesis. PMID:19641030

  4. Sterols and triterpenoids from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Yue, Jian-Min

    2008-01-01

    A new highly oxygenated sterol, 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3beta,5alpha,6beta,9alpha,14alpha-pentol (1), as well as four known sterols (2-5) and seven known triterpenoids, have been isolated from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic method. PMID:18855213

  5. Biological relevance of host plant-derived terpenoid in the cocoons of the tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Bindu; P. Jaisankar; F. Hauer; H. O. Gutzeit; S. C. Kundu

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized and studied the biological functions of a terpenoid derivative in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta reared on the primary host plant Arjun, Terminalia arjuna. The compound from insect cocoon turned out to be a terpenoid derivative which resembled oleanane type triterpene (Arjunolic acid) present in the host plant. The plant and cocoon compounds were anti-oxidative

  6. Comparison of single cell culture derived Solanum tuberosum L. plants and a model for their application in breeding programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wenzel; O. Schieder; T. Przewozny; S. K. Sopory; G. Melchers

    1979-01-01

    The techniques of microspore and protoplast regeneration starting from dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants has been improved to such an extent that the production of more than 2000 microspore derived A1 plant lines and of several hundred protoplast derived plantlets has become possible. Further, from the dihaploid Solanum species S. phureja the regeneration of microspores to plants, and from the species

  7. Analysis of free and esterified sterols in fats and oils by flash chromatography, gas chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paavo Kalo; Tiia Kuuranne

    2001-01-01

    A method for the analysis of free and esterified sterols has been developed. Fat or oil samples were separated on solid-phase extraction silica gel columns into a sterol ester fraction, a fraction of triacylglycerols, and a free sterol fraction containing partial acylglycerols and residual triacylglycerols. Sterol esters and acylglycerols of the free sterol fraction were transesterified to methyl esters. The

  8. Structural complex of sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) with 14?-methylenecyclopropyl-?7-24, 25-dihydrolanosterol[S

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Waterman, Michael R.; Nes, W. David; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2012-01-01

    Sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) that catalyzes the removal of the 14?-methyl group from the sterol nucleus is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, a primary target for clinical and agricultural antifungal azoles and an emerging target for antitrypanosomal chemotherapy. Here, we present the crystal structure of Trypanosoma (T) brucei CYP51 in complex with the substrate analog 14?-methylenecyclopropyl-?7-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (MCP). This sterol binds tightly to all protozoan CYP51s and acts as a competitive inhibitor of F105-containing (plant-like) T. brucei and Leishmania (L) infantum orthologs, but it has a much stronger, mechanism-based inhibitory effect on I105-containing (animal/fungi-like) T. cruzi CYP51. Depicting substrate orientation in the conserved CYP51 binding cavity, the complex specifies the roles of the contact amino acid residues and sheds new light on CYP51 substrate specificity. It also provides an explanation for the effect of MCP on T. cruzi CYP51. Comparison with the ligand-free and azole-bound structures supports the notion of structural rigidity as the characteristic feature of the CYP51 substrate binding cavity, confirming the enzyme as an excellent candidate for structure-directed design of new drugs, including mechanism-based substrate analog inhibitors. PMID:22135275

  9. Sterols in a unicellular relative of the metazoans.

    PubMed

    Kodner, Robin B; Summons, Roger E; Pearson, Ann; King, Nicole; Knoll, Andrew H

    2008-07-22

    Molecular clocks suggest that animals originated well before they first appear as macroscopic fossils, but geologic tests of these hypotheses have been elusive. A rare steroid hydrocarbon, 24-isopropylcholestane, has been hypothesized to be a biomarker for sponges or their immediate ancestors because of its relatively high abundance in pre-Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks and oils. Biolipid precursors of this sterane have been reported to be prominent in several demosponges. Whether 24-isopropylcholestane can be interpreted as a sponge (and, hence, animal) biomarker, and so provide clues about early metazoan history, depends on an understanding of the distribution of sterol biosynthesis among animals and their protistan relatives. Accordingly, we characterized the sterol profile of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, a representative of the unicellular sister group of animals. M. brevicollis does not produce a candidate sterol precursor for 24-isopropylcholestane under our experimental growth conditions. It does, however, produce a number of other sterols, and comparative genomics confirms its biosynthetic potential to produce the full suite of compounds recovered. Consistent with the phylogenetic position of choanoflagellates, the sterol profile and biosynthetic pathway of M. brevicollis display characteristics of both fungal and poriferan sterol biosynthesis. This is an example in which genomic and biochemical information have been used together to investigate the taxonomic specificity of a fossil biomarker. PMID:18632573

  10. Inhibition of human lymphocyte transformation of oxygenated sterol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Yachnin, S.; Hsu, R.

    1980-04-01

    Oxygenated sterol compounds (OSC), potent inhibitors of sterol synthesis in both resting and mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes, are capable of suppressing the DNA-synthetic response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogenic lectins, anti-human thymocyte antiserum, and the mixed lymphocyte culture. The most potent OSC are 20..cap alpha..-hydroxycholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol, which inhibit DNA synthesis in mitogen stimulated lymphocytes at 7.4 and 3.9 x 10/sup -6/M, respectively. Lymphocytes which have been exposed to OSC for 18 hr and washed free of inhibitor are fully capable of DNA synthesis when subsequentlc challenged with mitogen. Suppression of DNA synthesis by OSC is not apparent during the first 24-40 hr of culture. The inhibition of lymphocyte DNA synthesis by OSC can be partially reversed by the addition of 10/sup -2/M mevalonate to the culture. Sterol synthesis by mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes is enhanced by culturing them in medium supplemented with lipoprotein (and cholesterol-)-depleted serum. In such medium, the 50% inhibitory doses of 25-hydroxycholesterol for suppression of both mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte DNA and sterol synthesis are approximately equal (approx. =3 x 10/sup -7/M). Sterol synthesis is a necessary, but not sufficient, part of the program of lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens; the evidence presented suggests that lymphocytes can utilize exogenous sterol at least partially for the purpose of cell replication.

  11. Microbial assimilation of plant-derived carbon in soil traced by isotope analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Pelz; Wolf-Rainer Abraham; Matthias Saurer; Rolf Siegwolf; Josef Zeyer

    2005-01-01

    The flow of new and native plant-derived C in the rhizosphere of an agricultural field during one growing season was tracked, the ratios in different soil C pools were quantified, and the residence times (ts) were estimated. For this the natural differences in 13C abundances of: (1) C4 soil (with a history of C4 plant, Miscanthus sinensis, cultivation), (2) C3

  12. Variable use of plant- and soil-derived carbon by microorganisms in agricultural soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Kramer; Gerd Gleixner

    2006-01-01

    In this study we used compound specific 13C and 14C isotopic signatures to determine the degree to which recent plant material and older soil organic matter (SOM) served as carbon substrates for microorganisms in soils. We determined the degree to which plant-derived carbon was used as a substrate by comparison of the 13C content of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)

  13. Bacterial biofilm formation inhibitory activity revealed for plant derived natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Barbato, G; Scoarughi, G L; Cellini, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Selan, L

    2012-01-15

    Use of herbal plant remedies to treat infectious diseases is a common practice in many countries in traditional and alternative medicine. However to date there are only few antimicrobial agents derived from botanics. Based on microbiological screening tests of crude plant extracts we identified four compounds derived from Krameria, Aesculus hippocastanum and Chelidonium majus that showed a potentially interesting antimicrobial activity. In this work we present an in depth characterization of the inhibition activity of these pure compounds on the formation of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus as well as of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. We show that two of these compounds possess interesting potential to become active principles of new drugs. PMID:22182580

  14. Mythobotany, pharmacology, and chemistry of thujone-containing plants and derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Albert-Puleo

    1978-01-01

    Thujone, C10H16O, is the primary constituent of essential oils derived from a variety of plants, including wormwood, Artemisia absinthium;\\u000a mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris; sage, Salvia officinalis; clary, Salvia sclarea; tansy, Tanacetum vulgare; and yellow cedar or\\u000a the tree of life, Thuja occidentalis. While oils derived from the individual species may vary in the modifying constituents\\u000a which they contain, the pharmacological effects

  15. Efficient plant regeneration from cell suspension-derived callus of East Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pradhan; S. Pattnaik; M. Dwari; S. N. Patnaik; P. K. Chand

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for the establishment of a proliferating cell suspension culture of East Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.) and efficient plant regeneration from callus derived from such cultures. Callus was induced from hypocotyl segments\\u000a derived from 1-week-old axenic seedlings on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) containing 10.8 ?M naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2.2 ?M benzyladenine (BA). Calli

  16. Analysis of free and esterified sterols in fats and oils by flash chromatography, gas chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kalo, P; Kuuranne, T

    2001-11-23

    A method for the analysis of free and esterified sterols has been developed. Fat or oil samples were separated on solid-phase extraction silica gel columns into a sterol ester fraction, a fraction of triacylglycerols, and a free sterol fraction containing partial acylglycerols and residual triacylglycerols. Sterol esters and acylglycerols of the free sterol fraction were transesterified to methyl esters. The fatty acid methyl esters from sterol ester fraction and the free sterols from sterol ester fraction and free sterol fraction were determined by GLC. Precursor ion electrospray MS-MS of sterol fragment ions of sterol ester fractions were recorded and used for determination of sterol ester proportions in butterfat and vegetable oil samples. PMID:11762776

  17. Role of Plant-Derived Omega–3 Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Crawford; Claudio Galli; Francesco Visioli; Serge Renaud; Artemis P. Simopoulos; Arthur A. Spector

    2000-01-01

    An international workshop on the role of plant-derived omega–3 fatty acids in human nutrition took place in Milan on February 9, 2000. The meeting was sponsored by the Nutrition Foundation of Italy and was organized by its Scientific Director, Dr. Andrea Poli. It was attended by experts in polyunsaturated fatty acids and human lipid nutrition. This is the first meeting

  18. Plant-derived synergists of alarm pheromone from turnip aphid, Lipaphis (Hyadaphis) erysimi (Homoptera, Aphididae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Dawson; D. C. Griffiths; J. A. Pickett; L. J. Wadhams; Christine M. Woodcock

    1987-01-01

    The turnip aphid,Lipaphis (Hyadaphis) erysimi, responds weakly to (E)-ß-farnesene, the main component of the alarm pheromone, but the response is substantially increased by incorporating plant-derived isothiocyanates, identified in aphid volatiles by coupled gas chromatography-single-cell recording.

  19. In vitro assessment of N-(benzyl)chitosan derivatives against some plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Entsar I. Rabea; Mohamed E. I. Badawy; Walter Steurbaut; Christian V. Stevens

    2009-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi negatively affect a large number of important fruit and vegetables during the growing season and throughout postharvest storage. Therefore, the current study focuses on the preparation of N-(benzyl)chitosan derivatives as antimicrobial agents to control these microorganisms. Chitosan was reacted with a set of aromatic aldehydes by reductive amination involving formation of the corresponding imines, followed

  20. 29-Norcucurbitacin derivatives isolated from the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Dikdik; Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo

    2008-02-01

    The new 29-norcucurbitacin, desacetylfevicordin A (1), together with three known 29-norcucurbitacin derivatives (2-4) were isolated from seeds of the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical transformation. These compounds exhibited toxicity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). PMID:18256498

  1. Material derived from hydrothermal carbonization: Effects on plant growth and arbuscular mycorrhiza

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias C. Rillig; Marcel Wagner; Mohamed Salem; Pedro M. Antunes; Carmen George; Hans-Günter Ramke; Maria-Magdalena Titirici; Markus Antonietti

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation options include the production of carbonized materials and their addition to soils for longer term storage. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel way to produce carbonized materials. The goal here was to test if HTC material, in our case derived from beet root chips, has adverse effects on plant growth or that of root associated symbionts such

  2. Fate of Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Some Carboxylated Derivatives in Three American Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of a comprehensive group of nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates and several of their carboxylated derivatives was studied in three American wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), two of which included advanced treatment. In spite of being located in three different metropolitan areas, wa...

  3. Plant regeneration from embryogenic cell suspensions derived from anther cultures of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jähne; P. A. Lazzeri; M. Jäger-Gussen; H. Lörz

    1991-01-01

    We have established embryogenic cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars Igri, Gimpel, Princesse, and Baronesse) from anther-derived embryogenic callus. Suspension cultures of cultivars Igri and Gimpel were regenerable. The most successful cultivar was Igri, from which a number of independent cell lines producing plantlets were established. Plants could be transferred to soil; up to now, 50% of

  4. Derivative Analysis of AVIRIS Hyperspectral Data for the Detection of Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Lee; Berglund, Judith

    2001-01-01

    A remote sensing campaign was conducted over a U.S. Department of Agriculture test site at Shelton, Nebraska. The test field was set off in blocks that were differentially treated with nitrogen. Four replicates of 0-kg/ha to 200-kg/ha, in 50-kg/ha increments, were present. Low-altitude AVIRIS hyperspectral data were collected over the site in 224 spectral bands. Simultaneously, ground data were collected to support the airborne imagery. In an effort to evaluate published, derivative-based algorithms for the detection of plant stress, different derivative-based approaches were applied to the collected AVIRIS image cube. The results indicate that, given good quality hyperspectral imagery, derivative techniques compare favorably with simple, well known band ratio algorithms for detection of plant stress.

  5. Determination of sterols, estrogens and inorganic ions in waste water and size-segregated aerosol particles emitted from waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie Beck; Michael Radke

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of steroids and inorganic ions were measured in waste water of an aerated sand trap as well as in aerosol particles emitted from this tank at the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of Bayreuth, Germany, in January and February 2003. The investigations comprised seven sterols, two estrogens, and several inorganic ions. Since an appropriate method for the determination of

  6. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  7. De novo production of the plant-derived alkaloid strictosidine in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephanie; Clastre, Marc; Courdavault, Vincent; O’Connor, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The monoterpene indole alkaloids are a large group of plant-derived specialized metabolites, many of which have valuable pharmaceutical or biological activity. There are ?3,000 monoterpene indole alkaloids produced by thousands of plant species in numerous families. The diverse chemical structures found in this metabolite class originate from strictosidine, which is the last common biosynthetic intermediate for all monoterpene indole alkaloid enzymatic pathways. Reconstitution of biosynthetic pathways in a heterologous host is a promising strategy for rapid and inexpensive production of complex molecules that are found in plants. Here, we demonstrate how strictosidine can be produced de novo in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host from 14 known monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway genes, along with an additional seven genes and three gene deletions that enhance secondary metabolism. This system provides an important resource for developing the production of more complex plant-derived alkaloids, engineering of nonnatural derivatives, identification of bottlenecks in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis, and discovery of new pathway genes in a convenient yeast host. PMID:25675512

  8. De novo production of the plant-derived alkaloid strictosidine in yeast.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie; Clastre, Marc; Courdavault, Vincent; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-03-17

    The monoterpene indole alkaloids are a large group of plant-derived specialized metabolites, many of which have valuable pharmaceutical or biological activity. There are ?3,000 monoterpene indole alkaloids produced by thousands of plant species in numerous families. The diverse chemical structures found in this metabolite class originate from strictosidine, which is the last common biosynthetic intermediate for all monoterpene indole alkaloid enzymatic pathways. Reconstitution of biosynthetic pathways in a heterologous host is a promising strategy for rapid and inexpensive production of complex molecules that are found in plants. Here, we demonstrate how strictosidine can be produced de novo in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host from 14 known monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway genes, along with an additional seven genes and three gene deletions that enhance secondary metabolism. This system provides an important resource for developing the production of more complex plant-derived alkaloids, engineering of nonnatural derivatives, identification of bottlenecks in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis, and discovery of new pathway genes in a convenient yeast host. PMID:25675512

  9. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  10. Sterol Composition of the Corn Cyst Nematode, Heterodera zeae, and Corn Roots

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, David J.; Hutzell, Paula A.; Lusby, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Sterols from free sterol and steryl ester fractions from Heterodera zeae and from total lipids of Zea mays roots were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and by GLC-mass spectrometry. The major free sterols of H. zeae were 24-ethylcholesterol (54.4% of total free sterol), 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3?-ol (13.3%), 24-methylcholesterol (12.5%), and cholesterol (7.2%). The same four sterols comprised 34.6%, 7.2%, 30.3%, and 18.6%, respectively, of the esterified sterols of H. zeae. Corn root sterols included 46.6% 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3?-ol, 16.7% methylcholesterol, 16.4% cycloartenol, 12.7% 24-ethylcholesterol, and 0.5% cholesterol. The sterol 24-composition of H. zeae differed greatly from that of the only other cyst nematode previously investigated, Globodera solanacearum. PMID:19294060

  11. Different bacterial populations associated with the roots and rhizosphere of rice incorporate plant-derived carbon.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marcela; Dumont, Marc G; Yuan, Quan; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    Microorganisms associated with the roots of plants have an important function in plant growth and in soil carbon sequestration. Rice cultivation is the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric CH4, which is a significant greenhouse gas. Up to 60% of fixed carbon formed by photosynthesis in plants is transported below ground, much of it as root exudates that are consumed by microorganisms. A stable isotope probing (SIP) approach was used to identify microorganisms using plant carbon in association with the roots and rhizosphere of rice plants. Rice plants grown in Italian paddy soil were labeled with (13)CO2 for 10 days. RNA was extracted from root material and rhizosphere soil and subjected to cesium gradient centrifugation followed by 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to identify microorganisms enriched with (13)C. Thirty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were labeled and mostly corresponded to Proteobacteria (13 OTUs) and Verrucomicrobia (8 OTUs). These OTUs were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria and the "Spartobacteria" and Opitutae classes of Verrucomicrobia. In general, different bacterial groups were labeled in the root and rhizosphere, reflecting different physicochemical characteristics of these locations. The labeled OTUs in the root compartment corresponded to a greater proportion of the 16S rRNA sequences (?20%) than did those in the rhizosphere (?4%), indicating that a proportion of the active microbial community on the roots greater than that in the rhizosphere incorporated plant-derived carbon within the time frame of the experiment. PMID:25616793

  12. Lipid, sterols and fatty acid composition of abyssal holothurians and ophiuroids from the North-East Pacific Ocean: Food web implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Drazen; Charles F. Phleger; Michaela A. Guest; Peter D. Nichols

    2008-01-01

    The lipid, fatty acid (FA), and sterol composition of two ophiuroids and four holothurians from the abyssal eastern North Pacific were analysed to assess their feeding habits and to ascertain their composition for use in a larger study to examine food web dynamics and trophic ecology. Holothurians were rich in phytosterols and algal derived FA such as docosahexaenoic acid and

  13. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

  14. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  15. Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

    2012-01-01

    The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase. PMID:23275691

  16. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefčvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703

  17. Genetic study and further biochemical characterization of a tobacco mutant that overproduces sterols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Maillot-Vernier; Laurence Gondet; Hubert Schaller; Pierre Benveniste; Genevičve Belliard

    1991-01-01

    A genetic and biochemical characterization is presented of a tobacco mutant that was previously shown to have an increased sterol content with an accumulation of biosynthetic intermediates. We first show that a precise regulation of the membrane sterol composition occurs in this mutant, via a selective esterification process. Indeed, sterols representing the usual end-products of the biosynthetic pathway are preferably

  18. Characterization of Total and Individual Sterols in Canola Sprouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anwar A. HamamaHarbans; Harbans L. Bhardwaj

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the contents of total and individual phytosterols in sprouts made from seeds of seven canola (Brassica\\u000a napus L.) lines (Acropolis, Banjo, Jetton, KS-7740, KSM3-1-124, Mussette and Virginia), grown at three locations in Virginia (Orange,\\u000a Petersburg and Suffolk), were determined. Canola sprouts contained, on an average, 36.3 g sterols in 100 g of unsaponifiable\\u000a matter (UNSAP), 10.7 mg sterols in 1 g

  19. Classification of Plant Associated Bacteria Using RIF, a Computationally Derived DNA Marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin L. Schneider; Glorimar Marrero; Anne M. Alvarez; Gernot G. Presting; Stefan Bereswill

    2011-01-01

    A DNA marker that distinguishes plant associated bacteria at the species level and below was derived by comparing six sequenced genomes of Xanthomonas, a genus that contains many important phytopathogens. This DNA marker comprises a portion of the dnaA replication initiation factor (RIF). Unlike the rRNA genes, dnaA is a single copy gene in the vast majority of sequenced bacterial

  20. Development of a plant-derived subunit vaccine candidate against hepatitis C virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Nemchinov; T. J. Liang; M. M. Rifaat; H. M. Mazyad; A. Hadidi; J. M. Keith

    2000-01-01

    Summary.  ?Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis with over 180 million cases worldwide. Vaccine development\\u000a for HCV has been difficult. Presently, the virus cannot be grown in tissue culture and there is no vaccine or effective therapy\\u000a against this virus. In this research, we describe the development of an experimental plant-derived subunit vaccine against

  1. Metal adsorption by quasi cellulose xanthogenates derived from aquatic and terrestrial plant materials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbing; Ge, Xuan; Zhu, Duanwei; Langdon, Alan; Deng, Li; Hua, Yumei; Zhao, Jianwei

    2011-02-01

    The FTIR spectra, SEM-EDXA and copper adsorption capacities of the raw plant materials, alkali-treated straws and cellulose xanthogenate derivatives of Eichhornia crassipes shoot, rape straw and corn stalk were investigated. FTIR spectra indicated that of the three plant materials, the aquatic biomass of E. crassipes shoot contained more OH and CO groups which accounted for the higher Cu(2+) adsorption capacities of the raw and alkali treated plant material. SEM-EDXA indicated the incorporation of sulphur and magnesium in the cellulose xanthogenate. The Cu(2+) adsorption capacities of the xanthogenates increased with their magnesium and sulphur contents. However more copper was adsorbed than that can be explained by exchange of copper with magnesium. Precipitation may contribute to the enhanced uptake of copper by the cellulose xanthogenate. PMID:21123055

  2. Sorption of ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from phytoremediation plants*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zheng; Zhang, Song-da; Li, Ting-qiang; Zhao, Feng-liang; He, Zhen-li; Zhao, He-ping; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Hai-long; Zhao, Jing; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The study on biochar derived from plant biomass for environmental applications is attracting more and more attention. Twelve sets of biochar were obtained by treating four phytoremediation plants, Salix rosthornii Seemen, Thalia dealbata, Vetiveria zizanioides, and Phragmites sp., sequentially through pyrolysis at 500 °C in a N2 environment, and under different temperatures (500, 600, and 700 °C) in a CO2 environment. The cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of biochar varied with both plant species and pyrolysis temperature. The magnesium (Mg) content of biochar derived from T. dealbata (TC) was obviously higher than that of the other plant biochars. This biochar also had the highest sorption capacity for phosphate and ammonium. In terms of biomass yields, adsorption capacity, and energy cost, T. dealbata biochar produced at 600 °C (TC600) is the most promising sorbent for removing contaminants (N and P) from aqueous solution. Therefore, T. dealbata appears to be the best candidate for phytoremediation application as its biomass can make a good biochar for environmental cleaning. PMID:24302715

  3. A Plant-Derived Multi-HIV Antigen Induces Broad Immune Responses in Orally Immunized Mice.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Infante, Néstor; Govea-Alonso, Dania O; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; García-Hernández, Ana Lilia; Ilhuicatzi-Alvarado, Damaris; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Korban, Schuyler S; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2015-07-01

    Multi-HIV, a multiepitopic protein derived from both gp120 and gp41 envelope proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has been proposed as a vaccine prototype capable of inducing broad immune responses, as it carries various B and T cell epitopes from several HIV strains. In this study, the immunogenic properties of a Multi-HIV expressed in tobacco chloroplasts are evaluated in test mice. BALB/c mice orally immunized with tobacco-derived Multi-HIV have elicited antibody responses, including both the V3 loop of gp120 and the ELDKWA epitope of gp41. Based on splenocyte proliferation assays, stimulation with epitopes of the C4, V3 domain of gp120, and the ELDKWA domain of gp41 elicits positive cellular responses. Furthermore, specific interferon gamma production is observed in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells stimulated with HIV peptides. These results demonstrate that plant-derived Multi-HIV induces T helper-specific responses. Altogether, these findings illustrate the immunogenic potential of plant-derived Multi-HIV in an oral immunization scheme. The potential of this low-cost immunization approach and its implications on HIV/AIDS vaccine development are discussed. PMID:25779638

  4. Structural genomics of enzymes involved in sterol isoprenoid biosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Sali, Andrej

    organism with a fully sequenced genome that con- tains numerous human gene homologues. Target selection-throughput genome sequencing has dramatically ex- panded our knowledge of the proteins of the natural world. NextStructural genomics of enzymes involved in sterol isoprenoid biosynthesis Jeffrey B. Bonanno

  5. The genetics and molecular genetics of terpene and sterol origami

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Chappell

    2002-01-01

    Terpenes and sterols are complex molecules synthesized by equally complex biosynthetic pathways. Recent progress in using the tools of genetics, molecular genetics and genetic engineering to dissect triterpene metabolism in the cytosol, and terpene metabolism in the plastids, has opened up new strategies and avenues of investigation. Most importantly, these studies have enhanced our appreciation of the biological significance of

  6. Incorporation of Sterols into Cells Using Cholesterol/Cyclodextrin Complexes

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    Incorporation of Sterols into Cells Using Cholesterol/Cyclodextrin Complexes Reagents NeededH 7.2 Cholesterol/Cyclodextrin Complexes (6.8 mM cholesterol in 70 mM cyclodextrin) Phosphate to DME. Warm to 37° in the tissue culture incubator. Use 3 ml DME per 60 mm dish. 2 . Add cholesterol/cyclodextrin

  7. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

  8. Plant-derived natural medicines for the management of depression: an overview of mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Marzieh Sarbandi; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious widespread psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 17% of people all over the world. Exploring the neurological mechanisms of the antidepressant activity of plant-derived agents could have a crucial role in developing natural drugs for the management of depression. The aim of the present study is to review the neurological mechanisms of action of antidepressant plants and their constituents. For this purpose, electronic databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Cochrane Library, were searched from 1966 to October 2013. The results showed that several molecular mechanisms could be proposed for the antidepressant activity of medicinal plants and their constituents. Hypericum species could normalize brain serotonin level. Liquiritin and isoliquiritin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis rhizome act via the noradrenergic system. Rosmarinus officinalis and curcumin from Curcuma longa interact with D1 and D2 receptors as well as elevate the brain dopamine level. Sida tiagii and Aloysia gratissima involve ?-aminobutyric acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, respectively. Fuzi polysaccharide-1 from Aconitum carmichaeli could affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. Psoralidin from Psoralea corylifolia seed modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The total glycosides of Paeonia lactiflora demonstrate an inhibitory effect on both subtypes of monoamine oxidase. 3,6'-Di-o-sinapoyl-sucrose and tenuifoliside A from Polygala tenuifolia exhibit cytoprotective effects on neuronal cells. Further preclinical and clinical trials evaluating their safety, bioefficacy, and bioavailability are suggested to prove the valuable role of natural drugs in the management of depressive disorders. PMID:25719303

  9. Structure of Dehydroergosterol Monohydrate and Interaction with Sterol Carrier Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Gallegos, Adalberto M.; Storey, Stephen M.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.; Kier, Ann B.; Meyer, Edgar; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroergosterol [ergosta-5,7,9(11),22-tetraen-3?-ol] is a naturally-occurring, fluorescent sterol utilized extensively to probe membrane cholesterol distribution, cholesterol-protein interactions, and intracellular cholesterol transport both in vitro and in vivo. In aqueous solutions, the low solubility of dehydroergosterol results in the formation of monohydrate crystals similar to cholesterol. Low temperature x-ray diffraction analysis reveals that dehydroergosterol monohydrate crystallizes in the space group P21 with 4 molecules in the unit cell and monoclinic crystal parameters a = 9.975(1)Ĺ, b = 7.4731(9)Ĺ, c = 34.054(4)Ĺ, and ? = 92.970(2)° somewhat similar to ergosterol monohydrate. The molecular arrangement is in a slightly closer packed bilayer structure resembling cholesterol monohydrate. Since dehydroergosterol fluorescence emission undergoes a quantum yield enhancement and red-shift of its maximum wavelength when crystallized, formation or disruption of microcrystals was monitored with high sensitivity using cuvette-based spectroscopy and multi-photon laser scanning imaging microscopy (MPLSM). This manuscript reports on the dynamical effect of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) interacting between aqueous dispersions of dehydroergosterol monohydrate microcrystal donors and acceptors consisting not only of model membranes but also vesicles derived from plasma membranes isolated by biochemical fractionation and affinity purification from Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Furthermore, this study provides real-time measurements of the effect of increased SCP-2 levels on the rate of disappearance of dehydroergosterol microcrystals in living cells. PMID:19020914

  10. Sterols and triterpene diols in olive oil as indicators of variety and degree of ripening.

    PubMed

    Luki?, Marina; Luki?, Igor; Krapac, Marin; Sladonja, Barbara; Piližota, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    Sterols and triterpene diols in olive oil as indicators of variety and degree of ripening derived from three olive varieties and produced at three different harvesting periods were studied. In order to test the stability of the proposed indicators, oils obtained were stored for 12 months at three different temperatures. Thirty-six samples in total were subjected to GC analysis and results were processed by multivariate chemometric methods (MANOVA, PCA, and SLDA). Campesterol, ?-sitosterol, ?(7)-campesterol/?(5,24)-stigmastadienol, clerosterol, uvaol, and campestanol/?(7)-avenasterol were established as the indicators of variety of fresh oils, while when stored oils were included in the model, the final three compounds were substituted by 24-methylene-cholesterol/stigmasterol. The most important variables for differentiating fresh oils according to degree of ripening were ?(7)-campesterol/?-sitosterol, uvaol/stigmasterol, clerosterol/?(5)-avenasterol and sitostanol/uvaol, while stored oils were differentiated by campestanol/stigmasterol, erythrodiol, stigmasterol/?(7)-campesterol, ?(5)-avenasterol, 24-methylene-cholesterol/?-sitosterol and 24-methylene-cholesterol. Results demonstrated that sterols and triterpene diols can be used as indicators of variety and degree of ripening among virgin olive oils. PMID:23017420

  11. Use of plant-derived antimicrobials for improving the safety of poultry products.

    PubMed

    Venkitanarayanan, K; Kollanoor-Johny, A; Darre, M J; Donoghue, A M; Donoghue, D J

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are the 2 major foodborne pathogens transmitted through poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir hosts of these pathogens, with their intestinal colonization being the most significant factor causing contamination of meat and eggs. Effective preslaughter strategies for reducing the colonization of birds with these pathogens are critical to improve the microbiological safety of poultry products. An antimicrobial treatment that can be applied through feed represents the most practical and economically viable method for adoption on farms. Additionally, a natural and safe antimicrobial will be better accepted by producers without concerns for toxicity. This symposium talk discussed the potential use of plant-derived, GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-status molecules, caprylic acid, trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol as feed supplements for reducing cecal populations of Salmonella Enteritidis and C. jejuni in chickens. Additionally, the effect of plant molecules on Salmonella virulence genes critical for cecal colonization in chickens was also discussed. PMID:23300319

  12. 2-Amino-nonyl-6-methoxyl-tetralin muriate inhibits sterol C-14 reductase in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rong-mei; Cao, Yong-bing; Fan, Kai-hua; Xu, Yi; Gao, Ping-hui; Zhou, You-jun; Dai, Bao-di; Tan, Yong-hong; Wang, Shi-hua; Tang, Hui; Liu, Hong-tao; Jiang, Yuan-ying

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the action mechanism of a novel chemical structural aminotetralin derivate, 2-Amino-Nonyl-6-Methoxyl-Tetralin Muriate (10b), against Candida albicans (C albicans) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Methods: Antifungal susceptibility test of 10b was carried out using broth microdilution method, the action mechanism of 10b against C albicans was investigated by GC-MS spectrometry and real-time RT-PCR assay, and cytotoxicity of 10b in vitro was assessed by MTS/PMS reduction assay. Results: 10b reduced the ergosterol content markedly, and the 50% ergosterol content inhibitory concentration (ECIC50 value) was 0.08 ?g/mL. Although the sterol composition of 10b-grown cells was completely identical with that of erg24 strain, the content of ergosta-8,14,22-trienol in 10b-grown cells was much higher than that in erg24 strain. Real-time RT-PCR assay revealed a global upregulation of sterol metabolism genes. In addition, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of 10b was 11.30 ?g/mL for murine embryonic fibroblasts and 35.70 ?g/mL for human normal liver cells. Conclusion: 10b possessed a mode of action different from that of azoles and morpholines, whose targets were sterol C-14 reductase (encoded by ERG24 gene) and sterol C-5 desaturase (encoded by ERG3) related enzyme. Although 10b seemed to reduce MTS/PMS reduction in a dose dependent manner, IC50 value for mammalian cells was much higher than 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) value for C albicans. This indicates that the formulation is preliminarily safe and warrants further study for possible human applications. PMID:19915585

  13. Four new tetramic acid and one new furanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shasha; Chen, Shenxi; Wang, Bo; Niu, Shubin; Wu, Wenping; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-01

    Four new tetramic acid analogues neopestalotins A-D (1-4), one new furanone derivative neopestalotin E (6), and the known compound hymenosetin have been isolated from the solid cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp. The structures of the new compounds were determined mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by circular dichroism (CD) data, whereas those of 3 and 4 were deduced by a combination of CD and heteronuclear long range coupling (HETLOC) data. Compound 2 showed modest antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus col, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:25818228

  14. Expression of the Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Mull. Arg. 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase 1 in Tobacco Results in Sterol Overproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, H.; Grausem, B.; Benveniste, P.; Chye, M. L.; Tan, C. T.; Song, Y. H.; Chua, N. H.

    1995-01-01

    A genomic fragment encoding one (HMGR1) of the three 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductases (HMGRs) from Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Mull. Arg. (M.-L. Chye, C.-T. Tan, N.-H. Chua [1992] Plant Mol Biol 19: 473-484) was introduced into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv xanthi via Agrobacterium transformation to study the influence of the hmg1 gene product on plant isoprenoid biosynthesis. Transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from control wild-type plants and displayed the same developmental pattern. Transgenic lines showed an increase in the level of total sterols up to 6-fold, probably because of an increased expression level of hmg1 mRNA and a corresponding increased enzymatic activity for HMGR, when compared with the level of total sterols from control lines not expressing the hmg1 transgene. In addition to the pathway end products, campesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol, some biosynthetic intermediates such as cycloartenol also accumulated in transgenic tissues. Most of the overproduced sterols were detected as steryl-esters and were likely to be stored in cytoplasmic lipid bodies. These data strongly support the conclusion that plant HMGR is a key limiting enzyme in phytosterol biosynthesis. PMID:12228630

  15. Biochemical and molecular analysis of plants derived from embryogenic tissue cultures of napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B. Shenoy; I. K. Vasil

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the extent of biochemical and molecular variation in 63 plants of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum.) regenerated from 3- to 24-week-old embryogenic callus cultures. The calli were derived from cultured basal segments of young leaves and immature inflorescences obtained from a single fieldgrown donor plant. The entire population was analyzed for the activity of 14 isozyme

  16. First Report of Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis from Shoot Apex-derived Callus of Hedychium muluense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of Hedychium muluense R.M. Smith, an important monocotyledonous ornamental ginger plant. Callus was induced on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 9.05 µM 2-4, D and 4.6µM kinetin. ...

  17. Bioprocessing of plant-derived virus-like particles of Norwalk virus capsid protein under current Good Manufacture Practice regulations

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Huafang; Chen, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Despite the success in expressing a variety of subunit vaccine proteins in plants and the recent stride in improving vaccine accumulation levels by transient expression systems, there is still no plant-derived vaccine that has been licensed for human use. The lack of commercial success of plant-made vaccines lies in several technical and regulatory barriers that remain to be overcome. These challenges include the lack of scalable downstream processing procedures, the uncertainty of regulatory compliance of production processes, and the lack of demonstration of plant-derived products that meet the required standards of regulatory agencies in identity, purity, potency and safety. In this study, we addressed these remaining challenges and successfully demonstrate the ability of using plants to produce a pharmaceutical grade Norwalk virus (NV) vaccine under current Good Manufacture Practice (cGMP) guidelines at multiple gram scales. Our results demonstrate that an efficient and scalable extraction and purification scheme can established for processing virus-like particles (VLP) of NV capsid protein (NVCP). We successfully operated the upstream and downstream NVCP production processes under cGMP regulations. Furthermore, plant-derived NVCP VLP demonstrates the identity, purity, potency and safety that meet the preset release specifications. This material is being tested in a Phase I human clinical trial. This research provides the first report of producing a plant-derived vaccine at scale under cGMP regulations in an academic setting and an important step for plant-produced vaccines to become a commercial reality. PMID:22134876

  18. Derivate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-03-16

    In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  19. Structural complex of sterol 14[alpha]-demethylase (CYP51) with 14[alpha]-methylenecyclopropyl-[delta]7-24, 25-dihydrolanosterol[S

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Waterman, Michael R.; Nes, W. David; Lepesheva, Galina I. (Vanderbilt); (TTU); (NWU)

    2012-06-28

    Sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) that catalyzes the removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from the sterol nucleus is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, a primary target for clinical and agricultural antifungal azoles and an emerging target for antitrypanosomal chemotherapy. Here, we present the crystal structure of Trypanosoma (T) brucei CYP51 in complex with the substrate analog 14{alpha}-methylenecyclopropyl-{Delta}7-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (MCP). This sterol binds tightly to all protozoan CYP51s and acts as a competitive inhibitor of F105-containing (plant-like) T. brucei and Leishmania (L) infantum orthologs, but it has a much stronger, mechanism-based inhibitory effect on I105-containing (animal/fungi-like) T. cruzi CYP51. Depicting substrate orientation in the conserved CYP51 binding cavity, the complex specifies the roles of the contact amino acid residues and sheds new light on CYP51 substrate specificity. It also provides an explanation for the effect of MCP on T. cruzi CYP51. Comparison with the ligand-free and azole-bound structures supports the notion of structural rigidity as the characteristic feature of the CYP51 substrate binding cavity, confirming the enzyme as an excellent candidate for structure-directed design of new drugs, including mechanism-based substrate analog inhibitors.

  20. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  1. Effects of feeding plant-derived agents on the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and ?-tops (including ?-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P < 0.05) were recorded at d 41 for the ?-tops treatment by culture methods. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels. PMID:25002548

  2. Host-plant-derived variation in ultraviolet wing patterns influences mate selection by male butterflies.

    PubMed

    Knüttel, H; Fiedler, K

    2001-07-01

    We report on the first case in which sequestered secondary plant compounds determine an insect's external appearance in the ultraviolet spectrum and thereby influence visually mediated mate choice. Larvae of the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus specifically sequester flavonoids in different amounts and types, depending on the part or species of food plant. During late pupal development the majority of ultraviolet-absorbing flavonoids are deposited in the wing scales. The flavonoid content of the larval diet thereby determines ultraviolet wing patterns. In laboratory and field experiments, male butterflies clearly preferred flavonoid-rich, ultraviolet-absorbing female dummies. This preference is mediated visually by the ultraviolet pattern of the wings. Food-plant parts and species vary in value as a food source, so ultraviolet wing patterns may signal mate quality and are not a species-specific characteristic. We discuss the use of principal component analysis in analysing spectral data in the context of visual communication. We propose the alternative application of confidence intervals of averaged spectra as a novel straightforward statistical method for comparing groups of spectra in a manner that is independent of assumptions about the visual system of the receiver. In addition, they can be used to give confidence intervals to derived measures of colour such as quantum catch by photoreceptors. PMID:11511660

  3. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  4. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  5. Conversion of Exogenous Cholesterol into Glycoalkaloids in Potato Shoots, Using Two Methods for Sterol Solubilisation

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Erik V.; Nahar, Nurun; Dahlin, Paul; Broberg, Anders; Tröger, Rikard; Dutta, Paresh C.; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke

    2013-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are toxic secondary metabolites naturally occurring in the potato, as well as in certain other Solanaceous plant species, such as tomato, eggplant and pepper. To investigate the steroidal origin of SGA biosynthesis, cut potato shoots were fed cholesterol labelled with deuterium (D) in the sterol ring structure (D5- or D6-labelled), or side chain (D7-labelled), and analysed after three or five weeks. The labelled cholesterol and presence of D-labelled SGA were analysed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. When feeding D-labelled cholesterol solubilised in Tween-80, labelled cholesterol in free form became present in both leaves and stems, although the major part was recovered as steryl esters. Minor amounts of D-labelled SGA (?-solanine and ?-chaconine) were identified in cholesterol-treated shoots, but not in blank controls, or in shoots fed D6-27-hydroxycholesterol. Solubilising the labelled cholesterol in methyl-?-cyclodextrin instead of Tween-80 increased the levels of labelled SGA up to 100-fold, and about 1 mole% of the labelled cholesterol was recovered as labelled SGA in potato leaves. Both side chain and ring structure D labels were retained in SGA, showing that the entire cholesterol molecule is converted to SGA. However, feeding side chain D7-labelled cholesterol resulted in D5-labelled SGA, indicating that two hydrogen atoms were released during formation of the SGA nitrogen-containing ring system. Feeding with D7-sitosterol did not produce any labelled SGA, indicating that cholesterol is a specific SGA precursor. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a superior performance of methyl-?-cyclodextrin for delivery of cholesterol in plant tissue feeding experiments, and given firm evidence for cholesterol as a specific sterol precursor of SGA in potato. PMID:24349406

  6. Removal and formation of chlorinated triclosan derivatives in wastewater treatment plants using chlorine and UV disinfection.

    PubMed

    Buth, Jeffrey M; Ross, Michael R; McNeill, Kristopher; Arnold, William A

    2011-08-01

    Triclosan, a common antimicrobial agent, may react during the disinfection of wastewater with free chlorine to form three chlorinated triclosan derivatives (CTDs). This is of concern because the CTDs may be photochemically transformed to tri- and tetra-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins when discharged into natural waters. In this study, wastewater influent, secondary (pre-disinfection) effluent, and final (post-disinfection) effluent samples were collected on two occasions each from two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants, one using chlorine disinfection and one using UV disinfection. Concentrations of triclosan and three CTDs were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with isotope dilution methodology. Triclosan and the CTDs were detected in every influent sample at levels ranging from 453 to 4530 and 2 to 98 ng L(-1), respectively, though both were efficiently removed from the liquid phase during activated sludge treatment. Triclosan concentrations in the pre-disinfection effluent ranged from 36 to 212 ng L(-1), while CTD concentrations were below the limit of quantification (1 ng L(-1)) for most samples. In the treatment plant that used chlorine disinfection, triclosan concentrations decreased while CTDs were formed during chlorination, as evidenced by CTD levels as high as 22 ng L(-1) in the final effluent. No CTDs were detected in the final effluent of the treatment plant that used UV disinfection. The total CTD concentration in the final effluent of the chlorinating treatment plant reached nearly one third of the triclosan concentration, demonstrating that the chlorine disinfection step played a substantial role in the fate of triclosan in this system. PMID:21652055

  7. Two novel C29-5beta-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianqin; Li, Yanfang; Chen, Zhen; Min, Zhida; Lou, Fengchang

    2006-12-01

    Two novel C29-5beta-sterols, opuntisterol [(24R)-24-ethyl-5beta-cholest-9-ene-6beta,12alpha-diol] (1) and opuntisteroside [(24R)-24-ethyl-6beta-[(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5beta-cholest-9-ene-12alpha-ol] (2), together with nine known compounds, beta-sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), friedelin (5), methyl linoleate (6), 7-oxositosterol (7), 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (8), daucosterol (9), methyl eucomate (10) and eucomic acid (11), were isolated from the stems of Opuntia dillenii collected in Guizhou Province, China. Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 were deduced from comparative 1H NMR data of the (S)- and (R)-methoxyphenyl acetate derivatives. Compounds 6-8, 10 and 11 were isolated from O. dillenii for the first time. PMID:17112557

  8. Characterization of sterols by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the trimethylsilyl ethers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. W. Brooks; E. C. Horning; J. S. Young

    1968-01-01

    The utility of combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the analysis and characterization of sterols has been explored.\\u000a Methylene unit (MU) values and principal mass spectrometric data are presented for trimethylsilyl ethers of 28 sterols, including\\u000a the major natural sterols. The diagnostic value of the fragmentation of trimethylsilyl ethers of ?5-3 ?-hydroxysteroids has been confirmed. Characteristic fragmentations of ?4-3 ?-trimethylsilyloxysteroids, and

  9. Sterol composition and phytosterol utilization and metabolism in the milkweed bug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Svoboda; S. R. Dutky; W. E. Robbins; J. N. Kaplanis

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of the sterols of the milkweed bug,Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) and dietary sunflowerseeds revealed that there is little, if any, conversion of dietary C28 or C29 phytosterols to cholesterol in this phytophagous insect. The dietary sterols are apparently utilized with little alteration\\u000a both during development to the adult stage and egg production, and cholesterol comprises <1% of the sterols in

  10. Construction and growth properties of a yeast strain defective in sterol 14-reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Marcireau; Daniel Guyonnet; Francis Karst

    1992-01-01

    We have transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a genomic library contained in the replicative vector pFL44. The resulting transformants were screened for resistance to fenpropidin, a specific inhibitor of sterol 14-reductase. A plasmid was isolated that transformed yeast both to resistance to fenpropidin and to an increased specific activity of sterol 14-reductase. Sterol analysis of transformed cells grown in the presence

  11. Sterol composition of ungerminated and germinated spores of the Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus caledonius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Beilby; D. K. Kidby

    1980-01-01

    The sterol composition of spores of the Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza,Glomus caledonius, have been examined by combined gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). The sterols identified were cholesterol,\\u000a 24-methylcholesterol, 24-methylenecholesterol and 24-ethylcholesterol. The sterols 24-methylcholesterol, 24-methylenecholesterol\\u000a and 24-ethylcholesterol have not previously been reported as components of fungi in the Zygomycotina. The spores were germinated\\u000a on agar and the major changes in sterol esters,

  12. Posaconazole is a potent inhibitor of sterol 14alpha-demethylation in yeasts and molds.

    PubMed

    Munayyer, Hanan K; Mann, Paul A; Chau, Andrew S; Yarosh-Tomaine, Taisa; Greene, Jonathan R; Hare, Roberta S; Heimark, Larry; Palermo, Robert E; Loebenberg, David; McNicholas, Paul M

    2004-10-01

    Posaconazole (POS; SCH 56592) is a novel triazole that is active against a wide variety of fungi, including fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates and fungi that are inherently less susceptible to approved azoles, such as Candida glabrata. In this study, we compared the effects of POS, itraconazole (ITZ), fluconazole (FLZ), and voriconazole (VOR) on sterol biosynthesis in strains of C. albicans (both azole-sensitive and azole-resistant strains), C. glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus. Following exposure to azoles, nonsaponifiable sterols were extracted and resolved by liquid chromatography and sterol identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Ergosterol was the major sterol in all but one of the strains; C. glabrata strain C110 synthesized an unusual sterol in place of ergosterol. Exposure to POS led to a decrease in the total sterol content of all the strains tested. The decrease was accompanied by the accumulation of 14alpha-methylated sterols, supporting the contention that POS inhibits the cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase enzyme. The degree of sterol inhibition was dependent on both dose and the susceptibility of the strain tested. POS retained activity against C. albicans isolates with mutated forms of the 14alpha-demethylase that rendered these strains resistant to FLZ, ITZ, and VOR. In addition, POS was a more potent inhibitor of sterol synthesis in A. fumigatus and A. flavus than either ITZ or VOR. PMID:15388421

  13. Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using (/sup 3/H)water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, N.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of (/sup 3/H)water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels.

  14. NMR and X-ray structures of the putative sterol carrier protein 2 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 show conformational changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander K. Goroncy; Kazutaka Murayama; Mikako Shirouzu; Seiki Kuramitsu; Takanori Kigawa; Shigeyuki Yokoyama

    2010-01-01

    Sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2), also known as nonspecific lipid transfer protein, is a ubiquitous intracellular ~13 kDa\\u000a protein found in mammals, insects, plants, archaea, and bacteria. Vertebrate SCP-2 has been implicated in a wide range of\\u000a lipid-related functions in vitro, although its actual physiological role is still unknown. Tunnels in the protein serve as\\u000a fatty acid binding vehicles. Here we

  15. Endiandric Acid Derivatives and Other Constituents of Plants from the Genera Beilschmiedia and Endiandra (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ndjakou Lenta, Bruno; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the Lauraceae family are widely used in traditional medicine and are sources of various classes of secondary metabolites. Two genera of this family, Beilschmiedia and Endiandra, have been the subject of numerous investigations over the past decades because of their application in traditional medicine. They are the only source of bioactive endiandric acid derivatives. Noteworthy is that their biosynthesis contains two consecutive non-enzymatic electrocyclic reactions. Several interesting biological activities for this specific class of secondary metabolites and other constituents of the two genera have been reported, including antimicrobial, enzymes inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. This review compiles information on the structures of the compounds described between January 1960 and March 2015, their biological activities and information on endiandric acid biosynthesis, with 104 references being cited. PMID:26111193

  16. Invasive plant-derived biochar inhibits sulfamethazine uptake by lettuce in soil.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Vithanage, Meththika; Lim, Jung Eun; Ahmed, Mohamed Bedair M; Zhang, Ming; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-09-01

    Veterinary antibiotics are frequently detected in soils posing potential contamination of food crops. Sulfamethazine (SMT) uptake was investigated by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in the soils treated with/without biochar derived from an invasive plant, burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) (BBC700). Soils were contaminated with SMT at 5 and 50mgkg(-1), and treated with/without 5% BBC700 (ww(-1)). The lettuces were harvested after 5weeks of cultivation and were analyzed for SMT by a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. With 5% BBC700, the uptake of SMT was reduced by 86% in the soil spiked with 5mgkg(-1) SMT compared to the control whereas a 63% reduction was observed in the soil spiked with 50mgkg(-1) SMT. Application of BBC700, into soils effectively reduced the SMT uptake by lettuce. PMID:24997958

  17. Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Novo, Alexandria; Ableson, Ian; Barbehenn, Raymond V; Vannette, Rachel L

    2014-11-01

    In plant-ant-hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners, Asclepias curassavica and Asclepias incarnata, and we measured the responses of experimental Linepithema humile ant colonies to these honeydews. The compositions of secondary metabolites, sugars, and amino acids differed significantly in the honeydews from the two plant species. Ant colonies feeding on honeydew derived from A. incarnata recruited in higher numbers to artificial diet, maintained higher queen and worker dry weight, and sustained marginally more workers than ants feeding on honeydew derived from A. curassavica. Ants feeding on honeydew from A. incarnata were also more exploratory in behavioral assays than ants feeding from A. curassavica. Despite performing better when feeding on the A. incarnata honeydew, ant workers marginally preferred honeydew from A. curassavica to honeydew from A. incarnata when given a choice. Our results demonstrate that plant congeners can exert strong indirect effects on ant colonies by means of plant-species-specific differences in aphid honeydew chemistry. Moreover, these effects changed ant behavior and thus could feed back to affect plant performance in the field. PMID:25505534

  18. Hormonal action of plant derived and anthropogenic non-steroidal estrogenic compounds: phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Lóránd, T; Vigh, E; Garai, J

    2010-01-01

    Herbivorous and omnivorous vertebrates have evolved in the presence of a variety of phytoestrogens, i.e., plant-derived compounds that can mimic, modulate or disrupt the actions of endogenous estrogens. Since the discovery of the estrus-inducing effects of some plant products in 1926, considerable effort has been devoted to the isolation and structural and pharmacological characterization of phytoestrogens. Recently, agricultural and industrial pollution has added anthropogenic estrogenic compounds to the list of environmental estrogens. Unlike phytoestrogens, these xenoestrogens tend to accumulate and persist in adipose tissue for decades and may cause long-lasting, adverse endocrine effects. Here we review the endocrine effects of known phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens with special emphasis on molecular structure-activity relationships. Phytoestrogens include flavonoids, isoflavonoids, chalcons, coumestans, stilbenes, lignans, ginsenosides and other saponins, as well as the recently discovered tetrahydrofurandiols. Fungal estrogenic compounds may enter the food chain via infested crops. Since some phytoestrogens have been shown to display organ-specific actions, pharmaceutical estrogen analogues with similar properties (selective estrogen receptor modulators, SERMs) are also discussed. Xenoestrogens include dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, bisphenols, alkylphenols, dichlorophenols, methoxychlor, chlordecone, polychlorinated benzol derivatives (PCBs), and dioxins. While most of these compounds act through estrogen receptors alpha and beta, some of their effects may be mediated by other nuclear or membrane-bound receptors or receptor-independent mechanisms. Some might also interfere with the production and metabolism of ovarian estrogens. Better understanding of the molecular pharmacology of phyto- and xenoestrogens may result in the development of novel compounds with therapeutic utility and improved environmental protection. PMID:20738246

  19. Sterol-inhibiting fungicide impacts on soil microbial ecology in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. M.; Potter, T. L.; Strickland, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the peanuts (Arachus hypogaia) produced in the United States are grown in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region. Portions of this area, including Alabama and Georgia, exhibit a subtropical climate that promotes soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Most fields receive repeated fungicide applications during the growing season to suppress the disease causing organisms, such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Information regarding fungicide effects on the soil microbial community, with components principally responsible for transformation and fate of fungicides and other soil-applied pesticides, is limited. The objectives of the study were to assess soil microbial community response to (1) varying rates of the sterol-inhibiting fungicide tebuconazole (0, single application, season max, 2x season max), and (2) field rates of the sterol-inhibitors cyproconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, and flutriafol, and thiol-competitor chlorothalonil. The sterol-inhibitors exhibited different half lives, as listed in the FOOTPRINT database, ranging from <1 day to >1300 d. Chlorothalonil was chosen because it is the most frequently applied fungicide to peanut. Shifts in the fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, were monitored during the experiments using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Ergosterol levels and pesticide decay rates were also monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and soil residence time, respectively. In the rate study, the highest rate of tebuconazole reduced the fungal biomarker 18:2?6,9c to 2.6 nmol g-1 dry soil at 17 d, as compared to the control (4.1 nmol g-1 dry soil). However, levels of the fungal PLFA biomarker were similar regardless of rate at 0 and 32 d. The gram negative bacterial PLFA mole percent was greater at 17 d for the two highest rates of tebuconazole, but was similar at 0 and 32 d. Gram positive and fungal mole percents were not affected at any time point. Tebuconazole half life was approximately 10 d regardless of rate. A principle components analysis revealed negligible fungicide impact on PLFA. In the field rate study soil samples were collected immediately following fungicide application to peanut. A laboratory dissipation study, accompanied by PLFA and ergosterol analysis is currently being conducted. Results from the rate experiment indicate that tebuconazole's effect was transient due to rapid dissipation and suggest a gram negative bacterial role. Results obtained from both studies will be useful in predicting the environmental fate and impact of fungicides commonly used for production of peanut and other crops on soil microorganisms.

  20. Effect of Plant-derived Hydrophobic Compounds on Soil Water Repellency in Dutch Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jiefei; Dekker, Stefan C.; Nierop, Klaas G. J.

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency or hydrophobicity is a common and important soil property, which may diminish plant growth and promotes soil erosion leading to environmentally undesired situations. Hydrophobic organic compounds in the soil are derived from vegetation (leaves, roots, mosses) or microorganisms (fungi, bacteria), and these compounds induce soil water repellency (SWR) and can be called SWR-biomarkers. As common hydrophobic constituents of organic matter, plant lipids are mainly from wax layers of leaves and roots, whereas cutins and suberins as aliphatic biopolyesters occur in leaves and roots, respectively. Their unique compositions in soil can indicate the original vegetation sources. To investigate the individual or combined effects of the hydrophobic compounds on SWR and their possible associations with each other, we conducted experiments to analyse the organic composition of Dutch coastal dune sandy soils in relation to SWR. DCM/MeOH solvent is used to remove solvent soluble lipids. BF3-methanol is utilized to depolymerize cutins and suberins from isopropanol/NH3 extractable organic matter. Total organic carbon (TOC) has a positive linear relation with SWR only for those soils containing low TOC (

  1. Induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by diospyrin, a plant-derived bisnaphthoquinonoid, and its synthetic derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sutapa Chakrabarty; Madhumita Roy; Banasri Hazra; R. K. Bhattacharya

    2002-01-01

    Diospyrin, a bisnaphthoquinonoid natural product, and three synthetic derivatives have been tested for their action in four human cancer cell lines: acute myeloblastic leukemia (HL-60), chronic myelogenic leukemia (K-562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa). In cells grown in appropriate media several derivatives elicited cytotoxicity as assessed by Trypan Blue dye exclusion, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide reduction and DNA synthesis. Diethyl

  2. The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-03-01

    We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. However, in vivo trials indicated far less efficacy of stem bromelain and fruit bromelain than that expected from the in vitro experiments (24.5% and 22.4% reduction in worm burdens, respectively) against H. bakeri. Scanning electron microscopy revealed signs of cuticular damage on worms incubated in fruit bromelain, stem bromelain and actinidain, but this was far less extensive than on those incubated in papaya latex supernatant. We conclude that, on the basis of presently available data, CPs derived from pineapples and kiwi fruits are not suitable for development as novel anthelmintics for intestinal nematode infections. PMID:24176056

  3. Plant-derived foods for the attenuation of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Gould, Elaine M; Hurst, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is an allergy-mediated inflammatory disease characterised by infiltration of the airway with mast cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The disease is induced by co-ordination of T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of polyphenolic bioactive compounds, which have been observed to have health-promoting properties when consumed by humans. In particular, fruit-derived proanthocyanins and anthocyanins have been found to attenuate lung inflammation. Epidemiological studies have revealed correlations between fruit consumption and a lower prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lower incidence of non-specific lung diseases. In this review we summarise the current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanism(s) involved in the development of allergic airway disease. We also review evidence of the beneficial effects of plant-derived foods, their components and metabolites in allergic airway inflammation arising from in vitro and rodent studies, epidemiological studies and human intervention trials. The mechanism, biological relevance and functional benefits, such as immune modulation (e.g. reduction in cytokine and eotaxin production), antioxidant ability, tissue remodelling and tight junction function are also discussed. PMID:23701570

  4. Biochemical and molecular analysis of plants derived from embryogenic tissue cultures of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum).

    PubMed

    Shenoy, V B; Vasil, I K

    1992-05-01

    We have investigated the extent of biochemical and molecular variation in 63 plants of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schum.) regenerated from 3- to 24-week-old embryogenic callus cultures. The calli were derived from cultured basal segments of young leaves and immature inflorescences obtained from a single fieldgrown donor plant. The entire population was analyzed for the activity of 14 isozyme systems, but no qualitative variation was found at any of the loci examined. Similarly, no restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were detected in the mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes in a representative sample of regenerated plants. Our results confirm earlier reports of the genetic uniformity of plants derived from somatic embryos and highlight their value both for clonal propagation and for genetic transformation. PMID:24202918

  5. The mechanism of radical-trapping antioxidant activity of plant-derived thiosulfinates.

    PubMed

    Lynett, Philip T; Butts, Krista; Vaidya, Vipraja; Garrett, Graham E; Pratt, Derek A

    2011-05-01

    It has long been recognized that garlic and petiveria, two plants of the Allium genus--which also includes onions, leeks and shallots--possess great medicinal value. In recent times, the biological activities of extracts of these plants have been ascribed to the antioxidant properties of the thiosulfinate secondary metabolites allicin and S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (BPT), respectively. Herein we describe our efforts to probe the mechanism of the radical-trapping antioxidant activity of these compounds, as well as S-propyl propanethiosulfinate (PPT), a saturated analog representative of the thiosulfinates that predominate in non-medicinal alliums. Our experimental results, which include thiosulfinate-inhibited autoxidations of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (ester) methyl linoleate, investigations of their decomposition kinetics, and radical clock experiments aimed at obtaining some quantitative insights into their reactions with peroxyl radicals, indicate that the radical-trapping activity of thiosulfinates is paralleled by their propensity to undergo Cope elimination to yield a sulfenic acid. Since sulfenic acids are transient species, we complement our experimental studies with the results of theoretical calculations aimed at understanding the radical-trapping behaviour of the sulfenic acids derived from allicin, BPT and PPT, and contrasting the predicted thermodynamics and kinetics of their reactions with those of the parent thiosulfinates. The calculations reveal that sulfenic acids have among the weakest O-H bonds known (ca. 70 kcal mol(-1)), and that their reactions with peroxyl radicals take place by a near diffusion-controlled proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism. As such, it is proposed that the abundance of a thiosulfinate in a given plant species, and the ease with which it undergoes Cope elimination to form a sulfenic acid, accounts for the differences in antioxidant activity, and perhaps medicinal value, of extracts of these plants. Interestingly, while the Cope elimination of 2-propenesulfenic acid from allicin is essentially irreversible, the analogous reaction of BPT is readily reversible. Thus, in the absence of chain-carrying peroxyl radicals (or other appropriately reactive trapping agent), BPT is reformed. PMID:21445384

  6. Effect of smoke derivatives on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube elongation of species from different plant families.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Papenfus, H B; Kulkarni, M G; Pošta, M; Van Staden, J

    2015-07-01

    Plant-derived smoke stimulates seed germination in numerous plant species. Smoke also has a positive stimulatory effect on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. The range of plant families affected my smoke still needs to be established since the initial study was restricted to only three species from the Amaryllidaceae. The effects of smoke-water (SW) and the smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB) on pollen growth characteristics were evaluated in seven different plant families. Smoke-water (1:1000 and 1:2000 v:v) combined with either Brewbaker and Kwack's (BWK) medium or sucrose and boric acid (SB) medium significantly improved pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Aloe maculata All., Kniphofia uvaria Oken, Lachenalia aloides (L.f.) Engl. var. aloides and Tulbaghia simmleri P. Beauv. Karrikinolide (10(-6) and 10(-7)  m) treatment significantly improved pollen tube growth in A. maculata, K. uvaria, L. aloides and Nematanthus crassifolius (Schott) Wiehle compared to the controls. BWK or SB medium containing TMB (10(-3)  m) produced significantly longer pollen tubes in A. maculata, K. uvaria and N. crassifolius. These results indicate that plant-derived smoke and the smoke-isolated compounds may stimulate pollen growth in a wide range of plant species. PMID:25545791

  7. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Goto, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m?2 s?1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

  8. Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Woo Bok; Leonard Lermer; Jeff Chilton; Hans G Klingeman; G. H. Neil Towers

    1999-01-01

    Activity guided fractionations led to the isolation of two antitumor compounds 5?,8?-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3?-d-glucopyranoside and 5,6-epoxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-7,22-dien-3?-ol from the methanol extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Two previously known compounds, ergosteryl-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and 22-dihydroergosteryl-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of hitherto unknown sterols were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques with the former synthesized in order to confirm the identity of the sugar moiety

  9. Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Woo Boka; Hans G. Klingeman; G. H. Neil Towers

    Activity guided fractionations led to the isolation of two antitumor compounds 5a,8a-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22- dien-3b-D-glucopyranoside and 5,6-epoxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-7,22-dien-3b-ol from the methanol extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Two previously known compounds, ergosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 22-dihydroergosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of hitherto unknown sterols were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques with the former synthesized in order to confirm the identity of the sugar

  10. Triterpenes, A sterol and A monocyclic alcohol from Momordica charantia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabira Begum; Mansoor Ahmed; Bina S. Siddiqui; Abdullah Khan; Zafar S. Saify; Mohammed Arif

    1997-01-01

    Five new compounds have been isolated from the fresh fruits of Momordica charantia and their structures elucidated through spectroscopic studies. These include three pentacyclic triterpenes 13-hydroxy-28-methoxy-urs-11-en-3-one (momordicin), 13?,28-epoxy-urs-11-en-3-one (momordicinin), 24-[1?-hydroxy,1?-methyl-2?-pentenyloxyl]-ursan-3-one (momordicilin), a sterol 3?-hydroxy-stigmasta-5,14-dien-16-one (momordenol) and a monocyclic alcohol 1-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-2-[8?,10?-dihydroxy-4?,7?-dimethyl-11?-hydroxy methyl-trideca]-3-ethyl-cyclohex-5-en-4-one (momordol).

  11. Altered sterol profile induced in Leishmania amazonensis by a natural dihydroxymethoxylated chalcone

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    Altered sterol profile induced in Leishmania amazonensis by a natural dihydroxymethoxylated of the antileishmanial chalcone 20 ,60 -dihydroxy-40 -methoxychalcone (DMC) on Leishmania amazonensis sterol composition Figure 1) against Leishmania amazonensis was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo.3,4 Although DMC has

  12. Serum albumin promotes ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent sterol uptake in yeast.

    PubMed

    Marek, Magdalena; Silvestro, Daniele; Fredslund, Maria D; Andersen, Tonni G; Pomorski, Thomas G

    2014-12-01

    Sterol uptake in fungi is a multistep process that involves interaction between external sterols and the cell wall, incorporation of sterol molecules into the plasma membrane, and subsequent integration into intracellular membranes for turnover. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been implicated in sterol uptake, but key features of their activity remain to be elucidated. Here, we apply fluorescent cholesterol (NBD-cholesterol) to monitor sterol uptake under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in two fungal species, Candida glabrata (Cg) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc). We found that in both fungal species, ABC transporter-dependent uptake of cholesterol under anaerobic conditions and in mutants lacking HEM1 gene is promoted in the presence of the serum protein albumin that is able to bind the sterol molecule. Furthermore, the C. glabrata ABC transporter CgAus1p expressed in S. cerevisiae requires the presence of serum or albumin for efficient cholesterol uptake. These results suggest that albumin can serve as sterol donor in ABC transporter-dependent sterol uptake, a process potentially important for growth of C. glabrata inside infected humans. PMID:25331273

  13. Inhaled tobacco sterols: uptake by the lungs and disposition to selected organs of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Liebler, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1988-08-01

    Tobacco sterols (cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) are present in tobacco smoke and appear in plasma of mammals exposed to cigarette smoke. Because tobacco sterols may be important in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced lung and vascular diseases, we studied the pattern of deposition of cigarette sterols in the lungs and appearance of cigarette sterols in plasma and body organs of rats. After exposure to twenty 5 ml puffs of smoke from tobacco labeled with (4-/sup 14/C)cholesterol or beta-(4-/sup 14/C)sitosterol, rats were killed just after exposure (day 0) and on days 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, and 30, and the lungs and selected body organs analyzed for activity. We found that cigarette sterols are associated with particulates in cigarette smoke, deposited mostly in distal airspaces and parenchyma of the lungs, and appear in plasma and several body organs for more than 30 days after this single exposure to cigarette smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contained relatively small amounts of radiolabel for only the first few days, suggesting that most of the sterols were rapidly incorporated in lung parenchyma. Because disorders of sterol metabolism have been implicated in a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer, the significance of tobacco sterols to human smoking-induced diseases deserves further study.

  14. Rates of sterol synthesis and uptake in the major organs of the rat in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Turley; John M. Andersen; John M. Dietsch

    This study was undertaken to determine the rates of sterol synthesis and uptake in the major organs of the female rat in vivo. At the mid-dark phase of the light cycle, control animals, animals in which hepatic sterol synthesis had been selectively inhibited by chylomicron infusion and animals in which the small intestine and liver had been surgically removed, were

  15. Boosting Crop Yields with Plant Steroids[W

    PubMed Central

    Vriet, Cécile; Russinova, Eugenia; Reuzeau, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Plant sterols and steroid hormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), are compounds that exert a wide range of biological activities. They are essential for plant growth, reproduction, and responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Given the importance of sterols and BRs in these processes, engineering their biosynthetic and signaling pathways offers exciting potentials for enhancing crop yield. In this review, we focus on how alterations in components of sterol and BR metabolism and signaling or application of exogenous steroids and steroid inhibitors affect traits of agronomic importance. We also discuss areas for future research and identify the fine-tuning modulation of endogenous BR content as a promising strategy for crop improvement. PMID:22438020

  16. Fungal genomes mining to discover novel sterol esterases and lipases as catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterol esterases and lipases are enzymes able to efficiently catalyze synthesis and hydrolysis reactions of both sterol esters and triglycerides and due to their versatility could be widely used in different industrial applications. Lipases with this ability have been reported in the yeast Candida rugosa that secretes several extracellular enzymes with a high level of sequence identity, although different substrate specificity. This versatility has also been found in the sterol esterases from the ascomycetes Ophiostoma piceae and Melanocarpus albomyces. Results In this work we present an in silico search of new sterol esterase and lipase sequences from the genomes of environmental fungi. The strategy followed included identification and search of conserved domains from these versatile enzymes, phylogenetic studies, sequence analysis and 3D modeling of the selected candidates. Conclusions Six potential putative enzymes were selected and their kinetic properties and substrate selectivity are discussed on the basis of their similarity with previously characterized sterol esterases/lipases with known structures. PMID:24138290

  17. Free sterol compositions from the sea cucumbers Pseudostichopus trachus, Holothuria ( Microtele) nobilis, Holothuria scabra, Trochostoma orientale and Bathyplotes natans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentine A Stonik; Ljudmila P Ponomarenko; Tatiana N Makarieva; Valentine M Boguslavsky; Andrei S Dmitrenok; Sergei N Fedorov; Sergei A Strobikin

    1998-01-01

    Free sterol fractions from the sea cucumbers Pseudostichopus trachus, Holothuria (Microtele) nobilis, Holothuria scabra, Bathyplotes natans and Trochostoma orientale have been isolated and studied by HPLC, GLC, GLC–MS, and NMR methods. About 80 sterols were found and 69 of these were identified, including several new and rare ones. Peculiarities of biosynthesis and metabolism of sterols, as well as a probable

  18. Diet micronutrient balance matters: How the ratio of dietary sterols/steroids affects development, growth and reproduction

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Diet micronutrient balance matters: How the ratio of dietary sterols/steroids affects development a threshold level. In a recent study we showed that caterpillars reared on tobacco accumulating novel sterols/steroids examined how the dominant sterols (cholesterol and stigmasterol) and steroids (cholestanol and cholestanone

  19. Trace analysis of selected hormones and sterols in river sediments by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mati?, Ivana; Gruji?, Svetlana; Jaukovi?, Zorica; Lauševi?, Mila

    2014-10-17

    In this paper, development and optimization of new LC-MS method for determination of twenty selected hormones, human/animal and plant sterols in river sediments were described. Sediment samples were prepared using ultrasonic extraction and clean up with silica gel/anhydrous sodium sulphate cartridge. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The optimized extraction parameters were extraction solvent (methanol), weight of the sediment (2 g) and time of ultrasonic extraction (3× 10 min). Successful chromatographic separation of hormones (estriol and estrone, 17?- and 17?-estradiol) and four human/animal sterols (epicoprostanol, coprostanol, ?-cholestanol and ?-cholestanol) that have identical fragmentation reactions was achieved. The developed and optimized method provided high recoveries (73-118%), low limits of detection (0.8-18 ng g(-1)) and quantification (2.5-60 ng g(-1)) with the RSDs generally lower than 20%. Applicability of the developed method was confirmed by analysis of six river sediment samples. A widespread occurrence of human/animal and plant sterols was found. The only detected hormone was mestranol in just one sediment sample. PMID:25182857

  20. Evaluation of the anti-Listeria potentials of some plant-derived triterpenes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a fatal disease caused by pathogenic Listeria bacteria and it is most prevalent in immune-compromised individuals. The increase in numbers of immune-compromised individuals against a background of Listeria antibiotic resistance, limits listeriosis treatment options. This therefore calls for research into substitute treatments, of which, medicinal plants derived compounds offer a viable alternative. Methods The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of three plant triterpenes namely 3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid, methyl-3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate and 3?-acetylursolic acid, against Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria grayi species. The chequerboard method was used to assess the interactions between the triterpenes and conventional antibiotics: ampicillin, neomycin, gentamicin and penicillin G. The lactate dehydrogenase membrane damage method was used to assess the triterpenes’ membrane damaging potentials against the Listeria bacteria. Results The triterpenes’ MIC values were found to range from 0.185 to 1.67 mg/ml while, the MBC determination assay results revealed that the test triterpenes were bacteriostatic against the Listeria bacteria. The interactions involving 3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid were mainly additive with ampicillin and synergistic with neomycin, gentamicin and penicillin G. The interactions involving methyl-3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate were mainly antagonistic with ampicillin, indifferent with neomycin, ranging from synergistic to indifference with gentamicin and synergistic with penicillin G. The interactions involving 3?-acetylursolic acid were mainly indifferent with ampicillin, synergistic with neomycin and gentamicin while ranging between synergistic and additive with penicillin G. The low levels of cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase released from the cells treated with 4× MIC concentration of the triterpenes in comparison to that of cells treated with 3% Triton X-100 proved that membrane damage was not the mode of action of the triterpenes. Conclusion This study therefore shows the potential that these plant triterpenes have in listeriosis chemotherapy especially as shown by the favourable interactions they had with penicillin G, one of the antibiotics of choice in listeriosis treatment. PMID:25056181

  1. The use of antimicrotubule herbicides for the production of doubled haploid plants from anther-derived maize callus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wan; D. R. Duncan; A. L. Rayburn; J. F. Petolino; J. M. Widholm

    1991-01-01

    Four antimicrotubule herbicides, amiprophosmethyl (APM), pronamide, oryzalin, and trifluralin, were evaluated for their ability to induce chromosome doubling in anther-derived, haploid maize callus. Effects of various herbicide treatments on the growth and regenerative capacity of callus along with the ploidy and seed set of regenerated plants were determined. Flow cytometric analysis was also used to measure changes in ploidy levels

  2. Novel composition of mitochondrial genomes in Petunia somatic hybrids derived from cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maury L. Boeshore; Irit Lifshitz; Maureen R. Hanson; Shamay Izhar

    1983-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of petunia somatic hybrid plants, which were derived from the fusion of male fertile P. hybrida protoplasts with cytoplasmic male sterile P. parodii protoplasts, were analyzed by endonuclease restriction and Southern blot hybridization analyses. We studied sterile and fertile somatic hybrids to address two main questions. First, is there any correlation between the mitochondrial DNA restriction banding

  3. Plant-Derived Tick Repellents Activate the Honey Bee Ectoparasitic Mite TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guangda; Kashio, Makiko; Morimoto, Tomomi; Li, Tianbang; Zhu, Jingting; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2015-07-14

    We have identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Varroa destructor (VdTRPA1), a major ectoparasitic mite of honey bee. One of the two VdTRPA1 isoforms, VdTRPA1L, was activated by a variety of plant-derived compounds, including electrophilic compounds, suggesting that chemical activation profiles are mostly shared between arthropod TRPA1 channels. Nevertheless, carvacrol and ?-terpineol activated VdTRPA1L but not a honey bee noxious-stimuli-sensitive TRPA, AmHsTRPA, and Drosophila melanogaster TRPA1. Activation of VdTRPA1L in D. melanogaster taste neurons by the above compounds was sufficient to modify the gustatory behaviors. Carvacrol and ?-terpineol repelled V. destructor in a laboratory assay, and ?-terpineol repressed V. destructor entry for reproduction into the brood cells in hives. Understanding the functions of parasite TRP channels not only gives clues about the evolving molecular and cellular mechanisms of parasitism but also helps in the development of control methods. PMID:26146083

  4. The Endocannabinoid System and Plant-Derived Cannabinoids in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Haskó, György; Pacher, Pál

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play critical roles in the development of diabetes and its complications. Recent studies provided compelling evidence that the newly discovered lipid signaling system (ie, the endocannabinoid system) may significantly influence reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, and subsequent tissue injury, in addition to its well-known metabolic effects and functions. The modulation of the activity of this system holds tremendous therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, ranging from cancer, pain, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases to obesity and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in primary diabetes and its effects on various diabetic complications, such as diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, particularly highlighting the mechanisms beyond the metabolic consequences of the activation of the endocannabinoid system. The therapeutic potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system and certain plant-derived cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol and ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, which are devoid of psychotropic effects and possess potent anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties, in diabetes and diabetic complications is also discussed. PMID:22155112

  5. Cytotoxic tetramic acid derivative produced by a plant type-III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Mori, Takahiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2011-04-01

    The tetramic acid (2,4-pyrrolidinedione) scaffold has been recognized as an important structural feature because of its mycotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. This important class of natural products is reportedly produced by the type-I polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) hybrid megaenzyme systems. In contrast, the benzalacetone synthase (BAS) from Rheum palmatum is a structurally simple, plant-specific type-III PKS that catalyzes the one-step decarboxylative condensation of malonyl-CoA with 4-coumaroyl-CoA. The type-III PKS exhibits unusually broad substrate specificity and notable catalytic versatility. Here we report that R. palmatum BAS efficiently produces a series of unnatural, novel tetramic acid derivatives by the condensation of malonyl-CoA with aminoacyl-CoA thioesters chemically synthesized from L- and D-amino acids. Remarkably, the novel tetramic acid dimer D-5 formed from D-phenylalanoyl-CoA showed moderate antiproliferative activity against murine leukemia P388 cells. PMID:21391603

  6. The endocannabinoid system and plant-derived cannabinoids in diabetes and diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Haskó, György; Pacher, Pál

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play critical roles in the development of diabetes and its complications. Recent studies provided compelling evidence that the newly discovered lipid signaling system (ie, the endocannabinoid system) may significantly influence reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, and subsequent tissue injury, in addition to its well-known metabolic effects and functions. The modulation of the activity of this system holds tremendous therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, ranging from cancer, pain, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases to obesity and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in primary diabetes and its effects on various diabetic complications, such as diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, particularly highlighting the mechanisms beyond the metabolic consequences of the activation of the endocannabinoid system. The therapeutic potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system and certain plant-derived cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol and ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, which are devoid of psychotropic effects and possess potent anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties, in diabetes and diabetic complications is also discussed. PMID:22155112

  7. Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

  8. The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Sean D; Soroceanu, Liliana; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2015-06-01

    As a therapeutic agent, most people are familiar with the palliative effects of the primary psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (CS), ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a molecule active at both the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor subtypes. Through the activation primarily of CB1 receptors in the central nervous system, THC can reduce nausea, emesis and pain in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. During the last decade, however, several studies have now shown that CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists can act as direct antitumor agents in a variety of aggressive cancers. In addition to THC, there are many other cannabinoids found in CS, and a majority produces little to no psychoactivity due to the inability to activate cannabinoid receptors. For example, the second most abundant cannabinoid in CS is the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Using animal models, CBD has been shown to inhibit the progression of many types of cancer including glioblastoma (GBM), breast, lung, prostate and colon cancer. This review will center on mechanisms by which CBD, and other plant-derived cannabinoids inefficient at activating cannabinoid receptors, inhibit tumor cell viability, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and the stem-like potential of cancer cells. We will also discuss the ability of non-psychoactive cannabinoids to induce autophagy and apoptotic-mediated cancer cell death, and enhance the activity of first-line agents commonly used in cancer treatment. PMID:25916739

  9. Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    PubMed

    Fra?ková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, V?ra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klou?ek, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0?mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp. PMID:25062020

  10. Lipid, sterols and fatty acid composition of abyssal holothurians and ophiuroids from the North-East Pacific Ocean: food web implications.

    PubMed

    Drazen, Jeffrey C; Phleger, Charles F; Guest, Michaela A; Nichols, Peter D

    2008-09-01

    The lipid, fatty acid (FA), and sterol composition of two ophiuroids and four holothurians from the abyssal eastern North Pacific were analysed to assess their feeding habits and to ascertain their composition for use in a larger study to examine food web dynamics and trophic ecology. Holothurians were rich in phytosterols and algal derived FA such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic suggesting tight trophic coupling to phytodetritus. Large proportions of stanols were found, probably a result of enteric bacteria but they may come from sterol metabolism in the holothurians themselves. Oneirophanta mutabilis was distinct with much higher levels of stanols and bacterially derived FA suggesting specific selection of bacteria rich detrital particles or the activity of enteric and integumental bacteria. The ophiuroids sterol and FA compositions differed greatly from the holothurians and reflected consumption of animal material in addition to phytodetritus. Large proportions of energy storage lipids suggested a sporadic food supply. Several unusual fatty acids were found in these abyssal echinoderms. Tetracosahexaenoic acid, 24:6omega3, in ophiuroids and 23:1 in holothurians may be good biomarkers for food web studies. We report the first occurrence of alphaOH 24:1 in holothurians with none detected in ophiuroids. Its function is presently unknown. PMID:18577461

  11. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation, and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed, and (ii) the possible occurrence of unintended (unexpected) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification. In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out, in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds, which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients, known anti-nutrients and toxins. Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects, which require further investigation. Section 2 provides an overview of studies performed for the safety and nutritional assessment of whole food and feed. Extensive experience has been built up in recent decades from the safety and nutritional testing in animals of irradiated foods, novel foods and fruit and vegetables. These approaches are also relevant for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. Many feeding trials have been reported in which GM foods like maize, potatoes, rice, soybeans and tomatoes have been fed to rats or mice for prolonged periods, and parameters such as body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, organ weights, histopathology etc have been measured. The food and feed under investigation were derived from GM plants with improved agronomic characteristics like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or tissues of exposed animals. In some cases adverse effects were noted, which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies. Many studies have also been carried out with feed derived from GM plants with agronomic input traits in target animal species to assess the nutritive value of the feed and their performance potential. Studies in sheep, pigs, broilers, lactating dairy cows, and fish, comparing the in vivo bioavailability of nutrients fro

  12. Stable isotope analysis of plant-derived nitrate - novel method for discrimination between organically and conventionally grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Mihailova, A; Pedentchouk, N; Kelly, S D

    2014-07-01

    The lack of reliable markers for the discrimination between organic and conventional products makes the organic food market susceptible to attempted fraud. Robust analytical methodologies for organic food authentication are urgently needed. In this study a new approach, compound-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of plant-derived nitrate, has been applied alongside bulk nitrogen isotope analysis for discrimination between organically and conventionally greenhouse-grown lettuce and retail potatoes and tomatoes. The method revealed significant differences between conventional and organic fertilisation. An intra-plant isotopic variation as well as significant impact of the fertiliser application rate on the nitrogen and oxygen isotope values of plant-derived nitrate has been observed. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate has a potential for differentiation between organic and conventional crops. Further analysis is needed to improve our understanding of the scope of application and robustness of this compound-specific approach. PMID:24518338

  13. Phthalide derivatives with antifungal activities against the plant pathogens isolated from the liquid culture of Pestalotiopsis photiniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Su; Hu, Qiong-Bo; Luo, Du-Qiang; Zhang, Yan

    2011-11-01

    Three new phthalide derivatives (1-3) named 5-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (1), 5-(3'-carboxyl-3'-methyl-2E-allyloxy)-3-methoxy-4-methylphthalide (2) and 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-2-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (3) together with six known phthalide derivatives named 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-3-methoxy-4-methylphthalide (4), zinnimidine (5), 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-3-methoxy-4-methylphthalide (6), 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-3-methoxy-4-methylphthalic acid (7), zinniol anhydride (8) and porriolide (9) were isolated from the liquid culture of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae isolated from the Chinese Podocarpaceae plant Podocarpus macrophyllus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-9 displayed significant antifungal activities against three plant pathogens. PMID:21915132

  14. Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic ?-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der) was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM) plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP), had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic ?-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM plants expressing, for example, BP100 based on inverted repeats, have adequate agronomic performance and resistant phenotypes as a result of a complex equilibrium between bp100der toxicity to plant cells, antimicrobial activity and transgene-derived plant stress response. It is likely that these results can be extended to other peptides with similar characteristics. PMID:22947243

  15. Reliance on prey-derived nitrogen by the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia decreases with increasing nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Millett, J; Svensson, B M; Newton, J; Rydin, H

    2012-07-01

    • Carnivory in plants is presumed to be an adaptation to a low-nutrient environment. Nitrogen (N) from carnivory is expected to become a less important component of the N budget as root N availability increases. • Here, we investigated the uptake of N via roots versus prey of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing in ombrotrophic bogs along a latitudinal N deposition gradient through Sweden, using a natural abundance stable isotope mass balance technique. • Drosera rotundifolia plants receiving the lowest level of N deposition obtained a greater proportion of N from prey (57%) than did plants on bogs with higher N deposition (22% at intermediate and 33% at the highest deposition). When adjusted for differences in plant mass, this pattern was also present when considering total prey N uptake (66, 26 and 26 ?g prey N per plant at the low, intermediate and high N deposition sites, respectively). The pattern of mass-adjusted root N uptake was opposite to this (47, 75 and 86 ?g N per plant). • Drosera rotundifolia plants in this study switched from reliance on prey N to reliance on root-derived N as a result of increasing N availability from atmospheric N deposition. PMID:22506640

  16. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreńa-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 ?g g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 ?g g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate that defining a relationship among sources and fecal sterols levels is highly difficult and this could be the result of the absorption or migration through an intricate conduit, crack, or fracture karst system. Nevertheless, the "source-levels approach", used in this study, was consistent for the northeast edge and the middle western part of the RC. New and more extensive research should be done to assess the environmental fate of fecal sterols, especially considering the intricate karstic system and its compound retention capacity. PMID:25282019

  17. Arabidopsis sterol carrier protein-2 is required for normal development of seeds and seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bing Song; Rönnberg, Elin; Viitanen, Lenita; Salminen, Tiina A.; Lundgren, Krister; Moritz, Thomas; Edqvist, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana sterol carrier protein-2 (AtSCP2) is a small, basic and peroxisomal protein that in vitro enhances the transfer of lipids between membranes. AtSCP2 and all other plant SCP-2 that have been identified are single-domain polypeptides, whereas in many other eukaryotes SCP-2 domains are expressed in the terminus of multidomain polypeptides. The AtSCP2 transcript is expressed in all analysed tissues and developmental stages, with the highest levels in floral tissues and in maturing seeds. The expression of AtSCP2 is highly correlated with the multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2) involved in ?-oxidation. A. thaliana Atscp2-1 plants deficient in AtSCP2 show altered seed morphology, a delayed germination, and are dependent on an exogenous carbon source to avoid a delayed seedling establishment. Metabolomic investigations revealed 110 variables (putative metabolites) that differed in relative concentration between Atscp2-1 and normal A. thaliana wild-type seedlings. Microarray analysis revealed that many genes whose expression is altered in mutants with a deficiency in the glyoxylate pathway, also have a changed expression level in Atscp2-1. PMID:18687588

  18. Effect of biologically active plants used as netst material and the derived benefit to starling nestlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Clark; J. Russell Mason

    1988-01-01

    The European starling Sturnus vulgaris preferentially incorporates fresh sprigs of particular plant species for use as nesting material. Chemicals found in these plants may act to reduce pathogen and ectoparasite populations normally found in nest environments. The present experiments were performed to test this Nest Protection Hypothesis. In the fild, we experimentally determined that wild carrot Daucus carota, a plant

  19. Deriving the optimal scale for relating topographic attributes and cover crop plant biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muńoz, Juan D.; Kravchenko, Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    The use of cover crops generates a number of agro-ecological benefits for sustainable row-crop agriculture. However, their performance across agricultural fields is often highly spatially variable and there is insufficient information on factors affecting this variability and on tools to manage it. Topography is one of the main factors affecting spatial patterns of plant growth in the American Midwest. Digital elevation models are readily available for deriving topographic attributes; also sensor digital data can be used to indirectly assess cover crop biomass. However, processing procedures for identifying the proper scale of topographic and biomass representations are not well defined. The objectives of this study are to examine how relationships between cover crop biomass, assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and topography depend on the neighborhood size used for deriving topographic attributes and creating NDVI maps; and identify the optimal neighborhood size for correlation and regression analyses. Slope, relative elevation and the potential solar radiation index were the variables that contributed the most to explaining variability in NDVI for raw data. However, other topographic attributes became significant predictors of NDVI at larger neighborhood sizes. We demonstrated that neighborhood size greatly affects some topographic attributes, i.e. curvature, flow accumulation, flow length and the wetness index; and changing the neighborhood size in both topography and NDVI considerably changes the strength of the prediction performance in multiple regression models. We studied six neighborhood sizes from 1 to 40 m and the original raw data. On average, across all studied fields the best performance of multiple regression, as determined by the adjusted-R2, was obtained at neighborhood sizes 20 and 40 m. Parameters of semivariogram models for terrain slope, such as the spatial autocorrelation range and the nugget/sill ratio, were found to be good indicators of prediction performance and optimum neighborhood size for filtering the raw data. The results demonstrate that topographic effects on growth and biomass production of cover crops are most pronounced at certain spatial scales, and topographic model predictions will be most accurate when used at the optimal scales.

  20. Sterols in erg mutants of Phycomyces: metabolic pathways and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Oltra, J Enrique; Robinson, John; Burke, Patricia V; Jiménez, David; Oliver, Eulalia

    2002-04-01

    Phycomyces is a fungal producer of beta-carotene and other beneficial metabolites. Several erg mutants of Phycomyces, originally selected to study the effects of membrane alteration on physiological responses, have now been used to gain information about sterol biosynthesis in filamentous fungi. One mutant, H23, and its progeny were found to be blocked at episterol C-5 dehydrogenase and did not produce ergosterol or any other sterol with a conjugated Delta(5,7) diene system. This mutant showed abnormal phototropism, which was correlated with the altered sterol composition. Another mutant, H25, seems to be a regulatory mutant. All analyzed mutants synthesized ergosta-7,22,24(28)-trien-3beta-ol, demonstrating for the first time that the sterol C-22 dehydrogenase of Phycomyces is capable of recognizing sterols with a 24(28) unsaturated side chain. New evidence regarding the biogenesis of neoergosterol and phycomysterols, the potential sparking function of cholesterol, as well as the regulation of sterol biosynthesis in this fungus is also reported. Given these results, a pathway for sterol biosynthesis in Phycomyces is proposed. PMID:11958798

  1. A 2h-nmr Study Of Popc/sterol Membranes: Some Exciting Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaghaghi, Mehran; Zuckermann, Martin; Thewalt, Jenifer

    2009-05-01

    In a recent article [1], Y-W Hsueh et al showed that the 2H-NMR order parameter, M1, of 1-[2H31]palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/ergosterol multi-bilayers at 25oC increased linearly as a function of ergosterol concentration to 25 mol%, but did not increase further when more ergosterol was added. By contrast, M1 for POPC/cholesterol bilayers increases linearly to at least 50% sterol. The structural difference between cholesterol and ergosterol is that ergosterol has an additional double bond in its fused ring (C7-8) and a trans double bond (C22-23) plus a methyl group (at C24) in its alkyl chain. We study which of these structural changes is responsible for the observed saturation of the order parameter in POPC/ergosterol bilayers. In [1] it was shown that the M1 of POPC/7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) multilayers behaves similarly to that of POPC/cholesterol, increasing linearly with [7-DHC]. 7-DHC has an ergosterol fused ring structure but a cholesterol alkyl tail. To explore this phenomenon, we determined the sterol concentration dependence of POPC containing two different sterols with structural similarities with respect to the before studied sterols. Other sterols are also being investigated in order to understand the sensitivity of POPC/sterol membranes to the sterol's alkyl tail structure. [1] Y-W Hsueh et al., (2007) Biophys. J. 92:1606-1615.

  2. Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kuramochi, Kouji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of ?-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans-citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24682420

  3. Reduction of Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets by plant-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Nair, Divek V T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Schilling, Wes; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2014-12-01

    The foodborne illnesses associated with poultry meat due to Salmonella are a major concern in the United States. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of carvacrol, eugenol, thyme essential oil, and trans-cinnamaldehyde was determined against different Salmonella serotypes in vitro and on turkey breast cutlets. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of antimicrobial agents were determined using a microdilution colorimetric assay. Carvacrol was the most effective antimicrobial agent since it exhibited the lowest MIC and MBC (0.313??L/mL, respectively) in culture media against Salmonella. Turkey breast cutlets inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Typhimurium were dip treated with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 5% vol/vol) of carvacrol, eugenol, thyme essential oil, and trans-cinnamaldehyde for 2?min. Samples were analyzed after 24-h storage at 4°C for recovery of Salmonella. Significant reductions of Salmonella (p?0.05) on turkey breast cutlets were obtained with 1, 2, and 5% treatments. These compounds exhibited a concentration-dependent response on turkey breast cutlets against Salmonella. For example, 1% carvacrol resulted in 1.0 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g reduction of Salmonella whereas 5% carvacrol caused 2.6 log CFU/g reduction. Based on its efficacy in the 2-min dip study, carvacrol was selected for 30-s and 60-s dip treatments of Salmonella-inoculated turkey breast cutlets. Dipping turkey breast cutlets in 5% carvacrol for 30?s and 60?s resulted in 1.0 and 1.8 log reductions of Salmonella (p?0.05), respectively. None of the antimicrobial agents caused any changes in the meat pH (p>0.05). In conclusion, this study revealed that plant-derived compounds such as carvacrol can reduce Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets without changing the pH of meat. PMID:25405806

  4. Effects of phytoestrogens and other plant-derived compounds on mesenchymal stem cells, bone maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Tatjana; Ebert, Regina; Raaijmakers, Nadja; Schütze, Norbert; Jakob, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens and other plant-derived compounds and extracts have been developed for the treatment of menopause-related complaints and disorders, e.g. hot flushes and osteoporosis. Since estrogens have been discussed to enhance the risk for hormone-sensitive cancers, research activities try to find alternatives. Phytoestrogens like genistein and resveratrol as well as other plant-derived compounds are capable of substituting for estrogens to some extent. Their effects on mesenchymal stem cells and the tissues derived therefrom have been investigated in vitro and in preclinical settings. Besides their well-known estrogenic, i.e. mainly antiresorptive effects on bone via estrogen receptor (ER) signalling, they also directly or indirectly affect osteogenic and adipogenic pathways. As a novel mechanism, phytoestrogens and plant-derived saponins and flavonoids like kaempferol and xanthohumol have been described to reciprocally affect the osteogenic versus the adipogenic differentiation pathway. Both, ER-mediated and other pathways mediate a shift towards osteogenesis by inhibiting PPAR? and C/EBP?, the key adipogenic transcription factors (TFs), while stimulating the key osteogenic TFs Runx2 and Sp7. Besides ER signalling, the broad spectrum of molecular mechanisms supporting osteogenesis comprises the modulation of PPAR?, Wnt/?-catenin, and Sirt1 signalling, which inversely influence the transcription or transactivation of osteogenic versus adipogenic TFs. Preventing the age- and hormone deficiency-related shift towards adipogenesis without provoking adverse estrogenic effects represents a very promising strategy for treating bone loss and other metabolic diseases beyond bone. Research on plant-derived compounds will have to be pursued in vitro as well as in preclinical studies and controlled clinical trials in humans are urgently needed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'. PMID:23262262

  5. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  6. Derivatives of diterpen labdane-8?,15-diol as photosynthetic inhibitors in spinach chloroplasts and growth plant inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Morales-Flores, Félix; Aguilar, María Isabel; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2013-08-01

    In a search of new efficient herbicides of natural origin, four derivatives were prepared from labdane-8?,15-diol (1) and 15-O-acetyl-8?-hydroxy labdane (2) isolated from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus. Their inhibitory activity on photosynthetic electron transport on fresh, broken spinach chloroplasts and on the growth of plants were determined. Derivative 15-O-benzoyl-8?-hydroxy labdane (5) was seven times more active than 2 as reaction Hill inhibitor. Complex of 5 with the adjuvant 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (5:HPB) (200 ?M) was sprayed on Physalys ixocarpa (green tomato) plants; 48 h later the complex inhibited PS II by transforming the active reaction centers to silent reaction centers or "heat sinks". After 72 h this effect disappeared, probably 5:HPB was metabolized by the plant. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of Trifolium alexandrinum (clover) leaves was affected with 5:HPB at the level of PQ pool reduction. 5:HPB decreases the tomato and clover dry-biomass, without affecting Lolium perenne (grass) plants, suggesting that complex 5 acts as selective herbicide for dicotyledonous plants. PMID:23733160

  7. Effects of Miconazole and Dodecylimidazole on Sterol Biosynthesis in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Matthew J.; Sisler, Hugh D.

    1979-01-01

    Miconazole at minimal fungitoxic concentrations inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis in sporidia of Ustilago maydis by interference with sterol C14 demethylation. The action is analogous to that of the fungicides triarimol and fenarimol. The fungicide 1-dodecylimidazole at low concentrations (0.1 to 0.25 ?g/ml) inhibits sterol C14 demethylation; however, at higher concentrations (1.0 ?g/ml or greater) it also inhibits 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclization and subsequent transmethylation. It is postulated that this diversity of effects of 1-dodecylimidazole results from binding of the inhibitor to sterol carrier protein(s). PMID:464593

  8. Polyoxygenated ergostane-type sterols from the liquid culture of Ganoderma applanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Young Lee; Ju Sun Kim; Sanghyun Lee; Sam Sik Kang

    2011-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated ergostane-type sterol, 3?,5?,6?,8?,14?-pentahydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergost-22-en-7-one (1), has been isolated from the liquid culture of the basidiomycete Ganoderma applanatum together with four known sterols, 3?,5?,9?-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (2), ergosterol peroxide (3), 6-dehydrocerevisterol (4) and cerevisterol (5). Two of these sterols (2, 4) are reported to have been isolated from this species for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined

  9. Multicomponent synthesis of 4,4-dimethyl sterol analogues and their effect on eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Fernando; Cirigliano, Adriana M; Dávola, María Eugenia; Cabrera, Gabriela M; García Lińares, Guadalupe E; Labriola, Carlos; Barquero, Andrea A; Ramírez, Javier A

    2014-06-01

    Most sterols, such as cholesterol and ergosterol, become functional only after the removal of the two methyl groups at C-4 from their biosynthetic precursors. Nevertheless, some findings suggest that 4,4-dimethyl sterols might be involved in specific physiological processes. In this paper we present the synthesis of a collection of analogues of 4,4-dimethyl sterols with a diamide side chain and a preliminary analysis of their in vitro activity on selected biological systems. The key step for the synthesis involves an Ugi condensation, a versatile multicomponent reaction. Some of the new compounds showed antifungal and cytotoxic activity. PMID:24632026

  10. GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE8 and STEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 Are Required for Ploidy Consistency of the Sexual Reproduction System in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; De Schrijver, Joachim; Van Criekinge, Wim; Wewer, Vera; Dörmann, Peter; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In sexually reproducing plants, the meiocyte-producing archesporal cell lineage is maintained at the diploid state to consolidate the formation of haploid gametes. In search of molecular factors that regulate this ploidy consistency, we isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, called enlarged tetrad2 (et2), which produces tetraploid meiocytes through the stochastic occurrence of premeiotic endomitosis. Endomitotic polyploidization events were induced by alterations in cell wall formation, and similar cytokinetic defects were sporadically observed in other tissues, including cotyledons and leaves. ET2 encodes GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE8 (GSL8), a callose synthase that mediates the deposition of callose at developing cell plates, root hairs, and plasmodesmata. Unlike other gsl8 mutants, in which defects in cell plate formation are seedling lethal, cytokinetic defects in et2 predominantly occur in flowers and have little effect on vegetative growth and development. Similarly, mutations in STEROL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 (SMT2), a major sterol biosynthesis enzyme, also lead to weak cytokinetic defects, primarily in the flowers. In addition, SMT2 allelic mutants also generate tetraploid meiocytes through the ectopic induction of premeiotic endomitosis. These observations demonstrate that appropriate callose and sterol biosynthesis are required for maintaining the ploidy level of the premeiotic germ lineage and that subtle defects in cytokinesis may lead to diploid gametes and polyploid offspring. PMID:23404886

  11. Analysis of monoglycerides, diglycerides, sterols, and free fatty acids in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) oil by 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dayrit, Fabian M; Buenafe, Olivia Erin M; Chainani, Edward T; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S

    2008-07-23

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( (31)P NMR) was used to differentiate virgin coconut oil (VCO) from refined, bleached, deodorized coconut oil (RCO). Monoglycerides (MGs), diglycerides (DGs), sterols, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in VCO and RCO were converted into dioxaphospholane derivatives and analyzed by (31)P NMR. On the average, 1-MG was found to be higher in VCO (0.027%) than RCO (0.019%). 2-MG was not detected in any of the samples down to a detection limit of 0.014%. On the average, total DGs were lower in VCO (1.55%) than RCO (4.10%). When plotted in terms of the ratio [1,2-DG/total DGs] versus total DGs, VCO and RCO samples grouped separately. Total sterols were higher in VCO (0.096%) compared with RCO (0.032%), and the FFA content was 8 times higher in VCO than RCO (0.127% vs 0.015%). FFA determination by (31)P NMR and titration gave comparable results. Principal components analysis shows that the 1,2-DG, 1,3-DG, and FFAs are the most important parameters for differentiating VCO from RCO. PMID:18576656

  12. Improved stability of TMS derivatives for the robust quantification of plant polar metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quéro, Anthony; Jousse, Cyril; Lequart-Pillon, Michelle; Gontier, Eric; Guillot, Xavier; Courtois, Bernard; Courtois, Josiane; Pau-Roblot, Corinne

    2014-11-01

    Plant metabolite profiling is commonly carried out by GC-MS of methoximated trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. This technique is robust and enables a library search for spectra produced by electron ionization. However, recent articles have described problems associated with the low stability of some TMS derivatives. This limits the use of GC-MS for metabolomic studies that need large sets of qualitative and quantitative analyses. The aim of this work is to determine the experimental conditions in which the stability of TMS derivatives could be improved. This would facilitate the analysis of the large-scale experimental designs needed in the metabolomics approach. For good repeatability, the sampling conditions and the storage temperature of samples during analysis were investigated. Multiple injections of one sample from one vial led to high variations while injection of one sample from different vials improved the analysis. However, before injection, some amino acid TMS derivatives were degraded during the storage of vials in the autosampler. Only 10% of the initial quantity of glutamine 3 TMS and glutamate 3 TMS and 66% of ?-alanine 2 TMS was detected 48 h after derivatization. When stored at 4 °C until injection, all TMS derivatives remained stable for 12 h; at -20 °C, they remained stable for 72 h. From the integration of all these results, a detailed analytical procedure is thus proposed. It enables a robust quantification of polar metabolites, useful for further plant metabolomics studies using GC-MS. PMID:25237783

  13. Antibiotic properties of extracts derived from medicinal plants with liquid carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Khanin; A. I. Korotyaev; A. F. Prokopchuk; T. V. Perova; O. F. Vyazemskii

    1968-01-01

    UDC 615.779 We have studied the antimicrobial properties of substances extracted from spice-aromatic and medicinal plants. For evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of preparations isolated from plants, essential and extractive oils, alcohol-water extracts, freshly prepared slurry, and also tissue juices of the original raw material are used in general practice [1-3]. Substances isolated from plants that possess antimicrobial characteristics are

  14. Yeast mutants blocked in removing the methyl group of lanosterol at C-14. Separation of sterols by high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Trocha, P J; Jasne, S J; Sprinson, D B

    1977-10-18

    Sterols of a nystatin resistant mutant of the wild type parent of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were separated by a newly developed procedure involving high-pressure liquid chromatography and were identified. The mutant contained larger amounts of squalene and lanosterol (I) than the wild type, as well as 4,14-dimethylcholesta-8,24-dien-3beta-ol (II), 4,14-dimethylergosta-8,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (III), and 14-methylergosta-8,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (IV), which were not hitherto found in yeast. These results indicated a block in removal of the methyl group at C-14 of lanosterol. An ergosterol requiring derivative of the mutant which carried in addition a mutation in heme biosynthesis had the same sterols as the parent, but at one-third the concentration. The low level of sterols may be due to a requirement for a heme or cytochrome in oxygenation reactions between lanosterol and ergosterol. PMID:334248

  15. Development of a novel method for quantification of sterols and oxysterols by UPLC-ESI-HRMS: application to a neuroinflammation rat model.

    PubMed

    Ayciriex, Sophie; Regazzetti, Anne; Gaudin, Mathieu; Prost, Elise; Dargčre, Delphine; Massicot, France; Auzeil, Nicolas; Laprévote, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Cholesterol and oxysterols are involved as key compounds in the development of severe neurodegenerative diseases and in neuroinflammation processes. Monitoring their concentration changes under pathological conditions is of interest to get insights into the role of lipids in diseases. For numerous years, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been the method of choice for metabolites identification and quantification in biological samples. However, sterols and oxysterols are relatively apolar molecules poorly adapted to electrospray ionization (ESI). To circumvent this drawback, we developed a novel and robust analytical method involving derivatization of these analytes in cholesteryl N-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl carbamates under alkaline conditions followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis (UPLC-HRMS). Optimized UPLC conditions led to the separation of a mixture of 11 derivatized sterols and oxysterols especially side chain substituted derivatives after 6 min of chromatographic run. High sensitivity time-of-flight mass analysis allowed analytes to be detected in the nanomolar range. The method was validated for the analysis of oxysterols and sterols in mice brain in respect of linearity, limits of quantification, accuracy, precision, analyte stability, and recovery according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. The developed method was successfully applied to investigate the impact of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on the rat cerebral steroidome. PMID:23010846

  16. Plant-Derived MINA05 Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Proliferation In Vitro and Lymph Node Spread In Vivo1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Vandyke; Melanie Y. White; Terry Nguyen-Khuong; Kim Ow; Sharon C.-W. Luk; Elizabeth A. Kingsley; Alexandra Rowe; Shiu-Fun Pang; Bradley J. Walsh; Pamela J. Russell

    Few treatment options exist for metastatic prostate cancer (PC) that becomes hormone refractory (HRPC). In vitro, plant-derived MINA-05 caused dose-dependent decreases in cell numbers in HRPC cell lines LNCaP- C4-2B and PC-3, and in androgen-sensitive LNCaP-FGC, DuCaP, and LAPC-4, by WST-1 assay. MINA-05 pre- treatment significantly decreased clonogenic survival in agar and on plastic at 1 ? and 2 ?

  17. Interaction between a plant-derived smoke extract, light and phytohormones on the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Staden; A. K. Jäger; A. Strydom

    1995-01-01

    Plant-derived smoke extracts mimics the effect of red light on germination in light-sensitive lettuce seeds and partially overcomes the inhibitory effect of far-red light. Interaction between a smoke extract and gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethephon was investigated. Smoke acted synergistically with GA3 and increased the sensitivity of the lettuce seeds to ABA. It seems likely that smoke affects membrane

  18. Tissue culture of Corydalis yanhusuo ( Fumariaceae ) and its medicinal compound production from somatic embryo-derived plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Nalawade; A. P. Sagare; C. L. Kuo; S. F. Lo; C. Y. Lee; Y. L. Lee; H. S. Tsay

    An efficient method for regeneration of entire plants via somatic embryogenesis in Corydalis yanhusuo using tuber-derived callus has been developed. Primary callus was obtained by culturing tuber explants on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) (1962) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l?1 N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 mg l?1 ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in darkness for one month. Somatic embryos were induced by subculturing

  19. Structure–activity relationship of flavonoids derived from medicinal plants in preventing methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeferson L. Franco; Thais Posser; Fabiana Missau; Moacir G. Pizzolatti; Adair R. S. Santos; Diogo O. Souza; Michael Aschner; Joăo B. T. Rocha; Alcir L. Dafre; Marcelo Farina

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effects of three flavonoids (myricetin, myricitrin and rutin) derived from medicinal plants against methyl mercury (MeHg)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro. Incubation of mouse brain mitochondria with MeHg induced a significant decrease in mitochondrial function, which was correlated with decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and

  20. The effect of size and acetylation degree of chitosan derivatives on tobacco plant protection against Phytophthora parasitica nicotianae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro B. Falcón; Juan Carlos Cabrera; Daimy Costales; Miguel Angel Ramírez; Gustavo Cabrera; Verónica Toledo; Miguel Angel Martínez-Téllez

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic degradation of chitosan polymer with Pectinex Ultra SPL was used to obtain derivatives with biological potential\\u000a as protective agents against Phytophthora parasitica nicotianae (Ppn) in tobacco plants. The 24 h hydrolysate showed the highest Ppn antipathogenic activity and the chitosan native polymer the lowest. The in vitro growth inhibition of several Phytophthora parasitica strains by two chitosans of different DA was

  1. New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 Derived from the Mangrove Plant Acanthus ilicifolius

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Xiuping; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefeng; Liu, Juan; Yang, Bin; Yang, Xianwen; Liao, Shengrong; Wang, Lishu; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Four new meroterpenoids (2–5), along with three known analogues (1, 6, and 7) were isolated from mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analysis, the configurations were assigned by CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1–7 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:25574738

  2. Degradation and Preservation of Vascular Plant-derived Biomarkers in Grassland and Forest Soils from Western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Otto; Myrna J. Simpson

    2005-01-01

    The total solvent extracts (TSE) of mineral and organic horizons of selected soils and overlying vegetation were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to determine the composition of solvent-extractable (‘free’) lipids in soils and to study the degradation and possible preservation of vascular plant-derived molecular markers (biomarkers) in soils. Major compound classes in the TSE of soils and vegetation included

  3. Natural products as potential human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel inhibitors - screening of plant-derived alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Anja; Saxena, Priyanka; Chlebek, Jakub; Cahlíková, Lucie; Baburin, Igor; Hering, Steffen; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Inhibition of the cardiac human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel is a problematic off-target pharmacological activity and, hence, a major safety liability in clinical practice. Several non-cardiac drugs have been restricted in their use, or even removed from the market due to this potentially fatal adverse effect. Comparatively little is known about the human ether-a-go-go-related gene inhibitory potential of plant-derived compounds. In the course of an ongoing human ether-a-go-go-related gene in vitro study, a total of 32 structurally diverse alkaloids of plant origin as well as two semi-synthetically obtained protoberberine derivatives were screened by means of an automated Xenopus oocyte assay. Protopine, (+)-bulbocapnine, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine, (+)-boldine, (+)-chelidonine, (+)-corynoline, reserpine, and yohimbine reduced the human ether-a-go-go-related gene current by ? 50% at 100 µM, and were submitted to concentration-response experiments. Our data show that some widely occurring plant-derived alkaloids carry a potential risk for human ether-a-go-go-related gene toxicity. PMID:24963621

  4. Laboratory and field evaluations of chemical and plant-derived potential repellents against Culicoides biting midges in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    González, M; Venter, G J; López, S; Iturrondobeitia, J C; Goldarazena, A

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of 23 compounds in repelling Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), particularly Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) females, was determined by means of a Y-tube olfactometer. The 10 most effective compounds were further evaluated in landing bioassays. The six most promising compounds (including chemical and plant-derived repellents) were evaluated at 10% and 25% concentrations in field assays using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. At least three compounds showed promising results against Culicoides biting midges with the methodologies used. Whereas olfactometer assays indicated DEET at 1?µg/µL to be the most effective repellent, filter paper landing bioassays showed plant-derived oils to be better. Light traps fitted with polyester mesh impregnated with a mixture of octanoic, decanoic and nonanoic fatty acids at 10% and 25% concentrations collected 2.2 and 3.6 times fewer midges than control traps and were as effective as DEET, which is presently considered the reference standard insect repellent. The best plant-derived product was lemon eucalyptus oil. Although these have been reported as safe potential repellents, the present results indicate DEET and the mixture of organic fatty acids to be superior and longer lasting. PMID:25079042

  5. Comprehensive molecular characterization of tissue-culture-derived Hordeum marinum plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Shimron-Abarbanell; A. Breiman

    1991-01-01

    Scuttelar calli of Hordeum marinum readily and efficiently regenerate functional plants. In order to assess genetic variability among the regenerants we employed multiple analytic tools, which included molecular and biochemical assays. Total DNA extract from regenerated plants was digested with at least two restriction enzymes and hybridized to four nuclear and six mitochondrial coding sequences, in addition to one nuclear

  6. Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase.

    PubMed Central

    Zarn, Jürg A; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Schlatter, Josef R

    2003-01-01

    Azole compounds play a key role as antifungals in agriculture and in human mycoses and as non-steroidal antiestrogens in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors in postmenopausal women. This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition of certain pathways of steroidogenesis by high-affinity binding to the enzymes sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase. Sterol 14-alpha-demethylase is crucial for the production of meiosis-activating sterols, which recently were shown to modulate germ cell development in both sexes of mammals. Aromatase is responsible for the physiologic balance of androgens and estrogens. At high doses, azole fungicides and other azole compounds affect reproductive organs, fertility, and development in several species. These effects may be explained by inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and/or aromatase. In fact, several azole compounds were shown to inhibit these enzymes in vitro, and there is also strong evidence for inhibiting activity in vivo. Furthermore, the specificity of the enzyme inhibition of several of these compounds is poor, both with respect to fungal versus nonfungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylases and versus other P450 enzymes including aromatase. To our knowledge, this is the first review on sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase as common targets of azole compounds and the consequence for steroidogenesis. We conclude that many azole compounds developed as inhibitors of fungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylase are inhibitors also of mammalian sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and mammalian aromatase with unknown potencies. For human health risk assessment, data on comparative potencies of azole fungicides to fungal and human enzymes are needed. PMID:12611652

  7. Serum cholesterol precursor sterols in coeliac disease: effects of gluten free diet and cholestyramine.

    PubMed Central

    Vuoristo, M; Miettinen, T A

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced biliary secretion and high faecal excretion of cholesterol are associated with increased cholesterol synthesis in coeliac disease. We have further investigated cholesterol synthesis in coeliac disease by determining the concentrations of faecal steroids and cholesterol precursors in serum, with and without a gluten free diet and while taking cholestyramine. The levels of unesterified methyl sterols and free and esterified lathosterol, but not those of squalene and desmosterol, were increased in proportion to the level of cholesterol synthesis, as measured with the sterol balance technique. Serum esterified methyl sterol concentrations were also slightly higher but, unlike free methyl sterols or lathosterol, they were not significantly correlated with cholesterol synthesis. The gluten free diet decreased the level of cholesterol synthesis, and the levels of lathosterol and free methyl sterols. There was less decrease in the concentration of esterified methyl sterols, and an insignificant decrease in the concentrations of squalene and desmosterol. Cholestyramine lowered the serum cholesterol concentration and increased that of serum free methyl sterols less in the patients than in the controls, and the increase was proportionate to increase of cholesterol elimination (or synthesis). The increase of serum free methyl sterols per unit of the increase of cholesterol elimination (or synthesis) was three times higher in the bile acid malabsorption caused by cholestyramine than in the cholesterol malabsorption caused by gluten enteropathy. On the other hand, the decrease in the level of serum cholesterol relative to the increase in cholesterol elimination (or synthesis) was higher in cholesterol malabsorption due to coeliac disease than in cholestyramine induced bile acid malabsorption. Effective secretion of newly synthesised and/or absorbed cholesterol directly into the bile could be a factor in the marked decrease of the serum cholesterol concentration in coeliac disease. PMID:3792914

  8. Sterol compositions of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing terrestrial cyanobacterium Scytonema sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. ?ezanka; V. M. Dembitsky; J. V. Go; I. Dor; A. Prell; L. Hanuš

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen unsaturated sterols were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using serially-coupled capillary columns\\u000a from the filamentous nitrogen-fixing terrestrial cyanobacteriumScytonema sp. isolated from the microbial community of cyanobacterial on ‘Black Cover’ biofilms lime-stone walls in Jerusalem. The\\u000a dominant sterols were cholest-5-en-3?-ol (18.9 %), 3?-methoxycholest-5-ene (16.2 %) and 3?-acetoxycholest-5-ene (11.2 %).

  9. Independent Regulation of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins 1 and 2 in Hamster Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeqi Sheng; Hideo Otani; Michael S. Brown; Joseph L. Goldstein

    1995-01-01

    Two sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs, designated SREBP-1 and SREBP-2), each ≈1150 amino acids in length, are attached to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope in human and hamster tissue culture cells. In the absence of sterols, soluble fragments of ≈470 amino acids are released from both proteins by proteolytic cleavage. The soluble fragments enter the nucleus, where

  10. Effects of imazalil on sterol composition of sensitive and DMI-resistant isolates of Penicillium italicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Guan; A. Kerkenaar; M. A. De Waard

    1989-01-01

    Imazalil differentially inhibited dry weight increase of 10-hour-old germlings of wild-type and DMI-resistant isolates ofPenicillium italicum in liquid malt cultures. EC50 values ranged from 0.005 to 0.27 ?g ml?1. In all isolates ergosterol constituted the major sterol (over 95% of total sterols) in the absence of the fungicide. Therefore, DMI-resistance cannot be associated to a deficiency of the C-14 demethylation

  11. Sterols, methylsterols, and triterpene alcohols in three Theaceae and some other vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiro Itoh; Toshitake Tamura; Taro Matsumoto

    1974-01-01

    The unsaponifiables from threeTheaceae (Camellia japonica L.,Camellia Sasanqua Thunb., andThea sinensis L.) oils and alfalfa, garden balsam, and spinach seed oils and shea fat were separated into four fractions: sterols, 4-methylsterols,\\u000a triterpene alcohols, and less polar compounds by thin layer chromatography. While the sterol fraction was the major one for\\u000a the unsaponifiables from alfalfa and spinach seed oils, the triterpene

  12. An efficient diethyl ether-based soxhlet protocol to quantify faecal sterols from catchment waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikas Kumar G. Shah; Hugh Dunstan; Warren Taylor

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and reproducibility of a diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure for faecal sterols occurring from catchment waters. Water samples spiked with a mixture of faecal sterols were filtered and analytes were extracted using the diethyl ether-based soxhlet method and the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process. For diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure, solvent

  13. Plant-Based Vaccine: Mice Immunized with Chloroplast-Derived Anthrax Protective Antigen Survive Anthrax Lethal Toxin Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Vijay; Moayeri, Mahtab; Leppla, Stephen H.; Daniell, Henry

    2005-01-01

    The currently available human vaccine for anthrax, derived from the culture supernatant of Bacillus anthracis, contains the protective antigen (PA) and traces of the lethal and edema factors, which may contribute to adverse side effects associated with this vaccine. Therefore, an effective expression system that can provide a clean, safe, and efficacious vaccine is required. In an effort to produce anthrax vaccine in large quantities and free of extraneous bacterial contaminants, PA was expressed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts by inserting the pagA gene into the chloroplast genome. Chloroplast integration of the pagA gene was confirmed by PCR and Southern analysis. Mature leaves grown under continuous illumination contained PA as up to 14.2% of the total soluble protein. Cytotoxicity measurements in macrophage lysis assays showed that chloroplast-derived PA was equal in potency to PA produced in B. anthracis. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with partially purified chloroplast-derived or B. anthracis-derived PA with adjuvant yielded immunoglobulin G titers up to 1:320,000, and both groups of mice survived (100%) challenge with lethal doses of toxin. An average yield of about 150 mg of PA per plant should produce 360 million doses of a purified vaccine free of bacterial toxins edema factor and lethal factor from 1 acre of land. Such high expression levels without using fermenters and the immunoprotection offered by the chloroplast-derived PA should facilitate development of a cleaner and safer anthrax vaccine at a lower production cost. These results demonstrate the immunogenic and immunoprotective properties of plant-derived anthrax vaccine antigen. PMID:16299323

  14. Functional expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51A1 encoding lanosterol-14-demethylase in tobacco results in bypass of endogenous sterol biosynthetic pathway and resistance to an obtusifoliol-14-demethylase herbicide inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Grausem, B; Chaubet, N; Gigot, C; Loper, J C; Benveniste, P

    1995-05-01

    Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts have been transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a T-DNA in which the gene CYP51A1 encoding lanosterol-14-demethylase (LAN14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Two transformants strongly expressed the LAN14DM as shown by Northern and Western experiments. These transgenic calli were killed by LAB 170250F (LAB) (a phytotoxic fungicide inhibiting both plant obtusifoliol-14-demethylase (OBT14DM) and LAN14DM) but were resistant to gamma-ketotriazole (gamma-kt), a herbicide which has been shown to inhibit OBT14DM but not LAN14DM at a concentration that was lethal to control calli. However, these transgenic calli were killed by mixtures of gamma-kt plus fungicide inhibitors of LAN14DM such as ketoconazole, itraconazole or flusilazole which alone were not effective. Further analysis of the transgenic calli grown in the presence of gamma-kt showed that their delta 5-sterol content was close to that of untreated control calli obtained from protoplasts transformed with control plasmid; this is in agreement with evidence that the LAN14DM expressed from the transgene could bypass the blocked OBT14DM by using the plant substate obtusifoliol. In contrast, control calli when treated with gamma-kt, displayed a sterol content strongly enriched in 14 alpha-methyl sterols and depressed in physiological delta 5-sterols. When the transgenic calli were cultured in mixtures of gamma-kt and LAN14DM inhibitors sterol compositions enriched in 14 alpha-methyl sterols were obtained, reflecting a strong inhibition of both 'endogenous' OBT14DM and 'exogenous' LAN14DM. Taken together these results show that in tobacco calli transformed with CYP51A1, resistance to a triazole herbicide arises from expression of a functional LAN14DM enzyme; its activity in transgenic tissues creates a bypass of the sterol biosynthetic pathway at the 14-demethylase level when this latter is blocked by an OBT14DM herbicide inhibitor. PMID:7773307

  15. Non-cholesterol sterol levels predict hyperglycemia and conversion to type 2 diabetes in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, Henna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A; Paananen, Jussi; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Stan?áková, Alena; Smith, Ulf; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the levels of non-cholesterol sterols as predictors for the development of hyperglycemia (an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test) and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Finnish men (METSIM Study, N?=?1,050) having non-cholesterol sterols measured at baseline. Additionally we determined the association of 538,265 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with non-cholesterol sterol levels in a cross-sectional cohort of non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes (the Kuopio cohort of the EUGENE2 Study, N?=?273). We found that in a cross-sectional METSIM Study the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol absorption were reduced as a function of increasing fasting glucose levels, whereas the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol synthesis were increased as a function of increasing 2-hour glucose levels. A cholesterol synthesis marker desmosterol significantly predicted an increase, and two absorption markers (campesterol and avenasterol) a decrease in the risk of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort, mainly attributable to insulin sensitivity. A SNP of ABCG8 was associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a cross-sectional study but did not predict hyperglycemia or incident type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the levels of some, but not all non-cholesterol sterols are markers of the worsening of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23840693

  16. Potential New Pharmacological Agents Derived From Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Haniye; Khakshur, Ali Asghar; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    In the present article, we reviewed plants and phytochemical compounds demonstrating beneficial effects in pancreatic cancer to find new sources of pharmaceutical agents. For this purpose, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google scholar were searched for plants or herbal components with beneficial effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Data were collected up to January 2013. The search terms were "plant," "herb," "herbal therapy," or "phytotherapy" and "pancreatic cancer" or "pancreas." All of the human in vivo and in vitro studies were included. According to studies, among diverse plants and phytochemicals, 12 compounds including apigenin, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, benzyl isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, curcumin, thymoquinone, dihydroartemisinin, cucurbitacin B, and perillyl alcohol have beneficial action against pancreatic cancer cells through 4 or more mechanisms. Applying their plausible synergistic effects can be an imperative approach for finding new efficient pharmacological agents in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25493374

  17. The Biological Activity of ?-Mangostin, a Larvicidal Botanic Mosquito Sterol Carrier Protein-2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    LARSON, RYAN T.; LORCH, JEFFREY M.; PRIDGEON, JULIA W.; BECNEL, JAMES J.; CLARK, GARY G.; LAN, QUE

    2010-01-01

    ?-Mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. ?-Mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against third instar larvae of six mosquito species, and the median lethal concentration values range from 0.84 to 2.90 ppm. The residual larvicidal activity of ?-mangostin was examined under semifield conditions. The results indicated that ?-mangostin was photolytic with a half-life of 53 min in water under full sunlight exposure. The effect of ?-mangostin on activities of major detoxification enzymes such as P450, glutathione S-transferase, and esterase was investigated. The results showed that ?-mangostin significantly elevated activities of P450 and glutathione S-transferase in larvae, whereas it suppressed esterase activity. Toxicity of ?-mangostin against young rats was studied, and there was no detectable adverse effect at dosages as high as 80 mg/kg. This is the first multifaceted study of the biological activity of ?-mangostin in mosquitoes. The results suggest that ?-mangostin may be a lead compound for the development of a new organically based mosquito larvicide. PMID:20380307

  18. Micellar liquid chromatography of plant growth regulators detected by derivative fluorometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. García Sánchez; A. Navas Díaz; A. García Pareja

    1996-01-01

    A micellar liquid chromatographic method with fluorimetric detection was developed for the determination of the plant growth regulators indol 3-yl acetic acid (IAA), 2-(1-naphthyl) acetic acid (1-NAA), indol 3-yl propionic acid (IPA), 2-(2-naphthyl) acetic acid (2-NAA), indol 3-yl butyric acid (IBA), 2-(1-naphthyl) acetamide (1-Namide) and indol 3-yl acetic acid ethyl ester (IAA ethyl ester). Extraction of plant hormones was performed

  19. Plant regeneration of mulberry ( Morus indica ) from mesophyll-derived protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; K. Kiranmayee; T. Jaya Sree; A. Sadanandam

    2005-01-01

    A protocol is presented for regenerating plants from protoplasts of tropical mulberry. Leaves from seedling node cultures maintained in vitro were used as donor tissue. Optimal cell wall digestion was achieved with a combination of cellulase (2%) and macerozyme (1%). The plant growth regulator (PGR) combination zeatin (2.3 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2.3 ?M) resulted in the highest number (29%) of

  20. Comprehensive molecular characterization of tissue-culture-derived Hordeum marinum plants.

    PubMed

    Shimron-Abarbanell, D; Breiman, A

    1991-11-01

    Scuttelar calli of Hordeum marinum readily and efficiently regenerate functional plants. In order to assess genetic variability among the regenerants we employed multiple analytic tools, which included molecular and biochemical assays. Total DNA extract from regenerated plants was digested with at least two restriction enzymes and hybridized to four nuclear and six mitochondrial coding sequences, in addition to one nuclear and three mitochondrial noncoding probes. SDS-PAGE analyses of hordein extracted from seeds of regenerated plants and activity assays of ?-amylase were also performed. The nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of 50 regenerated plants demonstrated relative stability when assessed with coding sequences and by biochemical analyses. However, the mitochondrial noncoding probes revealed one qualitative somaclonal variant characterized by a loss of a hybridizing fragment. Moreover, changes in the methylation patterns of the rRNA genes and the nontranscribed spacer were revealed in another regenerated plant. The albino plant regenerated was characterized by a loss of three chloroplast DNA BamHI fragments. PMID:24202259

  1. Changes in bile acids, FGF-19 and sterol absorption in response to bile salt hydrolase active L. reuteri NCIMB 30242.

    PubMed

    Martoni, Christopher J; Labbé, Alain; Ganopolsky, Jorge G; Prakash, Satya; Jones, Mitchell L

    2015-01-01

    The size and composition of the circulating bile acid (BA) pool are important factors in regulating the human gut microbiota. Disrupted regulation of BA metabolism is implicated in several chronic diseases. Bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242, previously shown to decrease LDL-cholesterol and increase circulating BA, was investigated for its dose response effect on BA profile in a pilot clinical study. Ten otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults, recruited from a clinical trial site in London, ON, were randomized to consume delayed release or standard release capsules containing L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 in escalating dose over 4 weeks. In another aspect, 4 healthy normocholesterolemic subjects with LDL-C below 3.4 mmol/l received delayed release L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 at a constant dose over 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in plasma BA profile over the intervention period. Additional outcomes included circulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19, plant sterols and LDL-cholesterol as well as fecal microbiota and bsh gene presence. After one week of intervention subjects receiving delayed release L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 increased total BA by 1.13 ± 0.67 ?mol/l (P = 0.02), conjugated BA by 0.67 ± 0.39 ?mol/l (P = 0.02) and unconjugated BA by 0.46 ± 0.43 ?mol/l (P = 0.07), which represented a greater than 2-fold change relative to baseline. Increases in BA were largely maintained post-week 1 and were generally correlated with FGF-19 and inversely correlated with plant sterols. This is the first clinical support showing that a BSH-active probiotic can significantly and rapidly influence BA metabolism and may prove useful in chronic diseases beyond hypercholesterolemia. PMID:25612224

  2. Attachment of bacterial pathogens to a bacterial cellulose-derived plant cell wall model: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Tan, Michelle S F; Wang, Yi; Dykes, Gary A

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to establish, as a proof of concept, whether bacterial cellulose (BC)-derived plant cell wall models could be used to investigate foodborne bacterial pathogen attachment. Attachment of two strains each of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes to four BC-derived plant cell wall models (namely, BC, BC-pectin [BCP], BC-xyloglucan [BCX], and BC-pectin-xyloglucan [BCPX]) was investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the BCPX composite (31% cellulose, 45.6% pectin, 23.4% xyloglucan) had a composition typical of plant cell walls. The Salmonella strains attached in significantly (p<0.05) higher numbers (~6 log colony-forming units [CFU]/cm(2)) to the composites than the Listeria strains (~5 log CFU/cm(2)). Strain-specific differences were also apparent with one Salmonella strain, for example, attaching in significantly (p<0.05) higher numbers to the BCX composite than to the other composites. This study highlights the potential usefulness of these composites to understand attachment of foodborne bacteria to fresh produce. PMID:23941519

  3. Plant-derived natural products as sources of anti-quorum sensing compounds.

    PubMed

    Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tan, Li Ying; Krishnan, Thiba; Chong, Yee Meng; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a system of stimuli and responses in relation to bacterial cell population density that regulates gene expression, including virulence determinants. Consequently, quorum sensing has been an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective measures that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-quorum sensing has been a promising strategy to combat bacterial infections as it is unlikely to develop multidrug resistant pathogens since it does not impose any selection pressure. A number of anti-quorum sensing approaches have been documented and plant-based natural products have been extensively studied in this context. Plant matter is one of the major sources of chemicals in use today in various industries, ranging from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food biotechnology to the textile industries. Just like animals and humans, plants are constantly exposed to bacterial infections, it is therefore logical to expect that plants have developed sophisticated of chemical mechanisms to combat pathogens. In this review, we have surveyed the various types of plant-based natural products that exhibit anti-quorum sensing properties and their anti-quorum sensing mechanisms. PMID:23669710

  4. Plants cause ecosystem nutrient depletion via the interruption of bird-derived spatial subsidies

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Plant introductions and subsequent community shifts are known to affect nutrient cycling, but most such studies have focused on nutrient enrichment effects. The nature of plant-driven nutrient depletions and the mechanisms by which these might occur are relatively poorly understood. In this study we demonstrate that the proliferation of the commonly introduced coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, interrupts the flow of allochthonous marine subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems via an indirect effect: impact on birds. Birds avoid nesting or roosting in C. nucifera, thus reducing the critical nutrient inputs they bring from the marine environment. These decreases in marine subsidies then lead to reductions in available soil nutrients, decreases in leaf nutrient quality, diminished leaf palatability, and reduced herbivory. This nutrient depletion pathway contrasts the more typical patterns of nutrient enrichment that follow plant species introductions. Research on the effects of spatial subsidy disruptions on ecosystems has not yet examined interruptions driven by changes within the recipient community, such as plant community shifts. The ubiquity of coconut palm introductions across the tropics and subtropics makes these observations particularly noteworthy. Equally important, the case of C. nucifera provides a strong demonstration of how plant community changes can dramatically impact the supply of allochthonous nutrients and thereby reshape energy flow in ecosystems. PMID:20133852

  5. DEVELOPING SITE-SPECIFIC DERIVED CONCENTRATION GUIDELINE LEVELS FOR MULTIPLE MEDIA AT THE CONNECTICUT YANKEE HADDAM NECK PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.W.; Smith, L.C.; Carr, R.K.; Carson, A.; Darois, E.

    2003-02-27

    As part of the license termination process, site-specific Derived Concentration Guideline Levels for the Haddam Neck Plant site are developed for soil, groundwater, concrete left standing, and concrete demolished that satisfy the radiological criteria for unrestricted use as defined in 10 CFR 20.1402. Background information on the license termination process and characteristics of the Haddam Neck Plant site are presented. The dose models and associated resident farmer and building occupancy scenarios, applicable pathways, and critical groups developed to establish the Derived Concentration Guideline Levels are described. A parameter assignment process is introduced wherein general population values are used to establish behavioral and metabolic parameters representative of an average member of the critical group, while the uncertainty associated with important physical parameters is considered. A key element of the parameter assignment process is the use of sensitivity analysis to identify the dose sensitive physical parameters and to ensure that such parameters are assigned conservative values. Structuring the parameter assignment process, completing the formal sensitivity analyses, and assigning conservative values to the sensitive physical parameters in a consistent way establishes a calculation framework that lead to Derived Concentration Guideline Levels with a uniform level of conservatism across all media and all radionuclides.

  6. Comparison of Sterol Import under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions in Three Fungal Species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zavrel, Martin; Hoot, Sam J.

    2013-01-01

    Sterol import has been characterized under various conditions in three distinct fungal species, the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two human fungal pathogens Candida glabrata and Candida albicans, employing cholesterol, the sterol of higher eukaryotes, as well as its fungal equivalent, ergosterol. Import was confirmed by the detection of esterified cholesterol within the cells. Comparing the three fungal species, we observe sterol import under three different conditions. First, as previously well characterized, we observe sterol import under low oxygen levels in S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which is dependent on the transcription factor Upc2 and/or its orthologs or paralogs. Second, we observe sterol import under aerobic conditions exclusively in the two pathogenic fungi C. glabrata and C. albicans. Uptake emerges during post-exponential-growth phases, is independent of the characterized Upc2-pathway and is slower compared to the anaerobic uptake in S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. Third, we observe under normoxic conditions in C. glabrata that Upc2-dependent sterol import can be induced in the presence of fetal bovine serum together with fluconazole. In summary, C. glabrata imports sterols both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the limited aerobic uptake can be further stimulated by the presence of serum together with fluconazole. S. cerevisiae imports sterols only in anaerobic conditions, demonstrating aerobic sterol exclusion. Finally, C. albicans imports sterols exclusively aerobically in post-exponential-growth phases, independent of Upc2. For the first time, we provide direct evidence of sterol import into the human fungal pathogen C. albicans, which until now was believed to be incapable of active sterol import. PMID:23475705

  7. Using a virus-derived system to manipulate plant natural product biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Frank; Saxena, Pooja; Geisler, Katrin; Osbourn, Anne; Lomonossoff, George P

    2012-01-01

    A series of vectors (the pEAQ series) based on cowpea mosaic virus has been developed which allows the rapid transient expression of high levels of foreign protein in plants without the need for viral replication. The plasmids are small binary vectors, which are introduced into plant leaves by agroinfiltration. They are modular in design and allow the insertion of multiple coding sequences on the same segment of T-DNA. These properties make the pEAQ vectors particularly suitable for use in situations, such as the investigation and manipulation of metabolic pathways, where the coexpression of multiple proteins within a cell is required. PMID:23084939

  8. The Strigolactone Germination Stimulants of the Plant-Parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. Are Derived from the Carotenoid Pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Beale, Michael H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation. PMID:16183851

  9. N-methylated derivatives of tyramine in citrus genus plants: identification of N,N,N-trimethyltyramine (candicine).

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; Ferrari, Giovanna; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2014-03-26

    The distribution of tyramine and its methylated derivatives, N-methyltyramine and N,N-dimethyltyramine, was investigated in tissue parts (leaves and fruits) of several plants of Citrus genus by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In the course of our study we discovered the occurrence of N,N,N-trimethyltyramine in all citrus plants examined. This quaternary ammonium compound, known to act in animals as a neurotoxin, was recognized and characterized by mass spectrometric analysis. The substance, never described before in the Citrus genus, is also known as candicine or maltoxin. Results indicate that N,N,N-trimethyltyramine is consistently expressed in leaves of clementine, bitter orange, and lemon. Conversely, low levels were found in the leaves of orange, mandarin, chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), bergamot, citron, and pomelo. In the edible part of the fruits, N,N,N-trimethyltyramine was found at trace levels. PMID:24635695

  10. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

  11. Use of plant-derived protein hydrolysates for enhancing growth of Bombyx mori (silkworm) insect cells in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi Sun; Dojima, Takashi; Park, Enoch Y

    2005-08-01

    The successful suspension culture of the Bombyx mori (silkworm) cell lines Bm5 and BmN4 without FBS (fetal-bovine serum) was first realized in Sf-900 II SFM (serum-free medium) (Gibco BRL, Rockville, MD, U.S.A.) supplemented with a plant-derived protein hydrolysate. The addition of 0.5% HyPep 1510 (Difco Co., Detroit, MI, U.S.A.) and 10 mM glutamine to Sf-900 II SFM at 4 days of culture was found effective in increasing the cell concentration to 8.5x10(6) cells/ml. The replacement of medium with Sf-900 II SFM supplemented with 0.5% HyPep 1510 at 6 days of culture increased the cell concentration by 1.1x10(7) cells/ml. When Sf-900 II SFM was supplemented with 0.5% Hypep 1510, 16 days, which was half of the conventional adaptation time, was sufficient for the B. mori cell line to adapt to SFM and shear stress while maintaining a stable viability. The beta-galactosidase activity in Sf-900 II SFM supplemented with 0.5% Hypep 1510 was 4.9x10(3) units/ml, which was 2-fold higher than that of the FBS-supplemented medium. By SDS/PAGE, only the band corresponding to beta-galactosidase was detected in the sample from the media supplemented with plant-derived protein hydrolysates, while thick bands corresponding to proteins having lower molecular masses than beta-galactosidase were detected in samples from the FBS-supplemented media. These results suggest that plant-derived protein hydrolysates are promising FBS substitutes for enhancing the growth of B. mori cells and facilitating the purification of recombinant proteins produced by baculovirus infection. PMID:15527419

  12. Paleoenvironments of the Canadian high arctic derived from pollen and plant macrofossils: Problems and potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gajewski; Michelle Garneau; Jocelyne C. Bourgeois

    1995-01-01

    Analyses of peat sections, lake sediments and ice cores provide information about Late-Quaternary arctic environments. Palynomorphs and plant macrofossils from each of these three types of sediments record different aspects of the environment with particular spatial and temporal scales of resolution. In the Arctic, the limits to the interpretation of past environments are particularly significant. Problems of low pollen concentrations,

  13. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: An alternative larvicide for mosquito control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pitasawat; D. Champakaew; W. Choochote; A. Jitpakdi; U. Chaithong; D. Kanjanapothi; E. Rattanachanpichai; P. Tippawangkosol; D. Riyong; B. Tuetun; D. Chaiyasit

    2007-01-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the

  14. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase of high specific activity from anther-derived haploid plants of Nicotiana tabacum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskaran, S.; Burdick, P.J.; Smith, R.H.

    1986-04-01

    Crystalline ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was purified from several haploid plants of Nicotiana tabacum obtained by anther-culture. Specific activity of the enzyme ranged from 1.09 to 2.15 ..mu..moles /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixed mg protein/sup -1/ min/sup -1/ in growth chamber grown plants and 0.5 to 1.15 ..mu..moles /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixed mg protein/sup -1/ min/sup -1/ in greenhouse grown plants. No degradation of the large subunit was observed on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of these purified preparations. A low specific activity of 0.25 units was obtained for a preparation of the enzyme from a plant grown under fluctuating growth conditions. This protein gave an additional band for the large subunit on electrophoresis, presumably a degradation product. Individual differences in specific activity under identical growth conditions in these haploids suggest a possible role for the small subunit in regulation of enzyme activity.

  15. Fermentation of plant cell wall derived polysaccharides and their corresponding oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laere van K. M. J; Ralf Hartemink; Margaret Bosveld; Henk A. Schols; Alphons G. J. Voragen

    2000-01-01

    New types of nondigestible oligosaccharides were produced from plant cell wall polysaccharides, and the fermentation of these oligosaccharides and their parental polysaccharides by relevant individual intestinal species of bacteria was studied. Oligosaccharides were produced from soy arabinogalactan, sugar beet arabinan, wheat flour arabinoxylan, polygalacturonan, and rhamnogalacturonan fraction from apple. All of the tested substrates were fermented to some extent by

  16. BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CAY-1, A FUNGICIDAL PLANT-DERIVED SAPONIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: CAY-1, a plant saponin, is lethal to several medically and agriculturally important fungi. CAY-1 displays synergy with amphotericin B and itraconzaole against fungi. To further elucidate its properties, we studied pH effect on CAY-1 activity and possible fungal wall and membrane binding ...

  17. Two new 18-en-oleane derivatives from marine mangrove plant, Barringtonia racemosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Deng, Zhiwei; Proksch, P; Lin, Wenhan

    2006-04-01

    Two new triterpenoids, olean-18-en-3beta-O-E-coumaroyl ester (1) and olean-18-en-3beta-O-Z-coumaroyl ester (2), were isolated from the stem bark of marine mangrove plant Barringtonia racemosa, along with five known compounds, germanicol, germanicone, betulinic acid, lupeol, and taraxerol. Their structures were determined mainly by spectroscopic methods. PMID:16649558

  18. Enhanced suppression of plant growth through production of L-tryptophan-derived compounds by deleterious rhizobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Sarwar; Robert J. Kremer

    1995-01-01

    Plant-growth-suppressive activity of deleterious rhizobacteria (DRB) may be due to production of metabolites absorbed through roots. Auxins produced in high concentrations in the rhizosphere by DRB contribute to reduced root growth. Selected DRB able to produce excessive amounts of auxin compounds for suppression of weed seedling growth may be effective for biological control of weeds. The objectives to this study

  19. Screening of anti- Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Chuen Wang; Tung-Liang Huang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all

  20. Evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of eubacteria-derived small GTPases in plant organelles

    PubMed Central

    Suwastika, I. Nengah; Denawa, Masatsugu; Yomogihara, Saki; Im, Chak Han; Bang, Woo Young; Ohniwa, Ryosuke L.; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Takeyasu, Kunio; Shiina, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The genomes of free-living bacteria frequently exchange genes via lateral gene transfer (LGT), which has played a major role in bacterial evolution. LGT also played a significant role in the acquisition of genes from non-cyanobacterial bacteria to the lineage of “primary” algae and land plants. Small GTPases are widely distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we inferred the evolutionary history of organelle-targeted small GTPases in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana contains at least one ortholog in seven subfamilies of OBG-HflX-like and TrmE-Era-EngA-YihA-Septin-like GTPase superfamilies (together referred to as Era-like GTPases). Subcellular localization analysis of all Era-like GTPases in Arabidopsis revealed that all 30 eubacteria-related GTPases are localized to chloroplasts and/or mitochondria, whereas archaea-related DRG and NOG1 are localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively, suggesting that chloroplast- and mitochondrion-localized GTPases are derived from the ancestral cyanobacterium and ?-proteobacterium, respectively, through endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). However, phylogenetic analyses revealed that plant organelle GTPase evolution is rather complex. Among the eubacterium-related GTPases, only four localized to chloroplasts (including one dual targeting GTPase) and two localized to mitochondria were derived from cyanobacteria and ?-proteobacteria, respectively. Three other chloroplast-targeted GTPases were related to ?-proteobacterial proteins, rather than to cyanobacterial GTPases. Furthermore, we found that four other GTPases showed neither cyanobacterial nor ?-proteobacterial affiliation. Instead, these GTPases were closely related to clades from other eubacteria, such as Bacteroides (Era1, EngB-1, and EngB-2) and green non-sulfur bacteria (HflX). This study thus provides novel evidence that LGT significantly contributed to the evolution of organelle-targeted Era-like GTPases in plants. PMID:25566271

  1. Field determination of optimal dates for the discrimination of invasive wetland plant species using derivative spectral analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laba, M.; Tsai, F.; Ogurcak, D.; Smith, S.; Richmond, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Mapping invasive plant species in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems helps to understand the causes of their progression, manage some of their negative consequences, and control them. In recent years, a variety of new remote-sensing techniques, like Derivative Spectral Analysis (DSA) of hyperspectral data, have been developed to facilitate this mapping. A number of questions related to these techniques remain to be addressed. This article attempts to answer one of these questions: Is the application of DSA optimal at certain times of the year? Field radiometric data gathered weekly during the summer of 1999 at selected field sites in upstate New York, populated with purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.), common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.)) and cattail (Typha L.) are analyzed using DSA to differentiate among plant community types. First, second and higher-order derivatives of the reflectance spectra of nine field plots, varying in plant composition, are calculated and analyzed in detail to identify spectral ranges in which one or more community types have distinguishing features. On the basis of the occurrence and extent of these spectral ranges, experimental observations suggest that a satisfactory differentiation among community types was feasible on 30 August, when plants experienced characteristic phenological changes (transition from flowers to seed heads). Generally, dates in August appear optimal from the point of view of species differentiability and could be selected for image acquisitions. This observation, as well as the methodology adopted in this article, should provide a firm basis for the acquisition of hyperspectral imagery and for mapping the targeted species over a broad range of spatial scales. ?? 2005 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  2. Structure-Activity Relationship Study of the Plant-Derived Decapeptide OSIP108 Inhibiting Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Delattin, Nicolas; De Brucker, Katrijn; Craik, David J.; Cheneval, Olivier; De Coninck, Barbara; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    We performed a structure-activity relationship study of the antibiofilm plant-derived decapeptide OSIP108. Introduction of positively charged amino acids R, H, and K resulted in an up-to-5-fold-increased antibiofilm activity against Candida albicans compared to native OSIP108, whereas replacement of R9 resulted in complete abolishment of its antibiofilm activity. By combining the most promising amino acid substitutions, we found that the double-substituted OSIP108 analogue Q6R/G7K had an 8-fold-increased antibiofilm activity. PMID:24913176

  3. High frequency plant regeneration from zygotic-embryo-derived embryogenic cell suspension cultures of watershield ( Brasenia schreberi )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung Jin Oh; Hye Ryun Na; Hong-Keun Choi; Jang Ryol Liu; Suk Weon Kim

    2008-01-01

    An improved protocol for high frequency plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryo-derived cell suspension\\u000a cultures of watershield (Brasenia schreberi) was developed. Zygotic embryos formed pale-yellow globular structures and white friable callus at a frequency of 80% when\\u000a cultured on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg l?1 2,4-D. However, the frequency of formation of pale-yellow globular structures and white friable

  4. Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stĺl spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases. PMID:21432748

  5. Plant Growth Regulating Activity of Orotic Acid and Its 1Cyclohexyl and 1Phenyl Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Shopova; D. Moskova-Simeonova

    2000-01-01

    Cytokinin-like activity of orotic acid and its 1-cyclohexyl and 1-phenyl derivatives was tested estimating the anthocyanin accumulation and inhibition of root formation in isolated buckwheat cotyledons (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.). The anthocyanin content was stimulated most by 1-phenylorotic acid. Strong synergetic effect of the phenylurea cytokinin 4PU-30 was found.

  6. The inheritance of genetic markers in microspore-derived plants of barley Hordeum vulgare L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Thompson; K. Chalmers; R. Waugh; B. P. Forster; W. T. B. Thomas; P. D. S. Caligari; W. Powell

    1991-01-01

    Biochemical, molecular and morphological markers have been used to monitor the segregation of alleles at major gene loci in microspore-derived lines of four spring barley crosses and their parents. Significant deviations from the expected Mendelian ratios were observed for four of the ten markers studied in the cross. Distorted ratios were associated with loci located on chromosomes 4H and 6H.

  7. Observing plants dealing with soil water stress: Daily soil moisture fluctuations derived from polymer tensiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Periods of soil water deficit often occur within a plant's life cycle, even in temperate deciduous and rain forests (Wilson et al. 2001, Grace 1999). Various experiments have shown that roots are able to sense the distribution of water in the soil, and produce signals that trigger changes in leaf expansion rate and stomatal conductance (Blackman and Davies 1985, Gollan et al. 1986, Gowing et al. 1990 Davies and Zhang 1991, Mansfield and De Silva 1994, Sadras and Milroy 1996). Partitioning of water and air in the soil, solute distribution in soil water, water flow through the soil, and water availability for plants can be determined according to the distribution of the soil water potential (e.g. Schröder et al. 2013, Kool et al. 2014). Understanding plant water uptake under dry conditions has been compromised by hydrological instrumentation with low accuracy in dry soils due to signal attenuation, or a compromised measurement range (Whalley et al. 2013). Development of polymer tensiometers makes it possible to study the soil water potential over a range meaningful for studying plant responses to water stress (Bakker et al. 2007, Van der Ploeg et al. 2008, 2010). Polymer tensiometer data obtained from a lysimeter experiment (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008) were used to analyse day-night fluctuations of soil moisture in the vicinity of maize roots. To do so, three polymer tensiometers placed in the middle of the lysimeter from a control, dry and very dry treatment (one lysimeter per treatment) were used to calculate water content changes over 12 hours. These 12 hours corresponded with the operation of the growing light. Soil water potential measurements in the hour before the growing light was turned on or off were averaged. The averaged value was used as input for the van Genuchten (1980) model. Parameters for the model were obtained from laboratory determination of water retention, with a separate model parameterization for each lysimeter setup. Results show daily fluctuations in water content changes, with both root water uptake and root water excretion. The magnitude of the water content change was in the same order for all treatments, thus suggesting compensatory uptake. References Bakker G, Van der Ploeg MJ, de Rooij GH, Hoogendam CW, Gooren HPA, Huiskes C, Koopal LK and Kruidhof H. New polymer tensiometers: Measuring matric pressures down to the wilting point. Vadose Zone J. 6: 196-202, 2007. Blackman PG and Davies WJ. Root to shoot communication in maize plants of the effects of soil drying. J. Exp. Bot. 36: 39-48, 1985. Davies WJ and Zhang J. Root signals and the regulation of growth and development of plants in drying soil. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 42: 55-76, 1991. Gollan T, Passioura JB and Munns R. Soil water status affects the stomatal conductance of fully turgid wheat and sunflower leafs. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 13: 459-464, 1986. Gowing DJG, Davies WJ and Jones HG. A Positive Root-sourced Signal as an Indicator of Soil Drying in Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh. J. Exp. Bot. 41: 1535-1540, 1990. Grace J. Environmental controls of gas exchange in tropical rain forests. In: Press, M.C, J.D. Scholes and M.G. Barker (ed.). Physiological plant ecology: the 39th Symposium of the British Ecological Society. Blackwell Science, United Kingdom, 1999. Kool D, Agam N, Lazarovitch N, Heitman JL, Sauer TJ, Ben-Gal A. A review of approaches for evapotranspiration partitioning. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 184: 56- 70, 2014. Mansfield TA and De Silva DLR. Sensory systems in the roots of plants and their role in controlling stomatal function in the leaves. Physiol. Chem. Phys. & Med. 26: 89-99, 1994. Sadras VO and Milroy SP. Soil-water thresholds for the responses of leaf expansion and gas exchange: a review. Field Crops Res. 47: 253-266, 1996. Schröder N, Lazarovitch N, Vanderborcht J, Vereecken H, Javaux M. Linking transpiration reduction to rhizosphere salinity using a 3D coupled soil-plant model. Plant Soil 2013, doi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1990-8 Van der Ploeg MJ, Gooren HPA, Bakker G and de Rooij GH.

  8. Gravity perception and asymmetric growth in plants - A model derived from the grass pulvinus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanandan, P.; Franklin, C. I.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that gravitropic responses in plants involve asymmetric growth. On the basis of the geometry of growth response in grass leaf sheath pulvinus, a general model is proposed for gravitropism in multicellular plant organs. The negative gravitropic response of a pulvinus is a result of cell elongation involving all but the uppermost region of a horizontally placed organ. Whereas the uppermost region does not grow, the lowermost region elongates maximally. The regions between elongate to intermediate extents. An expression is given relating the angle of curvature of the organ to the diameter and initial and final lengths of the organ. It is shown that the response of the individual cells can be expressed as inherent sensitivity to gravitational stimulus according to a particular equation.

  9. Identification of a 60 kd cross-reactive allergen in pollen and plant-derived food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Heiss; Sabine Fischer; Wolf-Dieter Müller; Bernhard Weber; Reinhold Hirschwehr; Susanne Spitzauer; Dietrich Kraft; Rudolf Valenta

    1996-01-01

    Background: Cross-reactive IgE antibodies were found to be responsible for allergic reactions in patients allergic to pollen on ingestion of food (oral allergy syndrome). So far, the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and birch profilin (Bet v 2) were identified as relevant cross-reactive allergens. Objective: In this study we attempted to identify additional cross-reactive plant allergens, which could

  10. Plant regeneration from callus cultures derived from mature zygotic embryos in white pine ( Pinus strobus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

    2005-01-01

    Plant regeneration via adventitious shoot organogenesis from callus cultures initiated from mature embryos in white pine (Pinus strobus L.) was achieved in this study. Callus cultures were induced from mature embryos cultured on PS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a-naphthaleneacetic acid, or indole-3-acetic acid. Adventitious shoot regeneration from callus cultures was induced on medium containing 2 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and

  11. Plant regeneration from protoplast-derived callus of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Yamada; Zhi-Qi Yang; Ding-Tai Tang

    1986-01-01

    Protoplasts isolated from cultured rice cells of an A-58 cytoplasmic male sterile line (A-58 MS)(Oryza sativa L.) were used to investigate the regeneration of rice plants. A cultured cell line (T3) of A-58 MS with a high growth rate and dense cytoplasm was selected. About 10% of the protoplasts prepared from this established cell line plated in RY-2 (a new

  12. Detection of Some Safe Plant-Derived Foods for LTP-Allergic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Asero; Gianni Mistrello; Daniela Roncarolo; Stefano Amato

    2007-01-01

    Background: Lipid transfer protein (LTP) is a widely cross-reacting plant pan-allergen. Adverse reactions to Rosaceae, tree nuts, peanut, beer, maize, mustard, asparagus, grapes, mulberry, cabbage, dates, orange, fig, kiwi, lupine, fennel, celery, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, chestnut and pineapple have been recorded. Objective: To detect vegetable foods to be regarded as safe for LTP-allergic patients. Methods: Tolerance\\/intolerance to a large spectrum

  13. Isolation and characterization of X chromosome-derived DNA sequences from a dioecious plant Melandrium album

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í B?žek; Hana Koutníková; Andreas Houben; Karel ?íha; Bohuslav Janous?ek; Ji?í Široký; Sarah Grant; Boris Vyskot

    1997-01-01

    A number of X chromosome DNA sequences have been isolated from a dioecious plant, Melandrium album (syn. Silene latifolia),using\\u000a chromosome microdissection followed by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP–PCR) amplification.\\u000a Six DNA clones were selected and further characterized by DNA\\/DNA hybridization techniques to check their copy numbers, sex-specific\\u000a methylation patterns, species specificity and positions on chromosomes. These clones were moderately

  14. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryo-derived callus of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiang-Chih Wang; Jen-Tsung Chen; Shieh-Ping Wu; Mei-Chun Lin; Wei-Chin Chang

    2003-01-01

    Summary  An in vitro culture procedure was established for somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from callus cultures of the important\\u000a palm ‘betel nut’ (Areca catechu L.). Segments of zygotic embryos of Areca catechu L. were cultured on Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with dicamba (9.05, 18.1, 27.15, and 36.2 ?M). After 7–8 wk in darkness, wounded regions of explants formed

  15. The role of carbon starvation in the induction of enzymes that degrade plant-derived carbohydrates in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    van Munster, Jolanda M; Daly, Paul; Delmas, Stéphane; Pullan, Steven T; Blythe, Martin J; Malla, Sunir; Kokolski, Matthew; Noltorp, Emelie C M; Wennberg, Kristin; Fetherston, Richard; Beniston, Richard; Yu, Xiaolan; Dupree, Paul; Archer, David B

    2014-11-01

    Fungi are an important source of enzymes for saccharification of plant polysaccharides and production of biofuels. Understanding of the regulation and induction of expression of genes encoding these enzymes is still incomplete. To explore the induction mechanism, we analysed the response of the industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger to wheat straw, with a focus on events occurring shortly after exposure to the substrate. RNA sequencing showed that the transcriptional response after 6h of exposure to wheat straw was very different from the response at 24h of exposure to the same substrate. For example, less than half of the genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes that were induced after 24h of exposure to wheat straw, were also induced after 6h exposure. Importantly, over a third of the genes induced after 6h of exposure to wheat straw were also induced during 6h of carbon starvation, indicating that carbon starvation is probably an important factor in the early response to wheat straw. The up-regulation of the expression of a high number of genes encoding CAZymes that are active on plant-derived carbohydrates during early carbon starvation suggests that these enzymes could be involved in a scouting role during starvation, releasing inducing sugars from complex plant polysaccharides. We show, using proteomics, that carbon-starved cultures indeed release CAZymes with predicted activity on plant polysaccharides. Analysis of the enzymatic activity and the reaction products, indicates that these proteins are enzymes that can degrade various plant polysaccharides to generate both known, as well as potentially new, inducers of CAZymes. PMID:24792495

  16. Ion-channel genosensor for the detection of specific DNA sequences derived from Plum Pox Virus in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Malecka, Kamila; Michalczuk, Lech; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    A DNA biosensor for detection of specific oligonucleotides sequences of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in plant extracts and buffer is proposed. The working principles of a genosensor are based on the ion-channel mechanism. The NH2-ssDNA probe was deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface to form an amide bond between the carboxyl group of oxidized electrode surface and amino group from ssDNA probe. The analytical signals generated as a result of hybridization were registered in Osteryoung square wave voltammetry in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as a redox marker. The 22-mer and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences derived from PPV and DNA samples from plants infected with PPV were used as targets. Similar detection limits of 2.4 pM (31.0 pg/mL) and 2.3 pM (29.5 pg/mL) in the concentration range 1-8 pM were observed in the presence of the 22-mer ssDNA and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences of PPV, respectively. The genosensor was capable of discriminating between samples consisting of extracts from healthy plants and leaf extracts from infected plants in the concentration range 10-50 pg/mL. The detection limit was 12.8 pg/mL. The genosensor displayed good selectivity and sensitivity. The 20-mer partially complementary DNA sequences with four complementary bases and DNA samples from healthy plants used as negative controls generated low signal. PMID:25302809

  17. Non radioactive in situ hybridization The following is a non-radioactive in situ protocol for plants, using an RNA probe. It is derived

    E-print Network

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    is derived from a protocol from Elliot Meyerowitz's lab. The RNA probe synthesis is from David Jackson. The actual in situ section is from both David Jackson and Vivian Irish. An excellent reference for this protocol is: Jackson, D. (1991). In-situ hybridisation in plants. Molecular Plant Pathology: A Practical

  18. Osh4p exchanges sterols for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate between lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    de Saint-Jean, Maud; Delfosse, Vanessa; Douguet, Dominique; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Payrastre, Bernard; Bourguet, William

    2011-01-01

    Osh/Orp proteins transport sterols between organelles and are involved in phosphoinositide metabolism. The link between these two aspects remains elusive. Using novel assays, we address the influence of membrane composition on the ability of Osh4p/Kes1p to extract, deliver, or transport dehydroergosterol (DHE). Surprisingly, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) specifically inhibited DHE extraction because PI(4)P was itself efficiently extracted by Osh4p. We solve the structure of the Osh4p–PI(4)P complex and reveal how Osh4p selectively substitutes PI(4)P for sterol. Last, we show that Osh4p quickly exchanges DHE for PI(4)P and, thereby, can transport these two lipids between membranes along opposite routes. These results suggest a model in which Osh4p transports sterol from the ER to late compartments pinpointed by PI(4)P and, in turn, transports PI(4)P backward. Coupled to PI(4)P metabolism, this transport cycle would create sterol gradients. Because the residues that recognize PI(4)P are conserved in Osh4p homologues, other Osh/Orp are potential sterol/phosphoinositol phosphate exchangers. PMID:22162133

  19. Mutations in the Bile Acid Biosynthetic Enzyme Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Underlie Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis*

    PubMed Central

    Cali, James J.; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Francke, Uta; Russell, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The sterol storage disorder cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is characterized by abnormal deposition of cholesterol and cholestanol in multiple tissues. Deposition in the central nervous system leads to neurological dysfunction marked by dementia, spinal cord paresis, and cerebellar ataxia. Deposition in other tissues causes tendon xanthomas, premature atherosclerosis, and cataracts. In two unrelated patients with CTX, we have identified different point mutations in the gene (CYP27) encoding sterol 27-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway. Transfection of mutant cDNAs into cultured cells results in the synthesis of immunoreactive sterol 27-hydroxylase protein with greatly diminished enzyme activity. We have localized the CYP27 gene to the q33-qter interval of human chromosome 2, and to mouse chromosome 1, in agreement with the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of CTX. These findings underscore the essential role played by sterols in the central nervous system and suggest that mutations in other sterol metabolizing enzymes may contribute to diseases with neurological manifestations. PMID:2019602

  20. Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

    2011-12-14

    The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils. PMID:22054411

  1. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Berneski

    2011-12-10

    Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

  2. Effect of single and binary combinations of plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Rao, I G; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The effects of sublethal treatments (20% and 60% of LC(50)/24 h) with plant-derived molluscicides on the reproduction of the giant African snail Achatina fulica were studied. Azadirachta indica oil, Cedrus deodara oil, Allium sativum bulb powder, and Nerium indicum bark powder singly and binary combinations on reproduction and survival of A. fulica were investigated. Repeated treatment occurred on day 0, day 15, and day 30. These plant-derived molluscicides significantly reduced fecundity, egg viability, and survival of A. fulica within 15 days. Discontinuation of the treatments after day 30 did not lead to a recovery trend in the next 30 days. Day 0 sublethal treatment of all the molluscicides caused a maximum reduction in protein, amino acid, DNA, RNA, and phospholipid levels and simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation in the ovotestis of treated A. fulica. It is believed that sublethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process, involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity of A. fulica. PMID:11031309

  3. Analysis of hydroaromatics in coal-derived synthetic fuels: applications to pilot-plant samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Wozniak; Ronald A. Hites

    1985-01-01

    The hydroaromatic compounds in three coal-derived synfuels were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Class specific isolation by adsorption\\/complexation column chromatography on picric acid columns was followed by isomer-specific characterization based on an analytical data base of GC retention indexes and mass and UV spectra generated from 139 hydroaromatic standard compounds. These results were interpreted in terms of the liquefaction process chemistry. 22

  4. Percutaneous treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis with a novel plant-derived antiseptic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Sherry; Harry Boeck; Patrick H Warnke

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE, are an increasing problem world-wide, causing intractable wound infections. Complex phytochemical extracts such as tea tree oil and eucalypt-derived formulations have been shown to have strong bactericidal activity against MRSA in vitro. Polytoxinol (PT) antimicrobial, is the trade name of a range of antimicrobial preparations in solution,

  5. Plant regeneration from immature and mature embryo derived calli of Hordeum marinum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne Rotem-Abarbanell; Adina Breiman

    1989-01-01

    Callus cultures were obtained from immature and mature embryos of Hordeum marnium on MS media containing 0.5 mg l-1 parachlorophenoxyacetic acid or 2 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Regeneration occurred after transferring calli to MS either devoid of hormones or supplemented with 1 mg l-1 indole-3-acetic acid and 1 mg l-1 zeatin. The regeneration capacity of the immature embryo derived calli

  6. Characterization and content of flavonol derivatives of Allium ursinum L. plant.

    PubMed

    Oszmia?ski, J; Kolniak-Ostek, J; Wojdy?o, A

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compounds were extracted from green and yellow leaves, stalks, and seeds of garlic ( Allium ursinum L.). The extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS). In total, 21 compounds were detected. The flavonol derivatives were identified on the basis of their ultraviolet (UV) spectra and fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation experiments. On the basis of accurate MS and MS/MS data, six compounds were newly identified in bear's garlic, mainly the kaempferol derivatives. As far as the investigated parts of garlic are concerned, the kaempferol derivatives were found to be predominant in yellow leaves [2362.96 mg/100 g of dry matter (dm)], followed by green leaves (1856.31 mg/100 g of dm). Seeds contained the minimal phenolic compounds, less than stalks. The yellow leaves of A. ursinum possessed a much larger content of compounds acylated with p-coumaric acid than green leaves (1299.97 versus 855.67 mg/100 g of dm, respectively). The stalks and seeds contained much more non-acetylated than acetylated flavonoid glycosides with p-coumaric acid compounds (162.4 versus 62.82 mg/100 g of dm and 105.49 versus 24.18 mg/100 g of dm, respectively). PMID:23249145

  7. Plant regeneration in Actinidia polygama Miq. by leaf, stem, and petiole culture with zeatin, and from stem-derived calli on low-sucrose medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wataru Takahashi; Fuyuki Sugawara; Noriko Yamamoto; Eriko Bando; Junjo Matsushita; Osamu Tanaka

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effect of zeatin on the formation of shoot buds from explants and callus tissues derived from stem segments of Actinidia polygama Miq. ( matatabi or silver vine). Stem and petiole segments cultured on combined broad-leaved tree medium and woody plant medium (BW medium) supplemented with zeatin for 40 days formed many shoot buds. Callus tissues derived from

  8. Diversity and population structure of sewage derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, S.L.; Huse, S.M.; Mueller-Spitz, S.R.; Andreishcheva, E.N.; Sogin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 sequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernable human fecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae genera. The fecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human fecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in fecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI – servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS – servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human fecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure. PMID:19840106

  9. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: The TERESA field results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Lawrence, Joy E.; Rohr, Annette C.; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H2SO4 aerosol from oxidation of SO2; (3) H2SO4 aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH3; (4) neutralized H2SO4 with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of ?-pinene with O3; and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 ?g/m3 with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH3 with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO2 to NOx (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H2SO4 + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed. PMID:20462390

  10. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil. PMID:17337133

  11. Black Nitrogen or Plant-Derived Organic Nitrogen - which Form is More Efficiently Sequestered in Soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Martín, María; Velasco-Molina, Marta; Knicker, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Input of charcoal after forest fires can lead to considerable changes of the quality and quantity of organic matter in soils (SOM). This affects not only its organic C pool but also shifts its organic N composition from peptideous to N-heterocyclic structures (Knicker et al., 1996). In the present study we sought to understand how this alteration is affecting the N availability in fire affected soils. Therefore, we performed a medium-term pot experiment in which grass material (Lolium perenne) was grown on soil material (Cambisols) of a fire-affected and a fire-unaffected forest. The soils were topped with mixtures of ground fresh grass residues and KNO3 or charred grass material (pyrogenic organic matter; PyOM) with KNO3. Here, either the organic N or the inorganic N was isotopically enriched with 15N. Following the 15N concentration in the soil matrix and the growing plants as a function of incubation time (up to 16 months) by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry allowed us to indentify which N-source is most efficiently stabilized and how PyOM is affecting this process. Preliminary data indicated that only after the germination of the seeds, the concentration of the added inorganic 15N in the soil decreased considerably most likely due to its uptake by the growing plants but also due to N-losses by leaching and volatilization. Additional addition of plant residues or PyOM had no major effect on this behavior. Covering the soil with 15N-grass residues which simulates a litter layer led to a slow increase of the 15N concentration in the mineral soil during the first month. This is best explained by the ongoing incorporation of the litter into the soil matrix. After that a small decrease was observed, showing that the organic N was only slowly mobilized. Addition of 15N-PyOM showed a comparable behavior but with 15N concentration in the soil corresponding to twice of those of the pots amended with 15N-grass residues. After that the 15N concentrations decrease quickly and approached those of the pots with fresh grass litter supporting the mobilization of black nitrogen and its uptake by plants. Our results point to the suggestion that N in PyOM and humified SOM have comparable biochemical stability. In order to test this hypothesis, a further experiment was set up mixtures of soil and humified 15N grass residues or aged 15N grass char to which fresh PyOM or fresh grass residues, respectively, were added. In addition solid-state 15N NMR spectroscopy was applied to disclose the nature of the sequestered N. REFERENCES Knicker, H., Almendros, G., González-Vila, F.J., Martín, F., Lüdemann, H.-D., 1996. 13C- and 15N-NMR spectroscopic examination of the transformation of organic nitrogen in plant biomass during thermal treatment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28, 1053-1060.

  12. Mimicking the hierarchical functions of dentin collagen cross-links with plant derived phenols and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Cristina M P; Leme, Ariene A; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Phansalkar, Rasika; Nam, Joo-Won; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F; Bedran-Russo, Ana

    2014-12-16

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are secondary plant metabolites that mediate nonenzymatic collagen cross-linking and enhance the properties of collagen based tissue, such as dentin. The extent and nature of cross-linking is influenced by the composition and specific chemical structure of the bioactive compounds present in certain PAC-rich extracts. This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics, and biostability. For that, purified phenols, a phenolic acid, and some of its derivatives were selected: PAC dimers (A1, A2, B1, and B2) and a trimer (C1), gallic acid (Ga), its esters methyl-gallate (MGa) and propyl-gallate (PGa), and a pentagalloyl ester of glucose (PGG). Synergism was assessed by combining the most active PAC and gallic acid derivative. Mechanical properties of dentin organic matrix were determined by the modulus of elasticity obtained in a flexural test. Biostability was evaluated by the resistance to collagenase degradation. PACs significantly enhanced dentin mechanical properties and decreased collagen digestion. Among the gallic acid derivatives, only PGG had a significant enhancing effect. The lack of observed C1:PGG synergy indicates that both compounds have similar mechanisms of interaction with the dentin matrix. These findings reveal that the molecular weight of polyphenols have a determinant effect on their interaction with type I collagen and modulates the mechanism of cross-linking at the molecular, intermolecular, and inter-microfibrillar levels. PMID:25379878

  13. Suppression of inducible nitric oxide production by indole and isothiocyanate derivatives from Brassica plants in stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Hwa; Dai, Huey-Jing; Chang, Hsiao-Pei

    2003-08-01

    In this study, the effects of bioactive compounds derived from vegetables of the Brassica genus (Brassicaceae) including 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), indole-3-carbinol (I3C), and indolo[3,2- b]carbazole (ICZ), on the inhibition of NO production in RAW 264.7 cells were explored. The results indicated that PEITC and I3C inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells, and this inhibition was in accordance with lowering the expression of iNOS protein and mRNA. On the contrary, ICZ, a derivative of I3C, had no significant effect on the stimulated NO production. In conclusion, the Brassica plants derivatives, PEITC and, to a lesser extent, I3C inhibit the LPS/IFN-gamma-induced NO production by lowering iNOS protein and mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells, in which the PEITC had a more potent inhibitory effect. Nevertheless, ICZ exhibits no inhibitory effect on the activated NO production (Indole-3-carbinol = indole-3-methanol). PMID:14531017

  14. Sterol metabolism controls T(H)17 differentiation by generating endogenous ROR? agonists.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Yahong; Hao, Ling-Yang; Liu, Xikui; Lesch, Chuck A; Sanchez, Brian M; Wendling, Jay M; Morgan, Rodney W; Aicher, Tom D; Carter, Laura L; Toogood, Peter L; Glick, Gary D

    2015-02-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (ROR?t) controls the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into the TH17 lineage, which are critical cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we report that during TH17 differentiation, cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake programs are induced, whereas their metabolism and efflux programs are suppressed. These changes result in the accumulation of the cholesterol precursor, desmosterol, which functions as a potent endogenous ROR? agonist. Generation of cholesterol precursors is essential for TH17 differentiation as blocking cholesterol synthesis with chemical inhibitors at steps before the formation of active precursors reduces differentiation. Upon activation, metabolic changes also lead to production of specific sterol-sulfate conjugates that favor activation of ROR? over the TH17-inhibiting sterol receptor LXR. Thus, TH17 differentiation is orchestrated by coordinated sterol synthesis, mobilization and metabolism to selectively activate ROR?. PMID:25558972

  15. A rapid method to determine sterol, erythrodiol, and uvaol concentrations in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Brian; Holstege, Dirk

    2013-05-15

    A rapid, accurate, and efficient method for determining the sterol, uvaol, and erythrodiol concentrations was developed to meet International Olive Council (IOC) certification criteria for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The unsaponifiable fraction of the sample (0.2 g) was separated with a diatomaceous earth column, and the sterol and triterpenic dialcohols were isolated with a novel base-activated silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge cleanup protocol. The improved method and the IOC method provided identical pass/fail results (n = 34) for each of the six sterol and erythrodiol/uvaol IOC criteria used to assess olive oil. This method was validated, and recoveries of stigmasterol (88%) and ?-sitosterol (84%) were greater than previously published values obtained using the IOC method. This method requires approximately one-third the time required to complete the IOC method and has great utility for the rapid screening of EVOO to detect adulteration, false labeling, and an inferior product. PMID:23587059

  16. Fungal sterol C22-desaturase is not an antimycotic target as shown by selective inhibitors and testing on clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christoph; Binder, Ulrike; Maurer, Elisabeth; Grimm, Christian; Giera, Martin; Bracher, Franz

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of concise enzymes in ergosterol biosynthesis is one of the most prominent strategies for antifungal chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol C22-desaturase, which introduce double bonds into the sterol core and side chain, have not been fully investigated yet for their potential as antifungal drug targets. Lathosterol side chain amides bearing N-alkyl groups of proper length are known as potent inhibitors of the enzymes sterol C5-desaturase and sterol ?(24)-reductase in mammalian cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we present the results of our evaluation of these amides for their ability to inhibit enzymes in fungal ergosterol biosynthesis. In the presence of inhibitor(s) an accumulation of sterols lacking a double bond at C22/23 (mainly ergosta-5,7-dien-3?-ol) was observed in Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Hence, the lathosterol side chain amides were identified as selective inhibitors of the fungal sterol C22-desaturase, which was discussed as a specific target for novel antifungals. One representative inhibitor, (3S,20S)-20-N-butylcarbamoylpregn-7-en-3?-ol was subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing on patient isolates according to modified EUCAST guidelines. But, the test organisms showed no significant reduction of cell growth and/or viability up to an inhibitor concentration of 100?g/mL. This leads to the conclusion that sterol C22-desaturase is not an attractive target for the development of antifungals. PMID:26022150

  17. Reprint of: Removal and formation of chlorinated triclosan derivatives in wastewater treatment plants using chlorine and UV disinfection.

    PubMed

    Buth, Jeffrey M; Ross, Michael R; McNeill, Kristopher; Arnold, William A

    2011-09-01

    Triclosan, a common antimicrobial agent, may react during the disinfection of wastewater with free chlorine to form three chlorinated triclosan derivatives (CTDs). This is of concern because the CTDs may be photochemically transformed to tri- and tetra-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins when discharged into natural waters. In this study, wastewater influent, secondary (pre-disinfection) effluent, and final (post-disinfection) effluent samples were collected on two occasions each from two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants, one using chlorine disinfection and one using UV disinfection. Concentrations of triclosan and three CTDs were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with isotope dilution methodology. Triclosan and the CTDs were detected in every influent sample at levels ranging from 453 to 4530 and 2 to 98 ng L(-1), respectively, though both were efficiently removed from the liquid phase during activated sludge treatment. Triclosan concentrations in the pre-disinfection effluent ranged from 36 to 212 ng L(-1), while CTD concentrations were below the limit of quantification (1 ng L(-1)) for most samples. In the treatment plant that used chlorine disinfection, triclosan concentrations decreased while CTDs were formed during chlorination, as evidenced by CTD levels as high as 22 ng L(-1) in the final effluent. No CTDs were detected in the final effluent of the treatment plant that used UV disinfection. The total CTD concentration in the final effluent of the chlorinating treatment plant reached nearly one third of the triclosan concentration, demonstrating that the chlorine disinfection step played a substantial role in the fate of triclosan in this system. PMID:21944039

  18. A rapid LC-MS/MS method for quantitative profiling of fatty acids, sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in grapes.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, Anna; Chitarrini, Giulia; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Masuero, Domenico; Soini, Evelyn; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of lipids in plants is influenced by genotype and phenotype. Despite being a very important class of plant metabolites, knowledge of grape lipids is still very limited to date, with the exception of those located in seeds. Few investigations of grape lipids have shown that their profile depends on grape maturity, the variety and their location in the berry. Recent advances in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry have paved the way for faster analysis of lipids with minimal sample preparation. Here we describe a validation method for the extraction, identification and quantification of different classes of grape lipids: fatty acids, sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids using liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method was validated for 33 lipids, with linearity range (R(2)=0.95-1.00), LOQ (0.003-14.88ngmL(-)(1)) and intraday and interday repeatability being evaluated for each lipid. The lipid profiling method developed was successfully applied to the analysis of 18 grape samples (10 red grape and 8 white grape varieties) from 4 different genetic groups: Vitis vinifera, Vitis non-vinifera, Muscat and hybrid; 33 lipids were identified and quantified. This method, which can be easily expanded to include further compounds and other plant tissues, is the starting point for analysis of the lipid profile in different grape tissues, an essential goal for better understanding the role of lipids in grape physiology. PMID:26048823

  19. Priming in permafrost soils: High vulnerability of arctic soil organic carbon to increased input of plant-derived compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Gentsch, Norman; Capek, Petr; Diakova, Katerina; Alves, Ricardo; Barta, Jiri; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Knoltsch, Anna; Mikutta, Robert; Santruckova, Hana; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Richter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, resulting in a stimulation of both plant primary production and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to this direct stimulation, SOM decomposition might also be indirectly affected by rising temperatures mediated by the increase in plant productivity. Higher root litter production for instance might decrease SOM decomposition by providing soil microorganisms with alternative C and N sources ("negative priming"), or might increase SOM decomposition by facilitating microbial growth and enzyme production ("positive priming"). With about 1,700 Pg of organic C stored in arctic soils, and 88% of that in horizons deeper than 30 cm, it is crucial to understand the controls on SOM decomposition in different horizons of arctic permafrost soils, and thus the vulnerability of SOM to changes in C and N availability in a future climate. We here report on the vulnerability of SOM in arctic permafrost soils to an increased input of plant-derived organic compounds, and on its variability across soil horizons and sites. We simulated an increased input of plant-derived compounds by amending soil samples with 13C-labelled cellulose or protein, and compared the mineralization of native, unlabelled soil organic C (SOC) to unamended control samples. Our experiment included 119 individual samples of arctic permafrost soils, covering four sites across the Siberian Arctic, and five soil horizons, i.e., organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, mineral subsoil and cryoturbated material (topsoil material buried in the subsoil by freeze-thaw processes) from the active layer, as well as thawed material from the upper permafrost. Our findings suggest that changes in C and N availability in Arctic soils, such as mediated by plants, have a high potential to alter the decomposition of SOM, but also point at fundamental differences between soil horizons. In the organic topsoil, SOC mineralization increased by 51% after addition of protein, but was not affected by cellulose, suggesting predominant N limitation of the microbial decomposer community, and a high vulnerability of SOM to increases in N availability. In contrast, in mineral subsoil and thawed permafrost, SOC mineralization was stimulated by both cellulose and protein (between 23 and 120%), cellulose- and protein-derived C was efficiently incorporated into the microbial biomass, and effects of both cellulose and protein were significantly correlated. These findings suggest predominant C limitation of the microbial decomposer community in deeper, mineral horizons of arctic permafrost soils, and point at a high vulnerability of SOM to increased C availability, e.g., due to higher root litter production. We estimate that on a circum-arctic scale, increases in C and N availability have the potential to stimulate SOC mineralization in the order of several Tg C per day. Together with the direct stimulation of SOC mineralization by rising temperatures, this indirect stimulation can counteract the increased CO2 fixation by plants, and thus reduce the C sink strength of arctic ecosystems or even provoke net ecosystem C losses that might induce a positive feedback to global warming.

  20. Percutaneous treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis with a novel plant-derived antiseptic

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Eugene; Boeck, Harry; Warnke, Patrick H

    2001-01-01

    Background Antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE, are an increasing problem world-wide, causing intractable wound infections. Complex phytochemical extracts such as tea tree oil and eucalypt-derived formulations have been shown to have strong bactericidal activity against MRSA in vitro. Polytoxinol (PT) antimicrobial, is the trade name of a range of antimicrobial preparations in solution, ointment and cream form. Methods We report the first use of this drug, administered percutaneously, via calcium sulphate pellets (Osteoset,TM), into bone, to treat an intractable MRSA infection of the lower tibia in an adult male. Results and Discussion Over a three month period his symptoms resolved with a healing response on x-ray and with a reduced CRP. PMID:11368798

  1. Synergism of plant-derived polyphenols in adipogenesis: perspectives and implications.

    PubMed

    Herranz-López, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Pérez-Sanchez, Almudena; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Menéndez, Javier Abel; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Micol, Vicente

    2012-02-15

    Dietary polyphenols may exert their pharmacological effect via synergistic interactions with multiple targets. Putative effects of polyphenols in the management of obesity should be primarily evaluated in adipose tissue and consequently in well-documented cell model. We used Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), a widely recognised medicinal plant, as a source of polyphenols with a number of salutary effects previously reported. We present here the full characterisation of bioactive components of HS aqueous extracts and document their effects in a model of adipogenesis from 3T3-L1 cells and in hypertrophic and insulin-resistant adipocytes. Aqueous extracts were up to 100 times more efficient in inhibiting triglyceride accumulation when devoid of fibre and polysaccharides. Significant differences were also observed in reactive oxygen species generation and adipokine secretion. We also found that, when polyphenols were fractionated and isolated, the benefits of the whole extract were greater than the sum of its parts, which indicated a previously unnoticed synergism. In conclusion, polyphenols have interactive and complementary effects, which suggest a possible application in the management of complex diseases and efforts to isolate individual components might be irrelevant for clinical medicine and/or human nutrition. PMID:22280831

  2. Sorption and transport of sulfamethazine in agricultural soils amended with invasive-plant-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Tang, Xiangyu; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Kim, Kye Hoon; Lee, Sung-Eun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-08-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are one of the most frequently used antibiotics in the veterinary industry, showing high mobility in soils. Objectives of this research were to determine the sorption, distribution coefficients and involvement of different ionic forms of sulfamethazine (SMZ), a representative SAs, and to evaluate the transport of SMZ in biochar treated soils. Biochars were produced from an invasive plant, burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.), under slow pyrolysis conditions at peak temperatures of 300 °C (biochar-300) and 700 °C (biochar-700), respectively. The abilities of the biochars to retain SMZ in loamy sand and sandy loam soils were examined under different pHs and SMZ loadings. Soil column experiments were performed with and without biochars addition. Results showed that biochar-700 had a high degree of SMZ retention, with resultant decreased pH in both soils. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (KD,eff) values indicated that the observed high SMZ retention at pH 3 could be attributed to the ?-? electron donor-acceptor interaction and electrostatic cation exchange, whereas at pH 5 and 7, cation exchange was the main mechanisms responsible. There was no temporal retardation of SMZ in biochar treated soil as compared to the untreated soil. However, biochar-700 treatment achieved up to 89% and 82% increase in the SMZ retention in sandy loam and loamy sand soils, respectively. The overall results demonstrated that burcucumber biochar produced at higher temperature was effective in reducing the mobility of SMZ in the studied soils. PMID:24768839

  3. High-sensitivity measurement of diverse vascular plant-derived biomarkers in high-altitude ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makou, Matthew C.; Thompson, Lonnie G.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2009-07-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds derived from burned and fresh vascular plant sources and preserved in high-altitude ice fields were detected and identified through use of recently developed analytical tools. Specifically, stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry allowed measurement of multiple biomarkers in small sample volumes (?30 ml). Among other compounds of interest, several diterpenoids, which suggest inputs from conifers and conifer burning, were identified in post-industrial era and older Holocene ice from the Sajama site in the Bolivian Andes, but not in a glacial period sample, consistent with aridity changes. Differences in biomarker assemblages between sites support the use of these compounds as regionally constrained recorders of vegetation and climate change. This study represents the first application of these analytical techniques to ice core research and the first indication that records of vegetation fires may be reconstructed from diterpenoids in ice.

  4. [Improved protoplast-derived plants of Astragalus adsurgens through somatic embryogenesis].

    PubMed

    Luo, J P; Jia, J F; Gu, Y H; Liu, J

    2000-01-01

    Embryogenic callus was obtained only from hypocotyl explants of Astragalus adsurgens and light inhibited the formation of embryogenic callus. A high yield (1.2 x 10(6)/g F. Wt.) of protoplasts with high viability (over 80%) could be isolated from 10-day-old embryogenic callus. Protoplasts were induced to undergo sustained division and to form cell colonies when cultured in agarose-solidified medium (KMP) containing 1/4 strength of mineral salts and supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2, 4-D, 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.5 mol/L glucose at a plating density of 1.0 x 10(5)mL, where the plating efficinency was 16.8%. Conditioning medium significantly improved the formation of cell colonies. When protoplast-derived colonies were maintained at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks and subsequently transferred onto medium (MS) with 0.1 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BA, somatic embryogenesis occurred. Frequency of cell colonies producing somatic embryos reached 70%, and the number of somatic embryos per gram cells was over 200. Cultured on hormone-free half-strength MS medium, somatic embryos developed into healthy plantlets with normal chromosome complement. PMID:10883269

  5. Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Komes, Draženka; Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Ljubi?i?, Ivan; Durgo, Ksenija; Cindri?, Iva Juranovi?; Buši?, Arijana; Vojvodi?, Aleksandra

    2014-05-15

    Herbal mixtures composed of blackberry leaf and natural sweeteners (dried apples, prunes, figs, raisins, apricots, carrot and sweet potato, stevia leaves and liquorice root) were developed. Their nutritive and bioactive profile, biological activity and sensory properties were determined. Formulated mixtures exhibited lower total polyphenol content (259.09-350.00 mg GAE/L) when compared to plain blackberry leaf, but contained higher content of chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic acids and quercetin, as well as some macroelements (Ca, K, Mg) and microelements (Ba, Na). Stevia addition to formulated mixtures ensured higher polyphenolic content. Dried carrot exhibited the highest (0.988 g/g) and liquorice the lowest (0.087 g/g) content of total sugars but it contributed to the sweetness with 574.48 mg/L of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives. Plain blackberry leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic and antioxidative activity on human colon cancer cells. Formulated mixtures exhibited improved flavour profile and balanced sweetness in relation to plain blackberry leaf infusion. PMID:24423548

  6. Toxic inhibition of smooth muscle contractility by plant-derived sesquiterpenes caused by their chemically reactive alpha-methylenebutyrolactone functions.

    PubMed

    Hay, A J; Hamburger, M; Hostettmann, K; Hoult, J R

    1994-05-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that extracts of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) and parthenolide, a sesquiterpene alpha-methylenebutyrolactone obtained from it, inhibit smooth muscle contractility in a time-dependent, non-specific and irreversible manner. 2. The hypothesis that this toxic effect is due specifically to the presence in the sesquiterpene lactone of the potentially reactive alpha-methylene function was tested on rabbit isolated aortic ring preparations. This was done (a) by comparing the effects of two plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones purified from yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis): cynaropicrin (an alpha-methylenebutyrolactone) and solstitialin 13-acetate (lacking the alpha-methylene function), and (b) by chemically inactivating the alpha-methylene functions in cynaropicrin and parthenolide by reaction with cysteine. 3. The results show that the characteristic smooth muscle inhibitory profile is demonstrated by the two alpha-methylenebutyrolactones (parthenolide and cynaropicrin), but not by the compound lacking this functional group (solstitialin 13-acetate), or by those previously active compounds in which it has been inactivated with cysteine. 4. Thus the alpha-methylene function is critical for this aspect of the toxic pharmacological profile of the sesquiterpene butyrolactones, which are natural products widely distributed in the Compositae family of flowering plants. PMID:8032668

  7. Toxic inhibition of smooth muscle contractility by plant-derived sesquiterpenes caused by their chemically reactive alpha-methylenebutyrolactone functions.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, A. J.; Hamburger, M.; Hostettmann, K.; Hoult, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that extracts of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) and parthenolide, a sesquiterpene alpha-methylenebutyrolactone obtained from it, inhibit smooth muscle contractility in a time-dependent, non-specific and irreversible manner. 2. The hypothesis that this toxic effect is due specifically to the presence in the sesquiterpene lactone of the potentially reactive alpha-methylene function was tested on rabbit isolated aortic ring preparations. This was done (a) by comparing the effects of two plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones purified from yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis): cynaropicrin (an alpha-methylenebutyrolactone) and solstitialin 13-acetate (lacking the alpha-methylene function), and (b) by chemically inactivating the alpha-methylene functions in cynaropicrin and parthenolide by reaction with cysteine. 3. The results show that the characteristic smooth muscle inhibitory profile is demonstrated by the two alpha-methylenebutyrolactones (parthenolide and cynaropicrin), but not by the compound lacking this functional group (solstitialin 13-acetate), or by those previously active compounds in which it has been inactivated with cysteine. 4. Thus the alpha-methylene function is critical for this aspect of the toxic pharmacological profile of the sesquiterpene butyrolactones, which are natural products widely distributed in the Compositae family of flowering plants. PMID:8032668

  8. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anne Barron

    2011-04-14

    What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

  9. Plant-derived human acetylcholinesterase-R provides protection from lethal organophosphate poisoning and its chronic aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Evron, Tama; Geyer, Brian C.; Cherni, Irene; Muralidharan, Mrinalini; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Fletcher, Samuel P.; Soreq, Hermona; Mor, Tsafrir S.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutically valuable proteins are often rare and/or unstable in their natural context, calling for production solutions in heterologous systems. A relevant example is that of the stress-induced, normally rare, and naturally unstable “read-through” human acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R. AChE-R shares its active site with the synaptic AChE-S variant, which is the target of poisonous organophosphate anticholinesterase insecticides such as the parathion metabolite paraoxon. Inherent AChE-R overproduction under organophosphate intoxication confers both short-term protection (as a bioscavenger) and long-term neuromuscular damages (as a regulator). Here we report the purification, characterization, and testing of human, endoplasmic reticulum-retained AChE-RER produced from plant-optimized cDNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. AChE-RER purified to homogeneity showed indistinguishable biochemical properties, with IC50 = 10?7 M for the organophosphate paraoxon, similar to mammalian cell culture-derived AChE. In vivo titration showed dose-dependent protection by intravenously injected AChE-RER of FVB/N male mice challenged with a lethal dose of paraoxon, with complete elimination of short-term clinical symptoms at near molar equivalence. By 10 days postexposure, AChE-R prophylaxis markedly limited postexposure increases in plasma murine AChE-R levels while minimizing the organophosphate-induced neuromuscular junction dismorphology. Our findings present plant-produced AChE-RER as a bi-modal agent, conferring both short- and long-term protection from organophosphate intoxication. PMID:17475919

  10. Properties of the plant- and manure-derived biochars and their sorption of dibutyl phthalate and phenanthrene

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mengyi; Sun, Ke; Jin, Jie; Gao, Bo; Yan, Yu; Han, Lanfang; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The properties of plant residue-derived biochars (PLABs) and animal waste-derived biochars (ANIBs) obtained at low and high heating treatment temperatures (300 and 450°C) as well as their sorption of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and phenanthrene (PHE) were investigated in this study. The higher C content of PLABs could explain that CO2-surface area (CO2-SA) of PLABs was remarkably high relative to ANIBs. OC and aromatic C were two key factors influencing the CO2-SA of the biochars. Much higher surface C content of the ANIBs than bulk C likely explained that the ANIBs exhibited higher sorption of DBP and PHE compared to the PLABs. H-bonding should govern the adsorption of DBP by most of the tested biochars and ?-? interaction play an important role in the adsorption of PHE by biochars. High CO2-SA (>200?m2 g?1) demonstrated that abundant nanopores of OC existed within the biochars obtained 450°C (HTBs), which likely result in high and nonlinear sorption of PHE by HTBs. PMID:24924925

  11. Models of Experimentally Derived Competitive Effects Predict Biogeographical Differences in the Abundance of Invasive and Native Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Sa; Ni, Guangyan; Callaway, Ragan M.

    2013-01-01

    Mono-dominance by invasive species provides opportunities to explore determinants of plant distributions and abundance; however, linking mechanistic results from small scale experiments to patterns in nature is difficult. We used experimentally derived competitive effects of an invader in North America, Acroptilon repens, on species with which it co-occurs in its native range of Uzbekistan and on species with which it occurs in its non-native ranges in North America, in individual-based models. We found that competitive effects yielded relative abundances of Acroptilon and other species in models that were qualitatively similar to those observed in the field in the two ranges. In its non-native range, Acroptilon can occur in nearly pure monocultures at local scales, whereas such nearly pure stands of Acroptilon appear to be much less common in its native range. Experimentally derived competitive effects of Acroptilon on other species predicted Acroptilon to be 4–9 times more proportionally abundant than natives in the North American models, but proportionally equal to or less than the abundance of natives in the Eurasian models. Our results suggest a novel way to integrate complex combinations of interactions simultaneously, and that biogeographical differences in the competitive effects of an invader correspond well with biogeographical differences in abundance and impact. PMID:24265701

  12. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of <1.16-20.23 ?g/kg and <1.16-32.00 ?g/kg, respectively. The four commercial leavening agents containing tartrates were found to be negative for OTA. All eight samples collected in two distilleries that use grape pomaces and wine lees to produce tartrates and other byproducts contained OTA at levels of <1.16-240.93 ?g/kg. The high incidence of OTA contamination in PFS and food coloring agents derived from V. vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products. PMID:25768038

  13. The Calvin cycle inevitably produces sugar-derived reactive carbonyl methylglyoxal during photosynthesis: a potential cause of plant diabetes.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Inoue, Hironori; Odawara, Mizue; Shimakawa, Ginga; Miyake, Chikahiro

    2014-02-01

    Sugar-derived reactive carbonyls (RCs), including methylglyoxal (MG), are aggressive by-products of oxidative stress known to impair the functions of multiple proteins. These advanced glycation end-products accumulate in patients with diabetes mellitus and cause major complications, including arteriosclerosis and cardiac insufficiency. In the glycolytic pathway, the equilibration reactions between dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) have recently been shown to generate MG as a by-product. Because plants produce vast amounts of sugars and support the same reaction in the Calvin cycle, we hypothesized that MG also accumulates in chloroplasts. Incubating isolated chloroplasts with excess 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) as the GAP precursor drove the equilibration reaction toward MG production. The rate of oxygen (O2) evolution was used as an index of 3-PGA-mediated photosynthesis. The 3-PGA- and time-dependent accumulation of MG in chloroplasts was confirmed by HPLC. In addition, MG production increased with an increase in light intensity. We also observed a positive linear relationship between the rates of MG production and O2 evolution (R = 0.88; P < 0.0001). These data provide evidence that MG is produced by the Calvin cycle and that sugar-derived RC production is inevitable during photosynthesis. Furthermore, we found that MG production is enhanced under high-CO2 conditions in illuminated wheat leaves. PMID:24406631

  14. Properties of the plant- and manure-derived biochars and their sorption of dibutyl phthalate and phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mengyi; Sun, Ke; Jin, Jie; Gao, Bo; Yan, Yu; Han, Lanfang; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The properties of plant residue-derived biochars (PLABs) and animal waste-derived biochars (ANIBs) obtained at low and high heating treatment temperatures (300 and 450°C) as well as their sorption of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and phenanthrene (PHE) were investigated in this study. The higher C content of PLABs could explain that CO?-surface area (CO?-SA) of PLABs was remarkably high relative to ANIBs. OC and aromatic C were two key factors influencing the CO?-SA of the biochars. Much higher surface C content of the ANIBs than bulk C likely explained that the ANIBs exhibited higher sorption of DBP and PHE compared to the PLABs. H-bonding should govern the adsorption of DBP by most of the tested biochars and ?-? interaction play an important role in the adsorption of PHE by biochars. High CO?-SA (>200 m(2) g(-1)) demonstrated that abundant nanopores of OC existed within the biochars obtained 450°C (HTBs), which likely result in high and nonlinear sorption of PHE by HTBs. PMID:24924925

  15. Perturbations of membrane structure by cholesterol and cholesterol derivatives are determined by sterol orientation

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Brett N.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for proper function and regulation of eukaryotic membranes, and significant amounts of metabolic energy are dedicated to controlling cellular cholesterol levels. Oxidation products of cholesterol, the oxysterols, are enzymatically produced molecules that play a major role in mediating cholesterol homeostasis through mechanisms which have not yet been fully elucidated. Certain oxysterols are known to have direct effects on membrane permeability and structure; effects that are strikingly different from that of cholesterol. We use molecular dynamics simulations of these oxysterols in 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers to explain the structural origins for the differing effects of cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol on bilayer properties. In particular, we demonstrate that the source for these differing perturbations is the much wider range of molecular orientations accessible to 25-hydroxycholesterol when compared to cholesterol. This study shows that direct membrane perturbation by side-chain oxysterols is significant, and suggests that these membrane perturbations may play a role in the oxysterol regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:19334779

  16. Sterols in various organs of adult female swine Jocelyne AIGUEPERSE, J. REMY, F. CHEVALLIER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sterols in various organs of adult female swine Jocelyne AIGUEPERSE, J. REMY, F. CHEVALLIER Orsay Cedex, France. Summary. Adult female swine were maintained at a constant weight of 70 kg and compared with those previously obtained with swine or rats. Gas chromatographic analyses showed

  17. A class of sterol 14-demethylase inhibitors as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    A class of sterol 14-demethylase inhibitors as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents Frederick Buckner for review August 25, 2003) Chronic infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is a major cause a structural class with potent anti-T. cruzi activity. As many as 200,000 new cases of Trypanosoma cruzi

  18. Lanosterol Biosynthesis in the Prokaryote Methylococcus Capsulatus: Insight into the Evolution of Sterol Biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Lamb; Colin J. Jackson; Andrew G. S. Warrilow; Nigel J. Manning; Diane E. Kelly; Steven L. Kelly

    2007-01-01

    A putative operon containing homologues of essential eukaryotic sterol biosynthetic enzymes, squalene monooxygenase and oxidosqualene cyclase, has been identified in the genome of the prokaryote Methylococcus capsulatus. Expression of the squalene monooxygenase yielded a protein associated with the membrane fraction, while expression of oxidosqualene cyclase yielded a soluble protein, contrasting with the eukaryotic enzyme forms. Activity studies with purified squalene

  19. Examining the effect of sterol carrier protein-2 on phytanic acid toxicity 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Cynthia

    2013-02-22

    acid. Phytanic acid accumulates to toxic levels in patients with defective or deficient numbers of peroxisomes, but little is known about how phytanic acid is taken up into the cell and incorporated into the peroxisome. Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2...

  20. Serum cholesterol precursor sterols in coeliac disease: effects of gluten free diet and cholestyramine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Vuoristo; T A Miettinen

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced biliary secretion and high faecal excretion of cholesterol are associated with increased cholesterol synthesis in coeliac disease. We have further investigated cholesterol synthesis in coeliac disease by determining the concentrations of faecal steroids and cholesterol precursors in serum, with and without a gluten free diet and while taking cholestyramine. The levels of unesterified methyl sterols and free and esterified

  1. Selective delipidation of the plasma membrane by surfactants: Enrichment of sterols and activation of ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, R.P.; Cleland, R. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA) Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The influence of plasma membrane lipid components on the activity of the H{sup +}-ATPase has been studied by determining the effect of surfactants on membrane lipids and ATPase activity of oat (Avena sativa L.) root plasma membrane vesicles purified by a two-phase partitioning procedure. Triton X-100, at 25 to 1 (weight/weight) Triton to plasma membrane protein, an amount that causes maximal activation of the ATPase in the ATPase assay, extracted 59% of the membrane protein but did not solubilize the bulk of the ATPase. The Triton-insoluble proteins had associated with them, on a micromole per milligram protein basis, only 14% as much phospholipid, but 38% of the glycolipids and sterols, as compared with the native membranes. The Triton insoluble ATPase could still be activated by Triton X-100. When solubilized by lysolecithin, there were still sterols associated with the ATPase fraction. Free sterols were found associated with the ATPase in the same relative proportions, whether treated with surfactants or not. We suggest that surfactants activate the ATPase by altering the hydrophobic environment around the enzyme. We propose that sterols, through their interaction with the ATPase, may be essential for ATPase activity.

  2. High resolution GC of unsaponifiable matter and sterol fraction in vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Frega; F. Bocci; G. Giovannoni; G. Lercker

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of both the total unsaponifiable matter and the sterol fractions in vegetable oils has been performed with a new polar column (TAP, Chrompack). The use of a polar column, which is characterized by high thermal stability, has led to the identification of a greater number of constituents than the use of a nonpolar column (i.e. SE 52, SE

  3. Quantitative IgE inhibition experiments with purified recombinant allergens indicate pollen-derived allergens as the sensitizing agents responsible for many forms of plant food allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Kazemi-Shirazi; Gabrielle Pauli; Ashok Purohit; Susanne Spitzauer; Renate Fröschl; Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber; Heimo Breiteneder; Otto Scheiner; Dietrich Kraft; Rudolf Valenta

    2000-01-01

    Background: Type I allergic symptoms in the oropharyngeal mucosa upon contact with plant-derived food in patients with pollen allergies have been termed oral allergy syndrome (OAS). IgE cross-reactivity between pollen and food allergens represents the molecular basis for this phenomenon. The sensitizing allergen source (pollen or plant food) in OAS is a controversial issue.Objective: We sought to determine the primary

  4. Simultaneous Determination by Capillary Gas Chromatography of Organic Acids, Sugars, and Sugar Alcohols in Plant Tissue Extracts as Their Trimethylsilyl Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Adams; ZuLiang Chen; Peter Landman; Timothy D. Colmer

    1999-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic (GC) method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols extracted from plant tissues is described. Plant leaves were extracted in 5% (w\\/v) perchloric acid and neutralized extracts were purified using C18cartridges. Organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in purified extracts were converted to their trimethylsilyl (TMS)\\/TMS-oxime derivatives prior to separation and detection

  5. Tribological properties of PTFE filled plants-derived semi-aromatic polyamide (PA10T) and GF reinforced PTFE/PA10T composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Yuki; Nishitani, Yosuke; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    For the purpose of developing the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on plants-derived polymers, the tribological properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filled plants-derived semi-aromatic polyamide 10T (PA10T) composites and glass fiber (GF) reinforced PTFE/PA10T composites were investigated. PA10T is a kind of polyphthalamide (PPA, semi-aromatic polyamide) and biomass polymer made from plants-derived decamethylenediamine and coal-derived terephthalic acid. PTFE/PA10T and GF/PA10T/PTFE composites were melt-mixed by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Their mechanical properties such as tensile, Izod impact, and tribological properties were evaluated. Tribological properties were measured by a ring-on-plate type sliding wear tester under dry condition. Tribological properties of PA10T such as frictional coefficient, specific wear rate and limiting pv value improved with the addition of PTFE, although the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and tensile modulus decreased with PTFE. On the other hand, the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of GF/PA10T/PTFE composites were higher than those of PTFE/PA10T composites, however limiting pv value and mechanical properties improved significantly with the filling of GF. It follows from these results that it may be possible to develop the new tribomaterials based on plants-derived polymer composites with sufficient balances between mechanical and tribological properties.

  6. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae) over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people. Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl), which connected to the C(1) position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review. PMID:22853440

  7. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Zizhen; Qiao, Wenlin; Cheng, Ruiyang; Liu, Bin; She, Gaimei

    2012-01-01

    This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae) over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people.Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl), which connected to the C(1) position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review. PMID:22853440

  8. The Origin of Sterol Biosynthesis: A Time-Point for the Evolution of Eukaryotes and the Presence of O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, A.; Budin, M.; Brocks, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of sterol biosynthesis is of critical interest to geoscientists as well as to evolutionary biologists. The first enzyme in the pathway, squalene monooxygenase (Sqmo), requires molecular oxygen (O2), suggesting that this process post-dates the evolution of Cyanobacteria. Additionally, the presence of steranes in ancient rocks marks the suggested time-point of eukaryogenesis(1). Sterol biosynthesis is viewed primarily as a eukaryotic process, and the frequency of its occurrence in bacteria long has been a subject of controversy. In this work, 19 protein gene sequences for Sqmo from eukaryotes were compared to all available complete and partial prokaryotic genomes. Twelve protein gene sequences representing oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc), the second enzyme of the sterol biosynthetic pathway, also were examined. The only unequivocal matches among the bacteria were the alpha-proteobacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus, in which sterol biosynthesis already is known, and the planctomycete, Gemmata obscuriglobus. The latter species contains the most abbreviated sterol pathway yet identified in any organism. Experiments show that the major sterols in Gemmata are lanosterol and its uncommon isomer, parkeol. In bacteria, the sterol biosynthesis genes occupy a contiguous coding region and may represent a single operon. Phylogenetic trees show that the sterol pathway in bacteria and eukaryotes has a common ancestry. Gemmata may retain the most ancient remnants of the pathway's origin, and it is likely that sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes was acquired through gene transfer from bacteria. However, this work indicates that no known prokaryotes could produce the 24-ethyl steranes found in Archaean rocks(1). Therefore these compounds remain indicative of the presence of both eukaryotes and O2 at 2.7 Ga. 1. J. J. Brocks, G. A. Logan, R. Buick, R. E. Summons, (1999) Science 285, 1033-1036.

  9. Present and future potential of plant-derived products to control arthropods of veterinary and medical significance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of synthetic pesticides and repellents to target pests of veterinary and medical significance is becoming increasingly problematic. One alternative approach employs the bioactive attributes of plant-derived products (PDPs). These are particularly attractive on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries that should limit development of pest resistance against them. Several pesticides and repellents based on PDPs are already available, and in some cases widely utilised, in modern pest management. Many more have a long history of traditional use in poorer areas of the globe where access to synthetic pesticides is often limited. Preliminary studies support that PDPs could be more widely used to target numerous medical and veterinary pests, with modes of action often specific to invertebrates. Though their current and future potential appears significant, development and deployment of PDPs to target veterinary and medical pests is not without issue. Variable efficacy is widely recognised as a restraint to PDPs for pest control. Identifying and developing natural bioactive PDP components in place of chemically less-stable raw or 'whole’ products seems to be the most popular solution to this problem. A limited residual activity, often due to photosensitivity or high volatility, is a further drawback in some cases (though potentially advantageous in others). Nevertheless, encapsulation technologies and other slow-release mechanisms offer strong potential to improve residual activity where needed. The current review provides a summary of existing use and future potential of PDPs against ectoparasites of veterinary and medical significance. Four main types of PDP are considered (pyrethrum, neem, essential oils and plant extracts) for their pesticidal, growth regulating and repellent or deterrent properties. An overview of existing use and research for each is provided, with direction to more extensive reviews given in many sections. Sections to highlight potential issues, modes of action and emerging and future potential are also included. PMID:24428899

  10. Plant-derived compatible solutes proline betaine and betonicine confer enhanced osmotic and temperature stress tolerance to Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Abdallah; Hoffmann, Tamara; Kempf, Bettina; Xie, Xiulan; Smits, Sander H J; Bremer, Erhard

    2014-10-01

    L-Proline is a widely used compatible solute and is employed by Bacillus subtilis, through both synthesis and uptake, as an osmostress protectant. Here, we assessed the stress-protective potential of the plant-derived L-proline derivatives N-methyl-L-proline, L-proline betaine (stachydrine), trans-4-L-hydroxproline and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (betonicine) for cells challenged by high salinity or extremes in growth temperature. l-Proline betaine and betonicine conferred salt stress protection, but trans-4-L-hydroxyproline and N-methyl-L-proline was unable to do so. Except for L-proline, none of these compounds served as a nutrient for B. subtilis. L-Proline betaine was a considerably better osmostress protectant than betonicine, and its import strongly reduced the l-proline pool produced by B. subtilis under osmotic stress conditions, whereas a supply of betonicine affected the L-proline pool only modestly. Both compounds downregulated the transcription of the osmotically inducible opuA operon, albeit to different extents. Mutant studies revealed that L-proline betaine was taken up via the ATP-binding cassette transporters OpuA and OpuC, and the betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter-type carrier OpuD; betonicine was imported only through OpuA and OpuC. L-Proline betaine and betonicine also served as temperature stress protectants. A striking difference between these chemically closely related compounds was observed: L-proline betaine was an excellent cold stress protectant, but did not provide heat stress protection, whereas the reverse was true for betonicine. Both compounds were primarily imported in temperature-challenged cells via the high-capacity OpuA transporter. We developed an in silico model for the OpuAC-betonicine complex based on the crystal structure of the OpuAC solute receptor complexed with L-proline betaine. PMID:25012968

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Antiviral Effects of Hypericin, a Derivative of St. John's Wort Plant, in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEFFREY M. JACOBSON; LAWRENCE FEINMAN; LEONARD LIEBES; NANCY OSTROW; VICTORIA KOSLOWSKI; ALFONSO TOBIA; BERNARD E. CABANA; DONG-HUN LEE; JOHN SPRITZLER; ALFRED M. PRINCE

    2001-01-01

    Hypericin is a natural derivative of the common St. Johns wort plant, Hypericum perforatum. It has in vitro activity against several viruses, including bovine diarrhea virus, a pestivirus with structural similarities to hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a phase I dose escalation study to determine the safety and antiviral activity of hypericin in patients with chronic HCV infection. The

  12. Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease effects of Isatis indigotica root and plant-derived phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Wen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Lai, Chien-Chen; Wan, Lei; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2005-10-01

    The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-coronavirus mediates the proteolytic processing of replicase polypeptides 1a and 1ab into functional proteins, becoming an important target for the drug development. In this study, Isatis indigotica root extract, five major compounds of I. indigotica root, and seven plant-derived phenolic compounds were tested for anti-SARS-CoV 3CLpro effects using cell-free and cell-based cleavage assays. Cleavage assays with the 3CLpro demonstrated that IC50 values were in micromolar ranges for I. indigotica root extract, indigo, sinigrin, aloe emodin and hesperetin. Sinigrin (IC50: 217 microM) was more efficient in blocking the cleavage processing of the 3CLpro than indigo (IC50: 752 microM) and beta-sitosterol (IC50: 1210 microM) in the cell-based assay. Only two phenolic compounds aloe emodin and hesperetin dose-dependently inhibited cleavage activity of the 3CLpro, in which the IC50 was 366 microM for aloe emodin and 8.3 microM for hesperetin in the cell-based assay. PMID:16115693

  13. Treponema pallidum putative novel drug target identification and validation: rethinking syphilis therapeutics with plant-derived terpenoids.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Swati; Awasthi, Manika; Pandey, Veda P

    2015-02-01

    Syphilis, a slow progressive and the third most common sexually transmitted disease found worldwide, is caused by a spirochete gram negative bacteria Treponema pallidum. Emergence of antibiotic resistant T. pallidum has led to a search for novel drugs and their targets. Subtractive genomics analyses of pathogen T. pallidum and host Homo sapiens resulted in identification of 126 proteins essential for survival and viability of the pathogen. Metabolic pathway analyses of these essential proteins led to discovery of nineteen proteins distributed among six metabolic pathways unique to T. pallidum. One hundred plant-derived terpenoids, as potential therapeutic molecules against T. pallidum, were screened for their drug likeness and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity) properties. Subsequently the resulting nine terpenoids were docked with five unique T. pallidum targets through molecular modeling approaches. Out of five targets analyzed, D-alanine:D-alanine ligase was found to be the most promising target, while terpenoid salvicine was the most potent inhibitor. A comparison of the inhibitory potential of the best docked readily available natural compound, namely pomiferin (flavonoid) with that of the best docked terpenoid salvicine, revealed that salvicine was a more potent inhibitor than that of pomiferin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a terpenoid as a potential therapeutic molecule against T. pallidum with D-alanine:D-alanine ligase as a novel target. Further studies are warranted to evaluate and explore the potential clinical ramifications of these findings in relation to syphilis that has public health importance worldwide. PMID:25683888

  14. Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids derived from medicinal plants in preventing methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jeferson L.; Posser, Thais; Missau, Fabiana; Pizzolatti, Moacir G.; dos Santos, Adair R. S.; Souza, Diogo O.; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, Joăo B. T.; Dafre, Alcir L.; Farina, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effects of three flavonoids (myricetin, myricitrin and rutin) derived from medicinal plants against methyl mercury (MeHg)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro. Incubation of mouse brain mitochondria with MeHg induced a significant decrease in mitochondrial function, which was correlated with decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The co-incubation of mouse brain mitochondria with myricetin or myricitrin caused a concentration-dependent decrease of MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The flavonoid rutin was ineffective in counteracting MeHg toxicity. Among the three tested flavonoids, myricetin was the most efficient in protecting against MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, myricetin completely blocked MeHg-induced ROS formation and lipid peroxidation and partially prevented MeHg-induced GSH depletion. The ability of myricetin to attenuate MeHg-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress appears to be related to its higher scavenging capability when compared to myricitrin and rutin. Overall, the results suggest that MeHg-induced mitotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress. The ability of myricetin to prevent MeHg-induced oxidative damage in brain mitochondria renders this flavonoid a promising molecule for further in vivo studies in the search for potential antidotes to counteract MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:21127717

  15. Loading and release mechanism of red clover necrotic mosaic virus derived plant viral nanoparticles for drug delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Guenther, Richard H; Sit, Tim L; Opperman, Charles H; Lommel, Steven A; Willoughby, Julie A

    2014-12-29

    Loading and release mechanisms of Red clover necrotic mosaicvirus (RCNMV) derived plant viral nanoparticle (PVN) are shown for controlled delivery of the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox). Previous studies demonstrate that RCNMV's structure and unique response to divalent cation depletion and re-addition enables Dox infusion to the viral capsid through a pore formation mechanism. However, by controlling the net charge of RCNMV outer surface and accessibility of RCNMV interior cavity, tunable release of PVN is possible via manipulation of the Dox loading capacity and binding locations (external surface-binding or internal capsid-encapsulation) with the RCNMV capsid. Bimodal release kinetics is achieved via a rapid release of surface-Dox followed by a slow release of encapsulated Dox. Moreover, the rate of Dox release and the amount of released Dox increases with an increase in environmental pH or a decrease in concentration of divalent cations. This pH-responsive Dox release from PVN is controlled by Fickian diffusion kinetics where the release rate is dependent on the location of the bound or loaded active molecule. In summary, controllable release of Dox-loaded PVNs is imparted by 1) formulation conditions and 2) driven by the capsid's pH- and ion- responsive functions in a given environment. PMID:25098668

  16. Effects of plant-derived polyphenols on TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production induced by advanced glycation endproducts.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Dave; Woldu, Ameha; Rahmadi, Anton; Shanmugam, Kirubakaran; Steiner, Nicole; Wright, Elise; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Schulz, Oliver; Castillo, Julián; Münch, Gerald

    2010-07-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) accumulate on protein deposits including the beta-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. AGEs interact with the "receptor for advanced glycation endproducts", and transmit their signals using intracellular reactive oxygen species as second messengers. Ultimately, AGEs induce the expression of a variety of pro-inflammatory markers including the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Antioxidants that act intracellularly, including polyphenols, have been shown to scavenge these "signaling" reactive oxygen species, and thus perform in an anti-inflammatory capacity. This study tested the pure compounds apigenin and diosmetin as well as extracts from silymarin, uva ursi (bearberry) and green olive leaf for their ability to attenuate AGE-induced NO and TNF-alpha production. All five tested samples inhibited BSA-AGE-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner. Apigenin and diosmetin were most potent, and exhibited EC(50) values approximately 10 microM. In contrast, TNF-alpha expression was only reduced by apigenin, diosmetin and silymarin; not by the bearberry and green olive leaf extracts. In addition, the silymarin and bearberry extracts caused significant cell death at concentrations >or=10 microg/mL and >or=50 microg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, we suggest that plant-derived polyphenols might offer therapeutic opportunities to delay the progression of AGE-mediated and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts-mediated neuro-inflammatory diseases including Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20540146

  17. Plant-derived nanoparticle treatment with cocc 30c ameliorates attention and motor abilities in sleep-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Zubedat, S; Freed, Y; Eshed, Y; Cymerblit-Sabba, A; Ritter, A; Nachmani, M; Harush, R; Aga-Mizrachi, S; Avital, A

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is an essential physiological process that underlies crucial cognitive functions as well as emotional reactivity. Thus, sleep deprivation (SD) may exert various deleterious effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the adverse behavioral and hormonal effects of SD and a potential treatment with Plant-derived nanoparticle treatment - cocc 30c. The study was a 4-arm trial with randomization and double-blinding of verum and placebo treatments. SD was induced by using the Multiple Platform Method for 48 h. The effects of SD were evaluated behaviorally (pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), startle response and rotor-rod) at baseline as well as at 6, 12, 24h, and 14 days post deprivation. cocc 30c treatment was administrated Per Os every three hours starting immediately after baseline tests and for a period of 24h. On day 14, blood samples were taken and serum levels of corticosterone, testosterone, serotonin and leptin were tested. We found that cocc 30c improved PPI 12 and 24h post deprivation, likewise, cocc 30c improved motor learning. On day 14 SD led to increased startle response that was ameliorated by cocc 30c. Likewise, SD led to increased levels of corticosterone and serotonin while decreasing testosterone and leptin. Interestingly, cocc 30c treatment has moderated these hormonal alterations. We conclude that the treatment with cocc 30c recovers both short-term behavioral and the long-term hormonal modulations following SD. PMID:23973403

  18. Single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and dibutyl phthalate by plant- and manure-derived biochars.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jie; Sun, Ke; Wu, Fengchang; Gao, Bo; Wang, Ziying; Kang, Mingjie; Bai, Yingcheng; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Xitao; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-03-01

    The spatial arrangement of biochar and the exact underlying interaction mechanisms of biochar and hydrophobic organic compounds both remain largely unknown. The sorption of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and phenanthrene (PHE) to plant- and manure-derived biochars in both single- and bi-solute systems was investigated. The significant positive relation between surface polarity and ash content suggests that minerals benefit the external distribution of polar groups on particle surfaces. PHE and DBP sorption by the biochars was regulated by their surface polarity. The PHE generally displayed a pronounced enhancement of DBP sorption, likely resulting from the formation of biochar-PHE-DBP complexes, suggesting that DBP and PHE had different sorption sites on the biochars. The enhancement of Cd(2+) (a soft Lewis acid) on DBP sorption implied that ?-? interactions should not dominate DBP sorption by biochars. The influence of Cd(2+) on PHE sorption by biochars would depend on the balance between suppressive sorption by Cd(2+)PHE bonding and enhanced sorption by Cd(2+)-complexed functionalities, and the amounts of Cd(2+) adsorbed by biochars determined the relative role of increased sorption by Cd(2+) in the overall PHE sorption. PMID:24374592

  19. Radiocesium derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in seabed sediments: initial deposition and inventories.

    PubMed

    Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2014-05-01

    Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1FNPP), significant levels of anthropogenic radionuclides have been detected in seabed sediments off the east coast of Japan. In this paper, the approximate amount of accident-derived radiocesium in seabed sediments off Fukushima, Miyagi and Ibaraki prefectures was estimated from a sediment integration algorithm. As of October 2011, about half a year after the accident, the total amount of sedimentary 134Cs was 0.20±0.06 PBq (decay corrected to March 11, 2011) and more than 90% of the radiocesium was accumulated in the regions shallower than 200 m depth. The large inventory in the coastal sediments was attributed to effective adsorption of dissolved radiocesium onto suspended particles and directly to sediments in the early post-accident stage. Although rivers are also an important source to supply radiocesium to the coastal regions, this flux was much lower than that of the above-mentioned process within half a year after the accident. PMID:24743987

  20. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein Binds to a Cis Element in the Promoter of the Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Ericsson; Simon M. Jackson; Bernard C. Lee; Peter A. Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Sterol-regulated transcription of the gene for rat farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase (geranyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate geranyltranstransferase, EC 2.5.1.10) is dependent in part on the binding of the ubiquitous transcription factor NF-Y to a 6-bp element within the proximal promoter. Current studies identify a second element in this promoter that is also required for sterol-regulated transcription in vivo. Mutation of three nucleotides (CAC) within

  1. Role of ORPs in sterol transport from plasma membrane to ER and lipid droplets in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Maurice; Ohsaki, Yuki; Rita Rega, Laura; Bittman, Robert; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Ikonen, Elina

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of sterol transport from the plasma membrane (PM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lipid droplets (LDs) in HeLa cells. By overexpressing all mammalian oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs), we found that especially ORP1S and ORP2 enhanced PM-to-LD sterol transport. This reflected the stimulation of transport from the PM to the ER, rather than from the ER to LDs. Double knockdown of ORP1S and ORP2 inhibited sterol transport from the PM to the ER and LDs, suggesting a physiological role for these ORPs in the process. A two phenylalanines in an acidic tract (FFAT) motif in ORPs that mediates interaction with VAMP-associated proteins (VAPs) in the ER was not necessary for the enhancement of sterol transport by ORPs. However, VAP-A and VAP-B silencing slowed down PM-to-LD sterol transport. This was accompanied by enhanced degradation of ORP2 and decreased levels of several FFAT motif-containing ORPs, suggesting a role for VAPs in sterol transport by stabilization of ORPs. PMID:21062391

  2. Treatment of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome and Other Sterol Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Melissa D.; Christie, Jill M.; Eroglu, Yasemen; Freeman, Kurt A.; Steiner, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive genetic condition with a broad phenotype that results from deficiency of the final enzyme of the cholesterol synthesis pathway. This defect causes low or low-normal plasma cholesterol levels and increased 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol (DHC) levels. Many therapies for SLOS and other disorders of sterol metabolism have been proposed, and a few of them have been undertaken in selected patients, but robust prospective clinical trials with validated outcome measures are lacking. We review the current literature and expert opinion on treatments for SLOS and other selected sterol disorders, including dietary cholesterol therapy, statin treatment, bile acid supplementation, medical therapies and surgical interventions, as well as directions for future therapies and treatment research. PMID:23042642

  3. Distribution of sterols and anionic lipids in human sperm plasma membrane: effects of in vitro capacitation.

    PubMed

    Tesarík, J; Fléchon, J E

    1986-01-01

    Filipin, a membrane beta-hydroxysterol probe, and polymyxin B (PXB), a probe for anionic lipids, were used to study human sperm plasma membrane (PM) with particular reference to changes induced by capacitation in vitro. In washed but noncapacitated spermatozoa the density of filipin/sterol complexes (FSC) was uniformly high in the PM overlying the acrosome, without any differences between its anterior and equatorial regions. The postacrosomal region was poor in FSC. The exclusion of FSC from small areas of the PM covering the two acrosomal regions and reduction of their number in the postacrosomal region were the main changes induced by sperm capacitation. Unlike filipin, PXB produced a capacitation-independent reaction pattern characterized by a high reactivity of the PM covering the anterior portion of the acrosome, probably conferring to this region its potential fusigenicity temporarily antagonized by the elevated sterol content. Only an exceptional and slight PXB binding was seen in the nonfusigenic equatorial and postacrosomal regions. PMID:3453370

  4. The hypoxic regulator of sterol synthesis nro1 is a nuclear import adaptor.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Lee, Chih-Yung S; Amzel, L Mario; Espenshade, Peter J; Bianchet, Mario A

    2011-04-13

    Fission yeast protein Sre1, the homolog of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), is a hypoxic transcription factor required for sterol homeostasis and low-oxygen growth. Nro1 regulates the stability of the N-terminal transcription factor domain of Sre1 (Sre1N) by inhibiting the action of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase-like Ofd1 in an oxygen-dependent manner. The crystal structure of Nro1 determined at 2.2 Ĺ resolution shows an all-?-helical fold that can be divided into two domains: a small N-terminal domain, and a larger C-terminal HEAT-repeat domain. Follow-up studies showed that Nro1 defines a new class of nuclear import adaptor that functions both in Ofd1 nuclear localization and in the oxygen-dependent inhibition of Ofd1 to control the hypoxic response. PMID:21481773

  5. The Hypoxic Regulator of Sterol Synthesis Nro1 Is a Nuclear Import Adaptor

    SciTech Connect

    T Yeh; C Lee; L Amzel; P Espenshade; M Bianchet

    2011-12-31

    Fission yeast protein Sre1, the homolog of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), is a hypoxic transcription factor required for sterol homeostasis and low-oxygen growth. Nro1 regulates the stability of the N-terminal transcription factor domain of Sre1 (Sre1N) by inhibiting the action of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase-like Ofd1 in an oxygen-dependent manner. The crystal structure of Nro1 determined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution shows an all-{alpha}-helical fold that can be divided into two domains: a small N-terminal domain, and a larger C-terminal HEAT-repeat domain. Follow-up studies showed that Nro1 defines a new class of nuclear import adaptor that functions both in Ofd1 nuclear localization and in the oxygen-dependent inhibition of Ofd1 to control the hypoxic response.

  6. New polyhydroxylated sterols from Palythoa tuberculosa and their apoptotic activity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Elbagory, Abdulrahman M; Meyer, Mervin; Ali, Abdel-Hamid A M; Ameer, Farouk; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Benito, Maria Teresa; Doyagüez, Elisa Garcia; Jimeno, Maria Luisa; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2015-09-01

    The chemical study on the total extract of the zoanthid Palythoa tuberculosa, collected from the Red Sea, resulted in the isolation of seven polyhydroxylated sterols (1-7), six of which, palysterols A-F (2-7), are new. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of their 1-, 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic data. This is the first chemical investigation on the species collected from Red Sea. We studied the cytotoxic effects of the total extract and some of the new polyhydroxylated sterols in three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, and HT-29) and one non-cancerous human cell line (KMST-6). Palysterol F (7), in particular, was able to selectively induce high levels of apoptosis (>75%) in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells but not HeLa, HT-29 and KMST-6 cells. PMID:26095205

  7. Sterol 14?-demethylase as a potential target for antitrypanosomal therapy: enzyme inhibition and parasite cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Lepesheva, Galina I.; Ott, Robert D.; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Kleshchenko, Yuliya Y.; Schuster, Inge; Nes, W. David; Hill, George C.; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Sterol 14?-demethylases (CYP51) serve as primary targets for antifungal drugs and specific inhibition of CYP51s in protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (TB) and Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) might provide an effective treatment strategy for human trypanosomiases. Primary inhibitor selection is based initially on the cytochrome P450 spectral response to ligand binding. Ligands which demonstrate strongest binding parameters were examined as inhibitors of reconstituted TB and TC CYP51 activity in vitro. Direct correlation between potency of the compounds as CYP51 inhibitors and their antiparasitic effect in TB and TC cells implies essential requirements for endogenous sterol production in both trypanosomes and suggests a novel lead structure with a defined region most promising for further modifications. The approach developed here can be used for further large-scale search for new CYP51 inhibitors. PMID:18022567

  8. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  9. Effects of Colesevelam HCl on Sterol and Bile Acid Excretion in Patients with Type IIa Hypercholesterolemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Donovan; K. Von Bergmann; K. D. R. Setchell; J. Isaacsohn; A. S. Pappu; D. R. Illingworth; T. Olson; S. K. Burke

    2005-01-01

    Colesevelam HCl is a potent bile acid–binding polymer. This study's aim was to determine effects of colesevelam HCl on sterol and bile acid excretion in patients with type IIa hypercholesterolemia. Twenty-four patients (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 130 to 220 mg\\/dL) enrolled in an open-label, parallel-design study, entered an American Heart Association\\/National Cholesterol Education Program diet for 6 weeks and were randomized

  10. Concurrent oxidation of cholesterol and corn oil sterols in autoxidizing lipid films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Norcia

    1961-01-01

    A new, simple method based on assay of cholesterol is presented for study of the time course and extent of air oxidation of\\u000a cholesterol. Using such a method, the air oxidation of 0.5–3.5% solutions of corn oil sterols and cholesterol in films of\\u000a either corn oil or corn oil fatty acids has been followed by the author for periods of

  11. MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE MICRON-SCALE SEGREGATION OF STEROLS AND GM1 IN LIVE MAMMALIAN SPERM

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Buttke, Danielle E.; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Weiss, Robert S.; Travis, Alexander J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that a stable, micron-scale segregation of focal enrichments of sterols exists at physiological temperature in the plasma membrane of live murine and human sperm. These enrichments of sterols represent microheterogeneities within this membrane domain overlying the acrosome. Previously, we showed that cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), which binds the glycosphingolipid, GM1, localizes to this same domain in live sperm. Interestingly, the GM1 undergoes an unexplained redistribution upon cell death. We now demonstrate that GM1 is also enriched in the acrosome, an exocytotic vesicle. Transfer of lipids between this and the plasma membrane occurs at cell death, increasing GM1 in the plasma membrane without apparent release of acrosomal contents. This finding provides corroborative support for an emerging model of regulated exocytosis in which membrane communications might occur without triggering the “acrosome reaction.” Comparison of the dynamics of CTB-bound endogenous GM1 and exogenous BODIPY-GM1 in live murine sperm demonstrate that the sub-acrosomal ring functions as a specialized diffusion barrier segregating specific lipids within the sperm head plasma membrane. Our data show significant differences between endogenous lipids and exogenous lipid probes in terms of lateral diffusion. Based on these studies, we propose a hierarchical model to explain the segregation of this sterol- and GM1-enriched domain in live sperm, which is positioned to regulate sperm fertilization competence and mediate interactions with the oocyte. Moreover, our data suggest potential origins of sub-types of membrane raft microdomains enriched in sterols and/or GM1 that can be separated biochemically. PMID:19012288

  12. The effect of temperature and glucose on testicular sterol metabolism in vitro 

    E-print Network

    Skinner, Sheri Melody

    1974-01-01

    easily reviewed by A tt A tGIGAHIIGGA Farnesyl pyrophosphate Isopentenyl pyrophosphate Mevalonic acid Squalene Lanosterol Cholesterol Isocaproic acid CNG I 1 -CI 20ccC-hydroxycholesterol Pregnenolone 17-hydroxypregnenolone 17... acetate to lanosterol. Acetate, previously known to be metabolized to testosterone in the mammalian testis, was more recently shown to be incorporated into testicular sterols in vitro (7). In vivo work, however, showed comparatively lower incor...

  13. Enzymatic pretreatment of deodorizer distillate for concentration of sterols and tocopherols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Ramamurthi; Alan R. McCurdy

    1993-01-01

    Separation of sterols and tocopherols from fatty acids in deodorizer distillate was facilitated through lipase-catalyzed modification\\u000a of fatty acids in canola, mixed and soya deodorizer distillates. The fatty acid esterification with methanol catalyzed by\\u000a SP-382 (an immobilized nonspecific lipase) proceeded rapidly, with conversion of fatty acid to methyl ester in 5 h being 96.5,\\u000a 83.5 and 89.4%, respectively. A model

  14. The sterol biosynthesis inhibitor molecule fenhexamid impacts the vegetative compatibility of Glomus clarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Cardenas-Flores; Sylvie Cranenbrouck; Xavier Draye; Alain Guillet; Bernadette Govaerts; Stéphane Declerck

    2011-01-01

    The vegetative compatibility of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus clarum MUCL 46238 was evaluated after continuous exposure to fenhexamid, a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor (SBI). Three lineages of\\u000a this AMF were cultured in vitro for five generations in association with Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots in the presence\\u000a of 0, 5 or 10 mg l?1 of fenhexamid. Whatever the AMF generation, fenhexamid

  15. The analysis of sterol degradation products to detect vegetable fats in chocolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Crews; R. Calvet-Sarrett; P. Brereton

    1997-01-01

    A method for the detection of hydrocarbon sterol degradation products (sterenes) has been adapted for the analysis of noncocoa\\u000a butter vegetable fats in chocolate. The method involves solvent extraction of the fat separation of the sterene fraction,\\u000a and analysis of individual sterenes with mass spectrometric detection. The sterene composition of refined noncocoa vegetable\\u000a fats was determined in samples of cocoa

  16. Prospecting for Novel Plant-Derived Molecules of Rauvolfia serpentina as Inhibitors of Aldose Reductase, a Potent Drug Target for Diabetes and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Shivalika; Randhawa, Vinay; Bagler, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Aldose Reductase (AR) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes, providing an interesting target for therapeutic intervention. Extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant endemic to the Himalayan mountain range, have been known to be effective in alleviating diabetes and its complications. In this study, we aim to prospect for novel plant-derived inhibitors from R. serpentina and to understand structural basis of their interactions. An extensive library of R. serpentina molecules was compiled and computationally screened for inhibitory action against AR. The stability of complexes, with docked leads, was verified using molecular dynamics simulations. Two structurally distinct plant-derived leads were identified as inhibitors: indobine and indobinine. Further, using these two leads as templates, 16 more leads were identified through ligand-based screening of their structural analogs, from a small molecules database. Thus, we obtained plant-derived indole alkaloids, and their structural analogs, as potential AR inhibitors from a manually curated dataset of R. serpentina molecules. Indole alkaloids reported herein, as a novel structural class unreported hitherto, may provide better insights for designing potential AR inhibitors with improved efficacy and fewer side effects. PMID:23613832

  17. Prospecting for novel plant-derived molecules of Rauvolfia serpentina as inhibitors of Aldose Reductase, a potent drug target for diabetes and its complications.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Shivalika; Randhawa, Vinay; Bagler, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Aldose Reductase (AR) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes, providing an interesting target for therapeutic intervention. Extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant endemic to the Himalayan mountain range, have been known to be effective in alleviating diabetes and its complications. In this study, we aim to prospect for novel plant-derived inhibitors from R. serpentina and to understand structural basis of their interactions. An extensive library of R. serpentina molecules was compiled and computationally screened for inhibitory action against AR. The stability of complexes, with docked leads, was verified using molecular dynamics simulations. Two structurally distinct plant-derived leads were identified as inhibitors: indobine and indobinine. Further, using these two leads as templates, 16 more leads were identified through ligand-based screening of their structural analogs, from a small molecules database. Thus, we obtained plant-derived indole alkaloids, and their structural analogs, as potential AR inhibitors from a manually curated dataset of R. serpentina molecules. Indole alkaloids reported herein, as a novel structural class unreported hitherto, may provide better insights for designing potential AR inhibitors with improved efficacy and fewer side effects. PMID:23613832

  18. Mitochondrial function and regulation of macrophage sterol metabolism and inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Annette; Allen, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to explore the role of mitochondria in regulating macrophage sterol homeostasis and inflammatory responses within the aetiology of atherosclerosis. Macrophage generation of oxysterol activators of liver X receptors (LXRs), via sterol 27-hydroxylase, is regulated by the rate of flux of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, via a complex of cholesterol trafficking proteins. Oxysterols are key signalling molecules, regulating the transcriptional activity of LXRs which coordinate macrophage sterol metabolism and cytokine production, key features influencing the impact of these cells within atherosclerotic lesions. The precise identity of the complex of proteins mediating mitochondrial cholesterol trafficking in macrophages remains a matter of debate, but may include steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and translocator protein. There is clear evidence that targeting either of these proteins enhances removal of cholesterol via LXR?-dependent induction of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABCA1, ABCG1) and limits the production of inflammatory cytokines; interventions which influence mitochondrial structure and bioenergetics also impact on removal of cholesterol from macrophages. Thus, molecules which can sustain or improve mitochondrial structure, the function of the electron transport chain, or increase the activity of components of the protein complex involved in cholesterol transfer, may therefore have utility in limiting or regressing atheroma development, reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. PMID:26015858

  19. Correlation of neomycin, faecal neutral and acid sterols with colon carcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Panda, S K; Chattoraj, S C; Broitman, S A

    1999-01-01

    High fat diets have been implicated in incidence of colon cancer both in epidemiological and animal studies. Present investigation deals with the incidence, location and numbers of large and small bowel tumours induced by 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin. Neomycin was used to modify the faecal sterol metabolism and the relationship of the high fat diet and faecal neutral and acid sterols to the large bowel tumorigenesis was evaluated. DMH administered rats were fed with (a) 20% safflower oil; (b) 20% safflower oil and neomycin; (c) 20% safflower oil, cholesterol and cholic acid; and (d) 20% safflower oil, cholesterol, cholic acid and neomycin. Neomycin was found to be associated with both increase and decrease of tumour numbers. The faecal sterols lithocholic and deoxycholic acids were found to have no participation, while cholesterol and cholic acid were found to decrease with increase in tumour numbers. However, faecal coprostanol has been found to have a significant positive correlation with tumorigenesis in all dietary groups. Therefore coprostanol might possibly be associated with colon carcinogenesis in DMH-fed rats and cholesterol metabolism in gut appears to be related to the development of tumours. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10376962

  20. Crystal structures of Ophiostoma piceae sterol esterase: structural insights into activation mechanism and product release.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, Javier; Vaquero, María Eugenia; Prieto, Alicia; Barriuso, Jorge; Martínez, María Jesús; Hermoso, Juan A

    2014-09-01

    Sterol esterases are able to efficiently hydrolyze both sterol esters and triglycerides and to carry out synthesis reactions in the presence of organic solvents. Their high versatility makes them excellent candidates for biotechnological purposes. Sterol esterase from fungus Ophiostoma piceae (OPE) belongs to the family abH03.01 of the Candida rugosa lipase-like proteins. Crystal structures of OPE were solved in this study for the closed and open conformations. Enzyme activation involves a large displacement of the conserved lid, structural rearrangements of loop ?16-?17, and formation of a dimer with a large opening. Three PEG molecules are placed in the active site, mimicking chains of the triglyceride substrate, demonstrating the position of the oxyanion hole and the three pockets that accommodate the sn-1, sn-2 and sn-3 fatty acids chains. One of them is an internal tunnel, connecting the active center with the outer surface of the enzyme 30 Ĺ far from the catalytic Ser220. Based on our structural and biochemical results we propose a mechanism by which a great variety of different substrates can be hydrolyzed in OPE paving the way for the construction of new variants to improve the catalytic properties of these enzymes and their biotechnological applications. PMID:25108239

  1. Differential resistance to Citrus psorosis virus in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing hairpin RNA derived from the coat protein and 54K protein genes.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Carina Andrea; Peńa, Eduardo José; Zanek, María Cecilia; Sanchez, Daniela Verónica; Grau, Oscar; García, María Laura

    2009-12-01

    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae, is the causal agent of a serious disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. The viral genome consists of three ssRNAs of negative polarity. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant defence against viruses, can be induced by transgenic expression of virus-derived sequences encoding hairpin RNAs. Since the production of transgenic citrus lines and their evaluation would take years, a herbaceous model plant, Nicotiana benthamiana, was used to test hairpin constructs. The expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA fragments from the coat protein (cp) and 54K genes of the Argentine CPsV 90-1-1 isolate conferred resistance on N. benthamiana plants, indicating that these constructs are good candidates for the transformation of citrus plants. The degree of resistance obtained varied depending on the viral sequence chosen. The analysis of the levels of small interfering RNA accumulation and viral RNAs indicated that the construct derived from cp gene was better at inducing PTGS than that originating from the 54K gene. The dependence of PTGS induction on the degree of identity between the target and the inducer transgene sequences was tested using sequences derived from CPV4, a more distant isolate of CPsV, as PTGS targets. Efficient silencing induction was also obtained to this isolate through the expression of the cp-derived hairpin. This is the first report of transgenic-resistant plants within the context of this serious citrus disease. PMID:19820946

  2. Amphotericin forms an extramembranous and fungicidal sterol sponge

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Thomas M.; Clay, Mary C.; Cioffi, Alexander G.; Diaz, Katrina A.; Hisao, Grant S.; Tuttle, Marcus D.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Comellas, Gemma; Maryum, Nashrah; Wang, Shu; Uno, Brice E.; Wildeman, Erin L.; Gonen, Tamir; Rienstra, Chad M.; Burke, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin has remained the powerful but highly toxic last line of defense in treating life-threatening fungal infections in humans for over 50 years with minimal development of microbial resistance. Understanding how this small molecule kills yeast is thus critical for guiding development of derivatives with an improved therapeutic index and other resistance-refractory antimicrobial agents. In the widely accepted ion channel model for its mechanism of cytocidal action, amphotericin forms aggregates inside lipid bilayers that permeabilize and kill cells. In contrast, we report that amphotericin exists primarily in the form of large, extramembranous aggregates that kill yeast by extracting ergosterol from lipid bilayers. These findings reveal that extraction of a polyfunctional lipid underlies the resistance-refractory antimicrobial action of amphotericin and suggests a roadmap for separating its cytocidal and membrane-permeabilizing activities. This new mechanistic understanding is also guiding development of the first derivatives of amphotericin that kill yeast but not human cells. PMID:24681535

  3. Multiple Forms of Plant Cytochromes P-450 1

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Robert P.; Luster, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a multiplicity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes in plants. These monooxygenases are implicated in the metabolism of sterols, terpenes, gibberellins, isoflavonoids, and xenobiotics. Evidence that cytochromes P-450 are involved in the detoxification of herbicides (chlorotoluron, primsulfuron, and diclofop) includes photoreversible CO inhibition of the reactions, and a requirement for O2 and NADPH. Several cytochromes P-450, Mr 45,000 to 65,000, have been isolated, including hydroxylases of cinnamic acid, 3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan, and digitoxin. In some cases the purified cytochrome P-450 has been successfully reconstituted with NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase (Mr 72,000-84,000 protein). This reductase appears to be a nonspecific electron donor to different forms of cytochrome P-450. Immunological techniques and specific inhibitors (triazoles, imidazole derivatives) are being used to characterize plant cytochromes P-450 and the NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. Specific cytochromes P-450 are induced by wounding or pathogens, others are expressed in specific cell types. Plant cytochromes P-450 are found in various subcellular locations, including endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membranes, glyoxysomes, and perhaps mitochondria. A cytochrome P-450 demethylase from avocado has recently been sequenced and found to have a hydrophobic N terminus similar to the membrane anchor of cytochromes P-450 from other organisms. The existence of cytochromes P-450 in different subcellular locations suggests that there are many genes for cytochromes P-450 in plants which have yet to be identified and classified. PMID:16668240

  4. Ubiquity of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to plants by endophytic insect-pathogenic fungi: an additional branch of the soil nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    The study of symbiotic nitrogen transfer in soil has largely focused on nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Vascular plants can lose a substantial amount of their nitrogen through insect herbivory. Previously, we showed that plants were able to reacquire nitrogen from insects through a partnership with the endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. That is, the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of M. robertsii are coupled so that the fungus acts as a conduit to provide insect-derived nitrogen to plant hosts. Here, we assess the ubiquity of this nitrogen transfer in five Metarhizium species representing those with broad (M. robertsii, M. brunneum, and M. guizhouense) and narrower insect host ranges (M. acridum and M. flavoviride), as well as the insect-pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium lecanii. Insects were injected with (15)N-labeled nitrogen, and we tracked the incorporation of (15)N into two dicots, haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max), and two monocots, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), in the presence of these fungi in soil microcosms. All Metarhizium species and B. bassiana but not L. lecanii showed the capacity to transfer nitrogen to plants, although to various degrees. Endophytic association by these fungi increased overall plant productivity. We also showed that in the field, where microbial competition is potentially high, M. robertsii was able to transfer insect-derived nitrogen to plants. Metarhizium spp. and B. bassiana have a worldwide distribution with high soil abundance and may play an important role in the ecological cycling of insect nitrogen back to plant communities. PMID:24334669

  5. Ubiquity of Insect-Derived Nitrogen Transfer to Plants by Endophytic Insect-Pathogenic Fungi: an Additional Branch of the Soil Nitrogen Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Behie, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The study of symbiotic nitrogen transfer in soil has largely focused on nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Vascular plants can lose a substantial amount of their nitrogen through insect herbivory. Previously, we showed that plants were able to reacquire nitrogen from insects through a partnership with the endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. That is, the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of M. robertsii are coupled so that the fungus acts as a conduit to provide insect-derived nitrogen to plant hosts. Here, we assess the ubiquity of this nitrogen transfer in five Metarhizium species representing those with broad (M. robertsii, M. brunneum, and M. guizhouense) and narrower insect host ranges (M. acridum and M. flavoviride), as well as the insect-pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium lecanii. Insects were injected with 15N-labeled nitrogen, and we tracked the incorporation of 15N into two dicots, haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max), and two monocots, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), in the presence of these fungi in soil microcosms. All Metarhizium species and B. bassiana but not L. lecanii showed the capacity to transfer nitrogen to plants, although to various degrees. Endophytic association by these fungi increased overall plant productivity. We also showed that in the field, where microbial competition is potentially high, M. robertsii was able to transfer insect-derived nitrogen to plants. Metarhizium spp. and B. bassiana have a worldwide distribution with high soil abundance and may play an important role in the ecological cycling of insect nitrogen back to plant communities. PMID:24334669

  6. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in plants: an overview of target species and the virus-derived vector systems.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Yellina, Aravinda L; Orashakova, Svetlana; Becker, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of gene functions in non-model plant species is often hampered by the fact that stable genetic transformation to downregulate gene expression is laborious and time-consuming, or, for some species, even not achievable. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can serve as an alternative to mutant collections or stable transgenic plants to allow the characterization of gene functions in a wide range of angiosperm species, albeit in a transient way. VIGS vector systems have been developed from both RNA and DNA plant viral sources to specifically silence target genes in plants. VIGS is nowadays widely used in plant genetics for gene knockdown due to its ease of use and the short time required to generating phenotypes. Here, we summarize successfully targeted eudicot and monocot plant species along with their specific VIGS vector systems which are already available for researchers. PMID:23386291

  7. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-01-01

    Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants. PMID:15904535

  8. Growth of Some Tropical Ornamental Plants on Artificial Topsoils Derived from Mixtures of Flyash, Sludge, Biochips, and Rengam Series Subsoil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lay Pheng Tan; Jie He; Sing Kong Lee

    2004-01-01

    Four mixtures of artificial topsoils produced from mixing incinerator flyash, sewage sludge, biochips (from plant parts), and subsoil (from granite origin) in various proportions were used to grow some popular ornamental plants. The plants used were Bougainvillea spectabilisIxora coccineaand three Heliconiataxa, H. psithacorum × H. spathocircinatacv. “Golden Torch,” H.rostrataand H.psithacorumcv. “Tay.” Their physiological responses to the heavy metals present in the different

  9. Effects of single, binary and tertiary combinations with Jatropha gossypifolia and other plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC(50)/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

  10. EFFECTS OF SINGLE, BINARY AND TERTIARY COMBINATIONS WITH Jatropha gossypifolia AND OTHER PLANT-DERIVED MOLLUSCICIDES ON REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF THE SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ram P.; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

  11. Effects of plant-derived naphthoquinones on the growth of Pleurotus sajor-caju and degradation of the compounds by fungal cultures.

    PubMed

    Curreli, N; Sollai, F; Massa, L; Comandini, O; Rufo, A; Sanjust, E; Rinaldi, A; Rinaldi, A C

    2001-01-01

    The growth of the white-rot basidiomycete Pleurotus sajor-caju in malt-agar plates was inhibited by three naturally occurring, plant-derived naphthoquinones: juglone, lawsone, and plumbagin. The latter two compounds exerted the most potent antifungal activity, and lawsone killed the mycelium at concentrations higher than 200 ppm. Plates containing juglone and lawsone presented large decolorized areas extending from area of fungal growth, suggesting an extracellular enzymatic degradation of these quinones. Screening of culture plates for extracellular enzymatic activities revealed the presence of both laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase in most plates, the diffusion of both enzymes matching the decolorized area. In agitated cultures, the presence of juglone was found to stimulate the production of veratryl alcohol oxidase in a significant manner. This is the first time degradation of plant derived naphthoquinones by a white-rot fungus is reported. PMID:11688211

  12. Tritium Suicide Selection Identifies Proteins Involved in the Uptake and Intracellular Transport of Sterols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David P.; Georgiev, Alexander; Menon, Anant K.

    2009-01-01

    Sterol transport between the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) occurs by a nonvesicular mechanism that is poorly understood. To identify proteins required for this process, we isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in sterol transport. We used Upc2-1 cells that have the ability to take up sterols under aerobic conditions and exploited the observation that intracellular accumulation of exogenously supplied [3H]cholesterol in the form of [3H]cholesteryl ester requires an intact PM-ER sterol transport pathway. Upc2-1 cells were mutagenized using a transposon library, incubated with [3H]cholesterol, and subjected to tritium suicide selection to isolate mutants with a decreased ability to accumulate [3H]cholesterol. Many of the mutants had defects in the expression and trafficking of Aus1 and Pdr11, PM-localized ABC transporters that are required for sterol uptake. Through characterization of one of the mutants, a new role was uncovered for the transcription factor Mot3 in controlling expression of Aus1 and Pdr11. A number of mutants had transposon insertions in the uncharacterized Ydr051c gene, which we now refer to as DET1 (decreased ergosterol transport). These mutants expressed Aus1 and Pdr11 normally but were severely defective in the ability to accumulate exogenously supplied cholesterol. The transport of newly synthesized sterols from the ER to the PM was also defective in det1? cells. These data indicate that the cytoplasmic protein encoded by DET1 is involved in intracellular sterol transport. PMID:19060182

  13. Transgenic accumulation of a defective cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) replicase derived double stranded RNA modulates plant defence against CMV strains O and Y in potato.

    PubMed

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kynet, Kong; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus is an important plant pathogen with a broad host range encompassing many plant species. This study demonstrates the production of transgenic potato lines exhibiting complete resistance to cucumber mosaic virus strain O and Y by post transcriptional gene silencing. Two constructs were used, one, pEKH2IN2CMVai, contains inverted repeat of 1,138 bp fragment of a defective CMV replicase gene derived from RNA2 of cucumber mosaic virus strain O (CMV-O), while the other, TRV-based VIGS vector (pTRV2CMVai), contains the same fragment of the replicase gene, but without inverted repeat. These constructs were used to produce transgenic potato lines of cultivar 'Danshaku', a susceptible genotype to CMV. Transgenic lines derived from pEKH2IN2CMVai accumulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) before and after virus challenge, whereas those derived from pTRV2CMVai showed siRNA expression after virus challenge. When transgenic lines were challenged with CMV-O or CMV-Y, four lines exhibited complete (100%) resistance to both strains, whereas the other lines had high levels of resistance. Infectivity of CMV-O was lower than that of CMV-Y in the highly resistant plants. There were no significant differences with regard to resistance between plants derived from pEKH2IN2CMVai and those obtained from pTRV2CMVai. The presence of CMV-specific siRNA in the resistant phenotypes indicates that the resistance was acquired through RNA silencing. PMID:23748933

  14. Efficient plant regeneration from multiple shoots formed in the leaf-derived callus of Lavandula vera, using the “open culture system”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Tsuro; M Koda; M Inoue

    2000-01-01

    To develop an efficient procedure for plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus of Lavandula vera DC, the production of multiple shoots and the formation of roots from these shoots were studied. When calli were cultured in a medium with 4.0×10?7M N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N?-phenylurea (CPPU), urea-type cytokinin, multiple shoots were obtained from the greenish surface of the callus efficiently at a rate of 52.2%.

  15. Antagonistic Effects of Triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine and Pyridylurea Derivatives on Cytokinin-Induced Cytokinin Oxidase\\/Dehydrogenase Activity in Young Pea Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Vaseva-Gemisheva; Iskren Sergiev; Desislava Todorova; Vera Alexieva; Elena Stanoeva; Viktoria Lachkova; Emanuil Karanov

    2005-01-01

    The effect of strong and weak cytokinin antagonists, belonging to the groups of triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidines (TP), and pyridyl-phenylurea derivatives (PU), on cytokinin oxidase\\/dehydrogenase activity (CKX) in the tissues of young pea plants was studied. Tested anticytokinins, with the exception of the most efficient one – PU-1, were able to promote increased CKX activity in roots, when applied alone, but they had

  16. Differential resistance to Citrus psorosis virus in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing hairpin RNA derived from the coat protein and 54K protein genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Andrea Reyes; Eduardo José Peńa; María Cecilia Zanek; Daniela Verónica Sanchez; Oscar Grau; María Laura García

    2009-01-01

    Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), genus Ophiovirus, family Ophioviridae, is the causal agent of a serious disease affecting citrus trees in many countries. The viral genome consists of three ssRNAs\\u000a of negative polarity. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant defence against viruses, can be induced\\u000a by transgenic expression of virus-derived sequences encoding hairpin RNAs. Since the production of transgenic

  17. Enhancement of carotenoid production by disrupting the C22-sterol desaturase gene (CYP61) in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a basidiomycetous yeast that synthesizes astaxanthin, which is a carotenoid with a great biotechnological impact. The ergosterol and carotenoid synthesis pathways are derived from the mevalonate pathway, and in both pathways, cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Results In this study, we isolated and described the X. dendrorhous CYP61 gene, which encodes a cytochrome P450 involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. This gene is composed of nine exons and encodes a 526 amino acid polypeptide that shares significant percentages of identity and similitude with the C22-sterol desaturase, CYP61, from other fungi. Mutants derived from different parental strains were obtained by disrupting the CYP61 gene with an antibiotic selection marker. These mutants were not able to produce ergosterol and accumulated ergosta-5,8,22-trien-3-ol and ergosta-5,8-dien-3-ol. Interestingly, all of the mutants had a more intense red color phenotype than their respective parental strains. The carotenoid composition was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by RP-HPLC, revealing that the carotenoid content was higher in the mutant strains without major changes in their composition. The expression of the HMGR gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the mevalonate pathway (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase), was analyzed by RT-qPCR showing that its transcript levels are higher in the CYP61 mutants. Conclusions These results suggest that in X. dendrorhous, ergosterol regulates HMGR gene expression by a negative feedback mechanism and in this way; it contributes in the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23075035

  18. Effect of addition of plants-derived polyamide 11 elastomer on the mechanical and tribological properties of hemp fiber reinforced polyamide 1010 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaida, Jun; Nishitani, Yosuke; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    For the purpose of developing the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the effect of the addition of plant-derived polyamide 11 Elastomer (PA11E) on the mechanical and tribological properties of hemp fiber(HF) reinforced polyamide 1010 (HF/PA1010) composites was investigated. PA1010 and PA11E (except the polyether groups used as soft segment) were made from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fiber was surface-treated by two types of treatment: alkali treatment by NaOH solution and surface treatment by ureido silane coupling agent. HF/PA1010/PA11E ternary composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Their mechanical properties such as tensile, bending, Izod impact and tribological properties by ring-on-plate type sliding wear testing were evaluated. The effect of the addition of PA11E on the mechanical and tribological properties of HF/PA1010 composite differed for each property. Izod impact strength and specific wear rate improved with the addition of PA11E although tensile strength, modulus, and friction coefficient decreased with PA11E. It follows from these results that it may be possible to develop the new engineering materials with sufficient balance between mechanical and tribological properties.

  19. Waste materials derived bio-effectors used as growth promoters for strawberry plants. An agronomic and metabolomic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileva, Brankica; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a novel concept of bio-effectors has emerged to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance more than fertilizers. In this study, three different agro-industrial residues, i.e. brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as potential bio-effectors. A greenhouse soilless pot experiment was conducted on strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa var. Festival) in order to study the effect of BSG, FPR and LPR water extracts, at different concentrations, on plant growth and fruit quality. Their effect was compared with humic-like substances as a positive/reference control (Ctrl+) and with Hoagland solution as a negative control (Ctrl-). Agronomic parameters and the nutrient uptake were measured on shoots, roots and fruits. Metabolomic profiling tests were carried out on leaves, roots and fruit juices through the NMR technique. Plants treated with the FPR extract showed better vegetative growth, while plants treated with the BSG extract gave higher yield and better fruit size. Metabolomic profiling showed that fruits and roots of plants treated with FPR and LPR extracts had higher concentrations of sucrose, malate and acetate, while BSG treated plants had higher concentrations of citrate and ?-glucose. In conclusion, according to the results achieved, the bio-effectors used in this study promote plant growth and fruit quality regardless of their nutritional content. Keywords: bio-effectors, agro-industrial waste, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), strawberry, growth promotion, fruit quality.

  20. Effect of aluminum treatment on proteomes of radicles of seeds derived from Al-treated tomato plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive A1 3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 uM AlK(SO4)2. Seeds harv...

  1. High-throughput sequencing as an effective approach in profiling small RNAs derived from a hairpin RNA expression vector in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-mediated gene silencing has proved to be an efficient approach to develop virus-resistant transgenic plants. To characterize small RNA molecules (sRNAs) derived from an hpRNA expression vector in transgenic cherry rootstock plants, we conducted small RNA sequencing of (1) a transgenic rootstock containing an inverted repeat of the partial coat protein of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA); (2) a nontransgenic rootstock; and (3) a PNRSV-infected sweet cherry plant. Analysis of the PNRSV sRNA pools indicated that 24-nt (nucleotide) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were the most prevalent sRNAs in the transgenic rootstock whereas the most abundant sRNAs in the PNRSV-infected nontransgenic rootstock were 21-nt siRNAs. In addition, the 24-nt siRNAs of the PNRSV-hpRNA were more abundant on the sense strand than those on the antisense strand in the transgenic rootstock. In contrast, preference in generating PNRSV sRNAs, ranging from 19-nt to 30-nt for sense and antisense strands, was not distinct in the PNRSV-infected nontransgenic sweet cherry. Taken together, this is the first report on profiling hpRNA-derived sRNAs in woody plants using high-throughput sequencing technology, which is an efficient way to verify the presence/absence, the abundance, and the sequence features of certain sRNAs. PMID:25438784

  2. Plant-derived terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies: evaluation of the proxy with Paleocene and Eocene megafloras and plant biomarkers in the Bighorn Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Plant terpenoids (defense compounds synthesized from the 5-carbon building block isoprene) have a long history of use as geochemical plant biomarkers, and potentially can be used to reconstruct changes in the abundances of major land plant groups in rocks and sediments that do not preserve plant megafossils or pollen. Pentacyclic triterpenoids are synthesized almost exclusively by angiosperms whereas conifers produce the tricyclic diterpenoids. Many previous studies have focused on the use of di- to triterpenoid ratios to reconstruct floral changes in the geologic past, however few studies have compared terpenoid-based paleoflora proxies to pollen or megafossils. Prior reconstructions also did not take into account differences in biomarker production between plant functional types, such as deciduous and evergreen plants, which can be quite large. To investigate the use of terpenoids as paleoflora proxies, we examined sediments from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) where ancient megafloras have been studied in detail. We analyzed di- and triterpenoid abundances as well as plant leaf waxes (n-alkanes) and other biomarkers in a total of 75 samples from 15 stratigraphic horizons from the late Paleocene (62 Ma) to early Eocene (52.5 Ma). By comparing terpenoid ratios with abundances estimated from plant megafossils, we can evaluate the utility of terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies. In nearly all samples, angiosperm triterpenoids are significantly lower in abundance than conifer diterpenoids. This contrasts with leaf fossil data that indicate paleofloras were dominated by angiosperms in both abundance and diversity. Traditional use of terpenoid paleovegetation proxies would therefore significantly overestimate the abundance of conifers, even when accounting for plant production differences. To determine if this overestimate is related to the loss of angiosperm triterpenoids (rather than enhanced production of diterpenoids in the geologic past), we compared angiosperm triterpenoids to the n-alkane leaf waxes, which are produced primarily by angiosperms. After accounting for concentration differences between these two biomarker groups in modern plants, it is apparent that triterpenoid amounts are still significantly lower than expected in nearly all of our samples. We suggest a loss of triterpenoids might be related to enhanced diagenesis of triterpenoids in oxidizing terrestrial sediments. In order to reconstruct paleovegetation we propose a new method that employs a ratio of diterpenoids (conifers) to n-alkanes (angiosperms) and accounts for biomarker biomass abundance differences. Using this approach, we estimate paleovegetation communities similar to those predicted from megafossils. Although this new biomarker-based paleovegetation proxy works for sites within the Bighorn Basin, we stress this approach will need to be evaluated for other depositional environments using pollen or megafossil data.

  3. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SRowley

    2006-04-28

    Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

  4. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  5. Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain CCM2595, a Phenol Derivative-Degrading Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Hynek; Patek, Miroslav; Fousek, Jan; Szokol, Juraj; Ulbrich, Pavel; Nesvera, Jan; Paces, Vaclav; Vlcek, Cestmir

    2014-01-01

    We announce the completion of the genome sequence of a phenol derivative-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis strain CCM2595. This bacterium is interesting in the context of bioremediation for its capability to degrade phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroxybenzoate, hydroquinone, p-chlorophenol, p-nitrophenol, pyrimidines, and sterols. PMID:24652983

  6. Role of a Disordered Steroid Metabolome in the Elucidation of Sterol and Steroid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 1937 Butler and Marrian found large amounts of the steroid pregnanetriol in urine from a patient with the adrenogenital syndrome, a virilizing condition known to be caused by compromised adrenal secretion even in this pre-cortisol era. This introduced the concept of the study of altered excretion of metabolites as an in vivo tool for understanding sterol and steroid biosynthesis. This approach is still viable and has experienced renewed significance as the field of metabolomics. From the first cyclized sterol lanosterol to the most downstream product estradiol, there are probably greater than 30 steps. Based on a distinctive metabolome clinical disorders have now been attributed to about seven post-squalene cholesterol (C) biosynthetic steps and around 15 en-route to steroid hormones or needed for further metabolism of such hormones. Forty years ago it was widely perceived that the principal steroid biosynthetic defects were known but interest rekindled as novel metabolomes were documented. In his career this investigator has been involved in the study of many steroid disorders, the two most recent being P450 oxidoreductase deficiency and apparent cortisone reductase deficiency. These are of interest as they are due not to mutations in the primary catalytic enzymes of steroidogenesis but in ancillary enzymes needed for co-factor oxido-reduction A third focus of this researcher is Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a cholesterol synthesis disorder caused by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase mutations. The late George Schroepfer, in whose honor this article has been written, contributed greatly to defining the sterol metabolome of this condition. Defining the cause of clinically severe disorders can lead to improved treatment options. We are now involved in murine gene therapy studies for SLOS which, if successful could in the future offer an alternative therapy for this severe condition. PMID:21874273

  7. Effects of Colesevelam HCl on Sterol and Bile Acid Excretion in Patients with Type IIa Hypercholesterolemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Donovan; K. Von Bergmann; K. D. R. Setchell; J. Isaacsohn; A. S. Pappu; D. R. Illingworth; T. Olson; S. K. Burke

    2005-01-01

    Colesevelam HCl is a potent bile acid–binding polymer. This study's aim was to determine effects of colesevelam HCl on sterol\\u000a and bile acid excretion in patients with type IIa hypercholesterolemia. Twenty-four patients (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,\\u000a 130 to 220 mg\\/dL) enrolled in an open-label, parallel-design study, entered an American Heart Association\\/National Cholesterol\\u000a Education Program diet for 6 weeks and were randomized

  8. Molecular Requirement for Sterols in Herpes Simplex Virus Entry and Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wudiri, George A.; Pritchard, Suzanne M.; Li, Hong; Liu, Jin; Aguilar, Hector C.; Gilk, Stacey D.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol or desmosterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24?/? cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating that entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in diminished HSV-1 entry, suggesting a general sterol requirement for HSV-1 entry and that desmosterol can operate in virus entry. Cholesterol functioned more effectively than desmosterol, suggesting that the hydrocarbon tail of cholesterol influences viral entry. PMID:25231306

  9. Recombinant sterol esterase from Ophiostoma piceae: an improved biocatalyst expressed in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE) with high affinity towards p-nitrophenol, glycerol and sterol esters. Its hydrolytic activity on natural mixtures of triglycerides and sterol esters has been proposed for pitch biocontrol in paper industry since these compounds produce important economic losses during paper pulp manufacture. Results Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE*) studied. After the initial screening of different clones expressing the enzyme, only one was selected for showing the highest production rate. Different culture conditions were tested to improve the expression of the recombinant enzyme. Complex media were better than minimal media for production, but in any case the levels of enzymatic activity were higher (7-fold in the best case) than those obtained from O. piceae. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 76?kDa, higher than that reported for the native enzyme under SDS-PAGE (60?kDa). Steady-state kinetic characterization of the recombinant protein showed improved catalytic efficiency for this enzyme as compared to the native one, for all the assayed substrates (p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and cholesterol esters). Different causes for this were studied, as the increased glycosylation degree of the recombinant enzyme, their secondary structures or the oxidation of methionine residues. However, none of these could explain the improvements found in the recombinant protein. N-terminal sequencing of OPE* showed that two populations of this enzyme were expressed, having either 6 or 8 amino acid residues more than the native one. This fact affected the aggregation behaviour of the recombinant protein, as was corroborated by analytical ultracentrifugation, thus improving the catalytic efficiency of this enzyme. Conclusion P. pastoris resulted to be an optimum biofactory for the heterologous production of recombinant sterol esterase from O. piceae, yielding higher activity levels than those obtained with the saprophytic fungus. The enzyme showed improved kinetic parameters because of its modified N-terminus, which allowed changes in its aggregation behaviour, suggesting that its hydrophobicity has been modified. PMID:22676486

  10. Transcriptional integration of metabolism by the nuclear sterol-activated receptors LXR and FXR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals, mediating changes to metabolic pathways within the body. Given that modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism has been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, a greater understanding of pathways that regulate metabolism in physiology and disease is crucial. The liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are activated by oxysterols and bile acids, respectively. Mounting evidence indicates that these nuclear receptors have essential roles, not only in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but also in the integration of sterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. PMID:22414897

  11. PROTEIN STRUCTURE. Crystal structure of a mycobacterial Insig homolog provides insight into how these sensors monitor sterol levels.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ruobing; Zhou, Xinhui; He, Yuan; Ke, Meng; Wu, Jianping; Liu, Xiaohui; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Yixuan; Gong, Xin; Lei, Xiaoguang; Yan, S Frank; Radhakrishnan, Arun; Yan, Nieng

    2015-07-10

    Insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig-1) and Insig-2 are endoplasmic reticulum membrane-embedded sterol sensors that regulate the cellular accumulation of sterols. Despite their physiological importance, the structural information on Insigs remains limited. Here we report the high-resolution structures of MvINS, an Insig homolog from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii. MvINS exists as a homotrimer. Each protomer comprises six transmembrane segments (TMs), with TM3 and TM4 contributing to homotrimerization. The six TMs enclose a V-shaped cavity that can accommodate a diacylglycerol molecule. A homology-based structural model of human Insig-2, together with biochemical characterizations, suggest that the central cavity of Insig-2 accommodates 25-hydroxycholesterol, whereas TM3 and TM4 engage in Scap binding. These analyses provide an important framework for further functional and mechanistic understanding of Insig proteins and the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway. PMID:26160948

  12. Enantioselective Protein-Sterol Interactions Mediate Regulation of Both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Inward Rectifier K+ Channels by Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    D'Avanzo, Nazzareno; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Enkvetchakul, Decha; Covey, Douglas F.; Nichols, Colin G.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is the major sterol component of all mammalian cell plasma membranes and plays a critical role in cell function and growth. Previous studies have shown that cholesterol inhibits inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channels, but have not distinguished whether this is due directly to protein-sterol interactions or indirectly to changes in the physical properties of the lipid bilayer. Using purified bacterial and eukaryotic Kir channels reconstituted into liposomes of controlled lipid composition, we demonstrate by 86Rb+ influx assays that bacterial Kir channels (KirBac1.1 and KirBac3.1) and human Kir2.1 are all inhibited by cholesterol, most likely by locking the channels into prolonged closed states, whereas the enantiomer, ent-cholesterol, does not inhibit these channels. These data indicate that cholesterol regulates Kir channels through direct protein-sterol interactions likely taking advantage of an evolutionarily conserved binding pocket. PMID:21559361

  13. Degradation and responses of coprostanol and selected sterol biomarkers in sediments to a simulated major sewage pollution event: A microcosm experiment under sub-tropical estuarine conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Pratt; Jan Warnken; Rhys Leeming; Michael J. Arthur; Darren I. Grice

    2008-01-01

    A microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the degradation of coprostanol and related sterol biomarkers and Escherichia coli in ‘natural’ sediments from a highly mixed (marine and estuarine) sub-tropical environment following a simulated pollution event. This experiment revealed that sterols are synthesised and degraded over time by auto- and hetero trophic organisms within the sediment matrix from a onetime addition

  14. Arabidopsis CYP90B1 catalyses the early C-22 hydroxylation of C27, C28 and C29 sterols.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Satomi; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Yokota, Takao; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Yoshida, Shigeo; Sakata, Kanzo; Mizutani, Masaharu

    2006-03-01

    Arabidopsis dwf4 is a brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutant, and the DWF4 gene encodes a cytochrome P450, CYP90B1. We report the catalytic activity and substrate specificity of CYP90B1. Recombinant CYP90B1 was produced in Escherichia coli, and CYP90B1 activity was measured in an in vitro assay reconstituted with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. CYP90B1 converted campestanol (CN) to 6-deoxocathasterone, confirming that CYP90B1 is a steroid C-22 hydroxylase. The substrate specificity of CYP90B1 indicated that sterols with a double bond at positions C-5 and C-6 are preferred substrates compared with stanols, which have no double bond at the position. In particular, the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of CYP90B1 for campesterol (CR) was 325 times greater than that for CN. As CR is more abundant than CN in planta, the results suggest that C-22 hydroxylation of CR before C-5alpha reduction is the main route of BR biosynthetic pathway, which contrasts with the generally accepted route via CN. In addition, CYP90B1 showed C-22 hydroxylation activity toward various C(27-29) sterols. Cholesterol (C27 sterol) is the best substrate, followed by CR (C28 sterol), whereas sitosterol (C29 sterol) is a poor substrate, suggesting that the substrate preference of CYP90B1 may explain the discrepancy between the in planta abundance of C27/C28/C29 sterols and C27/C28/C29 BRs. PMID:16460510

  15. The potential of anti-malarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants, part I: a pharmacological evaluation of alkaloids and terpenoids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine caters for about 80% of the health care needs of many rural populations around the world, especially in developing countries. In addition, plant-derived compounds have played key roles in drug discovery. Malaria is currently a public health concern in many countries in the world due to factors such as chemotherapy faced by resistance, poor hygienic conditions, poorly managed vector control programmes and no approved vaccines. In this review, an attempt has been made to assess the value of African medicinal plants for drug discovery by discussing the anti-malarial virtue of the derived phytochemicals that have been tested by in vitro and in vivo assays. This survey was focused on pure compounds derived from African flora which have exhibited anti-malarial properties with activities ranging from “very active” to “weakly active”. However, only the compounds which showed anti-malarial activities from “very active” to “moderately active” are discussed in this review. The activity of 278 compounds, mainly alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarines, phenolics, polyacetylenes, xanthones, quinones, steroids, and lignans have been discussed. The first part of this review series covers the activity of 171 compounds belonging to the alkaloid and terpenoid classes. Data available in the literature indicated that African flora hold an enormous potential for the development of phytomedicines for malaria. PMID:24330395

  16. The closterovirus-derived gene expression and RNA interference vectors as tools for research and plant biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Dolja, Valerian V.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Important progress in understanding replication, interactions with host plants, and evolution of closteroviruses enabled engineering of several vectors for gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing. Due to the broad host range of closteroviruses, these vectors expanded vector applicability to include important woody plants such as citrus and grapevine. Furthermore, large closterovirus genomes offer genetic capacity and stability unrivaled by other plant viral vectors. These features provided immense opportunities for using closterovirus vectors for the functional genomics studies and pathogen control in economically valuable crops. This review briefly summarizes advances in closterovirus research during the last decade, explores the relationships between virus biology and vector design, and outlines the most promising directions for future application of closterovirus vectors. PMID:23596441

  17. The closterovirus-derived gene expression and RNA interference vectors as tools for research and plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Dolja, Valerian V; Koonin, Eugene V

    2013-01-01

    Important progress in understanding replication, interactions with host plants, and evolution of closteroviruses enabled engineering of several vectors for gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing. Due to the broad host range of closteroviruses, these vectors expanded vector applicability to include important woody plants such as citrus and grapevine. Furthermore, large closterovirus genomes offer genetic capacity and stability unrivaled by other plant viral vectors. These features provided immense opportunities for using closterovirus vectors for the functional genomics studies and pathogen control in economically valuable crops. This review briefly summarizes advances in closterovirus research during the last decade, explores the relationships between virus biology and vector design, and outlines the most promising directions for future application of closterovirus vectors. PMID:23596441

  18. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2012-01-01

    In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblings’ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

  19. Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

    2006-08-01

    Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance. PMID:16870766

  20. Plant regeneration in Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. from embryogenic callus and cell suspension culture and assessment of genetic fidelity of plants derived through somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

    2012-07-01

    Efficient in vitro propagation of medicinally important endangered plant C. borivilianum has been achieved through somatic embryogenesis. Solid embryogenic medium [Murashige and Skoog medium containing 1.79 mM NH4NO3, 10.72 mM KNO3, 1.13 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 7.38 ?M 2-isopentenyladenine and 0.76 mM proline] supplemented with polyethylene glycol and sucrose (3 % each), exhibited 1.88-fold increase in embryo maturation compared to embryogenic medium containing 3 % sucrose. Liquid embryogenic medium supported better somatic embryo production and maturation. Highest total (79) and mature (cotyledonary stage) somatic embryos (38) as well as highest germination (57.5 %) was observed at inoculum density of 0.4 g/40 ml of liquid medium. 5.86 pH level exhibited optimal growth, maturation and germination of somatic embryos. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of C. borivilianum plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis revealed that they were genetically similar to the mother plant. The protocol established in the present study can be used for rapid mass multiplication of C. borivilianum in bioreactor employing liquid medium. PMID:23814440

  1. DNA-Based Authentication of Botanicals and Plant-Derived Dietary Supplements: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed

    Coutinho Moraes, Denise F; Still, David W; Lum, Michelle R; Hirsch, Ann M

    2015-06-01

    Herbal medicines and botanicals have long been used as sole or additional medical aids worldwide. Currently, billions of dollars are spent on botanicals and related products, but minimal regulation exists regarding their purity, integrity, and efficacy. Cases of adulteration and contamination have led to severe illness and even death in some cases. Identifying the plant material in botanicals and phytomedicines using organoleptic means or through microscopic observation of plant parts is not trivial, and plants are often misidentified. Recently, DNA-based methods have been applied to these products because DNA is not changed by growth conditions unlike the chemical constituents of many active pharmaceutical agents. In recent years, DNA barcoding methods, which are used to identify species diversity in the Tree of Life, have been also applied to botanicals and plant-derived dietary supplements. In this review, we recount the history of DNA-based methods for identification of botanicals and discuss some of the difficulties in defining a specific bar code or codes to use. In addition, we describe how next generation sequencing technologies have enabled new techniques that can be applied to identifying these products with greater authority and resolution. Lastly, we present case histories where dietary supplements, decoctions, and other products have been shown to contain materials other than the main ingredient stipulated on the label. We conclude that there is a fundamental need for greater quality control in this industry, which if not self-imposed, that may result from legislation. PMID:25856442

  2. Plant pathogenic Streptomyces species produce nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in response to host signals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent intercellular signal for defense, development and metabolism in animals and plants. In mammals, highly regulated nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) generate NO. NOS homologs exist in some prokaryotes, but direct evidence for NO production by these proteins has been lacking...

  3. Opioid receptor agonistic characteristics of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl in comparison with mitragynine derived from Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo T. Yamamoto; Syunji Horie; Hiromitsu Takayama; Norio Aimi; Shin-ichiro Sakai; Shingo Yano; Jie Shan; Peter K. T. Pang; Dhavadee Ponglux; Kazuo Watanabe

    1999-01-01

    We have previously elucidated the opiate-like action of mitragynine, an active principle isolated from the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa. In the present study, effects of the related compound, mitragynine pseudoindoxyl on electrically stimulated contraction in guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens, and on its binding affinity in the guinea pig brain membranes were studied. Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl inhibited the

  4. The plant-derived hallucinogen, salvinorin A, produces ?-opioid agonist-like discriminative effects in rhesus monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo R. Butelman; Todd J. Harris; MaryJeanne Kreek

    2004-01-01

    Rationale Salvinorin A is the active component of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum. The potential mode of action of this hallucinogen was unknown until recently. A recent in vitro study detected high affinity and efficacy of salvinorin A at ?-opioid receptors. It was postulated that salvinorin A would produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of a high efficacy ?-agonist

  5. Antimicrobial and inhibitory enzyme activity of N-(benzyl) and quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives on plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rabea, Entsar I; Taktak, Nehad E M

    2014-10-13

    Chemical modification of a biopolymer chitosan by introducing quaternary ammonium moieties into the polymer backbone enhances its antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a series of quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR and UV spectroscopic techniques. The antimicrobial activity against crop-threatening bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora and fungi Botrytis cinerea, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans were evaluated. The results proved that the grafting of benzyl moiety or quaternization of the derivatives onto chitosan molecule was successful in inhibiting the microbial growth. Moreover, increase water-solubility of the compounds by quaternization significantly increased the activity against bacteria and fungi. Exocellular enzymes including polygalacturonase (PGase), pectin-lyase (PLase), polyphenol oxidase (PPOase) and cellulase were also affected at 1000 mg/L. These compounds especially quaternary-based chitosan derivatives that have good inhibitory effect should be potentially used as antimicrobial agents in crop protection. PMID:25037402

  6. Mutations of a Drosophila NPC1 Gene Confer Sterol and Ecdysone Metabolic Defects

    PubMed Central

    Fluegel, Megan L.; Parker, Tracey J.; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which dietary cholesterol is trafficked within cells are poorly understood. Previous work indicates that the NPC1 family of proteins plays an important role in this process, although the precise functions performed by this protein family remain elusive. We have taken a genetic approach to further explore the NPC1 family in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The Drosophila genome encodes two NPC1 homologs, designated NPC1a and NPC1b, that exhibit 42% and 35% identity to the human NPC1 protein, respectively. Here we describe the results of mutational analysis of the NPC1a gene. The NPC1a gene is ubiquitously expressed, and a null allele of NPC1a confers early larval lethality. The recessive lethal phenotype of NPC1a mutants can be partially rescued on a diet of high cholesterol or one that includes the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. We also find that expression of NPC1a in the ring gland is sufficient to rescue the lethality associated with the loss of NPC1a and that cholesterol levels in NPC1a mutant larvae are unchanged relative to controls. Our results suggest that NPC1a promotes efficient intracellular trafficking of sterols in many Drosophila tissues including the ring gland where sterols must be delivered to sites of ecdysone synthesis. PMID:16079224

  7. A sterol-enriched vacuolar microdomain mediates stationary phase lipophagy in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Yi-Shun

    2014-01-01

    Stationary phase (stat-phase) is a poorly understood physiological state under which cells arrest proliferation and acquire resistance to multiple stresses. Lipid droplets (LDs), organelles specialized for cellular lipid homeostasis, increase in size and number at the onset of stat-phase. However, little is known about the dynamics of LDs under this condition. In this paper, we reveal the passage of LDs from perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum association to entry into vacuoles during the transition to stat-phase. We show that the process requires the core autophagy machinery and a subset of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins involved in selective autophagy. Notably, the process that we term stat-phase lipophagy is mediated through a sterol-enriched vacuolar microdomain whose formation and integrity directly affect LD translocation. Intriguingly, cells defective in stat-phase lipophagy showed disrupted vacuolar microdomains, implying that LD contents, likely sterol esters, contribute to the maintenance of vacuolar microdomains. Together, we propose a feed-forward loop in which lipophagy stimulates vacuolar microdomain formation, which in turn promotes lipophagy during stat-phase. PMID:25070953

  8. A sterol-enriched vacuolar microdomain mediates stationary phase lipophagy in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Wen; Miao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Yi-Shun

    2014-08-01

    Stationary phase (stat-phase) is a poorly understood physiological state under which cells arrest proliferation and acquire resistance to multiple stresses. Lipid droplets (LDs), organelles specialized for cellular lipid homeostasis, increase in size and number at the onset of stat-phase. However, little is known about the dynamics of LDs under this condition. In this paper, we reveal the passage of LDs from perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum association to entry into vacuoles during the transition to stat-phase. We show that the process requires the core autophagy machinery and a subset of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins involved in selective autophagy. Notably, the process that we term stat-phase lipophagy is mediated through a sterol-enriched vacuolar microdomain whose formation and integrity directly affect LD translocation. Intriguingly, cells defective in stat-phase lipophagy showed disrupted vacuolar microdomains, implying that LD contents, likely sterol esters, contribute to the maintenance of vacuolar microdomains. Together, we propose a feed-forward loop in which lipophagy stimulates vacuolar microdomain formation, which in turn promotes lipophagy during stat-phase. PMID:25070953

  9. Targeting Ergosterol Biosynthesis in Leishmania donovani: Essentiality of Sterol 14alpha-demethylase

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; El Aroussi, Amale; Choi, Jun Yong; Vieira, Debora F.; De Muylder, Geraldine; Johnston, Jonathan B.; Chen, Steven; Kellar, Danielle; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L.; Roush, William R.; Podust, Larissa M.; McKerrow, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania protozoan parasites (Trypanosomatidae family) are the causative agents of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis worldwide. While these diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, there are few adequate treatments available. Sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) in the parasite sterol biosynthesis pathway has been the focus of considerable interest as a novel drug target in Leishmania. However, its essentiality in Leishmania donovani has yet to be determined. Here, we use a dual biological and pharmacological approach to demonstrate that CYP51 is indispensable in L. donovani. We show via a facilitated knockout approach that chromosomal CYP51 genes can only be knocked out in the presence of episomal complementation and that this episome cannot be lost from the parasite even under negative selection. In addition, we treated wild-type L. donovani and CYP51-deficient strains with 4-aminopyridyl-based inhibitors designed specifically for Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51. While potency was lower than in T. cruzi, these inhibitors had increased efficacy in parasites lacking a CYP51 allele compared to complemented parasites, indicating inhibition of parasite growth via a CYP51-specific mechanism and confirming essentiality of CYP51 in L. donovani. Overall, these results provide support for further development of CYP51 inhibitors for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25768284

  10. Common double- and single-stranded DNA binding factor for a sterol regulatory element.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, H C; Weinberger, O; Weinberger, J

    1992-01-01

    A cis-acting element necessary for sterol regulation, SRE-1, has previously been identified in the promoters of the low density lipoprotein receptor, hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase, and HMG-CoA synthase genes. In this report we describe a nuclear factor, SRE-BF, isolated from Chinese hamster ovary nuclear extracts, that binds to the SRE-1 octanucleotide sequence. In addition to sequence-specific binding to SRE-1, as indicated by competition analysis with double-stranded DNA fragments, single-stranded oligomer DNA sequences also compete for binding in a sequence-specific fashion. Photochemical cross-linking experiments suggest that a common protein factor, with apparent molecular mass of 45-49 kDa, recognizes both single-stranded and double-stranded SRE-1. The binding specificity of SRE-BF to single-stranded SRE-1 closely correlates with the reported in vivo ability of SRE-1 to direct sterol responsiveness of transcription. Images PMID:1549579

  11. Structural Insights into Inhibition of Sterol 14?-Demethylase in the Human Pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi*

    PubMed Central

    Lepesheva, Galina I.; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Anderson, Spencer; Kleshchenko, Yuliya; Furtak, Vyacheslav; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), which threatens the lives of millions of people and remains incurable in its chronic stage. The antifungal drug posaconazole that blocks sterol biosynthesis in the parasite is the only compound entering clinical trials for the chronic form of this infection. Crystal structures of the drug target enzyme, Trypanosoma cruzi sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51), complexed with posaconazole, another antifungal agent fluconazole and an experimental inhibitor, (R)-4?-chloro-N-(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imid-azol-1-yl)ethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide (VNF), allow prediction of important chemical features that enhance the drug potencies. Combined with comparative analysis of inhibitor binding parameters, influence on the catalytic activity of the trypanosomal enzyme and its human counterpart, and their cellular effects at different stages of the Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle, the structural data provide a molecular background to CYP51 inhibition and azole resistance and enlighten the path for directed design of new, more potent and selective drugs to develop an efficient treatment for Chagas disease. PMID:20530488

  12. Structural Insights into Inhibition of Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase in the Human Pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Lepesheva, Galina I.; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Anderson, Spencer; Kleshchenko, Yuliya; Furtak, Vyacheslav; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R. (Vanderbilt); (NWU); (Meharry)

    2010-09-02

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), which threatens the lives of millions of people and remains incurable in its chronic stage. The antifungal drug posaconazole that blocks sterol biosynthesis in the parasite is the only compound entering clinical trials for the chronic form of this infection. Crystal structures of the drug target enzyme, Trypanosoma cruzi sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51), complexed with posaconazole, another antifungal agent fluconazole and an experimental inhibitor, (R)-4{prime}-chloro-N-(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imid-azol-1-yl)ethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide (VNF), allow prediction of important chemical features that enhance the drug potencies. Combined with comparative analysis of inhibitor binding parameters, influence on the catalytic activity of the trypanosomal enzyme and its human counterpart, and their cellular effects at different stages of the Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle, the structural data provide a molecular background to CYP51 inhibition and azole resistance and enlighten the path for directed design of new, more potent and selective drugs to develop an efficient treatment for Chagas disease.

  13. Neutron diffraction studies of the interaction between amphotericin B and lipid-sterol model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foglia, Fabrizia; Lawrence, M. Jayne; Deme?, Bruno; Fragneto, Giovanna; Barlow, David

    2012-10-01

    Over the last 50 years or so, amphotericin has been widely employed in treating life-threatening systemic fungal infections. Its usefulness in the clinic, however, has always been circumscribed by its dose-limiting side-effects, and it is also now compromised by an increasing incidence of pathogen resistance. Combating these problems through development of new anti-fungal agents requires detailed knowledge of the drug's molecular mechanism, but unfortunately this is far from clear. Neutron diffraction studies of the drug's incorporation within lipid-sterol membranes have here been performed to shed light on this problem. The drug is shown to disturb the structures of both fungal and mammalian membranes, and co-localises with the membrane sterols in a manner consistent with trans-membrane pore formation. The differences seen in the membrane lipid ordering and in the distributions of the drug-ergosterol and drug-cholesterol complexes within the membranes are consistent with the drug's selectivity for fungal vs. human cells.

  14. Quorum-Sensing Mechanisms Mediated by Farnesol in Ophiostoma piceae: Effect on Secretion of Sterol Esterase.

    PubMed

    de Salas, Felipe; Martínez, María Jesús; Barriuso, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Ophiostoma piceae CECT 20416 is a dimorphic wood-staining fungus able to produce an extracellular sterol-esterase/lipase (OPE) that is of great biotechnological interest. In this work, we have studied the morphological change of this fungus from yeast to hyphae, which is associated with the cell density-related mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS), and how this affects the secretion of OPE. The data presented here confirm that the molecule E,E-farnesol accumulates as the cell number is growing within the population. The exogenous addition of this molecule or spent medium to the cultures increased the extracellular activity of OPE 2.5 times. This fact was related not to an increase in microbial biomass or in the expression of the gene coding for OPE but to a marked morphological transition in the cultures. Moreover, the morphological transition also occurred when a high cell density was inoculated into the medium. The results suggest that E,E-farnesol regulates through QS mechanisms the morphological transition in the dimorphic fungus O. piceae and that it is associated with a higher extracellular esterase activity. Furthermore, identification and transcriptional analysis of genes tup1 and cyr1, which are involved in the response, was carried out. Here we report enhanced production of a sterol-esterase/lipase of biotechnological interest by means of QS mechanisms. These results may be useful in increasing the production of secreted enzymes of other dimorphic fungi of biotechnological interest. PMID:25888179

  15. Modulatory effects of resveratrol, citroflavan-3-ol, and plant-derived extracts on oxidative stress in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Nora M; Carpenter, Rosemary; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; O'Grady, Michael N; Kerry, Joseph P

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemicals and plant extracts, present in fruit, vegetables, plants, herbs, and beverages, have been shown to have antioxidant potential that may modulate the etiology of certain chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of compound that inhibited cell growth by 50% (IC(50)) of a range of phytochemicals and plant extracts and to investigate their antioxidant and genoprotective effects under conditions of oxidative stress in U937 cells. Two phytochemicals-resveratrol and citroflavan-3-ol-and four plant extracts-grapeseed polyphenols, olive leaf extract, bearberry, and Echinacea purpurea-were examined. Viability was assessed by the fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide assay. The IC(50) was calculated. To examine their antioxidant and genoprotective effects, U937 cells were pretreated with the test compounds at levels below the IC(50) and then exposed to oxidants: 0.5 microM etoposide or 100 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or 400 microM tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH). Cellular reduced glutathione levels were measured as an indicator of oxidative stress. DNA damage was assessed by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay or comet assay. Resveratrol demonstrated the highest IC50 value of 13.7 microg/mL, with Echinacea the lowest at 9,400 microg/mL. Etoposide-induced oxidative stress was strongly reduced by olive leaf extract and bearberry. Grapeseed polyphenols and bearberry strongly protected against H2O2- and tBOOH-induced DNA damage. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that non-nutrient dietary constituents may act as significant bioactive compounds and that plant extracts, such as bearberry, grapeseed polyphenols, and olive leaf extract, strongly protect against oxidative stress. PMID:16822204

  16. Operational, safety, and plant-life benefits derived from an incore detector system at the Hanford N Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toffer

    1986-01-01

    A presentation on the benefits to be derived from the upcoming incore neutron detector installation in the Hanford N Reactor has been prepared for the DOE\\/ANL training course on ''The Potential Safety Impact of New and Emerging Technologies on the Operation of DOE Nuclear Facilities.'' Although the complete system will not become operational until next fiscal year, preliminary testing and

  17. Plant-Based Vaccine: Mice Immunized with Chloroplast-Derived Anthrax Protective Antigen Survive Anthrax Lethal Toxin Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Koya; Mahtab Moayeri; Stephen H. Leppla; Henry Daniell

    2005-01-01

    The currently available human vaccine for anthrax, derived from the culture supernatant of Bacillus anthracis, contains the protective antigen (PA) and traces of the lethal and edema factors, which may contribute to adverse side effects associated with this vaccine. Therefore, an effective expression system that can provide a clean, safe, and efficacious vaccine is required. In an effort to produce

  18. Fate and Occurrence of Surfactants-Derived Alkylphenolic Compounds in Conventional and Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damiŕ Barceló

    \\u000a Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) are produced in huge amounts and used in industrial cleansing processes. After use they are\\u000a usually discharged into municipal sewer systems and afterward treated in wastewater treatment plants. Their environmental\\u000a acceptability is strongly disputed because of potentially estrogenic metabolic products (two short ethoxy chain APEO oligomers\\u000a [APE1O and APE2O] and fully de-ethoxylated alkylphenols [APs]) generated during wastewater

  19. Green fluorescent protein and its derivatives as versatile markers for gene expression in living Drosophila melanogaster, plant and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Plautz, J D; Day, R N; Dailey, G M; Welsh, S B; Hall, J C; Halpain, S; Kay, S A

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the utility of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker for gene expression in living adult Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and cultured plant and mammalian cells. Using Dm, we generated transgenic flies bearing a glass-responsive gfp fusion gene to test the utility of GFP as a spatial reporter. In the adult living fly, GFP is clearly visible in the ocelli and the eye. We have optimized the use of filters for distinguishing the GFP signal from abundant autofluorescence in living Dm. In addition, we have used GFP to identify photoreceptor cells in pupal eye cultures that have been fixed and stained according to standard histological procedures. GFP was also detected in individual living plant cells following transient transfection of soybean suspension cultures, demonstrating that GFP is an effective transformation marker in plant cells. Similarly, transient transfection of mammalian cells with a modified form of GFP, S65T, allowed detection of single living cells expressing the reporter. This modified form of GFP gave a robust signal that was resistant to photobleaching. We then used a CellScan system exhaustive photon reassignment (EPR) deconvolution algorithm to generate high-resolution three-dimensional images of GFP fluorescence in the living cell. PMID:8707061

  20. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA): Application to Power Plant-Derived PM2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr

    2004-02-29

    This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of September 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Modifications to the original study design, which will improve the atmospheric aging component of the project and ensure that emissions are as realistic as possible, have resulted in project delays, and, at the time of report preparation, fieldwork at the Upper Midwest plant had not begun. However, such activities are imminent. This report therefore does not present data for activities covered by the Agreement, but does present results for the laboratory methods development work. This work is critical for the future success of the project. In particular, the atmospheric reaction simulation system is of paramount importance to the TERESA study design, since the basis for the toxicity assessment lies in the generation of realistic exposure atmospheres. The formation, composition, and toxicity of particles will be related to different atmospheric conditions and plume dilution scenarios through variations in reaction conditions. Because of the critical role played by this component in ensuring the overall success of the project, more time was required to develop and optimize the system, and the one-chamber simulation system outlined in the original Scope of Work for the Agreement was modified to comprise a more realistic dual chamber system. We are confident that the additional time required to optimize these methodologies will result in a significant improvement in the study. We fully expect that results for tasks covered under the Agreement, and a complete discussion of their relevance and value, will be included in the next semiannual progress report.