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1

Plant Sterols and Stanols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding market of ‘functional foods’ containing plant sterols and stanols has focused interest on their cholesterol-lowering effects as well on possible adverse effects. Trials of cholesterol lowering demonstrate that intake of 2 g\\/day of plant sterols and stanols reduces serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations by approximately 10%. Safety concerns regarding elevations in serum plant sterol levels, or effects

M. J. Tikkanen

2

Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra\\u000a methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact,\\u000a plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested\\u000a the efficacy of plant

Suhad S. AbuMweis; Peter J. H. Jones

2008-01-01

3

Electrochemical synthesis of glycoconjugates from activated sterol derivatives.  

PubMed

Several derivatives of cholesterol and other 3?-hydroxy-?(5)-steroids were prepared and tested as sterol donors in electrochemical reactions with sugar alcohols. The reactions afforded glycoconjugates with sugar linked to a steroid moiety by an ether bond. Readily available sterol diphenylphosphates yielding up to 54% of the desired glycoconjugate were found to be the best sterol donors. PMID:24486463

Tomkiel, Aneta M; Kowalski, Jan; P?oszy?ska, Jolanta; Siergiejczyk, Leszek; Lotowski, Zenon; Sobkowiak, Andrzej; Morzycki, Jacek W

2014-04-01

4

Meiosis activating sterols derived from diosgenin.  

PubMed

Continuing research based on the meiosis activation properties of the endogenous sterol FF-MAS is reported. The synthesis and SAR of 16- and 26-substituted sterols are described, utilising diosgenin as starting material. Selected sterols were tested for their ability to induce oocyte maturation in hypoxanthine arrested mouse oocytes in vitro. PMID:11844708

Murray, Anthony; Grřndahl, Christian; Ottesen, Jan L; Faarup, Peter

2002-02-25

5

Plant phloem sterol content: forms, putative functions, and implications for phloem-feeding insects  

E-print Network

different fractions – free sterols, sterols conjugated to lipids (acylated), and sterols conjugated to carbohydrates (glycosylated). Second, for both plants, cholesterol was identified as the dominant sterol in each phloem exudate fraction; the remaining...

Behmer, Spencer T.; Olszewski, Nathan; Sebastiani, John; Palka, Sydney; Sparacino, Gina; Sciarrno, Elizabeth; Grebenok, Robert J.

2013-09-24

6

Plant sterol feeding induces tumor formation and alters sterol metabolism in the intestine of Apc(Min) mice.  

PubMed

Dietary plant sterols reduce the absorption of cholesterol and therefore increase intraluminal cholesterol concentration. We examined how plant sterol esters from functional foods affect intestinal tumorigenesis in tumor-prone adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)(Min) mice. Feeding plant sterols at 0.8% increased the number of intestinal adenomas, and the effect was significant in female mice. The concentration of mucosal free sitosterol increased by eightfold in plant sterol males and by threefold in plant sterol females when compared with respective controls. The concentration of mucosal free cholesterol was significantly lower in plant sterol males than in control males, and the decrease in free cholesterol was accompanied with a significant increase in nuclear sterol regulatory element binding protein-2. No difference was found in the levels of ?-catenin, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, or caveolin-1 in either gender after plant sterol feeding. Among all measured parameters, higher levels of estrogen receptor ? and free cholesterol in the mucosa were among the strongest predictors of increased intestinal tumorigenesis. In addition, gene expression data showed significant enrichment of up-regulated genes of cell cycle control and cholesterol biosynthesis in plant sterol females. The results indicate that high intake of plant sterols accelerates intestinal tumorigenesis in female Apc (Min)mice; however, the mechanism behind the adverse effect remains to be discovered. PMID:24410462

Marttinen, Maija; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Päivärinta, Essi; Storvik, Markus; Marttinen, Pekka; Nurmi, Tanja; Niku, Mikael; Piironen, Vieno; Mutanen, Marja

2014-01-01

7

Reminiscences of research on the chemistry and biology of natural sterols in insects, plants and humans  

PubMed Central

Natural sterols often occur as a heterogeneous mixture of homologs, which had disturbed the progress of steroid research. Development and application of GC methodology overcame this difficulty and enabled us to obtain detailed sterol profiles. Together, fine synthesis of stereo-defined isomers and homologs of steroids having oxygenated side chains allowed us to compare them with natural samples as well as to investigate structure-activity relationship. Advance of HPLC technology also facilitated the determination of the stereochemical structure of naturally occurring steroidal compounds, which were obtained only in minute amounts. This review highlights three topics out of our steroid research that have been performed mainly at Tokyo Institute of Technology around 1970–1990. These are sterol metabolism in insects focusing on the mechanism of the conversion of plant sterols to cholesterol and ecdysone biosynthesis, the synthesis and biochemical research of active forms of vitamin D3 derivatives, and the synthesis and microanalysis of plant hormone brassinosteroids. PMID:24126284

IKEKAWA, Nobuo; FUJIMOTO, Yoshinori; ISHIGURO, Masaji

2013-01-01

8

Quantification of sterol lipids in plants by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Glycerolipids, sphingolipids, and sterol lipids constitute the major lipid classes in plants. Sterol lipids are composed of free and conjugated sterols, i.e., sterol esters, sterol glycosides, and acylated sterol glycosides. Sterol lipids play crucial roles during adaption to abiotic stresses and plant-pathogen interactions. Presently, no comprehensive method for sterol lipid quantification in plants is available. We used nanospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) to resolve and identify the molecular species of all four sterol lipid classes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Free sterols were derivatized with chlorobetainyl chloride. Sterol esters, sterol glycosides, and acylated sterol glycosides were ionized as ammonium adducts. Quantification of molecular species was achieved in the positive mode after fragmentation in the presence of internal standards. The amounts of sterol lipids quantified by Q-TOF MS/MS were validated by comparison with results obtained with TLC/GC. Quantification of sterol lipids from leaves and roots of phosphate-deprived A. thaliana plants revealed changes in the amounts and molecular species composition. The Q-TOF method is far more sensitive than GC or HPLC. Therefore, Q-TOF MS/MS provides a comprehensive strategy for sterol lipid quantification that can be adapted to other tandem mass spectrometers. PMID:21382968

Wewer, Vera; Dombrink, Isabel; vom Dorp, Katharina; Dörmann, Peter

2011-05-01

9

Effect of plant sterols on the lipid profile of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Randomised, experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have been conducted on supplementing the daily diet with plant sterol ester-enriched milk derivatives in order to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels and, consequently, cardiovascular risk. However, clinical practice guidelines on hypercholesterolaemia state that there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The main objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the intake of 2 g of plant sterol esters a day in lowering LDL-cholesterol levels in patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolaemia. The specific objectives are: 1) to quantify the efficacy of the daily intake of plant sterol esters in lowering LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypercholesterolaemia; 2) to evaluate the occurrence of adverse effects of the daily intake of plant sterol esters; 3) to identify the factors that determine a greater reduction in lipid levels in subjects receiving plant sterol ester supplements. Methods/Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled experimental trial carried out at family doctors' surgeries at three health centres in the Health Area of Albacete (Spain). The study subjects will be adults diagnosed with "limit" or "defined" hypercholesterolaemia and who have LDL cholesterol levels of 130 mg/dl or over. A dairy product in the form of liquid yoghurt containing 2 g of plant sterol ester per container will be administered daily after the main meal, for a period of 24 months. The control group will receive a daily unit of yogurt not supplemented with plant sterol esters that has a similar appearance to the enriched yoghurt. The primary variable is the change in lipid profile at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The secondary variables are: change in cardiovascular risk, adherence to the dairy product, adverse effects, adherence to dietary recommendations, frequency of food consumption, basic physical examination data, health problems, lipid-lowering medication, physical activity, smoking habits and socio-demographic variables. Discussion If plant sterol ester supplements were effective a sounder recommendation for the consumption of plant sterols in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia could be made. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials NCT01406106. PMID:21910898

2011-01-01

10

Protective Role of Plant Sterol and Stanol Esters in Liver Inflammation: Insights from Mice and Humans  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory component of non–alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can lead to irreversible liver damage. Therefore there is an urgent need to identify novel interventions to combat hepatic inflammation. In mice, omitting cholesterol from the diet reduced hepatic inflammation. Considering the effects of plant sterol/stanol esters on cholesterol metabolism, we hypothesized that plant sterol/stanol esters reduces hepatic inflammation. Indeed, adding plant sterol/stanol esters to a high-fat-diet reduced hepatic inflammation as indicated by immunohistochemical stainings and gene expression for inflammatory markers. Finally, adding sterol/stanol esters lowered hepatic concentrations of cholesterol precursors lathosterol and desmosterol in mice, which were highly elevated in the HFD group similarly as observed in severely obese patients with NASH. In vitro, in isolated LPS stimulated bone marrow derived macrophages desmosterol activated cholesterol efflux whereas sitostanol reduced inflammation. This highly interesting observation that plant sterol/stanol ester consumption leads to complete inhibition of HFD-induced liver inflammation opens new venues in the treatment and prevention of hepatic inflammation. PMID:25356831

Plat, Jogchum; Hendrikx, Tim; Bieghs, Veerle; Jeurissen, Mike L. J.; Walenbergh, Sofie M. A.; van Gorp, Patrick J.; De Smet, Els; Konings, Maurice; Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Guichot, Yasmin Dias; Rensen, Sander S.; Buurman, Wim A.; Greve, Jan Willem M.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mensink, Ronald P.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

2014-01-01

11

Plant phloem sterol content: forms, putative functions, and implications for phloem-feeding insects  

PubMed Central

All eukaryotes contain sterols, which serve as structural components in cell membranes, and as precursors for important hormones. Plant vegetative tissues are known to contain mixtures of sterols, but very little is known about the sterol composition of phloem. Plants are food for many animals, but plant-feeding arthropods (including phloem-feeding insets) are unique among animals in that they have lost the ability to synthesize sterols, and must therefore acquire these essential nutrients from their food, or via endosymbionts. Our paper starts by providing a very brief overview of variation in plant sterol content, and how different sterols can affect insect herbivores, including those specializing on phloem. We then describe an experiment, where we bulk collected phloem sap exudate from bean and tobacco, and analyzed its sterol content. This approach revealed two significant observations concerning phloem sterols. First, the phloem exudate from each plant was found to contain sterols in three different fractions – free sterols, sterols conjugated to lipids (acylated), and sterols conjugated to carbohydrates (glycosylated). Second, for both plants, cholesterol was identified as the dominant sterol in each phloem exudate fraction; the remaining sterols in each fraction were a mixture of common phytosterols. We discuss our phloem exudate sterol profiles in a plant physiology/biochemistry context, and how it relates to the nutritional physiology/ecology of phloem-feeding insects. We close by proposing important next steps that will advance our knowledge concerning plant phloem sterol biology, and how phloem-sterol content might affect phloem-feeding insects. PMID:24069026

Behmer, Spencer T.; Olszewski, Nathan; Sebastiani, John; Palka, Sydney; Sparacino, Gina; Sciarrno, Elizabeth; Grebenok, Robert J.

2013-01-01

12

Sewage Treatment Plants Efficiencies in Removal of Sterols and Sterol Ratios as Indicators of Fecal Contamination Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the efficiency of sewage treatment plants (STPs) in removing sterols based on chemical analyses of both\\u000a influents and effluents. Samples from 3s and three tertiary plants were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography mass\\u000a spectrometry for 23 individual sterols including mestranol, norethindrone, equol, estrone, equilin, norgestrel, 17?-ethinylestradiol,\\u000a 17?-estradiol, 17?-estradiol, estriol, dihydrocholesterol (cholestanol), coprostanol, epicoprostanol, cholesterol, desmosterol,\\u000a campesterol,

Vesna Furtula; Johnny Liu; Patricia Chambers; Heather Osachoff; Chris Kennedy; Joanne Harkness

13

Plant Oxidosqualene Metabolism: Cycloartenol Synthase–Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

The plant sterol pathway exhibits a major biosynthetic difference as compared with that of metazoans. The committed sterol precursor is the pentacyclic cycloartenol (9?,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3?-ol) and not lanosterol (lanosta-8,24-dien-3?-ol), as it was shown in the late sixties. However, plant genome mining over the last years revealed the general presence of lanosterol synthases encoding sequences (LAS1) in the oxidosqualene cyclase repertoire, in addition to cycloartenol synthases (CAS1) and to non-steroidal triterpene synthases that contribute to the metabolic diversity of C30H50O compounds on earth. Furthermore, plant LAS1 proteins have been unambiguously identified by peptidic signatures and by their capacity to complement the yeast lanosterol synthase deficiency. A dual pathway for the synthesis of sterols through lanosterol and cycloartenol was reported in the model Arabidopsis thaliana, though the contribution of a lanosterol pathway to the production of 24-alkyl-?5-sterols was quite marginal (Ohyama et al. (2009) PNAS 106, 725). To investigate further the physiological relevance of CAS1 and LAS1 genes in plants, we have silenced their expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We used virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) based on gene specific sequences from a Nicotiana tabacum CAS1 or derived from the solgenomics initiative (http://solgenomics.net/) to challenge the respective roles of CAS1 and LAS1. In this report, we show a CAS1-specific functional sterol pathway in engineered yeast, and a strict dependence on CAS1 of tobacco sterol biosynthesis. PMID:25343375

Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Berna, Anne; Bach, Thomas J.; Schaller, Hubert

2014-01-01

14

Plant sterols and host plant suitability for a phloem-feeding insect  

E-print Network

Introduction Sterols pose interesting but relatively little-studied problems for the nutritional ecology. Exceptionally, some insects (e.g. certain planthoppers and beetles) derive sterols from fungal endosymbionts (Behmer & Nes 2003); bacterial symbionts are not capable of*Correspondence author. E-mail: s

Behmer, Spencer T.

15

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Glycine max sterol methyl transferase 2 genes involved in plant membrane sterol biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterol C24 methyltransferase (SMT2) genes governing the pattern of phytosterols synthesized in higher plants have been studied in Glycine seedlings and wild-type and engineered Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The SMT2 genes of soybean (SMT2-1 and SMT2-2) previously cloned and characterized (Neelakandan et al. 2009) were shown to complement the SMT deficient cvp1 mutant Arabidopsis plants, consistent with their role in regulation

Anjanasree K. Neelakandan; Hanh T. M. Nguyen; Rajesh Kumar; Lam-Son Phan Tran; Satish K. Guttikonda; Truyen Ngoc Quach; Donovan L. Aldrich; W. David Nes; Henry T. Nguyen

2010-01-01

16

Plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in functional foods.  

PubMed

This article reviews developments related to the use of plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in foods and nutraceuticals preparations. Plant sterols and stanols are extracted from the deodorizer distillates of vegetable oil refining and from tall oil, a by-product of paper pulping industry. Plant sterols/stanols inhibit cholesterol absorption possibly by competitively inhibiting its incorporation into the mixed micelles in the small intestine although other mechanisms can not be excluded. Daily consumption of 1-2 grams of plant sterols or stanols was shown to cause 10-20% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol). Combinations of plant sterols/stanols with certain lipid-lowering ingredients were shown to potentate their cholesterol-lowering effects and, in some cases, add triacylglycerol-lowering effects. In this article, patents based information is also discussed. PMID:20653521

Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Moazzami, Ali

2009-01-01

17

Plant Sterols as Dietary Adjuvants in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk: Theory and Evidence  

PubMed Central

Plant sterol-enriched foods are an effective dietary adjuvant in reducing cardiovascular risk by lowering total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum by up to ?15%. The mechanism of action of plant sterols is different from those of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (statins) and thus their effect is additive. Combining plant sterols with other dietary components known to reduce cholesterol in a portfolio approach has proven to be most effective for reduction of hypercholesterolemia and provide an alternative treatment option for clinicians. Plant sterol-enriched foods provides clinicians with a relatively cheap, safe, and effective way to help patients manage their cardiovascular risk. PMID:17319460

Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G; Gordon, Michelle

2006-01-01

18

Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

2004-01-01

19

Comparison of the intestinal uptake of cholesterol, plant sterols, and stanols in mice.  

PubMed

The recent identification of the aberrant transport proteins ABCG5 and ABCG8 resulting in sitosterolemia suggests that intestinal uptake of cholesterol is an unselective process, and that discrimination between cholesterol and plant sterols takes place at the level of sterol efflux from the enterocyte. Although plant sterols are structurally very similar to cholesterol, differing only in their side chain length, they are absorbed from the intestine to a markedly lower extent. In order to further evaluate the process of discrimination, three different sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, sitosterol) and their corresponding 5 alpha-stanols (cholestanol, campestanol, sitostanol) were compared concerning their concentration in the proximal small intestine, in serum, and in bile after a single oral dose of deuterated compounds. The data obtained support the hypothesis that i) the uptake of sterols and stanols is an extremely rapid process, ii) discrimination probably takes place on the level of reverse transport back into the gut lumen, iii) plant stanols are taken up, but not absorbed to a measurable extent, and iv) the process of discrimination probably also exists at the level of biliary excretion. The range of structural alterations that decrease intestinal absorption and increase biliary excretion is: 1) campesterol, 2) cholestanol-sitosterol, and 3) campestanol-sitostanol. PMID:12562824

Igel, Michael; Giesa, Uwe; Lutjohann, Dieter; von Bergmann, Klaus

2003-03-01

20

Sterol binding by methyl-?-cyclodextrin and nystatin--comparative analysis of biochemical and physiological consequences for plants.  

PubMed

The dependence of membrane function on its sterol component has been intensively studied with model lipids and isolated animal membranes, but to a much lesser extent with plant membranes. Depleting membrane sterols could be predicted to have a strong effect on membrane activity and have harmful physiological consequences. In this study, we characterized membrane lipid composition, membrane permeability for ions, some physiological parameters, such as H2O2 accumulation, formation of autophagosomal vacuoles, and expression of peroxidase and autophagic genes, and cell viability in the roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in the presence of two agents that specifically bind to endogenous sterols. The polyene antibiotic nystatin binds to endogenous sterols, forming so-called 'nystatin pores' or 'channels' in the membrane, and methyl-?-cyclodextrin has the capacity to sequester sterols in its hydrophobic core. Unexpectedly, although application of both methyl-?-cyclodextrin and nystatin reduced the sterol content, their effects on membrane permeability, oxidative status and autophagosome formation in roots differed dramatically. For comparison, we also tested the effects of the antibiotic gramicidin S, which does not bind to sterols but forms nonspecific channels in the membrane. Gramicidin S considerably increased membrane permeability, caused oxidative stress, and reduced cell viability. Our results suggest that a decrease in the sterol content is, in itself, not sufficient to have deleterious effects on a cell. The disturbance of membrane integrity, rather than the decrease in the sterol content, is responsible for the toxicity of sterol-binding compounds. PMID:24612537

Valitova, Julia; Sulkarnayeva, Albina; Kotlova, Ekaterina; Ponomareva, Anastasia; Mukhitova, Fakhima K; Murtazina, Lyaisan; Ryzhkina, Irina; Beckett, Richard; Minibayeva, Farida

2014-04-01

21

Differential Modulation of Membrane Structure and Fluctuations by Plant Sterols and Cholesterol  

PubMed Central

We have studied the concentration and temperature dependent influence of cholesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol on the global structure and the bending fluctuations of fluid dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers applying small-angle x-ray scattering, as well as dilatometry and ultrasound velocimetry. Independent of the lipid matrix, cholesterol was found to be most efficient in modulating bilayer thickness and elasticity, followed by sitosterol and stigmasterol. This can be attributed to the additional ethyl groups and double bond at the C17 alkyl side-chain of the two plant sterols. Hence, it seems that some flexibility of the sterol hydrocarbon chain is needed to accommodate within the lipid bilayer. In addition, we did not observe two populations of membranes within the putative liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered phase coexistence regime of binary sterol/lipid mixtures. Instead, the diffraction patterns could be interpreted in terms of a uniform phase. This lends further support to the idea of compositional fluctuations of unstable sterol rich domains recently brought up by fluorescence microscopy experiments, which contrasts the formation of stable domains within the miscibility gap of binary lipid/sterol mixtures. PMID:18234811

Hodzic, Aden; Rappolt, Michael; Amenitsch, Heinz; Laggner, Peter; Pabst, Georg

2008-01-01

22

Reduction of Cholesterol and Glycoalkaloid Levels in Transgenic Potato Plants by Overexpression of a Type 1 Sterol Methyltransferase cDNA1  

PubMed Central

Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Désirée) plants overexpressing a soybean (Glycine max) type 1 sterol methyltransferase (GmSMT1) cDNA were generated and used to study sterol biosynthesis in relation to the production of toxic glycoalkaloids. Transgenic plants displayed an increased total sterol level in both leaves and tubers, mainly due to increased levels of the 24-ethyl sterols isofucosterol and sitosterol. The higher total sterol level was due to increases in both free and esterified sterols. However, the level of free cholesterol, a nonalkylated sterol, was decreased. Associated with this was a decreased glycoalkaloid level in leaves and tubers, down to 41% and 63% of wild-type levels, respectively. The results show that glycoalkaloid biosynthesis can be down-regulated in transgenic potato plants by reducing the content of free nonalkylated sterols, and they support the view of cholesterol as a precursor in glycoalkaloid biosynthesis. PMID:12692338

Arnqvist, Lisa; Dutta, Paresh C.; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke

2003-01-01

23

Plant Sterol and Policosanol Characterization of Hexane Extracts from Grain Sorghum, Corn and their DDGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant sterols (PS) and policosanols (PC) have been attributed with plasma cholesterol-lowering properties in humans. Hexane\\u000a extracts from grain sorghum, corn and their distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), an important co-product of ethanol\\u000a production, contain these health promoting compounds, which could be used to develop health promoting dietary products. However,\\u000a limited information is currently available regarding optimal methods of

Carolina Leguizamón; Curtis L. Weller; Vicki L. Schlegel; Timothy P. Carr

2009-01-01

24

Role of membrane sterols and cortical microtubules in gravity resistance in plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistance to the gravitational force is a principal graviresponse in plants comparable to gravitropism Nevertheless only limited information has been obtained for this graviresponse We have examined mechanisms of signal perception transformation and transduction of the perceived signal and response to the transduced signal in gravity resistance using hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation In Arabidopsis hypocotyls hypergravity treatment greatly increased the expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase HMGR which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid a key precursor of terpenoids such as membrane sterols Geranyl diphosphate synthase gene was also up-regulated by hypergravity whereas the expression of other genes involved in membrane lipid metabolism was not influenced Hypergravity caused an increase in sterol content in azuki bean epicotyls but not in phospholipid glycolipid or fatty acid content Also hypergravity did not influence fatty acid composition in any lipid class Thus the effect of hypergravity on membrane lipid metabolism was specific for sterol synthesis On the other hand alpha- and beta-tubulin genes were up-regulated by hypergravity treatment in Arabidopsis hypocotyls Hypergravity also induced reorientation of cortical microtubules in azuki epicotyls the percentage of epidermal cells with transverse microtubles was decreased whereas that with longitudinal microtubules was increased Inhibitors of HMGR action and microtubule-disrupting agents completely prevented the gravity resistance

Hoson, T.; Koizumi, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Kumasaki, S.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Sakaki, T.

25

Effects of plant sterols and exercise training on apolipoprotein A and B, adiponectin, growth hormone and ghrelin in hypercholesterolemic sedentary adults.  

E-print Network

??Plant sterols (PS) lower total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and inflammatory markers, and decrease risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise increases… (more)

Collins, Melissa.

2006-01-01

26

Intake of a Single Morning Dose of Standard and Novel Plant Sterol Preparations for 4 Weeks Does Not Dramatically Affect Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recommendations for decreasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease include increasing the intake of plant sterols and fish oil. The cholesterol-lowering action of plant sterols, when provided in a fish-oil fatty acids vehicle, remains to be investigated in humans. A randomized, crossover-f...

27

Cholesterol lowering effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols in a French population with moderate hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Background Plant sterols are an established non-pharmacological means to reduce total and LDL blood cholesterol concentrations and are therefore recommended for cholesterol management by worldwide-renown health care institutions. Their efficacy has been proven in many types of foods with the majority of trials conducted in spreads or dairy products. As an alternative to dairy products, soy based foods are common throughout the world. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of plant sterols in soy-based foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols on blood lipid profiles in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind mono-centric study, 50 subjects were assigned to 200 ml of soy drink either enriched with 2.6 g plant sterol esters (1.6 g/d free plant sterol equivalents) or without plant sterols (control) for 8 weeks. Subjects were instructed to maintain stable diet pattern and physical activity. Plasma concentrations of lipids were measured at initial visit, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks. The primary measurement was the change in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Secondary measurements were changes in total cholesterol (TC), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Results Regular consumption of the soy drink enriched with plant sterols for 8 weeks significantly reduced LDL- C by 0.29 mmol/l or 7% compared to baseline (p < 0.05). TC and non-HDL-C concentrations decreased by 0.26 mmol/l and 0.31 mmol/l (each p < 0.05), respectively. Mean reductions in total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the placebo group (p < 0.05). HDL-C and triglycerides were not affected. Compliance was very high (>96%), and products were well tolerated. Conclusion Daily consumption of a plant sterol-enriched soy drink significantly decreased total, non-HDL and LDL cholesterol and is therefore an interesting and convenient aid in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18837970

Weidner, Christina; Krempf, Michel; Bard, Jean-Marie; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Bell, Doris

2008-01-01

28

SHORT-TERM EFFICACY OF PLANT STEROLS CONSUMED AT BREAKFAST OR AT EACH MEAL IN LOWERING BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: To compare under controlled conditions the effect of plant sterol consumed as a single morning dose or divided through the day on blood lipid profile. Method: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover-feeding, single blind trial was conducted in 19 subjects with LDL- cholesterol level...

29

935. Anti-PI3K\\/Akt Cell Survival Pathway Gene Therapy Supplemented with Plant Sterol Diet for Prostate Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men today. The dietary animal and plant sterols appear to play critical roles in prostate cancer formation\\/progression, or prevention, respectively. Cholesterol, the animal sterol that is enriched in red meat and dietary fat, is implicated in promoting prostate cancer formation and progression.

Jun Zhang; Yi Lu

2006-01-01

30

Plant sterol oxides in functional beverages: influence of matrix and storage.  

PubMed

Three plant sterol (PS)-enriched beverages, milk based fruit juice (MFJPS), fruit juice (FJPS) and milk beverage (MPS), were stored at 4, 24, or 37 °C and analysed at regular time intervals of 2 months until 6 months. PS stability was analysed from the production of phytosterol oxidation products (POPs). The ?-sitosterol oxides (7?/7?-hydroxy, ?/?-epoxy, triol, and 7-keto) and campesterol oxides (?/?-epoxy, and 7-keto) were detected in all beverages and at all storage times and temperatures. Total POP contents followed the order MPS?FJPS>MFJPS. In general, the beverages showed low PS oxidation levels (<0.17%). Predictive models of POP content versus storage time were established. These models explain total POP content by over 75% and individual POP content by over 50%. We propose 7-ketositosterol and 7-ketocampesterol as PS oxidation markers during storage of beverages of this kind. PMID:25466102

González-Larena, Marina; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Clemente, Gonzalo; Barberá, Reyes; Lagarda, María Jesús

2015-04-15

31

Genetic Variation in Plant CYP51s Confers Resistance against Voriconazole, a Novel Inhibitor of Brassinosteroid-Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones with structural similarity to mammalian sex steroids and ecdysteroids from insects. The BRs are synthesized from sterols and are essential regulators of cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. In this work we show that voriconazole, an antifungal therapeutic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, severely impairs plant growth by inhibiting sterol-14?-demethylation and thereby interfering with BR production. The plant growth regulatory properties of voriconazole and related triazoles were identified in a screen for compounds with the ability to alter BR homeostasis. Voriconazole suppressed growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and of a wide range of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. We uncover that voriconazole toxicity in plants is a result of a deficiency in BRs that stems from an inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP51, which catalyzes a step of BR-dependent sterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca, a member of the Rosaceae, is naturally voriconazole resistant and that this resistance is conferred by the specific CYP51 variant of F. vesca. The potential of voriconazole as a novel tool for plant research is discussed. PMID:23335967

Rozhon, Wilfried; Husar, Sigrid; Kalaivanan, Florian; Khan, Mamoona; Idlhammer, Markus; Shumilina, Daria; Lange, Theo; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried; Fujioka, Shozo; Poppenberger, Brigitte

2013-01-01

32

The effect of methyl jasmonate on triterpene and sterol metabolisms of Centella asiatica, Ruscus aculeatus and Galphimia glauca cultured plants.  

PubMed

Considering that exogenously applied methyl jasmonate can enhance secondary metabolite production in a variety of plant species and that 2,3-oxidosqualene is a common precursor of triterpenes and sterols in plants, we have studied Centella asiatica and Galphimia glauca (both synthesizing triterpenoid secondary compounds) and Ruscus aculeatus (which synthesizes steroidal secondary compounds) for their growth rate and content of free sterols and respective secondary compounds, after culturing with or without 100 microM methyl jasmonate. Our results show that elicited plantlets of G. glauca and to a higher degree C. asiatica (up to 152-times more) increased their content of triterpenoids directly synthesized from 2,3-oxidosqualene (ursane saponins and nor-seco-friedelane galphimines, respectively) at the same time as growth decreased. In contrast, the free sterol content of C. asiatica decreased notably, and remained practically unaltered in G. glauca. However, in the case of R. aculeatus, which synthesizes steroidal saponins (mainly spirostane type) indirectly from 2,3-oxidosqualene after the latter is converted to the plant phytosterol-precursor cycloartenol, while the growth rate and free sterol content clearly decreased, the spirostane saponine content was virtually unchanged (aerial part) or somewhat lower (roots) in presence of the same elicitor concentration. Our results suggest that while methyl jasmonate may be used as an inducer of enzymes involved in the triterpenoid synthesis downstream from 2,3-oxidosqualene in both C. asiatica and G. glauca plantlets, in those of C. asiatica and R. aculeatus it inhibited the enzymes involved in sterol synthesis downstream from cycloartenol. PMID:16876832

Mangas, Susana; Bonfill, Mercč; Osuna, Lidia; Moyano, Elisabeth; Tortoriello, Jaime; Cusido, Rosa M; Pińol, M Teresa; Palazón, Javier

2006-09-01

33

Miscibility and interactions of animal and plant sterols with choline plasmalogen in binary and multicomponent model systems.  

PubMed

In this work miscibility and interactions of sterols with choline plasmalogen (PC-plasm) in Langmuir monolayers were studied. Moreover, the properties of cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine/plasmalogen mixtures of different PC-plasm concentration were investigated. The foregoing systems were treated as a model of cancer cell membranes, which are of higher plasmalogen level than normal cells. Finally, the influence of ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol (phytosterols differing in anticancer potency) on these mixtures was verified. The properties of monolayers were analyzed based on the parameters derived from the surface pressure-area isotherms and images taken with Brewster Angle Microscope. It was found that at 30% of sterol in sterol/plasmalogen monolayer the lipids are immiscible and 3D crystallites are formed within the film. Cholesterol molecules mix favorably with PC-plasm at Xchol ? 0.5, while the investigated phytosterols only at their prevailing proportion in binary system. The increase of choline plasmalogen in cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine monolayer causes destabilization of the system. Moreover, the incorporation of phytosterols into cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine+PC-plasm mixtures disturbed membrane morphology and this effect was stronger for ?-sitosterol as compared to stigmasterol. It was concluded that the presence of vinyl ether bond at sn-1 position in PC-plasm molecule strongly affects miscibility of choline plasmalogen with sterols. The comparison of the collected data with those reported in literature allowed one to conclude that miscibility and interactions of sterols with PC-plasm are less favorable than those with phosphatidylcholine. It was also suggested that overexpression of plasmalogens in cancer cell membranes may be a factor differentiating sensitivity of cells to anticancer effect of phytosterols. PMID:24463150

H?c-Wydro, Katarzyna; Luty, Katarzyna

2014-04-01

34

Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

Weete, J. D.

1973-01-01

35

Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

Weete, J. D.

1973-01-01

36

LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies.  

PubMed

Phytosterols (PS, comprising plant sterols and plant stanols) have been proven to lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The dose-response relationship for this effect has been evaluated in several meta-analyses by calculating averages for different dose ranges or by applying continuous dose-response functions. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. So far, the calculation of averages for different dose ranges has not been done for plant sterols and stanols separately. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the combined and separate effects of plant sterols and stanols when classified into different dose ranges. Studies were searched and selected based on predefined criteria. Relevant data were extracted. Average LDL-cholesterol effects were calculated when studies were categorised by dose, according to random-effects models while using the variance as weighing factor. This was done for plant sterols and stanols combined and separately. In total, 124 studies (201 strata) were included. Plant sterols and stanols were administered in 129 and fifty-nine strata, respectively; the remaining used a mix of both. The average PS dose was 2.1 (range 0.2-9.0) g/d. PS intakes of 0.6-3.3 g/d were found to gradually reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations by, on average, 6-12%. When plant sterols and stanols were analysed separately, clear and comparable dose-response relationships were observed. Studies carried out with PS doses exceeding 4 g/d were not pooled, as these were scarce and scattered across a wide range of doses. In conclusion, the LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of both plant sterols and stanols continues to increase up to intakes of approximately 3 g/d to an average effect of 12%. PMID:24780090

Ras, Rouyanne T; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Trautwein, Elke A

2014-07-01

37

Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation. PMID:19296875

Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

2009-09-01

38

Prevention of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis in Rats by Plant Sterol Guggulsterone  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of guggulsterone, an antioxidant and antitumor agent, in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism or mechanisms related to ocular inflammation. Methods. EIU was induced by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ?g) into Lewis rats treated with guggulsterone (30 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) or its carrier. After 24 hours the rats were killed, eyes were enucleated, and aqueous humor (AqH) was collected. Numbers of infiltrating cells and levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined in AqH by specific ELISAs. An antibody array was used to measure the expression of various inflammatory cytokines in AqH. The expression of MMP-2, iNOS, Cox-2, phospho-I?B, and phospho-NF-?B was determined immunohistochemically. Human primary nonpigment ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of guggulsterone on the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Results. Compared with control, the EIU rat eye AqH had a significantly higher number of infiltrating cells, total protein, and inflammatory markers, such as MMP-2, NO, and PGE2, and the treatment of guggulsterone prevented EIU-induced increases. Guggulsterone also prevented the expression of MMP-2, iNOS, and Cox-2 proteins and of I?B and NF-?B in various eye tissues. Moreover, in cultured HNPECs, guggulsterone inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory proteins. Conclusions. These results for the first time demonstrate that the plant sterol guggulsterone suppresses ocular inflammation in EIU, suggesting that the supplementation of guggulsterone could be a novel approach for the treatment of ocular inflammation. PMID:20435582

Kalariya, Nilesh M.; Shoeb, Mohammad; Reddy, Aramati B. M.; Zhang, Min; van Kuijk, Frederik J. G. M.

2010-01-01

39

Sterols of a contemporary lacustrine sediment. [in English postglacial lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported for detailed sterol analyses of several depths (corresponding to between zero and about 150 yr in age) in a contemporary lacustrine sediment from a freshwater lake of postglacial origin in England. Delta 5-, delta 22-, and delta 5,22-sterols are identified along with 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanols as well as a C26 stanol with a C7 side chain. Solvent extraction yields carbon number distributions for the 5 alpha- and 5 beta-stanol sediment constituents that parallel the corresponding delta 5-sterol distributions. The amounts of 5 alpha-stanols are found to exceed those of 5 beta-stanols in the sediment, and variations in the ratio of 5 alpha- to 5 beta-stanol between sediment samples from similar depths are shown to suggest an inhomogeneity of the sediment. It is found that the sterol composition of sediment cores varies markedly with depth, reflecting both the effects of a sterol hydrogenation process and a changing input to the sediment. It is concluded that C29 sterols, of probable higher-plant origin, predominate at lower sediment depths while C27 sterols, possibly derived from autochthonous sources, are more abundant in the surface sediment.

Gaskell, S. J.; Eglinton, G.

1976-01-01

40

Degradation of sterols and terrigenous organic matter in waters of the Mackenzie Shelf, Canadian Arctic  

E-print Network

of these two sterols to terrigenous vascular plants. A good corre- lation was observed between the extent. To explain the specific induction of autoxidation on vascular plant-derived material, a mechanism involving higher plant debris increasing the proportion of highly degraded vascular plant material in the SPM

41

Effects of Sterol Structure on Insect Herbivore Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology  

E-print Network

sterols and steroids found in a transgenic tobacco line on several caterpillar species. I also explore the metabolism of these sterols and steroids, and use a microarray approach to identify genes involved in sterol use and metabolism in plant...

Jing, Xiangfeng

2012-02-14

42

A different function for a member of an ancient and highly conserved cytochrome P450 family: From essential sterols to plant defense  

PubMed Central

CYP51 sterol demethylases are the only cytochrome P450 enzymes with a conserved function across the animal, fungal, and plant kingdoms (in the synthesis of essential sterols). These highly conserved enzymes, which are important targets for cholesterol-lowering drugs, antifungal agents, and herbicides, are regarded as the most ancient member cytochrome P450 family. Here we present a report of a CYP51 enzyme that has acquired a different function. We show that the plant enzyme AsCYP51H10 is dispensable for synthesis of essential sterols and has been recruited for the production of antimicrobial compounds (avenacins) that confer disease resistance in oats. The AsCyp51H10 gene is synonymous with Sad2, a gene that we previously had defined by mutation as being required for avenacin synthesis. In earlier work, we showed that Sad1, the gene encoding the first committed enzyme in the avenacin pathway (?-amyrin synthase), had arisen by duplication and divergence of a cycloartenol synthase-like gene. Together these data indicate an intimate evolutionary connection between the sterol and avenacin pathways. Sad1 and Sad2 lie within 70 kb of each other and are expressed specifically in the epidermal cells of the root tip, the site of accumulation of avenacins. These findings raise intriguing questions about the recruitment, coevolution, and regulation of the components of this specialized defense-related metabolic pathway. PMID:17124172

Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Qin, Bo; Leggett, Mike; Hemmings, Andrew; Mellon, Fred; Eagles, John; Werck-Reichhart, Daniele; Schaller, Hubert; Lesot, Agnes; Melton, Rachel; Osbourn, Anne

2006-01-01

43

The sterols of the echinoderm Asterias rubens  

PubMed Central

1. Twenty-two sterols were identified in the starfish Asterias rubens (Phylum, Echinodermata; Class, Asteroidea). 2. The major 4-demethyl sterols had a ?7 bond and the C27 compound 5?-cholest-7-en-3?-ol predominated over other mono- and di-unsaturated sterols belonging to the C26, C27, C28 and C29 series. 3. Small amounts of cholest-5-en-3?-ol and 5?-cholestan-3?-ol were also present. 4. The minor sterols identified all contained either one or two methyl groups at C-4 and are considered to be potential biosynthetic precursors of 5?-cholest-7-en-3?-ol. 5. Three sterols possessing a 9?,19-cyclopropane ring were also isolated and were probably derived by the starfish from a dietary source. PMID:4772271

Smith, Andrew G.; Rubinstein, Ian; Goad, L. John

1973-01-01

44

Effect of a plant sterol, fish oil and B vitamin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors can predict clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis in adulthood. In this pilot study with hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents, we investigated the effects of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins on the levels of four independent risk factors for CVD; LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein and homocysteine. Methods Twenty five participants (mean age 16 y, BMI 23 kg/m2) received daily for a period of 16 weeks an emulsified preparation comprising plant sterols esters (1300 mg), fish oil (providing 1000 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and vitamins B12 (50 ?g), B6 (2.5 mg), folic acid (800 ?g) and coenzyme Q10 (3 mg). Atherogenic and inflammatory risk factors, plasma lipophilic vitamins, provitamins and fatty acids were measured at baseline, week 8 and 16. Results The serum total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, subfractions LDL-2, IDL-1, IDL-2 and plasma homocysteine levels were significantly reduced at the end of the intervention period (p<0.05). The triacylglycerols levels decreased by 17.6%, but did not reach significance. No significant changes in high sensitivity C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-1 were observed during the study period. After standardisation for LDL cholesterol, there were no significant changes in the levels of plasma ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene and retinol, except for reduction in ?-tocopherol levels. The plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids increased significantly with the dietary supplementation (p<0.05). Conclusions Daily intake of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins may modulate the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89549017 PMID:23297818

2013-01-01

45

Effects of diet and metamorphosis upon the sterol composition of the butterfly Morpho peleides.  

PubMed

Whole body sterol metabolism in insects has seldom been studied. We were able to design an appropriate study at a butterfly farm in Belize. We collected six larvas of butterfly (Morpho peleides), their food (leaves of Pterocarpus bayessii), and their excretions. In addition, six adult butterflies were collected. The sterols of the diet, the larva, and adult butterfly were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The structures of these sterols were identified by digitonin precipitation, GC-MS, and NMR. Four sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) and a sterol mixture were found in the food, the body, and the excreta of the larva. The tissue sterol content of the larva was 326 microg. They consumed 276 microg of sterols per day. Their excretion was 185 microg per day as sterols. The total tissue sterol contents of the larva and butterfly were similar, but they had different sterol compositions, which indicated interconversion of sterols during development. There was a progressive increase in the cholesterol content from larva to butterfly and a decrease in the content of sitosterol and other plant sterols, which were likely converted to cholesterol. Our data indicated an active sterol metabolism in butterfly larva. Diet played an important role in determining its sterol composition. During metamorphosis, there was an interconversion of sterols. This is the first paper documenting the fecal sterol excretion in insects as related to dietary intakes. PMID:16582035

Connor, William E; Wang, Yingming; Green, Mike; Lin, Don S

2006-07-01

46

Plant sterol-enriched margarines and reduction of plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare effects on plasma total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations of margarines enriched with different vegetable oil sterols or sitostanol-ester.Design: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled balanced incomplete Latin square design with five treatments and four periods of 3.5 weeks. Margarines enriched with sterols from soybean, sheanut or ricebran oil or with sitostanol-ester were compared to a non-enriched control margarine. Sterol

JA Weststrate; GW Meijer

1998-01-01

47

Fish-oil esters of plant sterols differ from vegetable-oil sterol esters in triglycerides lowering, carotenoid bioavailability and impact on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of plant sterol (PS) esters lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels by suppressing intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Commercially available PS are mainly esterified to omega-6 fatty acid (FA), such as sunflower oil (SO) FA. Emerging trends include using other sources such as olive oil (OO) or omega-3 FA from fish oil (FO), known to exert potent hypotriglyceridemic effects. Our objective was to compare the actions of different FA esterified to PS on blood lipids, carotenoid bioavailability as well as inflammatory and coagulation markers. Methods Twenty-one moderately overweight, hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed experimental isoenergetic diets enriched with OO (70% of fat), each lasting 28-day and separated by 4-week washout periods, using a randomized crossover design. Diets were supplemented with three PS esters preparations, PS-FO, PS-SO, or PS-OO. All PS treatments contained an equivalent of 1.7 PS g/d, and the PS-FO provided a total of 5.4 g/d FO FA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids). Results There were no differences between PS-containing diet effects on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. However, PS-FO consumption resulted in markedly lower (P < 0.0001) fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations compared with PS-SO and PS-OO. These treatments affected plasma ?-carotene (P = 0.0169) and retinol (P = 0.0244), but not tocopherol (P = 0.2108) concentrations. Consumption of PS-FO resulted in higher ?-carotene (P = 0.0139) and retinol (P = 0.0425) levels than PS-SO and PS-OO, respectively. Plasma TNF-?, IL-6, C-reactive protein, prostate specific antigen, and fibrinogen concentrations were unaffected by the PS-interventions. In contrast, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) concentrations were lower (P = 0.0282) in the PS-FO-fed than the PS-SO, but not the PS-OO (P = 0.7487) groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that, in hypercholesterolemic subjects consuming an OO-based diet, PS-FO results in lowered blood triglyceride and PAI-1 concentrations, and higher fat-soluble vitamin levels in comparison to the vegetable oil FA esters of PS (PS-SO and PS-OO). Thus, PS-FO may offer hyperlipidemic subjects a more comprehensive lipid lowering approach while reducing the potential risk of decreased plasma carotenoid concentrations. PMID:17961204

Jones, Peter JH; Demonty, Isabelle; Chan, Yen-Ming; Herzog, Yael; Pelled, Dori

2007-01-01

48

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of isobutyl ester trimethylsilyl ether derivatives of bile acids and application to the study of bile sterol and bile acid biosynthesis in rat liver epithelial cell lines.  

PubMed

The derivatization of bile acids into trimethylsilyl ether isobutyl ester (IBTMS) and of neutral sterols into trimethylsilyl ether (TMS) allowed the separation on an OV-1 capillary gas chromatography column of 15 bile steroids as follows: cholesterol, 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, 6 beta-hydroxycholesterol, 6 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol, lithocholate, deoxycholate, 25-hydroxycholesterol, chenodeoxycholate, cholate, murocholate, hyodeoxycholate, ursodeoxycholate, hyocholate, and beta-muricholate. Fragmentation data of the coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of these nine bile acids as IBTMS derivatives under electron impact and chemical ionizations (methane, isobutane, and ammonia) are given. The ammonia chemical ionization appears to be the best mode for compound identification and quantitation due to fragmentations into high mass ions. The comparison of methylene units of the five sterols as TMS derivatives and of each type of methyl, TMS, or isobutyl ester of the nine bile acids as TMS ethers showed that isobutyl esterification increased dramatically the retention time of the bile acids, allowing their separation after the neutral sterols. Different methods of GC-MS analysis were applied to the study of bile steroid secretion in long-term rat liver epithelial cell lines, either serum-supplemented cell lines or serum-free cell lines, growing in serum-free medium since the primary explanation or after adaptation of serum-supplemented lines to this medium. It is demonstrated for the first time that liver epithelial cell lines maintain the metabolic pathway leading from synthesized cholesterol to dioxygenated sterols and the two normal main primary bile acids of the liver, chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid, up to 32-47% of the in vivo daily rate, and in addition the production of alpha-muricholic acid, the bile acid marker of murine liver. PMID:3777434

Tsaconas, C; Padieu, P; Maume, G; Chessebeuf, M; Hussein, N; Pitoizet, N

1986-09-01

49

Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia.  

PubMed

Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux. PMID:24267242

Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H

2013-12-01

50

C-5(6) sterol desaturase from tetrahymena thermophila: Gene identification and knockout, sequence analysis, and comparison to other C-5(6) sterol desaturases.  

PubMed

The gene coding for a C-5(6) sterol desaturase in Tetrahymena thermophila, DES5A, has been identified by the knockout of the TTHERM_01194720 sequence. Macronucleus transformation was achieved by biolistic bombardment and gene replacement through phenotypic assortment, using paromomycin as the selective agent. A knockout cell line (KO270) showed a phenotype consistent with that of the DES5A deletion mutant. KO270 converted only 6% of the added sterol into the C-5 unsaturated derivative, while the wild type accumulated 10-fold larger amounts under similar conditions. The decreased desaturation activity is specific for the C-5(6) position of lathosterol and cholestanol; other desaturations, namely C-7(8) and C-22(23), were not affected. Analysis by reverse transcription-PCR reveals that DES5A is transcribed both in the presence and absence of cholestanol in wild-type cells, whereas the transcribed gene was not detected in KO270. The growth of KO270 was undistinguishable from that of the wild-type strain. Des5Ap resembles known C-5(6) sterol desaturases, displaying the three typical histidine motifs, four hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and two other highly conserved domains of unknown function. A phylogenetic analysis placed T. thermophila's enzyme and Paramecium orthologues in a cluster together with functionally characterized C-5 sterol desaturases from vertebrates, fungi, and plants, although in a different branch. PMID:19525418

Nusblat, Alejandro D; Najle, Sebastián R; Tomazic, Mariela L; Uttaro, Antonio D; Nudel, Clara B

2009-08-01

51

Lipid-altering effects of a dietary supplement tablet containing free plant sterols and stanols in men and women with primary hypercholesterolaemia: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.  

PubMed

This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial assessed the lipid-altering efficacy of a dietary supplement (tablet form) providing 1.8 g/day free (non-esterified) plant sterols and stanols versus placebo for 6 weeks as part of a therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) diet in 32 men and women with primary hypercholesterolaemia. Mean ± SE baseline (end of a 5-week TLC diet lead-in) lipid concentrations (mmol/l) were total cholesterol (TC), 5.88 ± 0.08; non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), 4.71 ± 0.09; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 4.02 ± 0.08; HDL-C, 1.17 ± 0.06 and triglycerides (TGs), 1.51 ± 0.12. Differences from control in responses (plant sterol/stanol - control) were significant (p < 0.05) for LDL-C ( - 4.9%), non-HDL-C ( - 3.6%) and TC ( - 2.8%). HDL-C and TG responses were not significantly different between treatment conditions. These results indicate that 1.8 g/day free plant sterols/stanols administered in a tablet produced favourable lipoprotein lipid changes in men and women with hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:22087585

Maki, Kevin C; Lawless, Andrea L; Reeves, Matthew S; Dicklin, Mary R; Jenks, Belinda H; Shneyvas, Ed; Brooks, James R

2012-06-01

52

Sterol glycosides and cerebrosides accumulate in Pichia pastoris, Rhynchosporium secalis and other fungi under normal conditions or under heat shock and ethanol stress.  

PubMed

The occurrence of glycolipids such as sterol glycosides, acylated sterol glycosides, cerebrosides and glycosyldiacylglycerols was examined in the three yeast species Candida albicans, Pichia pastoris and Pichia anomala, as well as in the six fungal species Sordaria macrospora, Pyrenophora teres, Ustilago maydis, Acremonium chrysogenum, Penicillium olsonii and Rhynchosporium secalis. Cerebroside was found in all organisms tested, whereas acylated sterol glycosides and glycosyldiacylglycerols were not found in any organism. Sterol glycosides were detected in P. pastoris strain GS115, U. maydis, S. macrospora and R. secalis. This glycolipid occurred in both yeast and filamentous forms of U. maydis but in neither form of C. albicans. This suggests that sterol glycoside is not correlated with the separately grown dimorphic forms of these organisms. Cerebrosides and sterol glycosides from P. pastoris and R. secalis were purified and characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cerebrosides are beta-glucosyl ceramides consisting of a saturated alpha-hydroxy or non-hydroxy fatty acid and a Delta4,8-diunsaturated, C9-methyl-branched sphingobase. Sterol glycoside from P. pastoris was identified as ergosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside, whereas the sterol glucosides from R. secalis contain two derivatives of ergosterol. The biosynthesis of sterol glucoside in P. pastoris CBS7435 and GS115 depended on the culture conditions. The amount of sterol glucoside in cells grown in complete medium was much lower than in cells from minimal medium and a strong increase in the content of sterol glucoside was observed when cells were subjected to stress conditions such as heat shock or increased ethanol concentrations. From these data we suggest that, in addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, new yeast and fungal model organisms should be used to study the physiological functions of glycolipids in eukaryotic cells. This suggestion is based on the ubiquitous and frequent occurrence of cerebrosides and sterol glycosides, both of which are rarely detected in S. cerevisiae. We suggest P. pastoris and two plant pathogenic fungi to be selected for this approach. PMID:11378896

Sakaki, T; Zähringer, U; Warnecke, D C; Fahl, A; Knogge, W; Heinz, E

2001-06-01

53

Effects of dietary plant meal and soya-saponin supplementation on intestinal and hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and lipoprotein and sterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).  

PubMed

Altered lipid metabolism has been shown in fish fed plant protein sources. The present study aimed to gain further insights into how intestinal and hepatic lipid absorption and metabolism are modulated by plant meal (PM) and soya-saponin (SA) inclusion in salmon feed. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 10 weeks one of four diets based on fishmeal or PM, with or without 10 g/kg SA. PM inclusion resulted in decreased growth performance, excessive lipid droplet accumulation in the pyloric caeca and liver, and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. Intestinal and hepatic gene expression profiling revealed an up-regulation of the expression of genes involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein (LP) synthesis (apo, fatty acid transporters, microsomal TAG transfer protein, acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, choline kinase and choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A), cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) and associated transcription factors (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 and PPAR?). SA inclusion resulted in reduced body pools of cholesterol and bile salts. The hepatic gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis (cytochrome P450 7A1 (cyp7a1)) as well as the transcription factor liver X receptor and the bile acid transporter abcb11 (ATP-binding cassette B11) was down-regulated by SA inclusion. A significant interaction was observed between PM inclusion and SA inclusion for plasma cholesterol levels. In conclusion, gene expression profiling suggested that the capacity for LP assembly and cholesterol synthesis was up-regulated by PM exposure, probably as a compensatory mechanism for excessive lipid droplet accumulation and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. SA inclusion had hypocholesterolaemic effects on Atlantic salmon, accompanied by decreased bile salt metabolism. PMID:24507758

Gu, Min; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Hansen, Anne Kristine; Krogdahl, Ĺshild

2014-02-01

54

Sterols in yeast subcellular fractions.  

PubMed

Yeast is the most primitive organism synthesizing substantial amounts of sterols. Because of this eucaryotic organism's versatility in growth conditions, ease of culture, well-defined genetic mechanism, and characteristic subcellar architecture, it is readily applied to studies of the role of sterols in the general economy of the cell. Sterols exist in two major forms, as the free sterol, or esterified with long chain fatty acids. The importance of sterols for this organism can be demonstrated using a naturally occurring antimycotic azasterol. This agent inhibits yeast growth. Three effects are seen on sterol synthesis: inhibition of the enzymes delta14-reductase, sterol methyltransferase, and methylene reductase. Cells cultured on respiratory substrates are more sensitive to inhibition than are cells growing on glucose. We have demonstrated a relationship between respiratory competency and sterol biosynthesis in this organism. Many mutants altered in sterol synthesis are respirationally defective and must grow fermentatively. One clone has temperature conditional respiration. Experiments with purified mitochondria, prepared from this mutant and its isogenic wildtype, show that the mutant organism is able to respire at the higher temperature but lacks the ability to couple respiration to phosphorylation. No similar loss is seen in the wild-type clones. Data are given which support the proposal that, for inclusion in mitochondrial structures, yeast cells may discriminate among sterols available from the total sterol pool in favor of ergosterol. PMID:364234

Parks, L W; McLean-Bowen, C; Taylor, F R; Hough, S

1978-10-01

55

Fatty acid-derived signals in plants.  

PubMed

Plants synthesize many fatty acid derivatives, several of which play important regulatory roles. Jasmonates are the best characterized examples. Jasmonate-insensitive mutants and mutants with a constitutive jasmonate response have given us new insights into jasmonate signalling. The jasmonate biosynthesis mutant opr3 allowed the dissection of cyclopentanone and cyclopentenone signalling, thus defining specific roles for these molecules. Jasmonate signalling is a complex network of individual signals and recent findings on specific activities of methyl jasmonate and (Z)-jasmone add to this picture. In addition, there are keto, hydroxy and hydroperoxy fatty acids that might be involved in cell death and the expression of stress-related genes. Finally, there are bruchins and volicitin, signal molecules from insects that are perceived by plants in the picomole to femtomole range. They highlight the importance of fatty acid-derived molecules in interspecies communication and in plant defence. PMID:11992827

Weber, Hans

2002-05-01

56

Arabidopsis ERG28 Tethers the Sterol C4-Demethylation Complex to Prevent Accumulation of a Biosynthetic Intermediate That Interferes with Polar Auxin Transport[C][W  

PubMed Central

Sterols are vital for cellular functions and eukaryotic development because of their essential role as membrane constituents. Sterol biosynthetic intermediates (SBIs) represent a potential reservoir of signaling molecules in mammals and fungi, but little is known about their functions in plants. SBIs are derived from the sterol C4-demethylation enzyme complex that is tethered to the membrane by Ergosterol biosynthetic protein28 (ERG28). Here, using nonlethal loss-of-function strategies focused on Arabidopsis thaliana ERG28, we found that the previously undetected SBI 4-carboxy-4-methyl-24-methylenecycloartanol (CMMC) inhibits polar auxin transport (PAT), a key mechanism by which the phytohormone auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth, including development and responses to environmental factors. The induced accumulation of CMMC in Arabidopsis erg28 plants was associated with diagnostic hallmarks of altered PAT, including the differentiation of pin-like inflorescence, loss of apical dominance, leaf fusion, and reduced root growth. PAT inhibition by CMMC occurs in a brassinosteroid-independent manner. The data presented show that ERG28 is required for PAT in plants. Furthermore, it is accumulation of an atypical SBI that may act to negatively regulate PAT in plants. Hence, the sterol pathway offers further prospects for mining new target molecules that could regulate plant development. PMID:24326590

Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Jadid, Nurul; Brunel, Julien; Di Pascoli, Thomas; Heintz, Dimitri; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jérôme; Bergdoll, Marc; Ayoub, Daniel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rahier, Alain; Nkeng, Paul; Geoffroy, Philippe; Miesch, Michel; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence

2013-01-01

57

Lactoferrin-derived resistance against plant pathogens in transgenic plants.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein that contributes to nutrition and exerts a broad-spectrum primary defense against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses in mammals. These qualities make lactoferrin protein and its antimicrobial motifs highly desirable candidates to be incorporated in plants to impart broad-based resistance against plant pathogens or to economically produce them in bulk quantities for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. This study introduced bovine LF (BLF) gene into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), Arabidopsis ( A. thaliana ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) via Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation. Transgenic plants or detached leaves exhibited high levels of resistance against the damping-off causing fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and the head blight causing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum . LF also imparted resistance to tomato plants against a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum . Similarly, other researchers demonstrated expression of LF and LF-mediated high-quality resistance to several other aggressive fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in transgenic plants and against viral pathogens by foliar applications of LF or its derivatives. Taken together, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LF for improving crop quality and its biopharming potentials for pharmaceautical and nutritional applications. PMID:23889215

Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry; Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Amitava

2013-12-01

58

Sterol Biosynthesis Is Required for Heat Resistance but Not Extracellular Survival in Leishmania  

PubMed Central

Sterol biosynthesis is a crucial pathway in eukaryotes leading to the production of cholesterol in animals and various C24-alkyl sterols (ergostane-based sterols) in fungi, plants, and trypanosomatid protozoa. Sterols are important membrane components and precursors for the synthesis of powerful bioactive molecules, including steroid hormones in mammals. Their functions in pathogenic protozoa are not well characterized, which limits the development of sterol synthesis inhibitors as drugs. Here we investigated the role of sterol C14?-demethylase (C14DM) in Leishmania parasites. C14DM is a cytochrome P450 enzyme and the primary target of azole drugs. In Leishmania, genetic or chemical inactivation of C14DM led to a complete loss of ergostane-based sterols and accumulation of 14-methylated sterols. Despite the drastic change in lipid composition, C14DM-null mutants (c14dm?) were surprisingly viable and replicative in culture. They did exhibit remarkable defects including increased membrane fluidity, failure to maintain detergent resistant membrane fraction, and hypersensitivity to heat stress. These c14dm? mutants showed severely reduced virulence in mice but were highly resistant to itraconazole and amphotericin B, two drugs targeting sterol synthesis. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of toxic sterol intermediates in c14dm? causes strong membrane perturbation and significant vulnerability to stress. The new knowledge may help improve the efficacy of current drugs against pathogenic protozoa by exploiting the fitness loss associated with drug resistance. PMID:25340392

Xu, Wei; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Baykal, Eda; Huang, Juyang; Zhang, Kai

2014-01-01

59

The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Sophie Bouvaine a  

E-print Network

The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Sophie Bouvaine a , Spencer Keywords: Acyrthosiphon pisum Aphid Cholesterol Sterol Phloem sap Phytosterol a b s t r a c t The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three

Behmer, Spencer T.

60

The content and composition of sterols and sterol esters in low erucic acid rapeseed ( Brassica napus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low temperature crystallization technique for the enrichment of “minor” components, such as sterols and sterol esters,\\u000a from vegetable oils was applied to low erucic acid rapeseed oils. The recovery of free sterols and sterol esters was estimated\\u000a by use of14C-cholesterol and14C-cholesterol oleate. 80% of the free sterols and 45% of the sterol esters were recovered in the liquid fraction,

Anna Johansson; Lars-Ĺke Appelqvist

1978-01-01

61

Plant sterols, marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids and other functional ingredients: a new frontier for treating hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As hyperlipidemia, including hypercholesterolemia (HC) and hypertriglyceridemia (HTN), continue to challenge North America's healthcare systems, patients continue to seek efficacious and safe natural therapies that complement pharmaceutical interventions. However, despite the ever-growing body of research supporting the use of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFN) for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia, reception amongst the medical community regarding the implementation of

Christopher PF Marinangeli; Peter JH Jones

2010-01-01

62

Fatty AcidDerived Signals in Plant Defense  

E-print Network

Fatty Acid­Derived Signals in Plant Defense Aardra Kachroo and Pradeep Kachroo Department of Plant in pathogen defense. Historically, FAs were only assigned passive roles in plant defense such as biosynthetic demonstrate more direct roles for FAs and their breakdown products in inducing various modes of plant defenses

Kachroo, Pradeep

63

Sterols as Complex-forming Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of complexes of sterols with different compounds determines the biological properties of both sterols and various natural substances such as saponins and polyene antibiotics. Complex formation by sterols with phospholipids, steroid saponins, and polyene antibiotics is determined by the same characteristic features of the structure of the sterol molecule. The principal role in complex formation is played by the hydrophobic reaction of the cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring. The formation of a hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group of the sterol and a proton acceptor, which is assumed in most complexes, has been proved only in the complexes of sterols with water and acids. The bibliography contains 122 references.

Ioffe, D. V.

1986-02-01

64

Sterol composition of 19 vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsaponifiables from 19 vegetable oils were divided into a sterol and three other fractions by thin-layer chromatography.\\u000a All except olive and palm kernel oils gave the sterol fraction in a large quantity. Compositions of the sterol fractions were\\u000a determined by gas liquid chromatography. Identification of each sterol was carried out by gas liquid chromatography and combined\\u000a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry.

T. Itoh; T. Tamura; T. Matsumoto

1973-01-01

65

Sterol methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Various nystatin-resistant mutants defective in S-adenosylmethionine: delta 24-sterol-C-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.41) were shown to possess alleles of the same gene, erg6. The genetic map location of erg6 was shown to be close to trp1 on chromosome 4. Despite the single locus for erg6, S-adenosylmethionine: delta 24-sterol-C-methyltransferase enzyme activity was found in three separate fractions: mitochondria, microsomes, and the "floating lipid layer." The amount of activity in each fraction could be manipulated by assay conditions. The lipids and lipid synthesis of mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in the delta 24-sterol-C-methyltransferase were compared with a C5(6) desaturase mutant and parental wild types. No ergosterol (C28 sterol) could be detected in whole-cell sterol extracts of the erg6 mutants, the limits of detection being less than 10(-11) mol of ergosterol per 10(8) cells. The distribution of accumulated sterols by these mutants varied with growth phase and between free and esterified fractions. The steryl ester concentrations of the mutants were eight times higher than those of the wild type from exponential growth samples. However, the concentration of the ester accumulated by the mutants was not as great in stationary-phase cells. Whereas the head group phospholipid composition was the same between parental and mutant strains, strain-dependent changes in fatty acids were observed, most notably a 40% increase in the oleic acid content of phosphatidylethanolamine of one erg6 mutant, JR5. PMID:6363386

McCammon, M T; Hartmann, M A; Bottema, C D; Parks, L W

1984-01-01

66

A new sterol glycoside from Securidaca inappendiculata.  

PubMed

From the roots of Securidaca inappendiculata, one new sterol glycoside securisteroside (1) has been isolated, along with two known sterols, spinasterol (2) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-spinasterol (3). The new sterol was characterized by chemical and spectrometric methods, including EIMS, FABMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. PMID:16087640

Zhang, Li-Jie; Yang, Xue-Dong; Xu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Zhong-Mei; Yang, Shi-Lin

2005-08-01

67

Potential of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of sterols in human plasma.  

PubMed

The application of Gas Chromatography (GC)-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI)-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF-MS) is presented for sterol analysis in human plasma. A commercial APCI interface was modified to ensure a well-defined humidity which is essential for controlled ionization. In the first step, optimization regarding flow rates of auxiliary gases was performed by using a mixture of model analytes. Secondly, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of sterols including oxysterols, cholesterol precursors, and plant sterols as trimethylsilyl-derivatives was successfully carried out. The characteristics of APCI together with the very good mass accuracy of TOF-MS data enable the reliable identification of relevant sterols in complex matrices. Linear calibration lines and plausible results for healthy volunteers and patients could be obtained whereas all mass signals were extracted with an extraction width of 20 ppm from the full mass data set. One advantage of high mass accuracy can be seen in the fact that from one recorded run any search for m/z can be performed. PMID:24463103

Matysik, S; Schmitz, G; Bauer, S; Kiermaier, J; Matysik, F-M

2014-04-11

68

Multiple Functions of Sterols in Yeast Endocytosis  

PubMed Central

Sterols are essential factors for endocytosis in animals and yeast. To investigate the sterol structural requirements for yeast endocytosis, we created a variety of erg? mutants, each accumulating a distinct set of sterols different from ergosterol. Mutant erg2?erg6? and erg3?erg6? cells exhibit a strong internalization defect of the ?-factor receptor (Ste2p). Specific sterol structures are necessary for pheromone-dependent receptor hyperphosphorylation, a prerequisite for internalization. The lack of phosphorylation is not due to a defect in Ste2p localization or in ligand–receptor interaction. Contrary to most known endocytic factors, sterols seem to function in internalization independently of actin. Furthermore, sterol structures are required at a postinternalization step of endocytosis. erg? cells were able to take up the membrane marker FM4-64, but exhibited defects in FM4-64 movement through endosomal compartments to the vacuole. Therefore, there are at least two roles for sterols in endocytosis. Based on sterol analysis, the sterol structural requirements for these two processes were different, suggesting that sterols may have distinct functions at different places in the endocytic pathway. Interestingly, sterol structures unable to support endocytosis allowed transport of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein Gas1p from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi compartment. PMID:12181337

Heese-Peck, Antje; Pichler, Harald; Zanolari, Bettina; Watanabe, Reika; Daum, Günther; Riezman, Howard

2002-01-01

69

Two-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Plant Stanol Esters in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant stanol esters are intended for use as an ingredient in food to reduce the absorption of cholesterol from the gastrointestinal tract. Consumption of plant stanol esters has a demonstrated diet-derived public health benefit, as shown by numerous clinical studies. Plant stanol esters are ring-saturated analogs of common dietary sterols that are transesterified with fatty acids from vegetable oils such

Margaret H. Whittaker; Vasilios H. Frankos; A. P. M. Wolterbeek; D. H. Waalkens-Berendsen

1999-01-01

70

Sterol partitioning by HMGR and DXR for routing intermediates toward withanolide biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Withanolides biosynthesis in the plant Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is hypothesized to be diverged from sterol pathway at the level of 24-methylene cholesterol. The conversion and translocation of intermediates for sterols and withanolides are yet to be characterized in this plant. To understand the influence of mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways on sterols and withanolides biosynthesis in planta, we overexpressed the WsHMGR2 and WsDXR2 in tobacco, analyzed the effect of transient suppression through RNAi, inhibited MVA and MEP pathways and fed the leaf tissue with different sterols. Overexpression of WsHMGR2 increased cycloartenol, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol compared to WsDXR2 transgene lines. Increase in cholesterol was, however, marginally higher in WsDXR2 transgenic lines. This was further validated through transient suppression analysis, and pathway inhibition where cholesterol reduction was found higher due to WsDXR2 suppression and all other sterols were affected predominantly by WsHMGR2 suppression in leaf. The transcript abundance and enzyme analysis data also correlate with sterol accumulation. Cholesterol feeding did not increase the withanolide content compared to cycloartenol, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. Hence, a preferential translocation of carbon from MVA and MEP pathways was found differentiating the sterols types. Overall results suggested that MVA pathway was predominant in contributing intermediates for withanolides synthesis mainly through the campesterol/stigmasterol route in planta. PMID:24749735

Singh, Shefali; Pal, Shaifali; Shanker, Karuna; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

2014-12-01

71

Regulation of Sterol Content in Membranes by Subcellular Compartmentation of Steryl-Esters Accumulating in a Sterol-Overproducing Tobacco Mutant.  

PubMed Central

The study of sterol overproduction in tissues of LAB 1-4 mutant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) (P. Maillot-Vernier, H. Schaller, P. Benveniste, G. Belliard [1989] Biochem Biophys Res Commun 165: 125-130) over several generations showed that the overproduction phenotype is stable in calli, with a 10-fold stimulation of sterol content when compared with wild-type calli. However, leaves of LAB 1-4 plants obtained after two steps of self-fertilization were characterized by a mere 3-fold stimulation, whereas calli obtained from these plants retained a typical sterol-overproducing mutant phenotype (i.e. a 10-fold increase of sterol content). These results suggest that the expression of the LAB 1-4 phenotype is dependent on the differentiation state of cells. Most of the sterols accumulating in the mutant tissues were present as steryl-esters, which were minor species in wild-type tissues. Subcellular fractionation showed that in both mutant and wild-type tissues, free sterols were associated mainly with microsomal membranes. In contrast, the bulk of steryl-esters present in mutant tissues was found in the soluble fraction of cells. Numerous lipid droplets were detected in the hyaloplasm of LAB 1-4 cells by cytochemical and cytological techniques. After isolation, these lipid granules were shown to contain steryl-esters. These results show that the overproduced sterols of mutant tissues accumulate as steryl-esters in hyaloplasmic bodies. The esterification process thus allows regulation of the amount of free sterols in membranes by subcellular compartmentation. PMID:12232218

Gondet, L.; Bronner, R.; Benveniste, P.

1994-01-01

72

Herbal remedies of the maritime Indians: Sterols and triterpenes of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Tansy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant sterols and triterpenes exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. As part of our ongoing studies of the medicinal\\u000a aspects of Maritime flora, particularly the herbal remedies of the Micmac and Malecite Indians, we determined the nature of\\u000a the sterols and triterpenes ofTanacetum vulgare L. (Compositae)—a widely used herbal remedy usually referred to as tansy. By using thin layer

R. F. Chandler; S. N. Hooper; D. L. Hooper; W. D. Jamieson; E. Lewis

1982-01-01

73

Consumption and biochemical impact of commercially available plant-derived nutritional supplements. An observational pilot-study on recreational athletes  

PubMed Central

Background A growing consumption of natural (plant-derived) dietary supplements with ergogenic aims, with particular regard for ecdysteroids, phytoestrogens and vegetal sterols, has been registered over the last years among “recreational” athletes. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the real knowledge of plant-derived nutritional supplements among physically active people as well as their real consumption. Additional aim was to evaluate the effects of these supplements on the health profile of the users. Methods Twenty-three trained subjects who habitually used natural dietary supplements, and 30 matched controls were analyzed for plasma biochemical markers and hormonal profile. Results The laboratory tests revealed the absence of any sign of organ toxicity/damage in both athletes and controls. On the contrary, hormone profiles revealed marked alterations in 15 (65%) out of the 23 of investigated athletes. Specifically, 10 males presented increased plasma levels of progesterone, 15 subjects presented abnormal estrogen levels, including 5 (2?F and 3?M) presenting a “dramatic” increased estrogen values and 2 two males with increased estrogen levels, increased testosterone levels and associated suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Conclusions The results of the present study highlighted that the habitual consumption of plant-derived nutritional supplements is frequently associated with significant hormonal alterations both in male and female subjects. Although these biochemical alterations were not associated with signs or symptoms of organ toxicity/damage at the moment of the study, it cannot be excluded that, in the mid/long-term, these subjects would suffer of health problems secondary to chronic exposure to heavily altered hormonal levels. Further large scale studies are needed to confirm the results of this pilot study as well as to investigate the biological mechanisms at the base of the observed hormonal alterations. PMID:22713127

2012-01-01

74

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a source of sediment contamination by toxic organic pollutants and fecal sterols in a semi-enclosed bay in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic organic contaminants and a macrobenthic community were assayed in sediments collected near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfall to assess the impact of WWTP discharges on an aquatic environment. Average concentrations of toxic organic contaminants in sediments from 20 locations were 96.7ng TEQ\\/kg dry matter for PCDD\\/Fs, 1.84ng TEQ\\/kg dry matter for dioxin-like PCBs, 29.1?g\\/kg dry matter for PBDEs,

Hyo-Bang Moon; Sang-Pil Yoon; Rae-Hong Jung; Minkyu Choi

2008-01-01

75

Plant-derived virus-like particles as vaccines  

PubMed Central

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are self-assembled structures derived from viral antigens that mimic the native architecture of viruses but lack the viral genome. VLPs have emerged as a premier vaccine platform due to their advantages in safety, immunogenicity, and manufacturing. The particulate nature and high-density presentation of viral structure proteins on their surface also render VLPs as attractive carriers for displaying foreign epitopes. Consequently, several VLP-based vaccines have been licensed for human use and achieved significant clinical and economical success. The major challenge, however, is to develop novel production platforms that can deliver VLP-based vaccines while significantly reducing production times and costs. Therefore, this review focuses on the essential role of plants as a novel, speedy and economical production platform for VLP-based vaccines. The advantages of plant expression systems are discussed in light of their distinctive posttranslational modifications, cost-effectiveness, production speed, and scalability. Recent achievements in the expression and assembly of VLPs and their chimeric derivatives in plant systems as well as their immunogenicity in animal models are presented. Results of human clinical trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy of plant-derived VLPs are also detailed. Moreover, the promising implications of the recent creation of “humanized” glycosylation plant lines as well as the very recent approval of the first plant-made biologics by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for plant production and commercialization of VLP-based vaccines are discussed. It is speculated that the combined potential of plant expression systems and VLP technology will lead to the emergence of successful vaccines and novel applications of VLPs in the near future. PMID:22995837

Chen, Qiang; Lai, Huafang

2013-01-01

76

FACKEL is a sterol C-14 reductase required for organized cell division and expansion in Arabidopsis embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

In flowering plants, the developing embryo consists of growing populations of cells whose fates are determined in a position-dependent manner to form the adult organism. Mutations in the FACKEL (FK) gene affect body organization of the Arabidopsis seedling. We report that FK is required for cell division and expansion and is involved in proper organization of the embryo. We isolated FK by positional cloning. Expression analysis in embryos revealed that FK mRNA becomes localized to meristematic zones. FK encodes a predicted integral membrane protein related to the vertebrate lamin B receptor and sterol reductases across species, including yeast sterol C-14 reductase ERG24. We provide functional evidence that FK encodes a sterol C-14 reductase by complementation of erg24. GC/MS analysis confirmed that fk mutations lead to accumulation of intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway preceding the C-14 reductase step. Although fk represents a sterol biosynthetic mutant, the phenotype was not rescued by feeding with brassinosteroids (BRs), the only plant sterol signaling molecules known so far. We propose that synthesis of sterol signals in addition to BRs is important in mediating regulated cell growth and organization during embryonic development. Our results indicate a novel role for sterols in the embryogenesis of plants. PMID:10859166

Schrick, Kathrin; Mayer, Ulrike; Horrichs, Andrea; Kuhnt, Christine; Bellini, Catherine; Dangl, Jeff; Schmidt, Jürgen; Jürgens, Gerd

2000-01-01

77

GMP issues for recombinant plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins.  

PubMed

Recombinant proteins can be produced in a diverse array of plant-based systems, ranging from whole plants growing in the soil to plant suspension cells growing in a fully-defined synthetic medium in a bioreactor. When the recombinant proteins are intended for medical use (plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins, PDPs) they fall under the same regulatory guidelines for manufacturing that cover drugs from all other sources, and when such proteins enter clinical development this includes the requirement for production according to good manufacturing practice (GMP). In principle, the well-characterized GMP regulations that apply to pharmaceutical proteins produced in bacteria and mammalian cells are directly transferrable to plants. In practice, the cell-specific terminology and the requirement for a contained, sterile environment mean that only plant cells in a bioreactor fully meet the original GMP criteria. Significant changes are required to adapt these regulations for proteins produced in whole-plant systems and it is only recently that the first GMP-compliant production processes using plants have been delivered. PMID:21856403

Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan; Hellwig, Stephan; Twyman, Richard M; Drossard, Juergen

2012-01-01

78

Plant-derived pharmaceuticals for the developing world.  

PubMed

Plant-produced vaccines and therapeutic agents offer enormous potential for providing relief to developing countries by reducing the incidence of infant mortality caused by infectious diseases. Vaccines derived from plants have been demonstrated to effectively elicit an immune response. Biopharmaceuticals produced in plants are inexpensive to produce, require fewer expensive purification steps, and can be stored at ambient temperatures for prolonged periods of time. As a result, plant-produced biopharmaceuticals have the potential to be more accessible to the rural poor. This review describes current progress with respect to plant-produced biopharmaceuticals, with a particular emphasis on those that target developing countries. Specific emphasis is given to recent research on the production of plant-produced vaccines toward human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis B virus, Ebola virus, human papillomavirus, rabies virus and common diarrheal diseases. Production platforms used to express vaccines in plants, including nuclear and chloroplast transformation, and the use of viral expression vectors, are described in this review. The review concludes by outlining the next steps for plant-produced vaccines to achieve their goal of providing safe, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines to the developing world. PMID:23857915

Hefferon, Kathleen

2013-10-01

79

Sterols in spermatogenesis and sperm maturation  

PubMed Central

Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex developmental program in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. One intriguing aspect of sperm production is the dynamic change in membrane lipid composition that occurs throughout spermatogenesis. Cholesterol content, as well as its intermediates, differs vastly between the male reproductive system and nongonadal tissues. Accumulation of cholesterol precursors such as testis meiosis-activating sterol and desmosterol is observed in testes and spermatozoa from several mammalian species. Moreover, cholesterogenic genes, especially meiosis-activating sterol-producing enzyme cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14?-demethylase, display stage-specific expression patterns during spermatogenesis. Discrepancies in gene expression patterns suggest a complex temporal and cell-type specific regulation of sterol compounds during spermatogenesis, which also involves dynamic interactions between germ and Sertoli cells. The functional importance of sterol compounds in sperm production is further supported by the modulation of sterol composition in spermatozoal membranes during epididymal transit and in the female reproductive tract, which is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. However, the exact role of sterols in male reproduction is unknown. This review discusses sterol dynamics in sperm maturation and describes recent methodological advances that will help to illuminate the complexity of sperm formation and function. PMID:23093550

Keber, Rok; Rozman, Damjana; Horvat, Simon

2013-01-01

80

Response of ?? T cells to plant-derived tannins  

PubMed Central

Many pharmaceutical drugs are isolated from plants used in traditional medicines. Through screening plant extracts, both traditional medicines and compound libraries, new pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Currently, two plant-derived agonists for ?? T cells are described. These plant-derived agonists impart innate effector functions upon distinct ?? T cell subsets. Plant tannins represent one class of ?? T cell agonist and preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal ?? T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair. Select tannins, isolated from apple peel, rapidly induce immune gene transcription in ?? T cells, leading to cytokine production and increased responsiveness to secondary signals. Activity of these tannin preparations tracks to the procyanidin fraction, with the procyanidin trimer (C1) having the most robust activity defined to date. The response to the procyanidins is evolutionarily conserved in that responses are seen with human, bovine, and murine ?? T cells. Procyanidin-induced responses described in this review likely account for the expansion of mucosal ?? T cells seen in mice and rats fed soluble extracts of tannins. Procyanidins may represent a novel approach for treatment of tissue damage, chronic infection, and autoimmune therpies. PMID:19166386

Holderness, Jeff; Hedges, Jodi F.; Daughenbaugh, Katie; Kimmel, Emily; Graff, Jill; Freedman, Brett; Jutila, Mark A.

2008-01-01

81

Derivative spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in plant tissue.  

PubMed

A derivative spectrophotometric method was developed to determine NO3(-)-N in plant tissues. The method is based on measurement of the first-derivative spectrum of nitrosalicylic acid in basic solution. The nitrosalicylic acid was obtained by reaction of samples with salicylic acid in concentrated sulfuric acid and was used by Cataldo et al. in nonderivative spectrophotometry. The main strength of this technique is the lack of matrix background interference, typical of plant extracts in traditional spectrophotometric methods. This method is fast, inexpensive, easy-to-apply, and highly selective. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L N as NO3(-). Average recovery in real matrixes (lettuce and spinach) was 102.6%; average standard deviation was 3.3. This method has been applied to leaves of 4 types of lettuce. PMID:14979689

Lastra, Olga C

2003-01-01

82

Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

2010-01-01

83

Andrographolide: A New Plant-Derived Antineoplastic Entity on Horizon  

PubMed Central

Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipodophyllotoxin, and so forth, are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for identification of prospective anticancer agents. In this regard, Andrographis paniculata Nees, a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. Andrographolide, the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer potential in various investigations around the globe. In vitro studies demonstrate the capability of the compound of inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells at different concentrations. Andrographolide also shows potent immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activities in tumorous tissues. Synthetic analogues of the compound have also been created and analyzed, which have also shown similar activities. Although it is too early to predict its future in cancer chemotherapy, the prologue strongly recommends further research on this molecule to assess its potential as a prospective anticancer agent. PMID:19752167

Varma, Astha; Padh, Harish; Shrivastava, Neeta

2011-01-01

84

Effect of unialgal diets on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus.  

PubMed

This study has investigated the effects of six different unialgal diets ( Chaetoceros calcitrans , Platymonas helgolandica , Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana , Nannochloropsis oculata , and Pavlova viridis ) on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. The best feeding effects on the growth of shellfish were found in C. calcitrans, followed by I. galbana and P. viridis, whereas Chlorella sp. and N. oculata exhibited relatively poor effects. The fatty acid and sterol compositions in the six microalgae and the juvenile ark shell after feeding were analyzed, and 39 fatty acids and 18 sterols were identified. Although the results demonstrate a close correlation between the sterol compositions in algal species and juvenile ark shell, a similar correlation was not observed between fatty acids. In the juvenile ark shell fed microalgae, the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) rapidly decreases, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases considerably. The abundances of AA, EPA, and DHA increase most significantly in shellfish with better growth (fed C. calcitrans, I. galbana, and P. viridis). The number of sterol species is reduced, but the total sterol content in groups fed corresponding microalgae increases, and abundant plant sterols, instead of cholesterol, are accumulated in juvenile ark shell fed appropriate microalgae I. galbana and P. viridis. Therefore, to be more conducive to human health, I. galbana and P. viridis, of the six experimental microalgae, are recommended for artificial ark shell culture. PMID:22443233

Xu, Jilin; Zhou, Haibo; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chengxu; Zhu, Peng; Ma, Bin

2012-04-18

85

Tracking plant-derived biomarkers from source to sink in the Miners River, Upper Peninsula of Michigan (USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical cycling of terrestrial organic matter and it subsequent burial plays a vital role in the global carbon cycle. Rivers provide a pathway for terrestrial organic carbon dispersal and integration into sediments. Terrestrial plant biomarkers are useful tools for studying carbon cycling because they can provide an indication of the source of organic carbon in both modern and ancient sediments. Biomarkers can also be used as paleovegetation proxies in geologic sediments where fossils are absent. However, limited information is available about the dispersal and deposition of plant biomarkers in modern river systems, especially for compounds that provide taxonomic specificity such as di- and triterpenoids (diagnostic for conifers and angiosperms, respectively). To better resolve the modes of biomarker transport within fluvial and riparian systems, we characterized plant biomarker transport in the Miners River, a small river basin within a mixed angiosperm-conifer forest at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (MI, USA). To assess the transport of biomarkers in river systems, we collected plants, soils, river sediments, and filtered particulate and dissolved organic carbon from seven sites from the headwaters to Lake Superior along the Miners River (~20 km pathway). All samples contained long-chain n-alkyl lipids, sterols, diterpenoids (abietane and pimarane classes), and triterpenoids (oleanane, ursane, and lupane classes). With the exception of a soil sample taken at a depth of 30 cm, triterpenoids are found in higher concentrations than diterpenoids in riparian soils and river sediments. Biomarker compositions in riparian soils, point bar, and overbank deposits are similar to the surrounding vegetation, albeit much lower in concentration. The composition of di- and triterpenoids in the river-suspended particulate organic carbon is similar in composition to the surrounding vegetation and soils. We developed a method to isolate biomarkers in the dissolved organic carbon fraction in river waters using solid-phase extraction and the preliminary data suggests that di- and triterpenoids are transported as dissolved organic carbon, however concentrations are lower than in the particulate organic carbon fraction. Results from the Miners River will help to better define terrestrial organic matter cycling in small river catchments. Characterizing how plant biomarkers are transported in river systems will enhance our interpretations of plant biomarkers in the geologic record. This will provide new insights into biomarker transport and potential source/sink biases in fluvial systems and thus identify potential complications for using plant-derived biomarkers as quantitative paleovegetation indicators and will enhance the use of biomarker-specific isotope analyses.

Giri, S. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.

2012-12-01

86

Overview of Major Classes of Plant-Derived Anticancer Drugs  

PubMed Central

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional cancer therapies cause serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient’s lifespan by a few years. Cancer control may therefore benefit from the potential that resides in alternative therapies. The demand to utilize alternative concepts or approaches to the treatment of cancer is therefore escalating. There is compelling evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that highlight the importance of compounds derived from plants “phytochemicals” to reduce the risk of colon cancer and inhibit the development and spread of tumors in experimental animals. More than 25% of drugs used during the last 20 years are directly derived from plants, while the other 25% are chemically altered natural products. Still, only 5-15% of the approximately 250,000 higher plants have ever been investigated for bioactive compounds. The advantage of using such compounds for cancer treatment is their relatively non-toxic nature and availability in an ingestive form. An ideal phytochemical is one that possesses anti-tumor properties with minimal toxicity and has a defined mechanism of action. As compounds that target specific signaling pathways are identified, researchers can envisage novel therapeutic approaches as well as a better understanding of the pathways involved in disease progression. Here, we focus on 4 classes of natural anticancer drugs: methyltransferase inhibitors, DNA damaging/pro-oxidant drugs, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), and mitotic disrupters, and we will focus on the mode of action for one promising example per group. PMID:23675107

Amin, Amr; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Ocker, Matthias; Schneider-Stock, Regine

2009-01-01

87

Plant derived alternatives for hormone replacement therapy (HRT).  

PubMed

Abstract Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has undisputable positive effects on climacteric complaints, in the bone and on body weight but also several undesired side effects. Therefore, plant-derived alternatives are currently promoted. Phytoestrogens - primarily the isoflavones genistein, daidzein and coumestrol, stemming from soy (Glycine max) or red clover (Trifolium pratense) - were suggested to have the desired but not the undesired effects of estrogens. Most recently published placebo-controlled studies question the beneficial effects. When taken at the time of puberty however, phytoestrogens appear to protect against mammary cancer later in life. Extracts from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) have no estrogenic effects. In a narrow dose range they have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints, which are due to several compounds with dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic actions that act together in the hypothalamus. Ecdysone is produced by several plants, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and was very early on shown to increase muscle mass. Later it became apparent that spinach extracts containing ecdysone decreased body fat load, thereby reducing secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by visceral adipocytes and oxidative stress. This had beneficial effects on body weight and serum lipids not only in obese postmenopausal but also in premenopausal women and in men. For the above-described plant extracts, solid placebo-controlled clinical trials are available. For other plant extracts claiming beneficial effects on climacteric complaints or postmenopausal diseases, no solid data are available. PMID:25436745

Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

2013-12-01

88

Distribution of fecal sterols in surface sediment of Sungai Tebrau, Johor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreasing quality of aquatic environments may harm human health in general. Sewage pollution from human and animal excretions is a major cause of environmental quality depletion. This study investigates the distribution of sewage contamination level in twenty surface sediment samples taken from Sungai Tebrau, Johor. Four principal fecal sterols have been identified and were found in all sediment samples, which are coprostanol, cholesterol, epicoprostanol and also cholestanol. Cholesterol as the major sterol and most abundant compound derived from a variety of sources ranged from 32.92 to 1,100.55 ngg-1 dry weights. Meanwhile, major fecal sterol, coprostanol has the lowest quantity of total sterol in all samples, constituting only 13% of total sterol. It ranged from 12.63 to 565.42 ngg-1 dry weights, but only two stations (ST12 and ST14) are sewage contaminated. Squatters and residential areas are a major contributor of poorly treated sewage into the aquatic environment. Coprostanol concentration alone is not reliable to indicate sewage contamination; diagnostic indices enhance reliability of sterols as a marker for sewage contamination. Indices applied in this study are coprostanol/cholesterol, coprostanol/(coprostanol+cholestanol) and also epicoprostanol/coprostanol. Resultsof coprostanol/cholesterol, coprostanol/(coprostanol+cholestanol) indices supported the findings that both ST12 and ST14 samples are contaminated with sewage. All samples consist of relativelyhigh concentration of epicoprostanol and high ratio value of epicoprostanol/coprostanol. Generally, it can be concluded that these sampling sites are not contaminated with sewage even though fecal sterols were detected in all samples as they were found to be at low concentration.

Nordin, N.; Ali, M. M.

2013-11-01

89

Survey of extrachromosomal circular DNA derived from plant satellite repeats  

PubMed Central

Background Satellite repeats represent one of the most dynamic components of higher plant genomes, undergoing rapid evolutionary changes of their nucleotide sequences and abundance in a genome. However, the exact molecular mechanisms driving these changes and their eventual regulation are mostly unknown. It has been proposed that amplification and homogenization of satellite DNA could be facilitated by extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) molecules originated by recombination-based excision from satellite repeat arrays. While the models including eccDNA are attractive for their potential to explain rapid turnover of satellite DNA, the existence of satellite repeat-derived eccDNA has not yet been systematically studied in a wider range of plant genomes. Results We performed a survey of eccDNA corresponding to nine different families and three subfamilies of satellite repeats in ten species from various genera of higher plants (Arabidopsis, Oryza, Pisum, Secale, Triticum and Vicia). The repeats selected for this study differed in their monomer length, abundance, and chromosomal localization in individual species. Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis followed by Southern blotting, eccDNA molecules corresponding to all examined satellites were detected. EccDNA occurred in the form of nicked circles ranging from hundreds to over eight thousand nucleotides in size. Within this range the circular molecules occurred preferentially in discrete size intervals corresponding to multiples of monomer or higher-order repeat lengths. Conclusion This work demonstrated that satellite repeat-derived eccDNA is common in plant genomes and thus it can be seriously considered as a potential intermediate in processes driving satellite repeat evolution. The observed size distribution of circular molecules suggests that they are most likely generated by molecular mechanisms based on homologous recombination requiring long stretches of sequence similarity. PMID:18721471

Navrátilová, Alice; Koblížková, Andrea; Macas, Ji?í

2008-01-01

90

Isoprenylated chromone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.  

PubMed

Pestaloficiols F-L (1-7), new isoprenylated chromone derivatives including one heterodimer (7), have been isolated from a scale-up fermentation extract of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici. The structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and MS methods. The absolute configurations of 1 and 4 were assigned using the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 displayed inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in C8166 cells, whereas 4-7 showed cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines HeLa and MCF7. PMID:19618920

Liu, Ling; Liu, Shuchun; Niu, Shubin; Guo, Liangdong; Chen, Xulin; Che, Yongsheng

2009-08-01

91

Herbal remedies of the Maritime indians: sterols and triterpenes of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Tansy).  

PubMed

Plant sterols and triterpenes exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. As part of our ongoing studies of the medicinal aspects of Maritime flora, particularly the herbal remedies of the Micmac and Malecite Indians, we determined the nature of the sterols and triterpenes of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Compositae)-a widely used herbal remedy usually referred to as tansy. By using thin layer and gas chromatographics, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we were able to identify beta-sitosterol as the major sterol and alpha-amyrin as the major triterpene of tansy. We also identified the sterols stigmasterol, campesterol and cholesterol, and the triterpenes beta-amyrin and taraxasterol. A fourth triterpene was tentatively identified as pseudo-taraxasterol. The successful therapeutic application of this herb may be due partly to the presence of one or more of these compounds. The sterols and triterpenes of tansy have not been previously reported; neither, to our knowledge, have the NMR spectra of the amyrins and the NMR and mass spectra of taraxasterol. PMID:7087682

Chandler, R F; Hooper, S N; Hooper, D L; Jamieson, W D; Lewis, E

1982-02-01

92

Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

2013-01-01

93

Assessing anthropogenic contamination in surface sediments of Niger Delta, Nigeria with fecal sterols and n-alkanes as indicators.  

PubMed

The occurrence of sterols and n-alkanes in surface sediments from rivers and canals in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, was used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities in the area. The concentrations of total sterols (??Sterol) and n-alkanes (???n-alkane) in the sediments ranged from 133 to 2040 ng/g and 474 to 79,200 ng/g, respectively. An evaluation of the source diagnostic indices indicated that petroleum related sources (petrogenic) were the main contributor of n-alkanes in the samples, with minor contribution from higher plants waxes (biogenic), while the sterols were mainly of biogenic origin. The ratio of ?-cholestanone/(?-cholestanone+?-cholestanone), a commonly used source diagnostic index, implicated no fecal contamination in most of the sediment samples under investigation. These results have established the occurrence of anthropogenic contamination in Niger Delta sediments with significant contributions from petrogenic sources. PMID:23137973

Sojinu, Samuel O; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, O; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-12-15

94

Sterol composition of shellfish species commonly consumed in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Shellfish can be a component of a healthy diet due to a low fat and high protein content, but the cholesterol content of some species is often cited as a reason to limit their consumption. Data on levels of non-cholesterol sterols in commonly consumed species are lacking. Objective Shellfish were sampled and analyzed to update sterol data in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Design Using a nationwide sampling plan, raw shrimp and sea scallops, canned clams, and steamed oysters, blue crab, and lobster were sampled from 12 statistically selected supermarkets across the United States in 2007–08. For each species, four composites were analyzed, each comprised of samples from three locations; shrimp and scallops from six single locations were also analyzed separately. Using validated analytical methodology, 14 sterols were determined in total lipid extracts after saponification and derivatization to trimethylsilyethers, using gas chromatography for quantitation and mass spectrometry for confirmation of components. Results Crab, lobster, and shrimp contained significant cholesterol (96.2–27 mg/100 g); scallops and clams had the lowest concentrations (23.4–30.1 mg/100 g). Variability in cholesterol among single-location samples of shrimp was low. The major sterols in the mollusks were brassicasterol (12.6–45.6 mg/100 g) and 24-methylenecholesterol (16.7–41.9 mg/100 g), with the highest concentrations in oysters. Total non-cholesterol sterols were 46.5–75.6 mg/100 g in five single-location scallops samples, but 107 mg/100 g in the sixth, with cholesterol also higher in that sample. Other prominent non-cholesterol sterols in mollusks were 22-dehydrocholesterol, isofucosterol, clionasterol, campesterol, and 24-norcholesta-5,22-diene-3?-ol (4–21 mg/100 g). Conclusions The presence of a wide range of sterols, including isomeric forms, in shellfish makes the analysis and quantitation of sterols in marine species more complex than in animal and plant tissues. The detailed sterol composition reported herein provides data that may be useful in research on the impact of shellfish consumption on dietary risk factors. PMID:23115546

Phillips, Katherine M.; Ruggio, David M.; Exler, Jacob; Patterson, Kristine Y.

2012-01-01

95

Targeting sterol metabolism for the development of antileishmanials.  

PubMed

Membrane sterol profiles differ between humans and Leishmania parasites, and the sterol pathway has been investigated for potential therapeutic targets. Recently, mutants of the C14?-sterol demethylase in Leishmania major were found to have several major alterations such as increased membrane fluidity, hypersensitivity to heat stress, and severe reduction of virulence. PMID:25498194

Pomel, Sébastien; Cojean, Sandrine; Loiseau, Philippe M

2015-01-01

96

Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 ?g/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high. PMID:24211569

Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

2013-12-15

97

Original article Comparison of the dietary and tissue sterols  

E-print Network

1997) Summary — The neutral sterols of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella were determined for using inhibitors of sterol metabolism to control G mellonella is discussed. Galleria mellonella Galleria mellonella, we have analyzed the tissue sterols of pupal moths and compared them to the neutral

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Genetic instability in calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.) plants derived from somatic embryogenesis induced by diphenylurea derivatives.  

PubMed

Somatic embryos were regenerated in vitro from calamondin style-stigma explants cultured in the presence of N (6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) cytokinin and three synthetic phenylurea derivatives, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (4-CPPU), N-phenyl-N'-benzothiazol-6-ylurea (PBU) and N,N'-bis-(2,3-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (2,3-MDPU). The phenylurea derivative compounds tested at micromolar level (12 muM) were able to induce a percentage of responsive explants significantly higher from that obtained with BAP and hormone-free (HF) conditions. In order to verify the genetic stability of the regenerants, 27 plants coming from different embryogenic events were randomly selected from each different culture condition and evaluated for somaclonal variations using inter-simple sequence repeat and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses. We observed that 2,3-MDPU and PBU gave 3.7% of somaclonal mutants, whereas 4-CPPU gave 7.4% of mutants. No somaclonal variability was observed when plantlets were regenerated in BAP or HF medium. Although diphenylurea derivatives show a higher embryogenic potential as compared to BAP, they induce higher levels of somaclonal variability. This finding should be taken in consideration when new protocols for clonal propagation are being developed. PMID:17333016

Siragusa, Mirko; Carra, Angela; Salvia, Lidia; Puglia, Anna Maria; De Pasquale, Fabio; Carimi, Francesco

2007-08-01

99

An Oxysterol-derived Positive Signal for 3Hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Degradation in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterol synthesis by the mevalonate pathway is modu- lated, in part, through feedback-regulated degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR). In mammals, both a non-sterol isoprenoid signal derived from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and a sterol-derived signal appear to act together to positively regulate the rate of HMGR degradation. Although the nature and number of sterol-derived signals are not clear, there is growing

Richard G. Gardner; Hui Shan; Seiichi P. T. Matsuda; Randolph Y. Hampton

2001-01-01

100

Plasma membrane lipid–protein interactions affect signaling processes in sterol-biosynthesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The plasma membrane is an important organelle providing structure, signaling and transport as major biological functions. Being composed of lipids and proteins with different physicochemical properties, the biological functions of membranes depend on specific protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions. Interactions of proteins with their specific sterol and lipid environment were shown to be important factors for protein recruitment into sub-compartmental structures of the plasma membrane. System-wide implications of altered endogenous sterol levels for membrane functions in living cells were not studied in higher plant cells. In particular, little is known how alterations in membrane sterol composition affect protein and lipid organization and interaction within membranes. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the plasma membrane protein and lipid composition in Arabidopsis sterol-biosynthesis mutants smt1 and ugt80A2;B1. smt1 shows general alterations in sterol composition while ugt80A2;B1 is significantly impaired in sterol glycosylation. By systematically analyzing different cellular fractions and combining proteomic with lipidomic data we were able to reveal contrasting alterations in lipid–protein interactions in both mutants, with resulting differential changes in plasma membrane signaling status. PMID:24672530

Zauber, Henrik; Burgos, Asdrubal; Garapati, Prashanth; Schulze, Waltraud X.

2014-01-01

101

High lipid order of Arabidopsis cell-plate membranes mediated by sterol and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A function  

PubMed Central

Membranes of eukaryotic cells contain high lipid-order sterol-rich domains that are thought to mediate temporal and spatial organization of cellular processes. Sterols are crucial for execution of cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division, in diverse eukaryotes. The cell plate of higher-plant cells is the membrane structure that separates daughter cells during somatic cytokinesis. Cell-plate formation in Arabidopsis relies on sterol- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A (DRP1A)-dependent endocytosis. However, functional relationships between lipid membrane order or lipid packing and endocytic machinery components during eukaryotic cytokinesis have not been elucidated. Using ratiometric live imaging of lipid order-sensitive fluorescent probes, we show that the cell plate of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a dynamic, high lipid-order membrane domain. The cell-plate lipid order was found to be sensitive to pharmacological and genetic alterations of sterol composition. Sterols co-localize with DRP1A at the cell plate, and DRP1A accumulates in detergent-resistant membrane fractions. Modifications of sterol concentration or composition reduce cell-plate membrane order and affect DRP1A localization. Strikingly, DRP1A function itself is essential for high lipid order at the cell plate. Our findings provide evidence that the cell plate represents a high lipid-order domain, and pave the way to explore potential feedback between lipid order and function of dynamin-related proteins during cytokinesis. PMID:25234576

Frescatada-Rosa, Márcia; Stanislas, Thomas; Backues, Steven K; Reichardt, Ilka; Men, Shuzhen; Boutté, Yohann; Jürgens, Gerd; Moritz, Thomas; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Grebe, Markus

2014-01-01

102

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

2000-10-03

103

Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

1981-09-30

104

Structural genomics of enzymes involved in sterol/isoprenoid biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

X-ray structures of two enzymes in the sterol/isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway have been determined in a structural genomics pilot study. Mevalonate-5-diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) is a single-domain ?/? protein that catalyzes the last of three sequential ATP-dependent reactions which convert mevalonate to isopentenyl diphosphate. Isopentenyl disphosphate isomerase (IDI) is an ?/? metalloenzyme that catalyzes interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which condense in the next step toward synthesis of sterols and a host of natural products. Homology modeling of related proteins and comparisons of the MDD and IDI structures with two other experimentally determined structures have shown that MDD is a member of the GHMP superfamily of small-molecule kinases and IDI is similar to the nudix hydrolases, which act on nucleotide diphosphatecontaining substrates. Structural models were produced for 379 proteins, encompassing a substantial fraction of both protein superfamilies. All three enzymes responsible for synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate from mevalonate (mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, and MDD) share the same fold, catalyze phosphorylation of chemically similar substrates (MDD decarboxylation involves phosphorylation of mevalonate diphosphate), and seem to have evolved from a common ancestor. These structures and the structural models derived from them provide a framework for interpreting biochemical function and evolutionary relationships. PMID:11698677

Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Edo, Carme; Eswar, Narayanan; Pieper, Ursula; Romanowski, Michael J.; Ilyin, Valentin; Gerchman, Sue Ellen; Kycia, Helen; Studier, F. William; Sali, Andrej; Burley, Stephen K.

2001-01-01

105

Mechanisms and genetic determinants regulating sterol absorption, circulating LDL levels, and sterol elimination: implications for classification and disease risk  

PubMed Central

This review integrates historical biochemical and modern genetic findings that underpin our understanding of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) dyslipidemias that bear on human disease. These range from life-threatening conditions of infancy through severe coronary heart disease of young adulthood, to indolent disorders of middle- and old-age. We particularly focus on the biological aspects of those gene mutations and variants that impact on sterol absorption and hepatobiliary excretion via specific membrane transporter systems (NPC1L1, ABCG5/8); the incorporation of dietary sterols (MTP) and of de novo synthesized lipids (HMGCR, TRIB1) into apoB-containing lipoproteins (APOB) and their release into the circulation (ANGPTL3, SARA2, SORT1); and receptor-mediated uptake of LDL and of intestinal and hepatic-derived lipoprotein remnants (LDLR, APOB, APOE, LDLRAP1, PCSK9, IDOL). The insights gained from integrating the wealth of genetic data with biological processes have important implications for the classification of clinical and presymptomatic diagnoses of traditional LDL dyslipidemias, sitosterolemia, and newly emerging phenotypes, as well as their management through both nutritional and pharmaceutical means. PMID:21862702

Calandra, Sebastiano; Tarugi, Patrizia; Speedy, Helen E.; Dean, Andrew F.; Bertolini, Stefano; Shoulders, Carol C.

2011-01-01

106

68 FR 14119 - Exemption From Control of Certain Industrial Products and Materials Derived From the Cannabis Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Products and Materials Derived From the Cannabis Plant AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration...CSA)) certain items derived from the cannabis plant and containing tetrahydrocannabinols...mixtures are made from those portions of the cannabis plant that are excluded from the...

2003-03-21

107

50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt? 23.92 Section 23...plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt? (a) All living or dead...recognizable parts, products, and derivatives must meet the requirements of...

2010-10-01

108

Physiological and proteomic approaches to evaluate the role of sterol binding in elicitin-induced resistance  

PubMed Central

Cryptogein is a proteinaceous elicitor secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea that can induce resistance to P. parasitica in tobacco plants. On the basis of previous computer modelling experiments, by site-directed mutagenesis a series of cryptogein variants was prepared with altered abilities to bind sterols, phospholipids or both. The sterol binding and phospholipid transfer activities corresponded well with the previously reported structural data. Induction of the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tobacco cells in suspension and proteomic analysis of intercellular fluid changes in tobacco leaves triggered by these mutant proteins were not proportional to their ability to bind or transfer sterols and phospholipids. However, changes in the intercellular proteome corresponded to transcription levels of defence genes and resistance to P. parasitica and structure-prediction of mutants did not reveal any significant changes in protein structure. These results suggest, contrary to previous proposals, that the sterol-binding ability of cryptogein and its mutants, and the associated conformational change in the ?-loop, might not be principal factors in either ROS production or resistance induction. Nevertheless, the results support the importance of the ?-loop for the interaction of the protein with the high affinity binding site on the plasma membrane. PMID:22223811

Dokládal, Ladislav; Obo?il, Michal; Stejskal, Karel; Zdráhal, Zbyn?k; Ptá?ková, Nikola; Chaloupková, Radka; Damborský, Ji?í; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Jeandroz, Sylvain; Žd'árská, Markéta; Lochman, Jan

2012-01-01

109

Antibiofilm effect of plant derived antimicrobials on Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the efficacy of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs, concentrations not inhibiting bacterial growth) and bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of four, generally recognized as safe (GRAS), plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs) in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes (LM) biofilm formation and inactivating mature LM biofilms, at 37, 25 and 4 °C on polystyrene plates and stainless-steel coupons. In addition, the effect of SICs of PDAs on the expression of LM genes critical for biofilm synthesis was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The PDAs and their SICs used for inhibition of biofilm were trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC 0.50, 0.75 mM), carvacrol (CR 0.50, 0.65 mM), thymol (TY 0.33, 0.50 mM), and eugenol (EG 1.8, 2.5 mM), whereas the PDA concentrations used for inactivating mature biofilms were 5.0 and 10.0 mM (TC, CR), 3.3 and 5.0 mM (TY), 18.5 and 25.0 mM (EG). All PDAs inhibited biofilm synthesis and inactivated fully formed LM biofilms on both matrices at three temperatures tested (P < 0.05). Real-time quantitative PCR data revealed that all PDAs down-regulated critical LM biofilm-associated genes (P < 0.05). Results suggest that TC, CR, TY, and EG could potentially be used to control LM biofilms in food processing environments, although further studies under commercial settings are necessary. PMID:23764223

Upadhyay, Abhinav; Upadhyaya, Indu; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

2013-10-01

110

Inhibition of influenza virus replication by plant-derived isoquercetin.  

PubMed

Influenza virus infects the respiratory system of human and animals causing mild to severe illness which could lead to death. Although vaccines are available, there is still a great need for influenza antiviral drugs to reduce disease progression and virus transmission. Currently two classes (M2 channel blockers and neuraminidase inhibitors) of FDA-approved influenza antiviral drugs are available, but there are great concerns of emergence of viral resistance. Therefore, timely development of new antiviral drugs against influenza viruses is crucial. Plant-derived polyphenols have been studied for antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic, and cardio- and neuroprotective actions. Recently, some polyphenols, such as resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate, showed significant anti-influenza activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Therefore we investigated selected polyphenols for their antiviral activity against influenza A and B viruses. Among the polyphenols we tested, isoquercetin inhibited the replication of both influenza A and B viruses at the lowest effective concentration. In a double treatment of isoquercetin and amantadine, synergistic effects were observed on the reduction of viral replication in vitro. The serial passages of virus in the presence of isoquercetin did not lead to the emergence of resistant virus, and the addition of isoquercetin to amantadine or oseltamivir treatment suppressed the emergence of amantadine- or oseltamivir-resistant virus. In a mouse model of influenza virus infection, isoquercetin administered intraperitoneally to mice inoculated with human influenza A virus significantly decreased the virus titers and pathological changes in the lung. Our results suggest that isoquercetin may have the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of influenza virus infection and for the suppression of resistance in combination therapy with existing drugs. PMID:20826184

Kim, Yunjeong; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

2010-11-01

111

Triterpene alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triterpene alcohols and sterols were separated by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography from the unsaponifiable\\u000a fractions of the following 18 vegetable oils: linseed, peanut, olive, rice bran, palm kernel, corn, sesame, oiticica, palm,\\u000a coconut, rapeseed, grape seed, sunflower, poppy seed, castor, tea seed, cocoa butter and soybean. Two triterpene alcohols,\\u000a cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol, were found in all of the

E. Fedeli; A. Lanzani; P. Capella; G. Jacini

1966-01-01

112

Sterol Structure Determines Miscibility versus Melting Transitions in Lipid Vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid bilayer membranes composed of DOPC, DPPC, and a series of sterols demix into coexisting liquid phases below a miscibility transition temperature. We use fluorescence microscopy to directly observe phase transitions in vesicles of 1:1:1 DOPC\\/DPPC\\/sterol within giant unilamellar vesicles. We show that vesicles containing the “promoter” sterols cholesterol, ergosterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, epicholesterol, or dihydrocholesterol demix into coexisting liquid phases as

Mary Elizabeth Beattie; Sarah L. Veatch; Benjamin L. Stottrup; Sarah L. Keller

2005-01-01

113

Distribution of sterols in the fungi. I - Fungal spores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass spectrometry was used to examine freely extractable sterols from spores of several species of fungi. Ergosterol was the most common sterol produced by any individual species, but it was completely absent from two species belonging to apparently distantly related groups of fungi: the aquatic Phycomycetes and the rust fungi. This fact could have taxonomic or phylogenetic implications. The use of glass capillary columns in the resolution of the sterols is shown to eliminate some of the difficulty inherent in this process.

Weete, J. D.; Laseter, J. L.

1974-01-01

114

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI)

1994-01-04

115

Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom  

DOEpatents

Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon. .

Raikhel, N.V.

1994-01-04

116

Structure of an integral membrane sterol reductase from Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum.  

PubMed

Sterols are essential biological molecules in the majority of life forms. Sterol reductases including ?(14)-sterol reductase (C14SR, also known as TM7SF2), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) and 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) reduce specific carbon-carbon double bonds of the sterol moiety using a reducing cofactor during sterol biosynthesis. Lamin B receptor (LBR), an integral inner nuclear membrane protein, also contains a functional C14SR domain. Here we report the crystal structure of a ?(14)-sterol reductase (MaSR1) from the methanotrophic bacterium Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z (a homologue of human C14SR, LBR and DHCR7) with the cofactor NADPH. The enzyme contains ten transmembrane segments (TM1-10). Its catalytic domain comprises the carboxy-terminal half (containing TM6-10) and envelops two interconnected pockets, one of which faces the cytoplasm and houses NADPH, while the other one is accessible from the lipid bilayer. Comparison with a soluble steroid 5?-reductase structure suggests that the reducing end of NADPH meets the sterol substrate at the juncture of the two pockets. A sterol reductase activity assay proves that MaSR1 can reduce the double bond of a cholesterol biosynthetic intermediate, demonstrating functional conservation to human C14SR. Therefore, our structure as a prototype of integral membrane sterol reductases provides molecular insight into mutations in DHCR7 and LBR for inborn human diseases. PMID:25307054

Li, Xiaochun; Roberti, Rita; Blobel, Günter

2015-01-01

117

Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After

Anna Modelska; Bernard Dietzschold; N. Sleysh; Zhen Fang Fu; Klaudia Steplewski; D. Craig Hooper; Hilary Koprowski; Vidadi Yusibov

1998-01-01

118

PLANT-DERIVED COMPOUNDS ACTIVE AGAINST MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Products from two plant genera, Plantago and Eugenia, were tested for effects on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Extracts from P. lanceolata and P. rugelii were also evaluated for toxicity to the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ...

119

Yeast-like symbiotes as a sterol source in anobiid beetles (Coleoptera, Anobiidae): possible metabolic pathways from fungal sterols to 7-dehydrocholesterol.  

PubMed

Insects are unable to synthesize sterols and require exogenous sterol sources for their normal development and reproduction. A few exceptions are insects associated with symbiotic yeasts or fungi. We analyzed sterols by GC-MS in two anobiid beetles (Lasioderma serricorne and Stegobium paniceum), their intracellular yeast-like symbiotes (YLS), and their diets in order to clarify the sterols synthesized by YLS and the metabolic pathways of the sterols in the beetles. Several C(27), C2(8), and C(29) saturated and unsaturated sterols were identified; the predominant sterols were cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol in the anobiid beetles and ergosterol in the YLS. Most sterols detected in YLS were those known in the late pathway of the ergosterol biosynthesis in yeasts and most of the sterols in the beetles appear to be intermediate metabolites from YLS sterols to 7-dehydrocholesterol. The anobiid beetles appear to use ergosterol and 5-dihydroergosterol as sources for 7-dehydrocholesterol. PMID:12655605

Nasir, Habib; Noda, Hiroaki

2003-04-01

120

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy sterols and bile acids.  

PubMed

Recently, hydroxy sterols and bile acids have gained growing interest as they are important regulators of energy homoeostasis and inflammation. The high number of different hydroxy sterols and bile acid species requires powerful analytical tools to quantify these structurally and chemically similar analytes. Here, we introduce a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for rapid quantification of 34 sterols (hydroxy sterols, primary, secondary bile acids as well as their taurine and glycine conjugates). Chromatographic baseline separation of isomeric hydroxy sterols and bile acids is obtained using a rugged amide embedded C18 (polar embedded) stationary phase. The current method features a simple extraction protocol validated for blood plasma, urine, gall bladder, liver, feces, and adipose tissue avoiding solid phase extraction as well as derivatization procedures. The total extraction recovery for representative analytes ranged between 58-86% in plasma, 85% in urine, 79-92% in liver, 76-98% in adipose tissue, 93-104% in feces and 62-79% in gall bladder. The validation procedure demonstrated that the calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges for 97% of the analytes, with calculated coefficients of determination (R(2)) of greater than 0.99. A feeding study in wild type mice with a standard chow and a cholesterol-enriched Western type diet illustrated that the protocol described here provides a powerful tool to simultaneously quantify cholesterol derivatives and bile acids in metabolically active tissues and to follow the enterohepatic circulation. PMID:25456597

John, Clara; Werner, Philipp; Worthmann, Anna; Wegner, Katrin; Tödter, Klaus; Scheja, Ludger; Rohn, Sascha; Heeren, Joerg; Fischer, Markus

2014-12-01

121

A search for mosquito larvicidal compounds by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2, through computational screening and docking strategies  

PubMed Central

Background: Sterol is a very vital compound for most of the insects and mosquitoes to complete their life cycle. Unfortunately mosquitoes cannot synthesize the sterol, it depends on mammals for the same. Mosquitoes take the sterol from the plant decays during their larval stage in the form of phytosterol, which is then converted to cholesterol for further growth and reproduction. This conversion occurs with the help of the sterol carrier protein 2(SCP2). Methods: Mosquito populations are controlled by plant-based inhibitors, which inhibit sterol carrier protein (SCPI-Sterol carrier protein inhibitor) activity. In this article, we explain the methods of inhibiting Aedes aegypti SCP2 by insilico methods including natural inhibitor selection and filtrations by virtual screening and interaction studies. Results: In this study protein-ligand interactions were carried out with various phytochemicals, as a result of virtual screening Alpha-mangostin and Panthenol were found to be good analogs, and were allowed to dock with the mosquito cholesterol carrier protein AeSCP-2. Conclusion: Computational selections of SCPIs are highly reliable and novel methods for discovering new and more effective compounds to control mosquitoes. PMID:21808576

Kumar, R. Barani; Shanmugapriya, B.; Thiyagesan, K.; Kumar, S. Raj; Xavier, Suresh M.

2010-01-01

122

Substrate Preferences and Catalytic Parameters Determined by Structural Characteristics of Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum  

SciTech Connect

Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects populations of {approx}90 countries worldwide, with no vaccine and only a few moderately effective drugs. Here we report the structure/function characterization of sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) from Leishmania infantum. The enzyme catalyzes removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from sterol precursors. The reaction is essential for membrane biogenesis and therefore has great potential to become a target for antileishmanial chemotherapy. Although L. infantum CYP51 prefers C4-monomethylated sterol substrates such as C4-norlanosterol and obtusifoliol (V{sub max} of {approx}10 and 8 min{sup -1}, respectively), it is also found to 14{alpha}-demethylate C4-dimethylated lanosterol (V{sub max} = 0.9 min{sup -1}) and C4-desmethylated 14{alpha}-methylzymosterol (V{sub max} = 1.9 min{sup -1}). Binding parameters with six sterols were tested, with K{sub d} values ranging from 0.25 to 1.4 {mu}m. Thus, L. infantum CYP51 is the first example of a plant-like sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase, where requirements toward the composition of the C4 atom substituents are not strict, indicative of possible branching in the postsqualene portion of sterol biosynthesis in the parasite. Comparative analysis of three CYP51 substrate binding cavities (Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and L. infantum) suggests that substrate preferences of plant- and fungal-like protozoan CYP51s largely depend on the differences in the enzyme active site topology. These minor structural differences are also likely to underlie CYP51 catalytic rates and drug susceptibility and can be used to design potent and specific inhibitors.

Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Nes, W. David; Waterman, Michael R.; Lepesheva, Galina I. (Vanderbilt); (TTU); (NWU)

2012-05-14

123

STEROLS AS BIOMARKERS IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE DISTRIBUTION IN DINOFLAGELLATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The sterol composition of marine microalgae has been shown to be a chemotaxonomic property potentially of value in distinguishing members of different algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae display sterol compositions ranging from as few as two (cholesterol ...

124

6-methoxybenzoxazolinone: A Plant Derivative that Stimulates Reproduction in Microtus montanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant-derived cyclic carbamate, 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone, that stimulates reproductive activity in Microtus montanus has been isolated. This nonestrogenic compound may be a naturally occurring environmental cue affecting reproductive cycles in many mammals.

Edward H. Sanders; Pete D. Gardner; Patricia J. Berger; Norman C. Negus

1981-01-01

125

PLANT DERIVED NATURAL PRODUCTS EXHIBITING ACTIVITY AGAINST FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES (COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, is among the most devastating termite pests. Natural products derived from plant extracts were tested in a discovery program for effective, environmentally friendly termite control agents. Among the natural products that were tested, vulgaro...

126

The Evolution of Sterol Biosynthesis in Bacteria: In Situ Fluorescence Localization of Sterols in the Nucleoid Bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biosynthesis of sterols is generally regarded as a eukaryotic process. The first enzymatic step in the production of sterols requires molecular oxygen. Therefore, both the origin of eukaryotes and the evolution of sterol biosynthesis were thought to postdate the rise of oxygen in earth's atmosphere, until Brocks et al. discovered steranes in rocks aged 2.7 Ga (1). Many prokaryotes produce hopanoids, sterol-like compounds that are synthesized from the common precursor squalene without the use of molecular oxygen. However, a few bacterial taxa are also known to produce sterols, suggesting this pathway could precede the rise of oxygen (2, 3). Recently, we discovered the shortest sterol-producing biosynthetic pathway known to date in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus (4). Using genomic searches, we found that Gemmata has the enzymes necessary for synthesis of sterols, and lipid analyses showed that the sterols produced are lanosterol and its isomer parkeol. Gemmata is a member of the Planctomycetes, an unusual group of bacteria, all of the known species of which contain intracellular compartmentalization. Among the Planctomycetes, Gemmata uniquely is the only prokaryote known to contain a double-membrane-bounded nuclear body (5). Since sterols usually are found in eukaryotes, and Gemmata has a eukaryote-like nuclear organelle, we investigated the location of the sterols within Gemmata to postulate whether they play a role in stabilization of the nuclear membrane and control of genomic organization. We used the sterol-specific fluorescent dye Filipin III in conjunction with fluorescent dyes for internal and external cellular membranes in order to determine whether the sterols are located in the nuclear body membrane, external membrane, or both. We found that sterols in Gemmata are concentrated in the internal membrane, implying that they function in maintaining this unusual cellular component. It is notable that Gemmata also produce hopanoids, suggesting that they acquired the ability to produce sterols for a specialized function related to their nuclear membrane. 1. Brocks, J.J., et al., Science 285:1033-36 (1999). 2. Bird, C.W., et al., Nature 230:473-74 (1971). 3. Bode, H.B., et al., Mol. Microbiol. 47:471-81 (2003). 4. Pearson, A., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:15352-57 (2003). 5. Fuerst, J.A. and R.I. Webb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:8184-88 (1991).

Budin, M.; Jorgenson, T. L.; Pearson, A.

2004-12-01

127

Quinones derived from plant secondary metabolites as anti-cancer agents.  

PubMed

Quinones are plant-derived secondary metabolites that present some anti-proliferation and anti-metastasis effects in various cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. This review focuses on the anti-cancer prospects of plant-derived quinones, namely, aloe-emodin, juglone, ?-lapachol, plumbagin, shikonin, and thymoquinone. We intend to summarize their anti-cancer effects and investigate the mechanism of actions to promote the research and development of anti-cancer agents from quinones. PMID:22931417

Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Wu, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Shan; Huang, Ming-Qing; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Yi-Tao

2013-03-01

128

High-sensitivity measurement of diverse vascular plant-derived biomarkers in high-altitude ice cores  

E-print Network

High-sensitivity measurement of diverse vascular plant-derived biomarkers in high-altitude ice-volatile organic compounds derived from burned and fresh vascular plant sources and preserved in high- altitude ice of diverse vascular plant- derived biomarkers in high-altitude ice cores, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13501

Howat, Ian M.

129

Bruchins: Insect-derived plant regulators that stimulate neoplasm formation  

PubMed Central

Pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) oviposition on pods of specific genetic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) stimulates cell division at the sites of egg attachment. As a result, tumor-like growths of undifferentiated cells (neoplasms) develop beneath the egg. These neoplasms impede larval entry into the pod. This unique form of induced resistance is conditioned by the Np allele and mediated by a recently discovered class of natural products that we have identified from both cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) and pea weevil. These compounds, which we refer to as “bruchins,” are long-chain ?,?-diols, esterified at one or both oxygens with 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. Bruchins are potent plant regulators, with application of as little as 1 fmol (0.5 pg) causing neoplastic growth on pods of all of the pea lines tested. The bruchins are, to our knowledge, the first natural products discovered with the ability to induce neoplasm formation when applied to intact plants. PMID:10811915

Doss, Robert P.; Oliver, James E.; Proebsting, William M.; Potter, Sandra W.; Kuy, SreyReath; Clement, Stephen L.; Williamson, R. Thomas; Carney, John R.; DeVilbiss, E. David

2000-01-01

130

Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain.

Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

1998-03-01

131

Mycotoxins biosynthesized by plant-derived Fusarium isolates.  

PubMed

There is little information on secondary metabolites produced by Fusaria infecting crop plants other than cereals. Many members of Fusarium genus have the ability to colonise perennial crops with only scarce infection or disease symptoms or with no symptoms at all while still being detectable. Even in case of such asymptomatic infection, significant mycotoxin contamination of the plant tissues is possible. The aim of this study was to characterise the spectrum of Fusarium species isolates obtained from different plant hosts (like asparagus, garlic, pineapple, banana, rhubarb, peppers, rice, maize, wheat, and oncidium) and evaluate their ability to biosynthesize the most common mycotoxins in vitro. Among the F.proliferatum isolates, up to 57 % of them biosynthesized fumonisins at very high mass fractions, amounting to above 1000 ?g g(-1), while other Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides, F. lactis, F. polyphialydicum, F. concentricum, F. temperatum, and F. fujikuroi formed fumonisins mostly at much lower level. Only F. ananatum and F. oxysporum did not produce these toxins. Co-occurrence of FBs with other mycotoxins [moniliformin (MON) and beauvericin (BEA)] was often observed and it was mainly F. proliferatum species that formed both mycotoxins (0.4 ?g g(-1) to 41.1 ?g g(-1) BEA and 0.1 ?g g(-1) to 158.5 ?g g(-1) MON). PMID:23334038

Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; St?pie?, ?ukasz

2012-12-01

132

Inhibitors of delta24(25) sterol methyltransferase block sterol synthesis and cell proliferation in Pneumocystis carinii.  

PubMed Central

Detailed analysis of the endogenous sterol content of purified Pneumocystis carinii preparations by gas-liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry suggested that this parasite can both synthesize de novo steroid skeletons (to produce delta7 sterols) and take them from the infected host (leading to delta5 sterols). In both cases the final products are 24-alkyl sterols, resulting from the action of delta24(25) and delta24(24') sterol methyltransferases, enzymes not present in vertebrates. To investigate the physiological significance of these sterols, cultures of P. carinii in embryonic lung cells were exposed to 22,26-azasterol (20-piperidin-2-yl-5alpha-pregnan-3beta-20(R)-diol), a compound previously shown to inhibit both enzymes and to halt cell proliferation in fungi and protozoa. This compound produced a dose-dependent reduction in the parasite proliferation, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.3 microM and 80% reduction of growth after 96 h at 10 microM. Correspondingly, parasites treated with the azasterol at 10 microM for 48 h accumulated 24-desalkyl sterols such as zymosterol (cholesta-8,24-dien-3beta-ol) and cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3beta-ol to ca. 40% of the total mass of endogenous sterols. This is the first report on the antiproliferative effects of a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor on P. carinii and indicate that sterol methyltransferase inhibitors could be the basis of a novel and specific chemotherapeutic approach to the treatment of P. carinii infections. PMID:9210660

Urbina, J A; Visbal, G; Contreras, L M; McLaughlin, G; Docampo, R

1997-01-01

133

Sterols of Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg6 Knockout Mutant Expressing the Pneumocystis carinii S-Adenosylmethionine:Sterol C-24 Methyltransferase.  

PubMed

The AIDS-associated lung pathogen Pneumocystis is classified as a fungus although Pneumocystis has several distinct features such as the absence of ergosterol, the major sterol of most fungi. The Pneumocystis carinii S-adenosylmethionine:sterol C24-methyltransferase (SAM:SMT) enzyme, coded by the erg6 gene, transfers either one or two methyl groups to the C-24 position of the sterol side chain producing both C28 and C29 24-alkylsterols in approximately the same proportions, whereas most fungal SAM:SMT transfer only one methyl group to the side chain. The sterol compositions of wild-type Sacchromyces cerevisiae, the erg6 knockout mutant (?erg6), and ?erg6 expressing the P. carinii or the S. cerevisiae erg6 gene were analyzed by a variety of chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures to examine functional complementation in the yeast expression system. Detailed sterol analyses were obtained using high performance liquid chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-NMR). The P. carinii SAM:SMT in the ?erg6 restored its ability to produce the C28 sterol ergosterol as the major sterol, and also resulted in low levels of C29 sterols. This indicates that while the P. carinii SAM:SMT in the yeast ?erg6 cells was able to transfer a second methyl group to the side chain, the action of ?(24(28)) -sterol reductase (coded by the erg4 gene) in the yeast cells prevented the formation and accumulation of as many C29 sterols as that found in P. carinii. PMID:25230683

Kaneshiro, Edna S; Johnston, Laura Q; Nkinin, Stephenson W; Romero, Becky I; Giner, José-Luis

2014-09-18

134

Expression of chimaeric genes transferred into plant cells using a Ti-plasmid-derived vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign genes introduced into plant cells with Ti-plasmid vectors are not expressed. We have constructed an expression vector derived from the promoter sequence of nopaline synthase, and have inserted the coding sequences of the octopine synthase gene and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene into this vector. These chimaeric genes are functionally expressed in plant cells after their transfer via a Ti-plasmid

Luis Herrera-Estrella; Ann Depicker; Marc van Montagu; Jeff Schell

1983-01-01

135

The biosynthesis and metabolism of the aspartate derived amino acids in higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential amino acids lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine are synthesised in higher plants via a common pathway starting with aspartate. The regulation of the pathway is discussed in detail, and the properties of the key enzymes described. Recent data obtained from studies of regulation at the gene level and information derived from mutant and transgenic plants are also discussed.

Ricardo A. Azevedo; Paulo Arruda; William L. Turner; Peter J. Lea

1997-01-01

136

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO sorption process due to economic constraints.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-01-01

137

[Effect of drought on the content of polar lipids and sterols in wheat leaves].  

PubMed

Composition of lipids and sterols in leaf tissues of winter wheat varieties with different drought resistance was investigated under the heat and water deficit. The data obtained have shown that the water deficit induced accumulation of sulpholipids and sitosterol accompanied by a decrease of stigmasterol in resistant plants. A decrease of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, sulpholipid, phosphatidyl choline and sitosterol was observed against an increase of the stigmasterol content in the sensitive plants. The action of high temperature induced accumulation of sulpholipid, phosphatidyl glycerol, sitosterol and cholesterol accompanied by a decrease of campasterol and stigmasterol in a resistant variety. A sensitive variety was characterized by a decrease of sulpholipid and sitosterol. PMID:7974846

Okanenko, O A; Taran, N Iu; Symchuk, O Ie; Chykalenko, V H; Musiienko, M M

1994-01-01

138

Bruchins: insect-derived plant regulators that stimulate neoplasm formation.  

PubMed

Pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) oviposition on pods of specific genetic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) stimulates cell division at the sites of egg attachment. As a result, tumor-like growths of undifferentiated cells (neoplasms) develop beneath the egg. These neoplasms impede larval entry into the pod. This unique form of induced resistance is conditioned by the Np allele and mediated by a recently discovered class of natural products that we have identified from both cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) and pea weevil. These compounds, which we refer to as "bruchins," are long-chain alpha,omega-diols, esterified at one or both oxygens with 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. Bruchins are potent plant regulators, with application of as little as 1 fmol (0.5 pg) causing neoplastic growth on pods of all of the pea lines tested. The bruchins are, to our knowledge, the first natural products discovered with the ability to induce neoplasm formation when applied to intact plants. PMID:10811915

Doss, R P; Oliver, J E; Proebsting, W M; Potter, S W; Kuy, S; Clement, S L; Williamson, R T; Carney, J R; DeVilbiss, E D

2000-05-23

139

Genetic instability in calamondin ( Citrus madurensis Lour.) plants derived from somatic embryogenesis induced by diphenylurea derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos were regenerated in vitro from calamondin style–stigma explants cultured in the presence of N\\u000a 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) cytokinin and three synthetic phenylurea derivatives, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (4-CPPU), N-phenyl-N?-benzothiazol-6-ylurea (PBU) and N,N?-bis-(2,3-methilendioxyphenyl)urea (2,3-MDPU). The phenylurea derivative compounds tested at micromolar level (12 ?M) were\\u000a able to induce a percentage of responsive explants significantly higher from that obtained with BAP and hormone-free (HF)\\u000a conditions.

Mirko Siragusa; Angela Carra; Lidia Salvia; Anna Maria Puglia; Fabio De Pasquale; Francesco Carimi

2007-01-01

140

Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual’s likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:20872313

Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

2011-01-01

141

Combating Pathogenic Microorganisms Using Plant-Derived Antimicrobials: A Minireview of the Mechanistic Basis  

PubMed Central

The emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in exploring the potential of plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy to combat microbial infections. Historically, plant extracts have been used as a safe, effective, and natural remedy for ailments and diseases in traditional medicine. Extensive research in the last two decades has identified a plethora of PDAs with a wide spectrum of activity against a variety of fungal and bacterial pathogens causing infections in humans and animals. Active components of many plant extracts have been characterized and are commercially available; however, research delineating the mechanistic basis of their antimicrobial action is scanty. This review highlights the potential of various plant-derived compounds to control pathogenic bacteria, especially the diverse effects exerted by plant compounds on various virulence factors that are critical for pathogenicity inside the host. In addition, the potential effect of PDAs on gut microbiota is discussed. PMID:25298964

Upadhyaya, Indu; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup

2014-01-01

142

Sterols isolated from seeds of Panax ginseng and their antiinflammatory activities  

PubMed Central

Background: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, a perennial herb from the Araliaceae family, is a commonly used medicinal plant. Many studies have been conducted on the biologically active constituents of whole parts of P. ginseng (i.e., roots, leaves, flower buds, and fruits). However, the seeds of P. ginseng have not been intensively investigated. A new sterol glucoside,3-O-b-d-glucopyranosyl-5,22,24-stigmastatrienol (1), and a known sterol, 5,22-stigmastadienol (2), were isolated from seeds of P. ginseng and were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?-induced nuclear factor (NF)-?B and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcription in transfected HepG2 cells. The present work deals with the isolation, identification, and antiinflammatory activities of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by a combination of silica gel and YMC R-18 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D-NMR, and MS). The antiinflammatory activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results: Two sterols have been isolated from the seeds of P. ginseng. Compound 1 is a previously unreported glucosidyl sterol. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited NF?B-luciferase activity, with IC50 values of 8.1 and 4.8?M, respectively. They also inhibited iNOS-luciferase activity in TNF?-induced HepG2 cells, with IC50 values of 2.2 and 2.9?M, respectively. Conclusion: The two isolatedsterols have inhibitory effects on inflammation-related factors in HepG2 cells, as determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Thus, seeds of P. ginseng are worthy of consideration for the development and research of antiinflammatory agents. PMID:23772116

Kim, Jeong Ah; Son, Jeong Hyun; Song, Seok Bean; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

2013-01-01

143

Simultaneous quantitation of fatty acids, sterols and bile acids in human stool by capillary gas–liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the simultaneous gas–liquid chromatographic quantitation of fatty acids, sterols and bile acids from human fecal samples is described. The various compounds are directly converted into the n-butyl ester-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives, without prior isolation from the stool. Under these conditions, fecal bile acid derivatives are well resolved from each other and from those of fecal fatty acids

Ashok K Batta; Gerald Salen; Priti Batta; G Stephen Tint; David S Alberts; David L Earnest

2002-01-01

144

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-23

145

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25?m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M.

2007-04-01

146

Separation of free sterols by high temperature liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Increasing the column temperature accelerates markedly elution in HPLC. The separation of five free sterols was studied on three packing materials that can withstand high temperatures. These stationary phases included graphitic carbon, a polymeric C18 silica, and a zirconia-based adsorbent. Measurements of retention data were made at up to 150 degrees C with mobile phases of different compositions. Since the columns tested afford different retention mechanisms, a variety of elution patterns were observed, with some being more advantageous than others for certain sterol separations. Effects observed include some selectivity improvements and some elution order reversals. The separation of free sterols in selected fruit juices is also presented. Albeit at the expense of a longer analysis time, the graphitic carbon column produced the best separation of the sterols in this study. PMID:17055522

Riddle, Lance A; Guiochon, Georges

2006-12-29

147

New Cytotoxic Oxygenated Sterols from the Marine Bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana  

PubMed Central

Six new sterols (1-6), together with seven known sterols (7-13), were isolated from the CCl4 extract of the marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana, four (3-6) of which have already been reported as synthetic sterols. This is the first time that these compounds (3-6) are reported as natural sterols. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of the extensive spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR and HR-ESI-MS data. Compounds 1-4, 7 and 10-13 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cell line, and all of the evaluated compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity to HL-60 cells with a range of IC50 values from 14.73 to 22.11 µg/mL except for compounds 12 and 13. PMID:21566793

Tian, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Hai-Feng; Li, Yu-Shan; Lin, Hou-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Li; Ma, Ning; Yao, Min-Na; Zhang, Ping-Hu

2011-01-01

148

Terrestrial Plant-Derived Anticancer Agents and Plant Species Used in Anticancer Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is a major cause of death and the number of new cases, as well as the number of individuals living with cancer, is expanding continuously. Due to the enormous propensity of plants that synthesize mixtures of structurally diverse bioactive compounds, the plant kingdom is potentially a very diverse source of chemical constituents with tumor cytotoxic activity. Despite the successful

Spiridon E. Kintzios

2006-01-01

149

Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

1997-09-16

150

N-Glycosylation Modification of Plant-Derived Virus-Like Particles: An Application in Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Plants have been developed as an alternative system to mammalian cells for production of recombinant prophylactic or therapeutic proteins for human and animal use. Effective plant expression systems for recombinant proteins have been established with the optimal combination of gene expression regulatory elements and control of posttranslational processing of recombinant glycoproteins. In plant, virus-like particles (VLPs), viral “empty shells” which maintain the same structural characteristics of virions but are genome-free, are considered extremely promising as vaccine platforms and therapeutic delivery systems. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out N-glycosylation as a posttranslational modification of glycoproteins. Recent advances in the glycoengineering in plant allow human-like glycomodification and optimization of desired glycan structures for enhancing safety and functionality of recombinant pharmaceutical glycoproteins. In this review, the current plant-derived VLP approaches are focused, and N-glycosylation and its in planta modifications are discussed. PMID:24971324

Jeon, Jae-Heung; Lee, Kyung Jin; Ko, Kisung

2014-01-01

151

Fiber,intestinal sterols, and coloncancer1' 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been postulated that dietary fiber's protective effect against the development of colon cancer, diverticular disease, and atherosclerosis may be due to the adsorption and\\/or dilution of intestinal sterols such as bile acids and neutral sterols and their bacterial metabolites by component(s) of fiber. Dietary fiber is made up of four major components-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin. There is

Charles T. L. Huang; G. S. Gopalakrishna; L. Nichols

152

Analysis of plant-derived miRNAs in animal small RNA datasets  

PubMed Central

Background Plants contain significant quantities of small RNAs (sRNAs) derived from various sRNA biogenesis pathways. Many of these sRNAs play regulatory roles in plants. Previous analysis revealed that numerous sRNAs in corn, rice and soybean seeds have high sequence similarity to animal genes. However, exogenous RNA is considered to be unstable within the gastrointestinal tract of many animals, thus limiting potential for any adverse effects from consumption of dietary RNA. A recent paper reported that putative plant miRNAs were detected in animal plasma and serum, presumably acquired through ingestion, and may have a functional impact in the consuming organisms. Results To address the question of how common this phenomenon could be, we searched for plant miRNAs sequences in public sRNA datasets from various tissues of mammals, chicken and insects. Our analyses revealed that plant miRNAs were present in the animal sRNA datasets, and significantly miR168 was extremely over-represented. Furthermore, all or nearly all (>96%) miR168 sequences were monocot derived for most datasets, including datasets for two insects reared on dicot plants in their respective experiments. To investigate if plant-derived miRNAs, including miR168, could accumulate and move systemically in insects, we conducted insect feeding studies for three insects including corn rootworm, which has been shown to be responsive to plant-produced long double-stranded RNAs. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that the observed plant miRNAs in animal sRNA datasets can originate in the process of sequencing, and that accumulation of plant miRNAs via dietary exposure is not universal in animals. PMID:22873950

2012-01-01

153

Comparison of single cell culture derived Solanum tuberosum L. plants and a model for their application in breeding programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of microspore and protoplast regeneration starting from dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants has been improved to such an extent that the production of more than 2000 microspore derived A1 plant lines and of several hundred protoplast derived plantlets has become possible. Further, from the dihaploid Solanum species S. phureja the regeneration of microspores to plants, and from the species

G. Wenzel; O. Schieder; T. Przewozny; S. K. Sopory; G. Melchers

1979-01-01

154

Sterols in a unicellular relative of the metazoans  

PubMed Central

Molecular clocks suggest that animals originated well before they first appear as macroscopic fossils, but geologic tests of these hypotheses have been elusive. A rare steroid hydrocarbon, 24-isopropylcholestane, has been hypothesized to be a biomarker for sponges or their immediate ancestors because of its relatively high abundance in pre-Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks and oils. Biolipid precursors of this sterane have been reported to be prominent in several demosponges. Whether 24-isopropylcholestane can be interpreted as a sponge (and, hence, animal) biomarker, and so provide clues about early metazoan history, depends on an understanding of the distribution of sterol biosynthesis among animals and their protistan relatives. Accordingly, we characterized the sterol profile of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, a representative of the unicellular sister group of animals. M. brevicollis does not produce a candidate sterol precursor for 24-isopropylcholestane under our experimental growth conditions. It does, however, produce a number of other sterols, and comparative genomics confirms its biosynthetic potential to produce the full suite of compounds recovered. Consistent with the phylogenetic position of choanoflagellates, the sterol profile and biosynthetic pathway of M. brevicollis display characteristics of both fungal and poriferan sterol biosynthesis. This is an example in which genomic and biochemical information have been used together to investigate the taxonomic specificity of a fossil biomarker. PMID:18632573

Kodner, Robin B.; Summons, Roger E.; Pearson, Ann; King, Nicole; Knoll, Andrew H.

2008-01-01

155

SURVEY OF THE STEROL COMPOSITION OF THE MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES KARENIA BREVIS, KARENIA MIKIMOTOI, AND KARLODINIUM MICRUM: DISTRIBUTION OF STEROLS WITHIN OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLASS DINOPHYCEAE  

EPA Science Inventory

The sterol composition of different marine microalgae was examined to determine the utility of sterols as biomarkers to distinguish members of various algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae possess certain 4-methyl sterols, such as dinosterol, which are rare...

156

Sterol/steroid metabolism and absorption in a generalist and specialist caterpillar: Effects of dietary sterol/steroid structure, mixture and ratio  

E-print Network

Sterol/steroid metabolism and absorption in a generalist and specialist caterpillar: Effects of dietary sterol/steroid structure, mixture and ratio Xiangfeng Jing a,b,*, Robert J. Grebenok c , Spencer T insect herbivore sterol/steroid metabolism and absorption; we use two cat- erpillars species e one

Behmer, Spencer T.

157

The Effect of Sterols on Amphotericin B Self-Aggregation in a Lipid Bilayer as Revealed by Free Energy Simulations  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AmB) is an effective but toxic antifungal drug, known to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, presumably by assembling into transmembrane pores in a sterol-dependent manner. The aggregation of AmB molecules in a phospholipid bilayer is, thus, crucial for the drug’s activity. To provide an insight into the molecular nature of this process, here, we report an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation study of AmB head-to-head dimerization in a phospholipid bilayer, a possible early stage of aggregation. To compare the effect of sterols on the thermodynamics of aggregation and the architecture of the resulting AmB-AmB complexes, free energy profiles for the dimerization in ergosterol- or cholesterol-containing and sterol-free membranes are derived from the simulations. These profiles demonstrate that although AmB dimers are formed in all the systems studied, they are significantly less favorable in the bilayer with ergosterol than in the cholesterol-containing or sterol-free ones. We investigate the structural and energetic determinants of this difference and discuss its consequences for the AmB mechanism of action. PMID:23561525

Neumann, Anna; Baginski, Maciej; Winczewski, Szymon; Czub, Jacek

2013-01-01

158

Molecular docking study on anticancer activity of plant-derived natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of compounds from plant sources have been reported to possess substantial anticancer properties; however, their\\u000a modes of action have not been clearly defined. Selected plant-derived compounds that exhibit anticancer activity were subjected\\u000a to docking simulations using AutoDock 3.0.5. To preliminarily investigate the potential molecular targets and to confirm the\\u000a experimental activity testing for these anticancer compounds, the docking

Narumol Phosrithong; Jiraporn Ungwitayatorn

2010-01-01

159

Microbial assimilation of plant-derived carbon in soil traced by isotope analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow of new and native plant-derived C in the rhizosphere of an agricultural field during one growing season was tracked, the ratios in different soil C pools were quantified, and the residence times (ts) were estimated. For this the natural differences in 13C abundances of: (1) C4 soil (with a history of C4 plant, Miscanthus sinensis, cultivation), (2) C3

Oliver Pelz; Wolf-Rainer Abraham; Matthias Saurer; Rolf Siegwolf; Josef Zeyer

2005-01-01

160

Expression of human nuclear receptors in plants for the discovery of plant-derived ligands.  

PubMed

Plants have the potential to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites that have utility as drugs to treat human diseases. To tap this potential, functional human nuclear receptors have been expressed in plants to create in planta screening assays as a tool to discover natural product ligands. Assays have been designed and validated using 3 nuclear receptors: the estrogen receptor (ER), the androgen receptor (AR), and the heterodimeric retinoid X receptor-alpha plus thyroid hormone receptor-beta (RXRA/THRB). Nuclear receptor-reporter constructs have been expressed in plants to detect the presence of natural ligands that are produced de novo in several plant species during different stages of development, in various tissues, and in response to different stress elicitors. Screening experiments with ER, AR, and RXRA/THRB have been conducted, leading to the identification of plant sources of natural product ligands of human nuclear receptors. This in planta screen has led to the identification of previously unreported ER ligands, providing evidence of the complementary value of this approach to current in vitro high-throughput screening assays. PMID:17438068

Doukhanina, Elena V; Apuya, Nestor R; Yoo, Hye-Dong; Wu, Chuan-Yin; Davidow, Patricia; Krueger, Shannon; Flavell, Richard B; Hamilton, Richard; Bobzin, Steven C

2007-04-01

161

Detection of protoplast-derived DNA tetraploid Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) plants by leaf and flower characteristics and by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum (Griesbach)Schinners=Lisianthus russellianus Hook.) were regenerated from protoplasts and grown in pots until flowering. Vegetative and floral characteristics were measured and compared with parent plants. Larger leaves and petals and longer guard cells, sepals and filaments were recorded from protoplast-derived plants suggestive of polyploidy. The nuclear DNA contents of protoplast-derived and parental plants were determined by

G. C. Lindsay; M. E. Hopping; I. E. W. O'Brien

1994-01-01

162

Fate of Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Some Carboxylated Derivatives in Three American Wastewater Treatment Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fate of a comprehensive group of nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates and several of their carboxylated derivatives was studied in three American wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), two of which included advanced treatment. In spite of being located in three different metropolitan areas, wa...

163

Plant-derived smoke solutions stimulate the growth of Lycopersicon esculentum roots in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts of smoke, derived from Themeda triandra, a fire-climax grass, and Passerina vulgaris, a fynbos plant, stimulated the growth of primary root sections of tomato roots in suspension culture. The optimal dilution for both extracts was 1:2000. Several of the fractions obtained from TLC separation of the Themeda and the Passerina extracts significantly promoted primary root growth. The auxins

J. L. S. Taylor; J. van Staden

1998-01-01

164

Role of Plant-Derived Omega–3 Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international workshop on the role of plant-derived omega–3 fatty acids in human nutrition took place in Milan on February 9, 2000. The meeting was sponsored by the Nutrition Foundation of Italy and was organized by its Scientific Director, Dr. Andrea Poli. It was attended by experts in polyunsaturated fatty acids and human lipid nutrition. This is the first meeting

Michael Crawford; Claudio Galli; Francesco Visioli; Serge Renaud; Artemis P. Simopoulos; Arthur A. Spector

2000-01-01

165

Plant-derived synergists of alarm pheromone from turnip aphid, Lipaphis (Hyadaphis) erysimi (Homoptera, Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turnip aphid,Lipaphis (Hyadaphis) erysimi, responds weakly to (E)-ß-farnesene, the main component of the alarm pheromone, but the response is substantially increased by incorporating plant-derived isothiocyanates, identified in aphid volatiles by coupled gas chromatography-single-cell recording.

G. W. Dawson; D. C. Griffiths; J. A. Pickett; L. J. Wadhams; Christine M. Woodcock

1987-01-01

166

Pestaloficiols A–E, bioactive cyclopropane derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pestaloficiols A–E (1–5), five new cyclopropane derivatives, have been isolated from cultures of the plant endophyte Pestalotiopsis fici. The structures of these compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 displayed inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in C8166 cells.

Ling Liu; Renrong Tian; Shuchun Liu; Xulin Chen; Liangdong Guo; Yongsheng Che

2008-01-01

167

A combination of plant-derived odors reduces corticosterone and oxidative indicators of stress.  

PubMed

In this study, we measured typical stress markers in addition to oxidative status and reduced glutathione in erythrocytes, and plasma lipid peroxidation of restraint-stressed animals exposed to a combination of plant-derived odors (0.03% Z-3-hexen-1-ol, 0.03% E-2-hexenal, and 0.015% ?-pinene in triethyl citrate). Male Wistar rats aged 6-7 weeks postnatal were exposed to vehicle (triethyl citrate, n = 12), plant-derived odors (n = 12), or 1% propionic acid odor (n = 12) under control or stress conditions, and blood samples were collected. Restraint stress increased plasma glucose and plasma corticosterone concentrations by approximately 10% (P < 0.01) and 125% (P < 0.001), respectively, in vehicle-exposed animals. Similar increases were observed in animals exposed to a 1% propionic acid odor, indicating the novelty of odor exposure does not alter stress responsiveness. There was also an increase of approximately 15% in both erythrocytic oxidative status (P < 0.001) and plasma lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05), and a decrease of approximately the same magnitude in reduced glutathione (P < 0.05) in restrained animals with vehicle exposure. There were no differences observed between control and stress treatment with plant-derived odor exposure in any of the measured parameters. It was concluded that exposure to plant-derived odors reduce corticosterone, glucose, and redox responses elicited by psychological stress. PMID:24935864

Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

2014-09-01

168

Acetylamine derivative of diospyrin, a plant-derived binaphthylquinonoid, inhibits human colon cancer growth in Nod-Scid mice.  

PubMed

Anticancer activity of diospyrin and its derivatives (1-5) was evaluated against thirteen human cell lines. Compared to diospyrin (1), the acetylamine derivative (4) exhibited increase in cytotoxicity, particularly in HT-29 colon cancer cells, showing GI50 values of 33.90 and 1.96 ?M, respectively. Also, enhanced toxicity was observed when cells, pre-treated with compound 4, were exposed to radiation. In vivo assessment of 4 was undertaken on tumour-bearing Nod-Scid mice treated at 4 mg/kg/day. Significant reduction in relative tumour volume (~86-91 %) was observed during the 12th-37th days after drug treatment. Increased caspase-3 activity and DNA ladder formation was observed in HT-29 cells after treatment with 4, suggesting induction of apoptotic death after drug treatment. Moreover, flow cytometric determination of Annexin V- FITC positive and PI negative cells demonstrated 17.4, 26.4, and 27.9 % of early apoptosis, respectively, upon treatment with 5, 10 and 25 ?M of 4. HT-29 cells after treatment with 4 (1-25 ?M) revealed ~2.5- 3- folds generation of ROS. Furthermore, concentration dependent decrease of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential (??m), and expression of Bcl-2/Bax and other marker proteins suggested involvement of mitochondrial pathway of cell death. Overall, our results demonstrated the underlying cell-death mechanism of the plant-derived naphthoquinonoid (4), and established it as a prospective chemotherapeutic 'lead' molecule against colon cancer. PMID:25262983

Hazra, Sudipta; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B N; Hazra, Banasri

2015-02-01

169

Derivative Analysis of AVIRIS Hyperspectral Data for the Detection of Plant Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remote sensing campaign was conducted over a U.S. Department of Agriculture test site at Shelton, Nebraska. The test field was set off in blocks that were differentially treated with nitrogen. Four replicates of 0-kg/ha to 200-kg/ha, in 50-kg/ha increments, were present. Low-altitude AVIRIS hyperspectral data were collected over the site in 224 spectral bands. Simultaneously, ground data were collected to support the airborne imagery. In an effort to evaluate published, derivative-based algorithms for the detection of plant stress, different derivative-based approaches were applied to the collected AVIRIS image cube. The results indicate that, given good quality hyperspectral imagery, derivative techniques compare favorably with simple, well known band ratio algorithms for detection of plant stress.

Estep, Lee; Berglund, Judith

2001-01-01

170

A dietary test of putative deleterious sterols for the aphid Myzus persicae.  

PubMed

The aphid Myzus persicae displays high mortality on tobacco plants bearing a transgene which results in the accumulation of the ketosteroids cholestan-3-one and cholest-4-en-3-one in the phloem sap. To test whether the ketosteroids are the basis of the plant resistance to the aphids, M. persicae were reared on chemically-defined diets with different steroid contents at 0.1-10 µg ml(-1). Relative to sterol-free diet and dietary supplements of the two ketosteroids and two phytosterols, dietary cholesterol significantly extended aphid lifespan and increased fecundity at one or more dietary concentrations tested. Median lifespan was 50% lower on the diet supplemented with cholest-4-en-3-one than on the cholesterol-supplemented diet. Aphid feeding rate did not vary significantly across the treatments, indicative of no anti-feedant effect of any sterol/steroid. Aphids reared on diets containing equal amounts of cholesterol and cholest-4-en-3-one showed fecundity equivalent to aphids on diets containing only cholesterol. Aphids were reared on diets that reproduced the relative steroid abundance in the phloem sap of the control and modified tobacco plants, and their performance on the two diet formulations was broadly equivalent. We conclude that, at the concentrations tested, plant ketosteroids support weaker aphid performance than cholesterol, but do not cause acute toxicity to the aphids. In plants, the ketosteroids may act synergistically with plant factors absent from artificial diets but are unlikely to be solely responsible for resistance of modified tobacco plants. PMID:24465993

Bouvaine, Sophie; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Behmer, Spencer T; Douglas, Angela E

2014-01-01

171

A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

172

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1?000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

173

Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants.  

PubMed

Plants interact with the environment by sensing "non-self" molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

2011-12-01

174

Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants  

PubMed Central

Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

2011-01-01

175

Strategies to protect crop plants against viruses: pathogen-derived resistance blossoms.  

PubMed Central

Since 1986, the ability to confer resistance against an otherwise devastating virus by introducing a single pathogen-derived or virus-targeted sequence into the DNA of a potential host plant has had a marked influence on much of the research effort, focus, and short-term objectives of plant virologists throughout the world. The vast literature on coat protein-mediated protection, for example, attests to our fascination for unraveling fundamental molecular mechanism(s), our (vain) search for a unifying hypothesis, our pragmatic interest in commercially exploitable opportunities for crop protection, and our ingenuity in manipulating transgene constructions to broaden their utility and reduce real or perceived environmental risk issues. Other single dominant, pathogen-derived plant resistance genes have recently been discovered from a wide variety of viruses and are operative in an ever-increasing range of plant species. Additional candidates seem limited only by the effort invested in experimentation and by our ingenuity and imagination. This review attempts to consider, in a critical way, the current state of the art, some exceptions, and some proposed rules. The final impression, from all the case evidence considered, is that normal virus replication requires a subtle blend of host- and virus-coded proteins, present in critical relative concentrations and at specific times and places. Any unregulated superimposition of interfering protein or nucleic acid species can, therefore, result in an apparently virus-resistant plant phenotype. PMID:8475051

Wilson, T M

1993-01-01

176

Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various terrestrial plants and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti–WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. The best anti–WSSV plant isolate, TP22C was isolated and further analyzed. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Seven plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug TP22C thus formulated showed 86% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of TP22C required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 750 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 86%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug TP22C derived from Momordica charantia is a potent anti-white spot syndrome virus drug. PMID:25183066

Ghosh, Upasana; Chakraborty, Somnath; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

2014-01-01

177

Presence of phthalate derivatives in the essential oils of a medicinal plant Achillea tenuifolia.  

PubMed

BackgroundPhthalate, esters of phthalic acid, are mainly applied as plasticizers and cause several human health and environment hazards. The essential oils of Achillea species have attracted a great concern, since several biological activities have been reported from varieties of these medicinal species. On the other side, due to the problems regarding the waste disposal in developing countries, phthalate derivatives can easily release from waste disposal to the water and soil resulting in probable absorption and accumulation by medicinal and dietary plants. As a matter of fact, although the toxicity of phthalate derivatives in human is well-known, food crops and medicinal plants have been exposing to phthalates that can be detected in their extracts and essential oils. Achillea tenuifolia (Compositea) is one of these herbaceous plants with traditional applications which widely growing in Iran.FindingThe plant root was subjected to hydro-distillation for 4 h using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain its essential oil before and after acid treatment. Both of the hydro-distilled essential oils were analysed by GC-MS method resulted in recognition of their constituent. Phthalate contamination as (1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester (5.4%) and phthalic acid (4.5%), were identified in the first and second extracted oils, respectively.ConclusionAs a warning, due to the potential role of phthalates to cause reproductive toxicity, disturb of endocrine system and causing cancers, medicinal plants have to be considered through quality control for detection of these compounds. PMID:25429772

Manayi, Azadeh; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Ajani, Yousef; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

2014-11-28

178

A fluorescent sterol probe study of cholesterol/phospholipid membranes.  

PubMed

The behavior of dehydroergosterol in L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) unsonicated multilamellar liposomes was characterized by absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence measurements. Dehydroergosterol exhibited a lowered absorption coefficient in multilamellar liposomes while the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of dehydroergosterol in these membranes decreased significantly with increasing dehydroergosterol concentration, suggesting membrane sterol-sterol interactions. The comparative steady-state anisotropy of 0.9 mole percent dehydroergosterol in multilamellar liposomes was lower than in small unilamellar vesicles suggesting different sterol environments for dehydroergosterol. Dehydroergosterol fluorescence lifetime was relatively independent of membrane sterol content and yielded similar values in sonicated and unsonicated model membranes. In multilamellar liposomes containing 5 mole percent cholesterol, the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of DMPC detected by 0.9 mole percent dehydroergosterol was significantly broadened when compared to the phase transition detected by dehydroergosterol in the absence of membrane cholesterol (Smutzer, G. et al. (1986) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 862, 361-371). In multilamellar liposomes containing 10 mole percent cholesterol, the major fluorescence lifetime of dehydroergosterol did not detect the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of DMPC. Time-correlated fluorescence anisotropy decays of dehydroergosterol in DMPC multilamellar liposomes in the absence and presence of 5 mole percent cholesterol exhibited a single rotational correlation time near one nanosecond that was relatively independent of temperature and low concentrations of membrane cholesterol. The limiting anisotropy of 0.9 mole percent dehydroergosterol decreased above the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition in membranes without cholesterol and was not significantly affected by the phase transition in membranes containing 5 mole percent cholesterol. These results suggested hindered rotational diffusion of dehydroergosterol in multilamellar liposomes. Lifetime and time-correlated fluorescence measurements of 0.9 mole percent dehydroergosterol in multilamellar liposomes further suggested this fluorophore was detecting physical properties of the bulk membrane phospholipids in membranes devoid of cholesterol and was detecting sterol-rich regions in membranes of low sterol concentration. PMID:3207744

Smutzer, G

1988-12-22

179

The protein quality control system manages plant defence compound synthesis.  

PubMed

Jasmonates are ubiquitous oxylipin-derived phytohormones that are essential in the regulation of many development, growth and defence processes. Across the plant kingdom, jasmonates act as elicitors of the production of bioactive secondary metabolites that serve in defence against attackers. Knowledge of the conserved jasmonate perception and early signalling machineries is increasing, but the downstream mechanisms that regulate defence metabolism remain largely unknown. Here we show that, in the legume Medicago truncatula, jasmonate recruits the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) quality control system to manage the production of triterpene saponins, widespread bioactive compounds that share a biogenic origin with sterols. An ERAD-type RING membrane-anchor E3 ubiquitin ligase is co-expressed with saponin synthesis enzymes to control the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the supply of the ubiquitous terpene precursor isopentenyl diphosphate. Thus, unrestrained bioactive saponin accumulation is prevented and plant development and integrity secured. This control apparatus is equivalent to the ERAD system that regulates sterol synthesis in yeasts and mammals but that uses distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases, of the HMGR degradation 1 (HRD1) type, to direct destruction of HMGR. Hence, the general principles for the management of sterol and triterpene saponin biosynthesis are conserved across eukaryotes but can be controlled by divergent regulatory cues. PMID:24213631

Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; González-Guzmán, Miguel; De Geyter, Nathan; Lippens, Saskia; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Marhavý, Peter; Kremer, Anna; Morreel, Kris; Guérin, Christopher J; Tava, Aldo; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Thevelein, Johan M; Campos, Narciso; Goormachtig, Sofie; Goossens, Alain

2013-12-01

180

Annual Variation in the Effect of Red Light on Sterol Biosynthesis in Digitalis purpurea L.  

PubMed

The effect of varying sequences of red and far red light on sterol biosynthesis in etiolated seedlings of Digitalis purpurea L. was examined. Red light caused a marked increase in the amounts of free and glycosidic sterols and a small decrease in esterified sterols during the first 4 hours after illumination. Far red light elicited the same response but to a lesser degree. Exposure to red followed by far red light or the reverse caused little or no increase in the amounts of free and glycosidic sterols. The magnitude of the increase in the amounts of sterols varied, depending upon the season in which the experiments were performed. The largest increments were obtained during the summer and fall, whereas the smallest were observed during the winter and spring. Correlation of these data with previous observations of an annual cycle in the sterol content of Digitalis seedlings showed that the maximum stimulation in sterol biosynthesis occurs when the endogenous level of sterols is minimal.Sterol monoglycosides, acylmonoglycosides, and an unidentified sterol conjugate from the lipid extracts were quantitated. Changes in conjugated sterol content were related to the particular light conditions of each experiment. The results are discussed in terms of physiological cycles and the possible influence of hormones upon the control of sterol biosynthesis in Digitalis. PMID:16660620

Jacobsohn, M K

1978-12-01

181

Simultaneous Effects of Light Intensity and Phosphorus Supply on the Sterol Content of Phytoplankton  

PubMed Central

Sterol profiles of microalgae and their change with environmental conditions are of great interest in ecological food web research and taxonomic studies alike. Here, we investigated effects of light intensity and phosphorus supply on the sterol content of phytoplankton and assessed potential interactive effects of these important environmental factors on the sterol composition of algae. We identified sterol contents of four common phytoplankton genera, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, Cryptomonas and Cyclotella, and analysed the change in sterol content with varying light intensities in both a high-phosphorus and a low-phosphorus approach. Sterol contents increased significantly with increasing light in three out of four species. Phosphorus-limitation reversed the change of sterol content with light intensity, i.e., sterol content decreased with increasing light at low phosphorus supply. Generally sterol contents were lower in low-phosphorus cultures. In conclusion, both light and phosphorus conditions strongly affect the sterol composition of algae and hence should be considered in ecological and taxonomic studies investigating the biochemical composition of algae. Data suggest a possible sterol limitation of growth and reproduction of herbivorous crustacean zooplankton during summer when high light intensities and low phosphorus supply decrease sterol contents of algae. PMID:21209879

Piepho, Maike; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik; Wacker, Alexander

2010-01-01

182

Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway as Target for Anti-trypanosomatid Drugs.  

PubMed

Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic pathway in fungi and in members of the Trypanosomatidae family is one that produces a special class of sterols, including ergosterol, and other 24-methyl sterols, which are required for parasitic growth and viability, but are absent from mammalian host cells. Currently, there are several drugs that interfere with sterol biosynthesis (SB) that are in use to treat diseases such as high cholesterol in humans and fungal infections. In this review, we analyze the effects of drugs such as (a) statins, which act on the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, (b) bisphosphonates, which interfere with the isoprenoid pathway in the step catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase, (c) zaragozic acids and quinuclidines, inhibitors of squalene synthase (SQS), which catalyzes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, (d) allylamines, inhibitors of squalene epoxidase, (e) azoles, which inhibit C14alpha-demethylase, and (f) azasterols, which inhibit Delta(24(25))-sterol methyltransferase (SMT). Inhibition of this last step appears to have high selectivity for fungi and trypanosomatids, since this enzyme is not found in mammalian cells. We review here the IC50 values of these various inhibitors, their effects on the growth of trypanosomatids (both in axenic cultures and in cell cultures), and their effects on protozoan structural organization (as evaluted by light and electron microscopy) and lipid composition. The results show that the mitochondrial membrane as well as the membrane lining the protozoan cell body and flagellum are the main targets. Probably as a consequence of these primary effects, other important changes take place in the organization of the kinetoplast DNA network and on the protozoan cell cycle. In addition, apoptosis-like and autophagic processes induced by several of the inhibitors tested led to parasite death. PMID:19680554

de Souza, Wanderley; Rodrigues, Juliany Cola Fernandes

2009-01-01

183

Protein Mediators of Sterol Transport Across Intestinal Brush Border Membrane  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of cholesterol balance contributes significantly to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of death in the United States. The intestine has the unique capability to act as a gatekeeper for entry of cholesterol into the body, and inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption is now widely regarded as an attractive non-statin therapeutic strategy for ASCVD prevention. In this chapter we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding sterol transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. The purpose of this work is to summarize substantial progress made in the last decade in regards to protein-mediated sterol trafficking, and to discuss this in the context of human disease. PMID:20213550

Brown, J. Mark; Yu, Liqing

2012-01-01

184

50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives...EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...Species § 23.92 Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or...

2011-10-01

185

50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives...EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...Species § 23.92 Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or...

2013-10-01

186

50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives...EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL...Species § 23.92 Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or...

2012-10-01

187

66 FR 51539 - Exemption From Control of Certain Industrial Products and Materials Derived From the Cannabis Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Products and Materials Derived From the Cannabis Plant AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration...product is made from those portions of the cannabis plant that are excluded from the CSA...mixtures are made from those portions of the cannabis plant that are excluded from the...

2001-10-09

188

Pestalofones A–E, bioactive cyclohexanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pestalofones A–E (1–5), five new cyclohexanone derivatives, have been isolated from cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici, along with the known compounds, isosulochrin (6), isosulochrin dehydrate (7), and iso-A82775C (8). The structures of 1–5 were determined by NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 displayed

Ling Liu; Shuchun Liu; Xulin Chen; Liangdong Guo; Yongsheng Che

2009-01-01

189

Down-regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase in sterol ester-laden J774.2 macrophages.  

PubMed Central

The development of atherosclerotic plaques in arteries is a key step in atherogenesis, with cholesterol ester accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells being recognized as a major pathogenic event in this process. In this study, the mouse macrophage cell line J774.2 was induced to accumulate intracellular sterol esters by incubation with 25-hydroxycholesterol in the presence of oleic acid. The accumulation of sterol esters in these cells was found to be accompanied by a marked decrease in the activity of the enzyme responsible for their hydrolysis, namely hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL); Western blotting studies revealed a corresponding decrease in the levels of the HSL polypeptide. Similar findings were obtained after incubation with oxidized low-density lipoprotein or very-low-density lipoprotein. These findings suggest that down-regulation of the expression of HSL is important in cholesterol ester accumulation in macrophages. PMID:8761468

Jepson, C A; Harrison, J A; Kraemer, F B; Yeaman, S J

1996-01-01

190

Recombinant plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins: current technical and economic bottlenecks.  

PubMed

Molecular pharming is a cost-effective platform for the production of recombinant proteins in plants. Although the biopharmaceutical industry still relies on a small number of standardized fermentation-based technologies for the production of recombinant proteins there is now a greater awareness of the advantages of molecular pharming particularly in niche markets. Here we discuss some of the technical, economic and regulatory barriers that constrain the clinical development and commercialization of plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. We also discuss strategies to increase productivity and product quality/homogeneity. The advantages of whole plants should be welcomed by the industry because this will help to reduce the cost of goods and therefore expand the biopharmaceutical market into untapped sectors. PMID:25048244

Sabalza, Maite; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

2014-12-01

191

Sorption of ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from phytoremediation plants*  

PubMed Central

The study on biochar derived from plant biomass for environmental applications is attracting more and more attention. Twelve sets of biochar were obtained by treating four phytoremediation plants, Salix rosthornii Seemen, Thalia dealbata, Vetiveria zizanioides, and Phragmites sp., sequentially through pyrolysis at 500 °C in a N2 environment, and under different temperatures (500, 600, and 700 °C) in a CO2 environment. The cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of biochar varied with both plant species and pyrolysis temperature. The magnesium (Mg) content of biochar derived from T. dealbata (TC) was obviously higher than that of the other plant biochars. This biochar also had the highest sorption capacity for phosphate and ammonium. In terms of biomass yields, adsorption capacity, and energy cost, T. dealbata biochar produced at 600 °C (TC600) is the most promising sorbent for removing contaminants (N and P) from aqueous solution. Therefore, T. dealbata appears to be the best candidate for phytoremediation application as its biomass can make a good biochar for environmental cleaning. PMID:24302715

Zeng, Zheng; Zhang, Song-da; Li, Ting-qiang; Zhao, Feng-liang; He, Zhen-li; Zhao, He-ping; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Hai-long; Zhao, Jing; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq

2013-01-01

192

Sorption of ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from phytoremediation plants.  

PubMed

The study on biochar derived from plant biomass for environmental applications is attracting more and more attention. Twelve sets of biochar were obtained by treating four phytoremediation plants, Salix rosthornii Seemen, Thalia dealbata, Vetiveria zizanioides, and Phragmites sp., sequentially through pyrolysis at 500 °C in a N2 environment, and under different temperatures (500, 600, and 700 °C) in a CO2 environment. The cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of biochar varied with both plant species and pyrolysis temperature. The magnesium (Mg) content of biochar derived from T. dealbata (TC) was obviously higher than that of the other plant biochars. This biochar also had the highest sorption capacity for phosphate and ammonium. In terms of biomass yields, adsorption capacity, and energy cost, T. dealbata biochar produced at 600 °C (TC600) is the most promising sorbent for removing contaminants (N and P) from aqueous solution. Therefore, T. dealbata appears to be the best candidate for phytoremediation application as its biomass can make a good biochar for environmental cleaning. PMID:24302715

Zeng, Zheng; Zhang, Song-da; Li, Ting-qiang; Zhao, Feng-liang; He, Zhen-li; Zhao, He-ping; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Hai-long; Zhao, Jing; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq

2013-12-01

193

Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants  

PubMed Central

Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

2014-01-01

194

A review on plant-derived natural products and their analogs with anti-tumor activity  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicines, including Chinese herbal formulations, can serve as the source of potential new drugs, and initial research focuses on the isolation of bioactive lead compound(s). The development of novel plant-derived natural products and their analogs for anticancer activity details efforts to synthesize new derivatives based on bioactivity- and mechanism of action-directed isolation and characterization coupled with rational drug design - based modification. Also, the anticancer activity of certain natural products and their analogs can be enhanced by synthesizing new derivatives based on active pharmacophore models; drug resistance and solubility and metabolic limitations can be overcome by appropriate molecular modifications; and new biological properties or mechanisms of action can be added by combining other functional groups or molecules. Preclinical screening for in vitro human cell line panels and selected in vivo xenograft testing then identifies the most promising drug development targets. PMID:21279166

Dholwani, K.K.; Saluja, A.K.; Gupta, A.R.; Shah, D.R.

2008-01-01

195

Occurrence of squalene and sterols in Cellulomonas dehydrogenans (Arnaudi 1942) comb. nov. Hester 1971.  

PubMed Central

The neutral lipid fraction of the photochromogenic, coryneform bacterium Cellulomonas dehydrogenans (Arnaudi 1942) comb. nov. contains the sterol precursor squalene and at least two sterols, cholesterol and beta-sitosterol. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and combination gas-liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry. De novo sterol biosynthetic ability was shown from incorporation of 14C from D-[U-14C]glucose into squalene and the sterol fraction. The squalene concentration approximated 0.002 to 0.005% of the total dry cell weight, and the sterols approximated 0.03 to 0.05%. Images PMID:101527

Weeks, O B; Francesconi, M D

1978-01-01

196

Note: Sterols from the pericarp of Sphaerophysa salsula DC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new stigmasterol, (24S)-stigmast-5-en-7?-ethoxy-3?-ol (2) together with three known sterols have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the pericarp of Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC, and their structures elucidated mainly on the basis of the spectral data and comparison with the literature.

Guo-Yu Li; Jin-Hui Wang; Xian Li

2005-01-01

197

Sterols from the pericarp of Sphaerophysa salsula DC.  

PubMed

A new stigmasterol, (24S)-stigmast-5-en-7beta-ethoxy-3beta-ol (2) together with three known sterols have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the pericarp of Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC, and their structures elucidated mainly on the basis of the spectral data and comparison with the literature. PMID:15621621

Li, Guo-Yu; Wang, Jin-Hui; Li, Xian

2005-04-01

198

Incorporation of Sterols into Cells Using Cholesterol/Cyclodextrin Complexes  

E-print Network

Incorporation of Sterols into Cells Using Cholesterol/Cyclodextrin Complexes Reagents NeededH 7.2 Cholesterol/Cyclodextrin Complexes (6.8 mM cholesterol in 70 mM cyclodextrin) Phosphate to DME. Warm to 37° in the tissue culture incubator. Use 3 ml DME per 60 mm dish. 2 . Add cholesterol/cyclodextrin

Pike, Linda J.

199

Relationship Between Polyene Resistance and Sterol Compositions in Cryptococcus Neoformans  

PubMed Central

Six mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans resistant to nystatin and pimaricin and three mutants resistant to amphotericin B were isolated by ultraviolet irradiation techniques from two wild-type strains. The major sterols of the wild-type strains were ?7-ergosten-3?-ol and ergosterol. All six mutants resistant to nystatin and pimaricin showed either loss of ergosterol and concurrent production of ?7, 22-ergostadien-3?-ol and ?7-ergosten-3?-ol, or loss of both the wild-type sterols, with production of ?8(9)-ergosten-3?-ol and ?5, 8(9), 22-ergostatrien-3?-ol. The mutants producing ?7, 22-ergostadien-3?-ol and ?7-ergosten-3?-ol showed relatively low levels of resistance to nystatin and pimaricin, whereas the mutants producing ?8(9)-ergosten-3?-ol and ?5, 8(0), 22-ergostatrien-3?-ol showed a high level of resistance to either drug. Although highly resistant to amphotericin B, however, the three mutants produced sterol compositions identical to those of the wild types, indicating that the strains acquired resistance other than by alteration of the membrane sterols. The mutants producing ?8(9) and ?5, 8(9), 22 sterols were not virulent for mice, showed reduced growth rates at 25 C, and failed to grow at 37 C. The other mutants showed a slightly reduced rate of growth both at 25 and 37 C, and the virulence in mice was slightly reduced in comparison with that of the wild types. These comparisons were on gross observations and were not statistically analyzed. Images PMID:1094946

Kim, S. J.; Kwon-Chung, K. J.; Milne, G. W. A.; Hill, W. B.; Patterson, G.

1975-01-01

200

Acylspermidine derivatives isolated from a soft coral, Sinularia sp, inhibit plant vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase.  

PubMed

H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase), which pumps H(+) across membranes coupled with PP(i) hydrolysis, is found in most plants, and some parasitic protists, eubacteria and archaebacteria. We assayed a number of extracts derived from 145 marine invertebrates as to their inhibitory effect on plant vacuolar H(+)-PPase. Acylspermidine derivatives [RCONH(CH(2))(3)N(CH(3))(CH(2))(4)N(CH(3))(2)] from a soft coral (Sinularia sp.) inhibited the PPi-hydrolysis activity of purified H(+)-PPase and the PP(i)-dependent H(+) pump activity (half inhibition concentration, 1 micro M) of vacuolar membranes of mung bean. The apparent K(i) was determined to be 0.9 micro M. Acylspermidines did not affect the activity of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, mitochondrial ATPase or cytosolic PPase. Acylspermidines inhibited the acidification of vacuoles in protoplasts, as found on monitoring by the acridine orange fluorescent method. These results indicate that acylspermidine derivatives represent new inhibitors of H(+)-PPase with relatively high specificity. PMID:12869538

Hirono, Megumi; Ojika, Makoto; Mimura, Hisatoshi; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

2003-06-01

201

Application of pressurized fluid extraction technique in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of sterols from marine sediment samples.  

PubMed

In order to determine steroid compounds in GC/MS an analytical method using pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) was developed. While extracting in-house reference material (coastal sediment) typical recovery in PFE ranged from 80 to 120% (+/-2.5-14.5) and the average extraction yield in PFE in comparison to conventional soxhlet extraction was 115%. In particular, the PFE showed higher extraction efficiency for C29 and dien sterols. Optimizing parameters such as temperature and pressure is critical in achieving this efficiency. Sterols in the sediment were derivatized with silyl reagent BSTFA in acetone for the final determination. A short column florisil cleanup offered the best separation of the GC/MS sensitive derivatives from co-contaminants. Thirty-three coastal sediment samples were analyzed using PFE and Soxhlet extraction methods. The results on extraction efficiency, silyl derivatization kinetics and purification efficiency demonstrated that PFE is far superior in extracting sterols from sediment samples. It is simple, fast, efficient and amenable for automation. PMID:17540389

Li, Donghao; Dong, Meihua; Shim, Won Joon; Kannan, Narayanan

2007-08-10

202

Exserolides A-F, new isocoumarin derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Exserohilum sp.  

PubMed

Six new isocoumarin derivatives, exserolides A-F (1-6), were isolated from solid cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Exserohilum sp., together with four known metabolites (7-10). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments. The absolute configuration of the C-3 methine carbon in 1-5 was deduced via the circular dichroism data, whereas that of the 1,3-diol moiety in 6 was assigned from the (1)H NMR data of its (R)- and (S)-MTPA diesters. Compounds 3 and 9 showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, whereas 6 displayed significant inhibitory effects against a small panel of bacteria. PMID:24752143

Li, Ruxin; Chen, Shenxi; Niu, Shubin; Guo, Liangdong; Yin, Jun; Che, Yongsheng

2014-07-01

203

Central cell-derived peptides regulate early embryo patterning in flowering plants.  

PubMed

Plant embryogenesis initiates with the establishment of an apical-basal axis; however, the molecular mechanisms accompanying this early event remain unclear. Here, we show that a small cysteine-rich peptide family is required for formation of the zygotic basal cell lineage and proembryo patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBRYO SURROUNDING FACTOR 1 (ESF1) peptides accumulate before fertilization in central cell gametes and thereafter in embryo-surrounding endosperm cells. Biochemical and structural analyses revealed cleavage of ESF1 propeptides to form biologically active mature peptides. Further, these peptides act in a non-cell-autonomous manner and synergistically with the receptor-like kinase SHORT SUSPENSOR to promote suspensor elongation through the YODA mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Our findings demonstrate that the second female gamete and its sexually derived endosperm regulate early embryonic patterning in flowering plants. PMID:24723605

Costa, Liliana M; Marshall, Eleanor; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Mori, Masashi; Umetsu, Yoshitaka; Otterbach, Sophie L; Papareddy, Ranjith; Dickinson, Hugh G; Boutiller, Kim; VandenBosch, Kathryn A; Ohki, Shinya; Gutierrez-Marcos, José F

2014-04-11

204

2-Amino-nonyl-6-methoxyl-tetralin muriate inhibits sterol C-14 reductase in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the action mechanism of a novel chemical structural aminotetralin derivate, 2-Amino-Nonyl-6-Methoxyl-Tetralin Muriate (10b), against Candida albicans (C albicans) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Methods: Antifungal susceptibility test of 10b was carried out using broth microdilution method, the action mechanism of 10b against C albicans was investigated by GC-MS spectrometry and real-time RT-PCR assay, and cytotoxicity of 10b in vitro was assessed by MTS/PMS reduction assay. Results: 10b reduced the ergosterol content markedly, and the 50% ergosterol content inhibitory concentration (ECIC50 value) was 0.08 ?g/mL. Although the sterol composition of 10b-grown cells was completely identical with that of erg24 strain, the content of ergosta-8,14,22-trienol in 10b-grown cells was much higher than that in erg24 strain. Real-time RT-PCR assay revealed a global upregulation of sterol metabolism genes. In addition, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of 10b was 11.30 ?g/mL for murine embryonic fibroblasts and 35.70 ?g/mL for human normal liver cells. Conclusion: 10b possessed a mode of action different from that of azoles and morpholines, whose targets were sterol C-14 reductase (encoded by ERG24 gene) and sterol C-5 desaturase (encoded by ERG3) related enzyme. Although 10b seemed to reduce MTS/PMS reduction in a dose dependent manner, IC50 value for mammalian cells was much higher than 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) value for C albicans. This indicates that the formulation is preliminarily safe and warrants further study for possible human applications. PMID:19915585

Liang, Rong-mei; Cao, Yong-bing; Fan, Kai-hua; Xu, Yi; Gao, Ping-hui; Zhou, You-jun; Dai, Bao-di; Tan, Yong-hong; Wang, Shi-hua; Tang, Hui; Liu, Hong-tao; Jiang, Yuan-ying

2009-01-01

205

Targeted Depletion of Hepatic ACAT2-driven Cholesterol Esterification Reveals a Non-biliary Route for Fecal Neutral Sterol Loss*  

PubMed Central

Deletion of acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) in mice results in resistance to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and protection against atherosclerosis. Recently, our group has shown that liver-specific inhibition of ACAT2 via antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated targeting likewise limits atherosclerosis. However, whether this atheroprotective effect was mediated by: 1) prevention of packaging of cholesterol into apoB-containing lipoproteins, 2) augmentation of nascent HDL cholesterol secretion, or 3) increased hepatobiliary sterol secretion was not examined. Therefore, the purpose of these studies was to determine whether hepatic ACAT2 is rate-limiting in all three of these important routes of cholesterol homeostasis. Liver-specific depletion of ACAT2 resulted in reduced packaging of cholesterol into apoB-containing lipoproteins (very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, and low density lipoprotein), whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remained unchanged. In the liver of ACAT2 ASO-treated mice, cholesterol ester accumulation was dramatically reduced, yet there was no reciprocal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol. Paradoxically, ASO-mediated depletion of hepatic ACAT2 promoted fecal neutral sterol excretion without altering biliary sterol secretion. Interestingly, during isolated liver perfusion, ACAT2 ASO-treated livers had augmented secretion rates of unesterified cholesterol and phospholipid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that liver-derived cholesterol from ACAT2 ASO-treated mice is preferentially delivered to the proximal small intestine as a precursor to fecal excretion. Collectively, these studies provide the first insight into the hepatic itinerary of cholesterol when cholesterol esterification is inhibited only in the liver, and provide evidence for a novel non-biliary route of fecal sterol loss. PMID:18281279

Brown, J. Mark; Bell, Thomas A.; Alger, Heather M.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Smith, Thomas L.; Kelley, Kathryn; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D.; Davis, Matthew A.; Lee, Richard G.; Graham, Mark J.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

2008-01-01

206

67 FR 7073 - Exemption From Control of Certain Industrial Products and Materials Derived From the Cannabis Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1308 [DEA-206] RIN 1117-AA55 Exemption From Control of Certain Industrial Products and Materials Derived From the Cannabis Plant AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Department of Justice. ACTION: Interim Rule; extension of...

2002-02-15

207

Pestalofones A-E, bioactive cyclohexanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.  

PubMed

Pestalofones A-E (1-5), five new cyclohexanone derivatives, have been isolated from cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici, along with the known compounds, isosulochrin (6), isosulochrin dehydrate (7), and iso-A82775C (8). The structures of 1-5 were determined by NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 displayed inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in C8166 cells, whereas 3 and 5 showed significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:19101157

Liu, Ling; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Xulin; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

2009-01-15

208

Expression of the Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Mull. Arg. 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase 1 in Tobacco Results in Sterol Overproduction.  

PubMed Central

A genomic fragment encoding one (HMGR1) of the three 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductases (HMGRs) from Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Mull. Arg. (M.-L. Chye, C.-T. Tan, N.-H. Chua [1992] Plant Mol Biol 19: 473-484) was introduced into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv xanthi via Agrobacterium transformation to study the influence of the hmg1 gene product on plant isoprenoid biosynthesis. Transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from control wild-type plants and displayed the same developmental pattern. Transgenic lines showed an increase in the level of total sterols up to 6-fold, probably because of an increased expression level of hmg1 mRNA and a corresponding increased enzymatic activity for HMGR, when compared with the level of total sterols from control lines not expressing the hmg1 transgene. In addition to the pathway end products, campesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol, some biosynthetic intermediates such as cycloartenol also accumulated in transgenic tissues. Most of the overproduced sterols were detected as steryl-esters and were likely to be stored in cytoplasmic lipid bodies. These data strongly support the conclusion that plant HMGR is a key limiting enzyme in phytosterol biosynthesis. PMID:12228630

Schaller, H.; Grausem, B.; Benveniste, P.; Chye, M. L.; Tan, C. T.; Song, Y. H.; Chua, N. H.

1995-01-01

209

Variable Contribution of Soil and Plant Derived Carbon to Dissolved Organic Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal variation in the amount and sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil profiles was investigated. In general DOM in soil solution can evolve from the decomposition and mobilization of soil organic matter (SOM), dissolution of dead microbial cells or from the input of plant material such as root exudates or decomposing litter. Here we used vegetation change from C3 to C4 plants to quantify the plant derived carbon in DOM. In 2002 an agricultural field was converted to an experimental grass land. The average carbon isotope value of SOM was -26.5 per mill (sd = 0.2) for the plough horizon. On two independent plots, each 10 x 20 m, we used Amaranthus retroflexus as C4 plant with a carbon isotope label of 13.0 per mill to distinguish unlabeled SOM and plant derived carbon sources. To quantify the contribution of litter input on DOM formation we applied a split plot design. One half had no litter and the other half double amount of above ground litter. Soil water was collected in 10, 20 and 30 cm depth biweekly and DOM concentrations in solution and carbon isotope ratios of the freeze dried and decarbonized material were investigated. During winter uniform concentrations of DOM of about 7 mg/l were measured throughout all depth and treatments. In spring when soil temperatures increase and water availability decreases DOM concentrations increased with similar rates in all depth. Even in the second year of Amaranth growth the carbon isotope ratios of DOM in winter and spring had no C4 signal. The carbon isotope ratios of -26 to -27 per mill suggest SOM as carbon source and contradict a contribution of root exudates to the DOM pool. During summer almost no soil solution was collected. After rewetting in fall DOM concentrations up to 50 mg/l in 10 cm depth and up to 35 mg/l in deeper layers were found. These high concentrations held carbon isotope signals from -25 to -26.5 per mill contradicting carbon input from plant material. With ongoing wetting of the soil the carbon isotope ratios suddenly increased up to -21.7 per mill on the double litter plots and to -24 per mill on no litter plots. However, this signal was not detected in 30 cm depth. Keeling plots proved that the major part of the DOM comes from SOM. In fall and early winter only 36 % and 19 % of plant derived carbon were found in the double litter and no litter plots, respectively. Our results suggest that carbon of the SOM pool is the major source for carbon in DOM. In the spring season root exudates seem to be completely respired by soil organisms suggesting that root and rhizosphere respiration are the same respiratory pool. Only in fall the decomposition of plant litter contributed to carbon in DOM. However, this carbon source is already exhausted in the next spring. In consequence our results may indicate that stored soil carbon is more active than thought and that DOM transport might be a key process to understand carbon sequestration.

Steinbeiss, S.; Gleixner, G.

2005-12-01

210

Derivatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Murray Bourne developed the Interactive Mathematics site while working as a mathematics lecturer at Ngee Ann Polytechnic in Singapore. The site contains numerous mathematics tutorials and resources for students and teachers alike. This specific page is focused on differentiation, or finding derivatives. Bourne walks users through an introduction to differentiation and limits, and then moves on to more specific applications like rate of change, derivatives of polynomials, and differentiating powers of a function. Each topic includes graphs and interactive materials designed to aid users in understanding the presented concepts. The information here is presented in a clear, straightforward manner that is appropriate for introductory and advanced calculus students alike.

Bourne, Murray

2008-04-22

211

First Report of Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis from Shoot Apex-derived Callus of Hedychium muluense  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of Hedychium muluense R.M. Smith, an important monocotyledonous ornamental ginger plant. Callus was induced on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 9.05 µM 2-4, D and 4.6µM kinetin. ...

212

Detection of Somaclonal Variations in Tissue Culture-Derived Date Palm Plants Using Isoenzyme Analysis and RAPD Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoenzyme analysis and activities of peroxidase (PER), polyphenol oxidase (POD) and glutamate oxaloacetate (GOT) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints were used to analyze somaclonal variations in tissue culture-derived date palm plants. The frequency of somaclonal variations was found to be age dependent. Similar isoenzyme patterns for PER and GOT were detected in all analyzed plants. However, variations in

M. M. Saker; S. A. Bekheet; H. S. Taha; A. S. Fahmy; H. A. Moursy

2000-01-01

213

Structural complex of sterol 14[alpha]-demethylase (CYP51) with 14[alpha]-methylenecyclopropyl-[delta]7-24, 25-dihydrolanosterol[S  

SciTech Connect

Sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) that catalyzes the removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from the sterol nucleus is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, a primary target for clinical and agricultural antifungal azoles and an emerging target for antitrypanosomal chemotherapy. Here, we present the crystal structure of Trypanosoma (T) brucei CYP51 in complex with the substrate analog 14{alpha}-methylenecyclopropyl-{Delta}7-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (MCP). This sterol binds tightly to all protozoan CYP51s and acts as a competitive inhibitor of F105-containing (plant-like) T. brucei and Leishmania (L) infantum orthologs, but it has a much stronger, mechanism-based inhibitory effect on I105-containing (animal/fungi-like) T. cruzi CYP51. Depicting substrate orientation in the conserved CYP51 binding cavity, the complex specifies the roles of the contact amino acid residues and sheds new light on CYP51 substrate specificity. It also provides an explanation for the effect of MCP on T. cruzi CYP51. Comparison with the ligand-free and azole-bound structures supports the notion of structural rigidity as the characteristic feature of the CYP51 substrate binding cavity, confirming the enzyme as an excellent candidate for structure-directed design of new drugs, including mechanism-based substrate analog inhibitors.

Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Waterman, Michael R.; Nes, W. David; Lepesheva, Galina I. (Vanderbilt); (TTU); (NWU)

2012-06-28

214

Derivate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

215

Sterol biosynthesis by the sea urchin Echinus esculentus  

PubMed Central

1. The 4-demethyl sterols of Echinus esculentus consisted of cholesterol as the major component, with lower concentrations of nine other C26, C27, C28 and C29 ?5 sterols. 2. [2-14C]Mevalonic acid was readily incorporated by the urchin into squalene, lanosterol and desmosterol but only to a small extent into cholesterol. 3. [26-14C]Desmosterol did not appear to be reduced to give cholesterol, but conversion of 5?-[2-3H2]lanost-8-en-3?-ol into cholesterol was observed. 4. No C-24 dealkylation of [4-14C]sitosterol or metabolism of [4-14C]cholesterol could be detected. PMID:4441383

Smith, Andrew G.; Goad, L. John

1974-01-01

216

Eco-friendly synthesis and study of new plant growth promoters: 3,3?-Diindolylmethane and its derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,3?-Diindolylmethane (DIM) derivatives 3a–k, prepared in one-pot from indoles 1a–k and hexamethylenetetramine (2) using ionic liquid [Bmim]BF4 as eco-friendly recyclable solvent as well as catalyst, showed good plant growth promoting activity on Oryza sativa. Among the DIM derivatives synthesized 3c shows potent auxin like growth promoting activity.

Churala Pal; Sumit Dey; Sanjit Kumar Mahato; Jayaraman Vinayagam; Prasun K. Pradhan; Venkatachalam Sesha Giri; Parasuraman Jaisankar; Tanvir Hossain; Shikhi Baruri; Debjit Ray; Suparna Mandal Biswas

2007-01-01

217

Practical synthesis of natural plant-growth regulator 2-azahypoxanthine, its derivatives, and biotin-labeled probes.  

PubMed

We describe a practical, large-scale synthesis of the "fairy-ring" plant-growth regulator 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX), and its biologically active hydroxyl metabolite (AOH) and riboside derivative (AHXr). AHXr, a biosynthetic intermediate, was synthesized from inosine via a biomimetic route. Biotinylated derivatives of AHX and AHXr were also synthesized as probes for mechanistic studies. PMID:24802664

Ikeuchi, Kazutada; Fujii, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Shimpei; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Inai, Makoto; Hamashima, Yoshitaka; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Kan, Toshiyuki

2014-06-21

218

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A; Talukder, F A

2006-01-01

219

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

2006-01-01

220

Effects of feeding plant-derived agents on the colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to test the potential use of plant-derived extracts and compounds to control Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Over a 7-wk feeding period, birds were fed a commercial diet with or without plant extracts (Acacia decurrens, Eremophila glabra), essential oil [lemon myrtle oil (LMO)], plant secondary compounds [terpinene-4-ol and ?-tops (including ?-terpineol, cineole, and terpinene-4-ol)], and the antibiotic virginiamycin. Traditional culture and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used to enumerate the numbers of C. jejuni in chicken fecal and cecal samples. In addition, BW and feed intake were recorded weekly for the calculation of BW gain and feed conversion ratio. The mean log10 counts of C. jejuni were similar (P > 0.05) across treatments. However, significantly lower levels of fecal Campylobacter counts (P < 0.05) were recorded at d 41 for the ?-tops treatment by culture methods. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW gain were obtained for dietary supplementation, except for the E. glabra extract, which had a negative impact (P < 0.001) on BW, resulting in sporadic death. Results from this study suggest that supplemental natural compounds used in the current study did not reduce the shedding of C. jejuni to desired levels. PMID:25002548

Kurekci, Cemil; Al Jassim, Rafat; Hassan, Errol; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Padmanabha, Jagadish; McSweeney, Christopher S

2014-09-01

221

Derivation of predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for HHCB to terrestrial species (plants and invertebrates).  

PubMed

The 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-(?)-2-benzopyrane (HHCB) is a synthetic musk which is used as a fragrance in a variety of personal care products, and due to this it is widely spread in the environment. However, there is no paper dealing with the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for HHCB to terrestrial species using the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method, mainly results from the shortage of species toxicity data of different taxonomic levels. In this study, toxicity data were obtained from 10 chronic toxicity tests using 10 terrestrial species (3 dicotyledonous plants, 5 monocotyledonous plants and 2 terrestrial invertebrates) from 3 Phyla and 9 Families. The PNEC of HHCB was derived using the SSD method. The result of present research showed that the dicotyledonous Solanum lycopersicum was the most sensitive plants to HHCB contamination. The PNEC ranged between 0.70 and 3.52mgHHCB/kg when using the log-logistic SSD method. It is recommended to use toxicity data of different taxonomic levels for the development of PNEC values in terrestrial environment due to different species sensitivity. PMID:25474169

Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Zhengtao; Wang, Wanhua; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Lihong

2015-03-01

222

Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality  

PubMed Central

Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ?23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

2012-01-01

223

Effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids.  

PubMed

Some protozoa of the Trypanosomatidae family have a close relationship with an endosymbiotic bacterium. As the prokaryote envelope has a controversial origin, a sterol 24-methyltransferase inhibitor (20-piperidin-2-yl-5alpha-pregnan-3beta,20-diol; 22,26-azasterol) was used as a tool to investigate lipid biosynthetic pathways in Crithidia deanei, an endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatid. Apart from antiproliferative effects, this drug induced ultrastructural alterations, consisting of myelin-like figures in the cytoplasm and endosymbiont envelope vesiculation. Concurrently, a dramatic reduction of 24-alkyl sterols was observed after 22,26-azasterol treatment, both in whole cell homogenates, as well as in isolated mitochondria. These effects were associated with changes of phospholipid composition, in particular a reduction of the phosphatidylcholine content and a concomitant increase in phosphatidylethanolamine levels. Lipid analyses of purified endosymbionts indicated a complete absence of sterols, and their phospholipid composition was different from that of mitochondria or whole protozoa, being similar to eubacteria closely associated with eukaryotes. PMID:16436059

Palmié-Peixoto, Isabella Vieira; Rocha, Marcia Rosa; Urbina, Julio A; de Souza, Wanderley; Einicker-Lamas, Marcelo; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado

2006-02-01

224

Large-scale Gene Ontology analysis of plant transcriptome-derived sequences retrieved by AFLP technology  

PubMed Central

Background After 10-year-use of AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technology for DNA fingerprinting and mRNA profiling, large repertories of genome- and transcriptome-derived sequences are available in public databases for model, crop and tree species. AFLP marker systems have been and are being extensively exploited for genome scanning and gene mapping, as well as cDNA-AFLP for transcriptome profiling and differentially expressed gene cloning. The evaluation, annotation and classification of genomic markers and expressed transcripts would be of great utility for both functional genomics and systems biology research in plants. This may be achieved by means of the Gene Ontology (GO), consisting in three structured vocabularies (i.e. ontologies) describing genes, transcripts and proteins of any organism in terms of their associated cellular component, biological process and molecular function in a species-independent manner. In this paper, the functional annotation of about 8,000 AFLP-derived ESTs retrieved in the NCBI databases was carried out by using GO terminology. Results Descriptive statistics on the type, size and nature of gene sequences obtained by means of AFLP technology were calculated. The gene products associated with mRNA transcripts were then classified according to the three main GO vocabularies. A comparison of the functional content of cDNA-AFLP records was also performed by splitting the sequence dataset into monocots and dicots and by comparing them to all annotated ESTs of Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. On the whole, the statistical parameters adopted for the in silico AFLP-derived transcriptome-anchored sequence analysis proved to be critical for obtaining reliable GO results. Such an exhaustive annotation may offer a suitable platform for functional genomics, particularly useful in non-model species. Conclusion Reliable GO annotations of AFLP-derived sequences can be gathered through the optimization of the experimental steps and the statistical parameters adopted. The Blast2GO software was shown to represent a comprehensive bioinformatics solution for an annotation-based functional analysis. According to the whole set of GO annotations, the AFLP technology generates thorough information for angiosperm gene products and shares common features across angiosperm species and families. The utility of this technology for structural and functional genomics in plants can be implemented by serial annotation analyses of genome-anchored fragments and organ/tissue-specific repertories of transcriptome-derived fragments. PMID:18652646

Botton, Alessandro; Galla, Giulio; Conesa, Ana; Bachem, Christian; Ramina, Angelo; Barcaccia, Gianni

2008-01-01

225

Conversion of Exogenous Cholesterol into Glycoalkaloids in Potato Shoots, Using Two Methods for Sterol Solubilisation  

PubMed Central

Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are toxic secondary metabolites naturally occurring in the potato, as well as in certain other Solanaceous plant species, such as tomato, eggplant and pepper. To investigate the steroidal origin of SGA biosynthesis, cut potato shoots were fed cholesterol labelled with deuterium (D) in the sterol ring structure (D5- or D6-labelled), or side chain (D7-labelled), and analysed after three or five weeks. The labelled cholesterol and presence of D-labelled SGA were analysed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. When feeding D-labelled cholesterol solubilised in Tween-80, labelled cholesterol in free form became present in both leaves and stems, although the major part was recovered as steryl esters. Minor amounts of D-labelled SGA (?-solanine and ?-chaconine) were identified in cholesterol-treated shoots, but not in blank controls, or in shoots fed D6-27-hydroxycholesterol. Solubilising the labelled cholesterol in methyl-?-cyclodextrin instead of Tween-80 increased the levels of labelled SGA up to 100-fold, and about 1 mole% of the labelled cholesterol was recovered as labelled SGA in potato leaves. Both side chain and ring structure D labels were retained in SGA, showing that the entire cholesterol molecule is converted to SGA. However, feeding side chain D7-labelled cholesterol resulted in D5-labelled SGA, indicating that two hydrogen atoms were released during formation of the SGA nitrogen-containing ring system. Feeding with D7-sitosterol did not produce any labelled SGA, indicating that cholesterol is a specific SGA precursor. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a superior performance of methyl-?-cyclodextrin for delivery of cholesterol in plant tissue feeding experiments, and given firm evidence for cholesterol as a specific sterol precursor of SGA in potato. PMID:24349406

Petersson, Erik V.; Nahar, Nurun; Dahlin, Paul; Broberg, Anders; Tröger, Rikard; Dutta, Paresh C.; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke

2013-01-01

226

Inorganic Nitrogen Derived from Foraging Honey Bees Could Have Adaptive Benefits for the Plants They Visit  

PubMed Central

In most terrestrial ecosystems, nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. Honey bees may help alleviate this limitation because their feces (frass) have high concentration of organic nitrogen that may decompose in soil and provide inorganic N to plants. However, information on soil N processes associated with bee frass is not available. The objectives of this work were to 1) estimate the amount of bee frass produced by a honey bee colony and 2) evaluate nitrogen mineralization and ammonia volatilization from bee frass when surface applied or incorporated into soil. Two cage studies were conducted to estimate the amount of frass produced by a 5000-bee colony, and three laboratory studies were carried out in which bee frass, surface-applied or incorporated into soil, was incubated at 25oC for 15 to 45 days. The average rate of bee frass production by a 5,000-bee colony was estimated at 2.27 to 2.69 g N month?1. Nitrogen mineralization from bee frass during 30 days released 20% of the organic N when bee frass was surface applied and 34% when frass was incorporated into the soil. Volatilized NH3 corresponded to 1% or less of total N. The potential amount of inorganic N released to the soil by a typical colony of 20,000 bees foraging in an area similar to that of the experimental cages (3.24 m2) was estimated at 0.62 to 0.74 g N m?2 month?1 which may be significant at a community scale in terms of soil microbial activity and plant growth. Thus, the deposition of available N by foraging bees could have adaptive benefits for the plants they visit, a collateral benefit deriving from the primary activity of pollination. PMID:23923006

Mishra, Archana; Afik, Ohad; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Delaplane, Keith S.; Mowrer, Jason E.

2013-01-01

227

Dialkylimidazole inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi sterol 14?-demethylase as anti-Chagas disease agents  

PubMed Central

New dialkylimidazole based sterol 14?-demethylase inhibitors were prepared and tested as potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents. Previous studies had identified compound 2 as the most potent and selective inhibitor against parasite cultures. In addition, animal studies had demonstrated that compound 2 is highly efficacious in the acute model of the disease. However, compound 2 has a high molecular weight and high hydrophobicity, issues addressed here. Systematic modifications were carried out at four positions on the scaffold and several inhibitors were identified which are highly potent (EC50<1 nM) against T. cruzi in culture. The halogenated derivatives 36j, 36k, and 36p, display excellent activity against T.cruzi amastigotes, with reduced molecular weight and lipophilicity, and exhibit suitable physicochemical properties for an oral drug candidate. PMID:24120539

Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Racherla, Kishore Kumar; Olepu, Srinivas; Norcross, Neil R.; Tatipaka, Hari Babu; Arif, Jennifer A.; Planer, Joseph D.; Lepesheva, Galina; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

2014-01-01

228

Two novel C29-5beta-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii.  

PubMed

Two novel C29-5beta-sterols, opuntisterol [(24R)-24-ethyl-5beta-cholest-9-ene-6beta,12alpha-diol] (1) and opuntisteroside [(24R)-24-ethyl-6beta-[(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5beta-cholest-9-ene-12alpha-ol] (2), together with nine known compounds, beta-sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), friedelin (5), methyl linoleate (6), 7-oxositosterol (7), 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (8), daucosterol (9), methyl eucomate (10) and eucomic acid (11), were isolated from the stems of Opuntia dillenii collected in Guizhou Province, China. Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 were deduced from comparative 1H NMR data of the (S)- and (R)-methoxyphenyl acetate derivatives. Compounds 6-8, 10 and 11 were isolated from O. dillenii for the first time. PMID:17112557

Jiang, Jianqin; Li, Yanfang; Chen, Zhen; Min, Zhida; Lou, Fengchang

2006-12-01

229

A sterol-binding protein integrates endosomal lipid metabolism with TOR signaling and nitrogen sensing.  

PubMed

Kes1, and other oxysterol-binding protein superfamily members, are involved in membrane and lipid trafficking through trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomal systems. We demonstrate that Kes1 represents a sterol-regulated antagonist of TGN/endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate signaling. This regulation modulates TOR activation by amino acids and dampens gene expression driven by Gcn4, the primary transcriptional activator of the general amino acid control regulon. Kes1-mediated repression of Gcn4 transcription factor activity is characterized by nonproductive Gcn4 binding to its target sequences, involves TGN/endosome-derived sphingolipid signaling, and requires activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module of the enigmatic "large Mediator" complex. These data describe a pathway by which Kes1 integrates lipid metabolism with TORC1 signaling and nitrogen sensing. PMID:22341443

Mousley, Carl J; Yuan, Peihua; Gaur, Naseem A; Trettin, Kyle D; Nile, Aaron H; Deminoff, Stephen J; Dewar, Brian J; Wolpert, Max; Macdonald, Jeffrey M; Herman, Paul K; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Bankaitis, Vytas A

2012-02-17

230

Polysaccharides and sterols from green algae Caulerpa lentillifera and C. sertularioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterols and polysaccharides of green alga Caulerpa lentillifera grown under laboratory conditions and in mariculture and polysaccharides of green alga C. sertularioides grown under natural conditions were studied. The sterol fraction consisted of C27-C29 steroidal alcohols with ?5-unsaturation in the steroid core regardless of the growth conditions. The dominant (79.9%) steroid component of the sterol\\u000a fraction was clionasterol. The water-soluble

N. M. Shevchenko; Yu. V. Burtseva; T. N. Zvyagintseva; O. S. Sergeeva; A. M. Zakharenko; V. V. Isakov; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Xuan Hoa; Bui Minh Ly; Pham Van Huyen

2009-01-01

231

Comparative effects of cholestanol and cholesterol on hepatic sterol and bile acid metabolism in the rat.  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of cholestanol, the 5 alpha-dihydro derivative of cholesterol are found in tissues of patients with the rare inherited sterol storage disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Although small amounts of cholestanol are present in virtually every tissue of normal man, little is known about its metabolism and effect on cholesterol and bile acid formation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the absorption and metabolism of cholestanol and its early effects on hepatic morphology and on the rate-limiting enzymes of cholesterol and bile acid biosynthesis. After 2 wk on a diet supplemented with 2% cholestanol, total liver sterol content increased by 48% (3.26 vs. 2.20 mg/g), and resulted in a significant rise in hepatic cholestanol concentration to 1.4 mg/g. However, cholestanol was less efficiently absorbed from the intestine than cholesterol and interfered with cholesterol absorption. Furthermore, hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity rose 2.6-fold (from 150.3 to 397.0 pmol/mg per min) during cholestanol feeding, and was associated with a marked proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the centrilobular areas. In addition, significant amounts of allocholic acid (16%) and allochenodeoxycholic acid (5%) were formed from cholestanol and excreted in the bile. These results show that cholestanol is absorbed from the intestine, interferes with cholesterol absorption, and is deposited in the liver. However, in contrast to cholesterol, cholestanol feeding was associated with a marked elevation of HMG-CoA reductase activity. Thus, despite structural similarity between cholesterol and its 5 alpha-saturated derivative, cholestanol does not exert feedback inhibition on hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. Images PMID:6501569

Shefer, S; Hauser, S; Salen, G; Zaki, F G; Bullock, J; Salgado, E; Shevitz, J

1984-01-01

232

Construction and growth properties of a yeast strain defective in sterol 14-reductase.  

PubMed

We have transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a genomic library contained in the replicative vector pFL44. The resulting transformants were screened for resistance to fenpropidin, a specific inhibitor of sterol 14-reductase. A plasmid was isolated that transformed yeast both to resistance to fenpropidin and to an increased specific activity of sterol 14-reductase. Sterol analysis of transformed cells grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of the inhibitor confirmed that resistance was a consequence of over-production of sterol 14-reductase. By chromosomal gene disruption, we have, for the first time, constructed yeast strains defective in sterol 14-reductase. As expected, since yeast in unable to take up sterols in aerobiosis, the disrupted strains do not grow in the presence of oxygen, even if exogenous sterols are supplied. However, disrupted cells grow in anaerobiosis with exogenous oleic acid and ergosterol supplements. They also grow in aerobiosis if they bear an additional mutation allowing sterol uptake. In this last growth condition the cells require a "sparking" ergosterol supplementation (25 nM) and accumulate ignosterol (ergosta-8,14-dienol) as the end-product of the sterol pathway. These results reveal that ignosterol is not obviously toxic to yeast membranes and strongly suggest that the molecular basis of the antifungal-activity morpholine and piperidine is directly related to the specific inhibition of ergosterol formation. PMID:1394506

Marcireau, C; Guyonnet, D; Karst, F

1992-10-01

233

Spreads enriched with three different levels of vegetable oil sterols and the degree of cholesterol lowering in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the dose-response relationship between cholesterol lowering and three different, relatively low intake levels of plant sterols (0.83, 1.61, 3.24 g\\/d) from spreads. To investigate the effects on lipid-soluble (pro)vitamins.Design: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled balanced incomplete Latin square design using five spreads and four periods. The five study spreads included butter, a commercially available spread and three

HFJ Hendriks; JA Weststrate; T van Vliet; GW Meijer

1999-01-01

234

Invasive plant-derived biochar inhibits sulfamethazine uptake by lettuce in soil.  

PubMed

Veterinary antibiotics are frequently detected in soils posing potential contamination of food crops. Sulfamethazine (SMT) uptake was investigated by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in the soils treated with/without biochar derived from an invasive plant, burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) (BBC700). Soils were contaminated with SMT at 5 and 50mgkg(-1), and treated with/without 5% BBC700 (ww(-1)). The lettuces were harvested after 5weeks of cultivation and were analyzed for SMT by a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. With 5% BBC700, the uptake of SMT was reduced by 86% in the soil spiked with 5mgkg(-1) SMT compared to the control whereas a 63% reduction was observed in the soil spiked with 50mgkg(-1) SMT. Application of BBC700, into soils effectively reduced the SMT uptake by lettuce. PMID:24997958

Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Vithanage, Meththika; Lim, Jung Eun; Ahmed, Mohamed Bedair M; Zhang, Ming; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

2014-09-01

235

Behavioral effects of plant-derived essential oils in the geller type conflict test in mice.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to further explore plant-derived essential oils that possess an anticonflict effect using the Geller type conflict test in ICR mice. The benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam increased the response (lever pressing) rate during the alarm period (i.e., an anticonflict effect), but the 5-HT1A partial agonist buspirone did not. Oils of juniper, cypress, geranium and jasmine did not produce any effect in this test. Frankincense oil decreased the response rate during the safe period at 1600 mg/kg, but did not exhibit any effect on the response rate during the alarm period. In contrast, lavender oil increased the response rate during the alarm period in a dose-dependent manner in the same manner as diazepam. These results indicate that not only rose oil but also lavender oil possess an anticonflict effect in mice. PMID:10928328

Umezu, T

2000-06-01

236

Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants.  

PubMed

In plant-ant-hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners, Asclepias curassavica and Asclepias incarnata, and we measured the responses of experimental Linepithema humile ant colonies to these honeydews. The compositions of secondary metabolites, sugars, and amino acids differed significantly in the honeydews from the two plant species. Ant colonies feeding on honeydew derived from A. incarnata recruited in higher numbers to artificial diet, maintained higher queen and worker dry weight, and sustained marginally more workers than ants feeding on honeydew derived from A. curassavica. Ants feeding on honeydew from A. incarnata were also more exploratory in behavioral assays than ants feeding from A. curassavica. Despite performing better when feeding on the A. incarnata honeydew, ant workers marginally preferred honeydew from A. curassavica to honeydew from A. incarnata when given a choice. Our results demonstrate that plant congeners can exert strong indirect effects on ant colonies by means of plant-species-specific differences in aphid honeydew chemistry. Moreover, these effects changed ant behavior and thus could feed back to affect plant performance in the field. PMID:25505534

Pringle, Elizabeth G; Novo, Alexandria; Ableson, Ian; Barbehenn, Raymond V; Vannette, Rachel L

2014-11-01

237

Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants  

PubMed Central

In plant–ant–hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners, Asclepias curassavica and Asclepias incarnata, and we measured the responses of experimental Linepithema humile ant colonies to these honeydews. The compositions of secondary metabolites, sugars, and amino acids differed significantly in the honeydews from the two plant species. Ant colonies feeding on honeydew derived from A. incarnata recruited in higher numbers to artificial diet, maintained higher queen and worker dry weight, and sustained marginally more workers than ants feeding on honeydew derived from A. curassavica. Ants feeding on honeydew from A. incarnata were also more exploratory in behavioral assays than ants feeding from A. curassavica. Despite performing better when feeding on the A. incarnata honeydew, ant workers marginally preferred honeydew from A. curassavica to honeydew from A. incarnata when given a choice. Our results demonstrate that plant congeners can exert strong indirect effects on ant colonies by means of plant-species-specific differences in aphid honeydew chemistry. Moreover, these effects changed ant behavior and thus could feed back to affect plant performance in the field. PMID:25505534

Pringle, Elizabeth G; Novo, Alexandria; Ableson, Ian; Barbehenn, Raymond V; Vannette, Rachel L

2014-01-01

238

Sterol-inhibiting fungicide impacts on soil microbial ecology in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-five percent of the peanuts (Arachus hypogaia) produced in the United States are grown in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region. Portions of this area, including Alabama and Georgia, exhibit a subtropical climate that promotes soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Most fields receive repeated fungicide applications during the growing season to suppress the disease causing organisms, such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Information regarding fungicide effects on the soil microbial community, with components principally responsible for transformation and fate of fungicides and other soil-applied pesticides, is limited. The objectives of the study were to assess soil microbial community response to (1) varying rates of the sterol-inhibiting fungicide tebuconazole (0, single application, season max, 2x season max), and (2) field rates of the sterol-inhibitors cyproconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, and flutriafol, and thiol-competitor chlorothalonil. The sterol-inhibitors exhibited different half lives, as listed in the FOOTPRINT database, ranging from <1 day to >1300 d. Chlorothalonil was chosen because it is the most frequently applied fungicide to peanut. Shifts in the fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, were monitored during the experiments using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Ergosterol levels and pesticide decay rates were also monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and soil residence time, respectively. In the rate study, the highest rate of tebuconazole reduced the fungal biomarker 18:2?6,9c to 2.6 nmol g-1 dry soil at 17 d, as compared to the control (4.1 nmol g-1 dry soil). However, levels of the fungal PLFA biomarker were similar regardless of rate at 0 and 32 d. The gram negative bacterial PLFA mole percent was greater at 17 d for the two highest rates of tebuconazole, but was similar at 0 and 32 d. Gram positive and fungal mole percents were not affected at any time point. Tebuconazole half life was approximately 10 d regardless of rate. A principle components analysis revealed negligible fungicide impact on PLFA. In the field rate study soil samples were collected immediately following fungicide application to peanut. A laboratory dissipation study, accompanied by PLFA and ergosterol analysis is currently being conducted. Results from the rate experiment indicate that tebuconazole's effect was transient due to rapid dissipation and suggest a gram negative bacterial role. Results obtained from both studies will be useful in predicting the environmental fate and impact of fungicides commonly used for production of peanut and other crops on soil microorganisms.

White, P. M.; Potter, T. L.; Strickland, T. C.

2008-12-01

239

Effect of Plant-derived Hydrophobic Compounds on Soil Water Repellency in Dutch Sandy Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water repellency or hydrophobicity is a common and important soil property, which may diminish plant growth and promotes soil erosion leading to environmentally undesired situations. Hydrophobic organic compounds in the soil are derived from vegetation (leaves, roots, mosses) or microorganisms (fungi, bacteria), and these compounds induce soil water repellency (SWR) and can be called SWR-biomarkers. As common hydrophobic constituents of organic matter, plant lipids are mainly from wax layers of leaves and roots, whereas cutins and suberins as aliphatic biopolyesters occur in leaves and roots, respectively. Their unique compositions in soil can indicate the original vegetation sources. To investigate the individual or combined effects of the hydrophobic compounds on SWR and their possible associations with each other, we conducted experiments to analyse the organic composition of Dutch coastal dune sandy soils in relation to SWR. DCM/MeOH solvent is used to remove solvent soluble lipids. BF3-methanol is utilized to depolymerize cutins and suberins from isopropanol/NH3 extractable organic matter. Total organic carbon (TOC) has a positive linear relation with SWR only for those soils containing low TOC (

Mao, Jiefei; Dekker, Stefan C.; Nierop, Klaas G. J.

2013-04-01

240

Inhibitory effects of plant-derived flavonoids and phenolic acids on malonaldehyde formation from ethyl arachidonate.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of naturally occurring plant compounds were measured in a lipid peroxidation system consisting of ethyl arachidonate and Fenton's reagent. Inhibitory effects of 24 plant-derived flavonoids and 5 phenolic acids on malonaldehyde (MA) formation from ethyl arachidonate were examined using gas chromatography (GC) with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). Luteolin, which showed the strongest antioxidant activity, inhibited MA formation by 94% and 97% at the levels of 0.5 and 1.0 mM, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the flavones and flavonols decreased in the following order: luteolin > rhamnetin > fisetin > kaempferol > morin > quercetin. Among the flavanones tested, hesperitin, taxifolin, and naringenin exhibited appreciable antioxidant activities (61-84%) at the 1.0 mM level. The inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin gallate (82.5% at the 1.0 mM level) was the strongest among the flavan-3-ols tested. Ferulic acid had the most potent antioxidant activity (74.6% at the 1.0 mM level) of the phenolic acids tested. PMID:14611194

Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Takeoka, Gary R; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Han; Park, Byeoung-Soo

2003-11-19

241

Synthesis of Biginelli dihydropyrimidinone derivatives with various substituents on aluminium-planted mesoporous silica catalyst.  

PubMed

Biginelli reactions were well catalyzed on mesoporous silica MCM-41 (M41) whose activity was much greater than that of amorphous silica. Octane was the most suitable among 6 kinds of solvents examined. The addition of metal ions on M41 enhanced the catalytic activity in the order Al > Ti > Fe = In. Al-planted M41s with Si/Al ratios of 45-35 showed the highest catalytic activity and could be used repeatedly though a small loss of the activity was observed. The catalysis could widely be applied to obtain various substituted dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) with high yields, some of which were very difficult to prepare until now. In addition, Biginelli reactions were combined with formyl C-H insertion reactions of diazoester on mesoporous silica; that is, a tandem one-pot four-component DHPM synthesis was attempted. Acetaldehyde, ethyl diazoacetate, p-tolualdehyde, and urea could be condensed and the corresponding DHPM derivative was obtained with 50% yield on Al-planted M41. PMID:20165814

Murata, Hiroaki; Ishitani, Haruro; Iwamoto, Masakazu

2010-03-01

242

Proteomics Analyses of Bacillus subtilis after Treatment with Plumbagin, a Plant-Derived Naphthoquinone.  

PubMed

Abstract Infectious diseases and increasing antibiotic resistance among diverse classes of microbes are global health concerns and a prime focus of omics systems science applications in novel drug discovery. Plumbagin is a plant-derived naphthoquinone, a natural product that exhibits antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of plumbagin against Bacillus subtilis using two complementary proteomics techniques: two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Comparative quantitative proteomics analysis of plumbagin treated and untreated control samples identified differential expression of 230 proteins (1% FDR, 1.5 fold-change and ?2 peptides) in B. subtilis after plumbagin treatment. Pathway analysis involving the differentially expressed proteins suggested that plumbagin effectively increases heme and protein biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid synthesis was significantly reduced. Gene expression and metabolic activity assays further corroborated the proteomics findings. We anticipate that plumbagin blocks the cell division by altering the membrane permeability required for energy generation. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, offering new insights, at proteome level, for the putative mode(s) of action of plumbagin and attendant cellular targets in B. subtilis. The findings also suggest new ways forward for the modern omics-guided drug target discovery, building on traditional plant medicine. PMID:25562197

Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Ray, Sandipan; Sathe, Gajanan J; Prasad, T S Keshava; Rapole, Srikanth; Panda, Dulal; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

2015-01-01

243

More good news about polymeric plant- and algae-derived biomaterials in drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Natural polymers are continuously investigated for use in pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications due to the renewability of their supply. Besides the conventional use of natural materials in dosage form design such as fillers, they are progressively investigated as functional excipients in specialised dosage forms. The hydrophilic nature of natural polymers together with their non-toxic and biodegradable properties make them useful in the design of modified release dosage forms. Matrix type tablets and beads made from natural gums and mucilages often exhibit sustained drug release through erosion in combination with swelling. Natural polymers are used to reach different pharmaceutical objectives, for instance, inulin and pectin are plant derived polymers that have suitable properties to produce colon-specific drug delivery. Alginate is an example of a natural polymer that has been used in the formulation of gastro-retentive dosage forms. Different cellulose derived polymers have been investigated as coating materials for dosage forms. Natural polymers can be chemically modified to produce molecules with specific properties and formation of co-polymers or polymer mixtures provide new opportunities to develop innovative drug delivery systems. PMID:24597532

Scholtz, Jacques; Van der Colff, Jaco; Steenekamp, Jan; Stieger, Nicole; Hamman, Josias

2014-05-01

244

Plant-derived foods for the attenuation of allergic airway inflammation.  

PubMed

Asthma is an allergy-mediated inflammatory disease characterised by infiltration of the airway with mast cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The disease is induced by co-ordination of T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of polyphenolic bioactive compounds, which have been observed to have health-promoting properties when consumed by humans. In particular, fruit-derived proanthocyanins and anthocyanins have been found to attenuate lung inflammation. Epidemiological studies have revealed correlations between fruit consumption and a lower prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lower incidence of non-specific lung diseases. In this review we summarise the current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanism(s) involved in the development of allergic airway disease. We also review evidence of the beneficial effects of plant-derived foods, their components and metabolites in allergic airway inflammation arising from in vitro and rodent studies, epidemiological studies and human intervention trials. The mechanism, biological relevance and functional benefits, such as immune modulation (e.g. reduction in cytokine and eotaxin production), antioxidant ability, tissue remodelling and tight junction function are also discussed. PMID:23701570

Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Gould, Elaine M; Hurst, Roger D

2014-01-01

245

Detection of contaminating enzymatic activity in plant-derived recombinant biotechnology products.  

PubMed

Residual impurities in recombinantly produced protein biologics, such as host cell proteins (HCP), can potentially cause unwanted toxic or immunogenic responses in patients. Additionally, undetected impurities found in recombinant proteins used in cell culture may adversely impact basic research and biotechnology applications. Currently, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the standard for detection of residual HCP contamination in recombinantly produced biologics. Alternatively, two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is being developed as a tool for assessing this critical quality attribute. Both of these methods rely on the direct detection of HCPs and some previous knowledge of the contaminant. For contaminating enzymes, the mass level of the impurity may fall below the threshold of detection of these methods and underestimate the true impact. To address this point, here we demonstrate facile detection and characterization of contaminating phytase activity in rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) using a sensitive, label-free nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assay. We observed varying degrees of phytase contamination in biotechnology-grade rHSA from various manufacturers by monitoring the degradation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate by (31)P NMR. The observed lot-to-lot variability may result in irreproducible cell culture results and should be evaluated as a possible critical quality attribute in plant-derived biotherapeutics. PMID:25393810

Brinson, Robert G; Giulian, Gary G; Kelman, Zvi; Marino, John P

2014-12-01

246

Effect of biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban on the colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a symbiotic relationship with the majority of crop plants. AMF provide plants with nutrients (e.g., P), modulate the effect of metal and pathogen exposure, and increase tolerance to moisture stress. The benefits of AMF to plant growth make them important to the development of sustainable agriculture. The land application of biosolids is becoming an increasingly common practice in sustainable agriculture, as a source of nutrients. However, biosolids have been found to contain numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products including antimicrobial chemicals such as triclosan and triclocarban. The potential risks that these two compounds may pose to plant-AMF interactions are poorly understood. The current study investigated whether biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban affect the colonization of the roots of lettuce and corn plants by AMF. Plants were grown in soil amended with biosolids that contained increasing concentrations of triclosan (0 to 307?g/g dw) or triclocarban (0 to 304?g/g dw). A relationship between the concentration of triclosan or triclocarban and colonization of plants roots by AMF was not observed. The presence of biosolids did not have a significant (p>0.05) effect on percent colonization of corn roots but had a significant, positive effect (p<0.05) on lettuce roots. Biosolids-derived triclosan and triclocarban did not inhibit the colonization of crop plant roots by AMF. PMID:25497682

Prosser, R S; Lissemore, L; Shahmohamadloo, R S; Sibley, P K

2015-03-01

247

The mechanism of radical-trapping antioxidant activity of plant-derived thiosulfinates.  

PubMed

It has long been recognized that garlic and petiveria, two plants of the Allium genus--which also includes onions, leeks and shallots--possess great medicinal value. In recent times, the biological activities of extracts of these plants have been ascribed to the antioxidant properties of the thiosulfinate secondary metabolites allicin and S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate (BPT), respectively. Herein we describe our efforts to probe the mechanism of the radical-trapping antioxidant activity of these compounds, as well as S-propyl propanethiosulfinate (PPT), a saturated analog representative of the thiosulfinates that predominate in non-medicinal alliums. Our experimental results, which include thiosulfinate-inhibited autoxidations of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (ester) methyl linoleate, investigations of their decomposition kinetics, and radical clock experiments aimed at obtaining some quantitative insights into their reactions with peroxyl radicals, indicate that the radical-trapping activity of thiosulfinates is paralleled by their propensity to undergo Cope elimination to yield a sulfenic acid. Since sulfenic acids are transient species, we complement our experimental studies with the results of theoretical calculations aimed at understanding the radical-trapping behaviour of the sulfenic acids derived from allicin, BPT and PPT, and contrasting the predicted thermodynamics and kinetics of their reactions with those of the parent thiosulfinates. The calculations reveal that sulfenic acids have among the weakest O-H bonds known (ca. 70 kcal mol(-1)), and that their reactions with peroxyl radicals take place by a near diffusion-controlled proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism. As such, it is proposed that the abundance of a thiosulfinate in a given plant species, and the ease with which it undergoes Cope elimination to form a sulfenic acid, accounts for the differences in antioxidant activity, and perhaps medicinal value, of extracts of these plants. Interestingly, while the Cope elimination of 2-propenesulfenic acid from allicin is essentially irreversible, the analogous reaction of BPT is readily reversible. Thus, in the absence of chain-carrying peroxyl radicals (or other appropriately reactive trapping agent), BPT is reformed. PMID:21445384

Lynett, Philip T; Butts, Krista; Vaidya, Vipraja; Garrett, Graham E; Pratt, Derek A

2011-05-01

248

Purification, characterization and catalytic properties of human sterol 8-isomerase.  

PubMed Central

CHO 2, encoding human sterol 8-isomerase (hSI), was introduced into plasmids pYX213 or pET23a. The resulting native protein was overexpressed in erg 2 yeast cells and purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme exhibited a K (m) of 50 microM and a turnover number of 0.423 s(-1) for zymosterol, an isoelectric point of 7.70, a native molecular mass of 107000 Da and was tetrameric. The structural features of zymosterol provided optimal substrate acceptability. Biomimetic studies of acid-catalysed isomerization of zymosterol resulted in formation of cholest-8(14)-enol, whereas the enzyme-generated product was a Delta(7)-sterol, suggesting absolute stereochemical control of the reaction by hSI. Using (2)H(2)O and either zymosterol or cholesta-7,24-dienol as substrates, the reversibility of the reaction was confirmed by GC-MS of the deuterated products. The positional specific incorporation of deuterium at C-9alpha was established by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analyses of the enzyme-generated cholesta-7,24-dienol. Kinetic analyses indicated the reaction equilibrium ( K (eq)=14; DeltaG(o')=-6.5 kJ/mol) for double-bond isomerization favoured the forward direction, Delta(8) to Delta(7). Treatment of hSI with different high-energy intermediate analogues produced the following dissociation constants ( K (i)): emopamil (2 microM)=tamoxifen (1 microM)=tridemorph (1 microM)<25-azacholesterol (21 microM) sterol formation in cholesterol synthesis. PMID:12133002

Nes, W David; Zhou, Wenxu; Dennis, Allen L; Li, Haoxia; Jia, Zhonghua; Keith, Richard A; Piser, Timothy M; Furlong, Stephen T

2002-01-01

249

Triterpenes, A sterol and A monocyclic alcohol from Momordica charantia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five new compounds have been isolated from the fresh fruits of Momordica charantia and their structures elucidated through spectroscopic studies. These include three pentacyclic triterpenes 13-hydroxy-28-methoxy-urs-11-en-3-one (momordicin), 13?,28-epoxy-urs-11-en-3-one (momordicinin), 24-[1?-hydroxy,1?-methyl-2?-pentenyloxyl]-ursan-3-one (momordicilin), a sterol 3?-hydroxy-stigmasta-5,14-dien-16-one (momordenol) and a monocyclic alcohol 1-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-2-[8?,10?-dihydroxy-4?,7?-dimethyl-11?-hydroxy methyl-trideca]-3-ethyl-cyclohex-5-en-4-one (momordol).

Sabira Begum; Mansoor Ahmed; Bina S. Siddiqui; Abdullah Khan; Zafar S. Saify; Mohammed Arif

1997-01-01

250

Nitroguanidines induce bud break and change sterol content in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bud break in apple (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Golden Delicious) was induced by 1-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-3-nitroguanidine or 1-(?-ethylbenzyl)-3-nitroguanidine.\\u000a The optimum dose was 1000 ?M. An increase in bud fresh weight, dry weight, and length was more prominent in buds treated with\\u000a 1-(?-ethylbenzyl)-3-nitroguanidine than in those treated with 1-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-3-nitroguanidine. The sterol compositional\\u000a changes during bud break induced by 1-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-3-nitroguanidine were similar to those

S. Y. Wang; M. Faust

1989-01-01

251

Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity guided fractionations led to the isolation of two antitumor compounds 5a,8a-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22- dien-3b-D-glucopyranoside and 5,6-epoxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-7,22-dien-3b-ol from the methanol extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Two previously known compounds, ergosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 22-dihydroergosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of hitherto unknown sterols were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques with the former synthesized in order to confirm the identity of the sugar

Jin Woo Boka; Hans G. Klingeman; G. H. Neil Towers

252

Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity guided fractionations led to the isolation of two antitumor compounds 5?,8?-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3?-d-glucopyranoside and 5,6-epoxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-7,22-dien-3?-ol from the methanol extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Two previously known compounds, ergosteryl-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and 22-dihydroergosteryl-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of hitherto unknown sterols were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques with the former synthesized in order to confirm the identity of the sugar moiety

Jin Woo Bok; Leonard Lermer; Jeff Chilton; Hans G Klingeman; G. H. Neil Towers

1999-01-01

253

A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory  

PubMed Central

One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m?2 s?1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Goto, Eiji

2011-01-01

254

Inhaled tobacco sterols: uptake by the lungs and disposition to selected organs of rats  

SciTech Connect

Tobacco sterols (cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) are present in tobacco smoke and appear in plasma of mammals exposed to cigarette smoke. Because tobacco sterols may be important in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced lung and vascular diseases, we studied the pattern of deposition of cigarette sterols in the lungs and appearance of cigarette sterols in plasma and body organs of rats. After exposure to twenty 5 ml puffs of smoke from tobacco labeled with (4-/sup 14/C)cholesterol or beta-(4-/sup 14/C)sitosterol, rats were killed just after exposure (day 0) and on days 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, and 30, and the lungs and selected body organs analyzed for activity. We found that cigarette sterols are associated with particulates in cigarette smoke, deposited mostly in distal airspaces and parenchyma of the lungs, and appear in plasma and several body organs for more than 30 days after this single exposure to cigarette smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contained relatively small amounts of radiolabel for only the first few days, suggesting that most of the sterols were rapidly incorporated in lung parenchyma. Because disorders of sterol metabolism have been implicated in a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer, the significance of tobacco sterols to human smoking-induced diseases deserves further study.

Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Liebler, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

1988-08-01

255

Testicular concentration of meiosis-activating sterol is associated with normal testicular descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cryptorchid stallion, spermatogenesis is arrested at various levels before the completion of meiosis. In men, infantile cryptorchidism is also often associated with oligo- and azoospermia during adulthood. An impairment of spermatogenesis might be reflected in the level of locally produced factors. Formerly, a meiosis-activating sterol (T-MAS) has been isolated in murine and bovine testes. This sterol possesses the

I. B. Břgh; M. Baltsen; A. G. Byskov; T. Greve

2001-01-01

256

Plasma Membrane Sterols Are Essential for Sensing Osmotic Changes in the Halotolerant Alga Dunaliella.  

PubMed

The halotolerant alga Dunaliella responds to hyperosmotic stress by synthesis of massive amounts of glycerol. The trigger for this osmotic response is the change in cell volume, but the mechanism that senses volume changes is not known. Preincubation of Dunaliella salina with tridemorph, a specific inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis, inhibits glycerol synthesis and volume recovery. The inhibition is associated with suppression of [14C]bicarbonate incorporation into sterols and is correlated with pronounced depletion of plasma membrane sterols. Incubation of sterol-depleted cells with cholesterol hemisuccinate restores the capacity for volume regulation in response to hyperosmotic stress. Tridemorph as well as lovastatin also inhibit volume changes that are induced by high light in Dunaliella bardawil, a species that responds to high light intensity by synthesis of large amounts of [beta]-carotene. These volume changes result from accumulation of glycerol and are associated with de novo synthesis of sterols. The major plasma membrane sterol in D. salina and the high-light-induced sterol in D. bardawil co-migrate with ergosterol on thin-layer chromatography and on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that the osmosensory mechanism in Dunaliella resides in the plasma membrane, and that sterols have an important role in sensing osmotic changes. PMID:12228675

Zelazny, A. M.; Shaish, A.; Pick, U.

1995-12-01

257

Plasma Membrane Sterols Are Essential for Sensing Osmotic Changes in the Halotolerant Alga Dunaliella.  

PubMed Central

The halotolerant alga Dunaliella responds to hyperosmotic stress by synthesis of massive amounts of glycerol. The trigger for this osmotic response is the change in cell volume, but the mechanism that senses volume changes is not known. Preincubation of Dunaliella salina with tridemorph, a specific inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis, inhibits glycerol synthesis and volume recovery. The inhibition is associated with suppression of [14C]bicarbonate incorporation into sterols and is correlated with pronounced depletion of plasma membrane sterols. Incubation of sterol-depleted cells with cholesterol hemisuccinate restores the capacity for volume regulation in response to hyperosmotic stress. Tridemorph as well as lovastatin also inhibit volume changes that are induced by high light in Dunaliella bardawil, a species that responds to high light intensity by synthesis of large amounts of [beta]-carotene. These volume changes result from accumulation of glycerol and are associated with de novo synthesis of sterols. The major plasma membrane sterol in D. salina and the high-light-induced sterol in D. bardawil co-migrate with ergosterol on thin-layer chromatography and on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that the osmosensory mechanism in Dunaliella resides in the plasma membrane, and that sterols have an important role in sensing osmotic changes. PMID:12228675

Zelazny, A. M.; Shaish, A.; Pick, U.

1995-01-01

258

Boosting Crop Yields with Plant Steroids[W  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols and steroid hormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), are compounds that exert a wide range of biological activities. They are essential for plant growth, reproduction, and responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Given the importance of sterols and BRs in these processes, engineering their biosynthetic and signaling pathways offers exciting potentials for enhancing crop yield. In this review, we focus on how alterations in components of sterol and BR metabolism and signaling or application of exogenous steroids and steroid inhibitors affect traits of agronomic importance. We also discuss areas for future research and identify the fine-tuning modulation of endogenous BR content as a promising strategy for crop improvement. PMID:22438020

Vriet, Cécile; Russinova, Eugenia; Reuzeau, Christophe

2012-01-01

259

A promoter derived from taro bacilliform badnavirus drives strong expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants.  

PubMed

Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV) is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus which infects the monocotyledonous plant, taro ( Colocasia esculenta). A region of the TaBV genome spanning nucleotides 6,281 to 12 (T1200), including the 3' end of open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) and the intergenic region to the end of the tRNA(met)-binding site, was tested for promoter activity along with four different 5' deletion fragments (T600, T500, T250 and T100). In transient assays, only the T1200, T600, T500 fragments were shown to have promoter activity in taro leaf, banana suspension cells and tobacco callus. When these three promoters were evaluated in stably transformed, in vitro-grown transgenic banana and tobacco plants, all were found to drive near-constitutive expression of either the green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the stem (or pseudostem), leaves and roots, with strongest expression observed in the vascular tissue. In transgenic banana leaves, the T600 promoter directed four-fold greater GUS activity than that of the T1200, T500 and the maize polyubiquitin-1 promoters. In transgenic tobacco leaves, the levels of GUS expression directed by the three promoters was between four- and ten-fold lower than that of the double Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. These results indicate that the TaBV-derived promoters may be useful for the high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in either monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous species. PMID:12910370

Yang, I C; Iommarini, J P; Becker, D K; Hafner, G J; Dale, J L; Harding, R M

2003-08-01

260

Direct and stereospecific interaction of amphidinol 3 with sterol in lipid bilayers.  

PubMed

Amphidinol 3 (AM3), a polyhydroxy-polyene metabolite from the dinoflagellate Amphidinium klebsii, possesses potent antifungal activity. Although AM3 permeabilizes phospholipid membranes only in the presence of sterol, the detailed molecular basis by which AM3 recognizes sterols in membranes remains unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular interaction between sterols and AM3 in membranes from the viewpoint of stereospecific molecular recognition using ergosterol, cholesterol, and epicholesterol, which is the 3-OH epimer of cholesterol. Dye leakage assays, surface plasmon resonance experiments, (2)H and (31)P NMR measurements, and microscopic observations revealed that AM3 directly interacts with membrane sterols through the strict molecular recognition of the stereochemistry of the sterol 3-OH group. The direct interaction enhances the membrane binding efficiency of AM3, which subsequently permeabilizes membranes without altering membrane integrity. PMID:24773476

Espiritu, Rafael Atillo; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Tsuda, Masashi; Murata, Michio

2014-05-27

261

Annual Variation in the Sterol Content of Digitalis purpurea L. Seedlings.  

PubMed

Seedings from a single lot of Digitalis purpurea L. seeds were germinated in batches over a period of 13 months. A total lipid extract was made which was resolved into esterified and unconjugated plus glycosylated sterol fractions. The amounts of sterol in each fraction and in the total were compared for seedlings germinated at different times of the year. The amount of esterified sterols reached a maximum value from March until June, and a low value from July until January. In January, a sharp increase began which lasted until March. Amounts of unconjugated and glycosylated sterols were elevated from March until June, low from July until October, and on the rise from November until March. These data correlate with an annual cycle in seed germination. The phase of maximum sterol content of seedlings is followed by a period of null germination. PMID:16659713

Jacobsohn, M K; Jacobsohn, G M

1976-10-01

262

hydra Mutants of Arabidopsis Are Defective in Sterol Profiles and Auxin and Ethylene Signaling  

PubMed Central

The hydra mutants of Arabidopsis are characterized by a pleiotropic phenotype that shows defective embryonic and seedling cell patterning, morphogenesis, and root growth. We demonstrate that the HYDRA1 gene encodes a ?8-?7 sterol isomerase, whereas HYDRA2 encodes a sterol C14 reductase, previously identified as the FACKEL gene product. Seedlings mutant for each gene are similarly defective in the concentrations of the three major Arabidopsis sterols. Promoter::reporter gene analysis showed misexpression of the auxin-regulated DR5 and ACS1 promoters and of the epidermal cell file–specific GL2 promoter in the mutants. The mutants exhibit enhanced responses to auxin. The phenotypes can be rescued partially by inhibition of auxin and ethylene signaling but not by exogenous sterols or brassinosteroids. We propose a model in which correct sterol profiles are required for regulated auxin and ethylene signaling through effects on membrane function. PMID:12034894

Souter, Martin; Topping, Jennifer; Pullen, Margaret; Friml, Jiri; Palme, Klaus; Hackett, Rachel; Grierson, Don; Lindsey, Keith

2002-01-01

263

Annual Variation in the Sterol Content of Digitalis purpurea L. Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Seedings from a single lot of Digitalis purpurea L. seeds were germinated in batches over a period of 13 months. A total lipid extract was made which was resolved into esterified and unconjugated plus glycosylated sterol fractions. The amounts of sterol in each fraction and in the total were compared for seedlings germinated at different times of the year. The amount of esterified sterols reached a maximum value from March until June, and a low value from July until January. In January, a sharp increase began which lasted until March. Amounts of unconjugated and glycosylated sterols were elevated from March until June, low from July until October, and on the rise from November until March. These data correlate with an annual cycle in seed germination. The phase of maximum sterol content of seedlings is followed by a period of null germination. PMID:16659713

Jacobsohn, Myra K.; Jacobsohn, Gert M.

1976-01-01

264

Diet micronutrient balance matters: How the ratio of dietary sterols/steroids affects development, growth and reproduction  

E-print Network

Diet micronutrient balance matters: How the ratio of dietary sterols/steroids affects development a threshold level. In a recent study we showed that caterpillars reared on tobacco accumulating novel sterols/steroids examined how the dominant sterols (cholesterol and stigmasterol) and steroids (cholestanol and cholestanone

Behmer, Spencer T.

265

Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a recombinant sterol 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glucosides.  

PubMed

Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., a pharmacologically important herb vernacularly called Gur-Mar (sugar eliminator), is widely known for its antidiabetic action. This property of the herb has been attributed to the presence of bioactive triterpene glycosides. Although some information regarding pharmacology and phytochemical profiles of the plant are available, no attempts have been made so far to decipher the biosynthetic pathway and key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of steryl glucosides. The present report deals with the identification and catalytic characterization of a glucosyltransferase, catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glycosides. The full length cDNA (2572 bp) contained an open reading frame of 2106 nucleotides that encoded a 701 amino acid protein, falling into GT-B subfamily of glycosyltransferases. The GsSGT was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme suggested its key role in the biosynthesis of steryl glucosides with catalytic preference for C-3 hydroxyl group of sterols. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on cloning and biochemical characterization of a sterol metabolism gene from G. sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing glucosylation of a variety of sterols of biological origin from diverse organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. PMID:25250339

Tiwari, Pragya; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Mishra, B N; Sabir, Farzana; Sangwan, Neelam S

2014-01-01

266

Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of a Recombinant Sterol 3-O-Glucosyltransferase from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Catalyzing Biosynthesis of Steryl Glucosides  

PubMed Central

Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., a pharmacologically important herb vernacularly called Gur-Mar (sugar eliminator), is widely known for its antidiabetic action. This property of the herb has been attributed to the presence of bioactive triterpene glycosides. Although some information regarding pharmacology and phytochemical profiles of the plant are available, no attempts have been made so far to decipher the biosynthetic pathway and key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of steryl glucosides. The present report deals with the identification and catalytic characterization of a glucosyltransferase, catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glycosides. The full length cDNA (2572?bp) contained an open reading frame of 2106 nucleotides that encoded a 701 amino acid protein, falling into GT-B subfamily of glycosyltransferases. The GsSGT was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme suggested its key role in the biosynthesis of steryl glucosides with catalytic preference for C-3 hydroxyl group of sterols. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on cloning and biochemical characterization of a sterol metabolism gene from G. sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing glucosylation of a variety of sterols of biological origin from diverse organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. PMID:25250339

Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Mishra, B. N.; Sangwan, Neelam S.

2014-01-01

267

Cloning of an emopamil-binding protein (EBP)-like protein that lacks sterol delta8-delta7 isomerase activity.  

PubMed Central

EBP (emopamil-binding protein) is a high-affinity binding protein for [3H]emopamil and belongs to the family of so-called sigma receptors. Mutations that disrupt EBP's 3beta-hydroxysteroid sterol delta8-delta7 isomerase activity (EC 5.3.3.5) impair cholesterol biosynthesis and cause X-chromosomal dominant chondrodysplasia punctata. We identified a human cDNA for a novel EBPL (EBP-like protein) with a calculated mass of 23.2 kDa. Amino acid sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed that EBPL is distantly related to EBP (31% identity and 52% similarity) and found in animals but not in plants. EBPL is encoded by four exons on human chromosome 13q14.2 covering 30.7 kb, and a partially processed EBPL pseudogene was found on 16q21. The EBPL mRNA was expressed ubiquitously and most abundant in liver, lung and kidney. Upon heterologous expression in yeast EBPL had no detectable 3beta-hydroxysteroid sterol delta8-delta7 isomerase and sigma-ligand-binding activity. Nine out of ten amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity of EBP were conserved in EBPL. Replacement of the only differing residue (EBP-Y111W) reduced catalytic activity of EBP. Transfer of the divergent residue from EBP to EBPL (EBPL-W91Y) and chimaerization of EBP and EBPL at various positions failed to restore catalytic activity of EBPL. Chemical cross-linking induced homodimerization of EBPL and EBP. Whereas mevinolin increased the mRNA for EBP and DHCR7 (delta7-sterol reductase) in HepG2 cells, it had no effect on mRNAs for EBPL and sigma1 receptor, indicating that EBP and EBPL expression are not co-ordinated. We propose that EBPL has a yet-to-be-discovered function other than cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:12760743

Moebius, Fabian F; Fitzky, Barbara U; Wietzorrek, Georg; Haidekker, Alexander; Eder, Andrea; Glossmann, Hartmut

2003-01-01

268

Novel composition of mitochondrial genomes in Petunia somatic hybrids derived from cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial genomes of petunia somatic hybrid plants, which were derived from the fusion of male fertile P. hybrida protoplasts with cytoplasmic male sterile P. parodii protoplasts, were analyzed by endonuclease restriction and Southern blot hybridization analyses. We studied sterile and fertile somatic hybrids to address two main questions. First, is there any correlation between the mitochondrial DNA restriction banding

Maury L. Boeshore; Irit Lifshitz; Maureen R. Hanson; Shamay Izhar

1983-01-01

269

The promotive effect of smoke derived from burnt native vegetation on seed germination of Western Australian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of dormant seed to cold smoke derived from burnt native vegetation had a positive influence on germination in one or more seed provenances in 45 out of 94 species of native Western Australian plants that are normally hard to germinate. When tested under controlled conditions some species showed earlier germination in smoke treatments than controls; in others smoke-treated seeds

Kingsley W. Dixon; Shauna Roche; John S. Pate

1995-01-01

270

Anti-leishmanial activity of plant-derived acridones, flavaglines, and sulfur-containing amides.  

PubMed

Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are an important public health problem in endemic geographic regions in 88 countries worldwide, with around 12 million infected people. Treatment options are limited due to toxicity and teratogenicity of the available drugs, response problems in HIV/Leishmania co-infections, and upcoming resistances. In this study, we investigated the anti-leishmanial activity of 13 plant-derived compounds in vitro aiming to find new drug candidates. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated in human primary hepatocytes, and hemolytic activity was examined in freshly isolated erythrocytes. Two acridones, 5-hydroxynoracronycine and yukocitrine, two flavaglines, aglafoline and rocaglamide, and the sulfur-containing amide methyldambullin showed promising anti-leishmanial activities with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 34.84, 29.76, 7.45, 16.45, and 6.29 ?M, respectively. Hepatotoxic activities of 5-hydroxynoracronycine, yukocitrine, and methyldambullin were significantly lower compared to miltefosine and lower or equal compared to artesunate, whereas the ones of rocaglamide and aglafoline were slightly higher compared to miltefosine and significantly higher compared to artesunate. None of the compounds showed hemolytic activity. PMID:21417924

Astelbauer, Florian; Obwaller, Andreas; Raninger, Adriane; Brem, Brigitte; Greger, Harald; Duchęne, Michael; Wernsdorfer, Walther; Walochnik, Julia

2011-07-01

271

Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.  

PubMed

Abstract Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0?mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp. PMID:25062020

Fra?ková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, V?ra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klou?ek, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

2014-10-01

272

Assessment of dietary phytoestrogen intake via plant-derived foods in China.  

PubMed

The potential influence of dietary phytoestrogen exposure on human health during different life phases including early childhood is a matter of scientific debate. In order to improve the risk-benefit assessment of exposure to dietary phytoestrogen, reliable and age-stratified exposure data are desirable. For contributing to the database on phytoestrogen exposure, in the present study plant-derived foods from the Chinese market were analysed by LC-MS/MS for their contents of phytoestrogens, including daidzein, genistein, secoisolariciresinol, glycitein and coumestrol. The analytical data showed the presence of phytoestrogens in a concentration range of less than 0.1 to about 50 ?g g(-1). Dietary intake was assessed on the basis of average food intake data obtained from interviewing 1000 randomly selected people with the help of food frequency questionnaires. Based on the overall population sampled, the average total phytoestrogen intake was estimated at 232 ?g kg(-1) day(-1). Genistein contributed to about 66%, secoisolariciresinol and glycitein to about 10% each, and daidzein to about 7% of the overall intake. Coumestrol was present only in trace amounts. Age-related exposure assessment indicated that pre-pubertal children (aged 0-14 years) were exposed at the highest level with an average total phytoestrogen intake of 621 ?g kg(-1) day(-1). The substantially higher average exposure of children as compared with adults should trigger further research into the potential health effects of early life exposure to phytoestrogen. PMID:24950423

Hu, Xiao Juan; Song, Wan Rui; Gao, Li Ying; Nie, Shao Ping; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Xie, Ming Yong

2014-08-01

273

The Endocannabinoid System and Plant-Derived Cannabinoids in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and inflammation play critical roles in the development of diabetes and its complications. Recent studies provided compelling evidence that the newly discovered lipid signaling system (ie, the endocannabinoid system) may significantly influence reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, and subsequent tissue injury, in addition to its well-known metabolic effects and functions. The modulation of the activity of this system holds tremendous therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, ranging from cancer, pain, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases to obesity and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in primary diabetes and its effects on various diabetic complications, such as diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, particularly highlighting the mechanisms beyond the metabolic consequences of the activation of the endocannabinoid system. The therapeutic potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system and certain plant-derived cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol and ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, which are devoid of psychotropic effects and possess potent anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties, in diabetes and diabetic complications is also discussed. PMID:22155112

Horváth, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Haskó, György; Pacher, Pál

2012-01-01

274

Human pharmacokinetic study of tutin in honey; a plant-derived neurotoxin.  

PubMed

Over the last 150 years a number of people in New Zealand have been incapacitated, hospitalised, or died from eating honey contaminated with tutin, a plant-derived neurotoxin. A feature of the most recent poisoning incident in 2008 was the large variability in the onset time of clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity (0.5-17 h). To investigate the basis of this variability a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken in which 6 healthy males received a single oral dose of tutin-containing honey giving a tutin dose of 1.8 ?g/kg body weight. The serum concentration-time curve for all volunteers exhibited two discrete peaks with the second and higher level occurring at approximately 15 h post-dose. Two subjects reported mild, transient headache at a time post-dose corresponding to maximum tutin concentrations. There were no other signs or symptoms typical of tutin intoxication such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness or seizures. Pharmacokinetic analysis using a two-site absorption model resulted in a good fit to the observed concentration data. A novel analytical method subsequently revealed the presence of glycoside conjugates of tutin in addition to unconjugated tutin in honey. These pharmacokinetic data will be important to better define a safe maximum tutin concentration in honey. PMID:25084484

Fields, Barry A; Reeve, John; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Mueller, Utz

2014-10-01

275

Cytotoxic tetramic acid derivative produced by a plant type-III polyketide synthase.  

PubMed

The tetramic acid (2,4-pyrrolidinedione) scaffold has been recognized as an important structural feature because of its mycotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. This important class of natural products is reportedly produced by the type-I polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) hybrid megaenzyme systems. In contrast, the benzalacetone synthase (BAS) from Rheum palmatum is a structurally simple, plant-specific type-III PKS that catalyzes the one-step decarboxylative condensation of malonyl-CoA with 4-coumaroyl-CoA. The type-III PKS exhibits unusually broad substrate specificity and notable catalytic versatility. Here we report that R. palmatum BAS efficiently produces a series of unnatural, novel tetramic acid derivatives by the condensation of malonyl-CoA with aminoacyl-CoA thioesters chemically synthesized from L- and D-amino acids. Remarkably, the novel tetramic acid dimer D-5 formed from D-phenylalanoyl-CoA showed moderate antiproliferative activity against murine leukemia P388 cells. PMID:21391603

Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Mori, Takahiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

2011-04-01

276

Metabolism of a plant derived galactose?containing polysaccharide by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003  

PubMed Central

Summary In this study, we describe the functional characterization of the Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 gal locus, which is dedicated to the utilization of galactan, a plant?derived polysaccharide. Using a combination of molecular approaches we conclude that the galA gene of B. breve UCC2003 encodes a ??1,4?endogalactanase producing galacto?oligosaccharides, which are specifically internalized by an ABC transport system, encoded by galBCDE, and which are then hydrolysed to galactose moieties by a dedicated intracellular ??galactosidase, specified by galG. The generated galactose molecules are presumed to be fed into the fructose?6?phosphate phosphoketolase pathway via the Leloir pathway, thereby allowing B. breve UCC2003 to use galactan as its sole carbon and energy source. In addition to these findings we demonstrate that GalR is a LacI?type DNA?binding protein, which not only appears to control transcription of the galCDEGR operon, but also that of the galA gene. PMID:21375716

O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; van Sinderen, Douwe

2011-01-01

277

The endocannabinoid system and plant-derived cannabinoids in diabetes and diabetic complications.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and inflammation play critical roles in the development of diabetes and its complications. Recent studies provided compelling evidence that the newly discovered lipid signaling system (ie, the endocannabinoid system) may significantly influence reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, and subsequent tissue injury, in addition to its well-known metabolic effects and functions. The modulation of the activity of this system holds tremendous therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, ranging from cancer, pain, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases to obesity and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in primary diabetes and its effects on various diabetic complications, such as diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, particularly highlighting the mechanisms beyond the metabolic consequences of the activation of the endocannabinoid system. The therapeutic potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system and certain plant-derived cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol and ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, which are devoid of psychotropic effects and possess potent anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties, in diabetes and diabetic complications is also discussed. PMID:22155112

Horváth, Béla; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Haskó, György; Pacher, Pál

2012-02-01

278

Stable isotope analysis of plant-derived nitrate - novel method for discrimination between organically and conventionally grown vegetables.  

PubMed

The lack of reliable markers for the discrimination between organic and conventional products makes the organic food market susceptible to attempted fraud. Robust analytical methodologies for organic food authentication are urgently needed. In this study a new approach, compound-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of plant-derived nitrate, has been applied alongside bulk nitrogen isotope analysis for discrimination between organically and conventionally greenhouse-grown lettuce and retail potatoes and tomatoes. The method revealed significant differences between conventional and organic fertilisation. An intra-plant isotopic variation as well as significant impact of the fertiliser application rate on the nitrogen and oxygen isotope values of plant-derived nitrate has been observed. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate has a potential for differentiation between organic and conventional crops. Further analysis is needed to improve our understanding of the scope of application and robustness of this compound-specific approach. PMID:24518338

Mihailova, A; Pedentchouk, N; Kelly, S D

2014-07-01

279

Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.  

PubMed

In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible changes in the level of natural constituents beyond normal variation, and on the characteristics of the GM food and feed, and (ii) the possible occurrence of unintended (unexpected) effects in GM plants due to genetic modification. In order to identify these effects a comparative phenotypic and molecular analysis of the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart is carried out, in parallel with a targeted analysis of single specific compounds, which represent important metabolic pathways in the plant like macro and micro nutrients, known anti-nutrients and toxins. Significant differences may be indicative of the occurrence of unintended effects, which require further investigation. Section 2 provides an overview of studies performed for the safety and nutritional assessment of whole food and feed. Extensive experience has been built up in recent decades from the safety and nutritional testing in animals of irradiated foods, novel foods and fruit and vegetables. These approaches are also relevant for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. Many feeding trials have been reported in which GM foods like maize, potatoes, rice, soybeans and tomatoes have been fed to rats or mice for prolonged periods, and parameters such as body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, organ weights, histopathology etc have been measured. The food and feed under investigation were derived from GM plants with improved agronomic characteristics like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. The majority of these experiments did not indicate clinical effects or histopathological abnormalities in organs or tissues of exposed animals. In some cases adverse effects were noted, which were difficult to interpret due to shortcomings in the studies. Many studies have also been carried out with feed derived from GM plants with agronomic input traits in target animal species to assess the nutritive value of the feed and their performance potential. Studies in sheep, pigs, broilers, lactating dairy cows, and fish, comparing the in vivo bioavailability of nutrients fro

2008-03-01

280

Phthalide derivatives with antifungal activities against the plant pathogens isolated from the liquid culture of Pestalotiopsis photiniae.  

PubMed

Three new phthalide derivatives (1-3) named 5-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (1), 5-(3'-carboxyl-3'-methyl-2E-allyloxy)-3-methoxy-4-methylphthalide (2) and 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-2-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-4-methylbenzoic acid (3) together with six known phthalide derivatives named 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-3-methoxy-4-methylphthalide (4), zinnimidine (5), 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-3-methoxy-4-methylphthalide (6), 5-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-3-methoxy-4-methylphthalic acid (7), zinniol anhydride (8) and porriolide (9) were isolated from the liquid culture of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae isolated from the Chinese Podocarpaceae plant Podocarpus macrophyllus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-9 displayed significant antifungal activities against three plant pathogens. PMID:21915132

Yang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Su; Hu, Qiong-Bo; Luo, Du-Qiang; Zhang, Yan

2011-11-01

281

Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness  

PubMed Central

Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic ?-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der) was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM) plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP), had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic ?-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM plants expressing, for example, BP100 based on inverted repeats, have adequate agronomic performance and resistant phenotypes as a result of a complex equilibrium between bp100der toxicity to plant cells, antimicrobial activity and transgene-derived plant stress response. It is likely that these results can be extended to other peptides with similar characteristics. PMID:22947243

2012-01-01

282

Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 ?g g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 ?g g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate that defining a relationship among sources and fecal sterols levels is highly difficult and this could be the result of the absorption or migration through an intricate conduit, crack, or fracture karst system. Nevertheless, the "source-levels approach", used in this study, was consistent for the northeast edge and the middle western part of the RC. New and more extensive research should be done to assess the environmental fate of fecal sterols, especially considering the intricate karstic system and its compound retention capacity. PMID:25282019

Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreńa-Barroso, E

2014-11-01

283

Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 ?g g- 1) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 ?g g- 1). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate that defining a relationship among sources and fecal sterols levels is highly difficult and this could be the result of the absorption or migration through an intricate conduit, crack, or fracture karst system. Nevertheless, the “source-levels approach”, used in this study, was consistent for the northeast edge and the middle western part of the RC. New and more extensive research should be done to assess the environmental fate of fecal sterols, especially considering the intricate karstic system and its compound retention capacity.

Arcega-Cabrera, F.; Velázquez-Tavera, N.; Fargher, L.; Derrien, M.; Noreńa-Barroso, E.

2014-11-01

284

Effect of biologically active plants used as netst material and the derived benefit to starling nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European starling Sturnus vulgaris preferentially incorporates fresh sprigs of particular plant species for use as nesting material. Chemicals found in these plants may act to reduce pathogen and ectoparasite populations normally found in nest environments. The present experiments were performed to test this Nest Protection Hypothesis. In the fild, we experimentally determined that wild carrot Daucus carota, a plant

Larry Clark; J. Russell Mason

1988-01-01

285

Highly sensitive analysis of sterol profiles in human serum by LC-ESI-MS/MS.  

PubMed

We have developed a highly sensitive and specific method for the analysis of serum sterol profiles. Sterols in 1 mul of dried serum were derivatized into picolinyl esters (3beta-picolinate) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using the electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. In addition to cholesterol, 19 cholesterol precursors, cholestanol, campesterol, sitosterol, and sitostanol were identified simultaneously. Quantitative analyses for the picolinyl esters of 11 available sterols were performed, and detection limits were found to be less than 1 pg on-column. Reproducibilities and recoveries of 8 noncholesterol sterols were validated according to one-way layout and polynomial equation, respectively. The variances between sample preparations and between measurements by this method were calculated to be 1.6% to 8.2% and 2.5% to 16.5%, respectively. The recovery experiments were performed using 1 mul aliquots of normal human serum spiked with 1 ng to 6 ng of sterols, and recoveries of the sterols ranged from 88.1% to 102.5% with a mean recovery of 98.1%. The present method provides reliable and reproducible results for the identification and quantification of neutral sterols, especially in small volumes of blood samples, which is useful for serological diagnosis of inherited disorders in cholesterol metabolism and for noninvasive evaluation of cholesterol biosynthesis and absorption in humans. PMID:18503032

Honda, Akira; Yamashita, Kouwa; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Shirai, Mutsumi; Ikegami, Tadashi; Xu, Guorong; Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Hara, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

2008-09-01

286

Genome profiling of sterol synthesis shows convergent evolution in parasites and guides chemotherapeutic attack.  

PubMed

Sterols are an essential class of lipids in eukaryotes, where they serve as structural components of membranes and play important roles as signaling molecules. Sterols are also of high pharmacological significance: cholesterol-lowering drugs are blockbusters in human health, and inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis are widely used as antifungals. Inhibitors of ergosterol synthesis are also being developed for Chagas's disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we develop an in silico pipeline to globally evaluate sterol metabolism and perform comparative genomics. We generate a library of hidden Markov model-based profiles for 42 sterol biosynthetic enzymes, which allows expressing the genomic makeup of a given species as a numerical vector. Hierarchical clustering of these vectors functionally groups eukaryote proteomes and reveals convergent evolution, in particular metabolic reduction in obligate endoparasites. We experimentally explore sterol metabolism by testing a set of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors against trypanosomatids, Plasmodium falciparum, Giardia, and mammalian cells, and by quantifying the expression levels of sterol biosynthetic genes during the different life stages of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The phenotypic data correlate with genomic makeup for simvastatin, which showed activity against trypanosomatids. Other findings, such as the activity of terbinafine against Giardia, are not in agreement with the genotypic profile. PMID:24627128

Fügi, Matthias A; Gunasekera, Kapila; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Guan, Xueli; Wenk, Markus R; Mäser, Pascal

2014-05-01

287

A 2h-nmr Study Of Popc/sterol Membranes: Some Exciting Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent article [1], Y-W Hsueh et al showed that the 2H-NMR order parameter, M1, of 1-[2H31]palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/ergosterol multi-bilayers at 25oC increased linearly as a function of ergosterol concentration to 25 mol%, but did not increase further when more ergosterol was added. By contrast, M1 for POPC/cholesterol bilayers increases linearly to at least 50% sterol. The structural difference between cholesterol and ergosterol is that ergosterol has an additional double bond in its fused ring (C7-8) and a trans double bond (C22-23) plus a methyl group (at C24) in its alkyl chain. We study which of these structural changes is responsible for the observed saturation of the order parameter in POPC/ergosterol bilayers. In [1] it was shown that the M1 of POPC/7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) multilayers behaves similarly to that of POPC/cholesterol, increasing linearly with [7-DHC]. 7-DHC has an ergosterol fused ring structure but a cholesterol alkyl tail. To explore this phenomenon, we determined the sterol concentration dependence of POPC containing two different sterols with structural similarities with respect to the before studied sterols. Other sterols are also being investigated in order to understand the sensitivity of POPC/sterol membranes to the sterol's alkyl tail structure. [1] Y-W Hsueh et al., (2007) Biophys. J. 92:1606-1615.

Shaghaghi, Mehran; Zuckermann, Martin; Thewalt, Jenifer

2009-05-01

288

Sterol Transport In Yeast and the Oxysterol Binding Protein Homologue (OSH) Family  

PubMed Central

Sterols such as cholesterol are a significant component of eukaryotic cellular membranes, and their unique physical properties influence a wide variety of membrane processes. It is known that the concentration of sterol within the membrane varies widely between organelles, and that the cell actively maintains this distribution through various transport processes. Vesicular pathways such as secretion or endocytosis may account for this traffic, but increasing evidence highlights the importance of nonvesicular routes as well. The structure of an oxysterol-binding protein homologue (OSH) in yeast (Osh4p/Kes1p) has recently been solved, identifying it as a sterol binding protein, and there is evidence consistent with the role of a cytoplasmic, nonvesicular sterol transporter. Yeast have seven such proteins, which appear to have distinct but overlapping functions with regard to maintaining intracellular sterol distribution and homeostasis. Control of sterol distribution can have far-reaching effects on membrane-related functions, and Osh proteins have been implicated in a variety of processes such as secretory vesicle budding from the Golgi and establishment of cell polarity. This review summarizes the current body of knowledge regarding this family and its potential functions, placing it in the context of known and hypothesized pathways of sterol transport in yeast. PMID:17434796

Schulz, Timothy A.; Prinz, William A.

2007-01-01

289

Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of ?-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans-citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24682420

Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kuramochi, Kouji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

2014-06-01

290

Reduction of salmonella on Turkey breast cutlets by plant-derived compounds.  

PubMed

Abstract The foodborne illnesses associated with poultry meat due to Salmonella are a major concern in the United States. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of carvacrol, eugenol, thyme essential oil, and trans-cinnamaldehyde was determined against different Salmonella serotypes in vitro and on turkey breast cutlets. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of antimicrobial agents were determined using a microdilution colorimetric assay. Carvacrol was the most effective antimicrobial agent since it exhibited the lowest MIC and MBC (0.313??L/mL, respectively) in culture media against Salmonella. Turkey breast cutlets inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Typhimurium were dip treated with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 5% vol/vol) of carvacrol, eugenol, thyme essential oil, and trans-cinnamaldehyde for 2?min. Samples were analyzed after 24-h storage at 4°C for recovery of Salmonella. Significant reductions of Salmonella (p?0.05) on turkey breast cutlets were obtained with 1, 2, and 5% treatments. These compounds exhibited a concentration-dependent response on turkey breast cutlets against Salmonella. For example, 1% carvacrol resulted in 1.0 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g reduction of Salmonella whereas 5% carvacrol caused 2.6 log CFU/g reduction. Based on its efficacy in the 2-min dip study, carvacrol was selected for 30-s and 60-s dip treatments of Salmonella-inoculated turkey breast cutlets. Dipping turkey breast cutlets in 5% carvacrol for 30?s and 60?s resulted in 1.0 and 1.8 log reductions of Salmonella (p?0.05), respectively. None of the antimicrobial agents caused any changes in the meat pH (p>0.05). In conclusion, this study revealed that plant-derived compounds such as carvacrol can reduce Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets without changing the pH of meat. PMID:25405806

Nair, Divek V T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Schilling, Wes; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

2014-12-01

291

Classification of Plant Associated Bacteria Using RIF, a Computationally Derived DNA Marker  

PubMed Central

A DNA marker that distinguishes plant associated bacteria at the species level and below was derived by comparing six sequenced genomes of Xanthomonas, a genus that contains many important phytopathogens. This DNA marker comprises a portion of the dnaA replication initiation factor (RIF). Unlike the rRNA genes, dnaA is a single copy gene in the vast majority of sequenced bacterial genomes, and amplification of RIF requires genus-specific primers. In silico analysis revealed that RIF has equal or greater ability to differentiate closely related species of Xanthomonas than the widely used ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ITS). Furthermore, in a set of 263 Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter strains, the RIF marker was directly sequenced in both directions with a success rate approximately 16% higher than that for ITS. RIF frameworks for Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter were constructed using 682 reference strains representing different species, subspecies, pathovars, races, hosts and geographic regions, and contain a total of 109 different RIF sequences. RIF sequences showed subspecific groupings but did not place strains of X. campestris or X. axonopodis into currently named pathovars nor R. solanacearum strains into their respective races, confirming previous conclusions that pathovar and race designations do not necessarily reflect genetic relationships. The RIF marker also was sequenced for 24 reference strains from three genera in the Enterobacteriaceae: Pectobacterium, Pantoea and Dickeya. RIF sequences of 70 previously uncharacterized strains of Ralstonia, Clavibacter, Pectobacterium and Dickeya matched, or were similar to, those of known reference strains, illustrating the utility of the frameworks to classify bacteria below the species level and rapidly match unknown isolates to reference strains. The RIF sequence frameworks are available at the online RIF database, RIFdb, and can be queried for diagnostic purposes with RIF sequences obtained from unknown strains in both chromatogram and FASTA format. PMID:21533033

Schneider, Kevin L.; Marrero, Glorimar; Alvarez, Anne M.; Presting, Gernot G.

2011-01-01

292

CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Chromophoric dissolved organic (CDOM) in aquatic environments is derived from the microbial decomposition of terrestrial and microbial organic matter. Here we present results of studies of the spectral properties and photoreactivity of the CDOM derived from several organic matter...

293

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31

294

A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils  

PubMed Central

Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

2010-01-01

295

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

1973-01-01

296

Identification of new steroidal hydrocarbons in refined oils and the role of hydroxy sterols as possible precursors.  

PubMed

The dehydration of sterols during the refining process of vegetable oils results in the formation of steroidal hydrocarbons (sterenes or steradienes) with two double bonds in the ring system. Other steroidal hydrocarbons whose structures were in agreement with the presence of three double bonds in the ring system were detected in the sterene fractions of refined vegetable oils. The 5alpha-, 7alpha-, and 7beta-hydroxy derivatives of cholesterol and phytosterols have been dehydrated in n-butanol/H(3)PO(4) to form steroidal hydrocarbons with three double bonds at the 2, 4, and 6 positions in the ring system. These hydrocarbons had the same relative retention time and mass spectra as those present in the sterene fractions of refined oils. The dehydration of the hydroxy sterols dissolved in extra virgin olive oil and in the presence of 1% bleaching earths at 80 degrees C for 1 h results in the formation of the same steroidal hydrocarbons found in the refined oils. PMID:10775356

Bortolomeazzi, R; De Zan, M; Pizzale, L; Conte, L S

2000-04-01

297

Potential applications of plant based derivatives as fat replacers, antioxidants and antimicrobials in fresh and processed meat products.  

PubMed

Growing concern about diet and health has led to development of healthier food products. In general consumer perception towards the intake of meat and meat products is unhealthy because it may increase the risk of diseases like cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer, because of its high fat content (especially saturated fat) and added synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobials. Addition of plant derivatives having antioxidant components including vitamins A, C and E, minerals, polyphenols, flavanoids and terpenoids in meat products may decrease the risk of several degenerative diseases. To change consumer attitudes towards meat consumption, the meat industry is undergoing major transformations by addition of nonmeat ingredients as animal fat replacers, natural antioxidants and antimicrobials, preferably derived from plant sources. PMID:24845336

Hygreeva, Desugari; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K

2014-09-01

298

Insights on the susceptibility of plant pathogenic fungi to phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its chemical derivatives.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens strain M71 produced two phenazine compounds as main secondary metabolites. These metabolites were identified as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2-hydroxyphenazine (2-OH P). In this study, the spectrum of the activity of PCA and 2-OH P was evaluated against a group of crop and forestal plant pathogenic fungi by an agar plate bioassay. PCA was active against most of the tested plant pathogens, while 2-OH P slightly inhibited a few fungal species. Furthermore, four semisynthesised derivatives of PCA (phenazine-1-carboxymethyl, phenazine-1-carboxamide, phenazine-1-hydroxymethyl and phenazine-1-acetoxymethyl) were assayed for their antifungal activity against 11 phytopathogenic species. Results showed that the carboxyl group is a structural feature important for the antifungal activity of PCA. Since the activity of phenazine-1-carboxymethyl and phenazine-1-carboxamide, the two more lipophilic and reversible PCA derivatives remained substantially unaltered compared with PCA. PMID:22724439

Puopolo, Gerardo; Masi, Marco; Raio, Aida; Andolfi, Anna; Zoina, Astolfo; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

2013-01-01

299

New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 Derived from the Mangrove Plant Acanthus ilicifolius  

PubMed Central

Four new meroterpenoids (2–5), along with three known analogues (1, 6, and 7) were isolated from mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analysis, the configurations were assigned by CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1–7 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:25574738

Bai, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Xiuping; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefeng; Liu, Juan; Yang, Bin; Yang, Xianwen; Liao, Shengrong; Wang, Lishu; Liu, Yonghong

2015-01-01

300

Photinides A-F, cytotoxic benzofuranone-derived gamma-lactones from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae.  

PubMed

Photinides A-F (1-6), six new unique benzofuranone-derived gamma-lactones, have been isolated from the crude extract of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae. The structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR spectroscopy, and their absolute configurations were assigned by application of the CD excitation chirality method. Compounds 1-6 displayed modest cytotoxic effects against the human tumor cell line MDA-MB-231. PMID:19371070

Ding, Gang; Zheng, Zhihui; Liu, Shuchun; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

2009-05-22

301

New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 Derived from the Mangrove Plant Acanthus ilicifolius.  

PubMed

Four new meroterpenoids (2-5), along with three known analogues (1, 6, and 7) were isolated from mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analysis, the configurations were assigned by CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1-7 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:25574738

Bai, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Xiuping; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefeng; Liu, Juan; Yang, Bin; Yang, Xianwen; Liao, Shengrong; Wang, Lishu; Liu, Yonghong

2015-01-01

302

Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease effects of Isatis indigotica root and plant-derived phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-coronavirus mediates the proteolytic processing of replicase polypeptides 1a and 1ab into functional proteins, becoming an important target for the drug development. In this study, Isatis indigotica root extract, five major compounds of I. indigotica root, and seven plant-derived phenolic compounds were tested for anti-SARS-CoV 3CLpro effects using cell-free and cell-based cleavage assays. Cleavage assays

Cheng-Wen Lin; Fuu-Jen Tsai; Chang-Hai Tsai; Chien-Chen Lai; Lei Wan; Tin-Yun Ho; Chang-Chi Hsieh; Pei-Dawn Lee Chao

2005-01-01

303

Rapid inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs by plant-derived antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Salmonella Enteritidis is a common foodborne pathogen transmitted to humans largely by consumption of contaminated eggs. The external surface of eggs becomes contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis from various sources on farms, the main sources being hens' droppings and contaminated litter. Therefore, effective egg surface disinfection is critical to reduce pathogens on eggs and potentially control egg-borne disease outbreaks. This study investigated the efficacy of GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDA), namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and eugenol (EUG), as an antimicrobial wash for rapidly killing Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs in the presence or absence of chicken droppings. White-shelled eggs inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of nalidixic acid (NA) resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (8.0 log cfu/mL) were washed in sterile deionized water containing each PDA (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75%) or chlorine (200 mg/kg) at 32 or 42°C for 30 s, 3 min, or 5 min. Approximately 6.0 log cfu/mL of Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from inoculated and unwashed eggs. The wash water control and chlorine control decreased Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs by only 2.0 log cfu/mL even after washing for 5 min. The PDA were highly effective in killing Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs compared with controls (P < 0.05). All treatments containing CR and EUG reduced Salmonella Enteritidis to undetectable levels as rapidly as within 30 s of washing, whereas TC (0.75%) completely inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs washed at 42°C for 30 s (P < 0.05). No Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in any PDA or chlorine wash solution; however, substantial pathogen populations (~4.0 log cfu/mL) survived in the antibacterial-free control wash water (P < 0.05). The CR and EUG were also able to eliminate Salmonella Enteritidis on eggs to undetectable levels in the presence of 3% chicken droppings at 32°C (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that PDA could effectively be used as a wash treatment to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on shell eggs. Sensory and quality studies of PDA-washed eggs need to be conducted before recommending their use. PMID:24235233

Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

2013-12-01

304

Guggulsterone, a Plant-Derived Inhibitor of NF-?B, Suppresses CDX2 and COX-2 Expression and Reduces the Viability of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.  

PubMed

Background/Aims: Induction by bile acid of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression via nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation is a critical event in the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Guggulsterone (GS) is a plant sterol that inhibits NF-?B activity. Here, we evaluated whether GS has either or both chemopreventive or therapeutic effects against EAC. Methods: Two EAC cells lines were treated with deoxycholic acid (DCA) in the presence of GS or vehicle. The levels of transcription and translation of I?B?, CDX2, and COX-2 were determined. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, cell viability, and cell cycle distribution were assessed as well. Results: GS inhibited DCA-induced I?B? phosphorylation. GS and the NF-?B inhibitor BAY11-7085 suppressed DCA-induced CDX2 and COX-2 expression in EAC cells. GS also suppressed basal transcription levels of CDX2 and COX-2 and reduced constitutive synthesis of COX-2 and PGE2. Further, GS reduced the viability of EAC cells, increased their numbers in the apoptotic sub-G1 fraction. Conclusion: GS suppressed DCA-induced and NF-?B-dependent activation of CDX2 and COX-2 expression. Further, GS also reduced the viability of EAC cells. GS may serve as candidate for preventing and treating EAC and BE. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25427631

Yamada, Takanori; Osawa, Satoshi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Kajimura, Masayoshi; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Furuta, Takahisa; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Sugimoto, Ken

2014-11-21

305

DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT-DERIVED SUBUNIT VACCINE CANDIDATE AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant viruses do not replicate in animals, providing significant safety advantages over the use of animal virus-based vectors for vaccine delivery. Many plant viral coat proteins have the ability to assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) which can be used as a scaffold to display heterologous pep...

306

Natural products as potential human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel inhibitors - screening of plant-derived alkaloids.  

PubMed

Inhibition of the cardiac human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel is a problematic off-target pharmacological activity and, hence, a major safety liability in clinical practice. Several non-cardiac drugs have been restricted in their use, or even removed from the market due to this potentially fatal adverse effect. Comparatively little is known about the human ether-a-go-go-related gene inhibitory potential of plant-derived compounds. In the course of an ongoing human ether-a-go-go-related gene in vitro study, a total of 32 structurally diverse alkaloids of plant origin as well as two semi-synthetically obtained protoberberine derivatives were screened by means of an automated Xenopus oocyte assay. Protopine, (+)-bulbocapnine, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine, (+)-boldine, (+)-chelidonine, (+)-corynoline, reserpine, and yohimbine reduced the human ether-a-go-go-related gene current by ? 50% at 100 µM, and were submitted to concentration-response experiments. Our data show that some widely occurring plant-derived alkaloids carry a potential risk for human ether-a-go-go-related gene toxicity. PMID:24963621

Schramm, Anja; Saxena, Priyanka; Chlebek, Jakub; Cahlíková, Lucie; Baburin, Igor; Hering, Steffen; Hamburger, Matthias

2014-06-01

307

A class of sterol 14-demethylase inhibitors as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents  

E-print Network

A class of sterol 14-demethylase inhibitors as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents Frederick Buckner, and Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195; §Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven

Gelb, Michael

308

The mannoprotein TIR3 (CAGL0C03872g) is required for sterol uptake in Candida glabrata.  

PubMed

Sterol uptake in the pathogenic fungus, Candida glabrata, occurs via the sterol transporter, CgAus1p. Azole inhibition of sterol biosynthesis can under certain circumstances be reversed by adding exogenously sterol. Here we demonstrate that the CgTIR3 (CAGL0C03872g) gene product is also required for sterol uptake, since Cgtir3? strains fail to take up sterol both aerobically and under hypoxic conditions. Western analysis using an HA-tagged TIR3 strain showed that CgTir3p localizes to the cell wall, and its expression is induced by serum. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR also showed that two transcription regulatory genes, CgUPC2A and CgUPC2B, control CgTIR3 as well as CgAUS1 gene expression. Interestingly, complementation studies using Cgtir3? showed that ScDAN1, a mannoprotein required for sterol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, could not complement the C. glabrata TIR3 function. Furthermore, sterol analyses, in which both the CgAUS1 and CgTIR3 genes were constitutively expressed, resulted in aerobic sterol uptake although the amount of uptake was considerably less than that of cells cultured aerobically with serum. These results suggest that additional factors other than CgAUS1 and CgTIR3 are required for sterol uptake in C. glabrata. PMID:25463012

Inukai, Tatsuya; Nagi, Minoru; Morita, Akihiro; Tanabe, Koichi; Aoyama, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Bard, Martin; Nakayama, Hironobu

2015-02-01

309

Plant-Derived Sucrose Is a Key Element in the Symbiotic Association between Trichoderma virens and Maize Plants1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Fungal species belonging to the genus Trichoderma colonize the rhizosphere of many plants, resulting in beneficial effects such as increased resistance to pathogens and greater yield and productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the recognition and association between Trichoderma and their hosts are still largely unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that plant-derived sucrose (Suc) is an important resource provided to Trichoderma cells and is also associated with the control of root colonization. We describe the identification and characterization of an intracellular invertase from Trichoderma virens (TvInv) important for the mechanisms that control the symbiotic association and fungal growth in the presence of Suc. Gene expression studies revealed that the hydrolysis of plant-derived Suc in T. virens is necessary for the up-regulation of Sm1, the Trichoderma-secreted elicitor that systemically activates the defense mechanisms in leaves. We determined that as a result of colonization of maize (Zea mays) roots by T. virens, photosynthetic rate increases in leaves and the functional expression of tvinv is crucial for such effect. In agreement, the steady-state levels of mRNA for Rubisco small subunit and the oxygen-evolving enhancer 3-1 were increased in leaves of plants colonized by wild-type T. virens. We conclude that during the symbiosis, the sucrolytic activity in the fungal cells affects the sink activity of roots, directing carbon partitioning toward roots and increasing the rate of photosynthesis in leaves. A discussion of the role of Suc in controlling the fungal proliferation on roots and its pivotal role in the coordination of plant-microbe associations is provided. PMID:19675155

Vargas, Walter A.; Mandawe, John C.; Kenerley, Charles M.

2009-01-01

310

An efficient diethyl ether-based soxhlet protocol to quantify faecal sterols from catchment waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and reproducibility of a diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure for faecal sterols occurring from catchment waters. Water samples spiked with a mixture of faecal sterols were filtered and analytes were extracted using the diethyl ether-based soxhlet method and the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process. For diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure, solvent

Vikas Kumar G. Shah; Hugh Dunstan; Warren Taylor

2006-01-01

311

Identification of a UPC2 Homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Its Involvement in Aerobic Sterol Uptake  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally will not take up sterols from the environment under aerobic conditions. A specific mutant, upc2-1, of the predicted transcriptional activator UPC2 (YDR213w) has been recognized as a strain that allows a high level of aerobic sterol uptake. Another predicted transcriptional activator, the YLR228c gene product, is highly homologous to Upc2p. In fact, at the carboxy terminus 130 of the last 139 amino acids are similar between the two proteins. Since these proteins are very similar, the effect of mutations in the YLR228c open reading frame (ORF) was compared with like alterations in UPC2. First, the YLR228c ORF was insertionally inactivated and crossed with various UPC2 constructs. Deletion of YLR228c and UPC2 in combination resulted in nonviability, suggesting that the two proteins have some essential overlapping function. The upc2-1 point mutation responsible for aerobic sterol uptake was duplicated in the homologous carboxy region of the YLR228c ORF using site-directed mutagenesis. This mutation on a high-copy vector resulted in an increase in sterol uptake compared to an isogenic wild-type strain. The combination of both point mutations resulted in the greatest level of aerobic sterol uptake. When the YLR228c point mutation was expressed from a low-copy vector there was little if any effect on sterol uptake. Gas chromatographic analysis of the nonsaponifiable fractions of the various strains showed that the major sterol for all YLR228c and UPC2 combinations was ergosterol, the consensus yeast sterol. PMID:11208779

Shianna, Kevin V.; Dotson, W. David; Tove, Shirley; Parks, Leo W.

2001-01-01

312

Expression and localization of sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) in monkey retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) is a mitochondrial P-450 enzyme with broad substrate specificity for C27 sterols including 7-ketocholesterol (7kCh). CYP27A1 is widely expressed in human tissues but has not been previously demonstrated in the retina. In this study, we examined the expression and localization of CYP27A1 in the monkey retina where it localized mainly to the photoreceptor inner segments. CYP27A1 was

Jung Wha Lee; Hirotoshi Fuda; Norman B. Javitt; Charles A. Strott; Ignacio R. Rodriguez

2006-01-01

313

Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase.  

PubMed Central

Azole compounds play a key role as antifungals in agriculture and in human mycoses and as non-steroidal antiestrogens in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors in postmenopausal women. This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition of certain pathways of steroidogenesis by high-affinity binding to the enzymes sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase. Sterol 14-alpha-demethylase is crucial for the production of meiosis-activating sterols, which recently were shown to modulate germ cell development in both sexes of mammals. Aromatase is responsible for the physiologic balance of androgens and estrogens. At high doses, azole fungicides and other azole compounds affect reproductive organs, fertility, and development in several species. These effects may be explained by inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and/or aromatase. In fact, several azole compounds were shown to inhibit these enzymes in vitro, and there is also strong evidence for inhibiting activity in vivo. Furthermore, the specificity of the enzyme inhibition of several of these compounds is poor, both with respect to fungal versus nonfungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylases and versus other P450 enzymes including aromatase. To our knowledge, this is the first review on sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase as common targets of azole compounds and the consequence for steroidogenesis. We conclude that many azole compounds developed as inhibitors of fungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylase are inhibitors also of mammalian sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and mammalian aromatase with unknown potencies. For human health risk assessment, data on comparative potencies of azole fungicides to fungal and human enzymes are needed. PMID:12611652

Zarn, Jürg A; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Schlatter, Josef R

2003-01-01

314

Sterols, methylsterols, and triterpene alcohols in three Theaceae and some other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsaponifiables from threeTheaceae (Camellia japonica L.,Camellia Sasanqua Thunb., andThea sinensis L.) oils and alfalfa, garden balsam, and spinach seed oils and shea fat were separated into four fractions: sterols, 4-methylsterols,\\u000a triterpene alcohols, and less polar compounds by thin layer chromatography. While the sterol fraction was the major one for\\u000a the unsaponifiables from alfalfa and spinach seed oils, the triterpene

Toshihiro Itoh; Toshitake Tamura; Taro Matsumoto

1974-01-01

315

Plant regeneration and biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in Hypoxis hemerocallidea organ and callus cultures.  

PubMed

Micropropagation of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. and C.A. Mey was used as a model system to study the influence of cytokinins (CKs) on plant regeneration and biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in organ and callus cultures and their antioxidant activity. Fourteen free phenolic acids were detected using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) while antioxidant activity was evaluated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Cytokinins had a significant effect on the biochemical accumulation of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in H. hemerocallidea organ cultures. In particular, meta-topolin-treated organ cultures produced high concentrations of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, salicylic, chlorogenic and trans-cinnamic acids. The isoprenoid CK, N(6)-(2-isopentenyl)-adenine significantly increased the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, namely, caffeic, p-coumaric, sinapic and ferulic acids. Cytokinin-treated organ cultures exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant activity, particularly in the ORAC model. In callus cultures, CKs decreased the concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and antioxidant activity when compared to the control. Overall, both CK type and concentration had a significant effect on plant regeneration, callus proliferation, biochemical accumulation of free phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of the resultant extracts. PMID:25219317

Moyo, Mack; Amoo, Stephen O; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Ji?í; Subrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; Van Staden, Johannes

2014-10-01

316

Fluconazole Binding and Sterol Demethylation in Three CYP51 Isoforms Indicate Differences in Active Site Topology  

SciTech Connect

14{alpha}-Demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in all sterol biosynthetic pathways (animals, fungi, plants, protists, and some bacteria), catalyzing the removal of the C-14 methyl group following cyclization of squalene. Based on mutations found in CYP51 genes from Candida albicans azole-resistant isolates obtained after fluconazole treatment of fungal infections, and using site-directed mutagenesis, we have found that fluconazole binding and substrate metabolism vary among three different CYP51 isoforms: human, fungal, and mycobacterial. In C. albicans, the Y132H mutant from isolates shows no effect on fluconazole binding, whereas the F145L mutant results in a 5-fold increase in its IC{sub 50} for fluconazole, suggesting that F145 (conserved only in fungal 14{alpha}-demethylases) interacts with this azole. In C. albicans, F145L accounts, in part, for the difference in fluconazole sensitivity reported between mammals and fungi, providing a basis for treatment of fungal infections. The C. albicans Y132H and human Y145H CYP51 mutants show essentially no effect on substrate metabolism, but the Mycobacterium tuberculosis F89H CYP51 mutant loses both its substrate binding and metabolism. Because these three residues align in the three isoforms, the results indicate that their active sites contain important structural differences, and further emphasize that fluconazole and substrate binding are uncoupled properties.

Bellamine, A.; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Waterman, Mike (Vanderbilt)

2010-11-16

317

Preparation and biological activity of 6-benzylaminopurine derivatives in plants and human cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the structure–activity relationships of aromatic cytokinins, the cytokinin activity at both the receptor and cellular levels, as well as CDK inhibitory and anticancer properties of 38 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) derivatives were compared in various in vitro assays. The compounds were prepared by the condensation of 6-chloropurine with corresponding substituted benzylamines. The majority of synthesised derivatives exhibited high activity in

Karel Doležal; Igor Popa; Vladimír Kryštof; Lukáš Spíchal; Martina Fojtíková; Jan Holub; René Lenobel; Thomas Schmülling; Miroslav Strnad

2006-01-01

318

Quantitation of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in turpentine (Pistacia terebinthus Chia) growing wild in Turkey.  

PubMed

The chemical composition (fatty acids, tocopherols, and sterols) of the oil from 14 samples of turpentine (Pistacia terebinthus L.) fruits is presented in this study. The oil content of the samples varied in a relatively small range between 38.4 g/100 g and 45.1 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acid of the oil is oleic acid, which accounted for 43.0 to 51.3% of the total fatty acids. The total content of vitamin E active compounds in the oils ranged between 396.8 and 517.7 mg/kg. The predominant isomers were alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, with approximate equal amounts between about 110 and 150 mg/kg. The seed oil of P. terebinthus also contained different tocotrienols, with gamma-tocotrienol as the dominate compound of this group, which amounted to between 79 and 114 mg/kg. The total content of sterols of the oils was determined to be between 1341.3 and 1802.5 mg/kg, with beta-sitosterol as the predominent sterol that accounted for more than 80% of the total amount of sterols. Other sterols in noteworthy amounts were campesterol, Delta5-avenasterol, and stigmasterol, which came to about 3-5% of the total sterols. PMID:17002437

Matthäus, Bertrand; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

2006-10-01

319

The Biological Activity of ?-Mangostin, a Larvicidal Botanic Mosquito Sterol Carrier Protein-2 Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

?-Mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. ?-Mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against third instar larvae of six mosquito species, and the median lethal concentration values range from 0.84 to 2.90 ppm. The residual larvicidal activity of ?-mangostin was examined under semifield conditions. The results indicated that ?-mangostin was photolytic with a half-life of 53 min in water under full sunlight exposure. The effect of ?-mangostin on activities of major detoxification enzymes such as P450, glutathione S-transferase, and esterase was investigated. The results showed that ?-mangostin significantly elevated activities of P450 and glutathione S-transferase in larvae, whereas it suppressed esterase activity. Toxicity of ?-mangostin against young rats was studied, and there was no detectable adverse effect at dosages as high as 80 mg/kg. This is the first multifaceted study of the biological activity of ?-mangostin in mosquitoes. The results suggest that ?-mangostin may be a lead compound for the development of a new organically based mosquito larvicide. PMID:20380307

LARSON, RYAN T.; LORCH, JEFFREY M.; PRIDGEON, JULIA W.; BECNEL, JAMES J.; CLARK, GARY G.; LAN, QUE

2010-01-01

320

Effects of heme oxygenase-1 expression on sterol homeostasis in rat astroglia.  

PubMed

Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and altered cholesterol metabolism are characteristic of Alzheimer-diseased (AD) neural tissues. Central oxidation of cholesterol to oxysterols has been implicated in neuroembryogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and membrane repair. In the current study, we demonstrated that transient transfection of rat astroglia with human (h)ho-1 cDNA for 3 days significantly decreased intracellular cholesterol concentrations and increased levels of four oxysterol species (measured by GC/MS) compared to untreated control cultures and HO-1-transfected cells exposed to the HO inhibitor, tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP). Relative to control preparations, oxidative stress was augmented in mitochondria (isolated by subcellular fractionation) and culture media derived from HO-1-transfected astrocytes, as evidenced by enhanced oxidation of the synthetic reporter molecules, linoleoyl tyrosine (LT), linoleoyl tyrosine cholesterol ester (LTC), or linoleoyl tyrosine deoxyguanosyl ester (LTG; measured by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS). We also observed enhanced oxidation of exogenous LTC in human neuroblastoma (M17) cells exposed for 18 h to conditioned media collected from HO-1-transfected astrocytes relative to control media. In AD and other pathological states, glial HO-1 induction may transduce ambient noxious stimuli (e.g., beta-amyloid) into altered patterns of glial sterol metabolism which, in turn, may affect neuronal membrane turnover, survival, and adaptability. PMID:17320768

Vaya, Jacob; Song, Wei; Khatib, Soliman; Geng, Guoyan; Schipper, Hyman M

2007-03-15

321

Potential New Pharmacological Agents Derived From Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer.  

PubMed

In the present article, we reviewed plants and phytochemical compounds demonstrating beneficial effects in pancreatic cancer to find new sources of pharmaceutical agents. For this purpose, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google scholar were searched for plants or herbal components with beneficial effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Data were collected up to January 2013. The search terms were "plant," "herb," "herbal therapy," or "phytotherapy" and "pancreatic cancer" or "pancreas." All of the human in vivo and in vitro studies were included. According to studies, among diverse plants and phytochemicals, 12 compounds including apigenin, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, benzyl isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, curcumin, thymoquinone, dihydroartemisinin, cucurbitacin B, and perillyl alcohol have beneficial action against pancreatic cancer cells through 4 or more mechanisms. Applying their plausible synergistic effects can be an imperative approach for finding new efficient pharmacological agents in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25493374

Azimi, Haniye; Khakshur, Ali Asghar; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

2015-01-01

322

Gene-enzyme telationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) chemistry of the arogenate molecule; (2) plant enzymology at the organismal level; (3) isolation of regulatory mutants in tobacco; and (4) stability of the haploid state in Nicotiana sylvestris.

Jensen, R. A.

1980-04-21

323

Synthesis of Plant Auxin Derivatives and Their Effects on Ceratopteris Richardii  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bioassays are commonly used to test the biological activity of chemicals and other exercises are presented in which students synthesize plant hormones. Lab exercise is conducted using commercially available auxins and auxin regulating compounds.

Stilts, Corey E.; Fisher, Roxanne

2007-01-01

324

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion  

E-print Network

natural chars originating from combustion of angiosperm/gymnosperm and woody/non-woody plants. The lignin combustion temperature, the value of the syringyl/vanillyl phenols ratio (S/V) of angiosperm char initially

Louchouarn, Patrick

325

Genetic fidelity of organized meristem-derived micropropagated plants: A critical reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The commercial multiplication of a large number of diverse plant species represents one of the major success stories of urilizing\\u000a tissue culture technology profitably. Micropropagation has now become a multibillion dollar industry, practised all over the\\u000a world. Of the various methods used to micropropagate plants, somatic embryogenesis and enhanced axillary branching have become\\u000a the principal methods of multiplication. Long-term benefits

Vijay Rani; S. N. Raina

2000-01-01

326

Genetic analysis of enhanced-axillary-branching-derived Eucalyptus tereticornis Smith and E. camaldulensis Dehn. plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a culture method for enhanced axillary branching functional plants of Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. camaldulensis are efficiently regenerated. To assess the genetic integrity among the regenerants, we employed multiple analytical tools\\u000a including cytochemical and molecular assays. The 2C DNA amounts were estimated in the meristematic zones of root and shoot\\u000a tips of 250 micropropagated plants, collected at various cycles

V. Rani; S. N. Raina

1998-01-01

327

Orientation of the Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to Plant-Derived Volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to study the orientation of adult cigarette beetles,Lasioderma serricorne (F.), to plant volatiles in a walking bioassay. Seven out of sixteen test materials that displayed attractive responses were\\u000a further studied for (1) responses to whole extracts from three types of solvents and (2) the effects of sex and mating status\\u000a of L. serricorne on responses to plant

Rizana M. Mahroof; Thomas W. Phillips

2007-01-01

328

Interaction of azole antifungal antibiotics with cytochrome P-450-dependent 14 alpha-sterol demethylase purified from Candida albicans.  

PubMed Central

The interaction of azole antifungal antibiotics with purified Candida albicans cytochrome P-450-dependent 14 alpha-sterol demethylase (P-450DM) was measured spectrophotometrically and by inhibition of enzyme activity. Ketoconazole and ICI 153066 (a triazole derivative) formed low-spin complexes with the ferric cytochrome and induced type II difference spectra. These spectra are indicative of an interaction between the azole moiety and the sixth co-ordination position of P-450DM haem. Both azoles inhibited the binding of CO to the sodium dithionite-reduced ferrous cytochrome, and inhibited reconstituted P-450DM activity by binding to the cytochrome with a one-to-one stoichiometry. Similarly, total inhibition of enzyme activity occurred when equimolar amounts of clotrimazole, miconazole or fluconazole were added to reconstituted P-450DM. These results correlated with the inhibition of P-450DM in broken cell preparations, confirming that all five azoles are potent inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis in C. albicans. PMID:2180400

Hitchcock, C A; Dickinson, K; Brown, S B; Evans, E G; Adams, D J

1990-01-01

329

Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

1997-01-01

330

Plant growth in Arabidopsis is assisted by compost soil-derived microbial communities  

PubMed Central

Plants in natural and agricultural environments are continuously exposed to a plethora of diverse microorganisms resulting in microbial colonization of roots and the rhizosphere. This process is believed to be accompanied by an intricate network of ongoing simultaneous interactions. In this study, we examined Arabidopsis thaliana roots and shoots in the presence or absence of whole microbial communities extracted from compost soil. The results show a clear growth promoting effect on Arabidopsis shoots in the presence of soil microbes compared to plants grown in microbe-free soil under otherwise identical conditions. Element analyses showed that iron uptake was facilitated by these mixed microbial communities which also led to transcriptional downregulation of genes required for iron transport. In addition, soil microbial communities suppressed the expression of marker genes involved in nitrogen uptake, oxidative stress/redox signaling, and salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense while upregulating jasmonate (JA) signaling, cell wall organization/biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Multi-species analyses such as simultaneous transcriptional profiling of plants and their interacting microorganisms (metatranscriptomics) coupled to metagenomics may further increase our understanding of the intricate networks underlying plant-microbe interactions. PMID:23847639

Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Muzzi, Frederico; Tan, Chin-Hong; Hsien-Choo, Jin; Schenk, Peer M.

2013-01-01

331

Plant Sunscreens in Nature: UV and IR Spectroscopy of Sinapate Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are exposed to prolonged amounts of UV radiation, with elevated levels of UV-B (280-320 nm) as the ozone layer is depleted. When UV-B radiation penetrates the leaf epidermis, substantial oxidative damage can occur to plant tissues and plant growth can be inhibited. Sinapate esters, particularly sinapoyl malate, have been shown to efficiently prevent such damaging effects. By studying a series of molecules in this unique class under the isolated, cold conditions of a supersonic expansion, the fundamental UV-spectroscopic properties and photophysical aspects following UV absorption can be interrogated in detail. Sinapic acid and neutral sinapoyl malate were brought into the gas phase by laser desorption and detected via resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI). IR-UV double resonance methods were employed to obtain single-conformation UV and IR spectra. As the UV chromophore of interest is the sinapoyl moiety, sinapic acid served as the simplest model to compare directly to the more functionalized sinapoyl malate. It has a spectrum much like most aromatics, with a strong {??}^* origin, and well-resolved vibronic structure. By contrast, the spectrum for sinapoyl malate displays a large, broad absorption with little resolved vibronic structure, reflecting its role in nature as a pivotal and efficient UV protectant for plants, serving as the plant's sunscreen. Using conformer-specific IR spectroscopy, the individual conformations of both species were assigned and used as the basis for further ab initio calculations of the excited states that give rise to the observed behavior. Landry, L.G.; Chapple, C.S.; Last, R.L. Plant Physiol. {1995}, 109, 1159-1166.

Dean, Jacob C.; Walsh, Patrick S.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Allais, Florent

2013-06-01

332

Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis.  

PubMed

Activity guided fractionations led to the isolation of two antitumor compounds 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3 beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5,6-epoxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-7,22-dien-3 beta-ol from the methanol extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Two previously known compounds, ergosteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 22-dihydroergosteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated. The structures of hitherto unknown sterols were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques with the former synthesized in order to confirm the identity of the sugar moiety by chemical correlation. The glycosylated form of ergosterol peroxide was found to be a greater inhibitor to the proliferation of K562, Jurkat, WM-1341, HL-60 and RPMI-8226 tumor cell lines by 10 to 40% at 10 micrograms/ml than its previously identified aglycone, 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3 beta-ol. PMID:10423860

Bok, J W; Lermer, L; Chilton, J; Klingeman, H G; Towers, G H

1999-08-01

333

Nuclear Envelope Remnants: Fluid Membranes Enriched in STEROLS and Polyphosphoinositides  

PubMed Central

Background The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is a highly dynamic compartment where membranes readily undergo fission and fusion to reorganize the cytoplasmic architecture, and to import, export and transport various cargos within the cell. The double membrane of the nuclear envelope that surrounds the nucleus, segregates the chromosomes from cytoplasm and regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport through pores. Many details of its formation are still unclear. At fertilization the sperm devoid of nuclear envelope pores enters the egg. Although most of the sperm nuclear envelope disassembles, remnants of the envelope at the acrosomal and centriolar fossae do not and are subsequently incorporated into the newly forming male pronuclear envelope. Remnants are conserved from annelid to mammalian sperm. Methodology/Principal Findings Using lipid mass spectrometry and a new application of deuterium solid-state NMR spectroscopy we have characterized the lipid composition and membrane dynamics of the sperm nuclear envelope remnants in isolated sperm nuclei. Conclusions/Significance We report nuclear envelope remnants are relatively fluid membranes rich in sterols, devoid of sphingomyelin, and highly enriched in polyphosphoinositides and polyunsaturated phospholipids. The localization of the polybasic effector domain of MARCKS illustrates the non-nuclear aspect of the polyphosphoinositides. Based on their atypical biophysical characteristics and phospholipid composition, we suggest a possible role for nuclear envelope remnants in membrane fusion leading to nuclear envelope assembly. PMID:19165341

Garnier-Lhomme, Marie; Byrne, Richard D.; Hobday, Tina M. C.; Gschmeissner, Stephen; Woscholski, Rudiger; Poccia, Dominic L.; Dufourc, Erick J.; Larijani, Banafshé

2009-01-01

334

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) involves exposing laboratory rats to realistic coal-fired power plant and mobile source emissions to help determine the relative toxicity of these PM sources. There are three coal-fired power plants in the TERESA program; this report describes the results of fieldwork conducted at the first plant, located in the Upper Midwest. The project was technically challenging by virtue of its novel design and requirement for the development of new techniques. By examining aged, atmospherically transformed aerosol derived from power plant stack emissions, we were able to evaluate the toxicity of PM derived from coal combustion in a manner that more accurately reflects the exposure of concern than existing methodologies. TERESA also involves assessment of actual plant emissions in a field setting--an important strength since it reduces the question of representativeness of emissions. A sampling system was developed and assembled to draw emissions from the stack; stack sampling conducted according to standard EPA protocol suggested that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. Two mobile laboratories were then outfitted for the study: (1) a chemical laboratory in which the atmospheric aging was conducted and which housed the bulk of the analytical equipment; and (2) a toxicological laboratory, which contained animal caging and the exposure apparatus. Animal exposures were carried out from May-November 2004 to a number of simulated atmospheric scenarios. Toxicological endpoints included (1) pulmonary function and breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological and biochemical analyses; (3) blood cytological analyses; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. Results indicated no differences between exposed and control animals in any of the endpoints examined. Exposure concentrations for the scenarios utilizing secondary particles (oxidized emissions) ranged from 70-256 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and some of the atmospheres contained high acidity levels (up to 49 {micro}g/m{sup 3} equivalent of sulfuric acid). However, caution must be used in generalizing these results to other power plants utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations, as the emissions may vary based on these factors.

Annette Rohr

2006-03-01

335

Evaluation of potential sewage contamination by fecal sterol biomarkers adsorbed in natural biofilms.  

PubMed

The use of biofilms for adsorption of sterols was investigated for the first time to evaluate sewage contamination in the Barigüi River, Curitiba (Brazil). The characteristics of a biofilm that favor its use in monitoring include the relatively rapid development of biofilms and their capacity to sorb hydrophobic compounds. Some fecal sterols considered to be biomarkers for human and animal feces have relatively high octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log?KOW); thus, sterols were expected to be readily sorbed in the biofilms. The biofilms were developed on glass plates (0.48 m(2)) previously coated with a fine layer of stearic acid and supported by a PVC tube that was submersed in the river 20 cm above the river bottom. After a certain period of incubation time, the biofilm growth was scraped from the plates and analyzed for the following fecal steroids: coprostanol (5?-cholestan-3?-ol), epicoprostanol (5?-cholestan-3?-ol), cholesterol (5,6-cholesten-3?-ol), cholestanol (5?-cholestan-3?-ol), stigmastanol (24?-ethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol) and coprostanone (5?-cholestan-3-one). Six samples were collected between March 2012 and June 2012. All analyzed compounds were detected, and in general, cholesterol was present in high amounts (23?160-41.9 ng g(-1) dry biofilm). Variation among campaigns was observed in the distribution of sterols, with cholestanol showing the least variation among the samples. Sterol ratios that are commonly used for evaluating sewage contamination were calculated; these ratios indicated some periods of potential sewage influence. However, these sterol ratios are intended to be applied primarily for sediments and not for biological compartments; thus, the results must be carefully interpreted. Biofilms developed under natural conditions can be a tool for monitoring some important sterols that are used as biomarkers of fecal pollution. PMID:24064988

Froehner, Sandro; Sánez, Juan

2013-10-01

336

Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics like antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography (one and two dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils have been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents which are particularly important for public health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25403494

Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

2014-11-18

337

Enhanced pest resistance of maize leaves expressing monocot crop plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein and agglutinin.  

PubMed

Although many insect resistance genes have been identified, the number of studies examining their effects in combination using transgenic systems is limited. This study introduced a construct into maize containing the coding sequence for maize ribosome-inactivating protein (MRIP) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Many transformants produced both the MRIP and WGA in leaves. Mature leaves expressing higher levels of these two proteins were more resistant to feeding by first-instar larvae of fall armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda) and corn earworms (Helicoverpa zea), and the level of resistance was correlated with levels of MRIP and WGA. There was also some indication that resistance to Fusarium verticillioides was increased in the transgenic plant leaves. No statistically significant synergism or antagonism occurred between the activities of the two proteins. MRIP and WGA represent compatible class examples of food plant-derived proteins for multigene resistance to insects. PMID:23078237

Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T; Price, Neil P

2012-10-31

338

Enhanced suppression of plant growth through production of L-tryptophan-derived compounds by deleterious rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-growth-suppressive activity of deleterious rhizobacteria (DRB) may be due to production of metabolites absorbed through roots. Auxins produced in high concentrations in the rhizosphere by DRB contribute to reduced root growth. Selected DRB able to produce excessive amounts of auxin compounds for suppression of weed seedling growth may be effective for biological control of weeds. The objectives to this study

Muhammad Sarwar; Robert J. Kremer

1995-01-01

339

Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: An alternative larvicide for mosquito control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the

B. Pitasawat; D. Champakaew; W. Choochote; A. Jitpakdi; U. Chaithong; D. Kanjanapothi; E. Rattanachanpichai; P. Tippawangkosol; D. Riyong; B. Tuetun; D. Chaiyasit

2007-01-01

340

BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CAY-1, A FUNGICIDAL PLANT-DERIVED SAPONIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: CAY-1, a plant saponin, is lethal to several medically and agriculturally important fungi. CAY-1 displays synergy with amphotericin B and itraconzaole against fungi. To further elucidate its properties, we studied pH effect on CAY-1 activity and possible fungal wall and membrane binding ...

341

The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali\\/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000,

R. M. Atiyeh; S. Lee; C. A. Edwards; N. Q. Arancon; J. D. Metzger

2002-01-01

342

Sex and ploidy of anther culture derived papaya ( Carica papaya L.) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To improve the efficiency of papaya anther culture, we investigated (1) hormonal medium conditions for inducing haploids or dihaploids; (2) identified the sex of established plantlets using a sex-specific DNA molecular marker and (3) estimated their ploidy by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content. Anthers with a mixture of uninucleate, mitotic, and binucleate microspores were collected from a male plant,

Fredah K. Rimberia; Shinichi Adaniya; Takeomi Etoh; Yukio Ishimine

2006-01-01

343

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

2011-03-31

344

Field determination of optimal dates for the discrimination of invasive wetland plant species using derivative spectral analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mapping invasive plant species in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems helps to understand the causes of their progression, manage some of their negative consequences, and control them. In recent years, a variety of new remote-sensing techniques, like Derivative Spectral Analysis (DSA) of hyperspectral data, have been developed to facilitate this mapping. A number of questions related to these techniques remain to be addressed. This article attempts to answer one of these questions: Is the application of DSA optimal at certain times of the year? Field radiometric data gathered weekly during the summer of 1999 at selected field sites in upstate New York, populated with purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.), common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.)) and cattail (Typha L.) are analyzed using DSA to differentiate among plant community types. First, second and higher-order derivatives of the reflectance spectra of nine field plots, varying in plant composition, are calculated and analyzed in detail to identify spectral ranges in which one or more community types have distinguishing features. On the basis of the occurrence and extent of these spectral ranges, experimental observations suggest that a satisfactory differentiation among community types was feasible on 30 August, when plants experienced characteristic phenological changes (transition from flowers to seed heads). Generally, dates in August appear optimal from the point of view of species differentiability and could be selected for image acquisitions. This observation, as well as the methodology adopted in this article, should provide a firm basis for the acquisition of hyperspectral imagery and for mapping the targeted species over a broad range of spatial scales. ?? 2005 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Laba, M.; Tsai, F.; Ogurcak, D.; Smith, S.; Richmond, M.E.

2005-01-01

345

Evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of eubacteria-derived small GTPases in plant organelles  

PubMed Central

The genomes of free-living bacteria frequently exchange genes via lateral gene transfer (LGT), which has played a major role in bacterial evolution. LGT also played a significant role in the acquisition of genes from non-cyanobacterial bacteria to the lineage of “primary” algae and land plants. Small GTPases are widely distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we inferred the evolutionary history of organelle-targeted small GTPases in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana contains at least one ortholog in seven subfamilies of OBG-HflX-like and TrmE-Era-EngA-YihA-Septin-like GTPase superfamilies (together referred to as Era-like GTPases). Subcellular localization analysis of all Era-like GTPases in Arabidopsis revealed that all 30 eubacteria-related GTPases are localized to chloroplasts and/or mitochondria, whereas archaea-related DRG and NOG1 are localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively, suggesting that chloroplast- and mitochondrion-localized GTPases are derived from the ancestral cyanobacterium and ?-proteobacterium, respectively, through endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). However, phylogenetic analyses revealed that plant organelle GTPase evolution is rather complex. Among the eubacterium-related GTPases, only four localized to chloroplasts (including one dual targeting GTPase) and two localized to mitochondria were derived from cyanobacteria and ?-proteobacteria, respectively. Three other chloroplast-targeted GTPases were related to ?-proteobacterial proteins, rather than to cyanobacterial GTPases. Furthermore, we found that four other GTPases showed neither cyanobacterial nor ?-proteobacterial affiliation. Instead, these GTPases were closely related to clades from other eubacteria, such as Bacteroides (Era1, EngB-1, and EngB-2) and green non-sulfur bacteria (HflX). This study thus provides novel evidence that LGT significantly contributed to the evolution of organelle-targeted Era-like GTPases in plants. PMID:25566271

Suwastika, I. Nengah; Denawa, Masatsugu; Yomogihara, Saki; Im, Chak Han; Bang, Woo Young; Ohniwa, Ryosuke L.; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Takeyasu, Kunio; Shiina, Takashi

2014-01-01

346

High frequency plant regeneration from zygotic-embryo-derived embryogenic cell suspension cultures of watershield ( Brasenia schreberi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved protocol for high frequency plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryo-derived cell suspension\\u000a cultures of watershield (Brasenia schreberi) was developed. Zygotic embryos formed pale-yellow globular structures and white friable callus at a frequency of 80% when\\u000a cultured on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg l?1 2,4-D. However, the frequency of formation of pale-yellow globular structures and white friable

Myung Jin Oh; Hye Ryun Na; Hong-Keun Choi; Jang Ryol Liu; Suk Weon Kim

2008-01-01

347

The occurrence of 19,28-bisnorlanostane derivatives in a plant fossil: A novel geochemical degradation process of triterpenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four novel triterpene ketones bearing 24-methyl-28-nor- and 24-methyl-19,28-bisnor-5?-lanostane skeletons were identified in a fossil of a stem of a plant belonging to the Lauraceae family. The structures of these compounds have been determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of authentic specimens derived from lanosterol and 24-methylenecycloartanol. This is the first finding of compounds bearing a 19,28-bisnorlanostane skeleton, which implies a novel possible microbiological pathway of degradation of lanostanes in the sedimentary environment.

Murae, Tatsushi; Naora, Misuzu; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Tsuyuki, Takahiko; Takahashi, Takeyoshi

1990-11-01

348

Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.  

PubMed

The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stĺl spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases. PMID:21432748

Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

2011-04-01

349

Plant-derived triterpenoids and analogues as antitumor and anti-HIV agents†  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the antitumor and anti-HIV activities of naturally occurring triterpenoids, including the lupane, ursane, oleanane, lanostane, dammarane, and miscellaneous scaffolds. Structure–activity relationships of selected natural compounds and their synthetic derivatives are also discussed. PMID:19779642

Kuo, Reen-Yen; Qian, Keduo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2013-01-01

350

Observing plants dealing with soil water stress: Daily soil moisture fluctuations derived from polymer tensiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periods of soil water deficit often occur within a plant's life cycle, even in temperate deciduous and rain forests (Wilson et al. 2001, Grace 1999). Various experiments have shown that roots are able to sense the distribution of water in the soil, and produce signals that trigger changes in leaf expansion rate and stomatal conductance (Blackman and Davies 1985, Gollan et al. 1986, Gowing et al. 1990 Davies and Zhang 1991, Mansfield and De Silva 1994, Sadras and Milroy 1996). Partitioning of water and air in the soil, solute distribution in soil water, water flow through the soil, and water availability for plants can be determined according to the distribution of the soil water potential (e.g. Schröder et al. 2013, Kool et al. 2014). Understanding plant water uptake under dry conditions has been compromised by hydrological instrumentation with low accuracy in dry soils due to signal attenuation, or a compromised measurement range (Whalley et al. 2013). Development of polymer tensiometers makes it possible to study the soil water potential over a range meaningful for studying plant responses to water stress (Bakker et al. 2007, Van der Ploeg et al. 2008, 2010). Polymer tensiometer data obtained from a lysimeter experiment (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008) were used to analyse day-night fluctuations of soil moisture in the vicinity of maize roots. To do so, three polymer tensiometers placed in the middle of the lysimeter from a control, dry and very dry treatment (one lysimeter per treatment) were used to calculate water content changes over 12 hours. These 12 hours corresponded with the operation of the growing light. Soil water potential measurements in the hour before the growing light was turned on or off were averaged. The averaged value was used as input for the van Genuchten (1980) model. Parameters for the model were obtained from laboratory determination of water retention, with a separate model parameterization for each lysimeter setup. Results show daily fluctuations in water content changes, with both root water uptake and root water excretion. The magnitude of the water content change was in the same order for all treatments, thus suggesting compensatory uptake. References Bakker G, Van der Ploeg MJ, de Rooij GH, Hoogendam CW, Gooren HPA, Huiskes C, Koopal LK and Kruidhof H. New polymer tensiometers: Measuring matric pressures down to the wilting point. Vadose Zone J. 6: 196-202, 2007. Blackman PG and Davies WJ. Root to shoot communication in maize plants of the effects of soil drying. J. Exp. Bot. 36: 39-48, 1985. Davies WJ and Zhang J. Root signals and the regulation of growth and development of plants in drying soil. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 42: 55-76, 1991. Gollan T, Passioura JB and Munns R. Soil water status affects the stomatal conductance of fully turgid wheat and sunflower leafs. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 13: 459-464, 1986. Gowing DJG, Davies WJ and Jones HG. A Positive Root-sourced Signal as an Indicator of Soil Drying in Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh. J. Exp. Bot. 41: 1535-1540, 1990. Grace J. Environmental controls of gas exchange in tropical rain forests. In: Press, M.C, J.D. Scholes and M.G. Barker (ed.). Physiological plant ecology: the 39th Symposium of the British Ecological Society. Blackwell Science, United Kingdom, 1999. Kool D, Agam N, Lazarovitch N, Heitman JL, Sauer TJ, Ben-Gal A. A review of approaches for evapotranspiration partitioning. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 184: 56- 70, 2014. Mansfield TA and De Silva DLR. Sensory systems in the roots of plants and their role in controlling stomatal function in the leaves. Physiol. Chem. Phys. & Med. 26: 89-99, 1994. Sadras VO and Milroy SP. Soil-water thresholds for the responses of leaf expansion and gas exchange: a review. Field Crops Res. 47: 253-266, 1996. Schröder N, Lazarovitch N, Vanderborcht J, Vereecken H, Javaux M. Linking transpiration reduction to rhizosphere salinity using a 3D coupled soil-plant model. Plant Soil 2013, doi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1990-8 Van der Ploeg MJ, Gooren HPA, Bakker G and de Rooij GH.

van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit

2014-05-01

351

Gravity perception and asymmetric growth in plants - A model derived from the grass pulvinus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that gravitropic responses in plants involve asymmetric growth. On the basis of the geometry of growth response in grass leaf sheath pulvinus, a general model is proposed for gravitropism in multicellular plant organs. The negative gravitropic response of a pulvinus is a result of cell elongation involving all but the uppermost region of a horizontally placed organ. Whereas the uppermost region does not grow, the lowermost region elongates maximally. The regions between elongate to intermediate extents. An expression is given relating the angle of curvature of the organ to the diameter and initial and final lengths of the organ. It is shown that the response of the individual cells can be expressed as inherent sensitivity to gravitational stimulus according to a particular equation.

Dayanandan, P.; Franklin, C. I.; Kaufman, P. B.

1982-01-01

352

Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils Derived From Ten Colombian Plants  

PubMed Central

Background The leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activity of ten essential oils obtained from ten plant specimens were evaluated. Methods Essential oils were obtained by the steam distillation of plant leaves without any prior processing. Cytotoxicity was tested on J774 macrophages and leishmanicidal activity was assessed against four species of Leishmania associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Results Seven essential oils exhibited activity against Leishmania parasites, five of which were toxic against J774 macrophages. Selectivity indices of >6 and 13 were calculated for the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare, respectively. Conclusion The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum was active against promastigotes of Leishmania and innocuous to J774 macrophages at concentrations up to 1600 µg/mL and should be further investigated for leishmanicidal activity in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:23682270

Sanchez-Suarez, JF; Riveros, I; Delgado, G

2013-01-01

353

Derivatives of Some 2-Chloroethylphosphonic Acid Esters, with Plant Growth Regulating Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the synthesis of esters of 2-(dimethylsulfonium)ethylphos-phonic acid and the results of some trials showing the plant growth regulating activity of these compounds are presented. For the synthesis of the mentioned compounds, dimethyl sulphide is reacted with 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid esters; these esters are obtained through the complex[1] of AlCl3, PCl3 and 1,2-dichloroethan (1). Using the optimum reaction conditions,

Gheorghe Ilia

1999-01-01

354

Detection of Some Safe Plant-Derived Foods for LTP-Allergic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lipid transfer protein (LTP) is a widely cross-reacting plant pan-allergen. Adverse reactions to Rosaceae, tree nuts, peanut, beer, maize, mustard, asparagus, grapes, mulberry, cabbage, dates, orange, fig, kiwi, lupine, fennel, celery, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, chestnut and pineapple have been recorded. Objective: To detect vegetable foods to be regarded as safe for LTP-allergic patients. Methods: Tolerance\\/intolerance to a large spectrum

Riccardo Asero; Gianni Mistrello; Daniela Roncarolo; Stefano Amato

2007-01-01

355

Highlight on the studies of anticancer drugs derived from plants in China.  

PubMed

Recent progress on the study of anticancer drugs originating from plants in China is reviewed in this paper. Guided by the experience of traditional Chinese medicine, several new drugs have been found. Indirubin from Indigofera tinctoria is useful for the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia. Irisquinone from Iris latea pallasii and 10-hydroxy camptothecin from Camptotheca accuminata have exhibited definite activity on rodent tumors. Recent studies indicate that ginsenoside Rh2 is an inducer of cell differentiation in melanoma B-16 cells in vitro. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that curcumin from Curcuma longa is an antimutagen as well as an antipromotor for cancer. Daidzein and acetyl boswellic acid have been shown to be effective inducers of cell differentiation in HL-60 cells. Guided by the chemotaxonomic principle of plants, harringtonine and homoharringtonine isolated from Cephalotaxus hainanesis have exhibited significant antileukemia activity and are widely used in clinics in China. Taxol from Taxus chinensis has been shown to be an important new anticancer drug with unique chemical structure and mechanism of action. The continuous search for new anticancer drugs from plants will be a fruitful frontier in cancer treatment and chemoprevention. PMID:8142920

Han, R

1994-01-01

356

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Miss Berneski

2011-12-10

357

Ion-Channel Genosensor for the Detection of Specific DNA Sequences Derived from Plum Pox Virus in Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

A DNA biosensor for detection of specific oligonucleotides sequences of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in plant extracts and buffer is proposed. The working principles of a genosensor are based on the ion-channel mechanism. The NH2-ssDNA probe was deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface to form an amide bond between the carboxyl group of oxidized electrode surface and amino group from ssDNA probe. The analytical signals generated as a result of hybridization were registered in Osteryoung square wave voltammetry in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3?/4? as a redox marker. The 22-mer and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences derived from PPV and DNA samples from plants infected with PPV were used as targets. Similar detection limits of 2.4 pM (31.0 pg/mL) and 2.3 pM (29.5 pg/mL) in the concentration range 1–8 pM were observed in the presence of the 22-mer ssDNA and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences of PPV, respectively. The genosensor was capable of discriminating between samples consisting of extracts from healthy plants and leaf extracts from infected plants in the concentration range 10–50 pg/mL. The detection limit was 12.8 pg/mL. The genosensor displayed good selectivity and sensitivity. The 20-mer partially complementary DNA sequences with four complementary bases and DNA samples from healthy plants used as negative controls generated low signal. PMID:25302809

Malecka, Kamila; Michalczuk, Lech; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

2014-01-01

358

The role of carbon starvation in the induction of enzymes that degrade plant-derived carbohydrates in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Fungi are an important source of enzymes for saccharification of plant polysaccharides and production of biofuels. Understanding of the regulation and induction of expression of genes encoding these enzymes is still incomplete. To explore the induction mechanism, we analysed the response of the industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger to wheat straw, with a focus on events occurring shortly after exposure to the substrate. RNA sequencing showed that the transcriptional response after 6h of exposure to wheat straw was very different from the response at 24h of exposure to the same substrate. For example, less than half of the genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes that were induced after 24h of exposure to wheat straw, were also induced after 6h exposure. Importantly, over a third of the genes induced after 6h of exposure to wheat straw were also induced during 6h of carbon starvation, indicating that carbon starvation is probably an important factor in the early response to wheat straw. The up-regulation of the expression of a high number of genes encoding CAZymes that are active on plant-derived carbohydrates during early carbon starvation suggests that these enzymes could be involved in a scouting role during starvation, releasing inducing sugars from complex plant polysaccharides. We show, using proteomics, that carbon-starved cultures indeed release CAZymes with predicted activity on plant polysaccharides. Analysis of the enzymatic activity and the reaction products, indicates that these proteins are enzymes that can degrade various plant polysaccharides to generate both known, as well as potentially new, inducers of CAZymes. PMID:24792495

van Munster, Jolanda M; Daly, Paul; Delmas, Stéphane; Pullan, Steven T; Blythe, Martin J; Malla, Sunir; Kokolski, Matthew; Noltorp, Emelie C M; Wennberg, Kristin; Fetherston, Richard; Beniston, Richard; Yu, Xiaolan; Dupree, Paul; Archer, David B

2014-11-01

359

LXR signaling couples sterol metabolism to proliferation in the acquired immune response  

PubMed Central

Summary We demonstrate here that LXR–dependent sterol homeostasis is a physiologically-regulated determinant of cell proliferation and acquired immune responses. T cell activation triggers simultaneous suppression of the LXR pathway for cholesterol transport and induction of the SREBP pathway for cholesterol synthesis. This coordinated program is engaged in part through induction of the sterol-metabolizing enzyme SULT2B1, expression of which in T cells blocks LXR signaling. Forced induction of LXR target genes during T cell activation markedly inhibits mitogen-driven expansion, whereas loss of LXR? confers a proliferative advantage. Inactivation of the sterol transporter ABCG1 in T cells uncouples LXR signaling from proliferation, directly linking sterol homeostasis to the anti-proliferative action of LXR. Mice lacking LXR? exhibit lymphoid hyperplasia and enhanced responses to antigenic challenge, indicating that proper regulation of LXR-dependent sterol metabolism is important for immune responses. These data implicate LXR signaling in a metabolic checkpoint that modulates cell proliferation and immunity. PMID:18614014

Bensinger, Steven J.; Bradley, Michelle N.; Joseph, Sean B.; Zelcer, Noam; Janssen, Edith M.; Hausner, Mary Ann; Shih, Roger; Parks, John S.; Edwards, Peter A.; Jamieson, Beth D.; Tontonoz, Peter

2009-01-01

360

Plasma Membrane Sterol Distribution Resembles the Surface Topography of Living Cells  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol is an important constituent of cellular membranes. It has been suggested that cholesterol segregates into sterol-rich and -poor domains in the plasma membrane, although clear evidence for this is lacking. By fluorescence imaging of the natural sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE), the lateral sterol distribution has been visualized in living cells. The spatial labeling pattern of DHE coincided with surface structures such as ruffles, microvilli, and filopodia with correlation lengths in the range of 0.8–2.5 ?m. DHE staining of branched tubules and of nanotubes connecting two cells was detected. Dynamics of DHE in folded and plane membrane regions was comparable as determined by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. DHE colocalized with fluid membrane-preferring phospholipids in surface structures and at sites of cell attachment as well as in the cleavage furrow of dividing cells, but it was not particularly enriched in those regions. Fluorescent sterol showed homogeneous staining in membrane blebs induced by F-actin disruption. Cross-linking the ganglioside GM1—a putative raft marker—did not affect the cell surface distribution of DHE. The results suggest that spatial heterogeneities of plasma membrane staining of DHE resolvable by light microscopy reflect the cell surface topography but not phase-separated sterol domains in the bilayer plane. PMID:17065557

2007-01-01

361

The effects of altered sterol composition on the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

1. The membrane sterol composition of mitochondria of the ole-3 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was manipulated by growing the organism in the presence of Tween 80 (1%, W/V) plus defined supplements o- delta-aminolaevulinate. 2. Changes in mitochondrial sterol content induced considerable changes in the adenine nucleotide transporter. 3. As the sterol content was decreased, the affinity of the transporter for ATP did not alter significantly, but the rate of ATP uptake was greatly decreased, the total number of atractylate-sensitive binding sites diminished, and the proportion of high-affinity binding sites was decreased. 4. Since sterol depletion also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation [Astin & Haslam (1977) Biochem. J., 166, 287-298] and prevents the intramitochondrial generation of ATP, the decrease in the rate of ATP uptake by sterol-depleted mitochondria will cause a decrease in intramitochondrial ATP concentrations in vivo. This probably explains the inhibition of mitochondrial macromolecular synthesis that has previously been reported in lipid-depleted yeast mitochondria. PMID:339909

Haslam, J M; Astin, A M; Nichols, W W

1977-01-01

362

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress made on the subject project during the period of March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004. The TERESA Study is designed to investigate the role played by specific emissions sources and components in the induction of adverse health effects by examining the relative toxicity of coal combustion and mobile source (gasoline and/or diesel engine) emissions and their oxidative products. The study involves on-site sampling, dilution, and aging of coal combustion emissions at three coal-fired power plants, as well as mobile source emissions, followed by animal exposures incorporating a number of toxicological endpoints. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement (henceforth referred to as ''the Agreement'') for which this technical progress report has been prepared covers the analysis and interpretation of the field data collected at the first power plant (henceforth referred to as Plant 0, and located in the Upper Midwest), followed by the performance and analysis of similar field experiments at two additional coal-fired power plants (Plants 1 and 2) utilizing different coal types and with different plant configurations. Significant progress was made on the Project during this reporting period, with field work being initiated at Plant 0. Initial testing of the stack sampling system and reaction apparatus revealed that primary particle concentrations were lower than expected in the emissions entering the mobile chemical laboratory. Initial animal exposures to primary emissions were carried out (Scenario 1) to ensure successful implementation of all study methodologies and toxicological assessments. Results indicated no significant toxicological effects in response to primary emissions exposures. Exposures were then carried out to diluted, oxidized, neutralized emissions with the addition of secondary organic aerosol (Scenario 5), both during the day and also at night when primary particle concentrations in the sampled stack emissions tended to be slightly higher. Exposure concentrations were about 249 {micro}g/m{sup 3} PM, of which 87 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was sulfate and approximately 110 {micro}g/m{sup 3} was secondary organic material ({approx}44%). Results indicated subtle differences in breathing pattern between exposed and control (sham) animals, but no differences in other endpoints (in vivo chemiluminescence, blood cytology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis). It was suspected that primary particle losses may have been occurring in the venturi aspirator/orifice sampler; therefore, the stack sampling system was redesigned. The modified system resulted in no substantial increase in particle concentration in the emissions, leading us to conclude that the electrostatic precipitator at the power plant has high efficiency, and that the sampled emissions are representative of those exiting the stack into the atmosphere. This is important, since the objective of the Project is to carry out exposures to realistic coal combustion-derived secondary PM arising from power plants. During the next reporting period, we will document and describe the remainder of the fieldwork at Plant 0, which we expect to be complete by mid-November 2004. This report will include detailed Phase I toxicological findings for all scenarios run, and Phase II toxicological findings for one selected scenario. Depending upon the outcome of the ongoing fieldwork at Plant 0 (i.e. the biological effects observed), not all the proposed scenarios may be evaluated. The next report is also expected to include preliminary field data for Plant 1, located in the Southeast.

Annette Rohr

2004-12-02

363

Rapid Analysis of Carbon Isotopic Compositions of Sedimentary Algal Sterols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a new procedure to produce highly resolved records of the carbon isotopic composition of algal sterols. The procedure includes: (i) recovery of geolipids from dry sediments by extraction in organic solvents; (ii) chromatographic fractionation of the extract on silica gel; and (iii) removal of n-alcohols with Silicalite. Simplifications allow processing of 24 samples per day. Miniaturization has reduced the amount of sediment required to 300 mg. The carbon isotopic composition of the extract is measured using a moving-wire combustion system initially developed to accept the effluent of a liquid chromatograph (Brand and Dobberstein, Isotopes Environ. Health Stud. 32, 275-283, 1996). Analyses are made at 25-sec intervals with an average standard error of 0.15‰ for samples ranging from 200 to 900 ngC. Comparison of the resulting records of the isotopic composition of algal lipids to parallel analyses of inorganic carbon allows calculation of the isotopic fractionation associated with primary production and thus provides information about conditions in the photic zone. It serves also to identify samples in which more detailed, compound-specific analysis would be worthwhile. A highly-resolved record of 13C in polar lipids from a sediment core collected on the Oman Margin (ODP 723B) indicates fractionations between 20 and 25‰ . Events occurring on timescales of a few hundred years have caused variations as large as 4‰ . Increases in the fractionation could be caused by slowed rates of growth, an increase of the surface area/volume ratio of the community or an increase in the concentration of CO2. Such changes could be related to varying strengths of upwelling, supplies of key nutrients, or to changes in the dominant population in the producer community. Characterization of the lipids present at selected depths, as well as the comparison of our profile with existing paleoceanographic records from the Oman Margin, should allow refinement of these possibilities.

Ménot-Combes, G.; Sessions, A. L.; Hayes, J. M.; Altabet, M. A.; Higginson, M. J.

2002-12-01

364

Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: The TERESA field results  

PubMed Central

The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H2SO4 aerosol from oxidation of SO2; (3) H2SO4 aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH3; (4) neutralized H2SO4 with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of ?-pinene with O3; and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 ?g/m3 with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH3 with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO2 to NOx (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H2SO4 + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed. PMID:20462390

Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Lawrence, Joy E.; Rohr, Annette C.; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

2013-01-01

365

Diversity and population structure of sewage derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent  

PubMed Central

The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 sequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernable human fecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae genera. The fecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human fecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in fecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI – servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS – servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human fecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure. PMID:19840106

McLellan, S.L.; Huse, S.M.; Mueller-Spitz, S.R.; Andreishcheva, E.N.; Sogin, M.L.

2009-01-01

366

Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.  

PubMed

Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil. PMID:17337133

Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

2007-04-01

367

Elicitation of induced resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae by specific individual compounds derived from native Korean plant species.  

PubMed

Plants have developed general and specific defense mechanisms for protection against various enemies. Among the general defenses, induced resistance has distinct characteristics, such as broad-spectrum resistance and long-lasting effectiveness. This study evaluated over 500 specific chemical compounds derived from native Korean plant species to determine whether they triggered induced resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum supsp. carotovorum (Pcc) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis thaliana. To select target compound(s) with direct and indirect (volatile) effects, a new Petri-dish-based in vitro disease assay system with four compartments was developed. The screening assay showed that capsaicin, fisetin hydrate, jaceosidin, and farnesiferol A reduced the disease severity significantly in tobacco. Of these four compounds, capsaicin and jaceosidin induced resistance against Pcc and Pst, which depended on both salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, using Arabidopsis transgenic and mutant lines, including npr1 and NahG for SA signaling and jar1 for JA signaling. The upregulation of the PR2 and PDF1.2 genes after Pst challenge with capsaicin pre-treatment indicated that SA and JA signaling were primed. These results demonstrate that capsaicin and jaceosidin can be effective triggers of strong induced resistance against both necrotrophic and biotrophic plant pathogens. PMID:24135942

Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Shi Yong; Kim, Young Sup; Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Jung Sup; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

368

Complexes of Trypanosoma cruzi Sterol 14?-Demethylase (CYP51) with Two Pyridine-based Drug Candidates for Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the eukaryotic (protozoan) parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is an alarming emerging global health problem with no clinical drugs available to treat the chronic stage. Azole inhibitors of sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) were proven effective against Chagas, and antifungal drugs posaconazole and ravuconazole have entered clinical trials in Spain, Bolivia, and Argentina. Here we present the x-ray structures of T. cruzi CYP51 in complexes with two alternative drug candidates, pyridine derivatives (S)-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-2-(pyridin-3-yl)ethanone (UDO; Protein Data Bank code 3ZG2) and N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N-[1-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-4-piperi-dyl]pyridin-3-amine (UDD; Protein Data Bank code 3ZG3). These compounds have been developed by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) and are highly promising antichagasic agents in both cellular and in vivo experiments. The binding parameters and inhibitory effects on sterol 14?-demethylase activity in reconstituted enzyme reactions confirmed UDO and UDD as potent and selective T. cruzi CYP51 inhibitors. Comparative analysis of the pyridine- and azole-bound CYP51 structures uncovered the features that make UDO and UDD T. cruzi CYP51-specific. The structures suggest that although a precise fit between the shape of the inhibitor molecules and T. cruzi CYP51 active site topology underlies their high inhibitory potency, a longer coordination bond between the catalytic heme iron and the pyridine nitrogen implies a weaker influence of pyridines on the iron reduction potential, which may be the basis for the observed selectivity of these compounds toward the target enzyme versus other cytochrome P450s, including human drug-metabolizing P450s. These findings may pave the way for the development of novel CYP51-targeted drugs with optimized metabolic properties that are very much needed for the treatment of human infections caused by eukaryotic microbial pathogens. PMID:24047900

Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Alexander, Paul W.; Chaplin, Jason H.; Keenan, Martine; Charman, Susan A.; Perez, Catherine J.; Waterman, Michael R.; Chatelain, Eric; Lepesheva, Galina I.

2013-01-01

369

7-Dehydrocholesterol metabolites produced by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) modulate liver X receptor activity.  

PubMed

7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) is a common precursor of vitamin D3 and cholesterol. Although various oxysterols, oxygenated cholesterol derivatives, have been implicated in cellular signaling pathways, 7-DHC metabolism and potential functions of its metabolites remain poorly understood. We examined 7-DHC metabolism by various P450 enzymes and detected three metabolites produced by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Two were further identified as 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC. These 7-DHC metabolites were detected in serum of a patient with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Luciferase reporter assays showed that 25-hydroxy-7-DHC activates liver X receptor (LXR) ?, LXR? and vitamin D receptor and that 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC induces activation of LXR? and LXR?, although the activities of both compounds on LXRs were weak. In a mammalian two-hybrid assay, 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC induced interaction between LXR? and a coactivator fragment less efficiently than a natural LXR agonist, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol. These 7-DHC metabolites did not oppose agonist-induced LXR activation and interacted directly to LXR? in a manner distinct from a potent agonist. These findings indicate that the 7-DHC metabolites are partial LXR activators. Interestingly, 25-hydroxy-7-DHC and 26/27-hydroxy-7-DHC suppressed mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, an LXR target gene, in HepG2 cells and HaCaT cells, while they weakly increased mRNA levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, another LXR target, in HaCaT cells. Thus, 7-DHC is catabolized by CYP27A1 to metabolites that act as selective LXR modulators. PMID:24269243

Endo-Umeda, Kaori; Yasuda, Kaori; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Honda, Akira; Ohta, Miho; Ishikawa, Minoru; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Makishima, Makoto

2014-03-01

370

Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity.  

PubMed

Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance. PMID:22658869

Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

2012-10-01

371

Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:15681161

Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang

2005-02-01

372

Black Nitrogen or Plant-Derived Organic Nitrogen - which Form is More Efficiently Sequestered in Soils?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Input of charcoal after forest fires can lead to considerable changes of the quality and quantity of organic matter in soils (SOM). This affects not only its organic C pool but also shifts its organic N composition from peptideous to N-heterocyclic structures (Knicker et al., 1996). In the present study we sought to understand how this alteration is affecting the N availability in fire affected soils. Therefore, we performed a medium-term pot experiment in which grass material (Lolium perenne) was grown on soil material (Cambisols) of a fire-affected and a fire-unaffected forest. The soils were topped with mixtures of ground fresh grass residues and KNO3 or charred grass material (pyrogenic organic matter; PyOM) with KNO3. Here, either the organic N or the inorganic N was isotopically enriched with 15N. Following the 15N concentration in the soil matrix and the growing plants as a function of incubation time (up to 16 months) by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry allowed us to indentify which N-source is most efficiently stabilized and how PyOM is affecting this process. Preliminary data indicated that only after the germination of the seeds, the concentration of the added inorganic 15N in the soil decreased considerably most likely due to its uptake by the growing plants but also due to N-losses by leaching and volatilization. Additional addition of plant residues or PyOM had no major effect on this behavior. Covering the soil with 15N-grass residues which simulates a litter layer led to a slow increase of the 15N concentration in the mineral soil during the first month. This is best explained by the ongoing incorporation of the litter into the soil matrix. After that a small decrease was observed, showing that the organic N was only slowly mobilized. Addition of 15N-PyOM showed a comparable behavior but with 15N concentration in the soil corresponding to twice of those of the pots amended with 15N-grass residues. After that the 15N concentrations decrease quickly and approached those of the pots with fresh grass litter supporting the mobilization of black nitrogen and its uptake by plants. Our results point to the suggestion that N in PyOM and humified SOM have comparable biochemical stability. In order to test this hypothesis, a further experiment was set up mixtures of soil and humified 15N grass residues or aged 15N grass char to which fresh PyOM or fresh grass residues, respectively, were added. In addition solid-state 15N NMR spectroscopy was applied to disclose the nature of the sequestered N. REFERENCES Knicker, H., Almendros, G., González-Vila, F.J., Martín, F., Lüdemann, H.-D., 1996. 13C- and 15N-NMR spectroscopic examination of the transformation of organic nitrogen in plant biomass during thermal treatment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28, 1053-1060.

López-Martín, María; Velasco-Molina, Marta; Knicker, Heike

2014-05-01

373

A rapid method to determine sterol, erythrodiol, and uvaol concentrations in olive oil.  

PubMed

A rapid, accurate, and efficient method for determining the sterol, uvaol, and erythrodiol concentrations was developed to meet International Olive Council (IOC) certification criteria for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The unsaponifiable fraction of the sample (0.2 g) was separated with a diatomaceous earth column, and the sterol and triterpenic dialcohols were isolated with a novel base-activated silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge cleanup protocol. The improved method and the IOC method provided identical pass/fail results (n = 34) for each of the six sterol and erythrodiol/uvaol IOC criteria used to assess olive oil. This method was validated, and recoveries of stigmasterol (88%) and ?-sitosterol (84%) were greater than previously published values obtained using the IOC method. This method requires approximately one-third the time required to complete the IOC method and has great utility for the rapid screening of EVOO to detect adulteration, false labeling, and an inferior product. PMID:23587059

Mathison, Brian; Holstege, Dirk

2013-05-15

374

The Major Cellular Sterol Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Andes Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection. PMID:24516383

Riblett, Amber M.; Didigu, Chukwuka A.; Wilen, Craig B.; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D.; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W.; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth

2014-01-01

375

Biliary Sterol Secretion is Not Required For Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent evidence suggests that the intestine may play a direct facilitative role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), independent of hepatobiliary secretion. In order to understand the non-biliary pathway for RCT we created both genetic and surgical models of biliary cholesterol insufficiency. To genetically inhibit biliary cholesterol secretion we generated mice in which Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) was overexpressed in the liver. Compared to controls, NPC1L1Liver-Tg mice exhibit a > 90% decrease in biliary cholesterol secretion, yet mass fecal sterol loss and macrophage RCT is normal. To surgically inhibit biliary emptying into the intestine, we have established an acute biliary diversion model. Strikingly, macrophage RCT persists in mice surgically lacking the ability to secrete bile into the intestine. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that mass fecal sterol loss and macrophage RCT can proceed in the absence of biliary sterol secretion, challenging the obligate role of bile in RCT. PMID:20620999

Temel, Ryan E.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Yu, Liqing; Lord, Caleb; Degirolamo, Chiara; McDaniel, Allison; Marshall, Stephanie; Wang, Nanping; Shah, Ramesh; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Mark Brown, J

2010-01-01

376

Sterolins ABCG5 and ABCG8: regulators of whole body dietary sterols  

PubMed Central

ABCG5 and ABCG8 are two ATP-binding cassette half-transporters that belong to the G family members. They were identified as proteins that are mutated in a rare human disorder, sitosterolemia, and their identification led to the completion of the physiological pathways by which dietary cholesterol, as well as noncholesterol sterols, traffics in the mammalian body. These proteins are likely to function as heterodimers, and current evidence suggests that these proteins are responsible for the majority of sterol secretions into bile, thus may define the long sought-after biliary sterol transporters. This review will focus on some of the backgrounds of this physiology, the genetics and regulation of these genes, as well as our current understanding of their functions. This review will also highlight the current limitations in our knowledge gap. PMID:16440216

Hazard, Starr E.

2006-01-01

377

Mimicking the hierarchical functions of dentin collagen cross-links with plant derived phenols and phenolic acids.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are secondary plant metabolites that mediate nonenzymatic collagen cross-linking and enhance the properties of collagen based tissue, such as dentin. The extent and nature of cross-linking is influenced by the composition and specific chemical structure of the bioactive compounds present in certain PAC-rich extracts. This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics, and biostability. For that, purified phenols, a phenolic acid, and some of its derivatives were selected: PAC dimers (A1, A2, B1, and B2) and a trimer (C1), gallic acid (Ga), its esters methyl-gallate (MGa) and propyl-gallate (PGa), and a pentagalloyl ester of glucose (PGG). Synergism was assessed by combining the most active PAC and gallic acid derivative. Mechanical properties of dentin organic matrix were determined by the modulus of elasticity obtained in a flexural test. Biostability was evaluated by the resistance to collagenase degradation. PACs significantly enhanced dentin mechanical properties and decreased collagen digestion. Among the gallic acid derivatives, only PGG had a significant enhancing effect. The lack of observed C1:PGG synergy indicates that both compounds have similar mechanisms of interaction with the dentin matrix. These findings reveal that the molecular weight of polyphenols have a determinant effect on their interaction with type I collagen and modulates the mechanism of cross-linking at the molecular, intermolecular, and inter-microfibrillar levels. PMID:25379878

Vidal, Cristina M P; Leme, Ariene A; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Phansalkar, Rasika; Nam, Joo-Won; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F; Bedran-Russo, Ana

2014-12-16

378

Carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of sterols in natural marine brown and red macroalgae and associated shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon (?13C) and hydrogen isotopic compositions (?D) of sterols in natural marine brown (Sargassum filicinum and Undaria pinnatifida), red macroalgae (Binghamia californica and Gelidium japonica), and in shellfish (Binghamia californica, Haliotis discus and Omphalius pfeifferi) feeding on the brown algae have been investigated as a first attempt to understand the isotopic compositions of sterols in natural algae and heterotrophs. Brown

Yoshito Chikaraishi

2006-01-01

379

Localization of Filipin-Sterol Complexes in the Membranes of Beta vulgaris Roots and Spinacia oleracea Chloroplasts 1  

PubMed Central

Filipin was used as a cytochemical probe for membrane sterols in the root storage tissue of the red beet Beta vulgaris L. and the chloroplasts of Spinacia oleracea L. In unfixed beet tissue, filipin lysed the cells. Freeze-fracture replicas revealed that the filipin-sterol complexes were tightly aggregated in the plasma membrane, while in thin section the complexes corrugated the plasma membrane. If the cells were fixed with glutaraldehyde prior to the filipin treatment, the cell structure was preserved. Filipin-induced lesions were dispersed or clustered loosely in the plasma membrane. A few filipin-sterol complexes were observed in the tonoplast. In spinach chloroplasts, filipin-sterol complexes were limited to the outer membrane of the envelope and were not found in the inner membrane of the envelope or in the lamellar membranes. If the filipin-sterol complexes accurately mapped the distribution of membrane sterols, then sterol was located predominantly in the plasma membrane of the red beet and in the outer membrane of the chloroplast envelope. Furthermore, the sterol may be heterogenously distributed laterally in both these membranes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16662716

Moeller, Curt H.; Mudd, J. Brian

1982-01-01

380

Lipid [corrected] classes, fatty acids, and sterols in seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern labrador.  

PubMed

Seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern Labrador, was sampled for lipid classes, fatty acid, and sterol composition. Gilbert Bay is a proposed Marine Protected Area, and the composition of seafood from this region is interesting from both human health and ecological perspectives. Analyses included four species of bivalves and flesh and liver samples from four fish species. Lipids from a locally isolated population of northern cod (Gadus morhua) were also compared to lipids from other cod populations. Lipid classes were analyzed by Chromarod/Iatroscan TLC-FID, fatty acids by GC, and sterols by GC-MS. Three cod populations had similar levels of total lipid per wet weight (0.6%) with triacylglycerols (TAG), sterols, and phospholipids comprising on average 13, 11, and 51%, respectively, of their total lipids. Fatty fish such as capelin and herring contained on average 8.4% lipid with 86% present as TAG. Fish livers from cod and herring showed opposite trends, with cod having elevated lipid (27%) and TAG (63%) and herring containing only 3.8% lipid and 20% TAG. Shellfish averaged 0.6% lipid; however, significant lipid class differences existed among species. Fatty acid analysis showed few significant differences in cod populations with on average 57% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 18% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and 24% saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cod livers had lower PUFA (34%) and elevated MUFA (44%) relative to flesh. Bivalves averaged 25% SFA, 18% MUFA, and 57% PUFA, whereas scallop adductor muscle had the highest PUFA levels (63%). Bivalves contained 20 different sterols with cholesterol present as the major sterol (19-39%). trans-22-Dehydrocholesterol, brassicasterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, and campesterol individually accounted for >10% in at least one species. High levels of PUFA and non-cholesterol sterols observed in Gilbert Bay seafood demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition. PMID:15264928

Copeman, Louise A; Parrish, Christopher C

2004-07-28

381

Effect of sterol side chain on ion channel formation by amphotericin B in lipid bilayers.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B (AmB) is one of the most efficient antimycotic drugs used in clinical practice. AmB interacts with membrane sterols increasing permeability of fungal membranes; however, it is still unclear how AmB selectively recognizes the fungal sterol, ergosterol (Erg), over other sterols in cell membranes. In this study, we investigated the effect of an Erg side chain on AmB activity by testing a series of Erg analogues that shared the same alicyclic structure as Erg but varied in the side chain structure by using the K(+) influx assay. The results clearly showed that the sterol side chain is essential for AmB selectivity toward Erg and for the activity of AmB-sterol ion channels. In agreement with our previous findings showing the direct interaction between the drug and Erg, these data suggested that AmB directly recognizes the sterol side chain structure, consequently promoting the formation of ion channels by AmB. Furthermore, the C24 methyl group and ?22 double bond in the side chain of Erg are equally important for the interaction with AmB. Conformational analysis revealed that the C24 methyl group contributes to the interaction by increasing the van der Waals (VDW) contact area of the side chain, while the ?22 double bond restricts the side chain conformation to maximize the VDW contact with the rigid AmB aglycone. This study provides direct experimental evidence of the mechanism of AmB selectivity toward fungal Erg. PMID:24762132

Nakagawa, Yasuo; Umegawa, Yuichi; Takano, Tetsuro; Tsuchikawa, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Murata, Michio

2014-05-20

382

Novel sterol metabolic network of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic and bloodstream forms  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma brucei is the protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, a neglected disease of people and animals. Co-metabolite analysis, labelling studies using [methyl-2H3]-methionine and substrate/product specificities of the cloned 24-SMT (sterol C24-methyltransferase) and 14-SDM (sterol C14-demethylase) from T. brucei afforded an uncommon sterol metabolic network that proceeds from lanosterol and 31-norlanosterol to ETO [ergosta-5,7,25(27)-trien-3?-ol], 24-DTO [dimethyl ergosta-5,7,25(27)-trienol] and ergosterol [ergosta-5,7,22(23)-trienol]. To assess the possible carbon sources of ergosterol biosynthesis, specifically 13C-labelled specimens of lanosterol, acetate, leucine and glucose were administered to T. brucei and the 13C distributions found were in accord with the operation of the acetate–mevalonate pathway, with leucine as an alternative precursor, to ergostenols in either the insect or bloodstream form. In searching for metabolic signatures of procyclic cells, we observed that the 13C-labelling treatments induce fluctuations between the acetyl-CoA (mitochondrial) and sterol (cytosolic) synthetic pathways detected by the progressive increase in 13C-ergosterol production (control <[2-13C]leucine<[2-13C]acetate<[1-13C]glucose) and corresponding depletion of cholesta-5,7,24-trienol. We conclude that anabolic fluxes originating in mitochondrial metabolism constitute a flexible part of sterol synthesis that is further fluctuated in the cytosol, yielding distinct sterol profiles in relation to cell demands on growth. PMID:22176028

Nes, Craigen R.; Singha, Ujjal K.; Liu, Jialin; Ganapathy, Kulothungan; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R.; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Chaudhuri, Minu; Nes, W. David

2012-01-01

383

Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.  

PubMed

Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense. PMID:19897309

Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

2010-01-20

384

Cytotoxic 5?,8?-epidioxy sterols from the marine sponge Monanchora sp.  

PubMed

Three new sterols, 5?,8?-epidioxy-24-norcholesta-6,9(11),22-trien-3?-ol (1), 5?,8?-epidioxy-cholesta-6,9(11),24-trien-3?-ol (2), and 5?,8?-epidioxy-cholesta-6,23-dien-3?,25-diol (3), with four known sterols (4-7) were isolated from a marine sponge Monanchora sp. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 3-7 showed moderate cytotoxicity against several human carcinoma cell lines including renal (A-498), pancreatic (PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2), and colorectal (HCT 116) cancer cell lines. PMID:25231340

Mun, Bora; Wang, Weihong; Kim, Hiyoung; Hahn, Dongyup; Yang, Inho; Won, Dong Hwan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Jihye; Han, Chulkyeong; Kim, Hyunji; Ekins, Merrick; Nam, Sang-Jip; Choi, Hyukjae; Kang, Heonjoong

2015-01-01

385

Dominance of ? 7 -sterols in the family caryophyllaceaein the family caryophyllaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant 4-desmethylsterols from the leaves of 12 species in 11 genera of the family Caryophyllaceae are 24-ethyl-?7-sterols. In eight species,Scleranthus annus L.,Paronychia virginica Spreng.,Lychnis alba Mill.,Silene cucubalus Wibel,Dianthus armeria L.,Gypsophilia paniculata L.,Saponaria officinales L. andMyosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench, the major sterols are spinasterol (24?-ethylcholesta-7,22E-dien-3?-ol) and 22-dihydrospinasterol (24?-ethylcholest-7-en-3?-ol),\\u000a with spinasterol at more than 60% of the desmethylsterol in the latter

Thomas A. Salt; John H. Adler

1986-01-01

386

Effect of plant-based phenol derivatives on the formation of Cu and Ag nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The complexes formed on the reaction of various metal ions viz., Cu(II) and Cu(I) with phenol derivatives viz. catechol, chlorogenic acid (CGA), hydroquinone and n-propyl gallate (nPG) were established by UV-visible spectroscopy. The metal/ligand complexing ratio and complexation constants have been determined. Further, we showed that nanoparticles of Cu can be prepared from metal-phenol complexes in the presence of a protein (gelatin) by ?-irradiation showing that the reduction is metal ion centered. Formation of Ag nanoparticles was also observed on photo-irradiation with xenon lamp in the presence of dihydroxy benzene. The Ag and Cu nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. TEM technique showed the presence of Cu and Ag nanoparticles with average size of 20 and 30 nm, respectively. PMID:21621984

Jacob, Jasmine A; Biswas, Nandita; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir

2011-10-01

387

Axial Hydrogen at C7 Position and Bumpy Tetracyclic Core Markedly Reduce Sterol's Affinity to Amphotericin B in Membrane.  

PubMed

The interaction of amphotericin B (AmB) with fungal ergosterol (Erg) is stronger than its interaction with mammalian cholesterol (Cho), and this property of AmB as an antifungal drug is thought to be responsible for its selective toxicity toward fungi. However, the mechanism by which AmB recognizes the structural differences between sterols, particularly minor difference in the sterol alicyclic portion, is largely unknown. Thus, to investigate the mode of interaction between AmB and the sterol core, we assessed the affinity of AmB to various sterols with different alicyclic structures. Ion flux assays and UV spectral measurements clearly revealed the importance of the ?7-double bond of the sterol B-ring for interaction with the drug. AmB showed lower affinity for triene sterols, which have double bonds at the ?5, ?7, and ?9 positions. Intermolecular distance measurements by (13)C{(19)F} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) revealed that the AmB macrolide ring is in closer contact with the steroid core of Erg than it is with the Cho core in the membrane. Conformational analysis suggested that an axial hydrogen atom at C7 of ?5-sterol (2, 6) and the protruded A-ring of ?5,7,9-sterol (4, 8) sterically hampered face-to-face contact between the van der Waals surface of the sterol core and the macrolide of AmB. These results further suggest that the ?-face of sterol alicycle interacts with the flat macrolide structure of AmB. PMID:25517013

Nakagawa, Yasuo; Umegawa, Yuichi; Nonomura, Kenichi; Matsushita, Naohiro; Takano, Tetsuro; Tsuchikawa, Hiroshi; Hanashima, Shinya; Oishi, Tohru; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Murata, Michio

2015-01-20

388

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

389

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will identify the relationship of the structure of plants. Students will also understand the cycle of plants and their role in the food chain. Why are plants important? How do they affect the cycle of life? Think about these questions as you watch this video on plants: Video of plants Now go to this website: Biology of Plants and use your handout to record the information you learn about the parts of a plant. Next, take this ...

barlobe

2009-10-21

390

Production of phytosterols by mature Digitalis purpurea L. plants.  

PubMed

The relative rates of production by mature Digitalis purpurea plants of cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol isolated from the glycoside and lipid fractions of the plant extract, were estimated. Plants were exposed to an atmosphere of (14)CO2 in a growth chamber and the radioactivity of the individual sterols assessed at intervals over 25 days on a gas-liquid radio chemical chromatography (GLRC). Incorporation of (14)CO2 occurred within 12 hours into both fractions of the extract. The 5-ene sterols were produced at a similar rate over a period of 25 days but the lipid fraction was about 100% more radioactive than the glycoside fraction. PMID:24469415

Evans, F J

1973-03-01

391

Effects of cyclodextrins on the antimicrobial activity of plant-derived essential oil compounds.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) from plants are considered to be a safer alternative when compared to synthetic antimicrobial food additives. However, a major drawback of many EOs is their hydrophobic nature, which makes them insoluble in water based media and matrices. Although cyclodextrins (CDs) can increase the solubility of EO compounds, the effects of CDs on the antimicrobial activity of EOs have not been reported. In this paper, four different EO compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, linalool and 2-pentanoylfuran) were chosen to study the influence of CDs on the solubility and antimicrobial activity on bacteria and yeast. The greatest enhancement with regards to solubility of the four test compounds was achieved by hydroxypropyl-?-CD. In most instances, not only were the minimal antimicrobial concentrations of EO compounds decreased, but the interactivity of two combined EO compounds could be strengthened by the co-addition of CDs. Furthermore, the combination of carvacrol with hydroxypropyl-?-CD caused a marked change in the major membrane lipid composition of all microorganisms investigated; while scanning electron microscopy revealed that cellular integrity was significantly affected by 2× MIC, ultimately resulting in cell lysis. PMID:22953819

Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng; Vriesekoop, Frank; Lv, Fei

2012-12-01

392

Expression of a plant-derived peptide harboring water-cleaning and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

Drinking water is currently a scarce world resource, the preparation of which requires complex treatments that include clarification of suspended particles and disinfection. Seed extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam., a tropical tree, have been proposed as an environment-friendly alternative, due to their traditional use for the clarification of drinking water. However, the precise nature of the active components of the extract and whether they may be produced in recombinant form are unknown. Here we show that recombinant or synthetic forms of a cationic seed polypeptide mediate efficient sedimentation of suspended mineral particles and bacteria. Unexpectedly, the polypeptide was also found to possesses a bactericidal activity capable of disinfecting heavily contaminated water. Furthermore, the polypeptide has been shown to efficiently kill several pathogenic bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant isolates of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Legionella species. Thus, this polypeptide displays the unprecedented feature of combining water purification and disinfectant properties. Identification of an active principle derived from the seed extracts points to a range of potential for drinking water treatment or skin and mucosal disinfection in clinical settings. PMID:12432576

Suarez, M; Entenza, J M; Doerries, C; Meyer, E; Bourquin, L; Sutherland, J; Marison, I; Moreillon, P; Mermod, N

2003-01-01

393

[Improved protoplast-derived plants of Astragalus adsurgens through somatic embryogenesis].  

PubMed

Embryogenic callus was obtained only from hypocotyl explants of Astragalus adsurgens and light inhibited the formation of embryogenic callus. A high yield (1.2 x 10(6)/g F. Wt.) of protoplasts with high viability (over 80%) could be isolated from 10-day-old embryogenic callus. Protoplasts were induced to undergo sustained division and to form cell colonies when cultured in agarose-solidified medium (KMP) containing 1/4 strength of mineral salts and supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2, 4-D, 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.5 mol/L glucose at a plating density of 1.0 x 10(5)mL, where the plating efficinency was 16.8%. Conditioning medium significantly improved the formation of cell colonies. When protoplast-derived colonies were maintained at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks and subsequently transferred onto medium (MS) with 0.1 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BA, somatic embryogenesis occurred. Frequency of cell colonies producing somatic embryos reached 70%, and the number of somatic embryos per gram cells was over 200. Cultured on hormone-free half-strength MS medium, somatic embryos developed into healthy plantlets with normal chromosome complement. PMID:10883269

Luo, J P; Jia, J F; Gu, Y H; Liu, J

2000-01-01

394

Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures composed of blackberry leaf and natural sweeteners (dried apples, prunes, figs, raisins, apricots, carrot and sweet potato, stevia leaves and liquorice root) were developed. Their nutritive and bioactive profile, biological activity and sensory properties were determined. Formulated mixtures exhibited lower total polyphenol content (259.09-350.00 mg GAE/L) when compared to plain blackberry leaf, but contained higher content of chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic acids and quercetin, as well as some macroelements (Ca, K, Mg) and microelements (Ba, Na). Stevia addition to formulated mixtures ensured higher polyphenolic content. Dried carrot exhibited the highest (0.988 g/g) and liquorice the lowest (0.087 g/g) content of total sugars but it contributed to the sweetness with 574.48 mg/L of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives. Plain blackberry leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic and antioxidative activity on human colon cancer cells. Formulated mixtures exhibited improved flavour profile and balanced sweetness in relation to plain blackberry leaf infusion. PMID:24423548

Komes, Draženka; Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Ljubi?i?, Ivan; Durgo, Ksenija; Cindri?, Iva Juranovi?; Buši?, Arijana; Vojvodi?, Aleksandra

2014-05-15

395

Cutaneous wound healing after treatment with plant-derived human recombinant collagen flowable gel.  

PubMed

Chronic wounds, particularly diabetic ulcers, represent a main public health concern with significant costs. Ulcers often harbor an additional obstacle in the form of tunneled or undermined wounds, requiring treatments that can reach the entire wound tunnel, because bioengineered grafts are typically available only in a sheet form. While collagen is considered a suitable biodegradable scaffold material, it is usually extracted from animal and human cadaveric sources, and accompanied by potential allergic and infectious risks. The purpose of this study was to test the performance of a flowable gel made of human recombinant type I collagen (rhCollagen) produced in transgenic tobacco plants, indicated for the treatment of acute, chronic, and tunneled wounds. The performance of the rhCollagen flowable gel was tested in an acute full-thickness cutaneous wound-healing rat model and compared to saline treatment and two commercial flowable gel control products made of bovine collagen and cadaver human skin collagen. When compared to the three control groups, the rhCollagen-based gel accelerated wound closure and triggered a significant jumpstart to the healing process, accompanied by enhanced re-epithelialization. In a cutaneous full-thickness wound pig model, the rhCollagen-based flowable gel induced accelerated wound healing compared to a commercial product made of bovine tendon collagen. By day 21 post-treatment, 95% wound closure was observed with the rhCollagen product compared to 68% closure in wounds treated with the reference product. Moreover, rhCollagen treatment induced an early angiogenic response and induced a significantly lower inflammatory response than in the control group. In summary, rhCollagen flowable gel proved to be efficacious in animal wound models and is expected to be capable of reducing the healing time of human wounds. PMID:23259631

Shilo, Shani; Roth, Sigal; Amzel, Tal; Harel-Adar, Tamar; Tamir, Eran; Grynspan, Frida; Shoseyov, Oded

2013-07-01

396

Induction of Fatty Acid Composition Modifications and Tolerance to Biocides in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Plant-Derived Terpenes?  

PubMed Central

To enhance food safety and stability, the food industry tends to use natural antimicrobials such as plant-derived compounds as an attractive alternative to chemical preservatives. Nonetheless, caution must be exercised in light of the potential for bacterial adaptation to these molecules, a phenomenon previously observed with other antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to characterize the adaptation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sublethal concentrations of four terpenes extracted from aromatic plants: thymol, carvacrol, citral, and eugenol, or combinations thereof. Bacterial adaptation in these conditions was demonstrated by changes in membrane fatty acid composition showing (i) limitation of the cyclization of unsaturated fatty acids to cyclopropane fatty acids when cells entered the stationary phase and (ii) bacterial membrane saturation. Furthermore, we demonstrated an increased cell resistance to the bactericidal activity of two biocides (peracetic acid and didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide). The implications of membrane modifications in terms of hindering the penetration of antimicrobials through the bacterial membrane are discussed. PMID:21131520

Dubois-Brissonnet, Florence; Naďtali, Murielle; Mafu, Akier Assanta; Briandet, Romain

2011-01-01

397

Immunogenicity of peptides derived from a fibronectin-binding protein of S. aureus expressed on two different plant viruses.  

PubMed

The D2 peptide derived from an S. aureus fibronectin-binding protein (FnBP) was expressed on the surface of the icosahedral cowpea mosaic virus (amino acids 1-30 of D2) or on the rod-shaped potato virus X (amino acids 1-38 of D2), termed CPMV-MAST1 and PVX-MAST8, respectively. Mice and rats were immunized subcutaneously with CPMV-MAST1 and mice with PVX-MAST8 in adjuvant and high titres of FnBP-specific antibody were obtained. The mouse IgG was predominantly of the IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes, which strongly bound complement component C1q, suggesting a TH1-bias in the peptide-specific responses. Sera from mice and rats immunized with CPMV-MAST1 and from mice immunized with PVX-MAST8 were shown to completely inhibit the binding of fibronectin to immobilised recombinant FnBP and rat sera against CPMV-MAST1 were able to block adherence of S. aureus to fibronectin. These studies demonstrate that the D2 peptide is highly immunogenic when expressed on 2 different plant viruses and highlight the potential of plant virus-based vaccines to protect against S. aureus infections. PMID:10217582

Brennan, F R; Jones, T D; Longstaff, M; Chapman, S; Bellaby, T; Smith, H; Xu, F; Hamilton, W D; Flock, J I

1999-04-01

398

The composition and flux of vascular-plant derived organic matter export from small mountainous rivers during typhoon event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small mountainous rivers, which suffer from landslides triggered by tropical cyclones, may transfer particulate organic carbon (POC) from land to the ocean in an express way, hyperpycnal flow. A significant amount of organic carbon produced by biosphere was channeled to the deep sea during flash flood. The OC source characterization is essential to understand the biosphere denudation and the responses of river basin to the growing climate extremes. Lignin phenols had been widely used in the geochemical studies to trace the terrestrial POC transport as it is unique to the vascular plants. In present study, we first measured lignin phenols in samples collected from three stations in a Taiwan river, Chuoshui River, during the Typhoon Mindulle in 2004 with high time resolution (every 3 hours) to explore the source variation and accurately quantify vascular plant derived OM throughout the flood. In the mainstream, ?8 (Lignin concentration normalized to POC) varied from approximately 0.4 mg/100mg OC at the flood rising and up to 2.4 mg/100mg OC at the peak discharge. A significant positive correlation between water discharge and ?8 was observed (r=0.93, p<0.001) suggesting that precipitation, thus discharge is the primary control for the transport of the vascular plant OM. Moreover, a significant negative relation observed between ?8 and degradation indicator (P/(V+S)) (r=0.62, p<0.001)revealed that freshly produced vascular POC was diluted by highly degraded OC. We calculated that approximately 1.3 Gg of particulate lignin was exported within 84h from Chuoshui River to the ocean, in which ~50% was achieved during the 3 hours discharge peak. The event exporting particulate lignin from Chuoshui River was ~10% of annual export from Changjiang, which is 600x larger in watershed size. Moreover, >90% particulate lignin in Chuoshui River was delivered via hyperpycnal flow, representing an efficient sequestration of terrestrial OC in deep ocean.

Bao, Hongyan; Kao, Shuh-Ji

2014-05-01

399

The Calvin Cycle Inevitably Produces Sugar-Derived Reactive Carbonyl Methylglyoxal During Photosynthesis: A Potential Cause of Plant Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Sugar-derived reactive carbonyls (RCs), including methylglyoxal (MG), are aggressive by-products of oxidative stress known to impair the functions of multiple proteins. These advanced glycation end-products accumulate in patients with diabetes mellitus and cause major complications, including arteriosclerosis and cardiac insufficiency. In the glycolytic pathway, the equilibration reactions between dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) have recently been shown to generate MG as a by-product. Because plants produce vast amounts of sugars and support the same reaction in the Calvin cycle, we hypothesized that MG also accumulates in chloroplasts. Incubating isolated chloroplasts with excess 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) as the GAP precursor drove the equilibration reaction toward MG production. The rate of oxygen (O2) evolution was used as an index of 3-PGA-mediated photosynthesis. The 3-PGA- and time-dependent accumulation of MG in chloroplasts was confirmed by HPLC. In addition, MG production increased with an increase in light intensity. We also observed a positive linear relationship between the rates of MG production and O2 evolution (R = 0.88; P < 0.0001). These data provide evidence that MG is produced by the Calvin cycle and that sugar-derived RC production is inevitable during photosynthesis. Furthermore, we found that MG production is enhanced under high-CO2 conditions in illuminated wheat leaves. PMID:24406631

Takagi, Daisuke; Inoue, Hironori; Odawara, Mizue; Shimakawa, Ginga; Miyake, Chikahiro

2014-01-01

400

Properties of the plant- and manure-derived biochars and their sorption of dibutyl phthalate and phenanthrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of plant residue-derived biochars (PLABs) and animal waste-derived biochars (ANIBs) obtained at low and high heating treatment temperatures (300 and 450°C) as well as their sorption of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and phenanthrene (PHE) were investigated in this study. The higher C content of PLABs could explain that CO2-surface area (CO2-SA) of PLABs was remarkably high relative to ANIBs. OC and aromatic C were two key factors influencing the CO2-SA of the biochars. Much higher surface C content of the ANIBs than bulk C likely explained that the ANIBs exhibited higher sorption of DBP and PHE compared to the PLABs. H-bonding should govern the adsorption of DBP by most of the tested biochars and ?-? interaction play an important role in the adsorption of PHE by biochars. High CO2-SA (>200 m2 g-1) demonstrated that abundant nanopores of OC existed within the biochars obtained 450°C (HTBs), which likely result in high and nonlinear sorption of PHE by HTBs.

Qiu, Mengyi; Sun, Ke; Jin, Jie; Gao, Bo; Yan, Yu; Han, Lanfang; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

2014-06-01

401

Plant-derived mAbs have effective anti-cancer activities by increasing ganglioside expression in colon cancers.  

PubMed

An epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was selectively expressed in human colorectal carcinoma. Treatment with plant-derived anti-EpCAM mAb (mAbP CO17-1A) and RAW264.7 cells inhibited cell growth in the human colorectal cancer cell line SW620. In SW620 treated with mAbP CO17-1A and RAW264.7 cells, expression of p53 and p21 increased, whereas the expression of G1 phase-related proteins, cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, and CDK2, decreased, similar to mammalian-derived mAb (mAbM) CO17-1A. Similar to mAbM CO17-1A, treatment with mAbP CO17-1A and RAW264.7 cell decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, TNF-?, caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-8 and caspase-9, increased. Cells treated with mAbP CO17-1A and RAW264.7 cells expressed metastasis-related gangliosides, GM1 and GD1a, similar to mAbM CO17-1A. These results suggest that mAbP CO17-1A is as effective on anti-cancer activity as mAbM CO17-1A. PMID:24078119

Ryu, Jae-Sung; Lee, Ju-Taek; Lim, Malg-Um; Hwang, Mi-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Kisung; Choo, Young-Kug

2013-12-01

402

Properties of the plant- and manure-derived biochars and their sorption of dibutyl phthalate and phenanthrene  

PubMed Central

The properties of plant residue-derived biochars (PLABs) and animal waste-derived biochars (ANIBs) obtained at low and high heating treatment temperatures (300 and 450°C) as well as their sorption of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and phenanthrene (PHE) were investigated in this study. The higher C content of PLABs could explain that CO2-surface area (CO2-SA) of PLABs was remarkably high relative to ANIBs. OC and aromatic C were two key factors influencing the CO2-SA of the biochars. Much higher surface C content of the ANIBs than bulk C likely explained that the ANIBs exhibited higher sorption of DBP and PHE compared to the PLABs. H-bonding should govern the adsorption of DBP by most of the tested biochars and ?-? interaction play an important role in the adsorption of PHE by biochars. High CO2-SA (>200?m2 g?1) demonstrated that abundant nanopores of OC existed within the biochars obtained 450°C (HTBs), which likely result in high and nonlinear sorption of PHE by HTBs. PMID:24924925

Qiu, Mengyi; Sun, Ke; Jin, Jie; Gao, Bo; Yan, Yu; Han, Lanfang; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

2014-01-01

403

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Anne Barron

2011-04-21

404

Profile of cholesterol-related sterols in aged amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesterol is implicated to play a role in Alzhei- mer disease pathology. Therefore, the concentrations of cholesterol, its precursors, and its degradation products in brain homogenates of aging wild-type and ? -amyloid pre- cursor protein transgenic mice carrying the Swedish muta- tion (APP23) were analyzed. Among the sterols measured, lanosterol is the first common intermediate of two different pathways, which

D. Lutjohann; Andreas Brzezinka; Esther Barth; Dorothee Abramowski; Matthias Staufenbiel; Klaus von Bergmann; Konrad Beyreuther; Gerd Multhaup; Thomas A. Bayer

2002-01-01

405

Examining the effect of sterol carrier protein-2 on phytanic acid toxicity  

E-print Network

acid. Phytanic acid accumulates to toxic levels in patients with defective or deficient numbers of peroxisomes, but little is known about how phytanic acid is taken up into the cell and incorporated into the peroxisome. Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2...

Chen, Cynthia

2013-02-22

406

Synthetic Lethal Interactions Involving Loss of the Yeast ERG24- the Sterol C-14 Reductase Gene.  

PubMed Central

ERG2 and ERG24 are yeast sterol biosynthetic genes and are targets of the morpholine antifungals. ERG2 and ERG24 encode the C-8 sterol isomerase and the C-14 reductase, respectively. ERG2 is considered a non-essential gene but the viability of ERG24 is dependent upon genetic background, type of medium, and CaCl2 concentration. We demonstrate that erg2 and erg24 mutants are viable in the deletion consortium background but are lethal when combined into the same haploid strain. The erg2erg24 double mutant can be suppressed by mutations in the sphingolipid gene ELO3 but not ELO2. However, suppression occurs on rich but not on synthetic complete medium. We also demonstrate that the suppressed elo3erg2erg24 does not show a sterol composition markedly different from erg24. Further genetic analysis indicates that erg24 when combined with mutations in erg6 or erg28 are synthetically lethal but when combined with mutations in erg3 are weakly viable. These results suggest that novel sterol intermediates likely contribute to the synthetic lethality observed in this investigation. PMID:17393212

Shah Alam Bhuiyan, M.; Eckstein, James; Barbuch, Robert; Bard, Martin

2006-01-01

407

A Dietary Test of Putative Deleterious Sterols for the Aphid Myzus persicae  

E-print Network

A Dietary Test of Putative Deleterious Sterols for the Aphid Myzus persicae Sophie Bouvaine1, College Station, Texas, United States of America Abstract The aphid Myzus persicae displays high mortality resistance to the aphids, M. persicae were reared on chemically-defined diets with different steroid contents

Behmer, Spencer T.

408

ORIGINAL PAPER The sterol modifying enzyme LET-767 is essential for growth,  

E-print Network

. Furthermore, let- 767 mutants exhibit defects in embryogenesis, female reproduction and molting. Although that LET-767 modifies a sterol hormone that is required both for embryogenesis and for later stages defects including delayed growth, reduced brood size, and germline and somatic gonad defects (Merris et al

Baillie, David

409

Intracellular sterol transport and distribution Frederick R Maxfield and Anant K Menon  

E-print Network

and experimental studies indicate ways in which the lipid environment can alter the chemical potential of sterols