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Sample records for dermal burn case

  1. The Use of Dermal Substitutes in Burn Surgery: Acute Phase

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Anna, Arno; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are increasingly becoming an essential part of the burn care strategy. During the acute phase of burn treatment, dermal substitutes improve functional and cosmetic results long-term and thus increase quality of life. In the chronic wound setting, dermal substitutes are used to reconstruct and improve burn scars and other defects. Despite some successes in the use of dermal substitutes there are more needs and requirements to further improve outcomes and hence further research is required not only to strengthen scientific evidence regarding their effects but also to develop new technology and products. Dermal substitutes also emerge as pivotal research strategies to develop adequate scaffolds for stem cells, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications to obtain long-lasting and scarless artificial skin. This review discusses status-quo of dermal substitutes and novel strategies in the use of dermal substitutes with a focus on burn care. PMID:24393152

  2. Acute concentrated phenol dermal burns: Complications and management.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Tapan Jayantilal

    2015-05-01

    Phenol burns can result in multiple organ failure. This is a case report of acute severe phenol dermal burn after accidental splash of 94% phenol on 35-year-old patient's body who was brought to hospital after 90 min of exposure. Decontamination was done with high-density water and glycerol. Early complications in form of metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure required hemodialysis. Extensive protein denaturation was managed with IV albumin and high protein diet. Patient also developed pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but these were successfully managed by intercostal drain tube insertion and noninvasive ventilation. The patient survived after multiple organ failures and widespread burns despite the fact that it has been observed that outcome of phenol burns with >60(2) inches of skin affected or two or more organs failure involving renal system is nearly fatal. PMID:25983436

  3. Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2016-03-01

    A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of

  4. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy

    PubMed Central

    YU, GUANYING; YE, LAN; TAN, WEI; ZHU, XUGUO; LI, YAONAN; JIANG, DUYIN

    2016-01-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep-degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep-degree burns. PMID:26846279

  5. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin

    2016-03-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns. PMID:26846279

  6. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  7. Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  8. A novel device to create consistent deep dermal burns in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Seema; Chan, Queenie; Bertinetti, Monique; Harvey, John G; Hei, Erik R La; Holland, Andrew JA

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate a novel device to create a consistent and reproducible deep partial thickness burn in a porcine model. A thermostatically controlled, heated aluminium disc device was fashioned by the Biomedical Department of our institution. Contact burns were made on the flank of two Great White pigs by applying the device heated to 92°C at intervals of 5, 10, 15 and 20 seconds to four separate test areas area of skin. Biopsies for histological analysis of burn depth were taken on day 0 at 10 minutes post burn and on day 8. Biopsies taken at day 0 revealed superficial to mid-dermal burns, with minimal dermal edema and necrosis. Those from day 8 showed mid to deep dermal edema and necrosis in all four test areas following a 20 second contact duration burn. The new contact burn device was able to create a consistent deep dermal burn after 20 seconds of contact. We anticipate that this new device could be used to investigate the development of hypertrophic scarring in a porcine model. PMID:27335694

  9. Treatment of severe burn with DermACELL®, an acellular dermal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    For treatment of skin burn injuries, there exist several methods of treatment related to tissue regeneration, including the use of autograft skin and cryopreserved skin. However, each method has drawbacks. An alternative method for tissue regeneration is allograft acellular dermal matrix, with potential as a biocompatible scaffold for new tissue growth. One recently produced material of this type is DermACELL®, which was used in this case presentation for treating a scar resulting from second- and third-degree burns in a 33-year-old female patient. The patient presented with significant hypertrophic scarring from the elbow to the hand and with limited wrist and elbow motion. The scarring was removed, and the patient was treated with a 1:3 mesh of DermACELL. The wound was resurfaced with a split thickness skin graft, and postoperative care included application of pressure garment and silicone sheet, as well as range of motion exercise and massage. At 30 days after DermACELL application, the wound appeared well-healed with little scar formation. At 180 days post-application, the wound continued to appear healed well without significant scar formation. Additionally, the wound was supple, and the patient experienced significant improvement in range of motion. In the case presented, DermACELL appears to have been a successful method of treatment for scarring due to severe burns by preventing further scar formation and improving range of motion. PMID:23071908

  10. Topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid dermal burns. Further assessment of efficacy using an experimental piq model.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B J; MacKinnon, M A; Knowlden, N F; Billmaier, D J; Derelanko, M J; Rusch, G M; Naas, D J; Dahlgren, R R

    1996-05-01

    Several topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid dermal burns (Zephiran, calcium acetate and magnesium hydroxide antacid soaks, and calcium gluconate gel) were assessed for efficacy in a pig model. Gross appearance and histopathology of treated and untreated burn sites were evaluated. For superficial burns, Zephiran was most effective; calcium acetate, magnesium hydroxide antacid, and calcium gluconate gel were less effective. For deep burns, gross observations showed that calcium acetate and Zephiran were most efficacious, whereas histopathology indicated comparable efficacy of Zephiran, calcium acetate, and calcium gluconate gel for all skin layers. Magnesium hydroxide antacid demonstrated efficacy only for the subdermis. The clinically beneficial effects of both Zephiran and calcium gluconate gel were affirmed. Although results suggest that calcium acetate and magnesium-containing antacids may be beneficial for human hydrofluoric acid dermal burns, these are not established clinical treatments. PMID:8733642

  11. Pseudoxantoma elasticum-like dermal elastolysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    López, Verónica; Revert, Angeles; Santonja, Nuria; Jordá, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    Elastic fibers are components of dermal connective tissue that can be affected in several acquired disorders. Recently, a new entity known as pseudoxanthoma-like papillary dermal elastolysis has been described. We present a case in a 61-year-old woman. PMID:21549088

  12. Collagen-Based Films Containing Liposome-Loaded Usnic Acid as Dressing for Dermal Burn Healing

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paula S.; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L. C.; Cavalcante, Danielle R. R.; Dantas, Marx D. M.; Cardoso, Juliana C.; Bezerra, Marília S.; Souza, Jamille C. C.; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Quitans-Jr, Lucindo J.; Bonjardim, Leonardo R.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was assess the effect of collagen-based films containing usnic acid as a wound dressing for dermal burn healing. Second-degree burn wounds were performed in forty-five Wistar rats, assigned into nine groups: COL—animals treated with collagen-based films; PHO—animals treated with collagen films containing empty liposomes; UAL—animals treated with collagen-based films containing usnic acid incorporated into liposomes. After 7, 14, and 21 days the animals were euthanized. On 7th day there was a moderate infiltration of neutrophils, in UAL, distributed throughout the burn wounds, whereas in COL and PHO, the severity of the reaction was slighter and still limited to the margins of the burn wounds. On the 14th day, the inflammatory reaction was less intense in UAL, with remarkable plasma cells infiltration. On the 21st day, there was reduction of the inflammation, which was predominantly composed of plasma cells in all groups, particularly in UAL. The use of the usnic acid provided more rapid substitution of type-III for type-I collagen on the 14th day, and improved the collagenization density on the 21st day. It was concluded that the use of reconstituted bovine type-I collagen-based films containing usnic acid improved burn healing process in rats. PMID:21274404

  13. Chitosan gel formulations containing egg yolk oil and epidermal growth factor for dermal burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, E; Başaran, E; Arslan, R; Berkman, M S; Güven, U M; Bayçu, C; Yazan, Y

    2015-02-01

    In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin with a significant difference (p < 0.05) considering healing ranks of tissue samples. PMID:25997244

  14. Spinal dorsal dermal sinus tract: An experience of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ishwar; Rohilla, Seema; Kumar, Prashant; Sharma, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal dorsal dermal sinus is a rare entity, which usually comes to clinical attention by cutaneous abnormalities, neurologic deficit, and/or infection. The present study was undertaken to know the clinical profile of these patients, to study associated anomalies and to assess the results of surgical intervention. Methods: Medical records of 21 patients treated for spinal dorsal dermal sinus from September 2007 to December 2013 were reviewed. Results: We had 21 patients with male: female ratio of 13:8. Only 2 patients were below 1-year of age, and most cases (15) were between 2 and 15 years (mean age = 8.2 years). Lumbar region (11 cases) was most frequently involved, followed by thoracic (4 cases), lumbosacral, and cervical region in 3 patients each. All of our patients presented with neurological deficits. Three patients were admitted with acute meningitis with acute onset paraplegia and had intraspinal abscess. The motor, sensory, and autonomic deficits were seen in 14, 6, and 8 patients, respectively. Scoliosis and congenital talipes equinovarus were the common associated anomalies. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of dysraphic state and excision of the sinus. Overall, 20 patients improved or neurological status stabilized and only 1 patient deteriorated. Postoperative wound infection was seen in 2 cases. Conclusions: All patients with spinal dorsal dermal sinuses should be offered aggressive surgical treatment in the form of total excision of sinus tract and correction of spinal malformation, as soon as diagnosed. PMID:26539316

  15. Clinical application of cultured epithelial autografts on acellular dermal matrices in the treatment of extended burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Taolin; Lineaweaver, William C; Sailes, Frederick C; Kisner, Carson; Zhang, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Achieving permanent replacement of skin in extensive full-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn injuries and chronic wounds remains one of the fundamental surgical problems. Presently, split-thickness skin grafts are still considered the best material for surgical repair of an excised burn wound. However, in burns that affect greater than 50% of total body surface area, the patient has insufficient areas of unaffected skin from which split-thickness skin grafts can be harvested. The use of cultured epithelial (or epidermal) autografts (CEAs) has achieved satisfactory results. But the take rate of CEAs is poor in full-thickness bed or in chronically infected area. Providing temporary cover with allograft skin, or a more permanent allodermis, may increase clinical take. This review aims to (1) describe the use of CEAs in the regeneration of the epidermis, (2) introduce the application of the acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in the clinics, and (3) enhance understanding of the CEAs applied with ADM as an appropriate strategy to treat the extended burn injuries. The current evidence regarding the cultured epithelial cell or keratinocyte autograft and dermal grafts applied in the treatment of burn injuries was investigated with an extensive electronic and manual search (MEDLINE and EMBASE). The included literature (N=136 publications) was critically evaluated focusing on the efficacy and safety of this technique in improving the healing of the deep dermal and full-thickness burn injuries. This review concluded that the use of ADM with CEAs is becoming increasingly routine, particularly as a life-saving tool after acute thermal trauma. PMID:24322642

  16. Treatment of hypergranulation tissue in burn wounds with topical steroid dressings: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Marie; Harats, Moti; Kornhaber, Rachel; Aviv, Uri; Zerach, Amir; Haik, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Hypergranulation tissue (or also known as overgranulation) may negatively influence burn wound healing time and contribute to recurrence of contractures in burn wounds and grafts. Subsequently, the treatment of hypergranulation tissue remains controversial and problematic. In this case series, we aimed to examine the feasibility and document the use of topical hydrocortisone in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue formation resulting from burn wounds. We report five cases where hypergranulation tissue developed following deep dermal/full-thickness burns. Initial burn wound treatment included necrotic tissue debridement, wound cleansing, and Flaminal®. All five cases underwent surgical debridement and split-skin grafting. Upon identification of hypergranulation tissue, hydrocortisone acetate 0.25% was applied topically as usual care for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue. All five patients had deep dermal/full-thickness burns with a total body surface area ranging from 22% to 61% and were aged from 3–41 years. All five cases developed hypergranulation tissue during their admission after debridement and split-thickness skin grafts. All patients showed an improvement in the treated areas with a complete regression of hypergranulation tissue and closure of the burn wounds. No clinically apparent local or systemic side effects of the treatment were observed. Topical hydrocortisone can be utilized as an effective, inexpensive, and noninvasive practical option in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue resulting from burn wounds. PMID:27570466

  17. Treatment of hypergranulation tissue in burn wounds with topical steroid dressings: a case series.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Marie; Harats, Moti; Kornhaber, Rachel; Aviv, Uri; Zerach, Amir; Haik, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Hypergranulation tissue (or also known as overgranulation) may negatively influence burn wound healing time and contribute to recurrence of contractures in burn wounds and grafts. Subsequently, the treatment of hypergranulation tissue remains controversial and problematic. In this case series, we aimed to examine the feasibility and document the use of topical hydrocortisone in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue formation resulting from burn wounds. We report five cases where hypergranulation tissue developed following deep dermal/full-thickness burns. Initial burn wound treatment included necrotic tissue debridement, wound cleansing, and Flaminal(®). All five cases underwent surgical debridement and split-skin grafting. Upon identification of hypergranulation tissue, hydrocortisone acetate 0.25% was applied topically as usual care for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue. All five patients had deep dermal/full-thickness burns with a total body surface area ranging from 22% to 61% and were aged from 3-41 years. All five cases developed hypergranulation tissue during their admission after debridement and split-thickness skin grafts. All patients showed an improvement in the treated areas with a complete regression of hypergranulation tissue and closure of the burn wounds. No clinically apparent local or systemic side effects of the treatment were observed. Topical hydrocortisone can be utilized as an effective, inexpensive, and noninvasive practical option in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue resulting from burn wounds. PMID:27570466

  18. Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Papillary Dermal Elastolysis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rubina; Ferreira, Lurdes; Vale, Esmeralda; Bordalo, Olívia

    2010-01-01

    PXE-PDE is a rare clinicopathological entity with few cases reported. It affects more often elderly women and is characterized by asymptomatic bilateral and symmetrical yellowish papules localized predominantly on the neck and supraclavicular regions. It is clinically similar to Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum. The authors report a case of a 64-year-old woman presenting asymptomatic, yellowish, non-follicular papules, affecting the occipital and the posterior region of the neck for 1 year. The patient denied pruritic or inflammatory changes, marked solar exposition or trauma on the affected areas. Routine laboratory studies: thoracic x-ray and ophthalmologic examination were normal. The histopathologic examination of a biopsy of one of the cutaneous lesions showed an absence of elastic fibers in the papillary dermis.The diagnosis of Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum—like Papillary Dermal Elastolysis (PXE-PDE) was made. Of great importance is the differential diagnosis with Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), but we have also to consider other elastolytic disorders: mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE), linear focal elastosis (LFE) and white fibrous papulosis of the neck (WFPN). Until know, there is no effective treatment for this pathology. PMID:20827433

  19. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  20. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case

    PubMed Central

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  1. The radiological features of Goltz syndrome: focal dermal hypoplasia. A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, A E; Hall, C M

    1988-01-01

    Two female infants with Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) were recently investigated in the Department of Radiology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street for severe feeding problems and failure to thrive. Both demonstrated severe skeletal malformations and marked gastrooesophageal reflux with laxity of the hiatus. One child (case 1) exhibited nasal regurgitation during feeding. Interestingly, both children had undergone surgery; Case 1 or a right parasagittal abdominal hernia associated with focal dermal hypoplasia of the abdominal wall and Case 2 for an exomphalos also associated with dermal hypoplasia. This observation suggests a more widespread mesodermal abnormality. PMID:3201278

  2. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

  3. The pig as an experimental model for mid-dermal burns research.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Wen-Ling; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Lin, Sheng-Chuan; Lei, Yi-Chih; Liao, Jeng-Hao; Tang, Nou-Ying; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2014-12-01

    This was a novel, prospective and interventional animal study designed to develop and evaluate a new infliction device for the experimental burn model. Four paired sets of contact burns measuring 36mm diameter were inflicted on the dorsum of an anesthetized pig using a stainless steel round bar heated up to 80-110°C. The bar was applied using a push-pull force gauge designed to control 1kgf mechanical force applied to the skin for a period of 20s. The left dorsum was used for macroscopic observation and the right dorsum was used for histopathological evaluation. A total of eight burns were covered with moist saline dressings and given daily treatments of xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) gel. This procedure was followed for a period of 24 days. Full-thickness biopsies were obtained for histologic analysis to determine the extent of injury. Statistical analysis showed a high correlation between the exposure temperature and histopathological assessment. The results found the depth of injury to the collagen (Seg1) correlated with the temperature (Ti) at which the burns was inflicted, Seg1=0.038Ti-2.57 (r=0.973, P<0.05). Also, the histological studies show a high correlation between the depth of collagen denaturation in wounds and the exposure temperature, Seg1=0.0268Ti-0.165 (r=0.991, P<0.05). This model is useful to assess more closely the therapeutic agents used for wound healing in experimental burn wounds. PMID:24908180

  4. Filigree burn of lightning: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. The electric current passing through the discharge channels is direct with a potential of 1000 million volts or more. Lightning can kill or injure a person by a direct strike, a side-flash, or conduction through another object. Lightning can cause a variety of injuries in the skin and the cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic systems. Filigree burn of lightning is a superficial burn and very rare. Two cases of death from lightning which have this rare finding are reported and discussed. PMID:17520964

  5. Differential response of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes to burn wound exudates: potential role of skin-specific chemokine CCL27.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; Kroeze, Kim L; Waaijman, Taco; Breetveld, Melanie; Sampat-Sardjoepersad, Shakun C; Niessen, Frank B; Middelkoop, Esther; Scheper, Rik J; Gibbs, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Many cell-based regenerative medicine strategies toward tissue-engineered constructs are currently being explored. Cell-cell interactions and interactions with different biomaterials are extensively investigated, whereas very few studies address how cultured cells will interact with soluble wound-healing mediators that are present within the wound bed after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine how adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC), dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes will react when they come in contact with the deep cutaneous burn wound bed. Burn wound exudates isolated from deep burn wounds were found to contain many cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors related to inflammation and wound healing. Seventeen mediators were identified by ELISA (concentration range 0.0006-9 ng/mg total protein), including the skin-specific chemokine CCL27. Burn wound exudates activated both ASC and dermal fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, to increase secretion of CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL2, and CCL20. Notably, ASC but not fibroblasts or keratinocytes showed significant increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (5-fold) and interleukin-6 (253-fold), although when the cells were incorporated in bi-layered skin substitute (SS) these differences were less pronounced. A similar discrepancy between ASC and dermal fibroblast mono-cultures was observed when recombinant human-CCL27 was used instead of burn wound exudates. Although CCL27 did not stimulate the secretion of any of the wound-healing mediators by keratinocytes, these cells, in contrast to ASC or dermal fibroblasts, showed increased proliferation and migration. Taken together, these results indicate that on transplantation, keratinocytes are primarily activated to promote wound closure. In contrast, dermal fibroblasts and, in particular, ASC respond vigorously to factors present in the wound bed, leading to increased secretion of angiogenesis/granulation tissue formation

  6. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... are burns treated? In many cases, topical antibiotics (skin creams or ointments) are used to prevent infection. For third-degree burns and some second-degree ones, immediate blood transfusion and/or extra fluids ... is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. ...

  7. Discrete papular dermal mucinosis with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ertam, Ilgen; Karaca, Nezih; Ceylan, Can; Kazandi, Alican; Alper, Sibel

    2011-03-01

    The cutaneous focal mucinoses are a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by deposition of mucin found either focally or diffusely in the dermis. A 47-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic flesh-colored papules on the neck, inguinal area, intergluteal area, vulvar area, and extremities of 5 months' duration. There was no history of preceding trauma or insect bites. The patient had undergone a subtotal thyroidectomy 21 years prior but had not used any thyroid medication before she was referred to our clinic. Thyroid ultrasonography was consistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis. During dermatologic examination, flesh-colored, well-defined, smooth papules that measured approximately 1.5 x 1 cm in size on the genital region, fingers, face, and scalp were seen. Histopathologic examination of a lesional biopsy revealed no abnormalities in the epidermis. Alcian blue staining showed that abundant deposits of dermal mucin had replaced collagen in the dermis. PMID:21488572

  8. Adult onset unilateral systematized porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bandoyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti

    2014-06-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus (PEODDN) is an uncommon, benign dermatosis that is characterized by asymptomatic grouped keratotic papules and plaques with a linear pattern on the extremities with distinct porokeratotic histopathological features. The lesions usually appear at birth or in childhood, although rare cases of late-onset adult PEODDN have been described. Herein we report a case of adult onset PEODDN with unilateral and segmental involvement. PMID:24945650

  9. Human acellular dermal matrix allograft: A randomized, controlled human trial for the long-term evaluation of patients with extensive burns.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyong; Meng, Xianghai; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Yuejun; Li, Wangzhou; Lv, Xiaoxing; Xu, Xiaoli; Lei, Zhanjun; Li, Jinqing

    2015-06-01

    The potential of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to improve cosmetic and functional outcomes has been demonstrated; however, there have been few clinical comparative studies assessing the long-term morphological, histological and functional changes after ADM placement. This study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the long-term outcomes of the cograft acellular dermal matrix with autologous thin split-thickness skin for the coverage of wounds in extensively burned patients. Thirty burn patients treated with a composite graft of ADM with autologous split-thickness skin from January 2007 to December 2009 were enrolled in this study. Another group of thirty patients who received only an autogenous split-thickness skin implant served as the control. Our study revealed that the collagen in the dermis treated with ADM were ordered, and the proportion of collagen III/I was much higher in the control group than in the ADM group. The basement membrane was prominent and continuous. Meanwhile, the VBSS (Vancouver Burn Skin Score) was used to evaluate skin quality, which shows a significant differences between the two group (P<0.001). Then the functional level was evaluated by the BI (Barthel Index), and the ADM group was much better than the control group (P=0.005). Based on these results, we concluded that the composite graft of ADM with autologous thin split-thickness skin was suitable for repairing the defects in functional areas after a burn. This technique might facilitate wound management with acceptable esthetic outcomes, good functional recovery and less scar hyperplasia at the donor site. PMID:25687834

  10. DermACELL: Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cole, Windy E

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes often causes ulcers on the feet of diabetic patients. A 56-year-old, insulin-dependent, diabetic woman presented to the wound care center with a Wagner grade 3 ulcer of the right heel. She reported a 3-week history of ulceration with moderate drainage and odor and had a history of ulceration and osteomyelitis in the contralateral limb. Rigorous wound care, including hospitalization; surgical incision and drainage; intravenous antibiotic drug therapy; vacuum-assisted therapy; and a new room temperature, sterile, human acellular dermal matrix graft were used to heal the wound, save her limb, and restore her activities of daily living. This case presentation involves alternative treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer with this new acellular dermal matrix, DermACELL. PMID:27031550

  11. Nasal Dermal Sinus Associated with a Dumbbell-Shaped Dermoid: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shimogawa, Takafumi; Morioka, Takato; Onozawa, Hisasuke; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Kira, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Nasal dermal sinus is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of the dermal sinus associated with a dumbbell-shaped dermoid and demonstrate the detailed anatomy. The patient was a boy aged 1 year and 4 months with a small pit at his nasion from birth and developed swelling of the forehead. The sagittal view of a T2-weighted image demonstrated a dumbbell-shaped, mixed intense dermoid at the foramen cecum. The sinus tract was depicted as a strand of isointensity between the dermoid and the nasion. Serial sagittal views of T1-weighted images revealed the capsule of the dermoid enhanced with contrast medium, and that the subcutaneous abscess was in continuity with the dermoid. On diffusion-weighted imaging, both the dermoid and subcutaneous abscess were demonstrated as a hyperintensity. Serial sections of the sagittal and coronal computed tomography scans clearly showed an enlarged fonticulus frontalis and foramen cecum remnant and dehiscence of the crista galli. The purulent dermoid cyst including the capsule and the dermal sinus tract were removed completely. We describe our detailed anatomical relationship between the sinus tract with dumbbell-shaped dermoid and the surrounding structures, and emphasize the importance of these anatomy for operation. PMID:27330927

  12. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or your local ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the ...

  13. [Epidemiology of burns in Marrakech: 152 cases considered].

    PubMed

    Ibnouzahir, M; Ettalbi, S; Ouahbi, S; Droussi, H; Sousou, M; Chlihi, A; Bahaichar, N; Boukind, H

    2011-03-31

    This paper is a retrospective epidemiological study of 152 burn patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2008. The patients were aged less than 20 years in 65% of cases. The sex ratio (m/f) was 1.18/1. A thermal origin was responsible in 84% of the cases. Flame was the cause in 56% of cases. The average burned body surface area was 28% and second-degree burns were the most frequent. In our study, the face and the neck were the body area most frequently involved. Prevention continues to be the best weapon to combat this problem, for which objective several measures are proposed. PMID:21991231

  14. Florid pustular dermatitis of breast: A case report on a unusual complication from acellular dermal matrix use

    PubMed Central

    James, Justin; Jackson, Lee; Saunders, Christobel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic erythematous reaction of the breast (Red breast syndrome) is a known complication following breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix. However pustular dermatitis like presentation is not previously known. Presentation of case We present a 42-year-old lady who developed bilateral pustular dermatitis like appearance following breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix slings. Though surgical washout was done, both expanders and flex HD could be preserved. Discussion Acellular dermal matrix use is the only possible explanation for such a presentation and this can be considered a variant of red breast syndrome. Conclusion Pustular dermatitis like presentation can be associated with acelluar dermal matrix use and should be considered in similar clinical presentations, since this can avoid unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:27058152

  15. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide: review of two fatal cases of dermal exposure and development of an animal model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Wang, Chao-Ling; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2011-07-01

    To document two cases of patients who were fatally exposed to tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) on the skin and to establish a rat model to investigate the effects of dermal exposure to TMAH. The charts of two workers who died from occupational accidental exposure to TMAH were reviewed. The 4-hour lethal dose (LD₅₀) of TMAH was determined by applying solutions mimicking the two most common industrially used concentrations (2.38% and 25%) of TMAH to the skin of Sprague-Dawley rats. Exposure of the rat's skin to 2.38% or 25% TMAH generated LD₅₀ values of 85.9 mg/kg and 28.7 mg/kg, respectively. Application of either concentration of TMAH to the skin produced a rapid, significant increase in the rate of respiration. The serum concentrations of tetramethylammonium (TMA) also changed significantly with time of exposure to both concentrations of TMAH. The level of blood urea nitrogen decreased significantly in rats exposed to the 2.38% TMAH, and rats exposed to the 25% solution had a significant decrease in the serum concentration of sodium. Injection of atropine after 5 minutes of exposure did not significantly overcome any of the toxic effects observed with either solution of TMAH. The preliminary results in the rat model indicated that the lethality of TMAH cannot be fully explained by the severity of the patients' chemical burns, and the physiologic effects on respiratory and kidney functions were probably involved. PMID:21310775

  16. Acquired dermal melanocytosis confined to the palm with a review of published cases of acquired dermal melanocytosis on the hands.

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Emi; Oka, Masahiro; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Masanobu; Nishigori, Chikako

    2016-06-01

    Acquired dermal melanocytosis (ADM) classically occurs on the face. However, extrafacial ADM including palmar ADM has been reported on rare occasions. We present the first report of ADM confined to the palm without ADM lesions in other regions in a 30-year-old Japanese woman. The patient presented with several interspersed macules up to 1 cm in diameter with poorly defined margins, containing faint slate-gray spots 1-2 mm in diameter, on the left palm near the first and second fingers and on the palmar side of the first finger near the metacarpophalangeal joint. These slate-gray spots were prominent on and around palmar creases and on wrinkles on the metacarpophalangeal joint. The patient was right hand-dominant. Histopathological examination revealed scattered spindle-shaped cells with melanin granules and melanophages in the upper to middle dermis. Pigment-bearing spindle-shaped cells were demonstrated to be dermal melanocytes because of positive staining for Melan-A after melanin removal. We review the published work for ADM on the hands. PMID:26703756

  17. A Case of Superwarfarin Poisoning Due to Repetitive Occupational Dermal Rodenticide Exposure in a Worker.

    PubMed

    Narlı Özdemir, Zehra; Şahin, Uğur; Merter, Mustafa; Gündüz, Mehmet; Ateşağaoğlu, Berna; Beksaç, Meral

    2016-09-01

    Superwarfarin poisoning is usually due to chronic occult small-dose exposures and can easily be misdiagnosed and may lead to serious complications. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a concordant history and analyses of blood and urine specimens with the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Several months of continuous treatment with high doses of daily oral vitamin K, as well as other supportive measures, are warranted, especially when repeated laboratory measurements to help predict the treatment period are not available. In this paper, a case of superwarfarin poisoning due to chronic repetitive occupational dermal exposure to commercial rodenticides is presented. PMID:27093901

  18. The application of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of deep dermal burns: A randomized, double-blind, intra-patient controlled study.

    PubMed

    Marck, Roos E; Gardien, Kim L M; Stekelenburg, Carlijn M; Vehmeijer, Marielle; Baas, D; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Breederveld, Roelf S; Middelkoop, Esther

    2016-07-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a fraction of blood with a platelet concentration above baseline. When platelets get activated, growth factors involved in wound healing are released. The application of PRP has shown good results in wound care, however, up to date no substantial research has been performed on the effect of PRP in burn treatment. This randomized double blind intra-patient controlled study investigates the effect of autologous PRP on wound healing in burns that require surgery with a meshed split skin graft (SSG). Fifty-two patients with various areas of deep dermal to full thickness burns, receiving surgery with a SSG were included after informed consent. Comparable study areas A and B (intra-patient) were appointed, randomized and either treated with a SSG and PRP or with a SSG alone. At day 5 to 7 postoperative, the epithelialization and graft take rate were assessed. Three, six, and twelve months postoperative, follow-up measurements were performed in the form of POSAS-questionnaires, DermoSpectroMeter, and Cutometer measurements. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean take rate nor the mean epithelialization rate at day 5-7 between the PRP-treated and control areas. However, PRP-treated wound areas showed more often better or equal epithelialization and take rates at day 5-7 than the standard treated areas. Minor effects were also seen in the reoperated and early operated subgroups. At 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative, POSAS scores from the patients and the observers, Dermaspectro-, and Cutometer measurements did not depict a significant difference between the PRP and standard treated areas. Concluding, the addition of PRP in the treatment of burn wounds did not result in improved graft take and epithelialization, nor could we demonstrate better scar quality. There was, however, a considerable variation in our clinical population. PMID:27169627

  19. In situ visualization of dermal collagen dynamics during skin burn healing using second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Hase, Eiji; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Burn healing is a process to repair thermally damaged tissues. Although burn healing has many aspects, it is common for dynamics of collagen fiber, such as decomposition, production, or growth, to be closely related with burn healing. If such healing process can be visualized from the viewpoint of the collagen dynamics, one may obtain new findings regarding biological repairing mechanisms in the healing process. To this end, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) light will be an effective optical probe because of high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional (3D) sectioning, minimal invasiveness, deep penetration, the absence of interference from background light, and in situ measurement without additional staining. Furthermore, since SHG light arises from a non-centrosymmetric triple helix of three polypeptide chains in the collagen molecule, its intensity decreases and finally disappears when thermal denaturation caused by the skin burn changes the structure of this molecule to a centrosymmetric random coil. Therefore, optical assessment of skin burn has been investigated by SHG microscopy. In this paper, we applied SHG microscopy for in situ imaging of the healing process in animal skin burn and successfully visualized the decomposition, production, and growth of renewal collagen fibers as a series of time-lapse images in the same subject.

  20. New Deep Dermal ADM Incorporates Well in Case Series of Complex Breast Reconstruction Patients.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Henry Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer patients with significant comorbidities present reconstructive challenges due to a predictably high complication rate. During expander-based breast reconstruction, human acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is often used to prevent pectoralis muscle retraction, facilitate early expansion, and improve cosmetic outcome. Device infection and chronic seroma have been correlated to the addition of the graft by some large database reports but not others. This study describes the first reported experience with a new deep dermal ADM, FlexHD® Pliable™ (MTF, Edison, NJ). Sixteen breasts in 10 consecutive patients identified retrospectively and followed prospectively had immediate expander-based breast reconstruction utilizing the new ADM. Patient comorbidities were catalogued, complications were recorded, and overall reconstructive success was assessed. At implant exchange, the ADM was examined for tissue ingrowth and biopsied for histologic examination. All 16 breasts had successful reconstructions. Two breasts (12.5%) developed device infection, requiring removal and later replacement of the expander. One breast (6.7%) developed chronic seroma, also requiring expander removal and later replacement. All the complicated patients had significant comorbidities, including obesity in all 3. At expander removal, the FlexHD Pliable showed near-complete visual tissue incorporation in 14 of 16 breasts (88%). This case series demonstrates significant reconstructive success in challenging patients utilizing a novel ADM. Visual and histologic assessment of tissue ingrowth into the graft suggests the high rate of complication may be due to patient comorbidities rather than addition of ADM. Additional experience is needed to confirm and the study is ongoing. PMID:26020380

  1. Infrared dermal thermography on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to lower extremity amputation, which imposes a major burden to society and great loss in health-related quality of life for patients. Early identification and subsequent preventive treatment have proven useful to limit the incidence of foot ulcers and lower extremity amputation. Thus, the development of new diagnosis tools has become an attractive option. The ultimate objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for frequent examination on patients' feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. Inflammation in diabetic feet can be an early and predictive warning sign for ulceration, and temperature has been proven to be a vicarious marker for inflammation. Studies have indicated that infrared dermal thermography of foot soles can be one of the important parameters for assessing the risk of diabetic foot ulceration. This paper covers the feasibility study of using an infrared camera, FLIR SC305, in our setup, to acquire the spatial thermal distribution on the feet soles. With the obtained thermal images, automated detection through image analysis was performed to identify the abnormal increased/decreased temperature and assess the risk for ulceration. The thermography for feet soles of patients with diagnosed diabetic foot complications were acquired before the ordinary foot examinations. Assessment from clinicians and thermography were compared and follow-up measurements were performed to investigate the prediction. A preliminary case study will be presented, indicating that dermal thermography in our proposed setup can be a screening modality to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration.

  2. Theories of Burning: A Case Study Using a Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Allan

    1997-01-01

    Uses the overthrow of the phlogiston theory to provide students with insight into the nature of science and changes in theory. Presents a case study of lessons on theories of burning using a historical theme. Argues that an appreciation of how science makes progress can be combined with an understanding of modern day theory to encourage…

  3. [Burns].

    PubMed

    Arai, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Burns extending deep into the skin and those affecting a wide surface area trigger various responses in the body and pose a serious threat to life. Therefore, the degree of severity needs to be determined accurately, and appropriate transfusion and local management should be provided accordingly. Systematic and meticulous management that considers not just the risk of death but also functional prognosis is essential from the early stage of burn injuries. Such management requires comprehensive care by a medical team concerning infections, nutrition and rehabilitation. This article outlines the current status of intensive care for severe burns. PMID:26915244

  4. Complex ventral hernia repair with a human acellular dermal matrix and component separation: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alvaro; Baldoni, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We present a case series of 19 patients requiring complex abdominal hernia repairs. Patients presented with challenging clinical histories with 95% having multiple significant comorbidities including overweight or obesity (84%), hypertension (53%), diabetes (42%), cancer (26%), and pulmonary disease (16%). The majority of patients (68%) had prior abdominal infections and 53% had at least one failed prior hernia repair. Upon examination, fascial defects averaged 282 cm2. Anterior and posterior component separation was performed with placement of a human acellular dermal mesh. Midline abdominal closure under minimal tension was achieved primarily in all cases. Post-operative complications included 2 adverse events (11%) – one pulmonary embolism and one post-operative hemorrhage requiring transfusion; 6 wound-related complications (32%), 1 seroma (5%) and 1 patient with post-operative ileus (5%). Operative intervention was not required in any of the cases and most patients made an uneventful recovery. Increased patient age and longer OR time were independently predictive of early post-operative complications. At a median 2-year follow-up, three patients had a documented hernia recurrence (16%) and one patient was deceased due to unrelated causes. Conclusion Patients at high risk for post-operative events due to comorbidities, prior abdominal infection and failed mesh repairs do well following component separation reinforced with a human bioprosthetic mesh. Anticipated post-operative complications were managed conservatively and at a median 2-year follow-up, a low rate of hernia recurrence was observed with this approach. PMID:26288732

  5. Burning rate for steel-cased, pressed binderless HMX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fifer, R. A.; Cole, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The burning behavior of pressed binderless HMX laterally confined in 6.4 mm i.d. steel cases was measured over the pressure range 1.45 to 338 MPa in a constant pressure strand burner. The measured regression rates are compared to those reported previously for unconfined samples. It is shown that lateral confinement results in a several-fold decrease in the regression rate for the coarse particle size HMX above the transition to super fast regression. For class E samples, confinement shifts the transition to super fast regression from low pressure to high pressure. These results are interpreted in terms of the previously proposed progressive deconsolidation mechanism. Preliminary holographic photography and closed bomb tests are also described. Theoretical one dimensional modeling calculations were carried out to predict the expected flame height (particle burn out distance) as a function of particle size and pressure for binderless HMX burning by a progressive deconsolidation mechanism.

  6. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot liquids and ... to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of ...

  7. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Surgery . 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 22. Holmes JH, Heimbach DM. Burns. In: Brunicardi FC, Andersen DK, Billiar TR, et al, eds. Schwartz's Principles of Surgery . 9th ed. New ...

  8. DNA adduct formation in mice following dermal application of smoke condensates from cigarettes that burn or heat tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Brown, B.G.; Reed, E.A.; Mosberg, A.T.; Doolittle, D.J.; Hayes, A.W. ); Hejtmancik, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A prototype cigarette that heats tobacco (test cigarette), developed by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, has yielded consistently negative results in several in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology tests. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from the test cigarette to induce DNA adducts in mouse tissues and compare the results with those obtained with CSC from a reference tobacco-burning cigarette (1R4F). CD-1 mice were skin-painted with CSF from reference and test cigarettes three times a week for 4 weeks. The highest mass of CSC applied was 180 mg tar per week per animal for both reference and test cigarette. DNA adducts were analyzed in skin and lung tissues using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling method with the P[sub 1] nuclease modification. Distinct diagonal radioactive zones (DRZ) were observed in the DNA from both skin and lung tissues of animals dosed with reference CSC, whereas no corresponding DRZ were observed from the DNA of animals dosed with either test CSC or acetone (solvent control). The relative adduct labeling (RAL) values of skin and lung DNA from reference CSC-treated animals were significantly greater than those of the test CSC-treated animals. The RAL values of the test CSC-treated animals were no greater than those of solvent controls. The negative results in DNA adduct assays with test CSC are consistent with all previous results of in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology testing on this cigarette and provide additional evidence that smoke condensate from the test cigarette is not genotoxic. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed. PMID:24823325

  10. Should dermal scald burns in children be covered with autologous skin grafts or with allogeneic cultivated keratinocytes?--"The Viennese concept".

    PubMed

    Rab, Matthias; Koller, Rupert; Ruzicka, Margot; Burda, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars Peter; Bierochs, Bettina; Meissl, Guenther; Frey, Manfred

    2005-08-01

    The treatment of scald burns in children is still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an optimised treatment regime for scald burns in children. Between 1997 and 2002, 124 children underwent surgical intervention due to burn injuries. Thirty-six out of these 124 children were enrolled into the evaluation of our recent treatment protocol. Twenty-two children with scald burns covering an average body surface area (TBSA) of 18.5% were treated by early excision and coverage with allogeneic keratinocytes in case of partial thickness lesions (keratinocyte group). Fourteen children with a TBSA of 17.2% were treated with autologous skin grafts alone (skin graft group). Both groups were comparable according to age, burn depth and affected TBSA. The complete clinical follow-up examination of at least 17 months was performed in 12 out of 22 children of the keratinocyte group and in 9 out of 14 patients of the comparative group. Visible scar formations were classified according to the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) in each patient. The use of allogeneic keratinocytes led to complete epithelialisation within 12 days in 20 of the 22 cases. No secondary skin grafting procedures had to be done. Skin take rate at the sixth postoperative day was 100% in the skin graft group. Blood transfusions were administered intraoperatively according to the clinical need of the patients by the responsible anaesthesiologist. The mean volume of blood, which had to be transfused was 63.9 ml in the keratinocyte group and significantly lower than the volume of 151.4 ml, which was administered in the skin graft group (p=0.04). At follow up the VSS observed in areas covered by keratinocytes was 2.33 on the average and therefore, significantly lower than the VSS of 5.22 in skin grafted areas of the comparative group (p=0.04). In children the use of cultivated keratinocytes in partial thickness scald burns is a procedure, which renders constantly reliable results. It minimizes the

  11. Ophthalmologic manifestations of focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome): A case series of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Gisseman, Jordan D; Herce, Honey H

    2016-03-01

    Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz syndrome is a rare multi-system disorder with cutaneous, ocular, dental, and skeletal anomalies due to dysplasia of mesoectodermal derived tissues. It is an X-linked inheritance syndrome caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. This study is aimed to investigate the ocular findings in patients with Goltz syndrome. To date, there have been a limited number of case reports on the ocular manifestations of FDH. This is a prospective, non-consecutive, observational case series. Prospective ophthalmologic evaluation was performed on 18 patients with confirmed genetic testing for FDH, Goltz Syndrome, as a component of a larger multi-subspecialty study to better characterize the findings of this condition. Special attention was placed on evaluating the incidence of anophthalmia, microphthalmia, colobomas (iris, optic nerve, and/or retinal), cataracts, nystagmus, and strabismus. A complete ophthalmologic exam was done on all the patients. The mean patient age was 12.8 years (1-55 years). Eighty-nine percent were female and 77% (14/18) of patients had some form of an ophthalmologic manifestation of the condition. Ophthalmological findings included chorioretinal colobomas (61%), iris colobomas (50%), microphthalmia (44%), anophthalmia (11%), cataracts (11%), and conjunctival and eyelid papillomas (5%). Nystagmus was present in 33% and strabismus in 22% of the patients. Visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to no light perception. This study demonstrates a higher incidence of ophthalmologic manifestations as previously reported (77% vs. 40%). To our knowledge, this is the largest case series reported in the literature with 18 patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27001926

  12. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories].

    PubMed

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J

    1996-01-01

    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients. PMID:9254529

  13. Surgical Treatment of a Burns Case of 40% TBSA

    PubMed Central

    Buja, Z.; Shabani, A.; Zatriqi, V.; Terziqi, H.; Bukoshi, Z.; Berisha, A.; Arifi, H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary We describe the case of a two-year-old boy with massive burns. After the period of shock and sepsis, very successful four-phase operative treatment was performed, with combined skin grafting homograft plus autograft. With regard to the four surgical interventions, in the first two we used the above combined method, while in the other two we used grafting only with skin autograft. We also used the donor region of the epicranial scalp. PMID:21990989

  14. Diffuse dermal angiomatosis of the breast: a series of 22 cases from a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Reusche, Ryan; Winocour, Sebastian; Degnim, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffuse dermal angiomatosis (DDA) is a rare cutaneous disorder that can affect the breast. A total of nine cases of breast involvement have been described in the literature, but there is currently no consensus in the best therapeutic approach. The objective of this study was to examine patient outcomes with such therapies in women diagnosed with DDA of the breast. Methods Consecutive cases of DDA of the breast were retrospectively reviewed including patient demographic variables, diagnostic criteria and type of therapies. A successful outcome was defined as complete healing of chronic open breast wounds and absence of disease recurrence after cessation of therapy. Results Twenty-two women (mean age, 48.4 years) diagnosed with DDA of the breast were identified between 2004 and 2012. The diagnosis was confirmed with skin biopsy in 12 patients and clinical diagnosis in the remaining ten patients. The majority of patients were obese [68.2% (15/22), average body mass index (BMI), 36.9 kg/m2] and at the time of diagnosis, 27.3% of patients were active smokers (6/22). Only two patients (9.1%) received isotretinoin, neither had full recovery and both patients showed recurrence when taken off of therapy. Other medical therapies showed less to no improvement. Two patients underwent successful surgical treatment. One patient had a successful outcome following breast reduction, although her postoperative course was complicated with delayed wound healing. The other patient presented with recurrence of DDA following breast reduction, and was successfully managed with bilateral simple mastectomies. Conclusions Our findings suggest that DDA of the breast is associated with macromastia, obesity and tobacco use. Isotretinoin therapy is published as having favorable outcomes to other therapies, but in this series only appears to reduce symptoms rather than eradicate DDA. Our findings indicate that other medical therapies have been attempted with limited success. Surgical

  15. Management of failed and infected first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty by reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Wissam E; Fahim, Ramy; Sciulli, Jessica M; Ehredt, Duane J

    2012-01-01

    Management of failed first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty, especially in the face of infection, is an area of debate without a clear consensus. The purpose of the present report was to explore a new option of reconstructing the joint with an acellular dermal matrix substance in a single case study during a 12-month follow-up period. A staged approach that began with removal of the failed 2-component great toe implant, Koenig(®), excisional debridement of the wound with resection of the necrotic bone (proximal phalanx and distal portion of the first metatarsal bones), and culture-specific antibiosis therapy. The final stage included incorporating the acellular dermal matrix, Graftjacket(®) into the joint in an accordion-type fashion, and reconstruction of the joint capsule. Postoperative radiographs revealed a more rectus joint with some improvement in length. At 6 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging revealed incorporation of the graft material into the joint. Finally, at the 1-year mark, the patient was pain free with satisfactory function at the first metatarsophalangeal joint during gait. This is the first reported case of salvaging failed and infected first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty with incorporation of the acellular dermal matrix and provides a new option to consider in the future. PMID:22704789

  16. Dermal peels.

    PubMed

    Coleman, W P

    2001-07-01

    Dermal chemical peeling is a very satisfying procedure for patients and physicians alike. Although not providing the ablation of deep wrinkles and scars that dermabrasion and laser procedures may accomplish, trichloroacetic acid peels usually result in few complications and rapid recovery. Patients can usually expect photographic improvement in their skin. The results are usually long lasting, and most patients do not need to repeat dermal peels for at least 2 years. Of all resurfacing procedures, dermal peeling provides the best benefit-to-risk ratio. PMID:11599397

  17. A case of deep burns, while diving The Lusitania.

    PubMed

    Curran, John N; McGuigan, Kevin G; O'Broin, Eoin

    2010-07-01

    We present the first documented case of severe burns, sustained by a diver as a result of auto-ignition of air-activated heat packs at high partial pressure of oxygen and high ambient pressure. Our patient was diving the shipwreck of The Lusitania off the south coast of Ireland. This is a significant wreck, lying 90 metres down on the seabed. Torpedoed by a German U-boat in 1915, its loss prompted American involvement in WW1. Several unlikely events combined in this case to bring about serious and life threatening injuries. Herein we discuss the case and explore some of the physical and chemical processes that lead to these injuries. PMID:20056502

  18. Fetal Bovine Collagen Matrix in the Treatment of a Full Thickness Burn Wound: A Case Report With Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Amy L.; Bennett, Danielle K.; Spreen, Elizabeth B.; Adhvaryu, Dhaval V.; Littleton, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of full thickness skin wounds commonly associated with large burns continues to represent a challenging clinical entity. The current treatment for large TBSA burns is split thickness autologous skin grafting; however, this treatment often results in poor textural durability, hypertrophic scarring, and fibrotic contractures. In this case report, we describe our experience and long-term follow-up results after the application of fetal bovine collagen (FBC) matrix (PriMatrix, TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA) to burn wounds clinically assessed as full thickness that healed without the need for subsequent skin grafting. The patient presented with 25% TBSA burns and was debrided and covered with FBC on postburn day 7. By postoperative day 12, the patient had large areas of reepithelialization distributed throughout the wound bed. By postoperative day 26, the patient had significantly more areas of wound closure and was discharged. Reepithelialization and repigmentation continued, and long-term follow-up after 26 months demonstrated complete reepithelialization and nearly complete repigmentation, without the appearance of contractures or hypertrophic scarring. This case report highlights the use of FBC as a scaffold capable of dermal regeneration and spontaneous reepithelialization with an excellent long-term functional and cosmetic outcome. PMID:25494213

  19. Fetal Bovine Collagen Matrix in the Treatment of a Full Thickness Burn Wound: A Case Report With Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Strong, Amy L; Bennett, Danielle K; Spreen, Elizabeth B; Adhvaryu, Dhaval V; Littleton, Jeffrey C; Mencer, Ernest J

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of full thickness skin wounds commonly associated with large burns continues to represent a challenging clinical entity. The current treatment for large TBSA burns is split thickness autologous skin grafting; however, this treatment often results in poor textural durability, hypertrophic scarring, and fibrotic contractures. In this case report, we describe our experience and long-term follow-up results after the application of fetal bovine collagen (FBC) matrix (PriMatrix, TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA) to burn wounds clinically assessed as full thickness that healed without the need for subsequent skin grafting. The patient presented with 25% TBSA burns and was debrided and covered with FBC on postburn day 7. By postoperative day 12, the patient had large areas of reepithelialization distributed throughout the wound bed. By postoperative day 26, the patient had significantly more areas of wound closure and was discharged. Reepithelialization and repigmentation continued, and long-term follow-up after 26 months demonstrated complete reepithelialization and nearly complete repigmentation, without the appearance of contractures or hypertrophic scarring. This case report highlights the use of FBC as a scaffold capable of dermal regeneration and spontaneous reepithelialization with an excellent long-term functional and cosmetic outcome. PMID:25494213

  20. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    PubMed

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  1. Evolution of granuloma annulare to mid-dermal elastolysis: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jonathan H C; Murray, Scott J; Walsh, Noreen M

    2014-05-01

    A 55-year-old healthy Caucasian female, on no medication, was seen by a dermatologist because of a patchy, slightly indurated and violaceous eruption involving her neck and trunk. The clinical impression was of granuloma annulare (GA). Over a period of several months the violaceous lesions became atrophic with loss of colour and eventual wrinkling of lesional skin. Sequential skin biopsies were obtained, which revealed a spectrum of changes. Those from early violaceous lesional zones displayed perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates and interstitial granulomatous inflammation, characteristic of interstitial GA. Samples from atrophic lesional areas appeared normal on routine sections but an Orcein-Giemsa (OG) stain, prompted by the clinical history of atrophy, revealed absence of elastic fibers in the mid-reticular dermis. The combined clinicopathologic findings pointed to development of mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE) at involutional sites of GA. Owing to consideration of a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in the differential diagnosis, genotyping in search of T-cell monoclonality was performed and yielded a negative result. Our case supports the existing but scant evidence in the literature that the rare, enigmatic condition termed MDE is an end-result of inflammatory destruction of dermal elastic fibers. GA is one form of dermatitis capable of culminating in this entity, but others have also been implicated. PMID:24447045

  2. Using a dermal skin substitute in the treatment of chronic wounds secondary to recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sibbald, R Gary; Zuker, Ron; Coutts, Patricia; Coelho, Sunita; Williamson, Diane; Queen, Douglas

    2005-11-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a family of genetic disorders that cause blistering and shearing of the skin from even the mildest trauma. Care generally focuses on preventing infection, protecting the skin against trauma, attending to nutritional deficiencies and dietary complications, minimizing deformities and contractures, and providing psychological support for the entire family. One approach to the treatment of chronic wounds in Epidermolysis bullosa involves tissue engineering, where cells similar to those of the skin, grown on a three-dimensional scaffold, are used to induce healing. Charts of six young people (ages 8 years to 23 years; four girls, two boys) with recessive dystrophic Epidermolysis bullosa who received applications of a dermal skin substitute to persistent erosions at multiple body sites (55) at successive clinic visits were reviewed. Each patient received between seven and 32 skin substitute applications to between six and 19 sites; patients were followed for at least 8 weeks. At weeks 1 to 2, epidermal coverage ranged between 80% and 100%. Some sites had persistent coverage but others experienced breakdown. Four patients had hand surgery and the living skin substitute was used postsurgically to provide coverage for the epidermal defects. Overall in these six cases, the dermal skin substitute proved advantageous to wound protection, healing, and symptom relief. Compassionate care combined with optimal wound care and advancing technology may offer an effective antidote to the wounding and pain of this devastating disease. PMID:16319445

  3. Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

    2001-05-01

    Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment. PMID:12479505

  4. "Pierced finger ring": A rare case of a neglected burned hand.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ricardo; Horta, Ricardo; Silva, Álvaro

    2016-06-01

    Neglected hand burns are common in developing countries but rare in developed countries due to easier access to healthcare. They can lead to severe deformities compromising hand function. The authors present an extreme case of a neglected chemical burn of the hand. The purpose of this article was to alert healthcare professionals and also the mass media to the need for burn care education of the general population. PMID:27167052

  5. Oral chemical burns caused by self-medication in a child: case report.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo A; Kuchler, Erika Calvano; de Andrade Risso, Patrícia; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2009-01-01

    There are few published reports that discuss oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents of these burns. Some chemicals can cause burning in the mucosa of cheeks, lips, tongue, and palate. Because of the clinical state of acute pain associated with lack of or inadequate care to relieve the symptoms, some patients use self-medication. The purpose of this work is to report the case of oral chemical burns caused by topical self-medication for tooth pain relief, and also to discuss the clinical presentation and the treatment performed. PMID:19506514

  6. Iatrogenic surgical microscope skin burns: A systematic review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joseph; Soni, Ashwin; Calva, Daniel; Susarla, Srinivas M; Jallo, George I; Redett, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous burns associated with microscope-use are perceived to be uncommon adverse events in microsurgery. Currently, it is unknown what factors are associated with these iatrogenic events. In this report, we describe the case of a 1-year-old patient who suffered a full thickness skin burn from a surgical microscope after a L4-S1 laminectomy. Additionally, we present a systematic review of the literature that assessed the preoperative risk, outcome, and management of iatrogenic microscope skin burns. Lastly, a summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse events was reviewed and analyzed for clinical cases of microscope thermal injuries. The systematic literature review identified only seven articles related to microsurgery-related cutaneous burns. From these seven studies, 15 clinical cases of iatrogenic skin burns were extracted for analysis. The systematic review of the FDA MAUDE database revealed only 60 cases of cutaneous burns associated with surgical microscopes since 2004. Few cases of microscope burns have been described in the literature; this report is, to our knowledge, one of the first comprehensive reports of this iatrogenic event in the literature. PMID:26777456

  7. Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis with Mucosal Involvement: An Unusual Case Presentation including Successful Treatment with Miltefosine

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Muhammad A.; Nabi, Shah G.; Bhaskar, Khondaker R.H.; Mondal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatologic manifestation that usually occurs after visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. It is characterized by hypopigmented patches, a macular or maculopapular rash and nodular skin lesions on the body surface. Involvement of the mucosae is very rare and unusual in PKDL. We report a case of PKDL that presented with polymorphic skin lesions, along with involvement of peri-oral mucosa and tongue from an endemic area for kala-azar in Bangladesh. In the absence of a definite past history of kala-azar, a clinical suspicion for PKDL was confirmed by positive rapid serological tests against two recombinant (rK39 and rK28) leishmanial antigens, demonstration of Leishmania donovani (LD) body in the slit skin smear, and isolation of promastigotes by culture from a nodular lesion. The patient was treated with oral Miltefosine for three consecutive months and showed significant clinical improvement as demonstrated by a negative slit skin smear at two months after initiation of therapy. We report this case as an unusual presentation of mucosal involvement in PKDL and subsequent treatment success with Miltefosine. PMID:23930349

  8. Histomorphometric analysis of early epithelialization and dermal changes in mid-partial-thickness burn wounds in humans treated with porcine small intestinal submucosa and silver-containing hydrofiber.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rosa M; Bravo, Leonardo; García, Mario; Melchor, Juan M; Krötzsch, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the healing rates of mid-partial-thickness burns treated with a porcine intestinal submucosa (SIS) vs. silver-containing cellulose hydrofiber (AgH) dressings. This was done by comparing healing response of burn wounds treated with SIS vs that of burns treated with AgH dressings. Five patients with mid-partial-thickness burns ≤10% of body surface were treated simultaneously, but in different areas, with SIS and AgH dressings; full-thickness biopsies were taken at days 0 and 7. Tissues treated with SIS presented higher epithelial maturation index (6.2 ± 0.84 vs. 3.2 ± 3.28; [mean ± standard deviation], P = .029), better orientation and differentiation of epithelial cells, as well as an appropriate basal lamina structure, collagen deposition, and higher transforming growth factor-β3 expression (7.4 ± 8.1 vs. 2.1 ± 2.6; P = .055) than tissues treated with AgH dressings. Importantly, after the treatment SIS was not integrated in healed tissues. After 3 months of treatment, SIS produced a lower score according to Vancouver Scar Scale (3.6 ± 2.6 vs. 7.2 ± 2.5, P = .025).The submucosa dressing does not simply act as scaffolding for the wound, it provides stimulation in the healing area, probably via growth factors initially present in SIS or matrikines derived from its digestion in the wound site. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that biological matrices favor the wound-healing process. PMID:24823330

  9. Treatment of nasal burns: analysis of 150 cases

    PubMed Central

    Prousskaia, E.; El-Muttardi, N.; Philp, B.; Dziewulski, P.; Shelley, O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nasal burns present a challenge for the plastic surgeon in terms of immediate management, choice of primary treatment and secondary reconstruction with the goals of good aesthetic and functional outcome. We present a retrospective analysis of the management of 150 patients with nasal burns treated in our center between July 2005 and July 2011. We rationalized our conservative and all surgical treatments of this subset of burns patients and organized them in a simple and structured way. The reconstructive options for most complex full thickness nasal injury is determined by the integrity of adjacent facial tissues which would always be preferred when available. Microsurgical free tissue transfer is dependent upon the fitness of the patient and the availability of unburned skin at the donor site. Secondary nasal reconstruction is based on an assessment of the residual functional and cosmetic problems. Airways narrowing from scar contracture or loss of support are managed using standard plastic surgical and rhinoplasty principles. Cosmetic refinements range from flap debulking to the importation of new tissue on to the nose. Our experience with this challenging group of patients has led us to develop a simple treatment algorithm for the management of nasal burns. PMID:27252610

  10. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  11. Crusted scabies in the burned patient.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first report of a burned patient with CS in the English language literature. CS is also highly contagious and may lead to a nosocomial outbreak. Furthermore, CS seems to have a detrimental impact on the burned patient's course of treatment. A scabicide treatment is necessary to guarantee successful treatment of the burns. PMID:21427595

  12. Testicular Seminoma With Pseudocyst and Coagulation Necrosis Like Burned-out Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hoshii, Tatsuhiko; Hasegawa, Go; Ikeda, Yohei; Nishiyama, Tsutomu

    2016-07-01

    Testicular seminoma is a relatively common testicular cancer; however, testicular seminoma with pseudocyst is an extremely rare. The 'burned-out' phenomenon in germ cell tumors refers to a germ cell tumor in extra-gonadal tissues with spontaneous regression of an intra-gonadal tumor. We present a case of the testicular seminoma with pseudocyst and coagulation necrosis like burned-out tumor without metastasis. PMID:27335779

  13. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns. PMID:27325216

  14. Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Paired With Silver-zinc Coupled Electroceutical Dressing Results in Rapid Healing of Complicated Diabetic Wounds of Mixed Etiology: A Novel Case Series.

    PubMed

    Cole, Windy

    2016-07-01

    Patients with diabetes are well known for having difficult-to-close wounds. When additional factors are added, such as gouty tophi or tumors, the difficulty is compounded and conventional care often fails to heal the wound. In this case series, an innovative wound modality that combined a human acellular dermal matrix with a silver-zinc coupled electroceutical wound dressing was used in 3 particularly difficult and complex cases. In all 3 cases, this alternative treatment provided full healing within 6 weeks in wounds that conventional care had been unable to close in up to 2 years. PMID:27428719

  15. Burn injuries resulting from hot water bottle use: a retrospective review of cases presenting to a regional burns unit in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. PMID:24455234

  16. Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. PMID:24455234

  17. Povidone-iodine-induced burn: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Donna O; Knowles, Sandra R; Weber, Elizabeth A; Railton, Craig J; Shear, Neil H

    2006-11-01

    Burns are a rare but potentially serious complication of povidone-iodine use. This rare adverse drug reaction developed in a 38-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic right ovarian cystectomy and endometrial ablation as a day procedure involving application of the topical antiseptic 10% povidone-iodine solution. Two days later, the patient was admitted to the hospital with burning, pain, itching, marked redness, and blistering extending from her midback to buttocks. A stain on her back also was evident. Partial-thickness chemical burn was diagnosed. Review of the literature yielded 13 other cases of povidone-iodine-induced burn. This underrecognized adverse effect of povidone-iodine application typically occurs when the povidone-iodine has not been allowed to dry or has been trapped under the body of a patient in a pooled dependent position. The burn is usually seen immediately after the procedure or on the next day, and typically heals with minimum scarring within 3-4 weeks with conservative treatment. The commonly postulated mechanism is a chemical burn due to irritation coupled with maceration, friction, and pressure. Given the widespread use of povidone-iodine and the potential for development of infection after a burn, clinicians need to be aware of this possible povidone-iodine-associated adverse drug reaction, and of preventive measures. PMID:17064209

  18. ISSUES IN DERMAL EXPOSURE OF INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infants' dermal exposures to environmental contaminants are expected to be different and, in many cases, much higher than adults. Because of the potential importance of the dermal exposure route, there is currently a significant amount of work being conducted to reduce the uncer...

  19. A case of POEMS syndrome associated with essential thrombocythaemia and dermal mastocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, A.; Burton, I. E.

    1990-01-01

    We describe a case of POEMS syndrome presenting with the recognized features of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrine abnormalities, monoclonal protein, skin changes and anasarca. The patient was found to have both a solitary sclerotic plasmacytoma of the pelvis and evidence of Castleman's disease of lymph nodes. A number of unusual and unique features are also documented. Histological examination of affected skin demonstrated changes similar to urticaria pigmentosa including local oedema and mast cell infiltration. There was marked thrombocythaemia which has been seen in only one previous case and in addition the patient developed diffuse vascular calcification in the absence of recognized aetiological factors. Radiotherapy of the pelvic lesion and chemotherapy to control the myeloproliferative disorder gave rise to significant improvement in neuropathy. Control of anasarca required steroid therapy in addition to diuretics. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to previous reports. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2235812

  20. Recurrent dermatitis and dermal hypersensitivity following a jellyfish sting: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Loredana Asztalos, Manuela; Rubin, Adam I; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Groft MacFarlane, Caroline; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation often causes an immediate painful vesiculopapular eruption. Less commonly it can cause a type IV allergic hypersensitivity that manifests with delayed or recurrent cutaneous lesions at the primary site or distant from the primary site. These secondary reactivations may be related to high antijellyfish immunoglobulin levels, intracutaneously sequestered antigen, or cross-reacting venom. Immunomodulators such as pimecrolimus and tacrolimus and topical and intralesional corticosteroid therapy decrease this recurrent dermatitis. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl with a recurrent jellyfish dermatitis lasting more than 1 year after the initial envenomation. The dermatitis finally resolved after treatment with tacrolimus and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy. PMID:24495001

  1. Burns from ECG leads in an MRI scanner: Case series and discussion of mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rehim, S.; Bagirathan, S.; Al-Benna, S.; O’Boyle, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Iatrogenic burns are rare and preventable. The authors present two cases of burns from ECG leads, sustained during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common features included a long duration spinal MR scan (120 and 60 minutes) and high patient body mass index (BMI >30). Both patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission, but required a period of outpatient burn care. The causation of these injuries remains unclear but there are several possible mechanisms including: electromagnetic induction heating, antenna effects and closed-loop current induction. The authors provide a description of the injuries, discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to burn injury in the MRI environment and suggest ways to reduce the risks of such injuries. PMID:26336370

  2. An acellular dermal matrix allograft (Alloderm®) for increasing keratinized attached gingiva: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chitra; Kumar, Baron Tarun; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Adequate amount of keratinized gingiva is necessary to keep gingiva healthy and free of inflammation. Autografts have been used for years with great success to increase the width of attached gingiva. Autografts, however, have the disadvantage of increasing postoperative morbidity and improper color match with the adjacent tissues. Alloderm® allograft has been introduced as an alternative to autografts to overcome these disadvantages. Aim: In this study, the efficacy of alloderm® in increasing the width of attached gingiva and the stability of gained attached gingiva was evaluated clinically. Materials and Methods: Five patients with sites showing inadequate width of attached gingiva (≤1 mm) were enrolled for the study. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 9th month postoperatively. Result: In all cases, there is the average increase of about 2.5 mm of attached gingiva and was maintained for 9-month. Percentage shrinkage of the graft is about 75% at the end of 3rd month in all cases. Excellent colors match with adjacent tissue has been obtained. Conclusion: The study signifies that Alloderm® results in an adequate increase in the amount of attached gingiva and therefore can be used successfully in place of autografts. PMID:26015676

  3. A rare chemical burn due to Ranunculus arvensis: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Abdullah O; Saritemur, Murat; Atac, Kenan; Guclu, Sibel; Ozlu, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis, a plant that is a member of Ranunculaceae family, generally used for local treatment of joint pain, muscle pain, burns, lacerations, edema, abscess drainage, hemorrhoids, and warts among the population. In this case report, we presented three patients who developed chemical skin burns after using R. arvensis plant locally for knee pain. The destructive effect of the plant has been reported previously to be more in fresh plants and less in dried plants. Although protoanemonin, which is considered as the main toxic substance, was reported to be absent in dried or boiled plants, the plant was boiled, cooled, and wrapped over the region with pain in our cases. Therefore, we thought that protoanemonin may be considered to be heat resistant. Also, the burn management proceeded up to surgery by using the flap technique in one of our patients in contrast to the cases found in published reports who were treated by antibiotics and dressings. PMID:26922695

  4. Dermal exposure assessment of pesticide use: the case of sprayers in potato farms in the Colombian highlands.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; García-Santos, Glenda; Leuenberger, Fanny; Nuyttens, David; Binder, Claudia R

    2012-07-15

    Quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides in farming systems in developing countries is of special interest for the estimation of potential health risks, especially when there is a lack of occupational hygiene regulations. In this paper we present the results of a dermal exposure assessment for the potato farming system in the highlands of Colombia, where farmers apply pesticides with hand pressure sprayers without any personal protective equipment. The fractioning of the pesticide, in terms of potential and actual dermal exposure, was determined via the whole-body dosimetry methodology, using the tracer uranine as pesticide surrogate, and luminescence spectrometry as analytical method. We assessed the three activities involved in pesticide management: preparation, application, and cleaning; analyzed three types of nozzles: one with a standard discharge and two modified by farmers to increase the discharge; and derived the protection factor given by work clothing. Our results suggest that to reduce the health risk, three aspects have to be considered: (i) avoiding the modification of nozzles, which affects the droplet size spectrum and increases the level of dermal exposure; (ii) using adequate work clothing made of thick fabrics, especially on the upper body parts; and (iii) cleaning properly the tank sprayer before the application activity. PMID:22652009

  5. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. PMID:27118069

  6. Can superoxide dismutase prevent postburn dermal ischemia?

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Ma, W X; Wang, L; Chen, H R

    1997-05-01

    Decreasing progressive dermal ischemia after burning could theoretically limit the amount of skin necrosis. It is controversial whether the use of free radical scavengers could prevent the progressive dermal ischemia of the postburn stasis zone. We evaluated the effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on preventing postburn dermal ischemia in animal models by the India ink perfusion and skin transparent preparation techniques. The closely clipped backs of guinea-pigs were bathed in 75 degrees C water for 10 s. Within 5 min postburn, SOD-treated groups were administered SOD (10,000 u/kg) intra-peritoneally every 6 h. All animals were perfused with 70 per cent India ink via cervical artery cannula by 16 kPa constant pressure at 0, 8, 16, 24 h postburn, and the skin transparent preparations were made, while the level of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) in skin tissue was assessed. The results showed that with prolongation of postburn time, the rate of filling of India ink in skin capillary plexuses decreased gradually (p < 0.01). MDA increased continuously, which was related to postburn dermal ischemia (r = 0.689, p < 0.01). Though the level of MDA decreased in SOD-treated groups, the India ink filling rates showed no significant difference between controls and experimental groups (p > 0.05). The results were also confirmed by observation of skin transparent preparations and TEM. This study suggests that superoxide dismutase fails to prevent progressive dermal ischemia after burning. PMID:9232283

  7. Chronic Wounds in Burn Injury: A Case Report on Importance of Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health and the Center for Disease and Prevention, it is estimated that 65 to 80 percent of the human infectious are caused by biofilms. Antibiotics and drainage of purulent discharge are the main treatment measures. But in chronic infections sometimes these findings are not easy to recognize. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides, which help bacteria to survive into the host. The following case is the example of chronic wound in burn patient, where biofilm gets involved and special attention is given to the relationship biofilm-chronic wound injury in a burn patient. PMID:27579274

  8. Chronic Wounds in Burn Injury: A Case Report on Importance of Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health and the Center for Disease and Prevention, it is estimated that 65 to 80 percent of the human infectious are caused by biofilms. Antibiotics and drainage of purulent discharge are the main treatment measures. But in chronic infections sometimes these findings are not easy to recognize. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides, which help bacteria to survive into the host. The following case is the example of chronic wound in burn patient, where biofilm gets involved and special attention is given to the relationship biofilm–chronic wound injury in a burn patient. PMID:27579274

  9. Protrusion of the tongue in bodies burned after death: Two cases of arson to cover homicide.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Živković, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    In the forensic assessment of burned bodies, the question of whether the victim was exposed to fire before or after death is of crucial importance. Many authors consider tongue protrusion in cases of burned bodies to be a post-mortem phenomenon. Deep-heating effects of fire are sufficient to cook muscle. The muscle becomes shortened by dehydration and protein denaturation. Exposure to heat causes flexion of the extremities on the contraction of muscles and tendons - heat rigour. The flexors, being bulkier than the extensors, contract more and force the limbs into the position of general flexion. The genioglossus is the major muscle of the tongue and is responsible for protruding or sticking out the tongue: by means of its inferior fibres, it draws the root of the tongue forward and protrudes the apex from the mouth. Similar to the action of limb flexors exposed to heat and the appearance of post-mortem general flexion of a burned body due to heat rigour, perhaps the geniglossus could be shortened by heat, causing post-mortem tongue protrusion to appear as heat rigour of the tongue. In this paper, we present two such cases of protrusion of the tongue in bodies burned after death - cases of arson to cover homicide. PMID:25013164

  10. Burn wounds infected by contaminated water: case reports, review of the literature and recommendations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Noel F F; Heath, Christopher H; Kierath, Jessica; Rea, Suzanne; Duncan-Smith, Mark; Wood, Fiona M

    2010-02-01

    First-aid education for the management of burns advocates cool running water over burnt skin to limit soft tissue damage. However, the water used may itself constitute a risk. We report three cases of severe invasive and necrotizing infection in patients who used or immersed themselves in contaminated water in an attempt to extinguish the fire following acute major burns. Wound cultures from all patients yielded Aeromonas hydrophila and two yielded Bacillus cereus. One patient had a complex polymicrobial infection, including zygomycosis with Rhizomucor variabilis. All patients were treated aggressively with wound débridement, including one patient who required bilateral lower limb amputations to control progressive infection. All infections were successfully treated and all patients survived their burn injuries. We review the management of burns complicated by exposure to contaminated water leading to burn wound infections. We describe commonly reported organisms from various water sources, the appropriate initial empirical antimicrobial chemotherapy and present the clinician with a proposed algorithm for managing these serious infections. PMID:19501977

  11. Rare case-series of electrocautery burn following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Niazi, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: With an increasing number of off-pump coronary artery surgery procedures in high-risk patients with coagulopathy, including renal failure, hepatic failure and anticoagulant drug-using patients, the frequency of related complications such as repeated exploration for bleeding is also increasing. The associated co-morbidity and repeated use of electrocautery in postoperative bleeding leaves patients susceptible to electrocautery ulcers. In this case series, rare cases of cautery burn with unique causative mechanisms are described. PMID:23669602

  12. Generalized mid dermal elastolysis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria João; Barros, Ana Margarida; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-01-01

    Mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE) is a rare skin disorder clinically characterized by the appearance of diffuse fine wrinkling, most often of the trunk and arms. This entity is distinguished from other elastolytic disorders by its characteristic selective loss of elastic fibers of the mid dermis. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear as well as the effective treatment. Half of the cases described in the literature are associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure. Other reported triggering conditions such as urticaria, eczema and granuloma annulare suggests different eliciting inflammatory pathways. The authors describe the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed an urticarial eruption during months which progressed to generalized and severe fine wrinkling. PMID:25386304

  13. Clinicopathological and Immunological Changes in Indian Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) Cases in relation to Treatment: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bimal, Sanjiv; Das, Vidya Nand Rabi; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Dharmendra; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Sinha, Prabhat Kumar; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an important factor in kala-azar transmission; hence its early detection and assessment of effective treatment is very important for disease control. In present study on 60 PKDL cases presented with macular, mixed papulonodular, or erythematous lesions, Leishmania parasites were demonstrated microscopically in 91% of papulonodular and 40% of macular lesions. Cellular infiltrates in skin biopsy imprint smears from lesions were mononuclear cells, 25–300/OIF (oil immersion field), predominantly histiocytes with vacuolation, many lymphocytes, some plasma cells, and Leishmania amastigotes 0–20/OIF. Cases with no demonstrable parasites were diagnosed on the basis of past history of VL, lesion's distribution, cytopathological changes, and positive DAT (86.83%). Following antileishmanial treatment with SAG, papulonodular forms of PKDL lesions disappeared clinically but microscopically the mononuclear cells (20–200/OIF) persisted in the dermal lesions. Response observed in macular PKDL lesions was poor which persisted both clinically and cytopathologically. Follow-up of PKDL will assess the effectivity of treatment as either disappearance of lesions or any relapse. Studies on involvement of immunological factors, that is, certain cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β, etc.) and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein, MIP 1-α, etc.) in PKDL, may provide insight for any role in the treatment response. PMID:26090441

  14. Full thickness burns caused by cyanoacrylate nail glue: A case series.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Noemi; Karagergou, Eleni; Jones, Sarah L; Morritt, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Artificial (acrylic) nails are popular cosmetic enhancements that provide the user with the appearance of manicured nails, do not chip or crack, and are generally considered very safe to apply. We report three cases where full thickness thermal burns were sustained from nail glue adhesive (cyanoacrylate) during the application of artificial nails. All three cases underwent surgical debridement and split skin graft reconstruction. We carried out an experiment to characterize the exothermic reaction between nail glue and cotton leggings. The average high temperature produced was 68°C which was sustained for 12.2s which is more than sufficient to cause full thickness burns on skin. We report these cases to increase both professional and public awareness of this serious potential complication associated with the application of artificial nails. PMID:26777605

  15. Combined periodontal and restorative approach to the treatment of gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions: a case treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and compomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Efeoğlu, Ahmet; Hanzade, Mete; Sari, Esra; Alpay, Hande; Karakaş, Ozan; Koray, Fatma

    2012-08-01

    Treatment of gingival recessions has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal plastic surgery. Various surgical options with predictable outcomes are available, but in cases with cervical lesions or restorations, optimal functional and esthetic results may require the combination of periodontal and restorative procedures. In this case report, one patient treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and a coronally positioned flap in combination with compomer cervical restorations is presented. Clinical parameters were recorded immediately prior to surgery and after 12 months. Postoperatively, significant root coverage, reductions in probing depths, and gains in clinical attachment were observed. The final clinical results, esthetics, color match, and tissue contours were acceptable to both the patient and clinicians. PMID:22577650

  16. Composite split cord malformation associated with a dermal sinus tract, dermoid cyst, and epidural abscess: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saad; Azeem, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair

    2016-01-01

    Background: Split cord malformation (SCM) is typically present at a single level but rarely, may be present at multiple levels in the spinal cord and can be associated with a wide array of lesions such as myelomeningoceles, lipomas, teratomas, and dermal sinus tracts (DSTs). Case Description: We describe a case of a 15-month-old female child who presented with high-grade fever and progressive motor weakness in the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of SCM along with an epidural abscess, DST, and dermoid cyst. The child underwent surgery for excision of DST along with removal of the dermoid cyst and drainage of epidural abscess. The postoperative course was uneventful. Elective repair of the SCM was performed 4 weeks later. The postoperative course was uneventful again. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the combination of a composite SCM with a DST and dermoid cyst with associated epidural abscess has rarely been reported in literature. PMID:27168946

  17. Case study analysis of biomass burning plumes observed over Brazil during SAMBBA, September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, A. K.; Morgan, W. T.; Darbyshire, E.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a huge source of atmospheric aerosols and is poorly understood leading to large uncertainties in estimates of radiative forcing of climate. Aerosols have both a direct effect on climate by reflecting and absorbing solar radiation and an indirect effect by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN). Biomass burning aerosols are produced from burning of vegetation with the vast majority occurring in the tropics. This research presents data collected during the aircraft campaign of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) project during September and October 2012. A smouldering rainforest fire and a flaming savannah-like fire were selected for in-depth case studies of the atmospheric plume constituents and provide a comparison between the two fire types. The physiochemical characterization of the two plumes are identified, with preliminary results showing a significant difference in the black carbon concentration of the two plumes; 6μg m-3 for the smouldering rainforest fire and 50μg m-3 for the flaming savannah-like fire. However, organic matter concentrations were similar, peaking at 5mg m-3. Analysis of the gas phase data and calculations of emission ratios (ER) and modified combustion efficiencies (MCE) will be presented together with an analysis of black carbon mixing state using data from a single particle soot photometer and organic aerosol composition.

  18. Analysis of finite dose dermal absorption data: Implications for dermal exposure assessment

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, H Frederick; Dotson, G Scott; Bunge, Annette L; Chen, Chen-Peng; Cherrie, John W; Kasting, Gerald B; Kissel, John C; Sahmel, Jennifer; Semple, Sean; Wilkinson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A common dermal exposure assessment strategy estimates the systemic uptake of chemical in contact with skin using the fixed fractional absorption approach: the dermal absorbed dose is estimated as the product of exposure and the fraction of applied chemical that is absorbed, assumed constant for a given chemical. Despite the prominence of this approach there is little guidance regarding the evaluation of experiments from which fractional absorption data are measured. An analysis of these experiments is presented herein, and limitations to the fixed fractional absorption approach are discussed. The analysis provides a set of simple algebraic expressions that may be used in the evaluation of finite dose dermal absorption experiments, affording a more data-driven approach to dermal exposure assessment. Case studies are presented that demonstrate the application of these tools to the assessment of dermal absorption data. PMID:23715085

  19. Treatment of intractable skin ulcers caused by vascular insufficiency with allogeneic cultured dermal substitute: a report of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Tomonori; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Katsuoka, Kensei; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2012-03-01

    Chronic leg ulcers have various causes and can be difficult to treat, although topical treatments, including basic fibroblast growth factor and PGE1, have been used. We applied an allogeneic cultured dermal substitute (CDS) to eight patients with intractable ulcers. The patients had various underlying diseases, including diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, necrobiosis lipoidica, stasis dermatitis, livedo vasculopathy, and rheumatoid arthritis. The CDS was prepared by seeding cultured human fibroblasts on a spongy matrix consisting of hyaluronic acid and atelocollagen. Good clinical results were achieved, as demonstrated by reepithelization, healthy granulation tissue formation, and a subsequent decrease in wound size. Daily dressing changes became unnecessary when the allogeneic CDS was used. Based on these results, we suggest that CDS may be useful for the treatment of intractable skin ulcers. PMID:21861088

  20. [Follow-up of extensive burns in an HIV positive patient. Case report].

    PubMed

    de Roche, R; Lüscher, N J; Zimmerli, W

    1990-02-01

    The case of a 33-year-old HIV-positive patient who suffered from second- and third-degree burn injuries involving 30% of the body surface is reported. She was treated by early tangential excision of the burnt skin and split-thickness mesh grafting. The burn wounds healed without complications within the usual time, with excellent cosmetic and functional results. In spite of the successful treatment, she suffered from fever and various infections for several months. With the appearance of these constitutional symptoms, we recognized the AIDS-related complex. Her general condition deteriorated continuously and 10 months after the accident she had to be admitted to a hospital again. The skin had nevertheless healed perfectly and in spite of not having compression treatment for the grafts or physiotherapy, she did not show any signs of hypertrophic scars. Some important conclusions drawn from this case are discussed. The fact that healing occurred without complications is in contrast to the results reported in the literature concerning impaired wound healing in AIDS patients with anorectal surgery. We therefore believe that the reluctant and perhaps even anxious attitude of the medical and nursing staff towards performing technical and expensive procedures in HIV-positive burn patients is not justified. PMID:2315721

  1. Pyogenic cervical spondylitis with quadriplegia as a complication of severe burns: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Asakage, Naoki; Katami, Atsuo; Takekawa, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Goto, Michitoshi; Fukai, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of cervical pyogenic spondylitis complicated by epidural abscess with quadriplegia during treatment of severe burns. The patient was a 49-year-old man with 3rd-degree burns to 20% of his body, involving the lower extremities. We performed escharectomy of the 3rd-degree necrosis on days 7 and 16, followed by the first skin graft on day 23. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in the postoperative graft wound culture. On day 23 after the skin graft, he became febrile and began to experience cervical pain and muscle weakness of the extremities. By day 24, quadriplegia had developed. A cervical vertebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed pyogenic spondylitis with an epidural abscess, which was causing the quadriplegia. We treated the patient by performing curettage of the pyogenic lesion and anterior fixation of the cervical vertebral bodies. The fact that P. aeruginosa was detected in the pyogenic focus culture indicated that burn wound sepsis was responsible for the infection. This case reinforces that acting on a strong suspicion helps to establish a diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment early. PMID:17072727

  2. Hypnosis delivered through immersive virtual reality for burn pain: A clinical case series.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David R; Wiechman, Shelley A; Jensen, Mark; Sharar, Sam R

    2006-04-01

    This study is the first to use virtual-reality technology on a series of clinical patients to make hypnotic analgesia less effortful for patients and to increase the efficiency of hypnosis by eliminating the need for the presence of a trained clinician. This technologically based hypnotic induction was used to deliver hypnotic analgesia to burn-injury patients undergoing painful wound-care procedures. Pre- and postprocedure measures were collected on 13 patients with burn injuries across 3 days. In an uncontrolled series of cases, there was a decrease in reported pain and anxiety, and the need for opioid medication was cut in half. The results support additional research on the utility and efficacy of hypnotic analgesia provided by virtual reality hypnosis. PMID:16581687

  3. Burn from car seat heater in a man with paraplegia: case report

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Cheryl; Gittler, Michelle; Lee, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Objective/background Heated car seats are a common feature in newer automobiles. They are increasingly being recognized as potential hazards as there have been multiple reports of significant burns to its users. The potential for harm is considerably increased in those with impaired sensation with the possibility of a devastating injury. Methods Case report and literature review. Results A 26-year-old male with a T8 ASIA A paraplegia presented to the outpatient clinic for management of a hip burn. Two weeks prior to his visit he was driving a 2004 Jeep Cherokee for approximately 30 minutes. He was unaware that the driver's side seat warmer was set on high. He denied that his seat belt was in direct contact with the skin of his right hip. He presented to an acute care hospital that evening with a hip burn where he was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and instructed to apply it until his scheduled follow-up clinic visit. In clinic, the hip wound was unstageable with approximately 95% eschar. A dressing of bismuth tribromophenate in petrolatum was applied to the wound and he was instructed to change the dressing daily. This was later changed to an antimicrobial alginate dressing. The ulcer eventually healed. Conclusions This case illustrates the significant risk of car seat heaters in individuals with spinal cord injuries or neurological impairment who have decreased sensation. Additionally, it highlights an atypical area of potential for burn. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need for a heightened awareness for this unique and dangerous situation. PMID:21756574

  4. Gunpowder-related burns.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Monzonis, A; Benito-Ruiz, J; Baena-Montilla, P; Mena-Yago, A; de la Cruz-Ferrer, L I

    1992-04-01

    Gunpowder misuse is a frequent cause of burn injury in our area. The injuries are mostly minor lesions which may be treated on an outpatient basis, the more serious injuries need surgical treatment. Experience of the management of these burns is reported by reviewing 123 clinical charts of patients admitted between 1983 and 1990. The most frequent victims are teenage males who are involved mainly in accidents in the street. The most serious burns followed work-related accidents, with a fatal outcome in 47 per cent of the patients. The serious burns are usually deep dermal or full skin thickness. A common pattern affects groins, genitalia, hypogastrium and hands, and are produced when fireworks ignite in the pockets of the patient's trousers. The management of these lesions does not differ from burns caused by other agents, although attention should be paid to the presence of associated lesions, chiefly to eyes, ears and hands, due to the shockwave and shrapnel. PMID:1590935

  5. Dermal fillers: an update.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Brandt, Fredric S; Cazzaniga, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Injection of dermal fillers is the second most frequent nonsurgical cosmetic procedure performed in the USA. Dermal fillers are an option in the treatment of volume deficiency, scars, and rhytides; facial sculpting; facial contouring; and augmentation of specific anatomical sites such as the lips. The number of injectable dermal fillers available on the market increases yearly. Dermatologists and cosmetic surgeons should regularly review treatment options to provide patients with safe and effective filler options. This paper extensively reviews the properties of the available fillers, such as their rheology, longevity, and adverse effects, and how these properties affect the choice of filler agent for a particular patient or a particular site. Also, trends in dermal filler injections are discussed. PMID:26081021

  6. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  7. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Vicky; Dahan, Michael Haim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients' symptoms. PMID:26137334

  8. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting

    PubMed Central

    Hadid, Vicky; Dahan, Michael Haim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients' symptoms. PMID:26137334

  9. Infantile multiple large pyogenic granuloma on burned skin. Case report and review of literature*

    PubMed Central

    Dastgheib, Ladan; Maghami, Zohreh; Aslani, Fatemeh Sari

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign vascular lesion of the skin and mucous membranes, presenting as a solitary, red, pedunculated papule that bleeds easily and which appears to be a reactive vascular proliferation to minor injury. These lesions are more common in children and are mostly seen in exposed sites. Multiple disseminated PG is a rare condition. This report describes an infant with multiple, disseminated, pyogenic granulomas following burns from boiling milk. We reviewed literature published in English and found 9 cases. Six cases were provoked by hot milk, 2 by hot water, while the cause of the other case is unknown. Angiogiogenetic activity in milk may explain PG development in these patients. PMID:27192522

  10. Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas. PMID:23816511

  11. The clinical features of burns resulting from two aerial devices set off in a public fireworks display: 149 case reports.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaosheng; Sun, Dongjie; Zhong, Xiaochun; Liu, Maolin; Ni, Youdi

    2014-12-01

    We report the clinical features of 149 cases with aerial devices burns in a public fireworks display. The characteristic features included sudden onset, masses of terrified burn victims, small and deep wounds, mild disease conditions, and favorable prognosis. Unlike in home or illegal fireworks displays, the body areas most often involved were the extremity, chest, abdomen, and back, and most of the victims were adults in these public fireworks displays. PMID:24957358

  12. Merging satellite measurements of fire radiative energy and burned area products to estimate biomass burning: A European case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistinas, I.; Saldaña, G. L.; Oom, D.; Sá, A. C.; Silva, J. M.; Pereira, J.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a key element of the terrestrial carbon cycle that influences the global radiation budget through the biomass consumption and the subsequently release of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere having huge impacts on the global climate. Recently, global products of daily fire activity have recorded Fire Radiative Power (FRP), providing a quantitative assessment of fire intensity across the globe. Several studies showed that FRP is proportional to the fire's fuel consumption and smoke emission rates through integration of the FRP over time, deriving the Fire Radiative Energy (FRE), which can be assumed as the total energy released over a spatio-temporal unit and used to infer total emissions from biomass burning in various ecosystems, omitting fuel load and combustion completeness information that are characterized by significant uncertainties at continental and global scale, and at the same time simplifying the computation of spatially explicit fuel consumption estimates. This study integrates spatial and temporal analysis using FRP data from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) for the year 2008 and burned area from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor (MCD64A1) for the same year focusing on Europe. An intercomparison assessment of the emission estimates with the Global Fire Data Emissions Database (GFED) followed, due to lack of FRE and combustion measurements in large scale for validation. We show that the fire-emitted energy approach can be used in continental scale reducing uncertainties in emission estimates which may lead to simplification of the fire parameterization in fire modelling, yet in more robust simulations.

  13. A case review of patients presenting to Royal North Shore Hospital, with hair removal wax burns between January and November 2006.

    PubMed

    Zoumaras, Jack; Kwei, Johnny Sheng-Sun; Vandervord, John

    2008-03-01

    To date there is no published literature on the dangers of hair removal wax burns. This case review illustrates the steady influx of patients presenting to Royal North Shore Hospital (RNSH) with hair removal wax burns. Between January and December 2006, 10 patients out of 395 with burns (2.5%) presented to our dressing clinic with hair removal wax burns. All sustained burns under 5% total body surface area (TBSA) and two required debriding and split skin grafting (SSG). The mechanism of the burns was re-heating the hair removal wax in the microwave for too long. PMID:17716822

  14. Characterization of aerosols from biomass burning--a case study from Mizoram (Northeast), India.

    PubMed

    Badarinath, K V S; Madhavi Latha, K; Kiran Chand, T R; Gupta, Prabhat K; Ghosh, A B; Jain, S L; Gera, B S; Singh, Risal; Sarkar, A K; Singh, Nahar; Parmar, R S; Koul, S; Kohli, R; Nath, Shambhu; Ojha, V K; Singh, Gurvir

    2004-01-01

    Physical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Northeastern region, India analyzed based on measurements made during February 2002. Large spatial extent of Northeastern Region moist tropical to moist sub-tropical forests in India have high frequency of burning in annual dry seasons. Characterization of resultant trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning is important for the atmospheric radiative process. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed to be high during burning period compared to pre- and post-burning days. Peak period of biomass burning is highly correlated with measured AOD and total columnar water vapor. Size distribution of aerosols showed bimodal size distribution during burning day and unimodal size distribution during pre- and post-burning days. Size distribution retrievals from biomass burning aerosols show dominance of accumulation mode particles. Weighted mean radius is high (0.22 microm) during burning period. Columnar content of aerosols observed to be high during burning period in addition to the drastic reduction of visibility. During the burning day Anderson sampler measurements showed dominance of accumulation mode particles. The diurnal averaged values of surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing af biomass burning aerosols varies from -59 to -87 Wm(-2) on different days. Measured and modeled solar irradiances are also discussed in the paper. PMID:14559268

  15. Characterization of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning over Central Europe - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Geiss, Alexander; Heimerl, Katharina; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wiegner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are a major component of the Earth's atmosphere and have substantial impact on the Earth's radiation budget and on the hydrological cycle. Biomass burning smoke is one important component with respect of global climate warming as it is an important source of black carbon, which is a key player in atmospheric heating. As biomass burning smoke layers are often transported over long distances they cannot be considered as local events only but have a global effect. During transport the smoke particles are affected by aging and mixing processes. Thus their microphysical and optical properties change and, as a consequence their effect on the Earth's radiation budget. However, the influence of aging and mixing processes on the particle microphysical and optical properties is still only poorly understood. To improve our knowledge, studies of transport conditions together with measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution the smoke layers as well as of their microphysical and optical properties are crucial. We present a case study of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning smoke to Central Europe in summer 2013. The smoke layer is characterized by multi-wavelength lidar measurements over Maisach and by continuous Ceilometer measurements over Munich, Germany. Multi-wavelength lidar measurements are an important tool for the characterization of aerosols, as they provide vertically resolved information of their optical properties which serve as input parameters for the determination of microphysical properties of the aerosol layers. Additionally, airborne in-situ measurements of size distribution and black carbon mass concentration onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon are presented. The source regions and transport conditions are studied using a combination of satellite measurements and model simulations.

  16. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  17. Flap revascularization in patients following immediate reconstruction using an autologous free dermal fat graft for breast cancer: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Shima, Hiroaki; Kutomi, Goro; Kyuno, Takuro; Satomi, Fukino; Uno, Satoko; Maeda, Hideki; Kameshima, Hidekazu; Omura, Tosei; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Takemasa, Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    It has been reported that use of the free dermal fat graft (FDFG) technique produces a good cosmetic outcome for breast cancer. An FDFG is harvested from the lower abdomen as a columnar-shaped specimen and implanted into the defect of the breast after a partial mastectomy as a volume replacement technique. In this report, two patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery with immediate reconstruction using an autologous FDFG are described in order to show the difference in status between one case with and one without blood flow in the graft. To assess the benefit of this technique using FDFGs, their cosmetic satisfaction was evaluated using a questionnaire, graft shrinkage was measured by CT, and blood flow was assessed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Both patients scored 10 of 12 points on the questionnaire. After 2 years, shrinkage of the grafts was 21.6 and 25.2 %, respectively. Although one patient had no blood flow in the center of the graft, the other had blood flow from the pectoralis major muscle to the center of the graft. While satisfaction and graft shrinkage were similar in the two patients, one case showed blood flow and had a somewhat softer graft than the other. The graft status was maintained with a good cosmetic outcome for 3 years after breast-conserving surgery with immediate reconstruction using an autologous FDFG, despite mild shrinkage and hardness of the graft. It is notable that blood flow was observed into the graft on CEUS, and more distinct perfusion was seen in the softer graft case after more than 3 years. PMID:27256332

  18. Molten metal-related ocular thermal burn: report on two cases.

    PubMed

    Arici, Ceyhun; Iskeleli, Guzin; Atalay, Eray; Mangan, Mehmet Serhat; Kilic, Belgin

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of severe thermal burns on the ocular surface and its adnexal appendages that developed secondary to exposure to molten heavy metal with a melting temperature of near-thousand degree Celsius. Despite aggressive intervention and strict monitoring, the profound inflammation caused significant damage to the ocular surface, ending up in an intractable infection with an unfavorable outcome. The heat of the molten metal at impact, the heat-retaining capacity of the heavy metal, the total area of the ocular surface exposed to the molten metal, and the duration of exposure determined the severity of the injury. The unfavorable outcome, despite an intensive treatment, in terms of visual acuity and cosmetic appearance, should be explicitly explained to the patient, and a psychiatrist consultation should be considered if necessary. PMID:26677043

  19. Adverse reaction to sulphonamides in a burned patient--a case report.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Y

    1985-12-01

    This is a case report of a patient who developed severe drug eruptions suspected to have been caused by sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) administered orally for the treatment of urinary infection after burn injury. He had been treated topically with silver sulphadiazine (AgSD) after injury. The immunological examinations revealed positive reactions to both drugs, so that it is surmised that AgSD created the sensitivity and might be concerned in these drug eruptions. For such reasons, it is advisable, especially in patients who have been previously treated with topical or oral sulphonamides or have had episodes of hypersensitivity to such drugs, to administer sulphonamides carefully, or if possible to avoid administration. PMID:2936433

  20. Burning Tongue as Initial Presentation of Celiac Disease in an Elderly Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Andrea; Zamulko, Alla

    2016-06-01

    There are few reports in the literature where celiac disease presents with tongue manifestations, although atypical presentations of celiac disease are not uncommon. This case report highlights an atypical presentation of celiac disease in an elderly female. Our patient presented to clinic with complaints of a burning tongue for the past two years as well as occasional loose stools and fatigue. Work-up revealed iron deficiency anemia, zinc deficiency and an abnormal celiac panel. Complete symptom improvement was noted by 10 weeks into the initiation of a gluten free diet. Celiac disease can present at any age and should be considered as a differential in findings of malabsorption and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27443108

  1. High voltage electrical burn injuries in teenage children: case studies with similarities (an indian perspective)

    PubMed Central

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K.; Babu, M.; Mathivanan; Ramachandran, B.; Balasubramanian, S.; Raghuram, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary From 1992 to 2012, a total of 911 paediatric burns were admitted and treated at Kanchi Kamakoti Childs Trust Hospital Intensive Burn Care Unit, of these 28 children had suffered electrical injuries and burns. 7 teenagers suffered high voltage electrical burn injuries: 2 were involved in train accidents which caused fatal electrical injuries, and 5 had electrical burn injuries caused by similar types of accidents, requiring Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) care, repeated surgeries and extensive rehabilitation. A common factor among these latter 5 patients was that they were injured by overhead high electrical voltage cables. Their management was labour intensive and highly costly. In this report, the type of accident, the electrical voltage that produced burns and the treatment details are elaborated. Findings included similarities in age and type of accident, and failure to implement safety procedures and apply standard norms of high voltage transmission feeder lines. PMID:24563637

  2. THIRD-DEGREE BURN IN THE REGION OF THE ELECTROSURGICAL PAD DURING SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Gomide, Leandro Cardoso; Santos, Celso Eduardo Ribeiro Gonçalves; Pereira, Cleber Jesus; Carvalho, Luiz Cláudio Coelho; Queiroz, Sérgio Antônio Souza; Luciano, Roberto da Cunha; Pereira, Daniel Barros; Leocádio, Lélia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The number of shoulder arthroscopy procedures is increasing and, because of this, the frequency of related complications is also increasing. This report presents a case of third-degree burn from an electrosurgical pad during this procedure and serves as an alert regarding the possible causes and how to try to prevent this rare, but possible complication. PMID:27026993

  3. Facial granulomas secondary to Dermalive microimplants: Report of a case with histopathologic differential diagnosis among the granulomas secondary to different injectable permanent filler materials.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Machuca, Inmaculada; González-Guerra, Elena; Angulo, Jorge; del Carmen Fariña, María; Martín, Lucia; Requena, Luis

    2006-04-01

    Wrinkle reduction and the correction of skin defects using injectable aesthetic microimplants are now widely performed by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. In recent years, dermal filler substances containing polymer particle suspensions such as Bioplastique, Artecoll, and Dermalive are the most commonly used materials. These microimplants are permanent, non-biodegradable, and generally well tolerated, although various adverse reactions are still possible. We describe here a patient with facial granulomas secondary to Dermalive injections for correction of naso-labial folds and wrinkles. The particular shape of the injected particles allows for correct identification of the implanted material. Therefore, histopathologic examination is the best means to obtain the correct diagnosis of foreign body granuloma and to identify the type of filler particles. We discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis among the granulomas secondary to the most commonly used aesthetic permanent filler materials. PMID:16625084

  4. Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (cerebello-trigeminal-dermal dysplasia): description of an additional case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schell-Apacik, Chayim Can; Cohen, Monika; Vojta, Stepan; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Klopocki, Eva; Heinrich, Uwe; von Voss, Hubertus

    2008-01-01

    Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder with a distinct phenotype (OMIM 601853). To our knowledge there have been seven cases documented to date. We report on an additional male patient now aged 15 8/12 years with synostosis of the lambdoid suture, partial scalp alopecia, corneal opacity, mental retardation and striking phenotypic features (e.g., brachyturricephaly, hypertelorism, midface hypoplasia and low-set ears) consistent with Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. In early childhood the patient demonstrated aggressive behavior and raging periods. He also had seizures that were adequately controlled by medication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed rhombencephalosynapsis, i.e., a rare fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres, also consistent with Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. In addition a lipoma of the quadrigeminal plate was observed, a feature not previously described in the seven patients reported in the literature. Cytogenetic and subtelomere analyses were inconspicuous. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) testing revealed five aberrations (partial deletions of 1p21.1, 8q24.23, 10q11.2, Xq26.3 and partial duplication of 19p13.2), which, however, have been classified as normal variants. Array-CGH has not been published in the previously reported children. The combination of certain craniofacial features, including partial alopecia, and the presence of rhombencephalosynapsis in the MRI are suggestive of Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. Children with this syndrome should undergo a certain social pediatric protocol including EEG diagnostics, ophthalmological investingation, psychological testing, management of behavioral problems and genetic counseling. PMID:17483961

  5. Comparison of Dermal Substitutes in Wound Healing Utilizing a Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Anh-Tuan N.; Kowal-Vern, Areta; Latenser, Barbara A.; Wiley, Dorion E.; Walter, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dermal skin substitutes have become a standard of care in burn treatment. Objective: To compare and assess wound contracture reduction and histologic incorporation into the wound, dermal substitutes were implanted into full-thickness skin wounds in nude mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven mice received a full-thickness 2 × 2 cm dorsal skin wound, and were either implanted with an acellular dermal matrix, Alloderm, Dermagraft-TC, Dermalogen, or Integra or assigned to the control group (with no dermal substitute). At 28 days postsurgery, the wounds were assessed for contraction, epithelialization, and other histological characteristics. Results: Each dermal substitute decreased wound contracture, but Alloderm and the acellular dermal matrix did so significantly compared to the control (P < .01 and P < .03, respectively). Within-group and control comparisons showed no significant differences with respect to the presence of dystrophic calcification, squamous hyperplasia, infiltration of neutrophils, fibroblasts, and macrophages, epidermal keratinocyte stratification, or collagen fiber configuration. Conclusions: Integra elicited the greatest foreign body response. Although the Dermalogen group had the thickest elastin fiber fragments, Dermagraft may have initiated the earliest elastin fiber formation in the wounds. While all dermal substitutes were incorporated into the wound bed and wound contracture was decreased, acellular dermal matrix and Alloderm, both human skin–derived products, produced less contraction and the thickest new “dermis” in the healed wounds compared to the control or synthetic dermal substitutes. PMID:16921409

  6. A Case of Death Caused by 2700°C Molten Magnesite Burns.

    PubMed

    Eren, Filiz; Türkmen Inanir, Nursel; Fedakar, Recep; Eren, Bülent; Gürses, Murat Serdar

    2015-03-01

    Magnesite (MgCO3) is a mineral which is theoretically composed of 52.2% CO2, 47.8% MgO, and very scarce amounts of Fe2O3 with a degree of hardness varying between 3.4-4.5 kgf, and specific gravity of 2.9-3.1 g/cm(3). Its color varies between white, yellow or gray, and brown. Magnesite is used in agriculture, and drug industry, brick, iron-steel, paper, and sugar industries. Our case was a 30-year-old male whose dead was reportedly associated with exposure to 2700°C molten magnesite in the melting potansiyel of the plant where he was working as a metal worker. At autopsy, on external examination, except from his left forearm, all over his body was charred from severe burns. Both of his legs from ankles, and right forearm from its middle third were nearly amputated, and body muscles were partly detached because of high temperature. Widespread areas of thermal rupture were observed. On internal examination scalded appearance of internal organs was noted. Blood, and urine analysis did not reveal any substance abuse. Herein, we have aimed to discuss, and evaluate dead events because of exposure to very high temperatures from the perspective of forensic medicine, and occupational safety. PMID:26225151

  7. Retinal burns caused by exposure to MIG-welding arcs: report of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, G P

    1988-01-01

    A new generation of arc welder has recently become widely available at a price which is within reach of most amateurs and part-time mechanics, known as the MIG welder (metal-arc inert gas welder). In MIG welding the arc is ensheathed in a stream of inert gas which prevents the molten metal from oxidising. The stream of gas changes the character of the emitted radiation, and it is possible that this type of welder poses a greater threat to sight than previously recognised. Radiation in the ultraviolet range emitted by arc welders is absorbed by the unprotected cornea and lens, giving rise to a keratoconjunctivitis, or 'arc-eye,' which, though intensely painful, is not considered a threat to sight. Radiation in the visible and near infrared spectrum, however, penetrates the eye to be absorbed by the retina and may cause thermal or photochemical damage which may be permanent and sight-threatening. Retinal injuries resulting from exposure to ordinary electric welding arcs have been reported, but such injuries are uncommon. Two cases of retinal burns resulting from exposure to MIG welder emissions which presented on consecutive days to the Leicester Royal Infirmary are presented. This is the first report of such injuries relating specifically to MIG welding. Images PMID:3415950

  8. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

  9. Species Typing in Dermal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  10. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  11. [Burn injuries due to fireworks during New Year holiday. A 10-year case load].

    PubMed

    Udesen, A; Ovesen, O C

    1991-04-15

    Minor burns due to fireworks which are treated in the Casualty Department have remained constant during the past ten years. The injured patients are boys and young men between 7-19 years. Boys are injured ten times as frequently as girls. The commonest sites of injuries are the upper limbs, the head and neck. The number of patients admitted to hospital on account of serious burns has increased. These are most frequently caused by clothes catching fire from fireworks which have been hidden under outer clothes or in trouser pockets. In order to avoid the serious burns caused by burning clothes, it is recommended that fireworks should not be concealed under clothes but carried away from the body possibly in a container made of non-inflammable material. PMID:2024348

  12. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  13. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  14. Hyperspectral Imaging for Burn Depth Assessment in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael S.; Babchenko, Oksana; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Nobel, Lisa; Ignotz, Ronald; Lalikos, Janice F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Differentiating between superficial and deep-dermal (DD) burns remains challenging. Superficial-dermal burns heal with conservative treatment; DD burns often require excision and skin grafting. Decision of surgical treatment is often delayed until burn depth is definitively identified. This study’s aim is to assess the ability of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to differentiate burn depth. Methods: Thermal injury of graded severity was generated on the dorsum of hairless mice with a heated brass rod. Perfusion and oxygenation parameters of injured skin were measured with HSI, a noninvasive method of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, at 2 minutes, 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after wounding. Burn depth was measured histologically in 12 mice from each burn group (n = 72) at 72 hours. Results: Three levels of burn depth were verified histologically: intermediate-dermal (ID), DD, and full-thickness. At 24 hours post injury, total hemoglobin (tHb) increased by 67% and 16% in ID and DD burns, respectively. In contrast, tHb decreased to 36% of its original levels in full-thickness burns. Differences in deoxygenated and tHb among all groups were significant (P < 0.001) at 24 hours post injury. Conclusions: HSI was able to differentiate among 3 discrete levels of burn injury. This is likely because of its correlation with skin perfusion: superficial burn injury causes an inflammatory response and increased perfusion to the burn site, whereas deeper burns destroy the dermal microvasculature and a decrease in perfusion follows. This study supports further investigation of HSI in early burn depth assessment. PMID:26894016

  15. [Primary care and assessment of extended burn].

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Minoru; Kawai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2005-12-01

    Extended burn is a severe trauma makes patients easily critical status without appropriate cure and assessment. In order to ride out hypovolemic shock, it is necessary to manage the internal water, the state of respiration and wound treatment and assess the depth of burn wound. Initialy we assess the burned area and it's depth, then we calculate the amount of water which will be necessary on acute phase for the patient We will resect the part of deep dermal burn immediately to reduce the causes of infection. The patient will need a graft operation as soon as we can to avoid the severe infection. PMID:16869125

  16. Phototherapy on the Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Prospective Analysis of 20 Cases.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Lúcia de Fátima C; de Andrade, Samantha C; Nogueira, Gessé E C; Leão, Jair C; de Freitas, Patrícia M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the effect of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This prospective clinical study reports on preliminary outcomes of twenty volunteers diagnosed with BMS who have undergone the conventional treatment prior to laser phototherapy. LPT consisted of weekly sessions of LPT (660 nm), for a period of 10 weeks. The laser protocol consisted of the following parameters: 40 mW, 10 J cm(2) and 0.4 J per point, irradiation time of 10 s. In all sessions, the burning intensity was evaluated with a 10 cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The burning intensity evaluation by VAS was performed immediately before and after each LPT session. Nonparametric test of Wilcoxon was used for statistical analysis, considering a significance level of 5%. All volunteers reported reduced burning intensity in all sessions when compared to the previous one and reduction in VAS scores by up to 49% in the last clinical session when compared to the first session. When only the VAS baseline of the first session was compared with the consecutive sessions, there was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores in almost all sessions. The LPT may be an alternative treatment for the relief of oral burning symptoms in patients with BMS. PMID:26138316

  17. Poisoning from dermal absorption of promethazine.

    PubMed Central

    Shawn, D H; McGuigan, M A

    1984-01-01

    Two cases in which dermal absorption of promethazine hydrochloride resulted in a toxic neurologic syndrome are reported. The symptoms included central nervous system depression, acute excitomotor manifestations, ataxia and visual hallucinations. In addition, peripheral anticholinergic effects occurred. These symptoms are comparable with those of oral, intramuscular and rectal overdose of promethazine. The demonstrated risks of the topical use of promethazine outweigh any benefits. PMID:6733616

  18. Total upper and lower eyelid replacement following thermal burn using an ALT flap--a case report.

    PubMed

    Rubino, C; Farace, F; Puddu, A; Canu, V; Posadinu, M A

    2008-01-01

    Upper and lower eyelid unilateral full thickness reconstruction in a patient with no available adjacent tissues because of burns or trauma sequelae is a surgical challenge. A case of severe thermal burn with unilateral complete defect of both upper and lower eyelids is reported, together with the surgical technique of reconstruction. The patient was a 65-year-old man who sustained deep burns of the head and neck with upper airway burns after falling into a fireplace. After tracheostomy and acute resuscitation, he underwent escharectomy and coverage of his head and neck burns with split thickness skin grafts and with full thickness skin grafts to the eyelids. There was incomplete take of the skin grafts to the upper and lower left eyelids. In these areas, infection and loss of the tarsum and subsequent eyelid retraction led to exposure keratitis and blurred vision. After healing and respiratory rehabilitation, he was referred to our microsurgical unit for upper and lower eyelid reconstruction. A free forearm flap was first considered, but the Allen test was negative. Therefore, a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was chosen to provide skin eyelid coverage. The flap was harvested including fascia and centred on one perforator. The levator muscle stump and conjunctiva from both upper and lower cul-de-sacs were dissected and advanced. Flap vessels were anastomosed to the superficial temporal artery and vein. The conjunctiva and the fascia replaced the new inner upper and lower lamella. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a perforator flap, the ALT flap, in full thickness reconstruction of both upper and lower eyelids and may be a reliable option in such selected and challenging situations. PMID:17954041

  19. Burning vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; D'Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn. PMID:27118745

  20. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  1. Time dependent mixing in He-burning cores: The case of NGC 1866

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, P.; Castellani, M.

    2005-02-01

    We examine the helium burning phase of the convective core of intermediate mass stars, and investigate the role of the coupling of nuclear burning and mixing on the extension and duration of the blue loop phase. We compare the theoretical scenario with the distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude (CM) diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) cluster NGC 1866, whose densely populated clump of He-burning stars is equally populated on the blue and red side. We compare the distributions expected by adopting either a diffusive scheme within the instability regions, in which nuclear burning and mixing are self-consistently coupled, or the traditional instantaneous mixing approximation. We analyze with particular care the sensitivity of the results to: a) the e-folding distance with which the velocity of convective eddies decays outside the formal border of the convective regions fixed by the Schwarzschild criterion; b) the convective model adopted to evaluate the temperature gradient; c) the rate of reaction 12C+α -> 16O. Models not including convective overshoot are also commented.

  2. Too hot to trot (barefoot)… A study of burns in children caused by sun heated surfaces in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Asquith, Catherine; Kimble, Roy; Stockton, Kellie

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and describe the characteristics of burns in children caused by sun heated surfaces. Children presenting between January 2013 and February 2014 with a burn due to sun heated surfaces were included in the study. Fifteen children were identified representing 1.7% of new burns. The mean age was 18.3 months. All burns occurred during the warmer months between 11a.m. and 4p.m. and the feet were commonly involved. Most cases occurred in the child's home garden but six cases occurred in public play areas. Metal was the most common surface involved. Most burns were superficial partial thickness with two burns deep dermal partial thickness and one child needed a skin graft. Burns due to sun heated surfaces are relatively frequent. Parents need to be aware that in summer surfaces can become hot enough to cause burns to bare feet in young children. Play areas need to be shaded or covered in surfaces that do not become hot enough to cause burns and metal objects should not be left in the sun in children's play areas. PMID:25034242

  3. Tattoo-induced skin "burn" during magnetic resonance imaging in a professional football player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ross, James R; Matava, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    The authors present the case of a professional football player with an immediate and sustained cutaneous reaction ("burn") at the site of lower extremity tattoos that occurred during magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis. The burn was attributed to an electromagnetic reaction due to the ferromagnetic metallic compounds found in tattoo pigments, especially iron oxide-a reaction that has the potential to distort the field of image. These compounds can theoretically create an electric current that increases the local skin temperature, enough to cause a cutaneous burn. "At risk" tattoos are those with black pigment or any other pigments containing iron oxide, as well as those with a design that displays loops, large circular objects, or multiple adjacent points. Patients who develop this reaction may be treated prophylactically or symptomatically with a cold compress to assist with completion of the examination. Alternatively, a towel or cloth may be placed between the cutaneous body parts in those patients who experience the typical reaction resulting from an electrical arc between 2 separate cutaneous tattoos. This is likely an underreported issue that merits mention in the sports medicine literature given the frequent occurrence of cosmetic tattoos in athletes requiring magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose a musculoskeletal injury. As in the present patient, no permanent sequelae have been noted in the literature. Therefore, patients who develop this reaction should be reassured that the reaction is only temporary. PMID:23016039

  4. Application of acellular dermis and autograft on burns and scars.

    PubMed

    Ramos Duron, L E; Martínez Pardo, M E; Olivera Zavaleta, V; Silva Diaz, T; Reyes Frías, M L; Luna Zaragoza, D

    1999-01-01

    The cases of two patients with burns treated with dermis allograft and of one patient for lip reconstructive aesthetic filling treated with less than one mm3 of radiosterilised acellular dermis are presented. This paper emphasizes the treatment with radiosterilised dermal grafts with a permanent character so far. Hospitals, therefore, can satisfy the demand for this kind of tissue in the case of disaster and patients with serious injuries. In the cases cited, histocompatibility analysis was not required, thus having the advantage of long-time storage of the radiosterilised dermis used on these patients. Neither inflammatory reaction nor acute phase re-absorption were observed. Moreover, shrink (contract) healing was diminished. After two years, the results are still satisfactory. PMID:10853787

  5. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients. PMID:8781721

  6. Risk of burn trauma during circumcision with radiofrequency scalpel: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza; Abdollahi, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision, one of the oldest and most frequent operations performed all over the world, removes 33–50% of the penile skin. Like each surgical procedure, circumcision can leads to complications ranging from the insignificant to the tragic. Circumcision methods can be done with different ways. The radiofrequency (RF) scalpel, an innovative instrument, can be used in circumcision. Here, we present three boys who sustained sever burn injuries during circumcision with RF method. In sum, interesting characteristics made RF procedures so popular in different fields of surgery. Although having low incidence, the important complications of this technology such as burns should raise our attentions. Performing radiofrequency circumcision by an experienced operator, selection of proper size of ground pads, and elimination of any interface between the skin and ground pad are the factors that can prevent such tragedies. PMID:23875124

  7. A chemical burn from a garlic poultice applied to the face to treat toothache: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sisson, D; Balmer, C

    2014-02-01

    This case report is of a significant chemical burn to the face resulting from the use of an external garlic poultice for toothache. The patient used internet search engines to seek a toothache remedy and did not identify any reports of this complication. This report aims to inform all dentists of the risks of raw garlic application to the skin and also to ensure that in the future any patient using the internet for a toothache remedy will be made aware of the potential risk and how to avoid it. PMID:25198327

  8. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, G.; Flores, M.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols of a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB) event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Hi-RES-TOF-AMS) was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While extensive BB is not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI) was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS). EBRI during the smoldering phase of the fires was m=1.54(±0.01)+0.04i(±0.01) compared to m=1.49(±0.01)+0.02i(±0.01) of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  9. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, G.; Flores, J. M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2010-10-01

    In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols from a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB) event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Hi-RES-TOF-AMS) was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While extensive BB is not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI) was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS). The average EBRI for a mixed population of aerosols dominated by open fires was m=1.53(±0.03)+0.07i(±0.03), during the smoldering phase of the fires we found the EBRI to be m=1.54(±0.01)+0.04i(±0.01) compared to m=1.49(±0.01)+0.02i(±0.01) of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  10. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, G.; Flores, J. M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-02-01

    In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols from a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB) event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-RES-TOF-AMS) was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While these types of extensive BB events are not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI) was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS). The average EBRI for a mixed population of aerosols dominated by open fires was m = 1.53(±0.03) + 0.07i(±0.03), during the smoldering phase of the fires we found the EBRI to be m = 1.54(±0.01) + 0.04i(±0.01) compared to m = 1.49(±0.01) + 0.02i(±0.01) of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  11. Nucleolin enhances the proliferation and migration of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bimei; Li, Yuanbin; Liang, Pengfei; Liu, Yanjuan; Huang, Xu; Tong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Denatured dermis, a part of dermis in burned skin, has the ability to restore its normal morphology and functions after their surrounding microenvironment is improved. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the denatured dermis could improve wound healing are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts. Nucleolin mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased time-dependently during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts (52 °C, 30 seconds). Heat-denaturation promoted a time-dependent cell proliferation, migration, chemotaxis, and scratched wound healing during the recovery of human dermal fibroblasts. These effects were prevented by knockdown of nucleolin expression with small interference RNA (siRNA), whereas overexpression of nucleolin enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts with heat-denaturation. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) was significantly increased during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and human dermal fibroblasts. TGF-β1 expression was up-regulated by nucleolin in human dermal fibroblasts. The results suggest that nucleolin expression is up-regulated, and play an important role in promoting cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis with a mechanism probably related to TGF-β1. PMID:26148015

  12. Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

    2013-06-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (ΔT) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

  13. Validating long-term satellite-derived disturbance products: the case of burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Climate Data Record. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted that is characterized by the selection of reference data via a probability sampling that can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics, taking into account the sampling probability. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for the validation of global products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods or other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost of collecting independent reference data. We propose a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space. To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn by probability sampling. The proposed sampling design is a stratified random sampling, with two-level stratification of the voxels based on biomes and fire activity (Figure 1). The novel

  14. Burns associated with fondues.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:1393897

  15. Emissions generated by sugarcane burning promote genotoxicity in rural workers: a case study in Barretos, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the possible genotoxic effect of exposure to the smoke generated by biomass burning on workers involved in manual sugar cane harvesting. Methods The frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined in sugarcane workers in the Barretos region of Brazil, during the harvest season and compared to a control population, comprised of administrative employees of Barretos Cancer Hospital. Results The frequency of micronuclei was higher in the sugar cane workers. The mean frequency in blood lymphocytes (micronuclei/1000 cells) in the test group was 8.22 versus 1.27 in the control group. The same effect was observed when exfoliated buccal cells were considered (22.75 and 9.70 micronuclei/1000 cells for sugar cane workers and controls, respectively). Conclusion Exposure to emissions produced by the burning of sugar cane during harvesting induces genomic instability in workers, indicating the necessity of adopting more advanced techniques of harvesting sugar cane to preserve human health. PMID:24112819

  16. Effects of low level laser therapy on the prognosis of split-thickness skin graft in type 3 burn of diabetic patients: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Kazemikhoo, Nooshafarin; Vaghardoost, Reza; Mokmeli, Soheila; Momeni, Mahnoush; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ansari, Fereshteh; Amirkhani, Amir

    2016-04-01

    Significant populations in burn centers are diabetic burn patients. Healing process in these patients is more difficult due to diabetes complications. The gold standard treatment for patients with grade 3 burn ulcer is split-thickness skin grafting (STSG), but in the diabetic patients, the rate of graft failure and amputation is high due to impaired tissue perfusion. The technique of low level laser therapy (LLLT) improves tissue perfusion and fibroblast proliferation, increases collagen synthesis, and accelerates wound healing. The purpose of this case report is introducing a new therapeutic method for accelerating healing with better prognosis in these patients. The protocols and informed consent were reviewed according to the Medical Ethics, Board of Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.RAM.REC.13940.363). Diabetic type 2 patients with 13 grade 3 burn ulcers, candidate for amputation, were enrolled in the study. We used a 650-nm red laser light, 2 J/Cm for the bed of the ulcer and an 810-nm infrared laser light 6 J/Cm(2) for the margins along with intravenous laser therapy with a 660-nm red light, before and after STSG for treating grade 3 burn ulcers in 13 diabetic ulcers. The results of this study showed complete healing in the last 8 weeks for all patients who were candidates for amputation. In this case series, we present 13 cases of diabetic ulcer with type 3 burn wound, candidate for amputation, who healed completely using LLLT and STSG. This is the first time that these two techniques are combined for treatment of burn ulcer in diabetic patients. Using LLLT with STSG might be a promising treatment for burn victims especially diabetic patients. PMID:26868033

  17. [Dermal and inhalation poisoning. Rare guests in our intensive care units?].

    PubMed

    Sagoschen, I

    2013-09-01

    Patients with dermal and inhalation poisoning are uncommon in intensive care treatment. We describe the diagnostics and specific toxicological treatment of patients with hydrofluoric acid burns. For inhalation poisoning, we focus on smoke inhalation, especially the management of cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning. Special attention is given to the use of hyperbaric oxygenation for the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23925447

  18. Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti; Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus (PEODDN) is a rare nevoid condition characterized by asymptomatic grouped keratotic papules and plaques with a linear pattern on the extremities, having distinct porokeratotic histopathological features. The lesions usually present at birth or in childhood. We present here a case of late-onset PEODDN in a 23-year-old man who had lesions on the palm, forearm, arm and the chest along the lines of Blaschko, strictly localized to the left side of the body. PMID:25821735

  19. BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

  20. Assessing differences in phenology patterns between burned and non burned areas using MODIS and Landsat time series satellite images. A case study in Peloponnisos (Greece) and Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsias, Nikos; Bajocco, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus can be helpful for assessing, for example, phenology patterns between burned and non-burned areas. The aim of this study is to define phenological patterns for the fire ignition points in two Mediterranean study areas located in Italy (Sardinia) and Greece (Peloponnisos) and compare them with control points created after random sampling techniques restricted to certain buffer zones. Remotely sensed data from MODIS (2000-2015) and LANDSAT (1984-2015) satellites were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal of fire ignition points and of control points. Apart of the use of the original spectral data, we used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been derived and used to assess vegetation phenology in the fire-affected areas.

  1. Preserving the Posttrapeziectomy Space with a Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Spacer: A Pilot Case Series of Patients with Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Caroline A.; Ellis, Chandra V.; Cohen, Myles J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advanced thumb carpometacarpal arthritis is widely treated with trapeziectomy and tendon interposition despite donor-site morbidities. Trapeziectomy alone leaves a postresection space, leading to proximal metacarpal migration and scaphoid/trapezoid impingement. Prosthetic implants have been unsuccessful due to particulate debris, silicone synovitis, osteolysis, and migration. Recent studies have shown successful use of allograft for interposition material in the posttrapeziectomy space both in animal and human models. To obviate the need for autologous tissue, maintain thumb length, and reduce the risk of scaphoid impingement, the senior author developed an interposition arthroplasty technique using a spacer constructed from human acellular dermal matrix (HADM). Methods: Sixteen patients with Eaton stage III–IV thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis received the above procedure from the 2 senior authors. HADM was imbricated to fill the posttrapeziectomy space and secured to the volar capsule and metacarpal base. Pre- and postoperative trapezial space on radiograph, pain scores, and grip strength were recorded. Results: Six months postoperatively, radiographs showed an average joint space loss of 11%. Heights postoperatively were not significantly different from immediate postoperative heights (P ≥ 0.01). At 6 months, patients had improved pain and grip strength (P ≤ 0.01). No infections, foreign body reactions, or other complications occurred. Conclusions: HADM has been used extensively in other forms of reconstruction and has been shown to incorporate into surrounding tissues through neovascularization. Our early results illustrate that HADM can safely fill the dead space left by trapeziectomy. PMID:25289260

  2. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out. PMID:15756864

  3. Mycobacterium chelonae Facial Infections Following Injection of Dermal Filler

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jan M.; Xie, Yingda L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Schafer, Sean; Sehdev, Paul; Solomon, Joel; Jensen, Bette; Toney, Nadege C.; Lewis, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of 3 facial Mycobacterium chelonae infections occurred after cosmetic dermal filler injections at a plastic surgery clinic. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that M chelonae isolated from the clinic tap water were identical to the patient wound isolates. Review of injection procedures identified application of nonsterile ice to the skin prior to injection as a possible source of M chelonae. Surveys of regional laboratories and a national plastic surgery listserv identified no other cases related to the injection of this brand of dermal filler. This is the first report of cutaneous M chelonae infections following the injection of dermal fillers. It adds to a growing body of literature on postinjection M chelonae infections and reinforces the importance of optimal skin disinfection steps prior to percutaneous procedures. PMID:23335647

  4. Case 229: Burn-related Global Ankylosis of Interphalangeal Joints with Associated Acroosteolysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Derik L; Resnik, Charles S

    2016-05-01

    History A 50-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of polyarthralgia involving the left and right hands, wrists, elbows, ankles, and knees. Her pain was not associated with morning stiffness but did worsen over the course of the day. She denied experiencing fevers, chills, or mouth ulcers. She did not report paresthesias or blue discoloration of her fingers when they were exposed to cold. Her family history was remarkable for an aunt who died of systemic lupus erythematosus and for a brother with arthritis. Her medical history was remarkable for vitamin D deficiency, hypertension, and rehabilitation for burns. At clinical examination, she had mild tenderness to palpation of her joints, without associated erythema, swelling, or crepitus. Healed skin grafts were also noted. Blood chemistry tests revealed a rheumatoid factor of 8.5 IU/mL (normal range, 0-13.9 IU/mL), an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 2 mm/hr (normal range, 0-40 mm/hr), and a C-reactive protein value of 0.4 mg/L (3.8 nmol/L) (normal range, 0-4.9 mg/L [0-46.7 nmol/L]). Antinuclear antibodies test results were negative. Radiography of the right and left hands was performed. PMID:27089192

  5. Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus - revisited.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Deblina; Ghosh, Shouvik; Rudra, Olympia; Biswas, Surajit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    We hereby report a rare case of a 14-year-old girl presenting with asymptomatic pitted papules over the flexor aspect of her right 4th and 5th digits. This was histopathologically proven to be porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus (PEODDN). PMID:25244169

  6. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  7. Relation of people-centered public health and person-centered healthcare management: a case study to reduce burn-out

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Drozdstoj S.; Cloninger, C. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare management is one practical tool for mediation and implementation of public health into clinical healthcare outcomes and is taken in our case study as an exemplar arena to demonstrate the vital importance of the person-centered approach. Healthcare personnel are frequently at risk for the ‘burn-out’ syndrome. However, modern measures of burn-out recognize burn-out only at a late stage when it is fully developed. There are no available methods to assess the risk for vulnerability to burnout in healthcare systems. Our aim was therefore to design a complex person-centered model for detection of high risk for burn-out at an early stage, that has been termed ‘flame-out’. We accept the observation that decreased personal performance is one crucial expression of burn-out. Low personal performance and negative emotions are strongly related to low self-directedness as measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). At the same time, burn-out is characterized by decreased interest and positive emotions from work. Decreased positive emotion is directly related to low self-transcendence as measured by the TCI. Burn-out is also frequently associated with feelings of social alienation or inadequacy of support, which is in turn related to low TCI Cooperativeness. However, high Persistence and Harm Avoidance are predisposing traits for burn-out in healthcare professionals who are often overly perfectionistic and compulsive, predisposing them to anxiety, depression, suicide and burn-out. Hence, people at risk for future burn-out are often highly conscientious over-achievers with intense mixtures of positive and negative emotions. The high demand for perfection comes from both intrinsic characteristics and from features of the social milieu in their psychological climate. Letting go of the unfulfillable desire to be perfect by increasing self-transcendence allows acceptance of the imperfection of the human condition, thereby preventing burn-out and

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Sharif; Mohan, Yedathore; Malik, Asif; Malik, Ghaus; Gonik, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital dermal sinus (CDS) is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications. PMID:26199797

  9. Burn injury in children.

    PubMed

    Zámecníková, I; Stĕtinský, J; Tymonová, J; Kadlcík, M

    2005-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data files of 580 child patients up to 15 years of age who were hospitalized at the Burn Center of the FNsP Hospital in Ostrava in the years 1999 - 2003. The authors focused on mechanisms of burn injury in relation to the age of a child as well as extent, depth, localization, and local treatment of the injury. The data file was divided to four age groups: up to two years of age, 2 - 5 years of age, 5 - 10 years of age, and 10 - 15 years of age. As regards the mechanisms of injury, the authors have analyzed scalding by hot liquids, burns due to contact with a hot object, burns due to electric current, explosion, and injury caused by burning clothing. Injury by scalding prevails to a very significant degree in the youngest children. In the second age group the incidence of burn following contact with hot objects increases, as does the percentage of children injured by burning of clothing in children aged 5 - 10. The older children have increased prevalence of injuries caused by explosions. The greatest average extent of an injury is from burning of clothing. Most of the areas are burned deeply, localized in more areas of the body, and almost half of the cases required surgical intervention. Scalding comes second in terms of average extent of an injury. More than half of the injured areas are superficial, and areas of injury are different in the individual age groups. We addressed about a fifth of the cases surgically. The explosion of combustible materials caused a smaller extent of injury, on average, taking third place. The injuries were predominantly superficial, most commonly involving the head, trunk, and upper extremities. In none of the cases it was necessary for us to operate. Burn injuries caused by contact with hot objects are of a smaller extent. More than half of the burned areas are deep, localized most commonly in the upper extremities. Surgical intervention was necessary in more than half the cases. In terms of average

  10. Optical characteristics of biomass burning and desert dust over the Western Mediterranean during summer: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Sicart, Michaël; María Baldasano, José; Lane, Diego; Comerón, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    The present contribution reports on the aerosol vertical distributions in Barcelona (Spain) which were obtained when very high aerosol concentrations were observed on summer 2012. An EARLINET lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer located in Barcelona performed intensive measurements in the framework of the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) project. The data that were collected allow the characterization of the optical properties of the aerosols in this region, benefiting from the synergy of various remote sensing instruments. Due to its location in the Mediterranean basin, Barcelona metropolitan area is influenced by two major aerosol source regions: Europe and the Western Mediterranean Basin, as a major source of anthropogenic pollutants, and North Africa, as a principal source of natural dust. As a result, the composition of atmospheric aerosols in Barcelona station is a mixing of aerosols. During the period between 1 - 2 July, AOD reached high values (~ 0.5). In addition to anthropogenic local contributions, other aerosols long-range transported were also detected. Between 1 - 3 July, strong forest fires occurred in Alicante where advected to Barcelona area. On the other hand, between 28th June and 1st July, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula was affected by the intrusion of Saharan dust. The presence of Saharan dust was successfully forecasted by the BSC-DREAM8b dust regional model. MODIS and AERONET data, as well as air-mass backward trajectories confirmed the existence of biomass burning and desert dust in the case examined. Desert dust was detected between 2 and 4 km (above sea level, a.s.l) with maximum dust concentrations at ~ 4 km a.s.l on 1st June. On the other hand, favourable meteorological conditions made possible that biomass burning from Alicante was southern advected to Barcelona during the study period.

  11. Considerations on the use of platelet-rich plasma, specifically for burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Marck, Rose E; Middelkoop, Esther; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a fraction of blood plasma with a platelet concentration above baseline. After activation of the platelets, growth factors are released, which are involved in wound-healing processes. Application of a multitude of growth factors seems to boost the healing process. In this review the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the many different aspects of PRP; this is followed by a short outline of the evidence for a wide range of applications and finally narrowing down to a more in-depth analysis of the literature on the potential use of PRP in burn treatment. The authors performed an extensive search on PRP and the different biological, as well as practical aspects for the different applications. Furthermore, we performed a systematic search on PRP in the treatment of burn wounds. A high variety exists in PRP products, procedures, and content. This makes interpretation and comparison of the evidence difficult. PRP has been reported to have beneficial effects on wound healing in different fields of surgery and in the treatment of acute, chronic, and diabetic wounds. Literature on the use of PRP in burns is scarce. Separate growth factors have shown beneficial results in the treatment of burns. Furthermore, an animal study and several case reports showed improved burn wound-healing time after the application of PRP. A deep dermal burn could benefit from PRP through its hemostatic antimicrobial abilities and the positive effects seen in wound healing. However, burn patients have an altered physiological state and it is unknown how this may affect platelet function and quality. Furthermore, the effect of PRP on scarring has not been evaluated properly. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of PRP in the treatment of burns. PMID:24518678

  12. Tropoelastin incorporation into a dermal regeneration template promotes wound angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwei; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Kong, Yvonne; Wang, Xue-Qing; Chong, Cassandra; Fathi, Ali; Dehghani, Fariba; Panas, Eleni; Kemnitzer, John; Daniels, Robert; Kimble, Roy M; Maitz, Peter K; Li, Zhe; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-03-11

    Severe burn injury results in substantial skin loss and cannot be treated by autografts. The Integra Dermal Regeneration Template (IDRT) is the leading synthetic skin substitute because it allows for wound bed regeneration and wound healing. However, all substitutes suffer from slow blood vessel ingrowth and would benefit considerably from enhanced vascularization to nurture tissue repair. It is shown here that by incorporating the human elastic protein tropoelastin into a dermal regeneration template (TDRT) we can promote angiogenesis in wound healing. In small and large animal models comprising mice and pigs, the hybrid TDRT biomaterial and IDRT show similar contraction to autografts and decrease wound contraction compared to open wounds. In mice, TDRT accelerates early stage angiogenesis by 2 weeks, as evidenced by increased angiogenesis fluorescent radiant efficiency in live animal imaging and the expression of endothelial cell adhesion marker CD146. In the pig, a full thickness wound repair model confirms increased numbers of blood vessels in the regenerating areas of the dermis closest to the hypodermis and immediately below the epidermis at 2 weeks post-surgery. It is concluded that including tropoelastin in a dermal regeneration template has the potential to promote wound repair through enhanced vascularization. PMID:25469903

  13. Profile of Kidney Histopathology in Cases of Burns - Particular Emphasis on Acridine Orange Fluorescence Study and to Explore its Forensic Utility

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nandini J.; Gupta, B.D.; Patel, Pratik N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The major cause of death in the burn patients includes multiple organ failure and infection but, sometimes the exact cause of death in many fatally burned patients is difficult to detect. Many times in medico-legal post-mortem examinations in cases of burns, histopathological examination of organs is requested. Aim The aim was to study various histopathological changes in kidneys in the post-mortem cases of burns, by using routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain (H&E stain), special Periodic and Schiff’s Stain (PAS) stain, to study the role of acridine orange fluorescence study, to explore the forensic utility of this microscopic study and to find out the relationship between duration of survival and histopathological changes observed. Materials and Methods An experimental longitudinal prospective study from October 2010 to September 2012. Total 32 cases of death due to burns were autopsied at mortuary, the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology in our hospital. Bilateral kidneys were removed and preserved in 10% formalin solution. These were forwarded to Department of Pathology for histopathological examination. Routine microscopic examination by H&E stain as well as PAS stain and fluorescence study by acridine orange stain were done in all cases. Results It was observed that in 21 (65.63%) cases gross findings in kidneys were normal, in 06 (18.75%) were grossly pale and in 05 (15.62%) heavy & congested. Sections taken from kidneys and studied by H&E stain showed overlapping histopathological changes in all cases. In 26 (81.25%) cases, changes of Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) while in remaining 06 (18.75%), changes of cloudy swelling were observed. The sections stained by acridine orange and observed under fluorescent microscope were lightly positive in 15 (46.88%), brightly positive in 08 (25.00%) whereas, negative in 09 (28.12%). Conclusion Microscopy by various methods helps in getting specific lesions in kidney due to burns. However, it does

  14. Assessment of biomass burning emissions and their impacts on urban and regional PM2.5: a Georgia case study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Wang, Yuhang; Boylan, James W; Zheng, Mei; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-01-15

    Biomass burning is a major and growing contributor to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Such impacts (especially individual impacts from each burning source) are quantified using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, a chemical transport model (CTM). Given the sensitivity of CTM results to uncertain emission inputs, simulations were conducted using three biomass burning inventories. Shortcomings in the burning emissions were also evaluated by comparing simulations with observations and results from a receptor model. Model performance improved significantly with the updated emissions and speciation profiles based on recent measurements for biomass burning: mean fractional bias is reduced from 22% to 4% for elemental carbon and from 18% to 12% for organic matter; mean fractional error is reduced from 59% to 50% for elemental carbon and from 55% to 49% for organic matter. Quantified impacts of biomass burning on PM2.5 during January, March, May, and July 2002 are 3.0, 5.1, 0.8, and 0.3 microg m(-3) domainwide on average, with more than 80% of such impacts being from primary emissions. Impacts of prescribed burning dominate biomass burning impacts, contributing about 55% and 80% of PM2.5 in January and March, respectively, followed by land clearing and agriculture field burning. Significant impacts of wildfires in May and residential wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves in January are also found. PMID:19238955

  15. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiaoqiao; Shao, Min; Liu, Ying; William, Kuster; Paul, Goldan; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Sihua

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K + as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K + sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM2.5 in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.0-16.8% and 4.0-19.0% of PM2.5 concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively.

  16. Real-time photoacoustic imaging system for burn diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ida, Taiichiro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Iwaya, Keiichi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Sato, Shunichi; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a real-time (8 to 30 fps) photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with a linear-array transducer for burn depth assessment. In this system, PA signals originating from blood in the noninjured tissue layer located under the injured tissue layer are detected and imaged. A compact home-made high-repetition-rate (500 Hz) 532-nm fiber laser was incorporated as a light source. We used an alternating arrangement for the fibers and sensor elements in the probe, which improved the signal-to-noise ratio, reducing the required laser energy power for PA excitation. This arrangement also enabled a hand-held light-weight probe design. A phantom study showed that thin light absorbers embedded in the tissue-mimicking scattering medium at depths >3 mm can be imaged with high contrast. The maximum error for depth measurement was 140 μm. Diagnostic experiments were performed for rat burn models, including superficial dermal burn, deep dermal burn, and deep burn models. Injury depths (zones of stasis) indicated by PA imaging were compared with those estimated by histological analysis, showing discrepancies 200 μm. The system was also used to monitor the healing process of a deep dermal burn. The results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the present system for clinical burn diagnosis. PMID:25127338

  17. The management of pemphigus vulgaris in a burn intensive care unit: a case report and treatment review.

    PubMed

    Miletta, Nathanial; Miller, Mary E; Lam, Thomas; Chung, Kevin K; Hivnor, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare, potentially fatal, autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of a lack of high-grade, evidence-based recommendations, the side-effect profiles of the therapies available, and the extensive supportive care that afflicted patients require. The authors present the unfortunate course of a patient with severe pemphigus vulgaris who was admitted to the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research Burn Center, to demonstrate the potential complications of therapy. Given the patient's complex course, the authors reviewed the literature and share in this article the most up-to-date treatment recommendations for patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The authors' review of the literature supports using conventional therapy consisting of high-dose corticosteroids and an adjuvant immunosuppressant for mild to moderate cases of pemphigus vulgaris. The immunosuppresants recommended are mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, in order of preference, based on their side-effect profiles and steroid-sparing effects. For severe or recalcitrant cases of pemphigus vulgaris, the authors recommend adding rituximab as early as possible. If increased risk of infection is of particular concern, the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in place of rituximab is advised. PMID:24572296

  18. Bipedicled “Superthin” Free Perforator Flaps for Facial Burn Scar Reconstruction: Expanded Scope of Superthin Flaps: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Van Anh, Tran; Tien, Nguyen Gia; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Ogawa, Rei

    2015-01-01

    Background: “Superthin flap” is a distinctively thin flap that is thinned primarily to the point that the subdermal vascular network can be seen through a minimal fat layer. Reconstruction of severely disfigured neck and face can be performed using the occipito-cervico-dorsal superthin flap that is harvested from the dorsal region and supercharged by the circumflex scapular vessels. We used bipedicled superthin free perforator flaps to reconstruct scar contractures on half of the face, whole face, or the whole chin-neck area in 17 postburn patients. Methods: This case series report includes all 17 cases. Flaps in the dorsal area were designed. In all cases, one pedicle consisted of the circumflex scapular vessels. In 11, 5, and 1 flaps, the second pedicle consisted of contralateral posterior intercostal perforators (type 1), ipsilateral posterior intercostal perforators (type 2), and ipsilateral circumflex scapular vessels (type 3), respectively. Four patients underwent whole-face reconstruction after acid burn with type 1 or type 3 perforator. The recipient vessels were the superficial temporal vessels and contralateral or ipsilateral facial vessels. Intraoperatively, all adipose tissue in the flap, including between the 2 pedicles, was thinned by scissors before the pedicles were detached from the donor sites. Maximum flap size was 35 × 15 cm. Donor sites were covered by a split full-thickness skin graft. Flap survival and functional and cosmetic results were assessed retrospectively. Results: Fifteen of the 17 flaps survived completely. Two developed partial necrosis due to perforator thrombosis. Some patients developed hypertrophic scars around the flap, but these improved naturally over time. All patients were satisfied with both the cosmetic and functional outcomes of the reconstruction. Conclusion: Bipedicled superthin free perforator flaps may be an excellent choice for reconstruction of severe neck scar contracture. This report expands the scope

  19. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one patient (48-year-old male), on the anterior aspect of both knees in another patient (70-year-old female) and all around both knees in a third (59-year-old female). The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and daily wound dressing, and none of them experienced any complications. Ranunculus arvensis was confirmed as the cause of the phytodermatitis in the three cases. Poultices of plants applied to the skin demonstrate beneficial effects on many dermatological and rheumatic diseases; however, they have several adverse effects that should not be ignored. In this study, we also present a review of 25 cases reported in the literature. PMID:21408003

  20. Effect of biomass burning on surface ozone: A case study in 2010 over Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damoah, R.; Ichuku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2015-12-01

    One of the major sources of tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxides (CO), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is biomass burning. The emissions from the burning do not only affect air quality and climate locally, but also on a continental to hemispheric scales through long-range transport. We have used NASA's Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry and Transport Model (GMI-CTM), to quantify the changes in surface ozone over Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA: 0 - 20N, 20W - 55E), as triggered by biomass burning from different regions. During the winter months (e.g. January), most of the burning is concentrated in the NSSA region while in summer it shifts southward outside the NSSA region. Our analysis reveals that out of the total contribution to surface ozone from biomass burning emissions in the NSSA region, 92 % is due to NSSA biomass burning while the remaining 8 % is from outside the NSSA. In fact, most (~75 %) of the 8 % comes from outside the African continent because little to no biomass burning occurs in Africa outside of the NSSA region during this time of year. However, during the summer months (e.g. July), most of the contribution to NSSA surface ozone (96 %) is due to burning from outside NSSA. Only 10 % of the 96 % comes from outside the African continent because during this time most of the burning is from outside the NSSA but within the African continent. In spring (e.g. April) approximately equal percentages of contributions come from within and outside the NSSA region.

  1. Multidisciplinary care in severe pediatric electrical oral burn.

    PubMed

    Pontini, A; Reho, F; Giatsidis, G; Bacci, C; Azzena, B; Tiengo, C

    2015-05-01

    Oral burns in pediatric patient are commonly due to electrical injuries, representing an important reconstructive issue even for functional than esthetic reason. Different classification, surgical management and even oral device were described to allow the best long-term result. In most case a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to achieve a satisfactory outcome. A severe case of pediatric oral burn with germinative teeth damage is presented, describing a multispecialist team approach that guarantee a satisfactory outcome by reconstructive surgery, careful progressive evaluation of dental and soft tissue healing and speech recovery. The use of acellular dermal substitute template within traditional reconstructive surgery had provided a good functional and esthetic result joint to valid preservation of germinative dental element as shown at long-term X-ray evaluation. Intensive rehabilitation speech program has also avoided phonetic impairment in an important speech develop period. It was so evident that the necessity of a multispecialist care in such difficult injury to achieve the best long-term result. PMID:25716757

  2. Neostigmine to Relieve a Suspected Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction in a Burn Patient: A Case-Based Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gebre-Giorgis, Abel A.; Roderique, Ensign Joseph D.; Stewart, Dane; Feldman, Michael J.; Pozez, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neostigmine is one of the treatment options for colonic pseudo-obstruction in the medical patient. However, experience in using neostigmine for this indication in burn patients has not been reported in the literature. We will present a case of a woman who developed colonic pseudo-obstruction during her hospital stay. When conservative management failed, neostigmine was administered with no adverse effects and resolution of the pseudo-obstruction. We will review the literature regarding the pathophysiology and treatment options for acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in burn patients. Methods: A 27-year-old woman with 35% total body surface area deep-partial and full-thickness flame burns. On hospital day 17, she developed a nonobstructive ileus. She failed conservative medical therapy. After consultation with colleagues in trauma surgery and a review of the literature (MeSH/PubMed/NLM), the decision was made to try neostigmine therapy rather than a surgical/procedural option such as colonoscopy. Results: The patient was moved to the intensive care unit and 2 mg of neostigmine was administered intravenously over 4 minutes. After 30 minutes, all abdominal examination findings had returned to baseline. No significant adverse effects were noted, and she did not redevelop abdominal distension afterward. Conclusion: This case report provides an alternative treatment modality in which neostigmine was used successfully in a burn patient after conservative medical treatment had failed. The authors believe that neostigmine may be a viable alternative to decompressive colonoscopy in burn patients for whom mechanical obstruction is properly excluded. PMID:23359843

  3. The contributions of biomass burning to primary and secondary organics: A case study in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    PubMed

    Wang, BaoLin; Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Lu, SiHua; Wang, Ming; Yuan, Bin; Gong, ZhaoHeng; He, LingYan; Zeng, LiMin; Hu, Min; Zhang, YuanHang

    2016-11-01

    Synchronized online measurements of gas- and particle- phase organics including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) and submicron organic matters (OM) were conducted in November 2010 at Heshan, Guangdong provincial supersite, China. Several biomass burning events were identified by using acetonitrile as a tracer, and enhancement ratios (EnRs) of organics to carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from this work generally agree with those from rice straw burning in previous studies. The influences of biomass burning on NMHCs, OVOCs and OM were explored by comparing biomass burning impacted plumes (BB plumes) and non-biomass burning plumes (non-BB plumes). A photochemical age-based parameterization method was used to characterize primary emission and chemical behavior of those three organic groups. The emission ratios (EmRs) of NMHCs, OVOCs and OM to CO increased by 27-71%, 34-55% and 67% in BB plumes, respectively, in comparison with non-BB plumes. The estimated formation rate of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in BB plumes was found to be 24% faster than non-BB plumes. By applying the above emission ratios to the whole PRD, the annual emissions of VOCs and OM from open burning of crop residues would be 56.4 and 3.8Gg in 2010 in PRD, respectively. PMID:27371770

  4. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  5. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 cream improves burn-wound healing and attenuates burn-gastric lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mikus, D; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Petricevic, A; Aralica, G; Druzijancic, N; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Pigac, B; Perovic, D; Kolombo, M; Kokic, N; Mikus, S; Duplancic, B; Fattorini, I; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Prkacin, I; Konjevoda, P; Stambuk, N; Anic, T

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 were investigated when administered topically or systemically in burned mice. This agent is known to have a beneficial effect in a variety of models of gastrointestinal lesions, as well as on wound or fracture healing. Deep partial skin thickness burns (1.5x1.5 cm) covering 20% of total body area, were induced under anesthesia on the back of mice by controlled burning and gastric lesions were assessed 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days following injury. The first application of BPC 157 was immediately following burning, and thereafter, once daily, until 24 h before sacrifice. In the initial experiments, exposure to direct flame for 5 s, the BPC 157 was applied at 10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w. intraperitoneally (i.p.) by injection or alternatively, topically, at the burn, as a thin layer of cream (50 microg of BPC 157 dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water was mixed with 50 g of commercial neutral cream (also used as local vehicle-control)), while silver sulfadiazine 1% cream was a standard agent acting locally. Others received no local medication: they were treated i.p. by injection of distilled water (distilled water-control) or left without any medication (control). In subsequent experiments involving deeper burns (direct flame for 7 s), BPC 157 creams (50 microg, 5 microg, 500 ng, 50 ng or 5 ng of BPC 157 dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water was mixed with 50 g of commercial neutral cream), or vehicle as a thin layer of cream, were applied topically, at the burn. Compared with untreated controls, in both experiments, in the BPC 157 cream-treated mice all parameters of burn healing were improved throughout the experiment: less edema was observed and inflammatory cell numbers decreased. Less necrosis was seen with an increased number of capillaries along with an advanced formation of dermal reticulin and collagen fibers. An increased number of preserved follicles were observed. Two weeks after injury, BPC 157 cream

  6. Epidermal exfoliation of over 95% after a burn in an 18-month-old boy: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Rubertsson, S; Huss, F; Mani, M

    2016-03-01

    This report concerns an 18-month-old boy who presented with a 6% total body surface area scald. The subject of this report is unique in that he developed the largest exfoliation described in literature. After 3 days an epidermal exfoliation with the appearance of a deliberately inflicted scald developed. As the exfoliation progressed to over 95% total body surface area the suspicion of child abuse or neglect could be abandoned. The diagnosis Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome was set, due to the finding of Staphylococcus aureus on swabs, the lack of mucosal engagement, and the patient's age. The boy's skin healed within 3 weeks. The few reports published are all case reports and most frequently described visually infected burns with smaller epidermal exfoliations, and clinically based exfoliation diagnosis. S. aureus often cause burn wound infections that can lead to complications caused by cross-infection. It is important for burn surgeons and intensive care specialists to be aware of the increased possibility of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome occurring in patients who have a reduced barrier to infection such as burn patients and also, that the diagnosis can be difficult to make. PMID:26803367

  7. Congenital dermal sinuses, dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Schijman, E; Monges, J; Cragnaz, R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal sinuses are abnormal communications between the skin and deeper tissues. Seven cases are presented of occipital dermal sinuses associated with dermoid or epidermoid cysts of the posterior fossa. The cysts were interdural, subdural and intracerebellar. Although they are benign lesions, there is a high incidence of complications, especially infections such as bacterial or aseptic meningitis and cerebellar abscess. The clinical features, radiological and tomographical characteristics, and the relationship to meningeal structures, dural sinuses and cerebellar parenchyma are described. PMID:3731173

  8. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  9. Ball lightning burn.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

    2003-05-01

    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

  10. Application of an Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft (CenoDerm) for Treatment of Multiple Gingival Recession Defects: A Case Report with One-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Neda; Heidari, Mohadeseh; Mousavi Jazi, Mahvash; Daneshmonfared, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and materials have been introduced for the treatment of gingival recession defects. This article reports the case of a 43-year old female patient with chief complaint of esthetic problem, presenting multiple gingival recession defects in anterior maxilla. CenoDerm combined with coronally positioned flap was used for management of six teeth with gingival recession. Complete root coverage was achieved in 66.6% of treated sites in one-year follow-up and the patient was satisfied with the esthetic result. The mean root coverage was 86.0%±22.3. The mean recession depth reduction and clinical attachment gain were 1.8±0.8 mm and 2.5±0.6 mm, respectively. According to the results obtained in this case, CenoDerm can be applied successfully in treatment of multiple gingival recession defects. PMID:25346839

  11. Late-onset congenital lateral dermal sinus tract.

    PubMed

    Nishimon, Mari; Shimizu, Yusuke; Ueno, Mari; Iwanami, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Cases of laterally located, congenital dermal sinus tracts are extremely rare, with only six having been reported to date. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl who developed symptoms of this type of sinus tract at an age that was considerably older than is usually reported. At the age of 12 years, the patient exhibited a purulent discharge from a pit on the right buttock. MRI indicated the presence of two tracts running from the right buttock skin to a cystic lesion that had formed on the right ala of the sacral spine. The lesion was surgically resected and successfully reconstructed using a partial iliocostalis lumborum muscle flap, without any functional morbidity. From our experience, such flaps appear to be appropriate treatment choices for lateral congenital dermal sinus tracts that develop late and result in large defects. PMID:25535223

  12. Impact of biomass burning on haze pollution in the Yangtze River delta, China: a case study in summer 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z.; Wang, S.; Fu, X.; Watson, J. G.; Jiang, J.; Fu, Q.; Chen, C.; Xu, B.; Yu, J.; Chow, J. C.; Hao, J.

    2014-05-01

    Open biomass burning is an important source of air pollution in China and globally. Joint observations of air pollution were conducted in five cities (Shanghai, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Suzhou and Nanjing) of the Yangtze River delta, and a heavy haze episode with visibility 2.9-9.8 km was observed from 28 May to 6 June 2011. The contribution of biomass burning was quantified using both ambient monitoring data and the WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ)) model simulation. It was found that the average and maximum daily PM2.5 concentrations during the episode were 82 and 144 μgm-3, respectively. Weather pattern analysis indicated that stagnation enhanced the accumulation of air pollutants, while the following precipitation event scavenged the pollution. Mixing depth during the stagnant period was 240-399 m. Estimation based on observation data and CMAQ model simulation indicated that biomass open burning contributed 37% of PM2.5, 70% of organic carbon and 61% of elemental carbon. Satellite-detected fire spots, back-trajectory analysis and air quality model simulation were integrated to identify the locations where the biomass was burned and the pollutants transport. The results suggested that the impact of biomass open burning is regional, due to the substantial inter-province transport of air pollutants. PM2.5 exposure level could be reduced 47% for the YRD region if complete biomass burning is forbidden and significant health benefit is expected. These findings could improve the understanding of heavy haze pollution, and suggest the need to ban open biomass burning during post-harvest seasons.

  13. 40 CFR 798.4100 - Dermal sensitization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dermal sensitization. 798.4100 Section 798.4100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Specific Organ/Tissue Toxicity § 798.4100 Dermal sensitization. (a) Purpose. In the...

  14. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dermal toxicity. 798.2250 Section 798.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2250 Dermal toxicity. (a) Purpose. In the assessment and evaluation of...

  15. Long-term complications associated with permanent dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Kunjur, Jayanth; Witherow, Helen

    2013-12-01

    We report a case series of patients with serious long-term complications associated with the injection of permanent dermal fillers. Although such complications are relatively rare, the consequences are potentially life-long, and the psychological and medical effects can often have a profound impact on the patient. The continued routine offering of these treatments will require doctors to communicate effectively with patients about the nature of the complications and the probability of risk compared with alternative treatments. PMID:23962591

  16. Isolated mucosal fenestration with localized gingival recession: Closure with an acellular dermal graft. A rare case report with two years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, SaravanaKarthikeyan; Singh, Vishal; Bhat, G Subraya; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Nidambur Ballal, Vasudev; Saraswathi, Vidya; Vinayachanan, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal fenestrations are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and as such their management is not often reported. Their treatment might be further complicated due to a communication with the oral environment, making them more susceptible to accumulation of debris, plaque, and calculus, thereby reducing the probability of mucosal renewal. The aim of the present case report is to highlight one such rare clinical scenario and its apt and effective management. Surgical management of an uncommon presentation of concomitant gingival recession with an isolated mucosal fenestration in an atypical location, with an allograft matrix is presented here with 2 years' follow-up. A review of the literature reveals no previous application of AlloDerm graft for the management of a similar situation. PMID:26824083

  17. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk. PMID:21991179

  18. A case of multiple, eruptive pyogenic granuloma developed on a region of the burned skin: can erythromycin be a treatment option?

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Ali Murat; Basak, Pinar Yuksel; Akkaya, Vahide Baysal; Yildirim, Mehmet; Kapucuoglu, Nilgun

    2007-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a common, acquired, benign angiomatous proliferation of the skin and mucous membranes that develops spontaneously or traumatically. PG usually occurs in children and young adults and predominantly located on neck, hands, and extremities. There are numerous theories about the pathogenesis of PG, but the etiology is not clear. Although the occurrence of PG after trauma to the skin is very common, multiple lesions of PG secondary to burn are rare in the literature. In this report, we present a case of multiple, eruptive PG that developed on the burned skin of a 17-month-old boy. After oral erythromycin treatment for 8 weeks, the lesions clearly improved. PMID:17667838

  19. Burning rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

  20. Mid-dermal elastophagocytosis presenting as a persistent reticulate erythema.

    PubMed

    Bannister, M J; Rubel, D M; Kossard, S

    2001-02-01

    Two men are presented with a widespread persistent reticulate erythema concentrated within the chronically sun-damaged skin on their trunk. A fine papular element was present in one case and both lacked annular lesions. One patient was human immunodeficiency virus positive. Multiple skin biopsies showed an interstitial infiltrate of histiocytes containing multiple elastic fibres in the upper dermis. There was scant perivascular lymphocytic inflammation but no evident necrobiosis or palisaded granulomas seen typically with granuloma annulare. Elastic stains showed focal mid-dermal elastolysis. Diffuse reticulate erythema in sun-damaged skin may be a clinical marker for elastophagocytosis. This presentation differs from that previously described with actinic granuloma, diffuse granuloma annulare or the inflammatory phase of mid-dermal elastolysis and expands the clinical spectrum of this phenomenon. PMID:11233723

  1. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    PubMed

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications. PMID:23311666

  2. Comparison of safety and immunogenicity of 2 WHO prequalified rabies vaccines administered by one week, 4 site intra dermal regimen (4-4-4-0-0) in animal bite cases

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Ashwath; Manoharan, Aravind; Narayan, Madhusudana Shampur; Kalappa, Sudarshan Mysore; Biligumba, Gangaboraiah; Haradanahalli, Ravish; Anand, Ashwini Manoor

    2015-01-01

    The currently advocated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis regimens are of one month duration with reduced patient compliance. WHO recommended research on shortened vaccination regimens which have a practical and economic advantage over the existing regimens. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the safety and immunogenicity of 2 WHO prequalified rabies vaccines administered by one week, 4 site intra dermal regimen (4-4-4-0-0) in animal bite cases. This study was a comparative, open label, phase III, randomized clinical trial conducted at Anti rabies clinic, KIMS Hospital, Bangalore, India. The study was registered in Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI) bearing the registration number CTRI/2012/12/003230. Ninety subjects with category II/III animal bites/exposures were enrolled. Equine rabies immunoglobulin was administered to all category III exposures. 0.1 mL of either purified chick embryo cell vaccine (Rabipur) or purified verocell rabies vaccine (Verorab) was administered intradermally into 4 sites on days 0, 3 and 7 to all the study subjects. Serum of subjects collected on day 0, 14, 90 and 365 were analyzed for rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentration. The incidence of ADR in Rabipur and Verorab group was 2.96% and 1.14% respectively. In Rabipur group, geometric mean concentration (95% confidence interval) of RVNA was 14.5 (13.50, 15.57), 11.78 (11.27, 12.31) and 5.95 (5.50, 6.44) IU/mL on days 14, 90 and 365 respectively; In Verorab group geometric mean concentration (95% confidence interval) of RVNA was 14.43 (13.41, 15.53), 11.93 (11.47, 12.40) and 5.67 (5.29, 6.08) IU/mL on days 14, 90 and 365 respectively. In conclusion, Rabipur and Verorab were found to be safe, immunogenic and comparable with each other, when administered using one week, 4 site intradermal regimen (4-4-4-0-0) in animal bite cases. PMID:26083005

  3. Comparison of safety and immunogenicity of 2 WHO prequalified rabies vaccines administered by one week, 4 site intra dermal regimen (4-4-4-0-0) in animal bite cases.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Ashwath; Manoharan, Aravind; Narayan, Madhusudana Shampur; Kalappa, Sudarshan Mysore; Biligumba, Gangaboraiah; Haradanahalli, Ravish; Anand, Ashwini Manoor

    2015-01-01

    The currently advocated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis regimens are of one month duration with reduced patient compliance. WHO recommended research on shortened vaccination regimens which have a practical and economic advantage over the existing regimens. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the safety and immunogenicity of 2 WHO prequalified rabies vaccines administered by one week, 4 site intra dermal regimen (4-4-4-0-0) in animal bite cases. This study was a comparative, open label, phase III, randomized clinical trial conducted at Anti rabies clinic, KIMS Hospital, Bangalore, India. The study was registered in Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI) bearing the registration number CTRI/2012/12/003230. Ninety subjects with category II/III animal bites/exposures were enrolled. Equine rabies immunoglobulin was administered to all category III exposures. 0.1 mL of either purified chick embryo cell vaccine (Rabipur) or purified verocell rabies vaccine (Verorab) was administered intradermally into 4 sites on days 0, 3 and 7 to all the study subjects. Serum of subjects collected on day 0, 14, 90 and 365 were analyzed for rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentration. The incidence of ADR in Rabipur and Verorab group was 2.96% and 1.14% respectively. In Rabipur group, geometric mean concentration (95% confidence interval) of RVNA was 14.5 (13.50, 15.57), 11.78 (11.27, 12.31) and 5.95 (5.50, 6.44) IU/mL on days 14, 90 and 365 respectively; In Verorab group geometric mean concentration (95% confidence interval) of RVNA was 14.43 (13.41, 15.53), 11.93 (11.47, 12.40) and 5.67 (5.29, 6.08) IU/mL on days 14, 90 and 365 respectively. In conclusion, Rabipur and Verorab were found to be safe, immunogenic and comparable with each other, when administered using one week, 4 site intradermal regimen (4-4-4-0-0) in animal bite cases. PMID:26083005

  4. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…

  5. Cell therapy for full-thickness wounds: are fetal dermal cells a potential source?

    PubMed

    Akershoek, J J; Vlig, M; Talhout, W; Boekema, B K H L; Richters, C D; Beelen, R H J; Brouwer, K M; Middelkoop, E; Ulrich, M M W

    2016-04-01

    The application of autologous dermal fibroblasts has been shown to improve burn wound healing. However, a major hurdle is the availability of sufficient healthy skin as a cell source. We investigated fetal dermal cells as an alternative source for cell-based therapy for skin regeneration. Human (hFF), porcine fetal (pFF) or autologous dermal fibroblasts (AF) were seeded in a collagen-elastin substitute (Novomaix, NVM), which was applied in combination with an autologous split thickness skin graft (STSG) to evaluate the effects of these cells on wound healing in a porcine excisional wound model. Transplantation of wounds with NVM+hFF showed an increased influx of inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes) compared to STSG, acellular NVM (Acell-NVM) and NVM+AF at post-surgery days 7 and/or 14. Wounds treated with NVM+pFF presented only an increase in CD8(+) lymphocyte influx. Furthermore, reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in wound areas and reduced contraction of the wounds was observed with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM. Xenogeneic transplantation of NVM+hFF increased αSMA expression in wounds compared to NVM+AF. An improved scar quality was observed for wounds treated with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM, NVM+hFF and NVM+pFF at day 56. In conclusion, application of autologous fibroblasts improved the overall outcome of wound healing in comparison to fetal dermal cells and Acell-NVM, whereas application of fetal dermal fibroblasts in NVM did not improve wound healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine model. Although human fetal dermal cells demonstrated an increased immune response, this did not seem to affect scar quality. PMID:26453400

  6. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    PubMed

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  7. Release of severe post-burn contracture of the first web space using the reverse posterior interosseous flap: Our experience with 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shi; Zhao, Jingchun; Jin, Zhenghua; Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yan; Xie, Chunhui; Yu, Jiaao

    2013-09-01

    We retrospectively assessed outcomes after treating severe contractures of the first web space from burns with the reverse posterior interosseous flaps (RPIF). Twelve consecutive patients (ages 18-58 years) with burns from 10% to 70% (mean, 30.1%) total body surface area and severe contractures of the first web space of the hand (initial thumb to index angles from 10° to 35° [mean, 23°]) underwent contracture release using the RPIF. Seventeen RPIFs were used, with sizes from 9cm×6cm to 14cm×10cm (mean area, 83.6cm(2)). The patients were followed for 5-26 months. All flaps survived completely, rapidly adapted to the recipient beds, and achieved good color and texture harmony. No early complications occurred. Fifteen donor sites were closed with skin grafts. Two donor sites were closed by direct suture. No paralysis of the posterior interosseous nerve was observed in these cases. At last follow-up the mean thumb to index angle was 78°, increasing the web length 260%. All patients regained fundamental hand functions. The RPIF is reliable and safe for releasing severe contractures of the first web space of the hand after burn, with distinct advantages over currently used alternative methods. PMID:23523223

  8. A retrospective review of burn dressings on a porcine burn model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-08-01

    This is a study to compare wound healing among three types of dressings on a porcine model with deep-dermal-partial-thickness burns. The burns in this study were from eight animal trials conducted in the past for other purposes and only burns with a uniform pale appearance that had served as controls in original experiments were selected. In total, there were 57 burns in 33 pigs, using one of following three dressings: Acticoat (Silver) (3 trials), Jelonet (Gauze) (3 trials), and Solosite Gel/Jelonet (Gel/Gauze) (2 trials). The wound healing assessments included wound re-epithelialisation during a 6-week period, clinical and histological scar assessments at week 6 after burn. Of all wound healing/scar assessments, only re-epithelialisation showed statistical difference between dressings. Earlier re-epithelialisation was observed in Gel/Gauze dressings compared to Silver and/or Gauze dressings. However, this study revealed huge variation in wound healing outcome between 3 trials within both Silver and/or Gauze dressings, supported by significant differences on re-epithelialisation, clinical and histological scar measurements. In addition, it was found that larger animals healed better than smaller ones, based on weights from 21 pigs. Of all dressings, Silver delivers the best protection for wound colonization/infection. Wound colonization/infection was found to confine wound healing and lead to thinner RND in scars. From this study, we cannot find enough evidence to suggest the beneficial effect of one dressing(s) over others on burn wound healing outcome on a porcine model with small deep-dermal-partial-thickness burns with a relative small sample size. PMID:19864074

  9. Joint Use of Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 data for Burned Areas Mapping: the Case of the Sardinia Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Antonio; Azar, Ramin; Calò, Fabiana; Stroppiana, Daniela; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Imperatore, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    Fires widely affect Mediterranean regions, causing severe threats to human lives and damages to natural environments. The socio-economic impacts of fires on the affected local communities are significant, indeed, the activation of prevention measures and the extinguishment of fires and reclamation of the pre-fire conditions are very expensive. Moreover, fires have also global impacts: they affect global warming and climate changes due to gas and aerosol emissions to atmosphere. In such a context, fire scars mapping and monitoring are fundamental tasks for a sustainable management of natural resources and for the prevention/mitigation of fire risk. With this respect, remotely sensed data offer the opportunity for a regional-up-to-global scale monitoring of areas prone to fires, on a cost-effective and regular basis. In this work, the potential of a joint use of Sentinel-1A (C-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data for detecting burned areas is investigated. The experimental analyses are conducted by focusing on Sardinia Island, which is one of the Italian regions most affected by fire events during summer. Our analysis shows that the capability of monitoring burned areas in the Mediterranean environment can be improved by exploiting information embedded in OLI multispectral bands in conjunction with multi-temporal dual-polarized SAR data. Indeed, limitations experienced in analyses based on the use of only optical data (e.g., cloud cover, spectral overlap/confusion of burned areas with dark soils, water surfaces and shaded regions) may be overcome by using SAR data, owing to the insensitiveness to sunlight-illumination conditions and the cloud-penetrating capability of microwave radiation. Results prove the effectiveness of an integrated approach based on the combination of optical and microwave imagery for the monitoring and mapping of burned areas in vegetated regions.

  10. Micronucleus frequency in children exposed to biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region: a control case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Amazon represents an area of 61% of Brazilian territory and is undergoing major changes resulting from disorderly economic development, especially the advance of agribusiness. Composition of the atmosphere is controlled by several natural and anthropogenic processes, and emission from biomass burning is one with the major impact on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic potential of air pollutants generated by biomass burning through micronucleus assay in exfoliated buccal cells of schoolchildren in the Brazilian Amazon region. Methods The study was conducted during the dry seasons in two regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The assay was carried out on buccal epithelial cells of 574 schoolchildren between 6-16 years old. Results The results show a significant difference between micronucleus frequencies in children exposed to biomass burning compared to those in a control area. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that in situ biomonitoring using a sensitive and low cost assay (buccal micronucleus assay) may be an important tool for monitoring air quality in remote regions. It is difficult to attribute the increase in micronuclei frequency observed in our study to any specific toxic element integrated in the particulate matters. However, the contribution of the present study lies in the evidence that increased exposure to fine particulate matter generates an increased micronuclei frequency in oral epithelial cells of schoolchildren. PMID:22400801

  11. Analyzing small data sets using Bayesian estimation: the case of posttraumatic stress symptoms following mechanical ventilation in burn survivors

    PubMed Central

    van de Schoot, Rens; Broere, Joris J.; Perryck, Koen H.; Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van Loey, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The analysis of small data sets in longitudinal studies can lead to power issues and often suffers from biased parameter values. These issues can be solved by using Bayesian estimation in conjunction with informative prior distributions. By means of a simulation study and an empirical example concerning posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following mechanical ventilation in burn survivors, we demonstrate the advantages and potential pitfalls of using Bayesian estimation. Methods First, we show how to specify prior distributions and by means of a sensitivity analysis we demonstrate how to check the exact influence of the prior (mis-) specification. Thereafter, we show by means of a simulation the situations in which the Bayesian approach outperforms the default, maximum likelihood and approach. Finally, we re-analyze empirical data on burn survivors which provided preliminary evidence of an aversive influence of a period of mechanical ventilation on the course of PTSS following burns. Results Not suprisingly, maximum likelihood estimation showed insufficient coverage as well as power with very small samples. Only when Bayesian analysis, in conjunction with informative priors, was used power increased to acceptable levels. As expected, we showed that the smaller the sample size the more the results rely on the prior specification. Conclusion We show that two issues often encountered during analysis of small samples, power and biased parameters, can be solved by including prior information into Bayesian analysis. We argue that the use of informative priors should always be reported together with a sensitivity analysis. PMID:25765534

  12. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  13. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  14. Own Experience From The Use Of A Substitute Of An Allogeneic Acellular Dermal Matrix Revitalized With In Vitro Cultured Skin Cells In Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Łabuś, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Glik, Justyna; Maj, Mariusz; Kitala, Diana; Misiuga, Marcelina; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kraut, Małgorzata; Nowak, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    As a result of the removal of cells from human allogeneic dermis, a collagen scaffold is obtained, which can be populated de novo with autologous/allogeneic skin cells and transplanted onto the area of skin loss. The optimal method for production of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) has been selected. Three female patients (a mean age of 54 years) were subjected to the transplantation of either autologous or allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts into the holes of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) mesh graft. The method for burn wound treatment based on the use of a viable dermal-epidermal skin substitute (based on ADM and in vitro cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes) may be the optimal method of burn treatment. PMID:26812752

  15. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  16. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    PubMed

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells combined with an artificial dermal substitute improve repair in full-thickness skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Dilmar; Oberdoerfer, Daniel; Fernandes, Marilda C; Meurer, Rosalva T; Pereira-Filho, Gustavo A; Cruz, Paloma; Vargas, Marcelo; Chem, Roberto C; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance B

    2012-12-01

    Autografts represent the gold standard for the treatment of full thickness burns. Factors such as lack of suitable donor sites and poor skin quality, however, have led to the development of artificial dermal substitutes. The investigation of mechanisms leading to enhanced functionality of these skin substitutes has been attracting great attention. This study aimed to investigate the effect of autologous stem cells on the integration and vascularization of a dermal substitute in full-thickness skin wounds, in a murine model. Two cell populations were compared, whole bone marrow cells and cultivated mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from mice transgenic for the enhanced green fluorescent protein, which allowed tracking of the transplanted cells. The number of cells colonizing the dermal substitute, as well as vascular density, were higher in mice receiving total bone marrow and particularly mesenchymal stem cells, than in control animals. The effect was more pronounced in animals treated with mesenchymal stem cells, which located primarily in the wound bed, suggesting a paracrine therapeutic mechanism. These results indicate that combining mesenchymal stem cells with artificial dermal substitutes may represent an important potential modality for treating full thickness burns, even in allogeneic combinations due to the immunoregulatory property of these cells. PMID:22998897

  18. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    PubMed

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  19. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  20. Hair follicle dermal stem cells regenerate the dermal sheath, repopulate the dermal papilla, and modulate hair type.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Waleed; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hagner, Andrew; Raharjo, Eko; Kumar, Ranjan; Hotta, Akitsu; Magness, Scott; Metzger, Daniel; Biernaskie, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) provide instructive signals required to activate epithelial progenitors and initiate hair follicle regeneration. DP cell numbers fluctuate over the hair cycle, and hair loss is associated with gradual depletion/atrophy of DP cells. How DP cell numbers are maintained in healthy follicles remains unclear. We performed in vivo fate mapping of adult hair follicle dermal sheath (DS) cells to determine their lineage relationship with DP and found that a subset of DS cells are retained following each hair cycle, exhibit self-renewal, and repopulate the DS and the DP with new cells. Ablating these hair follicle dermal stem cells and their progeny retarded hair regrowth and altered hair type specification, suggesting that they function to modulate normal DP function. This work identifies a bipotent stem cell within the adult hair follicle mesenchyme and has important implications toward restoration of hair growth after injury, disease, and aging. PMID:25465495

  1. Biomass burning influences on atmospheric composition: A case study to assess the impact of aerosol data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keslake, Tim; Chipperfield, Martyn; Mann, Graham; Flemming, Johannes; Remy, Sam; Dhomse, Sandip; Morgan, Will

    2016-04-01

    The C-IFS (Composition Integrated Forecast System) developed under the MACC series of projects and to be continued under the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring System, provides global operational forecasts and re-analyses of atmospheric composition at high spatial resolution (T255, ~80km). Currently there are 2 aerosol schemes implemented within C-IFS, a mass-based scheme with externally mixed particle types and an aerosol microphysics scheme (GLOMAP-mode). The simpler mass-based scheme is the current operational system, also used in the existing system to assimilate satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) for improved forecast capability. The microphysical GLOMAP scheme has now been implemented and evaluated in the latest C-IFS cycle alongside the mass-based scheme. The upgrade to the microphysical scheme provides for higher fidelity aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, accounting for global variations in size distribution and mixing state, and additional aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. The new scheme will also provide increased aerosol information when used as lateral boundary conditions for regional air quality models. Here we present a series of experiments highlighting the influence and accuracy of the two different aerosol schemes and the impact of MODIS AOD assimilation. In particular, we focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on aerosol properties in the Amazon, comparing to ground-based and aircraft observations from the 2012 SAMBBA campaign. Biomass burning can affect regional air quality, human health, regional weather and the local energy budget. Tropical biomass burning generates particles primarily composed of particulate organic matter (POM) and black carbon (BC), the local ratio of these two different constituents often determining the properties and subsequent impacts of the aerosol particles. Therefore, the model's ability to capture the concentrations of these two

  2. Viscoelastic, physical, and bio-degradable properties of dermal scaffolds and related cell behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vaibhav; Patel, Nimesha; Kohli, Nupur; Ravindran, Nivedita; Hook, Lilian; Mason, Chris; García-Gareta, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Dermal scaffolds promote healing of debilitating skin injuries caused by burns and chronic skin conditions. Currently available products present disadvantages and therefore, there is still a clinical need for developing new dermal substitutes. This study aimed at comparing the viscoelastic, physical and bio-degradable properties of two dermal scaffolds, the collagen-based and clinically well established Integra(®) and a novel fibrin-based dermal scaffold developed at our laboratory called Smart Matrix(®), to further evaluate our previous published findings that suggested a higher influx of cells, reduced wound contraction and less scarring for Smart Matrix(®) when used in vivo. Rheological results showed that Integra(®) (G'  =  313.74 kPa) is mechanically stronger than Smart Matrix(®) (G'  =  8.26 kPa), due to the presence of the silicone backing layer in Integra(®). Micro-pores were observed on both dermal scaffolds, although nano-pores as well as densely packed nano-fibres were only observed for Smart Matrix(®). Average surface roughness was higher for Smart Matrix(®) (Sa  =  114.776 nm) than for Integra(®) (Sa  =  75.565 nm). Both scaffolds possess a highly porous structure (80-90%) and display a range of pore micro-sizes that represent the actual in vivo scenario. In vitro proteolytic bio-degradation suggested that Smart Matrix(®) would degrade faster upon implantation in vivo than Integra(®). For both scaffolds, the enzymatic digestion occurs via bulk degradation. These observed differences could affect cell behaviour on both scaffolds. Our results suggest that fine-tuning of scaffolds' viscoelastic, physical and bio-degradable properties can maximise cell behaviour in terms of attachment, proliferation and infiltration, which are essential for tissue repair. PMID:27586397

  3. Polarized Microscopy in Lesions With Altered Dermal Collagen.

    PubMed

    Elbendary, Amira; Valdebran, Manuel; Parikh, Kruti; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in dermal collagen are noted in dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, hypertrophic scars, and keloids. The authors sought to determine whether variations in birefringence of collagen by polarized microscopy could be of help in diagnosing such conditions. Representative hematoxylin and eosin sections of 400 cases, including dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, hypertrophic scars, keloid, morphea, and lichen sclerosus, were examined under polarized microscopy. Distinct patterns of birefringence of collagen for each disease were noted under polarized microscopy. This study highlights the use of polarized microscopy as adjunctive tool in differentiating different diseases with collagen alteration. PMID:26959692

  4. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.

    2014-11-01

    Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Time-series regression was applied to MODIS fire products at variable spatial scales in GIS. Significance of change in fire frequency at each grid level was tested using t statistic. Spatial clustering of higher or lower fire incidences across study area was determined using Getis-OrdGi statistic. Maximum fire incidences were encountered in moist mixed deciduous forests (46%) followed by secondary moist bamboo brakes (30%). In most parts of the study area fire incidences peaked during March while in warmer parts (e.g. Mon district dominated by indigenous people) fire activity starts as early as during November and peaks in January. Regression trend analysis captured noticeable areas with statistically significant positive (e.g. Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon, Tuensang and Kiphire districts) and negative (e.g. Kohima and north-western part of Mokokchung district) inter-annual fire frequency trends based on area-based aggregation of fire occurrences at different grid sizes. Localization of spatial clusters of high fire incidences was observed in Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon,Tuensang and Kiphire districts.

  5. Burns caused by carburetors.

    PubMed

    Still, Joseph; Law, Edward; Orlet, Hermann; Wilson, Joan

    2003-01-01

    During a 10-year period 4645 patients were admitted to the Joseph M. Still Burn Center with acute burns. Of these, 83 (1.79%) were caused by carburetor-related accidents. There were 79 males and 4 females. Ages ranged from 10 to 72 years. Burn size ranged from 1 to 97.5% (mean, 12.3%). There was one death in the group. Eighteen patients required only topical care; 65 patients required a total of 108 operations for debridement and grafting. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 63 days (mean, 11 days). The mechanism of injury was usually the same; in 81 cases the accident occurred while someone was pouring gasoline into a carburetor. In 63 cases the vehicle was an automobile or pickup truck. Explosions resulted in 12 instances; in 65 instances fires were started. These injuries are serious, expensive, fairly common, and may be life threatening. Proper handling of gasoline is stressed. Newer vehicles have fuel injector systems, which may gradually eliminate the problem over time, because pouring gasoline is not required. PMID:12543992

  6. Superthin Abdominal Wall Glove-Like Flap Combined With Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy for Soft Tissue Reconstruction in Severely Burned Hands or With Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Qiu, Le; Ma, Ben; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong-Jie; Peszel, April; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Severe burn and infection to hands always involves the deep structures, such as tendons, joints, and bones. These wounds cannot be closed immediately and therefore creates a high risk for complication. We presented 9 cases with deep dermal burns to the dorsal of the hand (6 electrical burns and 3 thermal crush injuries) with wound infections in 2 cases. The vacuum-assisted closure system was used continuously until the flap reconstruction was performed. A random pattern and superthin abdominal wall skin flap-like glove was designed. The flap was transferred to the defected portion of the dorsum of the hand and resected from the abdominal wall about 3 weeks later. The flaps in 8 of the patients treated by this technique survived completely and partial necrosis of the distal flap occurred in 1 patient. The defect resolved after operative treatment and the function of the hands and fingers were successfully salvaged. All patients resulted in having a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no or minor discomfort at the abdominal donor area. Integration of the vacuum-assisted closure system and the superthin abdominal wall glove-like flap reconstruction appeared to be successful and should be considered in patients with severely burned hands. PMID:26418768

  7. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  8. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  9. Burns and beauty nails

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  10. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  11. [Pediatric Patient with anaerobic Bacterial Meningitis Who was Infected through a Spinal Congenital Dermal Sinus Route].

    PubMed

    Okui, Hideyuki; Fukasawa, Chie; Tokutake, Shoko; Takei, Haruka; Sato, Junichi; Hoshino, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    We report the case of a pediatric patient in whom a spinal congenital dermal sinus was detected after the onset of anaerobic bacterial meningitis. The patient was a 4-month-old boy. He had a recurrent fever for 2 weeks before admission. On admission, he presented with a convulsive status and a bulging anterior fontanel. The previously consulted physician had made a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Spinal fluid cultures tested positive for Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a spinal subdural abscess and cranial subdural hydrops; therefore, the patient was transported to our hospital for surgical treatment. A sacral dimple was noted on his lower back, and an MRI showed a spinal congenital dermal sinus. Antimicrobial therapy, cranial subdural aspiration, dermal sinus excision, and drainage were performed. He was discharged on the 60th hospital day. When pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, Proteus sp. or anaerobic bacteria invade through a dermal sinus, it can result in meningitis. Involvement of a dermal sinus should be suspected when meningitis is caused by these pathogens or when recurrent meningitis occurs. PMID:27529968

  12. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  13. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans PMID:21321651

  14. Case Study: Videogame Distraction Reduces Behavioral Distress in a Preschool-Aged Child Undergoing Repeated Burn Dressing Changes: A Single-Subject Design

    PubMed Central

    Sil, Soumitri; Burns, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. Method A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child’s distress and cooperative behavior. Results Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Conclusions Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures. PMID:23248343

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  16. Scald Burns From Hair Braiding.

    PubMed

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Ramaley, Stephen R; Ray, Juliet J; Allen, Casey J; Guarch, Gerardo A; Varas, Robin; Teisch, Laura F; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Only one previous case report has described scald burns secondary to hair braiding in pediatric patients. The present case study is the largest to date of scald burns as a result of hair braiding in children and adults. Charts of all 1609 female patients seen at a single burn center from 2008 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with scald burns attributed to hair braiding. Demographics, injury severity, injury patterns, and complications were analyzed. Twenty-six patients (1.6%) had scald burns secondary to hair braiding with median TBSA 3%. Eighty-five percent of patients were pediatric with median age 8 years. Injury patterns were as follows: back (62%), shoulder (31%), chest (15%), buttocks (15%), abdomen (12%), arms (12%), neck (12%), and legs (4%). No patients required operative intervention. Three patients were admitted to the hospital. Two patients required time off from school for 6 and 10 days post burn for recovery. Complications included functional limitations (n = 2), hypertrophic scarring (n = 1), cellulitis requiring antibiotics (n = 1), and anxiety requiring medical/psychological therapy (n = 2). This peculiar mechanism of injury not only carries inherent morbidity that includes the risks of functional limitations, infection, and psychological repercussions but also increases usage of resources through hospital admissions and multiple clinic visits. Further work in the form of targeted outreach programs is necessary to educate the community regarding this preventable mechanism of injury. PMID:26594857

  17. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases. PMID:21867365

  18. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease.

    PubMed

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process. PMID:23326202

  19. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    PubMed Central

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process. PMID:23326202

  20. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    PubMed

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn. PMID:19692919

  1. Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Developing in Miltefosine-Treated Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Choudhary, Sanjiv; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya

    2013-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an unusual dermatosis occurring following an attack of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). There are only few reports of PKDL after successful treatment with miltefosine. We report two cases of PKDL that developed after successful treatment of VL with miltefosine. PMID:23723490

  2. Repair of a Gingival Fenestration Using an Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft.

    PubMed

    Breault, Lawrence G; Brentson, Raquel C; Fowler, Edward B; Bisch, Frederick C

    2016-01-01

    A case report illustrating the successful treatment of a gingival fenestration with an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allograft. After 2½ months of healing, the ADM was completely integrated into the soft tissues of the mandibular anterior gingiva with complete resolution of the gingival fenestration, resulting in excellent gingival esthetics. PMID:26874103

  3. Ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser treatment of porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shalu; Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus (PEODDN) is a rare, benign, cutaneous hamartoma. Approximately 45 cases of PEODDN have been reported, with little information regarding treatment. We report a patient with PEODDN treated successfully using an ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser. PMID:22339989

  4. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  5. LINKING DERMAL MODELING AND LOADING DATA TO PREDICT LONG-TERM DOSES FROM INTERMITTENT DERMAL CONTACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we assess dermal exposure and dose resulting from intermittent contact with residue-contaminated surfaces. These estimates require an understanding of (1) the quantitative relationship between exposure and absorbed dose; (2) the impact of intermittent exposure on ...

  6. Early burn wound excision and skin grafting postburn trauma restores in vivo neutrophil delivery to inflammatory lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Tchervenkov, J.I.; Epstein, M.D.; Silberstein, E.B.; Alexander, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of early vs delayed postburn wound excision and skin grafting on the in vivo neutrophil delivery to a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and a bacterial skin lesion (BSL). Male Lewis rats were presensitized to keyhole-limpet hemocyanin. Group 1 comprised sham controls. Groups 2 through 4 were given a 30% 3 degrees scald burn, but the burn wounds were excised, and skin was grafted on days 1, 3, and 7, respectively, after the burn. Group 5 comprised burn controls. Twelve days after burn trauma, all rats were injected at different intervals (during a 24-hour period) with a trio of intradermal injections of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin, Staphylococcus aureus 502A, and saline at different sites. In vivo neutrophil delivery to these dermal lesions was determined by injecting indium in 111 oxyquinoline-labeled neutrophils isolated from similarly treated groups of rats. Neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions was restored to normal by excision and skin grafting of the burn wound one day after burn trauma. Waiting three days after burn trauma to excise and skin graft the wound partially, but not completely, restored the in vivo neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions. Waiting one week to excise and skin graft a burn wound resulted in no improvement in neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL dermal lesions. It was concluded that burn wound excision and skin grafting immediately after burn trauma restored in vivo neutrophil delivery to a BSL and DTH dermal lesion. This may, in part, explain the beneficial effect of early aggressive burn wound debridement in patients with burn injuries.

  7. A Prospective Study Assessing Complication Rates and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Breast Reconstructions Using a Novel, Deep Dermal Human Acellular Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Michael M.; De Oliveira, Gildasio S.; Mayer, Kristen E.; Blough, Jordan T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The value proposition of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) taken from the deep dermis is that the allograft may be more porous, allowing for enhanced integration and revascularization. In turn, this characteristic may attenuate complications related to foreign body reactions, seromas, and infection. However, this is juxtaposed against the potential loss of allograft structural integrity, with subsequent risk of malposition and extrusion. Despite the active use of novel, deep dermal ADMs, the clinical outcomes of this new technology has not been well studied. Methods: This is a prospective study to evaluate surgical and patient-reported outcomes using a deep dermal ADM, FlexHD Pliable. Surgical outcomes and BREAST-Q patient-reported outcomes were evaluated postoperatively at 2- and 6-month time points. Results: Seventy-two breasts (41 patients) underwent reconstruction. Complication rate was 12.5%, including 2 hematomas and 7 flap necroses. One case of flap necrosis led to reconstructive failure. Notably, there were no cases of infection, seroma, or implant extrusion or malposition. Average BREAST-Q scores were satisfaction with outcome (70.13 ± 23.87), satisfaction with breasts (58.53 ± 20.00), psychosocial well being (67.97 ± 20.93), sexual well being (54.11 ± 27.72), and physical well being (70.45 ± 15.44). Two-month postoperative BREAST-Q scores decreased compared with baseline and returned to baseline by 6 months. Postoperative radiation therapy had a negative effect on satisfaction with breasts (P = 0.004) and sexual well being (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Deep dermal ADM is a novel modification of traditional allograft technology. Use of the deep dermal ADM yielded acceptably low complication rates and satisfactory patient-reported outcomes. PMID:26894010

  8. One world one burn rehabilitation standard.

    PubMed

    Serghiou, M A; Niszczak, J; Parry, I; Li-Tsang, C W P; Van den Kerckhove, E; Smailes, S; Edgar, D

    2016-08-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) burns are a huge global health problem resulting in death and devastation to those who survive large burns as they are faced with significant functional limitations that prevent purposeful and productive living. Members of the International Society for Burn Injuries (ISBI) Rehabilitation Committee conducted a needs assessment survey in order to characterize how burn rehabilitation is implemented worldwide and how the international burn rehabilitation community can help improve burn rehabilitation in identified geographic locations which need assistance in rehabilitating burn survivors successfully. The results of this survey indicated that poor and in some cases resource limited environments (RLEs) around the world seem to lack the financial, educational and material resources to conduct burn rehabilitation successfully. It appears that there are vast discrepancies in the areas of education, training and capacity to conduct research to improve the care of burn survivors as evidenced by the variation in responses between the RLEs and developed countries around the globe. In some cases, the problem is not knowledge, skill and ability to practice burn rehabilitation, but rather having the resources to do so due to financial difficulties. PMID:27161089

  9. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators. PMID:22551741

  10. Impact of crop field burning and mountains on heavy haze in the North China Plain: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Feng, Tian; Li, Nan; Zhao, Suyu; Tian, Jie; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    With the provincial statistical data and crop field burning (CFB) activities captured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), we extracted a detailed CFB emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP). The WRF-CHEM model was applied to investigate the impact of CFB on air pollution during the period from 6 to 12 October 2014, corresponding to a heavy haze incident with high concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm). The WRF-CHEM model generally performed well in simulating the surface species concentrations of PM2.5, O3 and NO2 compared to the observations; in addition, it reasonably reproduced the observed temporal variations of wind speed, wind direction and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH). It was found that the CFB that occurred in southern NCP (SNCP) had a significant effect on PM2.5 concentrations locally, causing a maximum of 34 % PM2.5 increase. Under continuous southerly wind conditions, the CFB pollution plume went through a long-range transport to northern NCP (NNCP; with several mega cities, including Beijing, the capital city of China), where few CFBs occurred, resulting in a maximum of 32 % PM2.5 increase. As a result, the heavy haze in Beijing was enhanced by the CFB, which occurred in SNCP. Mountains also play significant roles in enhancing the PM2.5 pollution in NNCP through the blocking effect. The mountains blocked and redirected the airflows, causing the pollutant accumulations along the foothills of mountains. This study suggests that the prohibition of CFB should be strict not only in or around Beijing, but also on the ulterior crop growth areas of SNCP. PM2.5 emissions in SNCP should be significantly limited in order to reduce the occurrences of heavy haze events in the NNCP region.