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Sample records for dermis acelular porcina

  1. Anterior Repair with Processed Dermis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Anterior Repair with Axis® Tutoplast® Processed Dermis and Digitex® - Performed by Dr. Manish Patel Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  2. Development of a terminally sterilised decellularised dermis.

    PubMed

    Hogg, P; Rooney, P; Leow-Dyke, S; Brown, C; Ingham, E; Kearney, J N

    2015-09-01

    Many of the decellularised dermis products on the market at present are aspectically produced. NHS Blood and Transplant Tissue Services have developed a method of producing a dCELL human dermis which has been terminally sterilised by gamma irradiation. The terminally sterilised decellularised dermis was compared with cellular tissue and examined for histology, residual DNA content, biomechanical and biochemical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo implantation in a mouse model. No alterations in morphology as viewed by light microscopy were observed and DNA removal was 99%. There were no significant changes in ultimate tensile stress or evidence for collagen denaturation or cytotoxicity. The in vivo studies did not indicate any adverse tissue reactions in the mouse model and demonstrated incorporation of dCELL human dermis into the host. Decellularisation, followed by terminal sterilisation with gamma irradiation, is an appropriate method to produce a human dermis allograft material suitable for transplantation. PMID:25341645

  3. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, K.; Sasaki, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-06-01

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications.

  4. Conductivities of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue at intermediate frequencies.

    PubMed

    Wake, K; Sasaki, K; Watanabe, S

    2016-06-21

    Novel data for the conductivities of the tissues composing the skin, which are the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, were obtained at intermediate frequencies by in vitro measurement. The conductivity of the epidermis was determined from those of the dermis and bulk skin. The conductivities of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue were almost constant from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. On the other hand, a frequency dependence was observed for the epidermis; the conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency. It was found that the conductivity of bulk skin is not determined by that of the dermis but by that of the epidermis. The presented data are expected to contribute to the assessment of safety and to the research and development of medical applications. PMID:27224275

  5. Recellularized human dermis for testing gene electrotransfer ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Bulysheva, Anna A; Burcus, Nina; Lundberg, Cathryn; Edelblute, Chelsea M; Francis, Michael P; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer (GET) is a proven and valuable tool for in vivo gene delivery to a variety of tissues such as skin, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and tumors, with controllable gene delivery and expression levels. Optimizing gene expression is a challenging hurdle in preclinical studies, particularly for skin indications, due to differences in electrical conductivity of animal compared to human dermis. Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop an ex vivo model for GET using recellularized human dermis to more closely mimic human skin. Decellularized human dermis (DermACELL(®)) was cultured with human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes for 4 weeks. After one week of fibroblast culture, fibroblasts infiltrated and dispersed throughout the dermis. Air-liquid interface culture led to epithelial cell proliferation, stratification and terminal differentiation with distinct basal, spinous, granular and cornified strata. Firefly luciferase expression kinetics were evaluated after GET of recellularized constructs for testing gene delivery parameters to skin in vitro. Elevated luciferase expression persisted up to a week following GET compared to controls without electrotransfer. In summary, recellularized dermis structurally and functionally resembled native human skin in tissue histological organization and homeostasis, proving an effective 3D human skin model for preclinical gene delivery studies. PMID:27121769

  6. Application of acellular dermis and autograft on burns and scars.

    PubMed

    Ramos Duron, L E; Martínez Pardo, M E; Olivera Zavaleta, V; Silva Diaz, T; Reyes Frías, M L; Luna Zaragoza, D

    1999-01-01

    The cases of two patients with burns treated with dermis allograft and of one patient for lip reconstructive aesthetic filling treated with less than one mm3 of radiosterilised acellular dermis are presented. This paper emphasizes the treatment with radiosterilised dermal grafts with a permanent character so far. Hospitals, therefore, can satisfy the demand for this kind of tissue in the case of disaster and patients with serious injuries. In the cases cited, histocompatibility analysis was not required, thus having the advantage of long-time storage of the radiosterilised dermis used on these patients. Neither inflammatory reaction nor acute phase re-absorption were observed. Moreover, shrink (contract) healing was diminished. After two years, the results are still satisfactory. PMID:10853787

  7. Facial dermis grafts after removal of basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Kyu; Yoon, Won-Young; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2012-11-01

    Selecting a proper reconstruction method is the key to success in skin cancer management, especially for lesions involving the face. Using a skin graft is usually straightforward when covering a skin defect; however, major concerns in skin grafting include a poor color match in the recipient-site and donor-site morbidity. To overcome these limitations, the authors have developed a dermis graft, which utilizes a de-epithelialized split-thickness skin graft method. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report reliability of dermis grafts after removal of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) on the face by presenting our clinical experience with them. This study included 38 patients who were treated for facial defects created by resection of BCCs. The locations of the defects were as follows: nose (n = 17), orbital area (n = 14), cheek (n = 4), temple area (n = 2), and forehead (n = 1). The defects ranged in size from 3.3 to 6.5 cm. Functional and cosmetic outcomes, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction were assessed. The patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months. The entire dermis graft re-epithelialized after grafting within 17 to 27 days. Most of the patients had satisfactory results in both functional and cosmetic matters with high-quality skin characteristics. There were no significant complications and no recurrences were observed during the follow-up period. Patient satisfaction with the dermis graft was also excellent. The dermis graft may be used reliably for covering defects after removal of BCCs on the face. PMID:23172436

  8. Age-related changes in angiogenesis in human dermis.

    PubMed

    Gunin, Andrei G; Petrov, Vadim V; Golubtzova, Natalia N; Vasilieva, Olga V; Kornilova, Natalia K

    2014-07-01

    Present research is aimed to examine the number of dermal blood vessels, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), delta-like ligand 4(Dll4) and Jagged-1 (Jag-1) in dermal blood vessels of human from 20weeks of pregnancy to 85years old. Numbers and proliferative activity of dermal fibroblast-like cells were also examined. Blood vessels were viewed with immunohistochemical staining for von Willebrand factor or CD31. VEGF, Dll4, Jag-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected immunohistochemically. Results showed that the numbers of fibroblast-like cells, PCNA positive fibroblast-like cells, von Willebrand factor positive or CD31 positive blood vessels in dermis are dramatically decreased with age. The intensity of immunohistochemical staining for VEGF or Jag-1 in blood vessels of dermis is increased from antenatal to deep old period. The degree of immunohistochemical staining of dermal blood vessels for Dll4 has gone up from 20-40weeks of pregnancy to early life period (0-20years), and further decreased below antenatal values. Age-related decrease in the number of dermal blood vessels is suggested to be due to an impairment of VEGF signaling and to be mediated by Dll4 and Jag-1. It may be supposed that diminishing in blood supply of dermis occurring with age is a cause of a decrease in the number and proliferative pool of dermal fibroblasts. PMID:24768823

  9. Actin filaments in normal dermis and during wound healing.

    PubMed Central

    Doillon, C. J.; Hembry, R. M.; Ehrlich, H. P.; Burke, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    During wound healing, it has been suggested, modified fibroblasts rich in actin filaments are responsible for wound contraction. With the use of specific fluorescent probe (NBD-phallacidin), the distribution of actin filaments are compared in normal dermis and in several wound contraction models, including open and burn wounds and full and thin-thickness skin autografts. Fibroblasts of normal dermis are slightly stained with NBD-phallacidin. Fibroblasts with actin filaments are increased in autografts, particularly at Days 15 and 21 after grafting, and are prominent in open and burn wounds. The wound contraction rate is not directly related to the presence of actin-staining fibroblasts. After stabilization of the contraction of open or burn wounds, fibroblasts rich in actin filaments remain. The superficial layer of full-thickness skin graft contains a similar actin distribution without concomitant contraction. It is concluded that the distribution of actin-rich fibroblasts corresponds morphologically to previous areas of necrosis or injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3544851

  10. Indications and results in anophthalmic socket reconstruction using dermis-fat graft

    PubMed Central

    Aryasit, Orapan; Preechawai, Passorn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present the indications for a dermis-fat graft in anophthalmic socket reconstruction and evaluate the results of this procedure. Design Retrospective review, interventional case series. Methods In our study, there were 41 patients who received either primary or secondary dermis-fat graft between August 1, 2007 and July 31, 2012 at Songklanagarind Hospital. Results The type of dermis-fat graft used in our study consisted of both primary dermis-fat grafts (6/41) and secondary dermis-fat grafts (35/41). The major indications for dermis-fat graft were exposure (13/41), extrusion (11/41), and volume insufficiency with a shallow fornix (10/41), which accounted for 82.9% of the total cases. A total of 30 patients were able to wear the eye prosthesis over a mean follow-up time of 32.3±19.0 months. The success rate of the dermis-fat graft alone was 73.3%, while that of the simultaneous dermis-fat graft and mucous-membrane graft was 25%. Conclusion The most common indications for a dermis-fat graft were extrusion and large exposure. Dermis-fat graft is an alternative implant type in complicated enucleation/evisceration patients, which has a good success rate. PMID:25999688

  11. Orbital dermis-fat graft using periumbilical tissue.

    PubMed

    Bonavolontà, G; Tranfa, F; Salicone, A; Strianese, D

    2000-01-01

    Dermis-fat grafts are currently used in orbital reconstruction in a variety of procedures. The most frequent harvesting site is the gluteal area. However, we encountered some patients with anophthalmic socket who wished to avoid a visible scar on the buttock. In this article, we describe the effort to offer the patient an alternative donor site. Of the last 36 patients with anophthalmic socket who needed a dermal fat implant, 11 wished to avoid a visible scar on the buttock. To satisfy their requests we have endeavored to harvest the dermis graft from the periumbilical area. The rate of absorption, the motility, and the satisfaction of the patients were used as outcome measures and were analyzed carefully. Of 11 patients, 4 were women and 7 were men. The ages of these patients ranged from 24 to 56. The maximum follow-up was 137 months and the minimum 22 months, with a mean follow-up of 79 months. Some degree of absorption of the graft developed in one patient who had a severe absorption and required further operation. Of 11 cases, there were 7 with excellent motility, 3 with good motility, and 1 not evaluated. The motility was measured with the final prosthesis. The results for all patients were satisfactory. The periumbilical area has sufficient concentration of subdermal fat, and it is a relatively hair-free region as the lateral quadrant of the buttock. This area is a suitable alternative donor site of dermal fat implant for anophthalmic socket, especially in young women. PMID:10626965

  12. Imaging of matrix-disorder in normal and pathological human dermis using nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Xie, Shusen; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan

    2009-11-01

    In dermis, collagen and elastin are important structural proteins of extracellular maxtrix. The matrix-disorder is associated with various physiologic processes, such as localized scleroderma, anetoderma, photoaging. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of nonlinear optical microscopy in imaging structural proteins in normal and pathological human dermis.

  13. Isolation and characterization of multipotent cells from human fetal dermis.

    PubMed

    Chinnici, Cinzia Maria; Amico, Giandomenico; Monti, Marcello; Motta, Stefania; Casalone, Rosario; Petri, Sergio Li; Spada, Marco; Gridelli, Bruno; Conaldi, Pier Giulio

    2014-01-01

    We report that cells from human fetal dermis, termed here multipotent fetal dermal cells, can be isolated with high efficiency by using a nonenzymatic, cell outgrowth method. The resulting cell population was consistent with the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. As multipotent fetal dermal cells proliferate extensively, with no loss of multilineage differentiation potential up to passage 25, they may be an ideal source for cell therapy to repair damaged tissues and organs. Multipotent fetal dermal cells were not recognized as targets by T lymphocytes in vitro, thus supporting their feasibility for allogenic transplantation. Moreover, the expansion protocol did not affect the normal phenotype and karyotype of cells. When compared with adult dermal cells, fetal cells displayed several advantages, including a greater cellular yield after isolation, the ability to proliferate longer, and the retention of differentiation potential. Interestingly, multipotent fetal dermal cells expressed the pluripotency marker SSEA4 (90.56 ± 3.15% fetal vs. 10.5 ± 8.5% adult) and coexpressed mesenchymal and epithelial markers (>80% CD90(+)/CK18(+) cells), coexpression lacking in the adult counterparts isolated under the same conditions. Multipotent fetal dermal cells were able to form capillary structures, as well as differentiate into a simple epithelium in vitro, indicating skin regeneration capabilities. PMID:23768775

  14. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation ofpesticides through dermal contact is a primary route ofexposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributingto widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticidetransfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted labelapplication rates...

  15. In vitro uptake of calcium by dermis of patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S G; Subryan, V L; Solomons, C C; Lewis, B J; Neldner, K H

    1975-10-01

    The calcification of dermal elastic fibers is a characteristic feature of affected skin from patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). Punch biopsies of normal skin and of affected and unaffected skin from patients with PXE were obtained to study dermal calcification in vitro. Before incubation, the calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus content of normal and PXE unaffected dermis were similar and that of PXE affected dermis was significantly higher. Dermal samples were incubated for 2 and 4 days at 37 degrees C. in a calcium phosphate buffer and the Ca and P content were measured. After 4 days of incubation, both PXE affected and unaffected dermis took up significantly more Ca and PO4 than normal dermis. Thus in vitro uptake study could clearly distinguish between normal and PXE dermis. PXE is a disease of variable expression and mild or subclinical forms are difficult to diagnose. Dermal biopsies from clinicallu normal relatives of patients with PXE were obtained and the in vitro uptake of Ca and PO4 was measured. The results show that several of these individuals had elevated uptakes of Ca and PO4 similar to the unaffected dermis of the PXE patient. The results suggest that this test may be used as a diagnostic aid in the detection of individuals with mild forms of PXE and may be a genetic marker for PXE. PMID:1176814

  16. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-02-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis. PMID:26977361

  17. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis. PMID:26977361

  18. Isolation of human dermis derived mesenchymal stem cells using explants culture method: expansion and phenotypical characterization.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Ran; Kim, Eunjeong; Yang, Jungwon; Lee, Hanbyeol; Hong, Seok-Ho; Woo, Heung-Myong; Park, Sung-Min; Na, Sunghun; Yang, Se-Ran

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that stem cells can be isolated from a wide range of tissues including bone marrow, fatty tissue, adipose tissue and placenta. Moreover, several studies also suggest that skin dermis could serve as a source of stem cells, but are of unclear phenotype. Therefore, we isolated and investigated to determine the potential of stem cell within human skin dermis. We isolated cells from human dermis, termed here as human dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hDMSCs) which is able to be isolated by using explants culture method. Our method has an advantage over the enzymatic method as it is easier, less expensive and less cell damage. hDMSCs were maintained in basal culture media and proliferation potential was measured. hDMSCs were highly proliferative and successfully expanded with no additional growth factor. In addition, hDMSCs revealed normal karyotype and expressed high levels of CD90, CD73 and CD105 while did not express the surface markers for CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR. Also, we confirmed that hDMSCs possess the capacity to differentiate into multiple lineage including adipocyte, osteocyte, chondrocyte and precursor of hepatocyte lineage. Considering these results, we suggest that hDMSCs might be a valuable source of stem cells and could potentially be a useful source of clinical application. PMID:25163610

  19. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  20. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  1. Use of porcine dermis as a dural substitute in 72 patients.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P; Booth, A E

    1984-08-01

    Experience over a 2-year period with the use of porcine dermis as a dural substitute is reported. In this series, porcine dermis was used for dural repair in a total of 72 patients. In a further 28 patients, one of the authors (A.E.B.) used porcine dermis to wrap lumbar nerve roots at the time of surgery for either prolapsed intervertebral disc or extradural lumbar nerve root adhesions. The authors report the advantages of this material which include ready availability and low cost. It is extremely pliable, easy to handle, and can be applied to relatively inaccessible areas. It appears to become rapidly adherent so that suture fixation is frequently not required. No evidence of a foreign-body inflammatory response has been found. No untoward result has been encountered in the 28 patients in whom porcine dermis was used to wrap lumbar nerve roots but it remains too early to show whether this will reduce the incidence of postoperative extradural adhesions. PMID:6737060

  2. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Evaluation of an Acellular Dermis Tissue Transplant (Epiflex®)

    PubMed Central

    Hohenberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The structure of a biological scaffold is a major determinant of its biological characteristics and its interaction with cells. An acellular dermis tissue transplant must undergo a series of processing steps, to remove cells and genetic material and provide the sterility required for surgical use. During manufacturing and sterilization the structure and composition of tissue transplants may change. The composition of the human cell-free dermis transplant Epiflex® was investigated with specific attention paid to its structure, matrix composition, cellular content and biomechanics. We demonstrated that after processing, the structure of Epiflex remains almost unchanged with an intact collagen network and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition providing natural cell interactions. Although the ready to use transplant does contain some cellular and DNA debris, the processing procedure results in a total destruction of cells and active DNA which is a requirement for an immunologically inert and biologically safe substrate. Its biomechanical parameters do not change significantly during the processing. PMID:23056225

  3. A Case of Dedifferentiated LiposarcomaThat Developed in the Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Won; Choi, Hae Young

    2008-01-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma is a variant of liposarcoma, and this is characterized by the coexistence of well-differentiated liposarcoma with areas of poorly differentiated, non-lipogenic tumor and this is also known to be associated with more aggressive behavior. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma occurs principally in the retroperitoneum or the deep soft tissue of limbs, but it can also occur in subcutaneous locations. We report here on a peculiar case of dedifferentiated liposarcoma that developed in the dermis, which is an exceedingly rare location for this type of tumor. The occurrence of this tumor in the dermis made it easy to surgically remove and monitor for recurrence, and we expect this patient to have a better prognosis than that of a patient with dedifferentiated liposarcoma located in the retroperitoneum or deep soft tissue. PMID:27303193

  4. Reconstruction of Chopart’s Amputation Stump Using Artificial Dermis Combined with Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mari; Takeuchi, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A 63-year-old man dropped a metal chunk onto his left foot during his work and suffered a crush injury of the left forefoot. He underwent Chopart’s amputation followed by stump coverage with sole skin at the orthopedic department on the same day. He was referred to our department for reconstruction because of poor vascularization and subsequent necrosis of tissue at the stump. After the necrotic tissue was debrided, exposure of the talus bone was noted. An artificial dermis was then applied to the stump wound, followed by local negative pressure wound therapy. After 3 weeks, the generation of a strong dermis-like tissue was observed at the site of artificial dermis grafting. We then performed flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting to reconstruct the stump wound. This procedure involved suturing of the peroneal muscle group and tibialis anterior muscle, which were cut off during Chopart’s amputation, and suturing the soft tissue surrounding the calcaneus firmly to the fascia lata of the anterolateral thigh flap, followed by suturing of the flap to the skin defect of the left foot. There were neither postoperative complications, such as skin ulcer and equinus/varus deformity, nor need for secondary repair of the grafted flap, so the patient was able to smoothly enter a rehabilitation program including gait training. The current reconstruction technique for the tissue defect following Chopart’s amputation, consisting of artificial dermis grafting, negative pressure wound therapy, and flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting, enabled safe and smooth gait rehabilitation with a forefoot prosthesis. PMID:26893983

  5. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    A signal first arising in the dermis to initiate the development of hair follicles has been described for many decades. Wnt is the earliest signal known to be intimately involved in hair follicle induction. However, it is not clear whether the inductive signal of Wnt arises intradermally or intraepidermally. Whether Wnt acts as the first dermal signal to initiate hair follicle development also remains unclear. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177, the mouse Wls ortholog, is essential for hair follicle induction. Gpr177, encoding a multipass transmembrane protein, regulates Wnt sorting and secretion. Cell type-specific abrogation of the signal reveals that only epidermal, but not dermal, production of Wnt is required. An intraepidermal Wnt signal is necessary and sufficient for hair follicle initiation. However, the subsequent development depends on reciprocal signaling crosstalk of epidermal and dermal cells. Wnt signals within the epidermis and dermis and crossing between the epidermis and dermis have distinct roles and specific functions in skin development. This study not only defines the cell type responsible for Wnt production, but also reveals a highly dynamic regulation of Wnt signaling at different steps of hair follicle morphogenesis. Our findings uncover a mechanism underlying hair follicle development orchestrated by the Wnt pathway. PMID:23190887

  6. Conductivities of pig dermis and subcutaneous fat measured with rectangular pulse electrical current

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K. |; Tarjan, P.P.; Mertz, P.M.

    1996-12-31

    The authors examined experimentally the relationship between perpendicular and tangential electrical conductivities, {sigma}, and peak current density J, in pig skin dermis and subcutaneous fat specimens by using a four-electrode measuring system with rectangular pulse electrical current (RPEC). They also investigated the relationship of the conductivity, {sigma}, vs. pulse rate, f. The rates were selected at 8, 32, 64, and 128 pulses per second (pps), and the pulse width was fixed at 140 {micro}s. These values are often used in vivo to enhance cutaneous regeneration with RPEC stimulation. It was found that the conductivities may be approximated to be {sigma}{sub d} = [{sigma}{sub dx}{sigma}{sub dy}{sigma}{sub dz}] = [0.38 S/m 0.38 S/m 0.27 S/m] for the skin dermis and {sigma}{sub f} = [{sigma}{sub fx}{sigma}{sub fy}{sigma}{sub fz}] = [0.074 S/m 0.074 S/m 0.045 S/m] for the subcutaneous fat in the conditions of this experiment. These findings implies that the conductivities of the pig skin dermis and subcutaneous fat are anisotropic, i.e., {sigma}{sub x} = {sigma}{sub y} {ne} {sigma}{sub z}. It was also found that the conductivities are independent of current density and pulse rate in the current range from 20 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} to 120 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  7. Evaluation of a sunscreen photoprotective effect by ascorbic acid assessment in human dermis using microdialysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Nathalie; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Muret, Patrice; Makki, Safwat; Aubin, Francois; Kantelip, Jean-Pierre; Heusèle, Catherine; S, Schnebert; Humbert, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation causes adverse effects like sunburn, photosensitivity reactions or immunologic suppression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protective outcome of a sunscreen cream (SPF8) by the determination of erythema indexes and the assessment of ascorbic acid and its metabolites in human dermis. These substances were used as markers of oxidative effect. Eight healthy female subjects were enrolled in this study. Two abdominal areas were exposed to solar simulated irradiation with three minimal erythema dose, one with SPF8 application and the other site without SPF8 application. Two other areas were used as control, one without SPF8 application and the other site after SPF8 application. Ascorbic acid and its metabolites (dehydroascorbic acid, threonic acid, oxalic acid and xylose) were collected from human dermis by microdialysis and assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Irradiated site without sunscreen application had significantly demonstrated lower dermis ascorbic acid concentrations and a higher erythema index than the three other sites (P < 0.05). Threonic acid, oxalic acid and xylose dermis concentrations were significantly higher in site III than in the control site I (P < 0.05). The protected-irradiated site did not show erythema formation and there was stability of ascorbic acid dermis concentrations with non-variation in its metabolites. The assessment of ascorbic acid and its metabolites in human dermis could be an efficient tool to demonstrate the oxidative process and consequently to control the efficiency of sunscreen creams against undesirable UV effects. PMID:15740589

  8. Influence of the Dermis Thickness on the Results of the Skin Treatment with Monopolar and Bipolar Radiofrequency Currents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrically layered tissue structure significantly modifies distribution of radiofrequency (RF) current in the dermis and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue comparing to that in a homogeneous medium. On the basis of the simple model of RF current distribution in a two-layer skin containing dermis and subcutis, we assess the influence of the dermal thickness on the current density in different skin layers. Under other equal conditions, current density in the dermis is higher for the skin having thinner dermis. This contradicts the main paradigm of the RF theory stating that treatment results are mainly dependent on the maximal temperature reached in a target tissue, since the best short- and long-term clinical results of RF application to the skin were reported in the areas having thicker dermis. To resolve this contradiction, it is proposed that the long-term effect of RF can be realized through a structural modification of the subcutaneous fat depot adjacent to the treated skin area. Stimulation of these cells located near the interface dermis/subcutis will demand the concentration of applied RF energy in this area and will require the optimal arrangement of RF electrodes on the skin surface. PMID:27493952

  9. Discrimination of collagen in normal and pathological dermis through polarization second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hong, Jin-Bon; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Lin, Sung-Jan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    We used polarization-resolved, second harmonic generation (P-SHG) microscopy at single pixel resolution for medical diagnosis of pathological skin dermis, and found that P-SHG can be used to distinguish normal and dermal pathological conditions of keloid, morphea, and dermal elastolysis. We find that the histograms of the d33/d31 ratio for the pathological skins to contain two peak values and to be wider than that of the normal case, suggesting that the pathological dermal collagen fibers tend to be more structurally heterogeneous. Our work demonstrates that pixel-resolved, second-order susceptibility microscopy is effective for detecting heterogeneity in spatial distribution of collagen fibers.

  10. Characterization of skin dermis microcirculation in flow-mediated dilation using optical sensor with pressurization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Miwa, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Blood flows out of microvessels in the dermis when pressure higher than arterial blood pressure is applied to the fingertip, and subsequently re-flows into the microcirculation when pressure is released. Both the blood outflow and the reflow characteristics of microcirculation under pressurization are associated with microvasculature, blood and blood pressure. This study describes a novel method of measuring blood inflow and outflow characteristics of dermis microcirculation. An optical sensor, which is furnished with a 571 nm wavelength light source and a photodetector, is pressed to the skin surface using a pressure higher than the human subject's systolic arterial pressure. Hemoglobin concentration by change of the blood flow amount is estimated by the Beer-Lambert law. This method is applied to the measurement of blood inflow and outflow characteristics of microcirculation caused by reactive hyperemia after ischemia with duration of 5 min. Among three parameters evaluated, the one relating to the amplitude of pulsation shows a close correlation with conventional plethysmography, while the other two show varying time responses. Our method provides a new and useful insight into pathophysiology in health and disease conditions and may help researchers better understand the underlying mechanisms of numerous microcirculation-influenced diseases and medical conditions. PMID:23274949

  11. Three dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin nanocomposite fibrous matrix for artificial dermis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Min; Chae, Taesik; Sheikh, Faheem A; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Ye Ri; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-11-01

    Ideal dermal substitutes should have comparable physicochemical and biological properties to the natural skin tissue. In this study, we report a novel strategy to "engineer" controlled 3D nanocomposite fibrous matrix of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and silk fibroin (SF) for an artificial dermis application. Using a custom-designed cold-plate electrospinning and automatic magnet agitation system, up to 6mm of the thickness was achieved resulting from the accumulation of ice crystal layers on the PCL nanofibers surface-modified with the SF particles. The sacrificed ice crystals induced interconnected macro-pores ranging from tens to hundreds μm. The agitation system introduced uniform distribution of the SF protein within/on the nanofibers, preventing the particles from precipitation and agglomeration. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts proliferated in vitro on the PCL and PCL/SF scaffolds for 7days, but there was no statistical difference between the groups. Conversely, In vivo rat model studies revealed that the wound healing rate and collagen deposition increased with the SF content within the nanocomposites. The unique 3D construct with the PCL/SF nanocomposite fibers provided desirable spatial cues, surface topography, and surface chemistry for the native cells to infiltrate into the scaffolds. The wound healing potential of the nanocomposites was comparable to the commercial Matriderm® artificial dermis. PMID:27524077

  12. Prevention of ultraviolet damage to the dermis of hairless mice by sunscreens

    SciTech Connect

    Kligman, L.H.; Akin, F.J.; Kligman, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the ability of sunscreens to protect connective tissue from actinic damage, hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Each exposure, consisting mainly of UV-B and the less energetic UV-A, was approximately 6 human minimal erythema doses under these lights. One group of animals received irradiation only. The other 2 groups were treated, prior to irradiation, with sunscreens of either low or high sun protection factors (SPF 2 and SPF 15, respectively). Skin biopsies were taken at 10-week intervals and were stained with various histochemical stains to reveal changes in the dermis. The unprotected, irradiated animals showed a great increase in the following: reticulin fibers, elastic fibers to the extent of elastosis, neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides and melanin production. The SPF 15 sunscreen completely prevented these changes. The SPF 2 sunscreen was less effective. These effects were substantiated by ultrastructural examination of the tissues by electron microscopy. A surprising histologic finding was the repair capability of the dermis in the post-irradiation period.

  13. Iontophoresis successfully delivers dexamethasone sodium phosphate to dermis as measured by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Abhay; Stagni, Grazia; Cleary, Ann; Patel, Komal; Weiss, David S; Hagins, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    Despite its widespread and long term use, the effectiveness of iontophoresis to increase the delivery of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to quantitatively compare the DSP concentrations in dermis' dialysates in two delivery scenarios: with and without iontophoresis. Interstitial fluid concentrations were measured by cutaneous microdialysis. Passive and active iontophoresis were applied simultaneously on the skin of the forearm in eight healthy adult participants using each participant as his/her own control. The iontophoresis apparatus and procedures were identical to those used in common clinical practice. Iontophoresis electrodes were loaded with 2 mL of 4.4 mg/mL of preservative-free DSP solution. Electric current (4 mA) was applied for 20 min. Dialysate samples were collected for 2 h and analyzed for DSP and its active metabolite dexamethasone (DXM). Seven out of eight iontophoresis sites contained quantifiable levels of DSP and DXM, whereas none of the samples collected at the passive site contained either form of the drug. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that iontophoresis significantly (p < 0.0001) increases delivery of DSP to the dermis compared with passive delivery of the same, and that microdialysis can be used to monitor DSP delivery and DXM formation in skin. PMID:24338751

  14. Epidermal β-catenin activation remodels the dermis via paracrine signalling to distinct fibroblast lineages

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberger, Beate M.; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; Watt, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling expands the stem cell compartment and induces ectopic hair follicles (EFs). This is accompanied by extensive fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the underlying dermis. Here we show that epidermal Hedgehog (Hh) and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signalling mediate the dermal changes. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of these pathways prevents β-catenin-induced dermal reprogramming and EF formation. Epidermal Shh stimulates proliferation of the papillary fibroblast lineage, whereas TGF-β2 controls proliferation, differentiation and ECM production by reticular fibroblasts. Hh inhibitors do not affect TGF-β target gene expression in reticular fibroblasts, and TGF-β inhibition does not prevent Hh target gene induction in papillary fibroblasts. However, when Hh signalling is inhibited the reticular dermis does not respond to epidermal β-catenin activation. We conclude that the dermal response to epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling depends on distinct fibroblast lineages responding to different paracrine signals. PMID:26837596

  15. Epidermal β-catenin activation remodels the dermis via paracrine signalling to distinct fibroblast lineages.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, Beate M; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Sustained epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling expands the stem cell compartment and induces ectopic hair follicles (EFs). This is accompanied by extensive fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the underlying dermis. Here we show that epidermal Hedgehog (Hh) and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signalling mediate the dermal changes. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of these pathways prevents β-catenin-induced dermal reprogramming and EF formation. Epidermal Shh stimulates proliferation of the papillary fibroblast lineage, whereas TGF-β2 controls proliferation, differentiation and ECM production by reticular fibroblasts. Hh inhibitors do not affect TGF-β target gene expression in reticular fibroblasts, and TGF-β inhibition does not prevent Hh target gene induction in papillary fibroblasts. However, when Hh signalling is inhibited the reticular dermis does not respond to epidermal β-catenin activation. We conclude that the dermal response to epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling depends on distinct fibroblast lineages responding to different paracrine signals. PMID:26837596

  16. Influence of layered skin structure on the distribution of radiofrequency currents in dermis and subcutaneous fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.

    2015-12-01

    The layered structure of skin with multiple interfaces separating the skin layers having very different electrical characteristics significantly modifies the spatial distribution of radiofrequency (RF) current in the skin compared to that in a homogeneous medium. In this study we present the analytical solutions of Laplace's equation describing the current densities for a two-layer skin model with homogeneous single layers for the monopolar and bipolar configurations of RF electrodes. Then we analyze analytically and numerically the optimal distances between the RF electrodes providing the maximal current concentration in a given depth or in a given depths' interval under the skin surface. It is demonstrated that two main parameters which significantly define the optimization condition are the thickness of the dermis and the reflection coefficient of the current at the dermis/subcutis interface. According to this model, under physiological conditions, the surface under RF electrode collecting 50% of the current entering subcutis is 184 times larger than in homogeneous medium. Such redistribution of RF current will significantly reduce the local density of the current entering the fat tissue reducing the effect of its selective heating.

  17. Effects of argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers on epidermis, dermis, and venous vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Landthaler, M.; Haina, D.; Brunner, R.; Waidelich, W.; Braun-Falco, O.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the present study, which was performed at the dorsal aspects of the ears of guinea pigs, was to compare effects of different lasers on epidermis, dermis, and small venous vessels. Irradiations were performed with argon, dye, and Nd:YAG lasers. In the first series tissue repair processes were studied after argon laser application. Laser defects were excised after 1, 4, 8, and 14 days and were prepared for routine histological examination. The breadth of epidermal defect and extent of dermal coagulation and occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation were examined histologically. In a second series parameters of irradiation (ie, exposure time, laser power) of the three different lasers were changed systematically. Laser-induced morphological tissue changes could be best observed 24 hours after irradiation. Each of the lasers led to occlusion of vessels by thrombus formation and also coagulated epidermis and dermis. The extent of dermal and epidermal coagulation was less pronounced after dye laser application. Using short exposure times it was possible to reduce the extent of epidermal damage caused by argon and Nd:YAG lasers. Only 50-msec dye laser pulses led to intravascular thrombus formation without epidermal and dermal damage.

  18. Quantifying Depth of Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in the Dermis: Data from Clinical, Laboratory, and Ultrasound Settings.

    PubMed

    Micheels, Patrick; Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Vincent, Anne Grand; Portnova, Natalia; Diana, Marva Safa

    2016-04-01

    Although manufacturers' instructions for use of dermal fillers ordinarily direct injection in the superficial, mid or deep dermis, or, in some cases, the hypodermis (subcutis), the precise depth of injection may not always be for injectors. In this article, investigators report findings gathered from histopathology, ultrasound, "live" one on one training injections, as well as application of a mathematical formula for depth calculation of the various layers within the dermis. Areas of particular interest are the superficial reticular dermis and the mid dermis. Following the depth measurements detailed by Della Volpe et al in 2012, investigators compare and contrast their own depth findings of the various layers, arriving at the conclusion that the depth of the dermis is not as deep as had been previously assumed. The investigators also develop an argument for the appropriate angles of injection for placement of dermal filler into the various layers, demonstrating that the heretofore widely used angles of 30˚ and 45˚ are far more acute than required.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(4):483-490. PMID:27050704

  19. Imaging collagen remodeling and sensing transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolism in mouse dermis using multimode nonlinear optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Cao, Ning; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen; Xiong, Shuyuan

    2008-06-01

    Collagen remodeling and transplanted autologous fibroblast metabolic states in mouse dermis after cellular injection are investigated using multimode nonlinear optical imaging. Our findings show that the technique can image the progress of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis. It can also image transplanted autologous fibroblasts in their collagen matrix environment in the dermis, because of metabolic activity. It was also found that the approach can provide two-photon ratiometric redox fluorometry based on autologous fibroblast fluorescence from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme and oxidized flavoproteins for sensing the autologous fibroblast metabolic state. These results show that the multimode nonlinear optical imaging technique may have potential in a clinical setting as an in vivo diagnostic and monitoring system for cellular therapy in plastic surgery.

  20. Decellularized dermis in combination with cultivated keratinocytes in a short- and long-term animal experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, H; Stark, G B; Knam, F; Horch, R E; Föhn, M

    2008-01-01

    Decellularized human dermis as a potentially ideal scaffold for dermal substitution in severe burns was examined in a two-staged animal experiment. In an initial step, an in vitro generated composite graft consisting of human keratinocytes and decellularized dermis (AlloDerm) was transplanted onto nude mice in a short-term trial (n = 20, 14 days). Subsequently, a combined one-step grafting of full thickness wounds with both decellularized dermis (in part preincubated with fibroblasts) and cultivated autologous keratinocytes as a cell suspension in fibrin glue was done in a long-term porcine animal model (n = 10, 6 months). In both series, macroscopic wound healing was evaluated by planimetry. Histological investigations included morphological as well as immunohistochemical parameters. The short-term study showed both successful integration of the composite grafts and reduction of wound contraction compared with the control group (epithelial grafts). The long-term porcine study displayed reduced myofibroblast formation and contraction in the wounds that had been treated with fibroblast-preincubated dermis. After 4 weeks, a decline of the structural integrity of the dermal matrix could be noticed. The utility of decellularized dermis as template for both dermal reconstitution and keratinocyte delivery vehicle was shown. The closure of full thickness wounds by a single-step combination of an autologous keratinocyte fibrin sealant suspension and acellular dermis in a pig animal model could be shown. Incorporation of fibroblasts led to reduced wound contraction but could not prevent the loss of dermal integrity. The engineered 'skin' remained viable and stable over a period of 6 months. PMID:18181972

  1. Marginal characteristics of skin scarred dermis quantitatively extracted from multiphoton microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Chen, Jianxin; Lin, Bifang

    2010-11-01

    Multiphoton microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) was applied to examine the marginal regions at dermis of normal, atrophic and keloid scars. High-contrast, high-resolution image showed an obvious boundary at scar margin and different morphological patterns of collagen or elastin on the two sides. Since the degree of the morphological alteration between the two sides of boundary at scar margin was varied among different types of scars, alteration degree of SHG-to-TPEF index was defined as a quantitative indicator for discrimination. It will help to determine the most appropriate clinical treatment strategy for different types of scars and potentially monitor therapy in vivo.

  2. Influence of a skin status on the light interaction with dermis.

    PubMed

    Kamshilin, Alexei A; Mamontov, Oleg V; Koval, Vasily T; Zayats, Grigory A; Romashko, Roman V

    2015-11-01

    We present experimental evidence that the parameters of green light remitted from a human tissue in-vivo strongly depend on skin contact status. In case when the skin is free of any contact, simultaneous recording of imaging photoplethysmogram (iPPG) and electrocardiogram revealed that contactless iPPG fails in correct estimates of the heart rate in almost half of the cases. Meanwhile, the number of successful correlations between ECG and iPPG is significantly increased when the skin is in contact with a glass plate. These observations are in line with the recently proposed model in which pulsatile arteries deform the connective-tissue components of the dermis thus resulting in temporal modulation of the capillary density interacting with slightly penetrating light. PMID:26600998

  3. Influence of a skin status on the light interaction with dermis

    PubMed Central

    Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Mamontov, Oleg V.; Koval, Vasily T.; Zayats, Grigory A.; Romashko, Roman V.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence that the parameters of green light remitted from a human tissue in-vivo strongly depend on skin contact status. In case when the skin is free of any contact, simultaneous recording of imaging photoplethysmogram (iPPG) and electrocardiogram revealed that contactless iPPG fails in correct estimates of the heart rate in almost half of the cases. Meanwhile, the number of successful correlations between ECG and iPPG is significantly increased when the skin is in contact with a glass plate. These observations are in line with the recently proposed model in which pulsatile arteries deform the connective-tissue components of the dermis thus resulting in temporal modulation of the capillary density interacting with slightly penetrating light. PMID:26600998

  4. The Dermis as a Delivery Site of Trypanosoma brucei for Tsetse Flies

    PubMed Central

    Caljon, Guy; Van Reet, Nick; De Trez, Carl; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Pérez-Morga, David; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes. Parasite emigration from the dermal inoculation site resulted in detectable parasite levels in the draining lymph nodes within 18 hours and in the peripheral blood within 42 h. A subset of parasites remained and actively proliferated in the dermis. By initiating mixed infections with differentially labeled parasites, dermal parasites were unequivocally shown to arise from the initial inoculum and not from a re-invasion from the blood circulation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated intricate interactions of these skin-residing parasites with adipocytes in the connective tissue, entanglement by reticular fibers of the periadipocytic baskets and embedment between collagen bundles. Experimental transmission experiments combined with molecular parasite detection in blood fed flies provided evidence that dermal trypanosomes can be acquired from the inoculation site immediately after the initial transmission. High resolution thermographic imaging also revealed that intradermal parasite expansion induces elevated skin surface temperatures. Collectively, the dermis represents a delivery site of the highly infective metacyclic trypanosomes from which the host is systemically colonized and where a proliferative subpopulation remains that is physically constrained by intricate interactions with adipocytes and collagen fibrous structures. PMID:27441553

  5. Acute Cutaneous Wounds Treated with Human Decellularised Dermis Show Enhanced Angiogenesis during Healing

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Nicholas S.; Morris, Julie; Benatar, Brian; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of skin substitutes upon angiogenesis during wound healing is unclear. Objectives To compare the angiogenic response in acute cutaneous human wounds treated with autogenic, allogenic and xenogenic skin substitutes to those left to heal by secondary intention. Methods On day 0, four 5mm full-thickness punch biopsies were harvested from fifty healthy volunteers (sites 1-4). In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention (control), site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG), cadaveric decellularised dermis (DCD) was applied to site 3, whilst excised tissue was re-inserted into site 4 (autograft). Depending on study group allocation, healing tissue from sites 1-4 was excised on day 7, 14, 21 or 28. All specimens were bisected, with half used in histological and immunohistochemical evaluation whilst extracted RNA from the remainder enabled whole genome microarrays and qRT-PCR of highlighted angiogenesis-related genes. All wounds were serially imaged over 6 weeks using laser-doppler imaging and spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis. Results Inherent structural differences between skin substitutes influenced the distribution and organisation of capillary networks within regenerating dermis. Haemoglobin flux (p = 0.0035), oxyhaemoglobin concentration (p = 0.0005), and vessel number derived from CD31-based immunohistochemistry (p = 0.046) were significantly greater in DCD wounds at later time points. This correlated with time-matched increases in mRNA expression of membrane-type 6 matrix metalloproteinase (MT6-MMP) (p = 0.021) and prokineticin 2 (PROK2) (p = 0.004). Conclusion Corroborating evidence from invasive and non-invasive modalities demonstrated that treatment with DCD resulted in increased angiogenesis after wounding. Significantly elevated mRNA expression of pro-angiogenic PROK2 and extracellular matrix protease MT6-MMP seen only in the DCD group may contribute to observed responses. PMID:25602294

  6. Injury-Driven Stiffening of the Dermis Expedites Skin Carcinoma Progression.

    PubMed

    Mittapalli, Venugopal R; Madl, Josef; Löffek, Stefanie; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Kern, Johannes S; Römer, Winfried; Nyström, Alexander; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2016-02-15

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a genetic skin fragility disorder characterized by injury-driven blister formation, progressive soft-tissue fibrosis, and a highly elevated risk of early-onset aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). However, the mechanisms underlying the unusually rapid progression of RDEB to cSCC are unknown. In this study, we investigated the contribution of injury-induced skin alterations to cSCC development by using a genetic model of RDEB and organotypic skin cultures. Analysis of RDEB patient samples suggested that premalignant changes to the dermal microenvironment drive tumor progression, which led us to subject a collagen VII hypomorphic mouse model of RDEB to chemical carcinogenesis. Carcinogen-treated RDEB mice developed invasive tumors phenocopying human RDEB-cSCC, whereas wild-type mice formed papillomas, indicating that the aggressiveness of RDEB-cSCC is mutation-independent. The inherent structural instability of the RDEB dermis, combined with repeated injury, increased the bioavailability of TGFβ, which promoted extracellular matrix production, cross-linking, thickening of dermal fibrils, and tissue stiffening. The biophysically altered dermis increased myofibroblast activity and integrin β1/pFAK/pAKT mechanosignaling in tumor cells, further demonstrating that cSCC progression is governed by pre-existing injury-driven changes in the RDEB tissue microenvironment. Treatment of three-dimensional organotypic RDEB skin cultures with inhibitors of TGFβ signaling, lysyl oxidase, or integrin β1-mediated mechanosignaling reduced or bypassed tissue stiffness and limited tumor cell invasion. Collectively, these findings provide a new mechanism by which RDEB tissue becomes malignant and offer new druggable therapeutic targets to prevent cSCC onset. Cancer Res; 76(4); 940-51. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26676755

  7. The Dermis as a Delivery Site of Trypanosoma brucei for Tsetse Flies.

    PubMed

    Caljon, Guy; Van Reet, Nick; De Trez, Carl; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Pérez-Morga, David; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes. Parasite emigration from the dermal inoculation site resulted in detectable parasite levels in the draining lymph nodes within 18 hours and in the peripheral blood within 42 h. A subset of parasites remained and actively proliferated in the dermis. By initiating mixed infections with differentially labeled parasites, dermal parasites were unequivocally shown to arise from the initial inoculum and not from a re-invasion from the blood circulation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated intricate interactions of these skin-residing parasites with adipocytes in the connective tissue, entanglement by reticular fibers of the periadipocytic baskets and embedment between collagen bundles. Experimental transmission experiments combined with molecular parasite detection in blood fed flies provided evidence that dermal trypanosomes can be acquired from the inoculation site immediately after the initial transmission. High resolution thermographic imaging also revealed that intradermal parasite expansion induces elevated skin surface temperatures. Collectively, the dermis represents a delivery site of the highly infective metacyclic trypanosomes from which the host is systemically colonized and where a proliferative subpopulation remains that is physically constrained by intricate interactions with adipocytes and collagen fibrous structures. PMID:27441553

  8. PDGF signaling in the dermis and in dermal condensates is dispensable for hair follicle induction and formation

    PubMed Central

    Rezza, Amélie; Sennett, Rachel; Tanguy, Manon; Clavel, Carlos; Rendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle (HF) induction and formation is dependent on signaling crosstalk between the dermis and specialized dermal condensates on the mesenchymal side and epidermal cells and incipient placodes on the epithelial side, but the precise nature and succession of signals remain unclear. Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) signaling is involved in the development of several organs and the maintenance of adult tissues, including HF regeneration in the hair cycle. As both PDGF receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ, are expressed in embryonic dermis and dermal condensates, we explored in this study the role of PDGF signaling in HF induction and formation in the developing skin mesenchyme. We conditionally ablated both PDGF receptors with Tbx18Cre in early dermal condensates before follicle formation, and with Prx1-Cre broadly in the ventral dermis prior to HF induction. In both PDGFR double mutants, HF induction and formation ensued normally, and the pattern of HF formation and HF numbers were unaffected. These data demonstrate that mesenchymal PDGF signaling, either in the specialized niche or broadly in the dermis, is dispensable for HF induction and formation. PMID:25708924

  9. Monocyte Recruitment to the Dermis and Differentiation to Dendritic Cells Increases the Targets for Dengue Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Michael A.; Harris, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. Although Aedes mosquitoes transmit DENV when probing for blood in the skin, no information exists on DENV infection and immune response in the dermis, where the blood vessels are found. DENV suppresses the interferon response, replicates, and causes disease in humans but not wild-type mice. Here, we used mice lacking the interferon-α/β receptor (Ifnar–/–), which had normal cell populations in the skin and were susceptible to intradermal DENV infection, to investigate the dynamics of early DENV infection of immune cells in the skin. CD103+ classical dendritic cells (cDCs), Ly6C– CD11b+ cDCs, and macrophages in the steady-state dermis were initial targets of DENV infection 12-24 hours post-inoculation but then decreased in frequency. We demonstrated recruitment of adoptively-transferred Ly6Chigh monocytes from wild-type and Ifnar–/– origin to the DENV-infected dermis and differentiation to Ly6C+ CD11b+ monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), which became DENV-infected after 48 hours, and were then the major targets for virus replication. Ly6Chigh monocytes that entered the DENV-infected dermis expressed chemokine receptor CCR2, likely mediating recruitment. Further, we show that ∼100-fold more hematopoietic cells in the dermis were DENV-infected compared to Langerhans cells in the epidermis. Overall, these results identify the dermis as the main site of early DENV replication and show that DENV infection in the skin occurs in two waves: initial infection of resident cDCs and macrophages, followed by infection of monocytes and moDCs that are recruited to the dermis. Our study reveals a novel viral strategy of exploiting monocyte recruitment to increase the number of targets for infection at the site of invasion in the skin and highlights the skin as a potential site for therapeutic action or intradermal vaccination. PMID:25474197

  10. Effect of dynamic seeding methods on the distribution of fibroblasts within human acellular dermis.

    PubMed

    Vitacolonna, Mario; Belharazem, Djeda; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare different dynamic cell seeding methods regarding their seeding efficiency, homogeneity, infiltration depth and proliferation within a human acellular dermis. In addition, the growth behaviour was observed during a 12-day static in vitro culture. The dynamic methods included orbital-shaker seeding and the use of a plate centrifuge with different rotational speeds, combinations of low-pressure for matrix degassing and centrifugal seeding. Scaffolds were incubated for up to 12 days statically. Cell distribution and infiltration depth were analysed histologically at days 0, 4, 8 and 12. Seeding efficiency and cell proliferation were quantified with the MTT-assay at the same time points. Centrifugal seeding with 300g for 5 × 1 min combined with matrix degassing significantly increased the seeding efficiency and homogeneity compared to the other methods. However, following static culture, no cells were detectable after 4 days in the inner matrix zones. Furthermore, none of the degassing+centrifugation groups reached a significantly higher proliferation at day 8 compared to the reference. The use of a single dynamic method resulted in an inefficient cell seeding. We archived the highest seeding efficiency, homogeneity and infiltration depth using a combination of degassing+centrifugation at 300g for 5 × 1 min. PMID:25795264

  11. Comparison of divided sciatic nerve growth within dermis, venous and nerve graft conduit in rat

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Foroutan, Kamal Seyed; Ashtiani, Abass Kazemi; Mansoori, Maryam Jafari; Vaghardoost, Reza; Pedram, Sepehr; Hosseinpolli, Aidin; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considering the common origin of skin and peripheral nervous system, a tube of dermal layer of skin hypothetically can be an ideal conduit for nerve reconstruction. An experimental study performed to evaluate the nerve regeneration of efficacy into a dermal tube. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were used. A 10 mm gap was produced in right sciatic nerves. In group A the autogenous nerve grafts were used to bridge the defects. In group B vein conduit were use to reconstruct the gaps. In group C dermal tube were used to bridge the defects. Morphologic studies were carried out after 3 month. RESULTS: The density of nerve fibers was significantly higher in autogenous nerve graft group. The efficacy of nerve growth into the dermal tube group was significantly poor in comparison to other groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, dermis was used as the nerve conduit for the first time. This study indicates that the dermal tube is not a suitable conduit for nerve regeneration till further studies to resolve the problems before clinical application. PMID:21526083

  12. Biological Characterization and Pluripotent Identification of Sheep Dermis-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Peng; He, Xiaohong; Pu, Yabin; Zhang, Wenxiu; Zhang, Ping; Li, Changli; Guan, Weijun; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Yuehui

    2014-01-01

    Dermis-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (DMS/PCs) were a multipotential stem cell population, which has potential applications in the tissue damage repair and skin transplant. Although a large number of studies deal with the human DMS/PCs self-renewal and regulation, however, the study of livestock-derived DMS/PCs has rarely been reported. Here, sheep DMS/PCs were isolated from one-month-old sheep embryos and studied at the cellular and molecular level. And then the DMS/PCs biological characteristics were analysed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Experimental results showed that DMS/PCs could be expanded for 48 passages and the cells viability and hereditary character were steady. In addition, the DMS/PCs maker β-integrin, CD71, CD44, and CD73 were expressed positively through RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Passage 3 DMS/PCs were successfully induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and neurocytes, respectively. The above results suggest that DMS/PCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity but also have the potential to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and neurocytes. The study provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential clinical application. PMID:24949469

  13. The site of the bite: Leishmania interaction with macrophages, neutrophils and the extracellular matrix in the dermis.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Juliana Perrone; Saraiva, Elvira M; da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania spp., the causative agents of leishmaniasis, are intracellular parasites, transmitted to humans via the bite of their sand fly vectors. Once inoculated, the promastigotes are exposed to the dermis, which is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), growth factors and its resident cells. Promastigote forms are phagocytosed by macrophages recruited to the site of the sand fly bite, either directly or after interaction with neutrophils. Since Leishmania is an intracellular parasite, its interaction with the host ECM has been neglected as well as the immediate steps after the sand fly bite. However, promastigotes must overcome the obstacles presented by the dermis ECM in order to establish the infection. Thus, the study of the interaction between Leishmania promastigotes and ECM components as well as the earliest stages of infection are important steps to understand the establishment of the disease, and could contribute in the future to new drug developments towards leishmaniasis. PMID:27146515

  14. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Garrison, A Wayne; Cyterski, Mike; Purucker, S Thomas

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation of pesticides through dermal contact is a primary route of exposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributing to widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticide transfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted label application rates, our study was designed to measure pesticide body burdens after two simulated exposure scenarios. We compared direct exposures, where amphibians were present when spraying occurred, to indirect exposures, where amphibians were exposed to soils after pesticide application. During summer 2012, we reared barking (Hyla gratiosa) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) through 60-90 days post-metamorphosis at a United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory. We tested exposure for 8 h to five pesticide active ingredients (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, or pendimethalin) in glass aquaria lined with soil in the laboratory. We quantified total pesticide body burden and soil concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All individuals in both treatments had measurable body burdens at the end of the study. A randomized block design analysis of variance (n = 18) showed that body burdens (p = 0.03) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) (p = 0.01) were significantly greater in the direct overspray treatment relative to the indirect soil spray treatment for both species and tested pesticides. BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.16 and from 0.013 to 0.78 in the direct and indirect treatments, respectively. Our study shows dermal uptake for multiple pesticides from both direct spray and indirect soil exposures and provides empirical support for the degree to which terrestrial phase amphibians have higher body burdens after overspray pesticide exposure. PMID:26135301

  15. Electrostatic, elastic and hydration-dependent interactions in dermis influencing volume exclusion and macromolecular transport.

    PubMed

    Øien, Alf H; Wiig, Helge

    2016-07-01

    Interstitial exclusion refers to the limitation of space available for plasma proteins and other macromolecules based on collagen and negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the interstitial space. It is of particular importance to interstitial fluid and plasma volume regulation. Here we present a novel mechanical and mathematical model of the dynamic interactions of structural elements within the interstitium of the dermis at the microscopic level that may explain volume exclusion of charged and neutral macroparticles. At this level, the interstitium is considered to consist of elements called extracellular matrix (ECM) cells, again containing two main interacting structural components on a fluid background including anions and cations setting up osmotic forces: one smaller GAG component, having an intrinsic expansive electric force, and one bigger collagen component, having an intrinsic elastic force. Because of size differences, the GAG component interacts with a fraction of the collagen component only at normal hydration. This fraction, however, increases with rising hydration as a consequence of the modeled form of the interaction force between the GAGs and collagen. Collagen is locally displaced at variable degrees as hydration changes. Two models of GAGs are considered, having largely different geometries which demands different, but related, forms of GAG-collagen interaction forces. The effects of variable fixed charges on GAGs and of GAG density in tissue are evaluated taking into account observed volume exclusion properties of charged macromolecules as a function of tissue hydration. The presented models may improve our biophysical understanding of acting forces influencing tissue fluid dynamics. Such knowledge is significant when evaluating the transport of electrically charged and neutral macromolecules into and through the interstitium, and therefore to drug uptake and the therapeutic effects of macromolecular agents. PMID:27079466

  16. Swelling and pressure-volume relationships in the dermis measured by osmotic-stress technique.

    PubMed

    McGee, Maria P; Morykwas, Michael; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole; Argenta, Louis

    2009-06-01

    Water transfer across the extracellular matrix (ECM) involves interstitial osmotic forces in as yet unclear ways. In particular, the traditional values of Starling forces cannot adequately explain fluid transfer rates. Here, we reassess these forces by analyzing fluid transfer in live pig and human dermal explants. Pressure potentials were controlled with inert polymers adjusted by membrane osmometry (range = 3-219 mmHg), and fluid transfer in and out of the explants was followed by sequential precision weighing. Water motional freedom in the dermis was examined by NMR. In pigs, mean hydration pressure (HP; the pressure at which volume did not change) was 107 +/- 22 and 47 +/- 12 (SE) mmHg at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C (P = 0.012, paired t-test, n = 7). Volume changes observed in response to pressure potential were reversible. The equation, Volume change = V(max)/[1+(time/T(1/2))(d)], where V(max) is maximal volume change; T(1/2), time at volume = 1/2 V(max); and d, a rate parameter, was fitted to experimental progression curves (r(2) > 0.9), yielding V(max) values linearly related to pressure, with mean slopes -3.5 +/- 0.28 and -2.6 +/- 0.21(SE) mul.g(-1).mmHg(-1) at 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. NMR spin-spin relaxation times (T(2)) varied within 200- to 400-mum distances in directions perpendicular to the epidermis, with slopes reaching 0.03 ms/mum. Results support a mechanism in which fluid transport across the ECM is locally regulated at micrometer scales by cell- and fiber-gel-dependent osmomechanical forces. The large HP helps to explain the fast interstitial in/out flow rates observed clinically. PMID:19321700

  17. Different wound healing properties of dermis, adipose, and gingiva mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Boink, Mireille A; van den Broek, Lenie J; Roffel, Sanne; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Gefen, Amit; Veerman, Enno C I; Gibbs, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Oral wounds heal faster and with better scar quality than skin wounds. Deep skin wounds where adipose tissue is exposed, have a greater risk of forming hypertrophic scars. Differences in wound healing and final scar quality might be related to differences in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and their ability to respond to intrinsic (autocrine) and extrinsic signals, such as human salivary histatin, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta1. Dermis-, adipose-, and gingiva-derived MSC were compared for their regenerative potential with regards to proliferation, migration, and matrix contraction. Proliferation was assessed by cell counting and migration using a scratch wound assay. Matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin was assessed in MSC populated collagen gels, and also in skin and gingival full thickness tissue engineered equivalents (reconstructed epithelium on MSC populated matrix). Compared to skin-derived MSC, gingiva MSC showed greater proliferation and migration capacity, and less matrix contraction in full thickness tissue equivalents, which may partly explain the superior oral wound healing. Epidermal keratinocytes were required for enhanced adipose MSC matrix contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression, and may therefore contribute to adverse scarring in deep cutaneous wounds. Histatin enhanced migration without influencing proliferation or matrix contraction in all three MSC, indicating that salivary peptides may have a beneficial effect on wound closure in general. Transforming growth factor beta1 enhanced contraction and alpha smooth muscle actin expression in all three MSC types when incorporated into collagen gels. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the superior oral wound healing will aid us to develop advanced strategies for optimal skin regeneration, wound healing and scar formation. PMID:26542883

  18. Protective role of microRNA-29a in denatured dermis and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xipeng; Liang, Pengfei; Ren, Licheng; Zeng, Jizhang; Zhang, Minghua; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our previous study has suggested that downregulated microRNA (miR)-29a in denatured dermis might be involved in burn wound healing. However, the exact role of miR-29a in healing of burn injury still remains unclear. Here, we found that expression of miR-29a was notably upregulated in denatured dermis tissues and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury, and thereafter gradually downregulated compared with control group. By contrast, the expression of collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) were first reduced and subsequently upregulated in denatured dermis tissues and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury. We further identified COL1A2 as a novel target of miR-29a, which is involved in type I collagen synthesis, and showed that miR-29a negatively regulated the expression level of COL1A2 in skin fibroblast cells. In addition, VEGF-A, another target gene of miR-29a, was also negatively mediated by miR-29a in skin fibroblast cells. Inhibition of miR-29a expression significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury, and knockdown of COL1A2 and VEGF-A reversed the effects of miR-29a on the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblast cells. Furthermore, we found that Notch2/Jagged2 signaling was involved in miR-29a response to burn wound healing. Our findings suggest that downregulated miR-29a in denatured dermis may help burn wound healing in the later phase, probably via upregulation of COL1A2 and VEGF-A expression, which can further enhance type I collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. PMID:26794609

  19. Measurement of the dielectric properties of the epidermis and dermis at frequencies from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have reported the measurements of the dielectric properties of the skin. Clarifying the manner in which the human body interacts with electromagnetic waves is essential for medical research and development, as well as for the safety assessment of electromagnetic wave exposure. The skin comprises several layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fat. Each of these skin layers has a different constitution; however, the previous measurements of their dielectric properties were typically conducted on tissue which included all three layers of the skin. This study presents novel dielectric property data for the epidermis and dermis with in vitro measurement at frequencies ranging from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Measured data was compared with literature values; in particular, the findings were compared with Gabriel’s widely used data on skin dielectric properties. The experimental results agreed with the data reported by Gabriel for the dermis of up to 20 GHz, which is the upper limit of the range of frequencies at which Gabriel reported measurements. For frequencies of 20-100 GHz, the experimental results indicated larger values than those extrapolated from Gabriel’s data using parametric expansion. For frequencies over 20 GHz, the dielectric properties provided by the parametric model tend toward the experimental results for the epidermis with increasing frequency.

  20. Measurement of the dielectric properties of the epidermis and dermis at frequencies from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Wake, K; Watanabe, S

    2014-08-21

    Numerous studies have reported the measurements of the dielectric properties of the skin. Clarifying the manner in which the human body interacts with electromagnetic waves is essential for medical research and development, as well as for the safety assessment of electromagnetic wave exposure. The skin comprises several layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fat. Each of these skin layers has a different constitution; however, the previous measurements of their dielectric properties were typically conducted on tissue which included all three layers of the skin. This study presents novel dielectric property data for the epidermis and dermis with in vitro measurement at frequencies ranging from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Measured data was compared with literature values; in particular, the findings were compared with Gabriel's widely used data on skin dielectric properties. The experimental results agreed with the data reported by Gabriel for the dermis of up to 20 GHz, which is the upper limit of the range of frequencies at which Gabriel reported measurements. For frequencies of 20-100 GHz, the experimental results indicated larger values than those extrapolated from Gabriel's data using parametric expansion. For frequencies over 20 GHz, the dielectric properties provided by the parametric model tend toward the experimental results for the epidermis with increasing frequency. PMID:25082800

  1. Age-related changes in proliferation, the numbers of mast cells, eosinophils, and cd45-positive cells in human dermis.

    PubMed

    Gunin, Andrei G; Kornilova, Natalia K; Vasilieva, Olga V; Petrov, Vadim V

    2011-04-01

    Skin aging is an extremely important medical and social problem in the modern world. Therefore, a goal of the present work was to estimate changes in the numbers of fibroblast-like cells, proliferating cells nuclear antigen-positive cells, CD45-positive cells, mast cells, and eosinophils in human dermis at different ages. Skin specimens from human fetuses that died antenatally from 20 to 40 weeks of pregnancy and humans who died from different causes from 1 day to 85 years of life were used for the study. Results showed a decrease in a total number and the number of proliferating cells nuclear antigen-positive fibroblast-like cells in dermis with progression of age. The numbers of CD45-positive cells and mast cells are gradually increased with aging. Eosinophils are almost absent in dermis independently on age. Mast cells are probably a main factor that potentially can be involved in tissue damage and aging changes in skin. Mast cells should be regarded as an important target for anti-aging therapy. PMID:21106704

  2. [CHANGES OF THE CONTENT OF DLL4 AND Jag-1 ANGIOGENESIS REGULATORS IN HUMAN DERMIS IN ONTOGENESIS].

    PubMed

    Golubtzova, N N; Vasiliyeva, O V; Petrov, V V; Gunin, A G

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the contents of D114 and Jag-1 angiogenesis regulators in human dermis at different age periods. D114 and Jag-1 were demonstrated by indirect immunohistochemistry in skin sections of fetuses of 20-40 gestational weeks and in persons aged from birth to 85 years. D114 was studied in 150 skin samples of 72 females and 78 males, while Jag-1 was examined in 120 samples of 58 females and 62 males. It is found that the immunoreactivity was mainly expressed by the endothelial cells. Vessels, which gave a positive reaction to D114 and Jag-1, were found throughout the entire thickness of the dermis, both in fetuses, and people of all age groups. Expression of D114 in the vessels of dermal microvasculature was shown to increase from 20 weeks of gestation to 20 years. With the further age increase, the intensity of the reaction of blood vessels for D114 was decreased. Expression of Jag-1 in dermal microvessels was enhanced from 20 weeks of gestation to 85 years. The results are discussed in connection with the role of D114 and Jag-1 in angiogenesis in human dermis during ontogeny. PMID:27487663

  3. Human and murine dermis contain dendritic cells. Isolation by means of a novel method and phenotypical and functional characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, A; Heine, M; Schuler, G; Romani, N

    1993-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) comprise a system of cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs that are specialized to present antigens and to initiate primary T cell responses. The Langerhans cell of the epidermis is used as a prototype for studies of DC in the skin. We have characterized a population of DC in human dermis, one of the first examples of these cells in nonlymphoid organs other than epidermis. To identify their distinct functions and phenotype, we relied upon the preparation of enriched populations that emigrate from organ explants of dermis. The dermal cells have the following key features of mature DC: (a) sheet-like processes, or veils, that are constantly moving; (b) very high levels of surface MHC products; (c) absence of markers for macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelium; (d) substantial expression of adhesion/costimulatory molecules such as CD11/CD18, CD54 (ICAM-1), B7/BB1, CD40; and (e) powerful stimulatory function for resting T cells. Dermal DC are fully comparable to epidermis-derived DC, except for the lack of Birbeck granules, lower levels of CD1a, and higher levels of CD36. DC were also detected in explants of mouse dermis. We conclude that cutaneous DC include both epidermal and dermal components, and suggest that other human nonlymphoid tissues may also serve as sources of typical immunostimulatory DC. Images PMID:8254016

  4. Purification, characterization and cloning of tensilin, the collagen-fibril binding and tissue-stiffening factor from Cucumaria frondosa dermis.

    PubMed

    Tipper, Jennifer P; Lyons-Levy, Gillian; Atkinson, Mark A L; Trotter, John A

    2002-12-01

    The inner dermis of the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, is a mutable collagenous tissue characterized by rapid and reversible changes in its mechanical properties regulated by one or more protein effectors that are released from neurosecretory cells. One such effector, tensilin, is a collagen-fibril binding protein, named for its ability to induce dermis stiffening. Tensilin was purified using an affinity column constructed from C. frondosa collagen-fibrils. The protein migrates as a single band on SDS-PAGE (Mr approximately 33 kDa) and has an isoelectric point of 5.8. Equilibrium sedimentation experiments suggest a molecular mass of approximately 28.5-29.4 kDa. Carbohydrate analysis of tensilin revealed no measurable sugar content. The molar amount of tensilin was determined to be 0.38% that of collagen and 47% that of stiparin, a constitutive matrix glycoprotein. A full-length cDNA clone for tensilin was obtained from a C. frondosa inner dermis cDNA expression library. Predicted properties derived from the deduced peptide sequence were in agreement with those of the native protein. A noted feature of tensilin's deduced peptide sequence, particularly in its N-terminal domain, is its homology to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Tensilin's C-terminal tail has no known homology to other proteins but contains a putative collagen-fibril binding site. PMID:12524049

  5. β-Catenin Stabilization in Skin Fibroblasts Causes Fibrotic Lesions by Preventing Adipocyte Differentiation of the Reticular Dermis.

    PubMed

    Mastrogiannaki, Maria; Lichtenberger, Beate M; Reimer, Andreas; Collins, Charlotte A; Driskell, Ryan R; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-06-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a central role in epidermal homeostasis and regeneration, but how it affects fibroblast fate decisions is unknown. We investigated the effect of targeted β-catenin stabilization in dermal fibroblasts. Comparative gene expression profiling of stem cell antigen 1(-) (Sca1(-)) and Sca1(+) neonatal fibroblasts from upper and lower dermis, respectively, confirmed that Sca1(+) cells had a preadipocyte signature and showed differential expression of Wnt/β-catenin-associated genes. By targeting all fibroblasts or selectively targeting Dlk1(+) lower dermal fibroblasts, we found that β-catenin stabilization between developmental stages E16.5 and P2 resulted in a reduction in the dermal adipocyte layer with a corresponding increase in dermal fibrosis and an altered hair cycle. The fibrotic phenotype correlated with a reduction in the potential of Sca1(+) fibroblasts to undergo adipogenic differentiation ex vivo. Our findings indicate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls adipogenic cell fate within the lower dermis, which potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of fibrotic skin diseases. PMID:26902921

  6. Effect of clearing agents on scattering coefficient and anisotropy of scattering of dermis studied by reflectance confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, S. L.; Samatham, R.; Phillips, K. G.

    2011-03-01

    Optical clearing of mouse dermis by glycerol was tested by reflectance-mode confocal microscopy (rCSLM) using 488- nm light. The reflectance signal R(z) was acquired as a function of the depth of the focus (z) within the upper 100 μm of freshly excised mouse dermis. The results specify the scattering coefficient (μs [cm-1]) and the anisotropy of scattering (g [dimensionless]). The absorption is too low to exert an effect. The results, published in Samatham et al., Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences 2010, 3(3):183-188, described how the clearing effect of glycerol was to increase g toward nearly 1.0, while having only a modest effect on μs. In other words, glycerol caused light scattering to become very forward-directed, but did not strongly alter the number of scattering events per unit length of photon path. This paper discusses the possible mechanism of action that is responsible for this clearing effect.

  7. Inhibition of collagen production in scleroderma fibroblast cultures by a connective tissue glycoprotein extracted from normal dermis

    SciTech Connect

    Maquart, F.X.; Bellon, G.; Cornillet-Stoupy, J.; Randoux, A.; Triller, R.; Kalis, B.; Borel, J.P.

    1985-08-01

    It was shown in a previous paper that a connective tissue glycoprotein (CTGP) extracted from normal rabbit dermis was able to inhibit total protein and collagen syntheses by normal dermis fibroblast cultures. In the present study, the effects of CTGP on scleroderma fibroblasts were investigated. (/sup 14/C)Proline incorporation into total proteins of the supernatant was not significantly different from that found in controls. By contrast, the amount of collagen, expressed as percentage of total secreted protein, was far higher in scleroderma cultures than in normal ones (14.4% +/- 6.0% vs 4.6% +/- 0.9%). Addition of CTGP to the medium induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of (/sup 14/C)proline incorporation into proteins from both control and scleroderma cells. In control cultures, no significant decrease of the percentage of collagen was observed, but over 60 micrograms/ml, both cytotoxic effects and inhibition of protein synthesis occurred. In scleroderma cultures, the inhibition was twice as effective on collagen as on noncollagen protein synthesis. The inhibition of collagen secretion was not related either to changes in collagen hydroxylation or to the intracellular catabolism of newly synthesized procollagen.

  8. Depth-resolved simplified characterization of collagen depletion in dermis with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography applicable to non-laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougbaev, Vitali; Eom, Tae Joong; Shin, Woojin; Lee, Yeung Lak; Yu, Bong-Ahn; Kee, Chul-Sik; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin

    2007-07-01

    A further insight into the prior concept of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system intended for non-laboratory conditions is brought forward and an experimental proof-of-concept is presented. A phenomenological model is adopted from the theory of light depolarization in crystalline polymers and modified to yield a simplified algorithm for mapping depolarization ratio in dermis. The algorithm could distinguish between dermal layers with depleted collagen content and normal dermis of normal perilesional skin. Dermis is simulated by bireringent lamellae of collagen arranged chaotically in multiple layers parallel to the skin surface. Both the design concept and the model imply the sub-millimeter tumor thickness as a proofed prognostic factor and an important criterion for complementary functional diagnostics of skin cancers at their early phase of vertical growth. Choice of the model is inspired by similarity of structural and optical properties between liquid-crystal collagen fibers in dermis and birefringent crystalline lamellae in polymer materials. The numerical computation based on the model allowing for real characteristics of dermis gives plausible interpreting of depolarization peculiarities caused by collagen depletion. Feasibility is discussed of exploiting fiber optic analogs of achromatic retarders. Fabrication of the fiber retarders is shown to be realistic by making use of the photonics technology possessed by the authors.

  9. Combined use of fenestrated-type artificial dermis and topical negative pressure wound therapy for the venous leg ulcer of a rheumatoid arthritis patient.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kuro, Atsuyuki; Yamauchi, Takashi; Horiuchi, Ai; Kakudo, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of circumferential venous leg ulcer in a rheumatoid arthritis patient. Mesh skin grafting was performed in another hospital, but the graft failed and the patient was referred to our hospital. This ulcer was treated by the combination therapy of a fenestrated-type artificial dermis with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and secondary mesh grafting using our 'grip tape technique'. NPWT was started at -100 mmHg and continued until the formation of dermis-like tissue. A section stained using haematoxylin and eosin and an anti-αSMA (α smooth muscle actin) immunohistological section of the biopsy from dermis-like tissue showed an abundant infiltration of fibroblasts and capillary formation beneath the fenestration of the silicone sheet. Threefold mesh skin grafting was subsequently performed and it was taken up completely. The fenestrated-type artificial dermis in combination with NPWT produced good results without infection in the treatment of complex wounds. In addition, our 'grip tape technique' was useful to apply polyurethane foam to the entire surface of the lower leg. PMID:25650053

  10. Hydrocortisone modulates the expression of c-ets-1 and 72 kDa type IV collagenase in chicken dermis during early feather morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Turque, N; Buttice, G; Beuscart, A; Stehelin, D; Crepieux, P; Desbiens, X

    1997-02-01

    At the onset of chicken feather morphogenesis, dermal cells migrate along bundles of collagen fibers to colonize areas where bud outgrowth takes place. Chicken embryos treated with hydrocortisone during the critical phase of dermal rearrangement show featherless skin areas in which the dermis exhibits an increase of interstitial collagen. We had previously demonstrated that c-ets-1 is a nuclear transcription factor expressed in the dermis at the beginning of feather morphogenesis. Here we study, by in situ mRNA hybridization, the expression of c-ets-1 in the dermis of chicken embryos treated with hydrocortisone. We found that, among the two distinct products (p54 and p68) encoded by the chicken c-ets-1, the expression of the p68 product increased while expression of p54 decreased after hydrocortisone treatment. Since Ets-1 regulates matrix-metalloproteinases genes, we analyzed the expression of the 72 kDa type IV collagenase in both normal and hydrocortisone-treated embryos. We demonstrated that 72 kDa type IV collagenase mRNA expression decreased in the dermis after hydrocortisone treatment and that its expression correlated with that of p54c-ets-1. Taken together, these results indicate that hydrocortisone modulates c-ets-1 expression. In addition, they raise the interesting possibility that c-ets-1 might be involved in an altered pattern of feather development mediated by the accumulation of collagen due to a decrease in collagenase activities. PMID:9074942

  11. Proliferating cells in psoriatic dermis are comprised primarily of T cells, endothelial cells, and factor XIIIa+ perivascular dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morganroth, G.S.; Chan, L.S.; Weinstein, G.D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Determination of the cell types proliferating in the dermis of patients with psoriasis should identify those cells experiencing activation or responding to growth factors in the psoriatic dermal milieu. Toward that end, sections of formalin-fixed biopsies obtained from 3H-deoxyuridine (3H-dU)-injected skin of eight psoriatic patients were immunostained, followed by autoradiography. Proliferating dermal cells exhibit silver grains from tritium emissions. The identity of the proliferating cells could then be determined by simultaneous visualization with antibodies specific for various cell types. UCHL1+ (CD45RO+) T cells (recall antigen-reactive helper T-cell subset) constituted 36.6 +/- 3.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6) of the proliferating dermal cells in involved skin, whereas Leu 18+ (CD45RA+) T cells (recall antigen naive T-cell subsets) comprised only 8.7 +/- 1.5% (n = 6). The Factor XIIIa+ dermal perivascular dendritic cell subset (24.9 +/- 1.5% of proliferating dermal cells, n = 6) and Factor VIII+ endothelial cells represented the two other major proliferating populations in lesional psoriatic dermis. Differentiated tissue macrophages, identified by phase microscopy as melanophages or by immunostaining with antibodies to Leu M1 (CD15) or myeloid histiocyte antigen, comprised less than 5% of the proliferating population in either skin type. In addition to calculating the relative proportions of these cells to each other as percent, we also determined the density of cells, in cells/mm2 of tissue. The density of proliferating cells within these populations was increased in involved versus uninvolved skin: UCHL1+, 9.0 +/- 1.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor XIIIa+, 6.0 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor VIII+, 5.5 +/- 1.4 cells/mm2 versus 0.0 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05.

  12. TAT-Mediated Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Delivery to the Dermis Improves Wound Healing of Deep Skin Tissue in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Zheng, Lulu; Jin, Zi; Yu, Bingjie; Wang, Zhitao; Lin, Peng; Yu, Weidan; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Background The definition of deep tissue injury was derived from multiple clinical cases as “A purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure and/or shear”. Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) significantly improves wound healing under diabetic conditions. However, to date, the therapeutic application of aFGF has been limited, due to its low delivery efficiency and short half-life. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an animal model of magnet-induced pressure ulcers, transactivator of transcription protein (TAT)-aFGF was evaluated for transdermal delivery and wound healing. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were also performed to determine the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD68, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and TGF-β-receptor II (TGF- βRII) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. We found that that mice treated with TAT-aFGF had higher accumulation of aFGF in both dermis and subcutaneous tissues compared with mice treated with aFGF alone. In the remodeling phase, TAT-aFGF treatment decreased the expression of α-SMA to normal levels, thereby facilitating normal wound healing processes and abrogating hypertrophic scarring. In human dermal fibroblasts, TAT-aFGF reversed the suppressive effect of TNF-α on α-SMA expression and restored TGF-βRII and TGF-β1 expression. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that TAT-aFGF has a favorable therapeutic effect on the healing of subcutaneous deep tissue injury. PMID:26271041

  13. Epidermis–dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2015-06-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP{sup +}) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP{sup +} cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. - Highlights: • Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) migrate in the epidermis due to ionizing radiation (IR). • BMDCs dissociate from the epidermis-dermis junction in preparing epidermal sheets. • The doses of IR determine the location and the number of migrating BMDCs in the skin.

  14. Structure-permeability relationship analysis of the permeation barrier properties of the stratum corneum and viable epidermis/dermis of rat skin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Mitsui, Tetsuya; Aso, Yoshinori; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate structure-permeability relationships for chemicals through stratum corneum (SC) and viable epidermis/dermis (VED). In vitro skin permeation of ten compounds through excised rat skin was analyzed based on a two-layer diffusion model and the diffusion coefficients in SC (D(SC)) and VED (D(VED)) were determined. The relationships between the permeation parameters and the physicochemical parameters (octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(o/w)), and hydrogen bond donor number (HBD)) of the compounds were analyzed. D(SC) increased as lipophilicity increased, whereas D(VED) decreased for log K(o/w) > 2. Increases in log K(o/w) caused a decrease in the permeability coefficient from SC through VED (P(VED/SC)) for log K(o/w) > 1. The simulation study suggests that the in vitro skin permeation of a highly lipophilic compound is strongly controlled by skin thickness due to low diffusivity in VED. The present study suggests that VED act as a considerable permeation barrier for highly lipophilic compounds due to low diffusivity. PMID:18228598

  15. Identification of a distinct subpopulation of fibroblasts from murine dermis: CD73(-) CD105(+) as potential marker of dermal fibroblasts subset with multipotency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Bum; Shim, Sehwan; Kim, Min-Jung; Shin, Hye-Yun; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Sunhoo

    2016-09-01

    Skin dermis includes various types of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) and a subpopulation of dermal fibroblasts that exhibit the ability to differentiate. However, characterization of this dermal fibroblast subtype remains less understood. In this study, we isolated dermal cells from the skin of newborn C57/B6 mice and investigated their characteristics. Isolated murine dermal cells exhibited a fibroblast phenotype as judged by accepted criteria including a lack of MSC-related antigens and the differentiation potential of MSCs, and the positive expression of fibroblast markers. A comparative analysis demonstrated that CD73(-) CD105(+) but not CD73(-) CD105(-) dermal fibroblasts exhibited some of the functional properties of MSCs. Furthermore, the multipotent phenotype of CD73(-) CD105(+) cells was diminished by treatment of CD105 siRNA and shRNA, indicating that CD105 expression was critical for the retention of differentiation potential of those cells. Overall, these results suggest that CD73(-) CD105(+) cells are a distinct subset of dermal fibroblasts with multipotency and that their surface antigens could help to classify this subpopulation. These cells may contribute to the regeneration of damaged tissue. PMID:27170595

  16. Detection of lymphangiogenesis by near-infrared fluorescence imaging and responses to VEGF-C during healing in a mouse full-dermis thickness wound model.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary A; Robinson, Holly; Chan, Wenyaw; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive, longitudinal near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging was used to detect and quantify lymphangiogenesis following a full-dermis thickness incision in the presence and absence of locally administered vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a well-known regulator of lymphangiogenesis. Peripheral cytokines/chemokines were also measured in treated and sham-injected animals. Lymphangiogenesis was detected via NIRF imaging by day 7-8 and confirmed by intravital microscopy, while angiogenesis was observed by day 2-3 postincision (PI). All lymph vessel parameters quantified were significantly greater on wounded vs. nonwounded sides of mice. Lymph vessel parameters appeared larger on wounded sides of VEGF-C- relative to NaCl-treated mice, although differences were not significant. Interleukin-1α and interleukin-22 were significantly elevated at day 7 PI relative to respective preincision levels in VEGF-C-treated mice, and decreased by day 21 PI to levels nearing those measured preincision. For the majority of cytokines/chemokines measured, mean responses were significantly greater in VEGF-C- vs. NaCl-treated animals. Local VEGF-C administration may stimulate lymphangiogenesis during tissue repair and regeneration via mediating systemic cytokine/chemokine levels. NIRF imaging can be utilized to detect lymphangiogenesis during wound healing, and offers a promising platform to complement current methods for monitoring wound status and studying the effects of growth factors on healing. PMID:23758174

  17. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Kuri, Ganesh; Das, Jayanta Kr; Dey, Debleena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG) for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG). Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna's classification) were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001) and motility (P = 0.004) between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention. PMID:24618485

  18. Downregulation of let‑7b promotes COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression in dermis and skin fibroblasts during heat wound repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyan; Luo, Chengqun; Yin, Zhaoqi; Li, Ping; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Jia; He, Quanyong; Zhou, Jianda

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of non‑coding RNAs 18‑25 nucleotides in length, generally serve suppressive role in the regulation of gene expression via directly binding to the 3'‑untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNA. Previous studies have identified several miRs to be involved in thermal injury repair. However, the role of miR let‑7b during the recovery of thermal injury, in addition to the underlying mechanisms, has not previously been studied. In the present study, the expression of let‑7b was observed to be significantly increased in skin tissue shortly following thermal injury, however, gradually reduced during the recovery of thermal injury. Notably, similar findings were observed in heat‑denatured skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) and collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2), which are associated with the synthesis of type I collagen, were identified as two targets of let‑7b in skin fibroblasts. The overexpression of let‑7b was observed to upregulate the protein expression levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2, while knockdown of let‑7b reduced the levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, COL1A1 and COL1A2 were significantly downregulated shortly following thermal injury, while gradually upregulated during healing, in heat‑damaged skin tissue and skin fibroblasts, with the expression profiles opposite to that of let‑7b. Taken together, this suggests that the downregulation of let‑7b in heat‑damaged dermis promotes the synthesis of type I collagen and thus aids in burn wound repair. PMID:26861712

  19. S100A8 and S100A9 are messengers in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis modulating a psoriatic milieu in human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Jang, Sunhyae; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Kyungmin; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Jong-Soon; Im, Myung; Lee, Hae-Eul; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce cytokine production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce migration of immune cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated S100A8 and/or S100A9 in psoriasis epidermis induce angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S100A8 and/or S100A9 may play a role in the crosstalk between epidermis and dermis in psoriasis. -- Abstract: S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the S100A8 protein family that exist as homodimers and heterodimers in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Recent studies have shown the pivotal roles of S100A8 and S100A9 in the propagation of inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation in psoriasis. We found significant up-regulation of S100A8 and S100A9 secretion from keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions. To mimic the in vivo secretory conditions of S100A8 and S100A9 from psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes, we used the culture medium (CM) of S100A8 and S100A8/A9 adenovirus-transduced keratinocytes to investigate the functions of S100A8 and S100A9. We detected increased levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CM, including IL-8 and TNF-{alpha}, which are involved in aggravating psoriatic skin lesions, and IL-6 and members of the CXCL family of pro-angiogenic cytokines. The CM increased immune cell migration and increased angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, we found that the upregulated production of S100A8 and S100A9 by psoriatic epidermal keratinocytes activated adjacent keratinocytes to produce several cytokines. Moreover, S100A8 and S100A9 themselves function as pro-angiogenic and chemotactic factors, generating a psoriatic milieu in skin.

  20. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days. Methods 24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ. Results In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores. Discussion This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects. PMID:25955842

  1. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the incorporation of labelled precursors into RNA, DNA and protein in epidermis, dermis and subcutis from precancerous mouse skin with reference to enhanced tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bhisey, R.A.; Ramchandani, A.G.; Sirsat, S.M.

    1984-02-01

    The effects of a single application of 1.8 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA and protein in the epidermis, dermis and subcutis from 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) injected precancerous mouse skin were studied at various time points between 3 and 96 h. In the precancerous tissues, the rates of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)uridine into RNA did not alter appreciably from those in the control tissues; while the rates of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine incorporation into DNA were elevated with peaks appearing between 6 and 12 h, at 24 h and at 72 h in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The rate of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)leucine into protein was markedly elevated in all the three tissues which showed 3-4 sharp peaks. The maximum stimulation ranged between 14 and 20 times that of the control. A single application of TPA to the precancerous mouse skin induced early stimulation of precursor incorporation into all the three macromolecules in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The increased stimulation was maintained for 36-72 h. The patterns of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine into DNA gave rise to 2-3 peaks of elevated uptake in each tissue up to 36-48 h. A lowered rate of DNA synthesis between 48 and 60 h was followed by a peak at 72 h. In each group, epidermal mitotic activity correlated well with spurts of precursor incorporation into cellular DNA. The observations indicate that TPA recruits more cells into the DNA synthetic phase and accelerates selective growth of preneoplastic cells during tumor progression.

  2. In vivo microdialysis for the investigation of drug levels in the dermis and the effect of barrier perturbation on cutaneous drug penetration. Studies in hairless rats and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Benfeldt, E

    1999-01-01

    The thesis opens with review chapters concerning theoretical and practical aspects of the investigation of drug contents in the skin. A discussion of the advantages and limitations of the established methods as well as the relatively new sampling method of microdialysis, which is employed in the experimental section, is given. Factors influencing the barrier function of the normal human skin are described as are the alterations in skin barrier function found in diseased and experimentally barrier perturbed skin. The microdialysis technique consists of introducing an ultra thin, semipermeable tube, a so-called probe, in the dermis. The tube is connected to a precision pump, which provides a steady flow of a tissue-compatible fluid through the probe at a very low flow. Smaller molecules in the tissue, among them the non-protein bound fraction of the drug content in the extracellular fluid, will passively diffuse across the surface of the membrane and thus enter the flow of the perfusate, which is sampled at regular intervals and analysed. Microdialysis is used for the determination of drug levels in the skin after topical as well as systemic drug delivery in the experimental part of the thesis. The method is not applicable to the investigation of all drugs or compounds, as we have shown that it is not feasible to sample highly protein-bound drugs or very lipophilic drugs by microdialysis without further development of the method. The investigation of topical drug administration consists of 2 studies of cutaneous penetration of a model drug, salicylic acid, initially investigated in hairless rats and subsequently in human volunteers. In both studies, barrier perturbation of the skin was undertaken by physical (removal of the stratum corneum by repeated tape stripping) or chemical (treatment with acetone) methods or by provocation of irritative dermatitis (by application of sodium lauryl sulphate, a detergent). Prior to the penetration experiment, the barrier damage

  3. Dermis mechanical behaviour after different cell removal treatments.

    PubMed

    Terzini, Mara; Bignardi, Cristina; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Cambieri, Irene; Zanetti, Elisabetta M; Audenino, Alberto L

    2016-09-01

    Human acellular dermal matrices (HADMs) are used in reconstructive surgery as scaffolds promoting autologous tissue regeneration. Critical to the HADM ability to remodel and integrate into the host tissue is the removal of cells while maintaining an intact extracellular architecture. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology to analyse the mechanical properties of HADMs after decellularization to identify its ideal form of treatment and its duration. Two different decellularization techniques were used as a benchmark: the first is a well-established technique (incubation in NaOH for 1-7 weeks), and the second is an innovative technique developed by this research group (incubation in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium) for 1-7 weeks). After decellularization, the specimens underwent uniaxial tensile tests, and experimental data were represented with stress strain curves, calculating both engineering and true values. Mechanical tests have led to the identification of the optimal method (NaOH or DMEM) and duration for the decellularization treatment; differences between engineering and true values can reach 84%, but the engineering values remain useful to make comparisons, providing reliable indications with a simpler experimental set up and data processing. PMID:26997564

  4. Statistical Properties of Echosignal Obtained from Human Dermis In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrzkowska, Hanna; Litniewski, Jerzy; Nowicki, Andrzej; Szymańska, Elżbieta

    The paper presents the classification of the healthy skin and the skin lesions (basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis), basing on the statistical parameters of the envelope of ultrasonic echoes. The envelope was modeled using Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh (K-distribution) statistics. Furthermore, the characteristic parameter of the K-distribution, the effective number of scatterers was investigated. Also the attenuation coefficient was used for the skin lesion assessment.

  5. Mucin in the dermis: a case of tender tumors.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Gina J; Spohn, Gina P; Gru, Alejandro; Kaffenberger, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We present an original case report of a 45-year-old woman with a five-month history of sporadic, tender, nodules present on the right upper abdomen, bilateral dorsal wrists, right upper arm, and left flank. Biopsy revealed a mild perivascular infiltrate, increased dermal mucin, and no significant increase in fibroblasts. Presentation and histology were most consistent with nodular lichen myxedematosus (NLM), a rare primary mucinosis. Only four previous cases are reported in the literature to our knowledge. Management of NLM and other subtypes of lichen myxedematosus is not well described. Our patient failed systemic steroids and was unable to tolerate hydroxychloroquine, but subsequently improved with oral methotrexate. This suggests that methotrexate may be of benefit for NLM. PMID:27617942

  6. Proteins deposited in the dermis are rapidly captured and presented by epidermal Langerhans cells

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Vincent; Tripp, Christoph H.; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Haid, Bernhard; Ebner, Susanne; Koch, Franz; Park, Chae Gyu; Steinman, Ralph M.; Idoyaga, Juliana; Romani, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells can capture antigens that are deposited in the skin, including vaccines given subcutaneously. These include different dendritic cells (DC) such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), dermal DC and dermal langerin+ DC. To evaluate access of dermal antigens to skin DC, we used mAb to two C-type lectin endocytic receptors, DEC-205/CD205 and langerin/CD207. When applied to murine and human skin explant cultures, these mAb were efficiently taken up by epidermal LC. Additionally, anti-DEC-205 targeted langerin+ CD103+ and langerin− CD103− mouse dermal DC. Unexpectedly, intradermal injection of either mAb, but not isotype control, resulted in strong and rapid labelling of LC in situ, implying that large molecules can diffuse through the basement membrane into the epidermis. Epidermal LC targeted in vivo by ovalbumin-coupled anti-DEC-205 potently presented antigen to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, epidermal LC play a major role in uptake of lectin-binding ligands under standard vaccination conditions. PMID:19890348

  7. Reconstructive surgery using an artificial dermis (Integra): results with 39 grafts.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, E; Braye, F M

    2001-12-01

    Integra was initially developed for the primary coverage of acute burns. It acts as a network for dermal reconstruction. An epidermal graft overlay is necessary after 3 weeks to achieve the in vivo reconstruction of a full-thickness skin equivalent. The quality of the functional and aesthetic results achieved led us to evaluate the potential of Integra in the treatment of burn scars and for general reconstructive surgery. We present a series of 31 patients who underwent Integra grafting for reconstructive surgery at a total of 39 operational sites. The average area grafted per procedure was 267 cm(2). Complications (silicone detachment, failure of the graft, haematoma) were observed in nine cases. The length of follow-up ranged from 0.5 year to 4 years. Two patients (two sites) were lost to follow-up; the final results in the remaining patients were considered to be good in 28 cases, average in six cases and poor in three cases. The disadvantages of using Integra in reconstructive surgery are the necessity of two operations, the risks of infection under the silicone layer, of the silicone becoming detached and of recurrence of contraction. On the other hand, Integra has many advantages including its immediate availability, the availability of large quantities, the simplicity and reliability of the technique, and the pliability and the cosmetic appearance of the resulting cover. In the light of these preliminary results, Integra appears as a new alternative to full-thickness skin grafting, skin expansion and even skin flaps for reconstructive surgery. PMID:11728107

  8. Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium sporozoite motility in the dermis reveals component of blood vessel recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Christine S; Chiou, Kevin; Ragheb, Daniel RT; Salman, Ahmed M; Khan, Shahid M; Liu, Andrea J; Sinnis, Photini

    2015-01-01

    Malaria infection starts with injection of Plasmodium sporozoites by an Anopheles mosquito into the skin of the mammalian host. How sporozoites locate and enter a blood vessel is a critical, but poorly understood process. In this study, we examine sporozoite motility and their interaction with dermal blood vessels, using intravital microscopy in mice. Our data suggest that sporozoites exhibit two types of motility: in regions far from blood vessels, they exhibit ‘avascular motility’, defined by high speed and less confinement, while in the vicinity of blood vessels their motility is more constrained. We find that curvature of sporozoite tracks engaging with vasculature optimizes contact with dermal capillaries. Imaging of sporozoites with mutations in key adhesive proteins highlight the importance of the sporozoite's gliding speed and its ability to modulate adhesive properties for successful exit from the inoculation site. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07789.001 PMID:26271010

  9. Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium sporozoite motility in the dermis reveals component of blood vessel recognition.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Christine S; Chiou, Kevin; Ragheb, Daniel R T; Salman, Ahmed; Khan, Shahid M; Liu, Andrea J; Sinnis, Photini

    2015-01-01

    Malaria infection starts with injection of Plasmodium sporozoites by an Anopheles mosquito into the skin of the mammalian host. How sporozoites locate and enter a blood vessel is a critical, but poorly understood process. In this study, we examine sporozoite motility and their interaction with dermal blood vessels, using intravital microscopy in mice. Our data suggest that sporozoites exhibit two types of motility: in regions far from blood vessels, they exhibit 'avascular motility', defined by high speed and less confinement, while in the vicinity of blood vessels their motility is more constrained. We find that curvature of sporozoite tracks engaging with vasculature optimizes contact with dermal capillaries. Imaging of sporozoites with mutations in key adhesive proteins highlight the importance of the sporozoite's gliding speed and its ability to modulate adhesive properties for successful exit from the inoculation site. PMID:26271010

  10. Mechanobiological dysregulation of the epidermis and dermis in skin disorders and in degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei; Hsu, Chao-Kai

    2013-01-01

    During growth and development, the skin expands to cover the growing skeleton and soft tissues by constantly responding to the intrinsic forces of underlying skeletal growth as well as to the extrinsic mechanical forces from body movements and external supports. Mechanical forces can be perceived by two types of skin receptors: (1) cellular mechanoreceptors/mechanosensors, such as the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules and mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels, and (2) sensory nerve fibres that produce the somatic sensation of mechanical force. Skin disorders in which there is an abnormality of collagen [e.g. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS)] or elastic (e.g. cutis laxa) fibres or a malfunction of cutaneous nerve fibres (e.g. neurofibroma, leprosy and diabetes mellitus) are also characterized to some extent by deficiencies in mechanobiological processes. Recent studies have shown that mechanotransduction is crucial for skin development, especially hemidesmosome maturation, which implies that the pathogenesis of skin disorders such as bullous pemphigoid is related to skin mechanobiology. Similarly, autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma and mixed connective tissue disease, and pathological scarring in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars would seem to be clearly associated with the mechanobiological dysfunction of the skin. Finally, skin ageing can also be considered as a degenerative process associated with mechanobiological dysfunction. Clinically, a therapeutic strategy involving mechanoreceptors or MS nociceptor inhibition or acceleration together with a reduction or augmentation in the relevant mechanical forces is likely to be successful. The development of novel approaches such as these will allow the treatment of a broad range of cutaneous diseases. PMID:23672502

  11. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair. PMID:17033177

  12. Comparative study of bovine, porcine and avian collagens for the production of a tissue engineered dermis.

    PubMed

    Parenteau-Bareil, Rémi; Gauvin, Robert; Cliche, Simon; Gariépy, Claude; Germain, Lucie; Berthod, François

    2011-10-01

    Combining bovine collagen with chitosan followed by freeze-drying has been shown to produce porous scaffolds suitable for skin and connective tissue engineering applications. In this study collagen extracted from porcine and avian skin was compared with bovine collagen for the production of tissue engineered scaffolds. A similar purity of the collagen extracts was shown by electrophoresis, confirming the reliability of the extraction process. Collagen was solubilized, cross-linked by adding chitosan to the solution and freeze-dried to generate a porous structure suitable for tissue engineering applications. Scaffold porosity and pore morphology were shown to be source dependant, with bovine collagen and avian collagen resulting into the smallest and largest pores, respectively. Scaffolds were seeded with dermal fibroblasts and cultured for 35 days to evaluate the suitability of the different collagen-chitosan scaffolds for long-term tissue engineered dermal substitute maturation in vitro. Cell proliferation and scaffold biocompatibility were found to be similar for all the collagen-chitosan scaffolds, demonstrating their capability to support long-term cell adhesion and growth. The scaffolds contents was assessed by immunohistochemistry and showed increased deposition of extracellular matrix by the cells as a function of time. These results correlate with measurements of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds, since both the ultimate tensile strength and tensile modulus of the cell seeded scaffolds had increased by the end of the culture period. This experiment demonstrates that porcine and avian collagen could be used as an alternative to bovine collagen in the production of collagen-chitosan scaffolding materials. PMID:21723967

  13. Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor in the Dermis of the External Auditory Meatus.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Amin; Zaleski, Theresa A; Jow, Tiffany; Lambert, W Clark

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old African American woman with a history of a recurring "oozing papule" in the right ear presented to the emergency department in July 2010 with a 2-month history of an enlarging, painful growth in the right ear canal. Physical examination revealed a 1-cm round cystic lesion along the right, anterior external auditory canal wall, just medial to the tragus. Initial diagnosis was an infected cyst of the external ear canal. The patient was instructed to follow-up with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) office. Two months following the emergency department visit, inspection by ENT revealed a 3- to 4-mm round, firm subcutaneous nodule that did not extend into the ear canal or cartilage. According to the patient, this lesion had recurred with several infections. The lesion was biopsied in the outpatient setting and demonstrated ulceration with marked acute and chronic inflammation in addition to granulation tissue. Two months later, the lesion was surgically excised. The final diagnosis of giant cell tumor, tenosynovial type with lesion-free margins, and no involvement of the cartilage was made (Figures 1-3). No further treatment was recommended. Gross examination of the excised lesion revealed tan to white soft tissue measuring 1.0×0.7×0.3 cm. Results from factor XIII A immunostain was negative, confirming that the lesion did not represent an unusual variant of fibrous histiocytoma (Figure 4). To date, recurrence of this lesion has not been appreciated. PMID:27072732

  14. The Immunologic Properties of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor IB Positive Subpopulation before and after Osteogenic Differentiation in Mouse Dermis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jia-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that human dermal bone morphogenic protein receptor (BMPR) IB positive subpopulation had a high osteogenic differentiation potential and may be a promising cell source for allogeneic bone tissue engineering. In this study, the immunologic properties of dermal BMPR-IB+ subpopulation before and after osteogenic differentiation were reported. The results confirmed that dermal BMPR-IB+ cells possessed a similar osteogenic differentiation potential with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse model. Furthermore, the expression of immune rejection-related surface antigens such as major histocompatibility class II and co-stimulatory proteins (CD40, CD80, and CD86) were absent on dermal BMPRIB+ cells. Dermal BMPRIB+ cells elicited no proliferation of allogeneic splenocytes and suppressed the proliferation of stimulated immune cells. Interestingly, osteogenic differentiation in vitro had no adverse effect on the immunological features of these cells. Most importantly, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was involved in immunoregulatory effects by undifferentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts, whereas indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity was related to mediating immunomodulatory function by osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts. In conclusion, dermal BMPRIB+ cells have a low immunogenicity and possess immunosuppressive capacity before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro, which would facilitate the allotransplantation in the future. However, mechanisms mediating immunoregulatory property between undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts may be different and need further investigation. PMID:27552226

  15. Mimicking the quasi-random assembly of protein fibers in the dermis by freeze-drying method.

    PubMed

    Ghaleh, Hakimeh; Abbasi, Farhang; Alizadeh, Mina; Khoshfetrat, Ali Baradar

    2015-04-01

    Freeze-drying is extensively used for fabrication of porous materials in tissue engineering and biomedical applications, due to its versatility and use of no toxic solvent. However, it has some significant drawbacks. Conventional freeze-drying technique leads to the production of heterogeneous porous structures with side orientated columnar pores. As the top and bottom surfaces of the sample are not in contact with similar environments, different rates of heat transfer in the surfaces and the temperature gradient across the sample establish the preferential direction of heat transfer. To achieve a scaffold with a desirable microstructure for skin tissue engineering, freeze-drying method was modified by controlling the rate of cooling and regulation of heat transfer across the sample during the freezing step. It could create a homogeneous porous structure with more equiaxed non-oriented pores. Freezing the polymeric solution in the aluminum mold enhanced pore interconnectivity relative to the polystyrene mold. Recrystallization process was discussed how to influence the mean pore size of the scaffold when the final freezing temperature varied. Higher final freezing temperature can easily provide the energy required for the recrystallization process, which lead to enlarged ice crystals and resulting pores. PMID:25687012

  16. The Immunologic Properties of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor IB Positive Subpopulation before and after Osteogenic Differentiation in Mouse Dermis.

    PubMed

    He, Jin-Guang; Wang, Ting-Liang; Wang, Tao; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jia-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that human dermal bone morphogenic protein receptor (BMPR) IB positive subpopulation had a high osteogenic differentiation potential and may be a promising cell source for allogeneic bone tissue engineering. In this study, the immunologic properties of dermal BMPR-IB+ subpopulation before and after osteogenic differentiation were reported. The results confirmed that dermal BMPR-IB+ cells possessed a similar osteogenic differentiation potential with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse model. Furthermore, the expression of immune rejection-related surface antigens such as major histocompatibility class II and co-stimulatory proteins (CD40, CD80, and CD86) were absent on dermal BMPRIB+ cells. Dermal BMPRIB+ cells elicited no proliferation of allogeneic splenocytes and suppressed the proliferation of stimulated immune cells. Interestingly, osteogenic differentiation in vitro had no adverse effect on the immunological features of these cells. Most importantly, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was involved in immunoregulatory effects by undifferentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts, whereas indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity was related to mediating immunomodulatory function by osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts. In conclusion, dermal BMPRIB+ cells have a low immunogenicity and possess immunosuppressive capacity before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro, which would facilitate the allotransplantation in the future. However, mechanisms mediating immunoregulatory property between undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated BMPRIB+ fibroblasts may be different and need further investigation. PMID:27552226

  17. S100A8 and S100A9 Are Induced by Decreased Hydration in the Epidermis and Promote Fibroblast Activation and Fibrosis in the Dermis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Aimei; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Jingling; Xie, Ping; Jia, Shengxian; Sun, Jiaming; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A; Hong, Seok J

    2016-01-01

    The most critical function of the epidermis is to prevent water loss and maintain skin homeostasis. Disruption of the functional skin barrier causes delayed wound healing, hypertrophic scarring, and many skin diseases. Herein, we show that reduced hydration increases the expression of S100 protein family members, S100A8/S100A9, in stratified keratinocyte culture and human ex vivo skin culture. Immunohistological analyses show that S100A8/A9 are highly expressed in the epidermis of human hypertrophic scar and keloid tissues. Reduced hydration demonstrates activation of fibroblasts in the keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. In contrast, knockdown of S100A8 or S100A9 by RNA interference in keratinocytes failed to activate fibroblasts. Pretreatment with pharmacological blockers of S100A8/A9 receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products, inhibits fibroblast activation induced by recombinant S100A8/A9 proteins. Moreover, we observe that local delivery of S100A8 protein results in a marked increase in hypertrophic scarring in the in vivo rabbit ear scar model. Our results indicate that hydration status promotes fibroblast activation and fibrosis by directly affecting the expression of inflammatory signaling in keratinocytes, thereby strongly suggesting S100A8/A9 to be novel targets in preventing scarring. PMID:26597884

  18. Dogs immunized with LBSap vaccine displayed high levels of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokines and CCL4, CCL5 and CXCL8 chemokines in the dermis.

    PubMed

    Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian; Siqueira-Mathias, Fernando Augusto; de Oliveira Cardoso, Jamille Mirelle; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; de Sá, Renata Guerra; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    The complex interplay between cytokines and chemokines regulates innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens; specifically, cytokine and chemokine expression drives activation of immune effector cells and their recruitment to tissue infection sites. Herein, we inoculated dogs with Leishmania braziliensis antigens plus saponin (the LBSap vaccine), as well as with the vaccine components, and then used real-time PCR to evaluate the kinetics of dermal expression of mRNAs of cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-13, TGF-β and IL-10) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21 and CXCL8) 1, 12, 24 and 48 h after inoculation. We also evaluated the correlation between cytokine and chemokine expression and dermal cellularity. The LBSap vaccine induced high levels of IL-12 and IL-10 expression at 12 and 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we observed positive correlations between IL-12 and IL-13 expression, IFN-γ and IL-13 expression, and IL-13 and TGF-β expression, suggesting that a mixed cytokine microenvironment developed after immunization with the vaccine. Inoculation with the saponin adjuvant alone induced a chemokine and cytokine expression profile similar to that observed in the LBSap group. CCL4 and CXCL8 chemokine expression was up regulated by the LBSap vaccine. CCL5 expression was initially highest in the LBSap group, but at 48 h, expression was highest in the LB group. Information about the kinetics of the immune response to this vaccine gained using this dog model will help to elucidate the mechanisms of and factors involved in a protective response against Leishmania infection and will aid in establishing rational approaches for the development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23911411

  19. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern formation of trout are proposed. PMID:26467239

  20. Age, Segment, and Horn Disease Affect Expression of Cytokines, Growth Factors and Receptors in the Epidermis and Dermis of the Bovine Claw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in amounts of RNA expression for growth factors, cytokines and receptors in epidermal-dermal tissues of the bovine claw relative to host age, claw region and disease state of the horn. Epidermal-dermal tissues were collected from the coronette, wall, sole...

  1. Genus IX. Hespellia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter for the Second Edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology summarizes the description of the genera Hespellia. The information includes isolation, identification, and phylogenetic characterization of the genera and the two species Hespellia stercorisuis and Hespellia porcina....

  2. Single-stage application of a novel decellularized dermis for treatment-resistant lower limb ulcers: positive outcomes assessed by SIAscopy, laser perfusion, and 3D imaging, with sequential timed histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Benatar, Brian; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    We present results of an original clinical study investigating efficacy of a decellularized dermal skin substitute (DCD) as part of a one-stage therapeutic strategy for recalcitrant leg ulcers. Twenty patients with treatment-resistant ulcers underwent hydrosurgical debridement, after which DCD was applied and covered with negative pressure dressings for 1 week. Participants were reviewed on seven occasions over 6 months. 3D photography, full-field laser perfusion imaging, spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis, and sequential biopsies were used to monitor healing. Mean ulcer duration and surface area prior to DCD placement were 4.76 years (range 0.25-40 years) and 13.11 cm(2) (range 1.06-40.75 cm(2)), respectively. Seventy percent of ulcers were venous. Surface area decreased in all patients after treatment (range 23-100%). Mean reduction was 87% after 6 months, and 60% of patients healed completely. Wound bed hemoglobin flux increased significantly 6 weeks after treatment (p = 0.005). Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed progressive DCD integration with colonization by host fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and neutrophils, resulting in fibroplasia, reepithelialisation, and angiogenesis, with correlating raised CD31, collagen I, and collagen III levels. Subgroup analysis showed differing cellular behavior depending on wound duration, with delayed angiogenesis, reduced collagen deposition, and smaller reductions in surface area in ulcers present for over 1 year. The stain intensities of immunohistochemical markers including fibronectin, collagen, and CD31 differed depending on depth from the wound surface and presence of intact epithelium. DCD safely produced significant improvement in treatment-resistant leg ulcers. With no requirement for hospital admission, anesthetic, or autogenic skin grafting, this treatment could be administered in hospital and community settings. PMID:24134424

  3. Topically applied vitamin C enhances the mRNA level of collagens I and III, their processing enzymes and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in the human dermis.

    PubMed

    Nusgens, B V; Humbert, P; Rougier, A; Colige, A C; Haftek, M; Lambert, C A; Richard, A; Creidi, P; Lapière, C M

    2001-06-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a cofactor required for the function of several hydroxylases and monooxygenases. It is not synthesized in humans and some other animal species and has to be provided by diet or pharmacologic means. Its absence is responsible for scurvy, a condition related in its initial phases to a defective synthesis of collagen by the reduced function of prolylhydroxylase and production of collagen polypeptides lacking hydroxyproline, therefore, they are unable to assemble into stable triple-helical collagen molecules. In fibroblast cultures, vitamin C also stimulates collagen production by increasing the steady-state level of mRNA of collagen types I and III through enhanced transcription and prolonged half-life of the transcripts. The aim of the experimental work has been to evaluate the effect on dermal cells of a preparation of vitamin C topically applied on one side vs placebo on the other side of the dorsal face of the upper forearm of postmenopausal women. Biopsies were collected on both sides and the level of mRNA measured by non competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction made quantitative by the simultaneous transcription and amplification of synthetic RNA used as internal standards. The mRNA of collagen type I and type III were increased to a similar extent by vitamin C and that of three post-translational enzymes, the carboxy- and amino-procollagen proteinases and lysyloxidase similarly increased. The mRNA of decorin was also stimulated, but elastin, and fibrillin 1 and 2 were not modified by the vitamin. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, and 9 was not significantly changed, but an increased level of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 mRNA was observed without modification of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 mRNA. The stimulating activity of topical vitamin C was most conspicuous in the women with the lowest dietary intake of the vitamin and unrelated to the level of actinic damage. The results indicate that the functional activity of the dermal cells is not maximal in postmenopausal women and can be increased. PMID:11407971

  4. Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary. PMID:24314373

  5. Softenin, a Novel Protein That Softens the Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers through Inhibiting Interaction between Collagen Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Takehana, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT) dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross-bridges between

  6. Combined Mastocytoma-hemangioma in a Patient with Urticaria Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Seung, Na Reu; Kang, Min Hee; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Chul Woo; Cho, Hee Jin; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2008-01-01

    A patient with long-standing urticaria pigmentosa presented with a pea-sized reddish to purplish papule on the posterior part of the right ear. Histopathologic examination revealed numerous dilated vascular structures in the upper dermis and mast cell infiltrations throughout the whole dermis, consistent with combined mastocytoma-hemangioma. The mast cells were strongly positive with Giemsa stain.

  7. Monitoring process of human keloid formation based on second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X. S.; Chen, S.; Chen, J. X.; Zhu, X. Q.; Zheng, L. Q.; Zhuo, S. M.; Wang, D. J.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the morphological variation of collagen among the whole dermis from keloid tissue was investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. In the deep dermis of keloids, collagen bundles show apparently regular gap. In the middle dermis, the collagen bundles are randomly oriented and loosely arranged in the pattern of fine mesh while the collagen bundles are organized in a parallel manner in the superficial dermis near the epidermis. The developed parameters COI and BD can be used to further quantitatively describe these changes. Our results demonstrate the potential of SHG microscopy to understand the formation process of human keloid scar at the cellular level through imaging collagen variations in different depth of dermis.

  8. [Fibroblast subpopulations: a developmental approach of skin physiology and ageing].

    PubMed

    Asselineau, Daniel; Pageon, Hervé; Mine, Solène

    2008-01-01

    Skin is an organ whose function is far beyond a physical barrier between the inside and the outside of the body. Skin as the whole organism is subjected to ageing which concerns skin mostly in its dermal and deepest component which is also its matricial component. The dermis is a tissue rich in matricial elements and poor in cellular content and it is generally admitted that modifications occurring in the matrix are those which mostly contribute to skin ageing, by altering its biomechanical properties. Therefore it is common to address questions related to skin ageing by considering alterations in matrix molecules like collagen. Actually the dermis is a complex tissue both matricial and cellular and is divided between a superficial dermis close to epidermis and a deep dermis much thicker and histologically different. Several years ago we have undertaken investigations related to fibroblasts which are the cells responsible for the formation and maintenance of the dermis, aiming at isolation, culture and characterization of the fibroblasts from the superficial dermis also called papillary dermis and fibroblasts from the deep dermis also called reticular dermis. We were able to show that these fibroblasts in classical culture on plastic exhibit very different morphologies associated with different secretion properties and we have confirmed and expanded such observations revealing different phenotypes by incorporating these cells in reconstructed skin which allows the reproduction of a three-dimensional architecture recalling skin in vivo especially after grafting onto the nude mouse. We also raise the question of how these two dermal regions appear during the formation of the dermis and the question of their fate during ageing. Progress in solving these questions would certainly appear to be very useful for a better understanding of skin physiology and ageing and would hopefully provide new strategies in anti-ageing research. PMID:18460304

  9. Multiphoton microscopy study of the morphological and quantity changes of collagen and elastic fiber components in keloid disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Jiang, Xingshan; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen; Lin, Bifang; Zeng, Haishan

    2011-05-01

    Multiphoton microscopy was used to study the extracellular matrix of keloid at the molecular level without tissue fixation and staining. Direct imaging of collagen and elastin was achieved by second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence, respectively. The morphology and quantity of collagen and elastin in keloid were characterized and quantitatively analyzed in comparison to normal skin. The study demonstrated that in keloid, collagen content increased in both the upper dermis and the deep dermis, while elastin mostly showed up in the deep dermis and its quantity is higher compared to normal skin. This suggests the possibility that abnormal fibroblasts synthesized an excessive amount of collagen and elastin at the beginning of keloid formation, corresponding to the observed deep dermis, while after a certain time point, the abnormal fibroblast produced mostly collagen, corresponding to the observed upper dermis. The morphology of collagen and elastin in keloid was disrupted and presented different variations. In the deep dermis, elastic fibers showed node structure, while collagen showed obviously regular gaps between adjacent bundles. In the upper dermis, collagen bundles aligned in a preferred direction, while elastin showed as sparse irregular granules. This new molecular information provided fresh insight about the development process of keloid.

  10. Dermascope assisted interactive patient interface for multiple reference optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dsouza, Roshan; Subhash, Hrebesh; Neuhaus, Kai; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in the development of a low cost depth-resolved non-invasive dermis imaging tool for both clinical and fundamental investigations of skin diseases. Multiple reference optical coherence tomography (MR-OCT) is a recently developed miniature time-domain low coherence interferometeric imaging platform, which promises to fit into robust, cost-effective designs that are virtually solid state, typical of handheld devices. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of MR-OCT for dermis imaging applications by incorporating it in a dermascope, which provides simultaneous imaging of dermis and an interactive tool for beam steering and registration of the OCT imaging beam at the dermis area. This allows the user to interactively investigate the depth resolved information of any target position of interest on the dermis by pointing the mouse cursor within the dermis image or selecting the area on a touch screen. Image acquisition is controlled with software that displays both the dermis and MR-OCT axial-scan, and allows detailed information of the depth scan signal to screen for skin disease. We believe this approach will have a significant impact on medical care.

  11. Expression of Hex during feather bud development.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Akiko; Akimoto, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    We studied proline-rich divergent homeobox gene Hex/Prh expression in the dorsal skin of chick embryo during feather bud development. Hex mRNA expression was first observed in the dorsolateral ectoderm and mesenchyme at 5 days, then in the epithelium and the dermis of the dorsal skin before placode (primordium of feather bud) formation and then was restricted to the placode and the dermis under the placode. Afterward, Hex expression was seen in the epidermis and the dermis of the posterior region of short bud. In accordance with Hex mRNA expression in the placode, Hex protein was observed in the epidermis as well as in the dermis of the placode. Immunoelectron microscopic study indicated that the protein located both in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the epidermis and the dermis at the short bud stage. The Wnt signaling pathway plays an essential role in the early inductive events in hair (Wnt3a and 7a) and feather (Wnt7a) follicles. The pattern of Hex expression in the epidermis was similar to that of Wnt7a, while little, if any, expression of Wnt7a was detected in the dermis under the placode or the dermis of the short bud compared with that of Hex, suggesting that Hex plays an important role in the initiation of feather morphogenesis. PMID:16172986

  12. A novel stiffening factor inducing the stiffest state of holothurian catch connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akira; Tamori, Masaki; Iketani, Tomoaki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2010-10-15

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows large changes in stiffness. Extensive studies on the dermis revealed that it can adopt three different states having different mechanical properties that can be reversibly converted. These are the stiff, standard and soft states. The standard state is readily produced when a dermal piece is immersed in the sea water containing Ca²+, whereas the soft state can be produced by removal of Ca²+. A stiffening protein, tensilin, has been isolated from some sea cucumbers (Cucumaria frondosa and Holothuria leucospilota). Although tensilin converts the state of the dermis from soft to standard, it cannot convert from standard to stiff. In this study, we isolated and partially purified a novel stiffening factor from the dermis of Holothuria leucospilota. The factor stiffened the dermis in normal artificial sea water (ASW) but did not stiffen the soft dermis in Ca²+-free ASW. It also stiffened the dermis that had been converted to the standard state in Ca²+-free ASW by the action of tensilin. These results suggest that the factor produces the stiff dermis from the standard state but cannot work as a stiffener on the soft dermis. Its addition to longitudinal muscles of the sea cucumber produced no effects, suggesting that its effect is specific to the catch connective tissue. Its stiffening activity was susceptible to trypsin, meaning that it is a polypeptide, and its molecular mass estimated from gel filtration chromatography was 2.4 kDa. PMID:20889821

  13. An anatomic comparison of the skin of five donor sites for dermal fat graft.

    PubMed

    Hwang, K; Kim, D J; Lee, I J

    2001-03-01

    Kim performed more than 3,000 augmentation rhinoplasties using the dermal fat graft. He preferred the sacral area as the donor site over other areas because the dermis is thick and the fat is more compact. The authors conducted a comparative study of the thickness of the epidermis and dermis, and the numbers of fibroblasts and fibrocytes in the dermis of the abdominal wall, groin, lateral gluteal area, gluteal fold, and sacrum of 7 adult cadavers. The sacrum had the thickest epidermis (86.1 +/- 7.8 microm) and dermis (1,510.7 +/- 201.7 microm), and the groin had the thinnest epidermis (57.3 +/- 22.9 microm) and dermis (783.3 +/- 244.5 microm). The dermal thickness of the abdomen, lateral gluteal area, and gluteal fold was 913.3 +/- 271.7 microm, 1,018.7 +/- 305.6 microm, and 1,107.0 +/- 272.6 microm respectively. The sacral dermis was significantly thicker than the other four sites (p < 0.008), and the groin dermis was the thinnest (p < 0.039). The number of fibroblasts and fibrocytes in the sacral area and the gluteal skin folds was significantly higher than the other areas (p < 0.05). The sacral area, gluteal fold, and lateral gluteal region had relatively thicker panniculus adiposus than the abdomen and groin. The panniculus adiposus of the sacral skin was especially well developed and was comprised of several compact layers that were connected by parallel, thick collagen fibers. The authors conclude that the sacral skin is a suitable donor site for dermal grafting because its dermis has more fibroblasts and fibrocytes than the other areas studied, and its dermis is more viable and durable. PMID:11293528

  14. Investigation of the optimal parameters for laser treatment of leg telangiectasia using the Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, Alwin; Hibst, Raimund

    1996-05-01

    Treatment of leg telangiectasia with a pulsed laser is investigated theoretically. The Monte Carlo method is used to calculate light propagation and absorption in the epidermis, dermis and the ectatic blood vessel. Calculations are made for different diameters and depths of the vessel in the dermis. In addition, the scattering and the absorption coefficients of the dermis are varied. On the basis of the considered damage model it is found that for vessels with diameters between 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm wavelengths about 600 nm are optimal to achieve selective photothermolysis.

  15. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-05-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  16. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  17. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  18. Ecthyma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Ecthyma is a skin infection similar to impetigo, but more deeply invasive. Usually caused by a streptococcus infection, ecthyma goes through the outer layer (epidermis) to the deeper layer (dermis) of ...

  19. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  20. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  1. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... irritation persisting for 21 days or more; (5) The pesticide is corrosive to the skin (causes tissue destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  2. Chick Delta-1 gene expression and the formation of the feather primordia.

    PubMed

    Viallet, J P; Prin, F; Olivera-Martinez, I; Hirsinger, E; Pourquié, O; Dhouailly, D

    1998-03-01

    The chick dermis is known to control the formation of feathers and interfeathery skin in a hexagonal pattern. The evidence that the segregation of two types of fibroblasts involves Delta/Notch signalling is based on three facts. Rings of C-Delta-1-expressing fibroblasts precede and delimit the forming feather primordia. C-Delta-1 is uniformly expressed in the dermis of the scaleless mutant, which is almost entirely devoid of feathers. Feather development is inhibited by overexpression of C-Delta-1 in wild type dermis using a retroviral construct. We also show that the distribution of C-Delta-1 in the mutant dermis can be rescued by its association with a wild type epidermis, which acts as a permissive inducer, or by epidermal secreted proteins like FGF2. PMID:9533960

  3. Dermal penetration and systemic distribution of sup 14 C-labeled vitamin E human skin grafted athymic nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Klain, G.J.

    1989-03-13

    In vivo percutaneous penetration and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled vitamin E applied to human skin grafted onto athymic nude mice were determined. At 1 hr, mouse skin contained the highest level of radioactivity, followed by the muscle, blood, liver, lung, adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, and eyes. A linear increase with time in tissue radioactivity was observed throughout the 24 hr experimental period. At 4 and 24 hrs skin grafts were highly radioactive. At 4 hrs the epidermis and the upper portion of the dermis contained more radioactivity than the remaining portion of the dermis. In contrast, at 24 hrs the highest level of radioactivity was detected in the lower dermis. No radioactivity was detected in expired air while 0.2% of the dose was found in the urine. The data show that vitamin E does penetrate skin and that the dermis acts as a barrier or reservoir for this highly lipophilic compound.

  4. Angiokeratoma of the glans penis: clinical, histopathological and dermoscopic correlation.

    PubMed

    Leis-Dosil, Vicente M; Alijo-Serrano, Francisco; Aviles-Izquierdo, Jose A; Lazaro-Ochaita, Pablo; Lecona-Echeverria, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Angiokeratoma is a benign vascular lesion characterized by vascular ectasia in the upper dermis and hyperkeratosis. We report a case with lesions on the glans penis, a very rare location. In addition, we report the dermoscopic findings. PMID:17498438

  5. Targetoid hemosiderotic hemangioma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai; Paiva, Daniele Loureiro Mangueira; Dantas, Fernando Luiz Teixeira; Gonçalves, Sheila Viana Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Targetoid Hemosiderotic Hemangioma, also known as Hobnail Hemangioma, is a lesion of vascular origin, probably lymphatic. The most common clinical feature is a solitary violaceous papule surrounded by a pale, thin area and a peripheral ecchymotic ring, simulating a target. Histopathologically, there is a biphasic pattern, with dilated vessels in the superficial dermis and pseudoangiosarcomatous pattern in the deep dermis, and endothelial cells with hobnail morphology. A simple excision is curative. We report a rare case of Targetoid Hemosiderotic Hemangioma. PMID:25387500

  6. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V

    2014-07-31

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents. (laser biophotonics)

  7. On the possibility of noninvasive polarimetric determination of glucose content in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdin, A. B.; Spivak, V. A.; Yakovlev, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on real structure and optical properties of the dermis, we analyzed the possibility of polarimetric measurement of glucose content in the skin. It was shown that, at physiological concentrations of glucose in the interstitial fluid, the optical activity of glucose is not manifested in the polarization and optical properties of the tissue, since the optical activity of glucose is almost completely suppressed by the linear birefringence of the dermis.

  8. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents.

  9. Histological Comparison of the Human Trunk Skin Creases: The Role of the Elastic Fiber Component

    PubMed Central

    Kakagia, Despoina; Yiacoumettis, Andreas; Vasilakaki, Thivi; Drougou, Aggeliki; Lambropoulou, Maria; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Tsaroucha, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Skin creases are features of major anatomical, morphological, surgical, and functional interest. This study focuses on the histological comparison of creases of the trunk and participation of the elastic fibers in their formation. The histological structure is a key consideration for the reconstructive planning of the relevant area and its knowledge may contribute in such direction. Methods: Fresh cadaver specimens were collected from the inframammary (n = 15), infragluteal (n = 16), and inguinal creases (n = 14), the anterior axillary fold (n = 14), and the surrounding skin (n = 10). Specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. Collagen and muscle fibers were stained by Masson Trichrome and Van Gieson stains, reticular and collagen type III fibers by Reticulin stain, and elastic fibers by Verhoef and Orcein stains. Results: Skin creases of the trunk present well-defined dense bundles of collagen fibers, creating a beehive pattern with broad attachment to the dermis and denser in deeper sites related to the fascia of the underlying muscle. The elastic fibers participate in the collagen pattern and radiate in a parallel pattern in the reticular dermis and in a perpendicular fashion in the papillary dermis. The skin surrounding the creases lacks such organization. Conclusions: Creases of the trunk are formed by well-organized collagen bundles in a beehive pattern, attached to the dermis and related to the underlying muscle fascia. The elastic fibers participate in this structure and radiate in a parallel fashion in the reticular dermis and perpendicularly in the papillary dermis. PMID:27081433

  10. Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Reversible Stiffening in Catch Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Tamori, Masaki; Ishida, Kinji; Matsuura, Eri; Ogasawara, Katsutoshi; Hanasaka, Tomohito; Takehana, Yasuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo; Osawa, Tokuji

    2016-01-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or a mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid, large and reversible stiffness changes in response to stimulation. The main component of the dermis is the extracellular material composed of collagen fibrils embedded in a hydrogel of proteoglycans. The stiffness of the extracellular material determines that of the dermis. The dermis has three mechanical states: soft (Sa), standard (Sb) and stiff (Sc). We studied the ultrastructural changes associated with the stiffness changes. Transverse sections of collagen fibrils in the dermis showed irregular perimeters with electron-dense protrusions or arms that cross-bridged between fibrils. The number of cross-bridges increased in stiffer dermis. The distance between the fibrils was shorter in Sc than that in other states, which was in accord with the previous report that water exuded from the tissue in the transition Sb→Sc. The ultrastructure of collagen fibrils that had been isolated from the dermis was also studied. Fibrils aggregated by tensilin, which causes the transition Sa→Sb possibly through an increase in cohesive forces between fibrils, had larger diameter than those dispersed by softenin, which antagonizes the effect of tensilin. No cross-bridges were found in isolated collagen fibrils. From the present ultrastructural study we propose that three different mechanisms work together to increase the dermal stiffness. 1.Tensilin makes collagen fibrils stronger and stiffer in Sa→Sb through an increase in cohesive forces between subfibrils that constituted fibrils; 2. Cross-bridging by arms caused the fibrils to be a continuous network of bundles both in Sa→Sb and in Sb→Sc; 3. The matrix embedding the fibril network became stiffer in Sb→Sc, which was produced by bonding associated with water exudation. PMID:27192546

  11. Characterization of antigen presenting cells and T-cells in progressing scabietic skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, B L; Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Moore, P F

    1996-12-31

    Experimentally infested dogs expressed successful adaptive immunity and self-cured of scabies after previously having scabies that required treatment to cure. A biphasic increase and decrease of CD1a+ Langerhans cells (LCs) in the epidermis of hosts infested the first time (sensitized) and infested a second time (challenged) suggested that these cells were actively involved in the hosts' early immune response to scabies. In contrast, in the dermis CD1a+ cell densities during both infestations increased to a single peak that followed the first peak of these cells in the epidermis. In addition, there was an influx of T-lymphocytes (CD3 epsilon + cells) and CD11c+ cells into the dermis following the first peak of LCs in the epidermis. The influx of T-lymphocytes in the dermis coincided with the peak density of CD1a+ cells in the dermis and epidermis during the second infestation. In both the epidermis and dermis, MHC Class II+ cell density profiles were similar to that of CD1a during the first infestation and then exhibited single peaks during the second infestation. The increases in CD1a+, CD3 epsilon + (T-lymphocytes), CD11c+, and MHC Class II+ cell responses in the dermis occurred earlier and were more intense in the challenge infestation compared with the first infestation. These data indicate that T-lymphocytes (CD3 epsilon +), CD11c+, MHC Class II+, and CD1a+ cells in the dermis played a major role in the successful immune response to scabies mites. PMID:9017872

  12. Telocyte dynamics in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Manole, CG; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Simionescu, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The presence of telocytes (TCs) as distinct interstitial cells was previously documented in human dermis. TCs are interstitial cells completely different than dermal fibroblasts. TCs are interconnected in normal dermis in a 3D network and may be involved in skin homeostasis, remodelling, regeneration and repair. The number, distribution and ultrastructure of TCs were recently shown to be affected in systemic scleroderma. Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin condition (estimated to affect about 0.1–11.8% of population), a keratinization disorder on a genetic background. In psoriasis, the dermis contribution to pathogenesis is frequently eclipsed by remarkable epidermal phenomena. Because of the particular distribution of TCs around blood vessels, we have investigated TCs in the dermis of patients with psoriasis vulgaris using immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). IHC and IF revealed that CD34/PDGFRα-positive TCs are present in human papillary dermis. More TCs were present in the dermis of uninvolved skin and treated skin than in psoriatic dermis. In uninvolved skin, TEM revealed TCs with typical ultrastructural features being involved in a 3D interstitial network in close vicinity to blood vessels in contact with immunoreactive cells in normal and treated skin. In contrast, the number of TCs was significantly decreased in psoriatic plaque. The remaining TCs demonstrated multiple degenerative features: apoptosis, membrane disintegration, cytoplasm fragmentation and nuclear extrusion. We also found changes in the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells in small blood vessels that lost the protective envelope formed by TCs. Therefore, impaired TCs could be a ‘missed’ trigger for the characteristic vascular pathology in psoriasis. Our data explain the mechanism of Auspitz’s sign, the most pathognomonic clinical sign of psoriasis vulgaris. This study offers new insights on the cellularity of

  13. Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Reversible Stiffening in Catch Connective Tissue of Sea Cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Ishida, Kinji; Matsuura, Eri; Ogasawara, Katsutoshi; Hanasaka, Tomohito; Takehana, Yasuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo; Osawa, Tokuji

    2016-01-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or a mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid, large and reversible stiffness changes in response to stimulation. The main component of the dermis is the extracellular material composed of collagen fibrils embedded in a hydrogel of proteoglycans. The stiffness of the extracellular material determines that of the dermis. The dermis has three mechanical states: soft (Sa), standard (Sb) and stiff (Sc). We studied the ultrastructural changes associated with the stiffness changes. Transverse sections of collagen fibrils in the dermis showed irregular perimeters with electron-dense protrusions or arms that cross-bridged between fibrils. The number of cross-bridges increased in stiffer dermis. The distance between the fibrils was shorter in Sc than that in other states, which was in accord with the previous report that water exuded from the tissue in the transition Sb→Sc. The ultrastructure of collagen fibrils that had been isolated from the dermis was also studied. Fibrils aggregated by tensilin, which causes the transition Sa→Sb possibly through an increase in cohesive forces between fibrils, had larger diameter than those dispersed by softenin, which antagonizes the effect of tensilin. No cross-bridges were found in isolated collagen fibrils. From the present ultrastructural study we propose that three different mechanisms work together to increase the dermal stiffness. 1.Tensilin makes collagen fibrils stronger and stiffer in Sa→Sb through an increase in cohesive forces between subfibrils that constituted fibrils; 2. Cross-bridging by arms caused the fibrils to be a continuous network of bundles both in Sa→Sb and in Sb→Sc; 3. The matrix embedding the fibril network became stiffer in Sb→Sc, which was produced by bonding associated with water exudation. PMID:27192546

  14. Development of full-thickness human skin equivalents with blood and lymph-like capillary networks by cell coating technology.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Fujimoto, Kumiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Koji; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    We developed a human skin equivalent (HSE) containing blood and lymph-like capillary networks using a cell coating technique, which is a rapid fabrication technology of three-dimensional cellular constructs by cell surface coating using layer-by-layer assembled nanofilms of extracellular matrices. The thickness of dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts was easily controlled from approximately 5 to 100 µm by altering the seeded cell number. Keratinocytes as a major cell population showed homogeneous differentiation on the surface of the dermis by lifting to air-liquid interface. Histological analysis revealed four distinct layers such as basal layer, spinous layer, granular layer, and cornified cell layer in the epidermis. Interestingly, the measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) indicated prolongation of the attainment time for maximum value by increasing the number of the dermal fibroblasts, and the HSEs with six layers of dermis revealed the longest period maintaining over 500 Ω cm(2) of TEER. The co-sandwich culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells within eight-layered dermis showed in vitro co-network formation of individual blood and lymph-like capillaries inside the dermis. This is the report for homogeneous full-thickness HSEs with blood and lymph capillary networks, which will be useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25850823

  15. Technical parameters of vertical in vivo multiphoton microscopy: a critical evaluation of the flyscanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekalla, C.; Schönborn, K. H.; Markworth, S.; Ulrich, M.; Göppner, D.; Gollnick, H.; Röwert-Huber, J.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    The optical biopsy could be a quick and painless support or alternative to a punch biopsy. In this letter the first in vivo vertical wide field two photon microscopy (2PM) images of healthy volunteers are shown. The 2PM images are fused images of two photon excited auto fluorescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) signals given as false-color images of 200 μm  ×  7 mm in size. By using these two nonlinear effects, the epidermis can be easily distinguished from the dermis at a glance. The auto fluorescence provides cellular resolution of the epidermal cells, and elastin fibers are partly visible in the dermis. Collagen, visible by SHG signal, is the dominant structure in the dermis. As contact agent water was evaluated to increase the AF signal, especially in the deeper layers of epidermis and dermis. For further improvement any terminal hairs should be removed by shaving and by taking tape strips of the first five layers of the stratum corneum. The first images illustrated that young skin compared to aged skin shows remarkably different dermal elastin and collagen signals in the dermis.

  16. Release of Propolis Phenolic Acids from Semisolid Formulations and Their Penetration into the Human Skin In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Briedis, Vitalis

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects are attributed to phenolic compounds present in propolis, and when delivered to the skin surface and following penetration into epidermis and dermis, they can contribute to skin protection from damaging action of free radicals that are formed under UV and premature skin aging. This study was designed to determine the penetration of phenolic acids and vanillin into the human skin in vitro from experimentally designed vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated the ability of propolis phenolic acids (vanillic, coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids) and vanillin to penetrate into skin epidermis and dermis. The rate of penetration and distribution is affected both by physicochemical characteristics of active substances and physical structure and chemical composition of semisolid vehicle. Vanillin and vanillic acid demonstrated relatively high penetration through epidermis into dermis where these compounds were concentrated, coumaric and ferulic acids were uniformly distributed between epidermis and dermis, and caffeic acid slowly penetrated into epidermis and was not determined in dermis. Further studies are deemed relevant for the development of semisolid topically applied systems designed for efficient delivery of propolis antioxidants into the skin. PMID:23762175

  17. Quail-duck chimeras reveal spatiotemporal plasticity in molecular and histogenic programs of cranial feather development.

    PubMed

    Eames, B Frank; Schneider, Richard A

    2005-04-01

    The avian feather complex represents a vivid example of how a developmental module composed of highly integrated molecular and histogenic programs can become rapidly elaborated during the course of evolution. Mechanisms that facilitate this evolutionary diversification may involve the maintenance of plasticity in developmental processes that underlie feather morphogenesis. Feathers arise as discrete buds of mesenchyme and epithelium, which are two embryonic tissues that respectively form dermis and epidermis of the integument. Epithelial-mesenchymal signaling interactions generate feather buds that are neatly arrayed in space and time. The dermis provides spatiotemporal patterning information to the epidermis but precise cellular and molecular mechanisms for generating species-specific differences in feather pattern remain obscure. In the present study, we exploit the quail-duck chimeric system to test the extent to which the dermis regulates the expression of genes required for feather development. Quail and duck have distinct feather patterns and divergent growth rates, and we exchange pre-migratory neural crest cells destined to form the craniofacial dermis between them. We find that donor dermis induces host epidermis to form feather buds according to the spatial pattern and timetable of the donor species by altering the expression of members and targets of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein, Sonic Hedgehog and Delta/Notch pathways. Overall, we demonstrate that there is a great deal of spatiotemporal plasticity inherent in the molecular and histogenic programs of feather development, a property that may have played a generative and regulatory role throughout the evolution of birds. PMID:15728671

  18. Up-regulation of cutaneous α1-adrenoceptors after a burn.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D; Dawson, Linda F; Finch, Philip M; Drummond, Eleanor S; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    Stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors evokes inflammatory cytokine production, boosts neurogenic inflammation and pain, and influences cellular migration and proliferation. As expression of α1-adrenoceptors increases on dermal nerves and keratinocytes after peripheral nerve injury, the aim of this study was to determine whether another form of tissue injury (a cutaneous burn) triggered a similar response. In particular, changes in expression of α1-adrenoceptors were investigated on dermal nerve fibres, keratinocytes and fibroblast-like cells using immunohistochemistry 2-12 weeks after a full thickness burn in Wistar rats. Within two weeks of the burn, local increases in α1-adrenoceptor expression were seen in the re-forming epidermis, in dense bands of spindle-shaped cells in the upper dermis (putatively infiltrating immune cells and fibroblasts), and on nerve fibres in the deep dermis. In addition, nerve fibre density increased approximately three-fold in the deep dermis, and this response persisted for several more weeks. In contrast, α1-adrenoceptor labelled cells and staining intensity in the upper dermis decreased contralateral to the burn, as did nerve fibre density in the deep dermis. These findings suggest that inflammatory mediators and/or growth factors at the site of a burn trigger the synthesis of α1-adrenoceptors on resident epidermal cells and nerve fibres, and an influx of α1-adrenoceptor labelled cells. The heightened expression of α1-adrenoceptors in injured tissue could shape inflammatory and wound healing responses. PMID:25630693

  19. Quail-duck chimeras reveal spatiotemporal plasticity in molecular and histogenic programs of cranial feather development

    PubMed Central

    Eames, B. Frank; Schneider, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The avian feather complex represents a vivid example of how a developmental module composed of highly integrated molecular and histogenic programs can become rapidly elaborated during the course of evolution. Mechanisms that facilitate this evolutionary diversification may involve the maintenance of plasticity in developmental processes that underlie feather morphogenesis. Feathers arise as discrete buds of mesenchyme and epithelium, which are two embryonic tissues that respectively form dermis and epidermis of the integument. Epithelial-mesenchymal signaling interactions generate feather buds that are neatly arrayed in space and time. The dermis provides spatiotemporal patterning information to the epidermis but precise cellular and molecular mechanisms for generating species-specific differences in feather pattern remain obscure. In the present study, we exploit the quail-duck chimeric system to test the extent to which the dermis regulates the expression of genes required for feather development. Quail and duck have distinct feather patterns and divergent growth rates, and we exchange premigratory neural crest cells destined to form the craniofacial dermis between them. We find that donor dermis induces host epidermis to form feather buds according to the spatial pattern and timetable of the donor species by altering the expression of members and targets of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein, Sonic Hedgehog and Delta/Notch pathways. Overall, we demonstrate that there is a great deal of spatiotemporal plasticity inherent in the molecular and histogenic programs of feather development, a property that may have played a generative and regulatory role throughout the evolution of birds. PMID:15728671

  20. Nucleolin enhances the proliferation and migration of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bimei; Li, Yuanbin; Liang, Pengfei; Liu, Yanjuan; Huang, Xu; Tong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Denatured dermis, a part of dermis in burned skin, has the ability to restore its normal morphology and functions after their surrounding microenvironment is improved. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the denatured dermis could improve wound healing are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts. Nucleolin mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased time-dependently during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts (52 °C, 30 seconds). Heat-denaturation promoted a time-dependent cell proliferation, migration, chemotaxis, and scratched wound healing during the recovery of human dermal fibroblasts. These effects were prevented by knockdown of nucleolin expression with small interference RNA (siRNA), whereas overexpression of nucleolin enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts with heat-denaturation. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) was significantly increased during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and human dermal fibroblasts. TGF-β1 expression was up-regulated by nucleolin in human dermal fibroblasts. The results suggest that nucleolin expression is up-regulated, and play an important role in promoting cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis with a mechanism probably related to TGF-β1. PMID:26148015

  1. Morphopathological features of a severe ulcerative disease outbreak associated with Tenacibaculum maritimum in cultivated sole, Solea senegalensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Vilar, P; Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Riaza, A; Silva, R; Santos, Y; Quiroga, M I

    2012-06-01

    This study describes morphopathologic changes in naturally infected farmed Senegalese sole affected by tenacibaculosis caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum. Macroscopic observation, in addition to light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, was used to study the lesions. Main lesions were characterized by complete loss of epidermis and dermis, as well as extensive necrosis of muscle layers. Mild-to-moderate inflammatory response with the presence of macrophages was noted around hyaline degenerated muscle cells. Gram-negative filamentous bacteria could be detected only at the dermis. Under scanning electron microscopy, filamentous bacteria located over the scales without epithelium could be observed. These findings together with the isolation and PCR detection of the bacteria in kidney and skin tissues suggest that once the bacteria reach the dermis, probably through eroded epidermis, they are able to proliferate and produce enzymes that are responsible for the damage in the underlying tissues. PMID:22506758

  2. Monte Carlo study of skin optical clearing to enhance light penetration in the tissue: implications for photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2008-06-01

    Result of Monte Carlo simulations of skin optical clearing is presented. The model calculations were carried out with the aim of studying of spectral response of skin under immersion liquids action and calculation of enhancement of light penetration depth. In summary, we have shown that: 1) application of glucose, propylene glycol and glycerol produced significant decrease of light scattering in different skin layers; 2) maximal clearing effect will be obtained in case of optical clearing of skin dermis, however, absorbed light fraction in skin dermis changed insignificantly, independently on clearing agent and place it administration; 3) in contrast to it, the light absorbed fraction in skin adipose layer increased significantly in case of optical clearing of skin dermis. It is very important because it can be used for development of optical methods of obesity treatment; 4) optical clearing of superficial skin layers can be used for decreasing of power of light radiation used for treatment of acne vulgaris.

  3. Growth and invasion of human melanomas in human skin grafted to immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, I.; Albelda, S. M.; Elder, D. E.; Murphy, G. F.; Adachi, K.; Herlyn, D.; Valyi-Nagy, I. T.; Herlyn, M.

    1993-01-01

    An orthotopic model of human melanoma was developed in which malignant cells were injected into human skin grafted to nude and SCID mice. Melanoma cells proliferated and invaded the human skin grafts with characteristic patterns. Three of six melanomas grew as multiple nodules and infiltered the grafts without major architectural changes in the dermis, whereas the others invaded the dermis along collagen fibers with prominent endothelial vessels. By contrast, melanoma cells inoculated into mouse skin grew as diffusely expanding nodules that did not invade the murine dermis. In human skin grafts, human melanoma cells were angiogenic for human blood vessels, and murine vessels were only found at the periphery of grafts. Tumor cells invaded the human vessels, and four out of seven cell lines metastasized to lungs, suggesting that this model is useful to determine in vivo the interactions between normal and malignant human cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8342600

  4. Drm/Gremlin, a BMP antagonist, defines the interbud region during feather development.

    PubMed

    Bardot, Boris; Lecoin, Laure; Fliniaux, Ingrid; Huillard, Emmanuelle; Marx, Maria; Viallet, Jean P

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of feather buds in a tract is thought to result from the relative ratios between activator and inhibitor signals through a lateral inhibition process. We analyse the role of Drm/Gremlin, a BMPs antagonist expressed during feather pattern formation, in the dermal precursor, the dense dermis, the interbud dermis and in the posterior dermal condensation. We have altered the activity of Drm in embryonic chick skin using retroviral vectors expressing drm/ gremlin and bmps. We show that expression of endogenous drm is under the control of a feedback loop induced by the BMP pathway, and that overexpression of drm results in fusion between adjacent feather buds. We propose that endogenous BMP proteins induce drm expression in the interbud dermis. In turn, the Drm/Gremlin protein limits the inhibitory effect of BMPs, allowing the adjacent row of feathers to form. Thus, the balance between BMPs and its antagonist Drm would regulate the size and spacing of the buds. PMID:15272379

  5. Stimulation of rat cutaneous fibroblasts and their synthetic activity by implants of powdered nacre (mother of pearl).

    PubMed

    Lopez, E; Le Faou, A; Borzeix, S; Berland, S

    2000-02-01

    The components of the cutaneous envelope, the epidermis and the dermis, change in response to aging or environmental stress factors. The fibroblasts involved in maintaining skin tone are the main targets. Nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, which can stimulate and regulate bone forming cells, was implanted in the dermis of rats to test its action on the skin fibroblasts. This report describes the effect of nacre on the skin fibroblast recruitment and physiological activity. It resulted in enhanced extracellular matrix synthesis and the production of components implicated in cell to cell adhesion and communication (such as decorine) and in tissue regeneration (type I and type III collagens). The nacre implant produced a well vascularized tissue. The physiological conditions in the region around the implant are thus those required for the positive interactions between the dermis and epidermis which are fundamental for the physiological function of the skin. PMID:10798323

  6. Mineralization of elastic fibers and alterations of extracellular matrix in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and X-ray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.R.; Frederickson, R.G.; Mayes, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Histologic paraffin sections of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-involved skin of forearm and axilla were used for histochemistry and immunohistochemical and analytical electron microscopy to study the progressive mineralization in the dermis of patients with PXE. The von Kossa technique identified mineral deposits throughout the reticular PXE dermis. X-ray analysis revealed patterns of calcium and phosphorus deposition in the von Kossa-positive areas, and the immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies identified increased chondroitin-6-sulfate in these areas when compared with normal skin. Scanning transmission electron microscopy observation combined with X-ray dot mapping show calcium and phosphorus to be codistributed within the mineralized area. This study confirms by new methods the increase in chondroitin-6-sulfate, alterations in elastin and collagen, and a high calcium and phosphorus elemental distribution matching the mineralized area in the PXE dermis.

  7. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across isolated hairless mouse stratum corneum/epidermal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method of preparing mouse stratum corneum/epidermal (SCE) tissue without the dermis for use in drug diffusion studies. The diffusion of radiolabeled diazepam across this new preparation has been studied and the effect of the dermis on diffusion evaluated. Incubation of large pieces of mouse skin in a 20mM EDTA, 15 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, in normal saline for 3-4 h at 37 degrees C resulted in a tissue which easily separated at the epidermal-dermal junction. The resulting tissue contains stratum corneum and epidermis, which are the same layers used in studies with human skin in vitro. The EDTA treatment did not effect diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across whole mouse skin (SCE and dermis) used as controls. The rate of drug diffusion was greater across SCE than SCE and dermis, however, 0.48-1.12 micrograms/cm2/h versus 0.11-0.52 microgram/cm/h, respectively. The permeability coefficients for mouse SCE ranged from 1.92-4.48 X 10(-2) cm/h. The lag times and diffusion coefficients were 0.36-0.91 h and 0.1-0.6 X 10(-6) cm2/h, respectively. The presence of the dermis decreased the diffusion rate or flux of diazepam. The dermis appears to accumulate drug until it is saturated and then the drug diffuses into the receiving chamber.

  8. Tensilin-like stiffening protein from Holothuria leucospilota does not induce the stiffest state of catch connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Nishida, Naoto; Motobayashi, Yumiko; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2006-05-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or mutable connective tissue that exhibits large changes in mechanical properties. A stiffening protein, tensilin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. We purified a similar protein, H-tensilin, from Holothuria leucospilota, which belongs to a different family to C. frondosa. H-tensilin appeared as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa on SDS-PAGE. No sugar chain was detected. Tryptic fragments of the protein had homology to known tensilin. H-tensilin aggregated isolated collagen fibrils in vitro in a buffer containing 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl with or without 10 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). The activity of H-tensilin was quantitatively studied by dynamic mechanical tests on the isolated dermis. H-tensilin increased stiffness of the dermis in the soft state, induced by Ca(2+)-free artificial seawater, to a level comparable to that of the standard state, which was the state found in the dermis rested in artificial seawater with normal ionic condition. H-tensilin decreased the energy dissipation ratio of the soft dermis to a level comparable to that of the standard state. When H-tensilin was applied on the dermis in the standard state, it did not alter stiffness nor dissipation ratio. The subsequent application of artificial seawater in which the potassium concentration was raised to 100 mmol l(-1) increased stiffness by one order of magnitude. These findings suggest that H-tensilin is involved in the changes from the soft state to the standard state and that some stiffening factors other than tensilin are necessary for the changes from the standard to the stiff state. PMID:16621940

  9. Sweet syndrome and its association with hematopoietic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Rodrigo; Levy, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The Sweet syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is rare and has characteristic clinical, physical, and pathologic findings: abrupt onset of pyrexia, elevated neutrophil count, tender erythematous skin lesions, and a diffuse infiltrate of mature neutrophils in the reticular dermis with edema in the papillary dermis. The Sweet syndrome can be further classified based on the clinical setting: classical, malignancy-associated, and drug-induced. Diagnosis can alert the clinician to the presence of an underlying malignancy or the recurrence of a malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is acute myelogenous leukemia. We present three cases of Sweet syndrome associated with hematopoietic neoplasms. PMID:25552802

  10. Giant Piloleiomyoma of the Forehead

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun-Wook; Park, Hyun-Je; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Su-Han; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous piloleiomyomas are benign smooth muscle tumors arising from the arrector pili muscles. Piloleiomyomas appear as firm dermal papules of skin color or with a reddish to brown surface, and are commonly located on the extremities. Histologically, these lesions are composed of interlacing bundles of smooth muscle cells in the reticular dermis. Our case presented with an unusually large nodule on the forehead that was accompanied by intermittent pain. Histological analysis was compatible with piloleiomyoma and the lesion showed haphazardly arranged bundles of smooth muscle in the dermis. We describe herein an interesting case of a giant piloleiomyoma occurring on the forehead. PMID:22148036

  11. Generalized mucinosis in a patient with erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Taku; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Terui, Tadashi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2006-01-01

    We describe an 81-year-old Japanese patient with erythroderma overlapping with widespread and symmetrical deposits of mucin in the upper dermis. Clinically, the mucinous lesions on the nape and upper trunk were localized papular mucinosis. Histologically, there was a perivascular infiltrate of lymphohistiocytic cells mingled with plasma cells in the upper dermis but no sclerosis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that more than 90% of these infiltrating plasma cells produced immunoglobulin lambda-chain. Both the erythroderma and generalized mucinosis responded to topical steroid and PUVA therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of erythroderma accompanied by generalized mucinosis. PMID:16707887

  12. On The Construction of Models for Electrical Conduction in Biological Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Aguilar, F.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Rosales-Garcia, J.; Guia-Calderon, M.

    2010-12-07

    Applying RC circuit theory, a theoretical representation for the electrical conduction in a biological multilayer system was developed. In particular an equivalent circuit for the epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous tissue was constructed. This model includes an equivalent circuit, inside the dermis, in order to model a small formation like tumor. This work shows the feasibility to apply superficial electrodes to detect subcutaneous abnormalities. The behavior of the model is shown in the form of a frequency response chart. The Bode and Nyquist plots are also obtained. This theoretical frame is proposed to be a general treatment to describe the bioelectrical transport in a three layer bioelectrical system.

  13. [Fatal hyperpyrexia in an adolescent patient with severe burns after a traffic accident].

    PubMed

    Jaehn, T; Sievers, R; Junger, A; Graunke, F; Blings, A; Reichert, B

    2016-07-01

    After a motorcycle accident a 16-year-old patient suffered severe burns to 40.5 % of the total body surface area (TBSA) of which 37 % were deep subdermal burns. After tangential and partly epifascial necrosectomy, Integra® was used as a temporary dermis replacement material for the lower extremities, combined with extensive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). In the further course of the treatment the patient developed uncontrollable hyperpyrexia with a fatal outcome. Possible influencing factors, such as the dermis replacement material combined with NPWT over large areas as well as the differential diagnoses propofol infusion syndrome, heatstroke and malignant hyperthermia are discussed. PMID:26767381

  14. Effective prevention of posttraumatic tattoo using hydrosurgical debridement in the ED.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Soo; Min, Jin Hong

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic tattoos can result from the accidental deposition of foreign particles in the dermis. These pigmented particles can become permanently lodged in the dermis after wound re-epithelialization and lead to irregular black or blue skin discoloration. Different methods exist for tattoo removal. The best strategy is to prevent traumatic tattoo formation by immediately removing the foreign particles before the healing process begins. Here, we present a fine-tuned, hydrosurgical debridement system to selectively debride wounds and preserve as much viable tissue as possible. PMID:26482686

  15. A Case of Intradermal Melanocytic Nevus with Ossification (Nevus of Nanta)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Kyung Ho

    2008-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with a 30-year history of asymptomatic plaque on her right temple. The histological examination revealed nests of nevus cells throughout the entire dermis. Bony spicules were seen just beneath the nevus cell nests in the lower dermis. Cutaneous ossification is an unusual event. Herein, we present a case of intradermal melanocytic nevus with unusual ossification (nevus of Nanta). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report in the Korean literature. PMID:27303191

  16. Mechanism for transport of ivermectin to the stratum corneum in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is used as an oral medication for scabies, a skin infection caused by a mite, sarcoptes scabiei, which parasitizes in the stratum corneum. After oral administration IVM is absorbed from the intestine, and finally distributed to the stratum corneum to eliminate the mites. However its transport mechanism remains unclear. A pharmacokinetic study was performed using hairless Wistar Yagi (HWY) rats, which have no or atrophied sebaceous glands, and Wistar rats as a reference. After oral administration of IVM to both groups, the area under the concentration-time curve of IVM in the dermis and epidermis (dermis-epidermis) of HWY rats were about 60% lower than that of Wistar rats, even though the plasma concentration profiles were comparable in both groups. In addition at 12 h after the administration, IVM concentration in the outer stratum corneum, the shallower layer of the dermis-epidermis, was higher compared to that in the deeper layer. In the dermis-epidermis of the skin from various locations, the concentrations of IVM and squalene, the latter of which is secreted to the skin surface via the sebaceous gland, were positively well correlated. Those results suggest that IVM is transported to the stratum corneum via the sebaceous glands. PMID:26613804

  17. Protein gene product 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibres and cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Hilliges, M; Jernberg, T; Wiegleb-Edström, D; Johansson, O

    1990-07-01

    Sections of human skin were processed according to the indirect immunofluorescence technique with a rabbit antiserum against human protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Immunoreactivity was detected in intraepidermal and dermal nerve fibres and cells. The intraepidermal nerves were varicose or smooth with different diameters, running as single processes or branched, straight or bent, projecting in various directions and terminating in the stratum basale, spinosum or granulosum. The density of the intraepidermal nerves varied between the different skin areas investigated. PGP 9.5-containing axons of the lower dermis were found in large bundles. They separated into smaller axon bundles within the upper dermis, entering this portion of the skin perpendicular to the surface. Then they branched into fibres mainly arranged parallel to the epidermal-dermal junctional zone. However, the fibres en route to the epidermis traversed the upper dermis more or less perpendicularly. Furthermore, immunoreactive dermal nerve fibres were found in the Meissner corpuscles, the arrector pili muscles, hair follicles, around the eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and around certain blood vessels. Such fibres were also observed around most subcutaneous blood vessels, sometimes heavily innervating these structures. Numerous weakly-to-strongly PGP 9.5-immunoreactive cells were found both in the epidermis and in the dermis. PMID:2143435

  18. Immunohistochemical screening for neurochemical markers in uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Han, S W; Ståhle-Bäckdahl, M; Hägermark, O

    1988-01-01

    The epidermis and dermis of 12 uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis were investigated utilizing the indirect immunofluorescence technique as a tool to study the distribution of neurochemical markers, such as neuropeptides. No differences between controls and the patients were revealed. PMID:3078417

  19. 40 CFR 157.22 - When required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING... to the eye (causes irreversible destruction of ocular tissue) or causes corneal involvement or... destruction into the dermis and/or scarring) or causes severe skin irritation (severe erythema or edema) at...

  20. Characterization of lymphocyte subtypes in scabietic skin lesions of naive and sensitized dogs.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Rapp, C M; Stemmer, B L; Morgan, M S; Moore, P F

    1997-03-01

    We delineated the density of cells expressing CD4, CD8, CD21 and CD45RA antigens in the cellular infiltrates in the epidermis, dermis and follicular epithelium in scabietic skin lesions of naive hosts and sensitized hosts that expressed resistance to scabies infestation. No cells expressing CD21 (B-lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells) were present in the epidermis and only a few were occasionally present in the dermis during both the first and second infestations. Naive T-cells (CD45RA+) and CD8+ cells (cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes) were present in varying densities in the infiltrates throughout the epidermis, dermis and follicular epithelium with no apparent differences in density and the rate of appearance between sensitizing and challenge infestations. CD4+ cells were abundant in fluctuating densities in the dermis, epidermis, and follicular epidermis during the sensitizing infestation and these cells became the dominant cell type early during the challenge infestation. The density of CD4+ cells in the infiltrate was much greater during the challenge than during the sensitization infestation. This population of CD4+ cells consisted of both T-helper/inducer cells and neutrophils and the large increase in their numbers during the challenge suggested they played a key role in the successful immune/inflammatory response that resulted in resistance to scabies infestation. PMID:9106956

  1. Visualization of the microcirculatory network in skin by high frequency optoacoustic mesoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Mathias; Aguirre, Juan; Buehler, Andreas; Omar, Murad; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-07-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging has a high potential for imaging melanin-rich structures in skin and the microvasculature of the dermis due to the natural chromophores (de)oxyhemoglobin, and melanin. The vascular network in human dermis comprises a large network of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, ranging from 5 μm to more than 100 μm in diameter. The frequency spectrum of the microcirculatory network in human skin is intrinsically broadband, due to the large variety in size of absorbers. In our group we have developed raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) that applies a 100 MHz transducer with ultra-wide bandwidth in raster-scan mode achieving lateral resolution of 18 μm. In this study, we applied high frequency RSOM to imaging human skin in a healthy volunteer. We analyzed the frequency spectrum of anatomical structures with respect to depth and show that frequencies >60 MHz contain valuable information of structures in the epidermis and the microvasculature of the papillary dermis. We illustrate that RSOM is capable of visualizing the fine vascular network at and beneath the epidermal-dermal junction, revealing the vascular fingerprint of glabrous skin, as well as the larger venules deeper inside the dermis. We evaluate the ability of the RSOM system in measuring epidermal thickness in both hairy and glabrous skin. Finally, we showcase the capability of RSOM in visualizing benign nevi that will potentially help in imaging the penetration depth of melanoma.

  2. Morphea-like complications to illicit gluteal silicone injections.

    PubMed

    Tausend, William E; Stewart, Larissa R; Rapini, Ronald P

    2015-04-01

    We present a case of a 39-year-old Hispanic woman who was referred to our clinic for treatment of several indurated plaques on her buttocks that developed one year prior to presentation, after she received injections of an unknown substance for augmentation. Biopsy of one nodule revealed silicone in the dermis. PMID:25933074

  3. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  4. Sweet Syndrome After Autologous Stem Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Ali; İdemen, Celal; Okçu Heper, Aylin; Utkan, Güngör

    2016-02-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is a rare clinical entity characterized by skin lesions, neutrophilia, fever, and neutrophilic infiltration of the dermis. It may be a consequence of malignant disease, comorbidities, or drugs. We present a case of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis in a patient after autologous stem cell transplant. PMID:25748978

  5. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Increases in Photodamaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kawabata, Keigo; Kusaka-Kikushima, Ayumi; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Takekoshi, Susumu; Miyasaka, Muneo; Ozawa, Akira; Sakai, Shingo

    2016-06-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage. Recent studies have described COMP as a pathogenic factor that promotes collagen deposition in fibrotic skin disorders such as scleroderma and keloid skin. Although collagen, a major dermis component, is thought to decrease in photoaged skin, recent reports have demonstrated the presence of tightly packed collagen fibrils with a structural resemblance to fibrosis in the papillary dermis of photoaged skin. Here we examined how photoaging damage relates to COMP expression and localization in photoaged skin. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in COMP-mRNA-positive cells with the progress of photoaging in preauricular skin (sun-exposed skin). The signal intensity of immunostaining for COMP increased with photoaging in not only the papillary dermis but also the reticular dermis affected by advancing solar elastosis. Immunoelectron microscopy detected the colocalization of COMP with both elastotic materials and collagen fibrils in photoaged skin. Ultraviolet light A irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts induced COMP expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Ultraviolet light A-induced COMP expression was inhibited by an anti-transforming growth factor-β antibody or SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor. These results suggest that the transforming growth factor-β-mediated upregulation of COMP expression may contribute to the modulation of dermal extracellular matrix in the photoaging process. PMID:26968261

  6. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rees-Jones, A M; Jenkinson, D M

    1978-03-01

    Topical application of aluminium chlorhydrate had no appreciable antiperspirant action on the epitrichial glands of cattle. There was no evidence of penetration of the salt into the dermis or of any change in the morphology of the glands. It is probable that the antiperspirant activity of aluminium chlorhydrate in the human axilla, is only on the atrichial glands. PMID:632617

  7. Fractional synthesis rates of DNA and protein in rabbit skin are not correlated.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-jun; Chinkes, David L; Wu, Zhanpin; Martini, Wenjun Z; Wolfe, Robert R

    2004-09-01

    We developed a method for measurement of skin DNA synthesis, reflecting cell division, in conscious rabbits by infusing D-[U-(13)C(6)]glucose and L-[(15)N]glycine. Cutaneous protein synthesis was simultaneously measured by infusion of L-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Rabbits were fitted with jugular venous and carotid arterial catheters, and were studied during the infusion of an amino acid solution (10% Travasol). The fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of DNA from the de novo nucleotide synthesis pathway, a reflection of total cell division, was 3.26 +/- 0.59%/d in whole skin and 3.08 +/- 1.86%/d in dermis (P = 0.38). The de novo base synthesis pathway accounted for 76 and 60% of the total DNA FSR in whole skin and dermis, respectively; the contribution from the base salvage pathway was 24% in whole skin and 40% in dermis. The FSR of protein in whole skin was 5.35 +/- 4.42%/d, which was greater (P < 0.05) than that in dermis (2.91 +/- 2.52%/d). The FSRs of DNA and protein were not correlated (P = 0.33), indicating that cell division and protein synthesis are likely regulated by different mechanisms. This new approach enables investigations of metabolic disorders of skin diseases and regulation of skin wound healing by distinguishing the 2 principal components of skin metabolism, which are cell division and protein synthesis. PMID:15333735

  8. Study by fluorescence microscopy of the effect of fluorescent whitening agents on the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Luckhaus, G; Löser, E

    1975-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopic studies of the skin of hairless mice showed that a fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) of the bis(phenyltriazolyl)stilbenedisulfonate type did not penetrate into the subepithelial layers (dermis and subcutaneous tissue) of the skin after cutaneous application. PMID:1064538

  9. Zonal dermal separation: a distinctive histopathological lesion associated with hyperelastosis cutis in a Quarter Horse.

    PubMed

    Brounts, S H; Rashmir-Raven, A M; Black, S S

    2001-08-01

    This case report describes a distinctive deep cutaneous lesion in a 1-year-old Quarter Horse filly with hyperelastosis cutis. The horse had a typical clinical presentation of hyperelastic skin associated with a 6-month history of cutaneous wounds that developed following minor cutaneous trauma. Punch biopsies of skin from the affected horse were thinner than similar biopsies from an age- and breed-matched control. Significant microscopic lesions were not seen in cutaneous punch biopsies stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stains, but the ultrastructure of the dermis from the affected horse was characterized by variation in collagen fibre diameter and loose packing of collagen fibres within bundles. The horse was euthanized and necropsied, and full-thickness sections of skin were collected and examined microscopically. Affected skin was of normal thickness; however, the deep dermis contained a distinctive horizontal linear zone in which separation of collagen bundles resulted in the formation of large empty cleft-like spaces between the upper and lower regions of the deep dermis. We suggest the term 'zonal dermal separation' for this microscopic lesion. Incisional full-thickness skin biopsies should be taken in suspected cases of equine hyperelastosis cutis because punch biopsies may not obtain enough deep dermis to adequately represent pathological change in the skin of horses with this disorder. PMID:11493407

  10. Microscopic anatomy of the skin of the woodchuck (Marmota monax): comparison of woodchuck hepatitis virus-infected and non-infected animals.

    PubMed

    Panić, R; Scott, D W; Anderson, W I; Tennant, B C

    1992-10-01

    Thirty-three woodchucks were used in this study. Seventeen animals were healthy adults, not infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV); 10 were healthy adults infected with WHV; 4 were noninfected neonates; 2 were infected neonates. Within the 4 groups of woodchucks, no histologic differences were detected on the basis of sex or age. Neither were histologic findings different between infected and noninfected woodchucks of similar ages. The average thickness of skin (as measured from the skin surface to the inner limit of the dermis) from the general haired body area was 2394 microns. The skin was thickest on dorsal body areas, and gradually became thinner on ventral body and medial limb areas. The epidermis consisted of 4 layers: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. A stratum lucidum was present only in the epidermis of the footpads. There was no clear distinction between the superficial dermis and the deep dermis, except for the subtle differences in arrangement and size of collagen fibers. Elastic fibers were seen throughout the dermis, being more prominent in the superficial portion. Both compound and simple hair follicle arrangements were seen, with compound being more common. The arrectores pilorum muscles were largest in the skin over the dorsal body areas. Sebaceous glands were present either within the outer root sheath of hair follicles or in the dense connective tissue surrounding hair follicles. No apocrine sweat glands were found. However, there were abundant eccrine sweat glands in the subcutaneous fat of the footpads. PMID:1424633

  11. Recurrent Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberance and its Management with Radical Excision and Interval Skin Grafting: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran; Mir, Mohd Altaf; Bariar, Lalit Mohan; Afroz, Nishat

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is very rare tumor of dermis layer of skin with the incidence of only 1 case per million per year. DFSP rarely leads to a metastasis (Less than 5% have metastasis), but DFSP can recur locally. We publish a rare case of a recurrent dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and its management with radical excision and interval skin grafting. PMID:27308244

  12. Rosacea-Like Leukemia Cutis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cruz Manzano, Mariana; Ramírez García, Lilliana; Sánchez Pont, Julio E; Velázquez Mañana, Ana I; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2016-08-01

    Leukemia cutis describes the infiltration and dissemination of neoplastic leukemic cells into the epidermis, dermis, or subcutis, resulting in clinically identifiable cutaneous lesions. Depending on the type of leukemia, a wide range of clinical and histopathological findings may be encountered. This report describes a patient with a rosacea-like eruption as a unique clinical presentation of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. PMID:27043335

  13. Heparin fragments modulate the collagen phenotype of fibroblasts from radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    el Nabout, R.; Martin, M.; Remy, J.; Robert, L.; Lafuma, C. )

    1989-10-01

    Acute local gamma irradiation of porcine skin induces, as in human skin, an extensive and mutilating sclerosis characterized by continuous expansion of the fibrosis invading the adjacent muscle and by accumulation of the macromolecular components of the extracellular matrix. Collagen synthesis, content, and types were studied in the presence of heparin fragments (100 micrograms/10(6) cells) in the culture medium, by measuring the incorporation of the radiolabeled precursor (3H)proline into confluent primary cultures of porcine fibroblasts obtained from normal and irradiated fibrotic dermis. Enhancement in collagen biosynthesis and deposition and preferential increase in collagen type III synthesis were observed in fibrotic fibroblast cultures when compared to those in normal dermis fibroblasts. The total collagen synthesis and the rate of collagen hydroxylation appear unmodified by heparin fragments both in normal and in fibrotic fibroblast cultures. But heparin fragments induce a 10- and 2-fold decrease, respectively, in collagen type III and type V syntheses by fibrosis fibroblasts. As only minor effects upon collagen type III and V are observed in cultures of normal dermis fibroblasts, these results highly suggest that heparin fragments are capable of specifically modulating the collagen phenotype of fibroblasts derived from radiation-induced dermis fibrosis and thus are able to regulate the fibrotic process.

  14. Quantitative characterization of chitosan in the skin by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and ninhydrin assay: application in transdermal sciences.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, A; Wong, T W

    2016-07-01

    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery. PMID:26695532

  15. Age-related decrease in CD271(+) cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Hasegawa, Seiji; Yamada, Takaaki; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Yagami, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-03-01

    According to recent studies, stem cells are found in various tissues in our bodies. It has been reported that stem cells can reside in the skin tissues, including the epidermis, dermis, hair follicles and subcutaneous tissues. Homeostasis of the skin is maintained because these stem cells collaborate with each other to form new cells. We previously identified the CD271(p75NTR)(+) cell as a stem cell that was present in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, and further investigated the role of stem cells in wound healing and their association with skin disease. In this study, we investigated the localization of CD271(+) cells in human skin (epidermis and dermis) and its age-related changes in stem cells using CD271(+) cells. The study revealed that the number of CD271(+) cells in the epidermis and dermis decreased with aging. It is possible that such an age-related decrease in stem cells causes impaired regenerative ability and is associated with various skin diseases. If the relationship between stem cells and skin aging and diseases can be elucidated by investigations such as this study, it may lead to the development of novel anti-aging technologies and medical treatments for skin diseases in the future. PMID:26300383

  16. Skin structure in the snout of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Kemp, A

    2014-10-01

    Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection. PMID:25175034

  17. Tinea corporis overlying the thyroid gland after radioiodine (131I) treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Yedinak, M.A.; Crooks, L.A.; Fox, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    A case of tinea corporis involving the skin overlying the thyroid gland is described in a 36-year-old man who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease. The dermatophytosis mimicked a delayed roentgen erythema. Radiation to the dermis may have locally altered the cell-mediated immunity and predisposed this patient to the dermatophytosis.

  18. Micro-domain analysis of skin samples of moor-mummified corpses by evanescent wave infrared spectroscopy using silver halide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küpper, L.; Heise, H. M.; Bechara, F.-G.; Stücker, M.

    2001-05-01

    Infrared microscopy plays an important role in chemical micro-domain analysis of inhomogeneous materials. A simple experimental arrangement based on fiber-optics, employing bent silver halide fibers of sub-millimeter diameter cross-section, was used for infrared ATR-measurements with a minimum spot size of 20×60 μm 2. It was applied for the analysis of skin specimens and hair samples of mummified corpses, preserved under bog conditions. The desiccated dermis samples looked leather-like, but were rather brittle, so that micro-ATR measurements by a fiber probe were appropriate. Comparable ATR-results were obtained using an IR-microscope. Composition along perpendicular dermis cross-sections was evaluated by comparison with spectra from reference materials. Natural dermis samples are mainly composed of collagen, primarily of type I and III, which was still found in the mummies' skin. The surfaces of the skin samples displayed chemical changes from moor constituents, while the center of the dermis cross-section consisted of unmodified collagen. Keratin in hair samples was also well preserved apart from surface changes, which had been caused by the bog chemistry in these samples and are clearly manifested in the infrared spectra.

  19. Epidermoid Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... epidermis) grows into the middle layer of the skin (dermis). This may occur due to injury or blocked hair follicles. The lesion may be ... the cyst. However, this is a temporary measure. After this treatment, a cyst will refill with the cheesy contents because the lining of the cyst has not been removed. ... Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp. ...

  20. Light microscopic histochemical and immunohistochemical localisation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in the rooster comb and wattle tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, T; Imai, S; Koga, T; Sim, J S

    1996-01-01

    Comb and wattle tissues, which consist of layers of epidermis, dermis and central connective tissue, are known to contain sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including dermatan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate-dermatan sulphate copolymers. Little is known about distribution of these CAGs in each tissue. The objective of this study was to localise sulphated GAGS in the comb and wattle tissues from mature roosters. Monoclonal antibodies 6D6, CS-56 and AH12 specific to dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (decorin), chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate, respectively, were used. In both tissues, 6D6 epitope was found to be more concentrated in the superficial layer of dermis and the central connective tissue than in the intermediate layer of dermis containing fibromucoid tissue. The staining pattern for 6D6 epitope was similar to that for collagen fibres. In contrast, CS-56 epitope was uniformly distributed in most parts of the dermis and the central connective tissue. The stratum germinativum in the epidermis was the major tissue showing positive staining with AH12, haematoxylin and safranin-O. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8982840

  1. Scleredema adultorum of Buschke over an unusual site associated with pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, C. Sujatha; Ambika, H.; Ambika, Hariharasubramony; Reddy, Nithya; Kumar De, Jayantha

    2014-01-01

    Scleredema adultorum of Buschke is characterized by symmetrical, diffuse, non-pitting erythematous swelling of the skin due to accumulation of collagen and mucopolysaccharides in the dermis. Herein we report a case of scleredema over an unusual site in a pregnant woman. PMID:25396130

  2. Scleredema adultorum of Buschke over an unusual site associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vinod, C Sujatha; Ambika, H; Ambika, Hariharasubramony; Reddy, Nithya; Kumar De, Jayantha

    2014-10-01

    Scleredema adultorum of Buschke is characterized by symmetrical, diffuse, non-pitting erythematous swelling of the skin due to accumulation of collagen and mucopolysaccharides in the dermis. Herein we report a case of scleredema over an unusual site in a pregnant woman. PMID:25396130

  3. Diffusion profile of macromolecules within and between human skin layers for (trans)dermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Römgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Baaijens, Frank P T; Oomens, Cees W J

    2015-10-01

    Delivering a drug into and through the skin is of interest as the skin can act as an alternative drug administration route for oral delivery. The development of new delivery methods, such as microneedles, makes it possible to not only deliver small molecules into the skin, which are able to pass the outer layer of the skin in therapeutic amounts, but also macromolecules. To provide insight into the administration of these molecules into the skin, the aim of this study was to assess the transport of macromolecules within and between its various layers. The diffusion coefficients in the epidermis and several locations in the papillary and reticular dermis were determined for fluorescein dextran of 40 and 500 kDa using a combination of fluorescent recovery after photobleaching experiments and finite element analysis. The diffusion coefficient was significantly higher for 40 kDa than 500 kDa dextran, with median values of 23 and 9 µm(2)/s in the dermis, respectively. The values only marginally varied within and between papillary and reticular dermis. For the 40 kDa dextran, the diffusion coefficient in the epidermis was twice as low as in the dermis layers. The adopted method may be used for other macromolecules, which are of interest for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. The knowledge about diffusion in the skin is useful to optimize (trans)dermal drug delivery systems to target specific layers or cells in the human skin. PMID:26151288

  4. Exploration of the wound healing effect of topical administration of nicotine in combination with collagen scaffold in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Hiromu; Morimoto, Naoki; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-06-01

    Nicotine has been reported to prolong the wound healing; however, we showed that the topical application of 10(-4) M nicotine promoted murine wound healing. The objective of this study was to explore the wound healing effects of nicotine in combination with collagen scaffold using skin defects in rabbit. Three full-thickness skin defects 8 mm in diameter were made on the rabbit auricle. Artificial dermis was applied to the defects, and 10 μl of nicotine solution (10(-5), 10(-4), and10(-3) M), bFGF solution (0.5 μg/10 μl), and both bFGF and 10(-4) M nicotine solutions were injected into the artificial dermis once daily for 7 days. Rabbits were sacrificed on day 10, 15, or 20, and the wound healing process was evaluated. bFGF was superior in the formation of the dermis-like tissue and capillaries. In nicotine groups, the epithelial length and the dermis-like tissue formations in the 10(-4) M group were superior, in contrast, those were inhibited in the 10(-3) M group. The synergistic effect of bFGF and 10(-4) M nicotine was not confirmed. This study suggests that the topical application of 10(-4) M nicotine promoted wound healing in rabbit, but the effect was not apparent compared with murine models. PMID:26497310

  5. Sympathectomies lead to transient substance P-immunoreactive sensory fibre plasticity in the rat skin.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, I; Cuello, A C; Shigemoto, R; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A

    2001-01-01

    Research using animal models of neuropathic pain has revealed sympathetic sprouting onto dorsal root ganglion cells. More recently, sensory fibre sprouting onto dorsal root ganglion cells has also been observed. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated persistent sympathetic fibre sprouting in the skin of the rat lower lip following sensory denervation of this region. Therefore, we applied immunocytochemistry to determine the effects of sympathectomies on the terminal fields of sensory fibres. The superior cervical ganglia were removed bilaterally and the effects on the innervation of the skin of the rat lower lip were observed 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-surgery. Substance P and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivities were used to identify a subset of sensory and sympathetic fibres, respectively. We also assessed neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactivity. Quantitative data was obtained with the aid of an image analysis system. In controls, the epidermis and upper dermis were innervated by substance P-immunoreactive fibres only and upper dermal blood vessels possessed the highest density of neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactivity. Blood vessels in the lower dermis were innervated by both substance P- and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibres. Following sympathectomies, substance P-immunoreactive fibres in the epidermis and upper dermis were more intensely labelled only 1 and 2 weeks post-surgery when compared to sham controls. The length of substance P-immunoreactive fibres in this region was also increased only on the second week. Neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactivity in the upper dermis was slightly decreased 1 and 2 weeks post-surgery. In the lower dermis, substance P-immunoreactive fibres associated with blood vessels were more intensely labelled only 1 and 2 weeks post-surgery, and at all post-surgical time points studied, blood vessels in this region were devoid of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibres. The length of substance P

  6. Pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by venom of the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis: An experimental study in mice.

    PubMed

    Rivel, Mario; Solano, Daniela; Herrera, María; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Álvaro; Arias, Ana Silvia; León, Guillermo; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by the venom of the African spitting cobra Naja nigricollis was investigated in a mouse model. Intradermal injection of venom induced a macroscopic necrotic lesion. Histological examination revealed early edema of the dermis, followed by blistering, loss of skin appendages and reduction in cellularity. By 24 h, necrosis of the dermis was evident, sections of epidermis were lost, and a fibrinoid hyaline material filled the damaged areas. Abundant inflammatory infiltrate was present in the hypodermis and basal dermis, and there was an increment in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Thrombi were observed in blood vessels. Abundant cells were present in the dermis by 7 days. By 14 and 28 days, re-epithelization had occurred, collagen was widespread in the dermis, and few skin appendages were present. The RP-HPLC fractions that reproduced the necrotic activity were composed of low molecular mass cytotoxins of the three-finger toxin family and, to a lesser extent, of phospholipases A2 (PLA2). Inhibition of PLA2 of venom by p-bromophenacyl bromide did not reduce the area of necrosis, but modified the appearance of necrotic regions. Depletion of neutrophils and inhibition of venom metalloproteinases and tissue MMPs did not affect dermonecrosis. IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of dermonecrosis when incubated with venom prior to injection. However, when antivenoms were administered immediately after venom injection, dermonecrosis was reduced only to a partial extent, underscoring the difficulties in neutralizing this effect with antivenoms. PMID:27288896

  7. Ultraviolet B radiation increases hairless mouse mast cells in a dose-dependent manner and alters distribution of UV-induced mast cell growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H; Murphy, G F

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the effects of chronic UVB irradiation on dermal connective tissue in the hairless mouse, we observed that the number and size of mast cells was increased. Because mast cells are known to be associated with connective tissue remodeling, we examined and quantified the effect of increasing UVB (290-320 nm) doses on this cell. Groups of mice were exposed to filtered FS-40 Westinghouse lamps (290-400 nm: peak irradiance 313 nm) for 1-5 minimal erythema doses (MED) thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Appropriate controls were included. Biopsies, processed for light microscopy, were stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted in 15 high-magnification fields per specimen with upper and lower dermis scored separately. Significant increases in large densely granular mast cells occurred at 2 MED in the lower dermis, in association with a UVB-exacerbated granulomatous reaction. In the upper dermis, mast cells were significantly increased with 3 MED. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a dual role in UV-irradiated skin with those in the lower dermis related to inflammation processes and those in the upper dermis involved in connective tissue modeling. To gain understanding of the mechanism of mast cell recruitment and maturation, we examined the effect of UVB on mast cell growth factor expression. This was enhanced in the epidermis by UVB, with a shift from cytoplasmic staining to membrane-associated or intercellular staining at 2 MED and higher. Dermal dendritic and mononuclear cells also showed increased reactivity. PMID:8577864

  8. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  9. Peripheral nerve injury leads to the establishment of a novel pattern of sympathetic fibre innervation in the rat skin.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, I; Cuello, A C; Ribeiro-Da-Silva, A

    2000-06-26

    Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in sympathetic fibre sprouting around dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. It has been suggested that this anomalous sympathetic fibre innervation of the DRG plays a role in neuropathic pain. Other studies have suggested an interaction between sympathetic and sensory fibres more peripherally. To date, no anatomical study of these possible interactions in the terminal fields of sensory and sympathetic fibres has been performed; therefore, the authors set out to study them in the rat lower lip after bilateral lesions of a sensory nerve, the mental nerve (MN). Immunocytochemistry for both substance P (SP) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) was performed. Within the first week post-MN lesions, the SP-immunoreactive (IR) fibres had degenerated almost completely, whereas DbetaH-IR fibres were found in the upper dermis, an area from which they normally are absent. These DbetaH-IR fibres were present in the upper dermis at all postsurgery times studied (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks). It is noteworthy that, although, by week 6 post-MN lesions, SP-IR fibre reinnervation of the lower lip was occurring, the DbetaH-IR fibres still were present in the upper dermis. Quantification revealed that the migration and branching of the DbetaH-IR fibres into the upper dermis occurred gradually and was most significant at 4 weeks post-MN lesions, as demonstrated by the fact that the DbetaH-IR fibres were found 169.6 +/- 91.4 microm away from the surface of the skin compared with 407.1 +/- 78.4 microm away in sham-operated animals. These findings suggest that the ectopic innervation of the upper dermis by sympathetic fibres may be important in the genesis of neuropathic pain through the interactions of sympathetic and SP-containing sensory fibres. PMID:10842232

  10. Characterization and mechanisms of photoageing-related changes in skin. Damages of basement membrane and dermal structures.

    PubMed

    Amano, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Sun-exposed skin is characterized by superficial changes such as wrinkles, sagging and pigmentary changes, and also many internal changes in the structure and function of epidermis, basement membrane (BM) and dermis. These changes (so-called photoageing) are predominantly induced by the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight. Epidermis of UV-irradiated skin produced several enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), urinary plasminogen activator (uPA)/plasmin and heparanase, which degrade dermal collagen fibres and elastic fibres in the dermis, and components of epidermal BM. The BM at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) controls dermal-epidermal signalling and plays an important role in the maintenance of a healthy epidermis and dermis. BM is repetitively damaged in sun-exposed skin compared with unexposed skin, leading to epidermal and dermal deterioration and accelerated skin ageing. UV exposure also induces an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenic factor, while thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an anti-angiogenic factor, is decreased; these changes induce angiogenesis in papillary dermis with increased migration of elastase-positive leucocytes, leading to dermal elastic fibre damage. Elastic fibres, such as oxytalan fibres in papillary dermis, are associated with not only skin resilience, but also skin surface texture, and elastic fibre formation by fibroblasts is facilitated by increased expression of fibulin-5. Thus, induction of fibulin-5 expression is a damage-repair mechanism, and fibulin-5 is an early marker of photoaged skin. UV-induced skin damage is cumulative and leads to premature ageing of skin. However, appropriate daily skincare may ameliorate photoageing by inhibiting processes causing damage and enhancing repair processes. PMID:27539897

  11. Desmoplastic melanoma associated with an intraepidermal lentiginous lesion: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bastos Junior, Cesar de Souza; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan Manuel; Moraes, Fernando Manuel Belles de

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma tends to present as firm, amelanotic papules. Microscopically, it reveals a proliferation of fusiform cells in the dermis and variable collagen deposition, as well as intraepidermal melanocytic proliferation of lentiginous type in most cases. Biopsy in a 61-year-old white male patient, who had received a diagnosis of lentigo maligna on his face 10 years before, revealed a proliferation of dermal pigmented spindle cells and collagen deposition, reaching the deep reticular dermis, with a lentiginous component. Immunohistochemistry with S-100, Melan-A and WT1 showed positivity, but it was weak with HMB45. Desmoplastic melanoma associated with lentigo maligna was diagnosed. Several authors discuss whether desmoplastic melanoma represents a progression from the lentiginous component or arises "de novo". Desmoplastic melanoma represents a minority of cases of primary cutaneous melanoma (less than 4%). Identification of lentigo maligna indicates that desmoplastic melanoma should be carefully investigated. PMID:23793214

  12. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus. PMID:27374541

  13. Schnitzler's syndrome with IgG kappa gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Ruri; Yoshida, Masami; Matsuda, Rie; Miyasaka, Keiichi; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2002-11-01

    A seventy-year-old man with a variant type of Schnitzler's syndrome is reported. Physical examination showed pruritic urticarial lesions on the extremities, arthralgia of knee joints, and intermittent fever. Laboratory investigations revealed a high level of IgG, an increased enythrocyte sedimentation rate, urinary Bence-Jones protein, and an M-bow in serum protein electrophoresis, which was shown to be a monoclonal IgG kappa type. Histological examination showed perivascular neutrophil and lymphocytic infiltration into the upper dermis and diffuse neutrophilic infiltration in the middle dermis. One of the clinical features of typical Schnitzler's syndrome is IgM macroglobulinemia, and this is a very rare case of this syndrome with IgG gammopathy. PMID:12484437

  14. In vivo optical monitoring of transcutaneous delivery of calcium carbonate microcontainers.

    PubMed

    Genina, Elina A; Svenskaya, Yulia I; Yanina, Irina Yu; Dolotov, Leonid E; Navolokin, Nikita A; Bashkatov, Alexey N; Terentyuk, Georgy S; Bucharskaya, Alla B; Maslyakova, Galina N; Gorin, Dmitry A; Tuchin, Valery V; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a method for delivery of biocompatible CaCO3 microcontainers (4.0 ± 0.8 µm) containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles (14 ± 5 nm) into skin in vivo using fractional laser microablation (FLMA) provided by a pulsed Er:YAG laser system. Six laboratory rats have been used for the microcontainer delivery and weekly monitoring implemented using an optical coherence tomography and a standard histological analysis. The use of FLMA allowed for delivery of the microcontainers to the depth about 300 μm and creation of a depot in dermis. On the seventh day we have observed the dissolving of the microcontainers and the release of nanoparticles into dermis. PMID:27375927

  15. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. PMID:27240341

  16. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  17. Hybrid eccrine gland and hair follicle hamartoma: a new entity of adnexal nevus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Di-Qing; Huang, Chang-Zheng; Xie, Wen-Lin; Xu, Feng-Feng; Mo, Li-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    Eccrine nevus shows increase in number or size of eccrine glands, whereas hair follicle nevus is composed of densely packed normal vellus hairs, and eccrine-pilar angiomatous nevus reveals increase of eccrine, pilar, and angiomatous structures. No case with increased number of both eccrine glands and hair follicles only in the dermis has been previously reported. A 10-month-old girl presented with cutaneous hamartoma with overlying skin hyperpigmentation on her left hypochondrium since 3 months of age, in whom the lesion was completely excised. Histopathology demonstrated evidently increased number of both eccrine glands and hair follicles in the dermis with reactive hyperplasia of collagen fibers. No recurrence occurred after the tumor was completely excised. A term "hybrid eccrine gland and hair follicle hamartoma" is proposed for this unique lesion. PMID:24335519

  18. Clinicopathologic features of an infant with generalized congenital epithelioid blue nevi.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ge; Zhou, Ying; Li, Shi-Jie; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Since epithelioid blue nevus (EBN) was 1st described in patients with Carney complex, 49 sporadic EBN cases, including 4 congenital EBN, have been reported. We present a 2-month-old healthy female with more than 1000 congenital EBN on the entire body. Skin biopsy revealed many nevus nests located in the upper dermis and a few nests extended around the sweat ducts and hair follicles in the middle and lower dermis. The heavily pigmented melanocytes were substantially epithelioid and occasionally spindle cells, admixed with melanophages. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong staining for S-100 and HMB-45 but weak or moderate staining for Melan-A in dermal melanocytes after melanin bleaching with potassium permanganate and oxalic acid prior to incubation with the primary antibody. A diagnosis of congenital EBN was made based on clinicopathologic and immunopathologic findings. PMID:24020844

  19. Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2010-06-23

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis. (laser methods in medicine)

  20. Clinically granulomatous cheilitis with plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Ghosh, Sarmistha; Sengupta, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis, also known as plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign inflammatory condition clinically characterized by erythematous plaque on lips that may be ulcerated. Histopathologically it is characterized by dense plasma cell infiltrates in a band-like pattern in dermis, which corresponds to Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. On the other hand, granulomatous cheilitis, as a part of orofacial granulomatosis, manifests as sudden diffuse or nodular swelling involving lip and cheek. Initial swelling is soft to firm, but with recurrent episodes swelling gradually become firm rubbery in consistency. We hereby report a case of cheilitis in a 52-year-old man with diffuse swelling involving lower lip, which clinically resembles granulomatous cheilitis, but histopathological examination showed diffuse infiltrate of plasma cells predominantly in upper and mid-dermis. PMID:27057489

  1. Heterogeneous Pathology of Melasma and Its Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Hwang, Young-Ji; Lee, Soo-Keun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of the skin, with frequent facial involvement. Its histologic manifestations are evident in the epidermis, extracellular matrix, and dermis. In addition to epidermal pigmentation, pathologic findings of melasma include extracellular matrix abnormality, especially solar elastosis. The disrupted basement membrane has been described in melasma with variable incidences. In the dermis, an increase in vascularity and an increase in the number of mast cells were observed, indicating that dermal factors have critical roles in the pathogenesis of melasma, despite the fact that melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation. This review discusses such histologic characteristics of melasma, with consideration to their implications for melasma treatment. PMID:27240341

  2. Discrete papular dermal mucinosis with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ertam, Ilgen; Karaca, Nezih; Ceylan, Can; Kazandi, Alican; Alper, Sibel

    2011-03-01

    The cutaneous focal mucinoses are a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by deposition of mucin found either focally or diffusely in the dermis. A 47-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic flesh-colored papules on the neck, inguinal area, intergluteal area, vulvar area, and extremities of 5 months' duration. There was no history of preceding trauma or insect bites. The patient had undergone a subtotal thyroidectomy 21 years prior but had not used any thyroid medication before she was referred to our clinic. Thyroid ultrasonography was consistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis. During dermatologic examination, flesh-colored, well-defined, smooth papules that measured approximately 1.5 x 1 cm in size on the genital region, fingers, face, and scalp were seen. Histopathologic examination of a lesional biopsy revealed no abnormalities in the epidermis. Alcian blue staining showed that abundant deposits of dermal mucin had replaced collagen in the dermis. PMID:21488572

  3. Cutaneous mastocytosis with a mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit in a young laboratory beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yuki; Kashiwagi, Emi; Masuno, Koichi; Fujisawa, Kae; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Matsushima, Shuuichi; Torii, Mikinori; Takasu, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous mastocytosis, which resembles a subset of urticaria pigmentosa in humans, is rare in dogs. We herein report unrepresentative neoplastic proliferation of mast cells in ventral skin removed routinely from a nine-month-old female laboratory beagle dog at necropsy. A histological examination revealed diffuse extensive cellular infiltration from the superficial to deep dermis in most parts of the skin around the fourth and fifth mammary papilla without nodule formation. Tumor cells were fairly monomorphic, well-differentiated mast cells with round nuclei of small distinct nucleoli and moderate to abundant, slightly eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm. A perivascular arrangement of mast cells was noted at the margin of the lesions. Infiltration of eosinophils and degeneration of collagen were not observed in the dermis. Cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed based on these features. A sequence analysis of lesions revealed the deletion of Gln555 to Ile570 within the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit (exon 11). PMID:26989302

  4. Dual-effect laser handpiece for modification of tissue permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    A new approach for improving the availability of topically applied drugs by reducing the permeability of dermis has been evaluated. The premise of this work is that photothermal vascular injury will reduce vascular uptake of drug in the dermis. The dermal distribution of two topically applied drugs, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C, is calculated, considering molecular diffusion and vascular uptake according to a distributed model, in the presence and absence of vascular injury. Intradermal drug exposures obtained are compared to exposures known to be effective in killing tumor cells. Combining the reduction in dermal permeability with fractional photothermal epidermal ablation to increase epidermal permeability may allow higher drug concentrations to be achieved in the skin. A newly developed laser handpiece for implementing the technique is described.

  5. Inadequate Processing of Decellularized Dermal Matrix Reduces Cell Viability In Vitro and Increases Apoptosis and Acute Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Aaron H.; Chang, Julie; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Decellularized tissue scaffolds are commonly used in the clinic because they can be used as substitutes for more traditional biomaterials, while imparting additional physiological effects. Nevertheless, reports of complications associated with their use are widespread and poorly understood. This study probes possible causes of these complications by examining cell viability and apoptosis in response to eluents from decellularized dermis. Using multiple sources of decellularized dermis, this study shows that typical decellularized scaffolds (prepared with commonly used laboratory techniques, as well as purchased from commercial sources) contain soluble components that are cytotoxic and that these components can be removed by extensive washes in cell culture media. In addition, this study demonstrates that these observed in vitro phenotypes correlate with increased apoptosis and acute inflammation when implanted subcutaneously in mice. PMID:27500014

  6. Clinically granulomatous cheilitis with plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Somenath; Ghosh, Sarmistha; Sengupta, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis, also known as plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign inflammatory condition clinically characterized by erythematous plaque on lips that may be ulcerated. Histopathologically it is characterized by dense plasma cell infiltrates in a band-like pattern in dermis, which corresponds to Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. On the other hand, granulomatous cheilitis, as a part of orofacial granulomatosis, manifests as sudden diffuse or nodular swelling involving lip and cheek. Initial swelling is soft to firm, but with recurrent episodes swelling gradually become firm rubbery in consistency. We hereby report a case of cheilitis in a 52-year-old man with diffuse swelling involving lower lip, which clinically resembles granulomatous cheilitis, but histopathological examination showed diffuse infiltrate of plasma cells predominantly in upper and mid-dermis. PMID:27057489

  7. Blepharopigmentation: histopathologic observations and X-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, K.B.; Payne, C.M.; Heyde, R.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Blepharopigmentation or permanent eyeliner is a popular cosmetic procedure currently performed by a variety of methods. All methods attempt to implant ferrous oxide pigment into the dermis. We performed histopathologic studies on a series of three eyelid specimens, including two by a previously undescribed multi-needle pigment delivery system. Light microscopy revealed the epidermis to be pigment-free and the dermis to contain pigment in clumps. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the pigment was largely in macrophages. Energy-dispersive x-ray micro-analysis showed that in addition to iron and talc, titanium particles were also present. These findings suggest that the pigment is tolerated by the eyelid despite the fact that current pigments are contaminated.

  8. Kyrle's Disease Presenting in an Extensive Distribution along Lines of Blaschko

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Kakkar, Sunita; Mishra, Pratibha; Pragasam, Vijendran; Dabbas, Disha

    2015-01-01

    A 24-year-old lady presented with the complaints of asymptomatic dark, raised lesions over her body since past 4 years. Dermatological examination revealed hyperkeratotic, hyperpigmented papules in a Blaschkoid distribution over trunk and extremities. The hyperkeratotic lesions could be removed leaving behind a small crater. Skin biopsy revealed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis with epidermal invagination, focal cornified plug with basophilic degenerated material and dyskeratotic keratinocytes. Dermis showed dilated capillaries with moderate amount of perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate and granulomatous lymphocytic infiltrate in the deep dermis. A diagnosis of Kyrle's disease was made and patient was started on oral acitretin 25 mg daily with satisfactory response to therapy. This is the first reported instance of Kyrle's disease occurring in an extensive Blaschkoid distribution. PMID:26288452

  9. Similar appearance, different mechanisms: xerosis in HIV, atopic dermatitis and ageing.

    PubMed

    Mischo, Meike; von Kobyletzki, Laura B; Bründermann, Erik; Schmidt, Diedrich A; Potthoff, Anja; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; Havenith, Martina

    2014-06-01

    Xerosis is one of the most common dermatologic disorders occurring in the elderly and in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Xerosis has been linked to an impaired skin barrier function of the stratum corneum. Using Raman microspectroscopy, we concentrated on deeper skin layers, viable epidermis and dermis of 47 volunteers and associated molecular alterations to the evolution of xerosis and the skin barrier, for example, lipid, water and antioxidant content. A decrease in lipids within the viable epidermis is found for elderly and HIV-patients. Lipid and water values of AD patients and their healthy reference group are similar. Decreases in lipids and simultaneous increases in water are found in the dermis for HIV and AD patients in comparison to their healthy reference groups. Excessive levels of epidermal carotenoids, mainly lycopene, in HIV-patients were found potentially leading to adverse effects such as premature skin ageing. PMID:24758518

  10. Two-photon microscopy of dermal innervation in a human re-innervated model of skin.

    PubMed

    Sevrain, David; Le Grand, Yann; Buhé, Virginie; Jeanmaire, Christine; Pauly, Gilles; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent; Lebonvallet, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    When skin is injured, innervation can be severely disrupted. The subsequent re-innervation processes are poorly understood notably because of the inability to image the full meandering course of nerves with their ramifications and endings from histological slices. In this letter, we report on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy of entire human skin explants re-innervated by rodent sensory neurons labelled with the styryl dye FM1-43. TPEF imaging of nerve fibres to a depth up to roughly 300 μm within the dermis was demonstrated, allowing three-dimensional reconstruction of the neural tree structure. Endogenous second-harmonic imaging of type I fibrillar collagen was performed in parallel to TPEF imaging using the same nonlinear microscope, revealing the path of the nerves through the dermis. PMID:23445261

  11. Collagen remodeling in photo-thermal damaged skin with optical coherence tomography and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shu-lian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-man; Yu, Lili

    2009-08-01

    Cutaneous photo-thermal damage is the common damages in clinical medicine; it is a complex and dynamic process that follows an orderly sequence of events. The sequence can be roughly divided into three distinct, yet sequentially overlapping phases-inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. Characteristic structural changes associated with each phase could provide a basis for photo-thermal damage assessment with imaging technologies. Monitoring the skin tissue response during the skin after irradiated by laser and tracing the process of skin remodeling would help to understand the mechanism of photo-thermal. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging were used to observe the process of the collagen remodeling in mouse dermis photo-thermal injured which after irradiated by intense pulsed light source (IPLs) in this paper. Our finding showed that the OCT and MPM techniques can image the process of collagen remodeling in mouse dermis.

  12. The different steps of skin formation in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Viallet, Jean P; Michon, Frederic; Pearton, David J; Dhouailly, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    Skin morphogenesis occurs following a continuous series of cell-cell interactions which can be subdivided into three main stages: 1- the formation of a dense dermis and its overlying epidermis in the future appendage fields (macropattern); 2- the organization of these primary homogeneous fields into heterogeneous ones by the appearance of cutaneous appendage primordia (micropattern) and 3- cutaneous appendage organogenesis itself. In this review, we will first show, by synthesizing novel and previously published data from our laboratory, how heterogenetic and heterospecific dermal/epidermal recombinations have allowed us to distinguish between the respective roles of the dermis and the epidermis. We will then summarize what is known from the work of many different research groups about the molecular signaling which mediates these interactions in order to introduce the following articles of this Special Issue and to highlight what remains to done. PMID:15272376

  13. Abortive placode formation in the feather tract of the scaleless chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Leslie; Lindon, Catherine M; Freeman, Allison; Morgan, Bruce A

    2007-11-01

    The featherless phenotype of the scaleless mutant provides a model for delineating the process of feather follicle formation. Initial studies established that the mutation affects the epidermis and suggested that epidermis is unable to respond to signals from underlying dermis, or propagate a reciprocal signal. The work presented here demonstrates that scaleless epidermis does indeed respond to the initial inductive signals from dermis, as indicated by the localization of nuclear beta-catenin and transient focal expression of genes expressed in the placode of wild-type feather rudiments. In the sporadic "escaper" feathers that form in scaleless, expression of many genes associated with the progression of feather development is comparable to that in wild-type embryos. An exception is the ectodysplasin receptor gene Edar, which is expressed at lower levels in mutant feather buds. These observations suggest that the scaleless mutation impairs the locally augmented expression of Edar required to stabilize the placodal fate and sustain feather development. PMID:17948257

  14. Sonic Hedgehog functions by localizing the region of proliferation in early developing feather buds.

    PubMed

    McKinnell, Iain W; Turmaine, Mark; Patel, Ketan

    2004-08-01

    Feathers are formed following a series of reciprocal signals between the epithelium and the mesenchyme. Initially, the formation of a dense dermis leads to the induction of a placode in the overlying ectoderm. The ectoderm subsequently signals back to the dermis to promote cell division. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted protein expressed in the ectoderm that has previously been implicated in mitogenic and morphogenetic processes throughout feather bud development. We therefore interfered with Shh signaling during early feather bud development and observed a dramatic change in feather form and prominence. Surprisingly, outgrowth did occur and was manifest as irregular, fused, and ectopic feather domains at both molecular and morphological levels. Experiments with Di-I and BrdU indicated that this effect was at least in part caused by the dispersal of previously aggregated proliferating dermal cells. We propose that Shh maintains bud development by localizing the dermal feather progenitors. PMID:15242792

  15. Milia En Plaque as a Distinct Follicular Hamartoma With Cystic Trichoepitheliomatous Features

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Akira; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Milia en plaque (MEP) is an uncommon disorder characterized by an erythematous plaque containing numerous milia. The pathogenesis of MEP is not clear. The authors report a man with an erythematous plaque on the right retroauricular area, containing numerous white-yellow cysts varying in size. Histological examination showed that multiple cystic structures at various levels of the dermis that were lined by stratified squamous epithelium and contained keratinous material—these findings were consistent with the diagnosis of multiple milia. In addition to epidermal cysts, however, the lesion consisted of a branched proliferation of pale-staining keratinocytes lined with basal keratinocytes budding from the overlying epidermis. Moreover, some cysts were formed within the branched epithelial proliferation, had thicker cyst walls than the ordinary milium, or had irregular or branched projections toward the surrounding dermis. From these findings, the authors conclude that MEP is a distinct follicular hamartoma with cystic trichoepitheliomatous features. PMID:26381115

  16. [Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis without arthritis: successful therapy with hydroxychloroquine].

    PubMed

    Gerbing, Eva Kristina; Metze, Dieter; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja

    2003-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a rare entity characterized by cutaneous linear strands (the "rope sign") and rheumatoid arthritis. In the past years, 12 other cases have been described with variable cutaneous symptoms. All showed similar histological features, resembling those of granuloma annulare or 'palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis', suggesting a wide spectrum for a single entity. A 60-year-old patient presented with erythematous patches with an indurated, violaceous border resembling the "rope sign" on both flanks. The histological investigation revealed dense diffuse interstitial inflammatory infiltrates composed of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in the superficial and deep dermis. In the deep dermis, prominent eosinophilic degenerated collagen fibres with surrounding macrophages ('floating sign') occurred. In contrast to most previously described patients, our patient did not have arthralgias. The skin findings cleared following therapy with hydroxychloroquine. PMID:16285183

  17. Pellagra in a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ghorbel, Imed; Litaiem, Noureddine; Chelly, Ines; Houman, Habib

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with persistent dryness of the mouth and eyes. She presented with permanent photodistributed rash involving the face and distal extremities. Laboratory tests showed positive Sjögren's syndrome (SS)-A and SS-B antibodies. Histological examination of minor salivary gland biopsy revealed inflammatory infiltration grade 4 according to Chisholm's classification. Skin biopsy showed acanthosis, hyperkeratosis in the epidermis and little inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis. There was an infiltration of CD4 T lymphocytes in the dermis. Based on the characteristics of the dermatitis and on a rapid response to niacin replacement, the diagnosis of pellagra was carried out. A complete resolution of the dermatological signs was obtained within 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, the association between primary SS and pellagra has never been reported. We emphasise the possible mechanisms of this association. PMID:24943141

  18. In vivo optical monitoring of transcutaneous delivery of calcium carbonate microcontainers

    PubMed Central

    Genina, Elina A.; Svenskaya, Yulia I.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Dolotov, Leonid E.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for delivery of biocompatible CaCO3 microcontainers (4.0 ± 0.8 µm) containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles (14 ± 5 nm) into skin in vivo using fractional laser microablation (FLMA) provided by a pulsed Er:YAG laser system. Six laboratory rats have been used for the microcontainer delivery and weekly monitoring implemented using an optical coherence tomography and a standard histological analysis. The use of FLMA allowed for delivery of the microcontainers to the depth about 300 μm and creation of a depot in dermis. On the seventh day we have observed the dissolving of the microcontainers and the release of nanoparticles into dermis. PMID:27375927

  19. Visualization of dermal alteration in skin lesions with discoid lupus erythematosus by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L. H.; Yu, H. B.; Zhu, X. Q.; Zhuo, S. M.; Wang, Y. Y.; Yang, Y. H.; Chen, J. X.

    2013-04-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic dermatological disease which lacks valid methods for early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Considering the collagen and elastin disorder due to mucin deposition of DLE, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging techniques were employed to obtain high-resolution collagen and elastin images from the dermis. The content and distribution of collagen and elastin were quantified to characterize the dermal pathological status of skin lesions with DLE in comparison with normal skin. Our results showed a significant difference between skin lesions with DLE and normal skin in terms of the morphological structure of collagen and elastin in the dermis, demonstrating the possibility of MPM for noninvasively tracking the pathological process of DLE even in its early stages and evaluating the therapeutic efficacy at the molecular level.

  20. LASER METHODS IN MEDICINE: Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-06-01

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis.

  1. Study of Native Type I Collagen Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, August

    2006-03-01

    Presented in this work is direct imaging and force microscopy of native, intact type I collagen fibrils extracted from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa dermis with affiliated proteoglycan molecules. The prototypical collagen fibril structure is well conserved through higher mammalian species and presents a model for study of the mechanical properties of the primary individual components of the dermis and skeletal ligature. Common practice is to use reconstituted fibrils which lack the precise conformal structure and affiliated proteoglycans. We have performed force microscopy to probe the mechanical properties of native fibrils and extract the elastic modulus under natural conditions. This knowledge is combined transmission and atomic force imaging, in conjunction with applied computation models, to demonstrate an inherent semitubular structure of these fibrils.

  2. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Erythema Migrans, the Hallmark Rash of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Dhruv K.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate pathogen-host interactions during early Lyme disease, we developed a mathematical model that explains the spatiotemporal dynamics of the characteristic first sign of the disease, a large (≥5-cm diameter) rash, known as an erythema migrans. The model predicts that the bacterial replication and dissemination rates are the primary factors controlling the speed that the rash spreads, whereas the rate that active macrophages are cleared from the dermis is the principle determinant of rash morphology. In addition, the model supports the clinical observations that antibiotic treatment quickly clears spirochetes from the dermis and that the rash appearance is not indicative of the efficacy of the treatment. The quantitative agreement between our results and clinical data suggest that this model could be used to develop more efficient drug treatments and may form a basis for modeling pathogen-host interactions in other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24507617

  3. A case of stasis papillomatosis associated with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Katagiri, K; Itami, S; Takayasu, S

    1996-05-01

    A markedly obese, 41-year-old Japanese man who had suffered from psoriasis vulgaris for several years visited us with elephantiasis-like swelling of his lower legs of three months' duration. His right lower leg showed marked papillomatosis with thick scales, and the left lower leg was eroded and papillomatous. Although direct lymphography of his lower extremities showed no abnormality, indirect lymphography revealed local lymphatic damage in the involved skin. Histological examination showed hyperkeratosis, marked papillomatosis, proliferation of capillaries in the upper dermis, and lymphectasia in the lower dermis. The lesions were much improved by washing and topical use of corticosteroids for two months. It was suspected that obesity and the preceding psoriatic lesions caused local lymphatic disturbances, followed by the development of stasis papillomatosis. PMID:8675828

  4. Cutaneous mastocytosis with a mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit in a young laboratory beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuki; Kashiwagi, Emi; Masuno, Koichi; Fujisawa, Kae; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Matsushima, Shuuichi; Torii, Mikinori; Takasu, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous mastocytosis, which resembles a subset of urticaria pigmentosa in humans, is rare in dogs. We herein report unrepresentative neoplastic proliferation of mast cells in ventral skin removed routinely from a nine-month-old female laboratory beagle dog at necropsy. A histological examination revealed diffuse extensive cellular infiltration from the superficial to deep dermis in most parts of the skin around the fourth and fifth mammary papilla without nodule formation. Tumor cells were fairly monomorphic, well-differentiated mast cells with round nuclei of small distinct nucleoli and moderate to abundant, slightly eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm. A perivascular arrangement of mast cells was noted at the margin of the lesions. Infiltration of eosinophils and degeneration of collagen were not observed in the dermis. Cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed based on these features. A sequence analysis of lesions revealed the deletion of Gln555 to Ile570 within the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit (exon 11). PMID:26989302

  5. Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulations of dermoscopic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel S.; Li, Ting; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James

    2012-03-01

    Clinical skin-lesion diagnosis uses dermoscopy: 10X epiluminescence microscopy. Skin appearance ranges from black to white with shades of blue, red, gray and orange. Color is an important diagnostic criteria for diseases including melanoma. Melanin and blood content and distribution impact the diffuse spectral remittance (300-1000nm). Skin layers: immersion medium, stratum corneum, spinous epidermis, basal epidermis and dermis as well as laterally asymmetric features (eg. melanocytic invasion) were modeled in an inhomogeneous Monte Carlo model.

  6. Diagnostic Challenge of Desmoplastic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Andreevscaia, Olga; Theate, Ivan; Goossens, Cathy; Vanhooteghem, Olivier

    2016-03-21

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare variant of spindle-cell malignant melanoma. DM is easily misdiagnosed at an early stage because it can be confused with benign entities. Histological analysis, including careful attention to the presence of atypical spindle cells, as well as to lymphocytic aggregates in an abundant fibrotic stroma in the dermis, provides clues for diagnosis. The adjunction of an immunohistochemical panel, and particularly testing for S-100 protein, is needed for the final diagnosis. PMID:27134705

  7. Granulomatous pyoderma gangrenosum of the genitalia in the absence of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kambil, Srinath M.; Bhat, Ramesh M.; Dandekeri, Sukumar

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative neutrophilic disorder of the skin. Atypical variants of PG such as vegetative PG, bullous PG, and pustular forms are described in literature. Occasionally, granulomatous reaction in dermis may be seen on histology when PG is associated with Crohn's disease or in the vegetative variant of PG. We report a case of granulomatous PG involving the genitalia in a 43-year-old female without associated inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26392658

  8. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids. PMID:27234546

  9. Pre-tibial myxedema: treatment with intralesional corticosteroid*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Luana Oliveira; Mattos, Paloma Corrêa; de Figueredo, Giuseppe Lemos Pertoti; Maia, Alef Alioscha Andrade; Romero, Sandra Adolfina Reys

    2015-01-01

    The pretibial myxedema is a manifestation of Graves' disease characterized by accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the reticular dermis. The dermopathy is self-limiting but in some cases may cause cosmetic and functional damage. Conventional treatment is use of topical steroids under occlusive dressing, however the intralesional application has shown good results. We present a case of pretibial myxedema treated with single injection of intralesional corticosteroid. PMID:26312698

  10. Nano-scale observations of tattoo pigments in skin by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Colin A; Twigg, Peter C; Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have shown how particles in carbon black tattoo ink accumulate in the human skin dermis using fine-resolution atomic force microscopy, with which a single ink particle in the collagenous network can be imaged. This information further demonstrates that tattoo inks are nano-particles. Further, we have deposited a commercially available tattoo ink on a glass slide and calculated a range of volumes for single ink particles. PMID:25833630

  11. Origin Use of CD4, CD8, and CD1a Immunostains in Distinguishing Mycosis Fungoides from its Inflammatory Mimics: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi; Panjwani, Poonam K

    2012-01-01

    Patch-stage/early mycosis fungoides (MF) is difficult to differentiate from benign dermatoses, despite several robust histologic criteria. Most studies include advanced lesions and data about early disease is limited. Objectives: (1) To compare the CD4:CD8 ratio in patch-stage MF versus inflammatory mimics. (2) To study patterns of CD1a expression in the epidermis and dermis in the two groups. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases each of early MF and inflammatory dermatoses were selected. The diagnoses were established after clinicopathologic correlation, repeat biopsies, and follow-up. The inflammatory group included pityriasis lichenoides chronica, actinic reticuloid, lichenoid purpura, and various psoriasiform dermatoses. Immunohistochemistry was done for CD4, CD8, and CD1a. Epidermal CD4, CD8 cells were quantified and CD1a was graded semi-quantitatively in the epidermis and dermis. Results: The average CD4:CD8 ratio was 4.2 in MF (range: 1-16.8), and 0.9 in inflammatory diseases (range: 0.43-5), which was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). None of the MF cases had a ratio <1. Four cases of pityriasis lichenoides chronica had a ratio >1. CD1a cells had a continuous or confluent epidermal pattern in almost all cases of MF, while they occurred as small or large groups in the dermis. In inflammatory dermatoses, there were either isolated or scattered CD1a+ cells in both epidermis and dermis. Conclusions: Elevated CD4:CD8 ratio favors MF. But there is an overlap in the lower range with pityriasis lichenoides chronica. These cases require good clinicopathologic correlation and follow-up. Patterns of CD1a expression are more reliable. Immunostains buttress morphology and are a valuable addition. PMID:23248358

  12. Vascular structures in dermoscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Ayhan, Erhan; Ucmak, Derya; Akkurt, ZeynepMeltem

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy is an aiding method in the visualization of the epidermis and dermis. It is usually used to diagnose melanocytic lesions. In recent years, dermoscopy has increasingly been used to diagnose non-melanocytic lesions. Certain vascular structures, their patterns of arrangement and additional criteria may demonstrate lesion-specific characteristics. In this review, vascular structures and their arrangements are discussed separately in the light of conflicting views and an overview of recent literature. PMID:26375224

  13. In-vivo experimental evaluation of nonablative skin remodeling using a 1.54-μm laser with surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Capon, Alexandre; Creusy, Collette; Fleurisse, Laurence; Buys, Bruno; Faucheux, Marc A.; Servell, Pascal

    2000-05-01

    Selective dermal remodeling using diode or 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers has been recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. This new technique consists in inducing collagen tightening and/or neocollagen synthesis without significant damage of the overlying epidermis. Such an approach requires (1) a cooling system in order to target dermal collagen with relatively good protection of the epidermal layer, (2) a specific wavelength for confining the thermal damage into the upper dermis (100 to 400 micrometer). Based on previous studies, demonstrating a better water absorption and a reduced melanin absorption at 1.54 micrometer compared to the 1.32 micrometer, this experimental study aimed to evaluate a new laser (co-doped Yb-Er:phosphate glass material, Aramis, Quantel-France) emitting at 1.54 micrometer. This laser was used in combination with the Dermacool system (Dermacool, Mableton, USA) in order to achieve epidermis cooling before, during and after irradiation. Male hairless rats were used for the study. Pulse train irradiation (1.1 J, 3 Hz, 30 pulses) and different cooling temperatures (+5 degree(s)C, 0 degree(s)C, -5 degree(s)C) were screened with clinical examination and histological evaluation at 1, 3, and 7 days after laser irradiation. The clinical effects showed that pulse train irradiation produced reproducible epidermal preservation and confinement of the thermal damage into the dermis. The different cooling temperatures did not provide detectable differences in terms of size and depth of thermal damage. New collagen synthesis was confirmed by a marked fibroblastic proliferation, detected in the lower dermis at D3 and clearly seen in the upper dermis at D7. This new laser appears to be a promising new tool for the treatment of skin laxity, solar elastosis, facial rhytids and mild reduction of wrinkles.

  14. Diagnostic Challenge of Desmoplastic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Andreevscaia, Olga; Theate, Ivan; Goossens, Cathy; Vanhooteghem, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare variant of spindle-cell malignant melanoma. DM is easily misdiagnosed at an early stage because it can be confused with benign entities. Histological analysis, including careful attention to the presence of atypical spindle cells, as well as to lymphocytic aggregates in an abundant fibrotic stroma in the dermis, provides clues for diagnosis. The adjunction of an immunohistochemical panel, and particularly testing for S-100 protein, is needed for the final diagnosis. PMID:27134705

  15. Verrucous Hemangioma Treated with Electrocautery

    PubMed Central

    Fatani, Mohammad; Al Otaibi, Homaid; Mohammed, Muath; Hegazy, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous hemangioma is a rare vascular malformation consisting of a proliferation of dilated blood vessels of different sizes that occupy the dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis of the affected area shows a strong proliferative reaction that presents as a warty appearance. Here, we report the case of a 17-year-old male who presented with an asymptomatic warty growth above the lateral malleolus on the right leg, which healed after electrocautery. PMID:27462218

  16. A Case of Idiopathic Eruptive Macular Pigmentation Limited to Flexural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, En Hyung; Kim, You Chan

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation is a rare condition characterized by asymptomatic pigmented macules involving the neck, trunk, and proximal portions of the extremities. On histopathologic examination, there was increased pigmentation of the basal layer in otherwise normal epidermis and scattered melanophages in the papillary dermis. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation involving only the flexural areas of the body. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of flexural hyperpigmented skin lesions.

  17. ELR-Negative CXC Chemokine CXCL11 (IP-9/I-TAC) Facilitates Dermal and Epidermal Maturation during Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Cecelia C.; Whaley, Diana; Y-Chen, Amy; Kulesekaran, Priya; Hebda, Patricia A.; Wells, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In skin wounds, the chemokine CXCR3 receptor appears to play a key role in coordinating the switch from regeneration of the ontogenically distinct mesenchymal and epithelial compartments toward maturation. However, because CXCR3 equivalently binds four different ELR-devoid CXC chemokines (ie, PF4/CXCL4, IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9, and IP-9/CXCL11), we sought to identify the ligand that coordinates epidermal coverage with the maturation of the underlying superficial dermis. Because CXCL11 (IP-9 or I-TAC) is produced by redifferentiating keratinocytes late in the regenerative phase when re-epithelialization is completed and matrix maturation ensues, we generated mice in which an antisense construct (IP-9AS) eliminated IP-9 expression during the wound-healing process. Both full and partial thickness excisional wounds were created and analyzed histologically throughout a 2-month period. Wound healing was impaired in the IP-9AS mice, with a hypercellular and immature dermis noted even after 60 days. Re-epithelialization was delayed with a deficient delineating basement membrane persisting in mice expressing the IP-9AS construct. Provisional matrix components persisted in the dermis, and the mature basement membrane components laminin V and collagen IV were severely diminished. Interestingly, the inflammatory response was not diminished despite IP-9/I-TAC being chemotactic for such cells. We conclude that IP-9 is a key ligand in the CXCR3 signaling system for wound repair, promoting re-epithelialization and modulating the maturation of the superficial dermis. PMID:18669615

  18. Second harmonic generation imaging of dermal collagen component in human keloid tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. B.; Chen, S.; Zhu, X. Q.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, J. X.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of human keloid tissue. High resolution SHG images of collagen component were obtained in the superficial, medial and deep dermis of human keloid tissue, respectively. Our results show that this method has a capability to observe the structure of collagen component in human keloid tissue, which will help to better understand the formation process of human keloid scar at the molecular level.

  19. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Ilona J; Spiekstra, Sander W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a(+) MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a(-)/CD14(+)/CD68(+) which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. PMID:26028481

  20. Median raphe cysts of the penis: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Nagore, E; Sánchez-Motilla, J M; Febrer, M I; Aliaga, A

    1998-01-01

    Cysts of the median raphe are embryologic developmental anomalies of the male genitalia. Although generally present since birth, these lesions tend to manifest in adult life. Histologically the cysts are characterized by a pseudostratified epithelium in the middle dermis. The early age at consultation is a common characteristic in four of the five patients reported herein and is probably due to the growing concern among the general population about skin problems. PMID:9655313

  1. Functional morphology of the integumentary system in fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    The integument that covers the outer surface of a fish’s body and fins is a multifunctional organ, with morphological features highly adapted to carry out these functions. The integument consists of two layers. The outer layer, the epidermis, is essentially cellular in structure, comprised of a multilayered epithelium that usually includes specialized cells. The inner layer, the dermis, is primarily a fibrous structure with relatively few cells, although it may contain scales, nerves, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and pigment cells.

  2. Microbotox of the Lower Face and Neck: Evolution of a Personal Technique and Its Clinical Effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Woffles T L

    2015-11-01

    Microbotox is the injection of multiple microdroplets of diluted onabotulinumtoxinA into the dermis or the interface between the dermis and the superficial layer of facial muscles. The intention is to decrease sweat and sebaceous gland activity to improve skin texture and sheen and to target the superficial layer of muscles that find attachment to the undersurface of the dermis causing visible rhytides. For treatment of the lower face and neck, hundreds of microdroplets of diluted Botox are injected into the dermis or immediate subdermal plane to improve skin texture, smoothen horizontal creases, and decrease vertical banding of the neck, as well as to achieve better apposition of the platysma to the jawline and neck, improving contouring of the cervicomental angle. The Microbotox solution is mixed in the syringe by adding a small volume of lidocaine to the calculated dose of onabotulinumtoxinA drawn from a standard bottle of Botox prepared with 2.5 mL saline. Each 1 mL syringe of Microbotox solution contains 20-28 units of onabotulinumtoxinA per mL of solution and is used to deliver 100-120 injections. The lower face and neck will usually require 1 mL per side. The injections are delivered intradermally using a 30- or 32-G needle raising a tiny blanched weal at each point. The author has over 1867 documented cases of Microbotox in various parts of the face (forehead, glabellar, crow's-feet, infraorbital, and cheeks) and neck, the majority of these patients being treated in forehead or the lower face and neck as described in this article. PMID:26441119

  3. Depletion of cutaneous peptidergic innervation in HIV-associated xerosis.

    PubMed

    Rowe, A; Mallon, E; Rosenberger, P; Barrett, M; Walsh, J; Bunker, C B

    1999-03-01

    Severe xerosis occurs in approximately 20% of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients. Changes in cutaneous innervation have been found in various inflammatory skin diseases and in xerotic skin in familial amyloid. We have therefore carried out a quantitative examination of the cutaneous peptidergic innervation in human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis quantitation were used to compare total cutaneous innervation (protein gene product 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide peptidergic fibers, at two sites in the skin of human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis patients (upper arm, n = 12; upper leg, n = 11) and site-matched seronegative controls (upper arm, n = 10; upper leg, n = 10). Measurement of lengths of fibers of each type was carried out for each subject in the epidermis and papillary dermis, and around the sweat glands. Immunostained mast cells in these areas were counted. Epidermal integrity and maturation were assessed by immunostaining for involucrin. There were significant (Mann-Whitney U test; p < 0.02) decreases in total lengths of protein gene product 9.5 fibers in both epidermis/papillary dermis and sweat gland fields; of calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation in the epidermis/papillary dermis; and of substance P innervation of the sweat glands. There were no differences in the distribution of mast cells, or in the epidermal expression of involucrin. Depletion of the calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation may affect the nutrient blood supply of the upper dermis, and the integrity and function of basal epidermis and Langerhans cells. Diminished substance P innervation of the sweat glands may affect their secretory activity. Both of these changes may be implicated in the development of xerosis. PMID:10084303

  4. Dermal melanin concentration of yellow perch Perca flavescens in relation to water transparency.

    PubMed

    Rheault, G; Langevin, M; Cabana, G; Glémet, H

    2015-11-01

    A positive relationship was observed between Secchi disc depth and dermal melanin concentration in yellow perch Perca flavescens sampled from 11 humic lakes located on the Canadian Shield in southern Quebec (Canada). Secchi disc depth explained 23% of the variations of dermal melanin concentration. Secchi disc depth and thus water transparency appear to have a positive influence on melanin production in the dermis of P. flavescens. PMID:26399476

  5. Ultrastructure of normals and castrates and the effects of testosterone and ultraviolet (UVL-B) irradiation on scrotal skin of rats.

    PubMed

    Glimcher, M E; Flynn, E A; Szabo, G

    1979-02-01

    The ultrastructure of the testosterone dependent epidermal melanocyte system of the scrotal skin of normals and castrates, with and without testosterone replacement therapy, and UVL-B (280-315 nm) radiation in black Long Evans rats is reported. UVL-B increases melanocyte activity, melanosome forming apparatus, (size of Golgi zone and RER, and quantity of cytoplasmic vesicles, dendrites, and stages of melanosomes) in normals and in castrates. Testosterone replacement therapy to castrates is not a prerequisite for stimulation by UVL-B, but it enhances the effects of UVL-B without restoring normalcy as melanosome packaging into complexes predominates. After UVL-B stimulation of normals or castrates, melanocyte dendrites are observed more often. Melanocyte dendrites of skin of castrated rats are observed less often than in normals, but with testosterone replacement therapy, the dendrites become more numerous. Melanosomes donated to keratinocytes are mostly located as singles in normals and as complexes in castrates. After UVL-B, castration, or testosterone replacement therapy, the melanosomes are packaged in keratinocytes in complexes larger than in normals. In the epidermis of long term castrates (9-109 days), non-specific clear cells are observed and Langerhans cells containing melanosomes; we did not observe them in normals. Melanocytes of castrates have a reduced melanosome forming apparatus. The dermis of castrates contains many dermal melanocytes in the superficial dermis with melanosomes in several stages of formation. These cells are not apparent in normals at this location in the dermis. Testosterone replacement therapy and/or UVL-B administered to castrates does not restore the epidermal melanocyte system nor the dermis to precastration ultrastructural appearance; castration has a permanent altering effect as melanosomes are packaged into complexes. PMID:448324

  6. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P < 0.001 for changes in each parameter). AL could decrease melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin. PMID:26861986

  7. Potamostoma shizunaiense gen. et sp. nov. (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Monostilifera): a new brackish-water nemertean from Japan.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Hiroshi; Gibson, Ray; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2003-04-01

    Potamostoma shizunaiense gen. et sp. nov. (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea: Monostilifera) is described from the mouth of the River Shizunai, Hokkaido, Japan. This genus is readily distinguished from other monostiliferans by an oesophagus opening far anteriorly into the rhynchodaeum, a well developed excretory system extending the whole body length, terminals of the excretory collecting tubules situated between the body wall circular muscle layer and the dermis, and bilobed testes in males. PMID:12719652

  8. Pre-tibial myxedema: treatment with intralesional corticosteroid.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luana Oliveira; Mattos, Paloma Corrêa; Figueredo, Giuseppe Lemos Pertoti de; Maia, Alef Alioscha Andrade; Romero, Sandra Adolfina Reys

    2015-01-01

    The pretibial myxedema is a manifestation of Graves' disease characterized by accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the reticular dermis. The dermopathy is self-limiting but in some cases may cause cosmetic and functional damage. Conventional treatment is use of topical steroids under occlusive dressing, however the intralesional application has shown good results. We present a case of pretibial myxedema treated with single injection of intralesional corticosteroid. PMID:26312698

  9. Clearance of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice

    PubMed Central

    Onunkwo, Charles C.; Hahn, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal skin infections are quite common in human patients. These infections often clear spontaneously, but may also progress locally and/or disseminate to cause serious and sometimes fatal deep infections. The present studies were undertaken to examine the clearance phase of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in a mouse model system. Previous work in this system has shown that staphylococci applied to the skin rapidly disseminate to the spleen and kidney. In the present experiments the bacteria were found to persist at the skin infection site at a time (8 days after inoculation) when they had disappeared from the spleen and kidney. Examination of the infected skin at earlier times revealed rapid (within 6 h) invasion into the stratum corneum, stratum Malpighii, and dermis, but subsequent redistribution of bacteria (at 1–2 days) to more superficial sites, particularly crusts located just above the skin surface. The crusts seen in these infections were of two distinct types, which were termed type 1 and type 2. Type 1 crusts appeared first, consisted of bacteria, inflammatory cells, and debris, and developed over an intact epidermis. Type 2 crusts arose from the process of dermal necrosis previously reported to take place at 2 days in this model system. In the latter situation the bacteria were not really cleared from the epidermis and dermis; rather those layers were transformed into a superficial crust that contained the bacteria. Deep hair follicle infections in the dermis were found in these infections, but they did not persist and did not seem to be a reservoir for organisms in the dermis. Resolution of these experimental infections appeared to involve redistribution of invading bacteria to more superficial locations in crusts above the skin surface, marked proliferation of the epidermis, loss of the bacteria-laden crusts from the skin, and eventual healing of the cutaneous damage. PMID:20130894

  10. Dermatitis due to larvae of a soil nematode, Pelodera strongyloides.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, B; Beaver, P C; Wilson, E R; Whitley, R J

    1984-07-01

    A 6-month-old infant girl was seen because of failure to thrive and hyperpigmented papulonodules on the lower abdomen and thighs. Results of skin biopsy demonstrated dauer larvae of a soil nematode, Pelodera strongyloides, in the dermis. This is the second documented episode of human dermatitis due to this nematode, which more often invades the skin of dogs, cattle, horses, and sheep. PMID:6542207

  11. Distinct Wnt members regulate the hierarchical morphogenesis of skin regions (spinal tract) and individual feathers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Hsing; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Lin, Chih-Min; Burrus, Laura W; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Widelitz, Randall

    2004-02-01

    Skin morphogenesis occurs in successive stages. First, the skin forms distinct regions (macropatterning). Then skin appendages with particular shapes and sizes form within each region (micropatterning). Ectopic DKK expression inhibited dermis formation in feather tracts and individual buds, implying the importance of Wnts, and prompted the assessment of individual Wnt functions at different morphogenetic levels using the feather model. Wnt 1, 3a, 5a and 11 initially were expressed moderately throughout the feather tract then were up-regulated in restricted regions following two modes: Wnt 1 and 3a became restricted to the placodal epithelium, then to the elongated distal bud epidermis; Wnt 5a and 11 intensified in the inter-tract region and interprimordia epidermis or dermis, respectively, then appeared in the elongated distal bud dermis. Their role in feather tract formation was determined using RCAS mediated misexpression in ovo at E2/E3. Their function in periodic feather patterning was examined by misexpression in vitro using reconstituted E7 skin explant cultures. Wnt 1 reduced spinal tract size, but enhanced feather primordia size. Wnt 3a increased dermal thickness, expanded the spinal tract size, reduced interbud domain spacing, and produced non-tapering "giant buds". Wnt 11 and dominant negative Wnt 1 enhanced interbud spacing, and generated thinner buds. In cultured dermal fibroblasts, Wnt 1 and 3a stimulated cell proliferation and activated the canonical beta-catenin pathway. Wnt 11 inhibited proliferation but stimulated migration. Wnt 5a and 11 triggered the JNK pathway. Thus distinctive Wnts have positive and negative roles in forming the dermis, tracts, interbud spacing and the growth and shaping of individual buds. PMID:15037317

  12. THE AUTOIMMUNE CONSTELLATION IN LICHEN AMYLOIDOSIS.

    PubMed

    Andrese, Elena; Vâţă, D; Ciobanu, Delia; Stătescu, Laura; Solovăstru, Laura Gheucă

    2015-01-01

    Localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease among white people, being more common in South-Asia, China and South America. The disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid material in the papillary dermis without visceral involvement. Nevertheless, there is a growing list of immune-mediated disorders that have been linked to cutaneous amyloidosis. We present two cases of concomitant occurrence of lichen amyloidosis and autoimmune thyroiditis/atopic dermatitis in two Caucasian women. PMID:26793847

  13. Huge Nevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis on Back: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS) is a benign dermatosis, histologically characterized by the presence of mature ectopic adipocytes in the dermis. We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with multiple huge swellings on the scapular regions and lower back. The lesions were surmounted by small papules, along with peau-d orange appearance at places. Histology showed features consistent with NLCS. The case is being reported for the unusual clinical presentation. PMID:26120161

  14. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  15. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts. PMID:22812507

  16. Functional and morphological changes in pig skin after single or fractionated doses in x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.M.A.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1982-09-01

    The flank skin of pigs has been treated with either single or fractionated doses of x-irradiation. A single dose (2070 cGy) was compared with treatment given as 6 fractions in 18 days (6f/18 days; 3780 cGy) or 30 fractions in 39 days (30f/39 days; 8000 cGy). The doses were selected on the basis that similar levels of late tissue damage would result. Radiation induced changes in the skin were assessed by observing the skin reactions and by the measurement of isotope clearance (functional study), relative field contraction, dermal and epidermal thickness and dermal vascular density (morphological studies). In the three treatment groups the early radiation reaction varied considerably. In the first wave reaction (3 to 6 weeks after treatment) bright red erythema was recorded in many fields but moist desquamation developed only in the 30f/39 days treatment group. The second wave (10-16 weeks) was characterized by an ischemic mauve/dusky reaction. Dermal necrosis developed in 50% of the single dose fields. In the 30f/39 days regimen persistent moist desquamation progressed to dermal necrosis. Neither desquamation nor necrosis developed after 6f/18 days. Different levels of vascular damage in the dermis were assessed using an isotope clearance technique; for example in the early reaction significant changes were recorded in the papillary dermis (faster clearance) prior to the development of moist desquamation (30f/39 days) and in the reticular dermis (slower clearance) before necrosis (single dose). Changes in clearance rates have been correlated with changes in the vascular density and thickness of the dermis. Between 26 and 52 weeks (the late reaction) relative field contraction was slightly greater in the 30f/39 days group than in the other treatment groups.

  17. Development of the Mouse Dermal Adipose Layer Occurs Independently of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Is Marked by Restricted Early Expression of FABP4

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, Carrie A.; Manning, Craig B.; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16) the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis), under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot. PMID:23555789

  18. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme: An entity, few and far between

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Mondal, Ashim Kumar; Saha, Abanti; Chowdhury, Satyendra Nath; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Angiokeratomas are a group of vascular ectasias that involve the papillary dermis and may produce papillomatosis, acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum is the least common variant among many types. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme is a still rarer variety of angiokeratoma, which is classically seen at birth. We report here a case of congenital, linear, unilateral, verrucous plaques on the leg of a young girl, diagnosed as angiokeratoma circumscriptum neviforme (ACN). PMID:25396132

  19. Determination of the elastic modulus of native collagen fibrils via radial indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, August J.; Matthews, William G.; Koob, Thomas J.

    2006-10-01

    The authors studied the elastic response of single, native collagen fibrils extracted from tissues of the inner dermis of the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, via local nanoscale indentation with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM imaging of fibrils under ambient conditions are presented, demonstrating a peak-to-peak periodicity, the d band, of dehydrated, unfixed fibrils to be ˜64.5nm. Radial indentation experiments were performed, and the measured value for the reduced modulus is 1-2GPa.

  20. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bredberg, A.

    1981-06-01

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects.

  1. Pseudoscleroderma secondary to phytonadione (vitamin K1) injections.

    PubMed

    Pujol, R M; Puig, L; Moreno, A; Pérez, M; de Moragas, J M

    1989-04-01

    Two patients showed symmetrical sclerodermoid (morphea-like) skin lesions at sites of intramuscular phytonadione (vitamin K1) injections. The lesions appeared one and two years after the injections. A dense sclerosis involving the reticular dermis and subcutaneous fat was observed on histologic examination of biopsy specimens. Local adverse reactions to phytonadione are reviewed. Possible causative mechanisms for phytonadione-induced pseudoscleroderma are discussed. PMID:2731442

  2. Melanoma miRNA trafficking controls tumour primary niche formation.

    PubMed

    Dror, Shani; Sander, Laureen; Schwartz, Hila; Sheinboim, Danna; Barzilai, Aviv; Dishon, Yuval; Apcher, Sebastien; Golan, Tamar; Greenberger, Shoshana; Barshack, Iris; Malcov, Hagar; Zilberberg, Alona; Levin, Lotan; Nessling, Michelle; Friedmann, Yael; Igras, Vivien; Barzilay, Ohad; Vaknine, Hananya; Brenner, Ronen; Zinger, Assaf; Schroeder, Avi; Gonen, Pinchas; Khaled, Mehdi; Erez, Neta; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Levy, Carmit

    2016-09-01

    Melanoma originates in the epidermis and becomes metastatic after invasion into the dermis. Prior interactions between melanoma cells and dermis are poorly studied. Here, we show that melanoma cells directly affect the formation of the dermal tumour niche by microRNA trafficking before invasion. Melanocytes, cells of melanoma origin, are specialized in releasing pigment vesicles, termed melanosomes. In melanoma in situ, we found melanosome markers in distal fibroblasts before melanoma invasion. The melanosomes carry microRNAs into primary fibroblasts triggering changes, including increased proliferation, migration and pro-inflammatory gene expression, all known features of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Specifically, melanosomal microRNA-211 directly targets IGF2R and leads to MAPK signalling activation, which reciprocally encourages melanoma growth. Melanosome release inhibitor prevented CAF formation. Since the first interaction of melanoma cells with blood vessels occurs in the dermis, our data suggest an opportunity to block melanoma invasion by preventing the formation of the dermal tumour niche. PMID:27548915

  3. Melasma.

    PubMed

    Kauh, Y C; Zachian, T F

    1999-01-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of macular hyperpigmentation which involves mostly in sun exposed areas of the face and neck. Those most affected are women. Multiple factors have been postulated to involve in the etiology and pathogenesis of melasma including pregnancy, oral contraceptives, genetics, sun exposure, cosmetics and race. We have conducted a clinical trial utilizing all trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin, Retin-A) cream 0.1% q pm and hydroquinone lotion 3% (Melanex) applied every morning in Korean women with melasma. Our study patients demonstrated all three clinical patterns common to melasma: centrofacial, malar and mandibular. Wood's light examination was performed on all patients and identified two of the four types of melasma described. Most patients showed epidermal melasma and a few manifested a mixed type. No patients exhibited solely dermal or inapparent type in melasma. With open studies of tretinoin cream and hydroquinone lotion followed by sun screen, we have found significant improvement within 5 months with a few side effects. Histopathologic examination of melasma in the pre-trial biopsies revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermis, dermis or both. In addition, significant alterations of the dermis with solar damage was noted in all melasma patients sampled. Biopsies taken after five months of treatment revealed significant decreases in epidermal pigmentation and improvement of solar damage in the dermis. We reconfirmed that a synergistic mechanism between tretinoin and hydroquinone is responsible for the improvement seen in the female Korean melasma patients from our study. PMID:10599387

  4. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Marneffe, Alice; Jemec, Gregor; Del Marmol, Veronique

    2016-06-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf ) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone. PMID:27375943

  5. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tschen, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere nor a family member with this condition. Results: Microscopic examination of the raised band showed nearly complete absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. In contrast, a biopsy of symmetrically located normal-appearing skin showed a uniform distribution of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. Linear lumbar localized elastolysis is a descriptive designation that accurately reflects a correlation of the clinical and pathological changes of this condition. Conclusion: The clinical differential of raised horizontal cord-like bands on the lower back (without a family history of an inherited elastic fiber disorder, a prior history of trauma, or a significant change in weight or exercise habit) includes linear focal elastosis and linear lumbar localized elastolysis. Microscopic evaluation of a Verhoeff-van Gieson stained lesion specimen (which may be accompanied by a biopsy of normal-appearing skin for comparison) will readily differentiate these conditions. The former is usually characterized by increased elastic fibers, whereas the latter, as in this patient, shows a paucity or absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. PMID:23882313

  6. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Marneffe, Alice; Jemec, Gregor; Del Marmol, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone. PMID:27375943

  7. Vascular permeability and axonal regeneration in skin autotransplanted into the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, E A; Kiernan, J A

    1978-01-01

    Pieces of skin were autotransplanted from the pinna of an ear into a cerebral hemisphere in 36 albino rats. The grafts were examined 2, 4 and 6 weeks later for signs of vascular permeability and for the presence of nerve fibres. An intravenously injected fluorescent protein exuded into the connective tissue of the dermis and into the spaces between epidermal cells. Extravascular leukocytes were also seen in the dermis. Nerve fibres, derived from the caudate nucleus, corpus callosum and neocortex, were seen in nearly all the grafts, entering both the dermis and epidermis. They were more numerous after the fourth and sixth than after the second post-operative week. A few of these axons were myelinated and a few contained acetylcholinesterase. It has thus been shown that central axons can regenerate into a region in which they are surrounded by proteins and cells derived from the blood, for at least 6 weeks. This observation does not support a recently advanced hypothesis invoking autoimmunity as the cause of the failure of most axons to regenerate following severance within the central nervous system. It is tentatively suggested that the presence of plasma proteins in the extracellular fluid around the tips of axons may be necessary for the occurrence of regeneration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:342472

  8. Do geese fully develop brood patches? A histological analysis of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (C. rossii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Homberger, D.G.; Henk, W.G.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    Most birds develop brood patches before incubation; epidermis and dermis in the brood patch region thicken, and the dermal connective tissue becomes increasingly vascularized and infiltrated by leukocytes. However, current dogma states that waterfowl incubate without modifications of skin within the brood patch region. The incubation periods of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter called snow geese) and Ross's geese (C. rossii) are 2-6 days shorter than those of other goose species; only females incubate. Thus, we hypothesized that such short incubation periods would require fully developed brood patches for sufficient heat transfer from incubating parents to eggs. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the skin histology of abdominal regions of snow and Ross's geese collected at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. For female snow geese, we found that epidermis and dermis had thickened and vascularization of dermis was 14 times greater, on average, than that observed in males (n=5 pairs). Our results for Ross's geese (n=5 pairs) were more variable, wherein only one of five female Ross's geese fully developed a brood patch. Our results are consistent with three hypotheses about brood patch development and its relationship with different energetic cost-benefit relationships, resulting from differences in embryonic development and body size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  9. An Essential Role for Dermal Primary Cilia in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Jonathan; Laag, Essam; Michaud, Edward J.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle implicated as an essential component of a number of signaling pathways. It is present on cells throughout the mammalian body; however, its functions in most tissues remain largely unknown. Herein we demonstrate that primary cilia are present on cells in murine skin and hair follicles throughout morphogenesis and during hair follicle cycling in postnatal life. Using the Cre-lox system, we disrupted cilia assembly in the ventral dermis and evaluated the effects on hair follicle development. Mice with disrupted dermal cilia have severe hypotrichosis (lack of hair) in affected areas. Histological analyses reveal that most follicles in the mutants arrest at stage 2 of hair development and have small or absent dermal condensates. This phenotype is reminiscent of that seen in the skin of mice lacking Shh or Gli2. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicates that the hedgehog pathway is downregulated in the dermis of the cilia mutant hair follicles. Thus, these data establish cilia as a critical signaling component required for normal hair morphogenesis and suggest that this organelle is needed on cells in the dermis for reception of signals such as sonic hedgehog. PMID:18987668

  10. The skin as an immune organ.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, J K; Armstrong, C A; Ansel, J C

    1994-01-01

    As a protective interface between internal organs and the environment, the skin encounters a host of toxins, pathogenic organisms, and physical stresses. To combat these attacks on the cutaneous microenvironment, the skin functions as more than a physical barrier: it is an active immune organ. Immune responses in the skin involve an armamentarium of immune-competent cells and soluble biologic response modifiers including cytokines. Traversed by a network of lymphatic and blood vessels, the dermis contains most of the lymphocytes in the skin, other migrant leukocytes, mast cells, and tissue macrophages. Although the epidermis has no direct access to the blood or lymphatic circulation, it is equipped with immune-competent cells: Langerhans cells, the macrophage-like antigen-presenting cells of the epidermis; keratinocytes, epithelial cells with immune properties; dendritic epidermal T lymphocytes, resident cells that may serve as a primitive T-cell immune surveillance system; epidermotropic lymphocytes, migrants from vessels in the dermis; and melanocytes, epidermal pigment cells with immune properties. Although the components of the epidermis and dermis work in concert to execute immune responses in the skin, for purposes of this review, we focus on the cells and cytokines of the epidermal immunologic unit, the frontline of immune protection against environmental toxins and microbes. PMID:8160465

  11. Development of ciclopirox olamine topical formulations: evaluation of drug release, penetration and cutaneous retention.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Vanessa Alves; Serikaku, Daniela; Baby, Andre Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga

    2015-03-01

    With the aim of reducing system absorption and consequently, the side effects, and simultaneously select a penetration enhancing, three topical formulations with 0.5% ciclopirox olamine (CO) and 15% of propylene glycol (PG), ethoxydiglycol or oleic acid were developed and evaluated regarding the skin penetration and cutaneous retention of the drug using Franz diffusion cells. Release experiments were performed through synthetic membrane while dermatomed pig ear skin was used to evaluate CO skin penetration and skin retention. Retention studies were carried out applying tape stripping method and dosing CO in stratum corneum and in epidermis and dermis. A HPLC method was validated for quantifying CO. All formulations tested with synthetic membrane presented no retention of the drug. Permeation data suggested that there was no systemic absorption of ciclopirox olamine from the studied formulations, even when the skin penetration enhancers were applied. Higher concentrations of the drug were found in the stratum corneum (SC) and also in epidermis and dermis, for all of the developed formulations. The addition of enhancers improved the penetration and cutaneous retention of CO, and propylene glycol promoted higher concentrations in epidermis and dermis, probably because its cumulative effect on the skin and by an efficient solvent power. PMID:24286179

  12. S100a8/NF-κB signal pathway is involved in the 800-nm diode laser-induced skin collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Ge, Minggai; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhu, Pingya; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    The 800-nm diode laser is widely used for hair removal and also promotes collagen synthesis, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to the thermal damage induced by the 800-nm diode laser is still unclear. Ten 2-month-old mice were irradiated with the 800-nm diode laser at 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Skin samples were taken for PCR, Western blot analysis, and histological study at day 3 or 30 after laser irradiation. The expression of S100a8 and its two receptors (advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor, RAGE and toll-like receptor 4, TRL4) was upregulated at day 3 after laser treatments. P-p65 levels were also elevated, causing the increase of cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6) and MMPs (MMP1a, MMP9). At day 30, PCR and Western blot analysis showed significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the dermis treated with laser. Importantly, skin structure was markedly improved in the laser-irradiated skin compared with the control. Thus, it seemed that S100a8 upregulation triggered NF-κB signal pathway through RAGE and TLR4, responding to laser-induced dermis wound healing. The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in MMP gene transcription promoted the turnover of collagen in the skin, accelerating new collagen synthesis. PMID:26914682

  13. Characterization of third-degree burned skin by nonlinear microscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Moisés O.; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Correa, Paulo R.; Zorn, Telma Maria T.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear microscopy imaging technique enable take both images of collagen fibers in dermis through second harmonic generation (SHG) signal and elastic fibers by two-photon emission fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM). These techniques are the most commonly used technique for turbid and thick tissue imaging and also to image biological samples which presents highly ordered structural proteins without any exogenous label. The objective of this study is characterizing dermis of third-degree burned skin by TPEFM and SHG technique. The modelocked laser (Spectra Physics) source used in this study with pulse width of approximately 100 fs at 80 MHz was directed into a multiphoton microscope using a laser scanning unit (Olympus Fluoview 300), mounted on an inverted confocal system microscope (Olympus IX81), with focusing objective (40x, NA = 1.30). The samples were obtained from Wistar rats, male, adult. One dorsum area was submitted to burn caused by vapour exposure. The biopsies obtained were cryosectioned in slices of 20 μm width. Selected area of interface between the injured and healthy subdermal burned skin were imaged by TPEFM and SHG technique. Two different autofluorescence signals are observed as a function of excitation wavelength. The autofluorescence observed at 760 nm and 690 nm suggest components of extracellular matrix at differents depths. In SHG images, collagen fibers are visible. According to the images obtained, these methodologies can be used to characterize dermis of burned tissue as its healing process with reduced out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity.

  14. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues. PMID:26631592

  15. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  16. Quasi-holographic solution to polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography acceptable to nonlaboratory applications.

    PubMed

    Tougbaev, Vitali; Eom, Tae Joong; Yu, Bong-Ahn; Lee, Yeung Lak; Shin, Woojin; Gee, Sangyoun; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin

    2008-01-01

    Experimental proof-of-concept is presented for a quasi-holographic solution to polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS OCT). Due to decoupling between the reference and sample beams by polarization, the solution seems acceptable to acquisition and communication of optical data in the nonlaboratory environment. The nonlab environment implies uncontrollable disturbances, e.g., temperature changes and mechanical effects happening under shop testing in industry or routine examinations in common clinics and hospitals. For mapping the collagen-related depolarization ratio of light backscattered from the human dermis, a phenomenological model is evolved from the theory of light depolarization in crystalline polymers. The model yielded a simplified intensity-based estimation algorithm. The design concept and the model rely on a submillimeter tumor thickness as a proofed prognostic factor and an important criterion for complementary functional diagnostics of skin cancers in their early phase. Choice of the model is inspired by similarity of structural and optical properties between liquid-crystal collagen fibers in the dermis and birefringent crystalline lamellae in some polymer materials. The model gives a plausible interpretation of a peculiarity of cumulative birefringence in the abnormal skin dermis. Following a top-down approach to design, the authors attempt to contribute to bridging the gap between practitioners' concerns and academic studies. PMID:19021342

  17. Evaluation of the transdermal permeation of different paraben combinations through a pig ear skin model.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2010-05-31

    Although parabens have several features of ideal preservatives, different studies have shown that they may affect human health due to their estrogenic activity. Therefore, various strategies have been applied to reduce their skin penetration. However, the effect of paraben combinations on transdermal permeation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate paraben permeation in pig ear skin using a Franz diffusion cell system with capillary electrophoresis detection, in order to identify which paraben combinations (defined by a factorial design) have the lowest skin permeation. The permeation of isolated parabens was also evaluated and the permeation characteristics, obtained by the Moser model, confirmed that lipophilicity and molecular weight may influence the systemic absorption of these compounds. In previous tests using isolated parabens, methyl and ethyl parabens presented greater retention in the epidermis compared to the dermis, while propyl and butyl parabens had similar retention profiles in these layers. An increase in ethanol concentration and experimental time promoted greater parabens retention in the dermis compared to the epidermis. The binary combinations of methyl and ethyl parabens as well as of methyl and propyl parabens (added to several cosmetic products in order to increase the antimicrobial spectrum) reduced significantly their permeation rates through pig ear skin (with the exception of EP), probably due to the high retention of these parabens in the epidermis and dermis. PMID:20156540

  18. Nanoencapsulation of Clobetasol Propionate Decreases Its Penetration to Skin Layers Without Changing Its Relative Skin Distribution.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Diego Fontana; Fontana, Márcia Camponogara; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Carlos, Ruy; Beck, Ruver

    2015-01-01

    An immunosuppressive effect with drug release control and higher NTPDase activity in the treatment of contact dermatitis was previously reported for a hydrogel containing 0.05% clobetasol propionate-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (HG-LNC-CP) compared to a hydrogel containing the non-encapsulated drug (HG-CP). In order to investigate the factors underlying this different performance, we evaluated the in vitro skin permeation/penetration of CP from both formulations (HG-LNC-CP and HG-CP). CP did not permeate to the receptor medium during the experiment (24 h), but penetrated into the stratum corneum and viable skin (epidermis and dermis) in significant amounts after 24 h, regardless the type of the formulation. Comparing both formulations, although the relative amount of CP in each skin layer was not affected by the nanoencapsulation, HG-LNC-CP was able to reduce in 5.8, 6.9 and 3.7 times the amount of CP released into the stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis respectively. In this way, the higher effect of HG-LNC-CP previously observed could be due to the controlled drug penetration rate into the skin layers. Moreover, HG-LNC-CP reduces the chances of the corticosteroid to be absorbed systemically as the amount of CP reaching the dermis was reduced. The study reinforces the HG-LNC-CP as a promising dermatological nanomedicine for the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:26328452

  19. Nodular amyloidosis derived from keratinocytes: an unusual type of primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Kristine M; Lagana, Frances J; Deng, April

    2015-11-01

    Primary, localized cutaneous amyloidosis includes macular, lichen, and nodular (tumefactive) types in which the amyloid deposits are limited to the dermis without systemic involvement. The material in lichen and macular amyloidosis is derived from epidermal keratinocytes [keratinocyte-derived amyloid (AK)], whereas that in nodular amyloidosis is derived from immunoglobulin light-chains amyloid (AL). Primary, localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis (PLCNA) is a form of primary, localized cutaneous amyloidosis that has been associated with a risk of progression to systemic amyloidosis. We report an unusual case of nodular AK-type amyloid deposited in the dermis of the feet. The patient is a 60-year-old woman with asymptomatic verrucoid-like lesions present around the medial and lateral aspects of the bilateral heels for 1-2 years. A biopsy showed massive deposition of eosinophilic amorphous material in the papillary and reticular dermis. The material stained positive for Congo red with apple-green birefringence on polarized light. It was also positive for pan-cytokeratin and negative for kappa and lambda light-chain immunostains. An extensive workup was negative for systemic involvement. Lipid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that the deposition was AK-type amyloid. We believe that this is the first case of PLCNA with AK deposition. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLCNA so that an extensive systemic workup may be avoided. PMID:26485243

  20. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  1. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues.

  2. Evaluation of the hazard from exposure to electron irradiation simulating that in the synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippincott, S. W.; Foelsche, T.; Montour, J. L.; Bender, R.; Wilson, I. J.

    1972-01-01

    The electron spectrum predicted for the synchronous orbit was simulated to determine the effects that might occur to astroscientists exposed to such irradiation while on a prolonged space station mission in that region. Miniature pigs were exposed to monoenergetic and spectral-fractionated irradiations with 0.5 to 2.1 MeV electrons. Clinical and pathological alterations observed in biopsies were correlated with depth-dose pattern and length of post irradiation period up to one year. With monoenergetic electrons, the lowest dose causing a recognizable lesion was 1450 rad and with increasing dose lesions appeared earlier and were more severe. At the highest dose given, 2650 rad, ulceration extending into the dermis was present by twenty one days and required about four months for complete healing. Spectral-fractionated irradiations, in which the total dose range was essentially comparable to that of the monoenergetic series, resulted in very minimal outer dermis edema at 1790 rad and at no dose employed did necrosis of epidermis or ulceration into dermis occur.

  3. Histomorphological Evaluation of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Plantar Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yak-Nam; Lee, Kara; Ledoux, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulceration has a complex and multi-factorial etiology and can involve changes in the pathophysiology of the plantar soft tissue. In the current study, histomorphological analyses of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar tissue were performed. It was hypothesized that the diabetic tissue would have thicker skin (epidermis and dermis), less interdigitation between the dermis and epidermis, thicker elastic septa and decreased adipose cell size. Materials and Methods Two locations of the foot (the heel and the first metatarsal) were examined, both of which have been reported to be locations with a high incidence of ulceration. Stereological methods and quantitative morphological techniques were used to evaluate the skin thickness, interdigitation index, elastic septae thickness and adipocyte cell size. Results The diabetic donors had a greater body mass index (BMI) than the non-diabetic donors. The diabetic tissue had significantly thicker elastic septae and dermis. However, no significant difference was observed in the interdigitation index or adipocyte size. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that morphological changes can be evaluated histologically to give a better understanding of the pathological changes in the plantar soft tissue with diabetes. These evaluations can then be associated with biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes to provide new insight into how microstructural changes can alter macroscopic properties. Clinical Relevance An understanding of the histomorphological changes in the soft tissue in relationship to the location on the foot could help to explain the biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes and the subsequent increase in susceptibility to breakdown. PMID:22049867

  4. Feeding and migration habits of white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae) from Isla Guadalupe inferred by analysis of stable isotopes delta15N and delta13C.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Rivera, Mario; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier; Hoyos-Padilla, Mauricio; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2014-06-01

    Stable isotope composition of marine top predator's tissues provides insight information of its trophic ecology and migratory behavior. Previous reports have shown that dermal tissues could record longer patterns of hunting and movement. Based on this, the aim of this study was to describe the feeding and migratory habits of the white shark from Isla Guadalupe, using stable isotopic analysis of dermis. We considered a small subset of many possible prey taxa that the sharks could have eaten throughout their migration: pinnipeds, squid and tuna. We grouped the data in five focal areas: Gulf of California, Coast of California, Isla Guadalupe, SOFA and Hawaii. We performed a Bayesian mixing model to study the trophic ecology of this top predator. Average isotopic values for dermis tissue of white shark were delta13C (-14.5 per thousand) and delta15N (19.1 per thousand). Corrected white shark dermal mean values to resemble muscle were delta13C (-16.6 per thousand) and delta15N (21.2 per thousand). Mixing model data from dermis showed predation in offshore areas such the SOFA and a main importance of pinnipeds as prey of the white shark in Isla Guadalupe. PMID:25102646

  5. Mechanical properties of an artificial vascularized human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passot, A.; Cabodevila, G.

    2011-05-01

    In order to make blood sample tests an artificial skin similar to that of the baby's heel is modeled and realized. The most superficial bloodstream and the two main layers of the skin -epidermis and dermis- have to be recreated. Studies and capillaroscopies of the baby's heel give characteristics of these layers and the bloodstream. The skin is viscohyperelastic, but the choice of materials that will be used is based on the Young's modulus. The epidermis layer is based on a stronger less adhesive silicon rubber Elastosil. The dermis layer is composed of a mixture based on a very soft sticky silicon rubber Silgel and Sylgard. The mixture of Silgel with 5% Sylgard has an elastic modulus of 48 kPa which is similar to that of the dermis. The artificial skin is an assembly of several layers including a layer of Sylgard that is structured by a mold representing the capillary network and adapted to manufacturing processes in a clean room. Each layer is deposited by spin coating and is combined with the other through adhesion. Mechanical tests such as tension are performed to verify the mechanical properties of the artificial skin.

  6. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  7. The local pathology of interstitial edema: surface tension increases hydration potential in heat-damaged skin.

    PubMed

    McGee, Maria P; Morykwas, Michael J; Argenta, Louis C

    2011-01-01

    The local pathogenesis of interstitial edema in burns is incompletely understood. This ex vivo study investigates the forces mediating water-transfer in and out of heat-denatured interstitial matrix. Experimentally, full-thickness dermal samples are heated progressively to disrupt glycosaminoglycans, kill cells, and denature collagen under conditions that prevent water loss/gain; subsequently, a battery of complementary techniques including among others, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, equilibrium vapor pressure and osmotic stress are used to compare water-potential parameters of nonheated and heated dermis. The hydration potential (HP) determined by osmotic stress is a measure of the total water-potential defined empirically as the pressure at which no net water influx/efflux into/from the dermis is detected. Results show that after heat denaturation, the HP, the intensity of T2-weighed magnetic resonance images, and the vapor pressure increase indicating higher water activity and necessarily, smaller contributions from colloidosmotic forces to fluid influx in burned relative to healthy dermis. Concomitant increases in HP and in water activity implicate local changes in interfacial and metabolic energy as the source of excess fluid-transfer potential. These ex vivo findings also show that these additional forces contributing to abnormal fluid-transfer in burned skin develop independently of inflammatory and systemic hydrodynamic responses. PMID:21518093

  8. Comparative study of dermal components and plasma TGF-β1 levels in Slc39a13/Zip13-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    HIROSE, Takuya; OGURA, Takayuki; TANAKA, Keisuke; MINAGUCHI, Jun; YAMAUCHI, Takeshi; FUKADA, Toshiyuki; KOYAMA, Yoh-ichi; TAKEHANA, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities that are identified in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in formation of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that the loss of function of zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like protein 13 (ZIP13) causes the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of EDS (SCD-EDS: OMIM 612350), in which dysregulation of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway is observed, although the relationship between the dermis abnormalities and peripheral TGF-β1 level has been unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the dermis of the Zip13-knockout (KO) mouse, an animal model for SCD-EDS. Both the ratio of dermatan sulfate (DS) in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components and the amount of collagen were decreased, and there were very few collagen fibrils with diameters of more than 150 nm in Zip13-KO mice dermis. We also found that the TGF-β1 level was significantly higher in Zip13-KO mice serum. These results suggest that collagen synthesis and collagen fibril fusion might be impaired in Zip13-KO mice and that the possible decrease of decorin level by reduction of the DS ratio probably caused an increase of free TGF-β1 in Zip13-KO mice. In conclusion, skin fragility due to defective ZIP13 protein may be attributable to impaired extracellular matrix synthesis accompanied by abnormal peripheral TGF-β homeostasis. PMID:26050750

  9. Millimeter-wave absorption by cutaneous blood vessels: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, Stanislav I; Ziskin, Marvin C

    2009-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) and E-field distributions inside cutaneous blood vessels and in surrounding tissues (dermis and fat) depending on the frequency of millimeter wave exposure. Most calculations were performed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. A rectangular block of homogeneous or multilayer tissue with blood vessels located in the center of the block was used as the basic geometry. We found that the SAR reached its maximal value in a long blood vessel oriented parallel to the E-field. It exceeded the SAR in the surrounding dermis by 40%-42% at 42.25 GHz. However, in the same blood vessel oriented perpendicularly to the E-field, the SAR was lower than that of the surrounding dermis. Absorption of millimeter waves in a cutaneous blood vessel was higher at 61.22 GHz than at 42.25 GHz. The SAR distribution in a blood vessel was nearly uniform. Because of the small sizes of cutaneous blood vessels relative to the wavelength, the SAR distributions in these blood vessels can be calculated by using quasi-static theory. PMID:19527954

  10. Monitoring photoaging by use of multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sung-Jan; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Chan, Jung-Yi; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Lo, Wen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Chou; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Young, Tai-Horng; Hsu, Chih-Jung; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2006-02-01

    It is a field of great interest to develop therapies to rejuvenate photoaged skin. However, the treatment response can not be ideally determined due to lack of a reliable non-invasive method to quantify photoaging. In this study, the photoaging process of skin is investigated by use of a multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy. We obtain the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation images of superficial dermis from facial skin of individuals of different ages. The results show that autofluorescence signals increase with age while second harmonic generation signals decrease with age. The results are consistent with the histological findings in which collagen is progressively replaced by elastic fibers. In the case of severe photoaging, solar elastosis can be clearly demonstrated by the presence of thick curvy autofluorescent materials in the superficial dermis. We propose a second harmonic generation to autofluorescence aging index of dermis to quantify the photoaging changes. This index is shown to be a good indicator of photoaging. Our results suggest that multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy can be developed into a non-invasive imaging modelity for the clinical evaluation of photoaging.

  11. A Comparison of Conventional Collagen Sponge and Collagen-Gelatin Sponge in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Chizuru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Ran; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Ogino, Shuichi; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the collagen-gelatin sponge (CGS) with that of the collagen sponge (CS) in dermis-like tissue regeneration. CGS, which achieves the sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a promising material in wound healing. In the present study, we evaluated and compared CGSs and conventional CSs. We prepared 8 mm full-thickness skin defects on the backs of rats. Either CGSs or CSs were impregnated with normal saline solution (NSS) or 7 μg/cm2 of bFGF solution and implanted into the defects. At 1 and 2 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were obtained from the rats of each group (n = 3, total n = 24). The wound area, neoepithelial length, dermis-like tissue area, and the number and area of capillaries were evaluated at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. There were no significant differences in the CGS without bFGF and CS groups. Significant improvements were observed in the neoepithelial length, the dermis-like tissue area, and the number of newly formed capillaries in the group of rats that received CGSs impregnated with bFGF. The effects on epithelialization, granulation, and vascularization of wound healing demonstrated that, as a scaffold, CGSs are equal or superior to conventional CSs. PMID:27218103

  12. Treatment of Acne Scars With High Intensity Focused Radio Frequency.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Weiss, Robert A; Weiss, Margaret A; Halvorson, Christian R; Mayoral, Flor; Ross, E Victor; Cohen, Joel L

    2015-09-01

    In this multi-site case series, the efficacy of high intensity focused radiofrequency (RF) delivered to the dermis was evaluated for treating acne scars. A novel delivery system that uses insulated microneedles to deliver a desired thermal effect to multiple depths of the dermis while sparing the epidermis from RF injury was used. Four (4) healthy subjects from four different practices were evaluated and used in this case report. The subjects were treated between 3 or 4 times depending on the severity of the acne scars presented. The depth of thermal delivery was adjusted before each pass and all subjects received at a minimum, three passes to the treated area. Before and after photographs along with adverse effects were recorded. The theory behind the use of insulated needles with the active RF delivery at the distal tip is to allow for significant thermal injury to several layers of the dermis while avoiding thermal injury to the epidermis. This case report demonstrates significant improvement on acne scars and that all skin types should be safely treatable with minimum downtime realized. PMID:26355629

  13. Inhibition of collagen synthesis and changes in skin morphology in murine graft-versus-host disease and tight skin mice: effect of halofuginone.

    PubMed

    Levi-Schaffer, F; Nagler, A; Slavin, S; Knopov, V; Pines, M

    1996-01-01

    The effect of halofuginone, a plant alkaloid known to inhibit collagen type I synthesis, on skin collagen content and skin morphology was evaluated in two in vivo models of scleroderma: the murine chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) and the tight skin mouse. Skin collagen was assessed by hydroxyproline levels in skin biopsies and by immunohistochemistry using anti-collagen type I antibodies. Daily intraperitoneal injections of halofuginone (1 microgram/mouse) for 52 d starting 3 d before spleen cell transplantation, abrogated the increase in skin collagen and prevented the thickening of the dermis and the loss of the subdermal fat, all of which are characteristic of the cGvHD mice. Halofuginone had a minimal effect on collagen content of the control mice. The halofuginone-dependent decrease in skin collagen content was concentration-dependent and was not accompanied by changes in body weight in either the cGvHD or the control mice. Injections of halofuginone (1 microgram/mouse) for 45 d caused a decrease in the collagen content and dermis width in tight skin mice, but did not affect the dermis width of control mice. Collagen content determination from skin biopsies confirmed the immunohistochemical results in the same mice. The low concentration of halofuginone needed to prevent collagen deposition in fibrotic skin without affecting body weight suggests that halofuginone may serve as a novel and promising anti-fibrotic therapy. PMID:8592087

  14. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.

  15. Drug and vehicle deposition from topical applications: localization of minoxidil within skin strata of the hairless mouse.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J C; Weiner, N; Flynn, G L; Ferry, J J

    1994-01-01

    The cutaneous bioavailability of topical 2% minoxidil solution was verified in live hairless mice. Minoxidil and propylene glycol deposition on the skin surface, epidermis and dermis from the single-dose in vivo study were compared with the results from previous in vitro studies. A distinct difference is apparent in the epidermis where the in vitro values are 11-22 times higher than the in vivo values for minoxidil and 8-16 times higher for propylene glycol. The differences were not as great in the dermis. Percutaneous absorption of the drug appeared to be a very small fraction of the applied dose. Similarly shaped stratum corneum and plasma concentration profiles and the relatively constant dermal profiles of minoxidil and propylene glycol open the possibility of transappendageal routes being involved in percutaneous absorption. The greater amount of drug and vehicle found in the dermis from in vitro studies can be explained by the absence of dermal clearance. The overestimation in the amount of drug found in the epidermis in vitro may also be attributable to poor dermal clearance. On the whole, the study raises questions about the use of in vitro tissue dispositions for bioavailability assessment and bioequivalence demonstration. PMID:8054208

  16. Treatment of port-wine stains: analysis

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Welch, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    Port-wine stains (PWS) are bluish red skin stains that are caused by enlarged, ectatic blood vessels in the dermis. Laser treatment of PWS is analyzed from computation of the spatial distribution of heat production by direct absorption of the laser light and subsequent heat conduction. The absorption and scattering caused by oxyhemoglobin, epidermis, and dermis as a function of wavelength are utilized in this analysis. Ideal treatment is defined as coagulating the ectatic blood vessels without irreversible damage to the epidermis and dermis. The analysis shows that a millisecond pulsed, yellow dye laser at 577 nm (one of the large absorption bands in blood) is the laser of choice to treat PWS, offering as close to the ''ideal treatment'' as possible. The blue-green argon laser, which is currently the most frequently used laser for this purpose, is strongly recommended with irradiation times in milliseconds. Other lasers that are in clinical use, such as the red ruby and near-infrared Nd-YAG lasers, can provide selective treatment only when the epidermis is cooled concurrently. The CO/sub 2/ laser, on the other hand, can coagulate the blood vessels only through heat conduction from the hot epidermis; hence, it has neither the treatment selectivity nor any other physical option to force this selectivity.

  17. Comparative study of dermal components and plasma TGF-β1 levels in Slc39a13/Zip13-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Takuya; Ogura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Minaguchi, Jun; Yamauchi, Takeshi; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Yoh-ichi; Takehana, Kazushige

    2015-11-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities that are identified in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in formation of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that the loss of function of zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like protein 13 (ZIP13) causes the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of EDS (SCD-EDS: OMIM 612350), in which dysregulation of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway is observed, although the relationship between the dermis abnormalities and peripheral TGF-β1 level has been unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the dermis of the Zip13-knockout (KO) mouse, an animal model for SCD-EDS. Both the ratio of dermatan sulfate (DS) in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components and the amount of collagen were decreased, and there were very few collagen fibrils with diameters of more than 150 nm in Zip13-KO mice dermis. We also found that the TGF-β1 level was significantly higher in Zip13-KO mice serum. These results suggest that collagen synthesis and collagen fibril fusion might be impaired in Zip13-KO mice and that the possible decrease of decorin level by reduction of the DS ratio probably caused an increase of free TGF-β1 in Zip13-KO mice. In conclusion, skin fragility due to defective ZIP13 protein may be attributable to impaired extracellular matrix synthesis accompanied by abnormal peripheral TGF-β homeostasis. PMID:26050750

  18. Distribution of polyphenols and a surfactant component in skin during Aerosol OT microemulsion-enhanced intradermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Yutani, Reiko; Morita, Shin-ya; Teraoka, Reiko; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    As for most other polyphenols, intradermal delivery of curcumin and resveratrol is limited; however, it was significantly improved by a microemulsion using Aerosol OT (Aerosol OT microemulsion) and Tween 80 (Tween 80 microemulsion) as surfactants. Aerosol OT microemulsion was more effective and the incorporation ratio of these polyphenols into skin by Aerosol OT microemulsion was five-fold or ten-fold that by Tween 80 microemulsion. To clarify the mechanism of the enhancement we examined the distribution of these polyphenols and the surfactant component, Aerosol OT, using excised guinea pig skin and Yucatan micropig (YMP) skin. During permeation, polyphenols distributed deep in the skin. In particular, a small molecule, resveratrol, was mainly present in the dermis in YMP skin. Aerosol OT also distributed deep in the skin. These findings suggest the possible involvement of the interaction of surfactant molecules with skin components in the enhanced delivery process of polyphenols. The distribution ratio between the dermis and epidermis of the polyphenols, including quercetin, in the presence of Aerosol OT microemulsion decreased with the increase of molecular weight in YMP skin, suggesting the possibility that distribution to the dermis is regulated by the molecular size. PMID:22863702

  19. CenoDerm vs. Fascia lata for the Prevention of Dorsal Nasal Irregularities in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Hamidian, Roghayeh; Poosti, Seyed-Behzad; Hosseini, Seyedeh-Simindokht

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dorsal nasal irregularity is a complication of rhinoplasty surgery, mostly seen in patients with thin skin. Acellular dermis (CenoDerm) and homologous fascia lata covering the nasal bone cartilage structure have been used to achieve a smooth surface. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical outcomes using these two materials. Materials and Methods: After a standard rhinoplasty procedure, a layer of the acellular dermis or homologous fascia lata was placed in the pocket of the dorsum. Patients were evaluated for clinical outcomes at 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Results: Forty-two of 68 patients completed the follow-up period. Patient satisfaction was higher in the homologous fascia lata group. Similarly, nasal dorsum inspection and palpation results were better in the homologous fascia lata group compared with the CenoDerm group but was significant in palpation (P=0.00). There was no complete absorption in the homologous fascia lata group 6 months after surgery (P= 0.04 vs. CenoDerm) but no significant difference was observed at 12 months. Conclusion: Homologous fascia lata is better than acellular dermis in preventing dorsal nasal irregularity after rhinoplasty in thin-skinned patients. PMID:27602334

  20. In-vivo optical investigation of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. The average size of dot vessels in Psoriasis was measured to be 974 μm2 which is much higher compared to healthy skin. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  1. In-vivo morphologic and spectroscopic investigation of Psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  2. PIXE analysis in different stages of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, K.; Steigleder, G.K.; Bischof, W.; Gonsior, B.

    1987-02-01

    Elemental distribution in psoriatic skin varies with the functional state of the keratinocytes, e.g., electrolytes influence cell metabolism and cell proliferation, and trace elements play a crucial role in a great number of enzymes. Elemental distribution in pinpoint lesions, old plaques, and uninvolved skin of 5 psoriatic patients and 4 healthy controls was studied by means of PIXE (proton-induced x-ray emission) analysis. This technique allows the simultaneous detection of elements with an atomic number greater than or equal to 14 along the epidermis and dermis in freeze-dried skin biopsies. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined down to a level of 1 ppm. In comparison with uninvolved skin, concentrations of P and K were elevated in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, increased levels of K were correlated with the stage of the psoriatic lesion. Zinc concentrations were significantly elevated in pinpoint lesions. The Zn concentration profiles within the epidermis and upper dermis showed high correlation to the P concentration profiles. Iron levels were decreased in old psoriatic plaques, whereas Cu concentrations varied considerably. In comparison to the controls, Cl concentrations were markedly decreased in the dermis of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin, whereas epidermal Cl levels were unaffected. As high K levels prevent the Ca-induced differentiation of keratinocytes, high K levels may be the cause of the high cell differentiation in psoriatic skin. Elevated DNA- and RNA-polymerases might be the cause of elevated Zn levels in pinpoint lesions.

  3. Coagulation and ablation patterns of high-intensity focused ultrasound on a tissue-mimicking phantom and cadaveric skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Han Gu; Zheng, Zhenlong; Park, Hyoun Jun; Yoon, Jeung Hyun; Oh, Wook; Lee, Cheol Woo; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-12-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied noninvasively to create focused zones of tissue coagulation on various skin layers. We performed a comparative study of HIFU, evaluating patterns of focused tissue coagulation and ablation upon application thereof. A tissue-mimicking (TM) phantom was prepared with bovine serum albumin and polyacrylamide hydrogel to evaluate the geometric patterns of HIFU-induced thermal injury zones (TIZs) for five different HIFU devices. Additionally, for each device, we investigated histologic patterns of HIFU-induced coagulation and ablation in serial sections of cadaveric skin of the face and neck. All HIFU devices generated remarkable TIZs in the TM phantom, with different geometric values of coagulation for each device. Most of the TIZs seemed to be separated into two or more tiny parts. In cadaveric skin, characteristic patterns of HIFU-induced ablation and coagulation were noted along the mid to lower dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and along subcutaneous fat to the superficial musculoaponeurotic system or the platysma muscle of the neck at 4.5 mm. Additionally, remarkable pre-focal areas of tissue coagulation were observed in the upper and mid dermis at the focal penetration depth of 3 mm and mid to lower dermis at 4.5 mm. For five HIFU devices, we outlined various patterns of HIFU-induced TIZ formation along pre-focal, focal, and post-focal areas of TM phantom and cadaveric skin of the face and neck. PMID:26341380

  4. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  5. Cutaneous immune mechanisms in canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Papadogiannakis, E I; Koutinas, A F

    2015-02-15

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum is a systemic disease with variable clinical signs. The disease is endemic in the Mediterranean countries and dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The quite complicated immune response against the parasite is crucial for the evolution of CanL infection with the skin playing a major role in its immunopathogenesis. After the inoculation of Leishmania promastigotes into the dermis by sand fly bites, complement factors, Langerhan's cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts and keratinocytes are involved in the activation of the innate arm of the skin immune system, with the macrophages and dendritic cells to play a major key role. The effective activation of cellular immunity is the cornerstone of dog's resistance against the parasite. Promastigotes reaching the dermis are engulfed, processed and transferred by APCs to draining lymph nodes to stimulate naïve T-cells for proliferation and differentiation into armed effector T-cells. Th1 cells activate the infected macrophages to kill Leishmania, whereas Th2 cells divert the immune response to humoral immunity and down regulation of cellular immunity with Th1 cell anergy. Inhibition of co-stimulatory molecules expression by infected macrophages contributes to T-cell anergy. In canine subclinical infections cutaneous lymphocytic infiltrate and parasites are absent, as opposed to dogs with clinical leishmaniosis. CD8+ cells constitute a significant population of cellular immunity in CanL since they outnumber CD4+ cells in the dermis, producing IFN-γ in sub clinically infected dogs and high levels of IL-4 in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis. Numerous B-lymphocytes have been shown to heavily infiltrate the dermis at least in exfoliative dermatitis in CanL. A mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine profile has been found in the dermis of naturally infected with L. infantum dogs. In the skin of dogs with clinical leishmaniosis, where plasma cells outnumber T

  6. SOX10 expression distinguishes desmoplastic melanoma from its histologic mimics.

    PubMed

    Palla, Beth; Su, Albert; Binder, Scott; Dry, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) presents diagnostic challenges due to histologic mimics and limited immunohistochemical staining. Although S100 usually stains DM, other melanoma markers (HMB-45 and Melan-A) are often negative. Dermal/subcutaneous mimics of DM [spindle cell/poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), and sarcoma] show negative or unreliable immunohistochemical staining. Recently, SOX10 expression has been shown to be a sensitive and specific marker of DM. However, there are no published studies comparing the sensitivity and specificity of SOX10 for DM compared with its most common histologic mimics of the dermis/subcutis. We examined 76 cases, including DM (n = 15), spindle cell/poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 18), AFX (n = 13), sarcoma with spindled morphology (n = 20), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) (n = 10). Most (75%, 15/20) of sarcomas were centered in the dermis/subcutis and included sarcoma not otherwise specified, DFSP with sarcomatous transformation and myxofibrosarcoma. SOX10 was diffusely positive in 100% (15/15) of DMs and showed focal staining in 30% (3/10) of MPNSTs. All other tumors were negative for SOX10 [0% (0/18) of carcinomas, 0% (0/13) of AFXs, 0% (0/20) of sarcomas]. In conclusion, SOX10 is a highly useful marker to confirm the diagnosis of DM. In our study, SOX10 showed 100% sensitivity for DM and SOX10 was negative in all histologic mimics of the dermis/subcutis, including spindle cell carcinoma, AFX and sarcomas. Similar to S-100 protein, some MPNSTs show scattered positivity but did not show diffuse positivity seen in DM. PMID:23291581

  7. Inhibition of β-catenin signalling in dermal fibroblasts enhances hair follicle regeneration during wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Celine; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Rawlins, Emma L.; Simons, Ben D.

    2016-01-01

    New hair follicles (HFs) do not form in adult mammalian skin unless epidermal Wnt signalling is activated genetically or within large wounds. To understand the postnatal loss of hair forming ability we monitored HF formation at small circular (2 mm) wound sites. At P2, new HFs formed in back skin, but HF formation was markedly decreased by P21. Neonatal tail also formed wound-associated HFs, albeit in smaller numbers. Postnatal loss of HF neogenesis did not correlate with wound closure rate but with a reduction in Lrig1-positive papillary fibroblasts in wounds. Comparative gene expression profiling of back and tail dermis at P1 and dorsal fibroblasts at P2 and P50 showed a correlation between loss of HF formation and decreased expression of genes associated with proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Between P2 and P50, fibroblast density declined throughout the dermis and clones of fibroblasts became more dispersed. This correlated with a decline in fibroblasts expressing a TOPGFP reporter of Wnt activation. Surprisingly, between P2 and P50 there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation at the wound site but Wnt signalling was highly upregulated in healing dermis of P21 compared with P2 mice. Postnatal β-catenin ablation in fibroblasts promoted HF regeneration in neonatal and adult mouse wounds, whereas β-catenin activation reduced HF regeneration in neonatal wounds. Our data support a model whereby postnatal loss of hair forming ability in wounds reflects elevated dermal Wnt/β-catenin activation in the wound bed, increasing the abundance of fibroblasts that are unable to induce HF formation. PMID:27287810

  8. A heterocyclic molecule kartogenin induces collagen synthesis of human dermal fibroblasts by activating the smad4/smad5 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-07-18

    Declined production of collagen by fibroblasts is one of the major causes of aging appearance. However, only few of compounds found in cosmetic products are able to directly increase collagen synthesis. A novel small heterocyclic compound called kartogenin (KGN) was found to stimulate collagen synthesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). So, we hypothesized and tested that if KGN could be applied to stimulate the collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. Human dermal fibroblasts in vitro were treated with various concentrations of KGN, with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) serving as the negative control. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses were performed to examine the expression of collagen and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway. The production of collagen was also tested in vivo by Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemistry in the dermis of mice administrated with KGN. Results showed that without obvious influence on fibroblasts' apoptosis and viability, KGN stimulated type-I collagen synthesis of fibroblasts at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner, but KGN did not induce expression of α-skeletal muscle actin (α-sma) or matrix metallopeptidase1 (MMP1), MMP9 in vitro. Smad4/smad5 of the TGF-β signaling pathway was activated by KGN while MAPK signaling pathway remained unchanged. KGN also increased type-I collagen synthesis in the dermis of BALB/C mice. Our results indicated that KGN promoted the type-I collagen synthesis of dermal fibroblasts in vitro and in the dermis of mice through activation of the smad4/smad5 pathway. This molecule could be used in wound healing, tissue engineering of fibroblasts, or aesthetic and reconstructive procedures. PMID:24928394

  9. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

    2008-06-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluid<0.04microg/cm2, a total of 0.90microg/cm2 was considered to be bioavailable. In vitro epidermis/dermis residues were nearly identical to those located in non-living skin in vivo. In conclusion, in vitro percutaneous penetration studies may produce seemingly bioavailable material , which raises the need for a Threshold of Skin Absorption (TSA) addressing a negligible dermal absorption in order to avoid unnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure. PMID:18417263

  10. Inhibition of β-catenin signalling in dermal fibroblasts enhances hair follicle regeneration during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rognoni, Emanuel; Gomez, Celine; Pisco, Angela Oliveira; Rawlins, Emma L; Simons, Ben D; Watt, Fiona M; Driskell, Ryan R

    2016-07-15

    New hair follicles (HFs) do not form in adult mammalian skin unless epidermal Wnt signalling is activated genetically or within large wounds. To understand the postnatal loss of hair forming ability we monitored HF formation at small circular (2 mm) wound sites. At P2, new HFs formed in back skin, but HF formation was markedly decreased by P21. Neonatal tail also formed wound-associated HFs, albeit in smaller numbers. Postnatal loss of HF neogenesis did not correlate with wound closure rate but with a reduction in Lrig1-positive papillary fibroblasts in wounds. Comparative gene expression profiling of back and tail dermis at P1 and dorsal fibroblasts at P2 and P50 showed a correlation between loss of HF formation and decreased expression of genes associated with proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin activity. Between P2 and P50, fibroblast density declined throughout the dermis and clones of fibroblasts became more dispersed. This correlated with a decline in fibroblasts expressing a TOPGFP reporter of Wnt activation. Surprisingly, between P2 and P50 there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation at the wound site but Wnt signalling was highly upregulated in healing dermis of P21 compared with P2 mice. Postnatal β-catenin ablation in fibroblasts promoted HF regeneration in neonatal and adult mouse wounds, whereas β-catenin activation reduced HF regeneration in neonatal wounds. Our data support a model whereby postnatal loss of hair forming ability in wounds reflects elevated dermal Wnt/β-catenin activation in the wound bed, increasing the abundance of fibroblasts that are unable to induce HF formation. PMID:27287810

  11. In situ CUTANEOUS CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE IN DOGS NATURALLY AFFECTED BY VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    ROSSI, Claudio Nazaretian; TOMOKANE, Thaise Yumie; BATISTA, Luis Fábio da Silva; MARCONDES, Mary; LARSSON, Carlos Eduardo; LAURENTI, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty-eight dogs naturally affected by visceral leishmaniasis were recruited in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil - an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. The animals were distributed into one of two groups, according to their clinical and laboratory features, as either symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs. Correlations between clinical features and inflammatory patterns, cellular immune responses, and parasitism in the macroscopically uninjured skin of the ear were investigated. Histological skin patterns were similar in both groups, and were generally characterized by a mild to intense inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, mainly consisting of mononuclear cells. There was no difference in the number of parasites in the skin (amastigotes/mm²) between the two groups. Concerning the characterization of the cellular immune response, the number of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells was higher in the dermis of symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs (p = 0.0368). A positive correlation between parasite density and macrophages density (p = 0.031), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.015), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.023) was observed. Furthermore, a positive correlation between density of iNOS+ cells and CD3+ T-cells (p = 0.005), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.001), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.0001) was also found. The results showed the existence of a non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of dogs affected by visceral leishmaniasis, characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, associated to cutaneous parasitism, independent of clinical status. PMID:27410908

  12. Equine lamellar energy metabolism studied using tissue microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Torres, C E; Pollitt, C C; Underwood, C; Castro-Olivera, E M; Collins, S N; Allavena, R E; Richardson, D W; van Eps, A W

    2014-09-01

    Failure of lamellar energy metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Tissue microdialysis has the potential to dynamically monitor lamellar energy balance over time. The objectives of this study were to develop a minimally invasive lamellar microdialysis technique and use it to measure normal lamellar energy metabolite concentrations over 24 h. Microdialysis probes were placed (through the white line) into either the lamellar dermis (LAM) (n = 6) or the sublamellar dermis (SUBLAM) (n = 6) and perfused continuously over a 24 h study period. Probes were placed in the skin dermis (SKIN) for simultaneous comparison to LAM (n = 6). Samples were collected every 2 h and analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, urea and glycerol concentrations. LAM was further compared with SUBLAM by simultaneous placement and sampling in four feet from two horses over 4 h. Horses were monitored for lameness, and either clinically evaluated for 1 month after probe removal (n = 4) or subjected to histological evaluation of the probe site (n = 10). There were no deleterious clinical effects of probe placement and the histological response was mild. Sample fluid recovery and metabolite concentrations were stable for 24 h. Glucose was lower (and lactate:glucose ratio higher) in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN (P < 0.05). Pyruvate was lower in SUBLAM than SKIN and urea was lower in LAM than SKIN (P < 0.05). These differences suggest lower perfusion and increased glucose consumption in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN. In conclusion, lamellar tissue microdialysis was well tolerated and may be useful for determining the contribution of energy failure in laminitis pathogenesis. PMID:24947715

  13. Non-linear laser imaging of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin samples by combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), spectral lifetime imaging (SLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE). Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor stroma, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. A score, based on the SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID), was assigned to characterize each region. We found that both BCC and surrounding dermis have a negative SAAID value, tumor stroma has a positive SAAID value, whereas fibroblastic proliferation and keloids have a SAAID value close to the unit. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM, SLIM, and MTPE. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher fluorescence response at 800 nm excitation wavelength and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed an emission spectrum similar to the corresponding healthy skin emission spectrum, and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution shifted towards shorter values. Finally, the use of aminolevulinic acid as a contrast agent has been demonstrated to increase the constrast in BCC border detection. The results obtained represent further support for in-vivo non-invasive imaging of diseased skin.

  14. Spectra from 2.5-15 microm of tissue phantom materials, optical clearing agents and ex vivo human skin: implications for depth profiling of human skin.

    PubMed

    Viator, John A; Choi, Bernard; Peavy, George M; Kimel, Sol; Nelson, J Stuart

    2003-01-21

    Infrared measurements have been used to profile or image biological tissue, including human skin. Usually, analysis of such measurements has assumed that infrared absorption is due to water and collagen. Such an assumption may be reasonable for soft tissue, but introduction of exogenous agents into skin or the measurement of tissue phantoms has raised the question of their infrared absorption spectrum. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode to measure the infrared absorption spectra, in the range of 2-15 microm, of water, polyacrylamide, Intralipid, collagen gels, four hyperosmotic clearing agents (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, Topicare), and ex vivo human stratum corneum and dermis. The absorption spectra of the phantom materials were similar to that of water, although additional structure was noted in the range of 6-10 microm. The absorption spectra of the clearing agents were more complex, with molecular absorption bands dominating between 6 and 12 microm. Dermis was similar to water, with collagen structure evident in the 6-10 microm range. Stratum corneum had a significantly lower absorption than dermis due to a lower content of water. These results suggest that the assumption of water-dominated absorption in the 2.5-6 microm range is valid. At longer wavelengths, clearing agent absorption spectra differ significantly from the water spectrum. This spectral information can be used in pulsed photothermal radiometry or utilized in the interpretation of reconstructions in which a constant mu(ir) is used. In such cases, overestimating mu(ir) will underestimate chromophore depth and vice versa, although the effect is dependent on actual chromophore depth. PMID:12587910

  15. Usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy for prognostic prediction in extramammary Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Dai; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Syusuke; Tsuchida, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Complete excision of the primary lesion has long been considered the standard treatment for extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD). However, the presence of lymph node metastases has been reported as an important prognostic factor. We evaluated the association between lymph node metastasis and prognosis for EMPD using sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. This retrospective study included 59 patients with histopathologically-confirmed primary EMPD. A total of 45 patients with microinvasion to the papillary dermis and deep invasion into the reticular dermis or subcutaneous tissue were included in the analysis. The survival curves of the SLN-negative group and the SLN-positive group were compared and we examined the risk factors for SLN positivity. A total of 139 SLNs were excised from one (28 patients) or both inguinal regions (31 patients). The average number of detected SLNs was 2.4. The incidence of SLN metastases was 16.9%. SLN positivity rates according to level of invasion were 0% for intraepithelial lesions, 4.1% for microinvasion, and 42.8% for dermal invasion. The five-year survival rates were 100% in the SLN-negative and 24% in the SLN-positive groups (p = 0.0001). Reticular dermis or subcutaneous tissue invasion was a significant independent risk factor for SLN positivity according to multivariate analysis. The result of SLN biopsy affected prognosis. It is extremely important to accurately ascertain the presence, i.e. the number, or absence of regional lymph node metastases in patients with EMPD. We conclude that SLN biopsy may be appropriate for cases where invasion is suspected. PMID:26985569

  16. Skin telocytes versus fibroblasts: two distinct dermal cell populations.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuli; Zhu, Zaihua; Zheng, Yonghua; Wan, Weiguo; Manole, Catalin G; Zhang, Qiangqiang

    2015-11-01

    It is already accepted that telocytes (TCs) represent a new type of interstitial cells in human dermis. In normal skin, TCs have particular spatial relations with different dermal structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles or segments of sebaceous and/or eccrine sweat glands. The distribution and the density of TCs is affected in various skin pathological conditions. Previous studies mentioned the particular (ultra)structure of TCs and also their immunophenotype, miR imprint or proteome, genome or secretome features. As fibroblast is the most common intersitital cell (also in human dermis), a dedicated comparison between human skin TCs and fibroblasts (Fbs) was required to be performed. In this study, using different techniques, we document several points of difference between human dermis TCs and Fbs. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrated TCs with their hallmark cellular prolongations - telopodes. Thus, we showed their ultrastructural distinctiveness from Fbs. By RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array V analyses performed on the supernatant from separately cultured TCs and Fbs, we detected the cytokine profile of both cell types, individually. Two of 79 detected cytokines - epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 - were 1.5 times higher in the supernatant of TCs (comparing with Fbs). On the other hand, 37 cytokines were at least 1.5 higher in Fbs supernatant (comparing with TCs), and among them six cytokines - interleukin 5, monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, angiogenin, thrombopoietin - being 9.5 times higher (results also confirmed by ELISA testing). In summary, using different techniques, we showed that human dermal TCs and Fbs are different in terms of ultrastructure and cytokine profile. PMID:26414534

  17. Skin telocytes versus fibroblasts: two distinct dermal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yuli; Zhu, Zaihua; Zheng, Yonghua; Wan, Weiguo; Manole, Catalin G; Zhang, Qiangqiang

    2015-01-01

    It is already accepted that telocytes (TCs) represent a new type of interstitial cells in human dermis. In normal skin, TCs have particular spatial relations with different dermal structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, arrector pili muscles or segments of sebaceous and/or eccrine sweat glands. The distribution and the density of TCs is affected in various skin pathological conditions. Previous studies mentioned the particular (ultra)structure of TCs and also their immunophenotype, miR imprint or proteome, genome or secretome features. As fibroblast is the most common intersitital cell (also in human dermis), a dedicated comparison between human skin TCs and fibroblasts (Fbs) was required to be performed. In this study, using different techniques, we document several points of difference between human dermis TCs and Fbs. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we demonstrated TCs with their hallmark cellular prolongations – telopodes. Thus, we showed their ultrastructural distinctiveness from Fbs. By RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array V analyses performed on the supernatant from separately cultured TCs and Fbs, we detected the cytokine profile of both cell types, individually. Two of 79 detected cytokines – epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 – were 1.5 times higher in the supernatant of TCs (comparing with Fbs). On the other hand, 37 cytokines were at least 1.5 higher in Fbs supernatant (comparing with TCs), and among them six cytokines – interleukin 5, monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3), MCP-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-3, angiogenin, thrombopoietin – being 9.5 times higher (results also confirmed by ELISA testing). In summary, using different techniques, we showed that human dermal TCs and Fbs are different in terms of ultrastructure and cytokine profile. PMID:26414534

  18. Multiple primary syphilis on the lip, nipple-areola and penis: An immunohistochemical examination of Treponema pallidum localization using an anti-T. pallidum antibody.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hidetsugu; Takahashi, Misaki; Kato, Keiichi; Oharaseki, Toshiaki; Mukai, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Primary syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum usually develops after sexual contact as an initial solitary sclerosis or hard chancre in the genital region. We describe a case of primary syphilis at three sites in genital and extragenital regions of a man who had sex with men. A 29-year-old man visited our hospital for skin lesions on his lower lip, nipple-areola and penis. A positive syphilis serological test for rapid plasma reagin had a titer of 1:16; the patient also tested positive for specific antibodies against T. pallidum, with a cut-off index of 39.0. Histopathological examination of a nipple-areola biopsy specimen revealed a thickened epidermis and dense infiltration of inflammatory cells extending from the upper dermal layers to the deep dermis. The inflammatory cells were composed of abundant lymphocytes, plasma cells, histiocytes and neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum using an anti-T. pallidum antibody showed numerous spirochetes in the lower portion of the epidermis, scattered inside inflammatory cell infiltrate and perivascular sites throughout the dermis. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with primary syphilis. Treatment with oral amoxicillin hydrate was started. Five days after starting treatment, a diffuse maculopapular rash (syphilitic roseola) occurred on his trunk and extremities. Perivascular cuffing due to T. pallidum was present throughout the dermis in the biopsy specimen of a localized lesion of primary syphilis. Moreover, syphilitic roseola, which indicates generalized dissemination of T. pallidum, developed during the course of treatment for primary syphilis. Therefore, we considered perivascular cuffing to be indicative of the dissemination phase. PMID:25708895

  19. The role of vitamin C in pushing back the boundaries of skin aging: an ultrasonographic approach

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Diana; Roman, Iulia; Crisan, Maria; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Badea, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Background Imagistic methods stand as modern, non-invasive, and objective means of assessing the impact of topical cutaneous therapies. Objective This study focuses on the evaluation, by high-frequency ultrasound, of the cutaneous changes induced by topical use of a vitamin C complex at facial level. Methods A vitamin C-based solution/Placebo moisturizer cream was applied at facial level of 60 healthy female subjects according to a predetermined protocol. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan C, 20 MHz) were taken from zygomatic level initially, at 40 and 60 days after therapy. The following parameters were assessed for every subject: thickness of the epidermis and dermis (mm), the number of low (LEP), medium (MEP), high echogenic pixels (HEP), and the number of LEP in the upper dermis/lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi). Results LEP decreased significantly in all age categories during and after therapy, but especially in the first 2 age intervals, up to the age of 50 (P=0.0001). MEP and HEP, pixel categories that quantify protein synthesis also had an age-dependent evolution in the study, increasing significantly in all age categories but most of all in the first age interval (P=0.002). Our ultrasonographic data suggest that collagen synthesis increased significantly after topical vitamin C therapy, and is responsible for the increase in MEP and HEP and consequent decrease of the LEP. Conclusion Our study shows that topically applied vitamin C is highly efficient as a rejuvenation therapy, inducing significant collagen synthesis in all age groups with minimal side effects. PMID:26366101

  20. The use of digital image speckle correlation to measure the mechanical properties of skin and facial muscular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staloff, Isabelle Afriat

    Skin mechanical properties have been extensively studied and have led to an understanding of the structure and role of the collagen and elastin fibers network in the dermis and their changes due to aging. All these techniques have either isolated the skin from its natural environment (in vitro), or, when studied in vivo, attempted to minimize the effect of the underlying tissues and muscles. The human facial region is unique compared to the other parts of the body in that the underlying musculature runs through the subcutaneous tissue and is directly connected to the dermis with collagen based fibrous tissues. These fibrous tissues comprise the superficial musculoaponeurotic system, commonly referred to as the SMAS layer. Retaining ligaments anchor the skin to the periosteum, and hold the dermis to the SMAS. In addition, traditional techniques generally collect an average response of the skin. Data gathered in this manner is incomplete as the skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. We therefore introduce the Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) method that maps in two dimensions the skin deformation under the complex set of forces involved during muscular activity. DISC, a non-contact in vivo technique, generates spatial resolved information. By observing the detailed motion of the facial skin we can infer the manner in which the complex ensemble of forces induced by movement of the muscles distribute and dissipate on the skin. By analyzing the effect of aging on the distribution of these complex forces we can measure its impact on skin elasticity and quantify the efficacy of skin care products. In addition, we speculate on the mechanism of wrinkle formation. Furthermore, we investigate the use of DISC to map the mechanism of film formation on skin of various polymers. Finally, we show that DISC can detect the involuntary facial muscular activity induced by various fragrances.

  1. In situ CUTANEOUS CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE IN DOGS NATURALLY AFFECTED BY VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Tomokane, Thaise Yumie; Batista, Luis Fábio da Silva; Marcondes, Mary; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-07-11

    Thirty-eight dogs naturally affected by visceral leishmaniasis were recruited in Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil - an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. The animals were distributed into one of two groups, according to their clinical and laboratory features, as either symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs. Correlations between clinical features and inflammatory patterns, cellular immune responses, and parasitism in the macroscopically uninjured skin of the ear were investigated. Histological skin patterns were similar in both groups, and were generally characterized by a mild to intense inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis, mainly consisting of mononuclear cells. There was no difference in the number of parasites in the skin (amastigotes/mm²) between the two groups. Concerning the characterization of the cellular immune response, the number of positive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells was higher in the dermis of symptomatic than in asymptomatic dogs (p = 0.0368). A positive correlation between parasite density and macrophages density (p = 0.031), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.015), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.023) was observed. Furthermore, a positive correlation between density of iNOS+ cells and CD3+ T-cells (p = 0.005), CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.001), and CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.0001) was also found. The results showed the existence of a non-specific chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis of dogs affected by visceral leishmaniasis, characterized by the presence of activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, associated to cutaneous parasitism, independent of clinical status. PMID:27410908

  2. Transdermal delivery of dideoxynucleoside-type anti-HIV drugs. 1. Stability studies for hairless rat skin permeation.

    PubMed

    Kim, D D; Chien, Y W

    1995-09-01

    The stability of dideoxynucleoside-type anti-HIV drugs in solution when in contact with hairless rat skin was investigated in order to study the feasibility of their transdermal delivery. The freshly excised dorsal region of hairless rat skin was mounted on Valia-Chien skin permeation cells, and both epidermis (donor) and dermis (receptor) were extracted with isotonic phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Zalcitabine (DDC), didanosine (DDI), and zidovudine (AZT) were found to be stable in the extract of the epidermis at 37 degrees C for at least 30 h. However, DDC and DDI degraded in the extract of the dermis following first-order kinetics at both 25 and 37 degrees C, while AZT was stable at 37 degrees C for at least 30 h. The degradation mechanism(s) of DDC and DDI was (were) studied by analyzing HPLC chromatograms and by evaluating the drug stability in the extract which was filtered to remove any microbes. An unidentified peak produced by DDC in the dermis extract did not appear when the drug was added to the filtered extract, which suggested a bacterial degradation of DDC. On the other hand, DDI was unstable even in the filtered extract and produced a degradation product which corresponded to hypoxanthine, which suggested that a cutaneous enzyme is also involved in the degradation of DDI. DDC was stabilized by the addition of 0.01% (w/v) of an antibacterial agent, such as thimerosal or gentamicin, in the receptor solution, while DDI was stabilized by 0.01% (w/v) purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor, i.e., p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. These results show the importance of stability studies when designing skin permeation experiments using hairless rat since compounds with similar chemical structures can have different stability profiles when in contact with hairless rat skin. PMID:8537882

  3. Effect of barrier perturbation on cutaneous penetration of salicylic acid in hairless rats: in vivo pharmacokinetics using microdialysis and non-invasive quantification of barrier function.

    PubMed

    Benfeldt, E; Serup, J

    1999-09-01

    The penetration of topically applied drugs is altered in diseased or barrier-damaged skin. We used microdialysis in the dermis to measure salicylic acid (SA) penetration in hairless rats following application to normal (unmodified) skin (n = 11) or skin with perturbed barrier function from (1) tape-stripping (n = 5), (2) sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 2% for 24 h (n = 3) or (3) delipidization by acetone (n = 4). Prior to the experiment, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema were measured. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the side of the trunk and 5% SA in ethanol was applied in a chamber overlying the probes. Microdialysis sampling was continued for 4 h, followed by measurements of probe depth by ultrasound scanning. SA was detectable in all samples and rapidly increasing up to 130 min. Microdialysates collected between 80 and 200 min showed mean SA concentrations of 3 microg/ml in unmodified and acetone-treated skin, whereas mean SA concentrations were 280 microg/ml in SLS-pretreated skin and 530 microg/ml in tape-stripped skin (P < 0.001). The penetration of SA correlated with barrier perturbation measured by TEWL (P < 0.001) and erythema (P < 0.001). A correlation between dermal probe depth and SA concentration was found in unmodified skin (P = 0.04). Microdialysis sampling in anatomical regions remote from the dosed site excluded the possibility that SA levels measured were due to systemic absorption. Microdialysis sampling of cutaneous penetration was highly reproducible. Impaired barrier function, caused by irritant dermatitis or tape stripping, resulted in an 80- to 170-fold increase in the drug level in the dermis. This dramatic increase in drug penetration could be relevant to humans, in particular to topical treatment of skin diseases and to occupational toxicology. PMID:10541883

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akita, Sadanori; Akino, Kozo; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2010-06-01

    Systemic and local radiation injuries caused by nuclear power reactor accidents, therapeutic irradiation, or nuclear terrorism should be prevented or properly treated in order to improve wound management and save lives. Currently, regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with a local angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Human mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells, together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor and an artificial dermis, were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect and were tested for differentiation and local stimulation effects in the radiation-exposed wounds. The perforator flap and artificial dermal template with growth factor were successful for reconstruction in patients who were suffering from complex underlying disease. Patients were uneventfully treated with minimal morbidities. In the experiments, the hMSCs are strongly proliferative even after 20 Gy irradiation in vitro. In vivo, 4 Gy rat whole body irradiation demonstrated that sustained marrow stromal (mesenchymal stem) cells survived in the bone marrow. Immediate artificial dermis application impregnated with cells and the cytokine over the 20 Gy irradiated skin and soft tissues demonstrated the significantly improved fat angiogenesis, architected dermal reconstitution, and less inflammatory epidermal recovery. Detailed understanding of underlying diseases and rational reconstructive procedures brings about good outcomes for difficult irradiated wound healing. Adipose-derived stem cells are also implicated in the limited local injuries for short cell harvesting and processing time in the same subject. PMID:20445394

  5. Multiscale Mechanical Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle Shows Depth and Anisotropy Contribute to the Receptor’s Characteristic Response to Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Quindlen, Julia C.; Lai, Victor K.; Barocas, Victor H.

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors transduce different tactile stimuli into neural signals that produce distinct sensations of touch. The Pacinian corpuscle (PC), a cutaneous mechanoreceptor located deep within the dermis of the skin, detects high frequency vibrations that occur within its large receptive field. The PC is comprised of lamellae that surround the nerve fiber at its core. We hypothesized that a layered, anisotropic structure, embedded deep within the skin, would produce the nonlinear strain transmission and low spatial sensitivity characteristic of the PC. A multiscale finite-element model was used to model the equilibrium response of the PC to indentation. The first simulation considered an isolated PC with fiber networks aligned with the PC’s surface. The PC was subjected to a 10 μm indentation by a 250 μm diameter indenter. The multiscale model captured the nonlinear strain transmission through the PC, predicting decreased compressive strain with proximity to the receptor’s core, as seen experimentally by others. The second set of simulations considered a single PC embedded epidermally (shallow) or dermally (deep) to model the PC’s location within the skin. The embedded models were subjected to 10 μm indentations at a series of locations on the surface of the skin. Strain along the long axis of the PC was calculated after indentation to simulate stretch along the nerve fiber at the center of the PC. Receptive fields for the epidermis and dermis models were constructed by mapping the long-axis strain after indentation at each point on the surface of the skin mesh. The dermis model resulted in a larger receptive field, as the calculated strain showed less indenter location dependence than in the epidermis model. PMID:26390130

  6. Imaging Granulomatous Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Methods Two patients with granulomas, tophi and granuloma annulare (GA), respectively, were photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied in the said order. Normal skin was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT images from each lesion were compared with their histologic images as well as with OCT images with similar characteristics obtained from nonmelanoma skin tumors. Results The OCT images of the tophi showed hyperreflective, rounded cloud-like structures in dermis, their upper part sharply delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. The deeper areas appeared blurred. The crystalline structures were delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. OCT images of GA showed two different structures in dermis: a hyporeflective rounded one, and one that was lobulated and wing-like. Conclusion Granulomatous tissue surrounding urate deposits appeared as a clear hyporeflective fringe surrounding a light, hyperreflective area. The urate crystals appeared as hyperreflective areas, shielding the deeper part of dermis, meaning OCT could only visualize the upper part of the lesions. The lobulated, wing-like structure in GA may resemble diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as seen on histology. The rounded structure in GA may represent an actual granuloma or either diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as described above. This case suggests that OCT images granulomatous tissue as absorbent, hyporeflective areas, and urate crystals appear as reflective areas, obscuring the underlying tissue. In GA a new image shape looking like a wing has been found. The frequency, specificity and sensitivity of this new pattern in OCT imaging will require further studies. PMID:22493578

  7. Systemic FasL and TRAIL neutralisation reduce leishmaniasis induced skin ulceration.

    PubMed

    Tasew, Geremew; Nylén, Susanne; Lieke, Thorsten; Lemu, Befekadu; Meless, Hailu; Ruffin, Nicolas; Wolday, Dawit; Asseffa, Abraham; Yagita, Hideo; Britton, Sven; Akuffo, Hannah; Chiodi, Francesca; Eidsmo, Liv

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania infection of dermal macrophages and is associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. L. aethiopica infection displays two clinical manifestations, firstly ulcerative disease, correlated to a relatively low parasite load in the skin, and secondly non-ulcerative disease in which massive parasite infiltration of the dermis occurs in the absence of ulceration of epidermis. Skin ulceration is linked to a vigorous local inflammatory response within the skin towards infected macrophages. Fas ligand (FasL) and Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing cells are present in dermis in ulcerative CL and both death ligands cause apoptosis of keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania infection. In the present report we show a differential expression of FasL and TRAIL in ulcerative and non-ulcerative disease caused by L. aethiopica. In vitro experiments confirmed direct FasL- and TRAIL-induced killing of human keratinocytes in the context of Leishmania-induced inflammatory microenvironment. Systemic neutralisation of FasL and TRAIL reduced ulceration in a model of murine Leishmania infection with no effect on parasitic loads or dissemination. Interestingly, FasL neutralisation reduced neutrophil infiltration into the skin during established infection, suggesting an additional proinflammatory role of FasL in addition to direct keratinocyte killing in the context of parasite-induced skin inflammation. FasL signalling resulting in recruitment of activated neutrophils into dermis may lead to destruction of the basal membrane and thus allow direct FasL mediated killing of exposed keratinocytes in vivo. Based on our results we suggest that therapeutic inhibition of FasL and TRAIL could limit skin pathology during CL. PMID:20967287

  8. Lip enhancement: surgical alternatives and histologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Niechajev, I

    2000-03-01

    This study included 66 consecutive patients, 58 women and 8 men, who underwent 86 surgical procedures on the lips during 1989-1998. Lip enlargement was performed in 59 patients, and lip reduction was performed in 7 patients. Indications were purely aesthetic in 61 cases and reconstructive in 5 cases. The following surgical techniques were used for lip augmentation: implantation of crystal silicone, polyacrylamide hydrogel, Gore-Tex tubes, autologous fat, and dermis-fat graft. A new instrument originally designed by the author, the dermis-fat graft passer, significantly speeded up and facilitated execution of the latter procedure. Other operations included V-Y plasty, lip lifting by buffalo horn excision, lip lengthening by frenulum plasty, and lip reduction by wavy tangential excision. Eighty-six percent of patients could be followed up; the mean length of follow-up was 4.2 years. Use of silicone microparticles (Bioplastique) was abandoned because of the tendency for lumping. Polyacrylamide gel is promising because of its ease of use, and Gore-Tex tubes are promising because of their ability to create and accentuate the Cupid's bow form for the upper lip. However, these products are new, and follow-up studies with longer observation times are needed to reach definite conclusions. Of these studied methods, autologous fat transplant was found to be particularly useful for enlargement and restoration in cases of age-related atrophy of the lips and perioral tissues. Dermis-fat grafting was the most efficient, versatile, and reliable method of lip enlargement. Long-term survival of transplanted autologous tissues was confirmed by histologic studies of biopsy specimens. PMID:10724279

  9. AUTOMATED SKIN SEGMENTATION IN ULTRASONIC EVALUATION OF SKIN TOXICITY IN BREAST CANCER RADIOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and −3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. PMID:23993172

  10. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across hairless mouse skin and human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the absorption of diazepam applied topically to the hairless mouse in vivo and to determine the diffusion of diazepam across isolated hairless mouse skin and human skin. (/sup 14/C)Diazepam was readily absorbed after topical administration to the intact hairless mouse, a total of 75.8% of the /sup 14/C-label applied being recovered in urine and feces. Diazepam was found to diffuse across human and hairless mouse skin unchanged in experiments with twin-chambered diffusion cells. The variation in diffusion rate or the flux for both human and mouse tissues was greater among specimens than between duplicate or triplicate trials for a single specimen. Fluxes for mouse skin (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) were greater than for human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis): 0.35-0.61 microgram/cm2/h for mouse skin vs 0.24-0.42 microgram/cm2/h for human skin. The permeability coefficients for mouse skin ranged from 1.4-2.4 X 10(-2)cm/h compared with 0.8-1.4 X 10(-2)cm/h for human skin. Although human stratum corneum is almost twice the thickness of that of the hairless mouse, the diffusion coefficients for human skin were 3-12 times greater (0.76-3.31 X 10(-6) cm2/h for human skin vs 0.12-0.27 X 10(-6) cm2/h for hairless mouse) because of a shorter lag time for diffusion across human skin. These differences between the diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates (or permeability coefficients) suggest that the presence of the dermis may present some barrier properties. In vitro the dermis may require complete saturation before the diazepam can be detected in the receiving chamber.

  11. A comparative study of proliferative nodules and lethal melanomas in congenital nevi from children.

    PubMed

    Yélamos, Oriol; Arva, Nicoleta C; Obregon, Roxana; Yazdan, Pedram; Wagner, Annette; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    Differentiating proliferative nodules (PNs) from melanomas arising in congenital nevi (CN) is a considerable challenge for dermatopathologists. Most of the specimens dermatopathologists assess that deal with this differential diagnosis involve proliferations of melanocytes arising in the dermis. In this study, we compare the clinical, histologic, and molecular findings of these 2 conditions. In our database, we found 22 examples of PNs arising in the dermis of CN and 2 cases of lethal melanomas arising from the dermis/epidermis of CN of children. Importantly, we found that among dermal melanocytic proliferations arising from CN in children, PNs are far more common than lethal melanomas. Clinically, multiplicity of lesions favored a diagnosis of PNs, whereas ulceration was infrequent in PNs compared with lethal melanomas. Histologically, PNs showed several distinct patterns including expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with mitotic counts lower than that seen in the melanomas (1.67 vs. 12.5 mitoses/mm), a small round blue cell pattern often highly mitotically active, neurocristic-like, blue nevus-like, a nevoid melanoma-like pattern, or an undifferentiated spindle cell pattern. The lethal melanomas both featured expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with high mitotic counts (range, 5 to 20 mitoses/mm) and an ulcerated overlying epidermis. At the molecular level, the PNs showed mostly whole chromosomal copy number aberrations, which in some cases were accompanied by rare partial chromosomal aberrations, whereas both lethal melanomas showed highly elevated copy number aberrations involving 6p25 without gains of the long arm of chromosome 6. PMID:25517953

  12. The in vivo evaluation of tissue-based biomaterials in a rat full-thickness abdominal wall defect model.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nicholas; Ahswin, Helen; Smart, Neil; Bayon, Yves; Wohlert, Stephen; Hunt, John A

    2014-05-01

    Hernias are defects in which an anatomical fascia is breached resulting in ectopic positioning of an organ into an orifice which routinely does not contain it. Intervention often involves repositioning translocated organs and repair of damaged fascia using exogenous grafts. Despite hernia prevalence, repairs can still fail due to postoperative complications, such as chronic pain and decreased mobility. This study compared repair capacities and characterized the foreign body response elicited by a number of hernia repair grafts to deduce their bulk inflammatory properties while also concluding the point in their fabrication when these are inferred. Materials derived from human dermis (Alloderm(®) ), porcine dermis (Permacol™, patch A, patch D and Strattice(®) ), porcine small-intestinal submucosa (Surgisis™) and a synthetic (multifilament Surgipro™) were implanted into a rat full-thickness abdominal wall excision model, incubated for up to 2 years and characterized histopathologically. Surgisis™ resorbed the fastest of the materials tested (1-3 months) resulting in a mechanically stable parietal peritoneum. Decellularization using sodium dodecyl sulfate (patch A) stimulated a large early inflammatory response which ultimately may have contributed to increased resorption of porcine dermal matrix however the remaining materials typically persisted throughout the 2-year incubation. Cross-linking porcine dermis using 1,6-hexamethylene disocyanate (vs. an identical noncross-linked counterpart) showed no difference in cell recruitment or material integration over 2 years. Typically Strattice(®) and Alloderm(®) recruited larger early populations of cells than Permacol™; however, over extended periods of time in vivo this response normalized. PMID:24155173

  13. Lymphedematous skin and subcutis: in vivo high resolution magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Idy-Peretti, I; Bittoun, J; Alliot, F A; Richard, S B; Querleux, B G; Cluzan, R V

    1998-05-01

    Physico-chemical and morphologic parameters of skin layers and subcutaneous tissue in lymphedematous limb were studied in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. High resolution images were obtained with a depth resolution of about 70 microm, using a specific surface gradient coil specially designed for skin imaging and connected to a standard whole-body imager at 1.5 T. Twenty-one patients with unilateral lower extremity lymphedema (11 primary and 10 secondary) were examined. Skin thickness, relaxation times, and relative proton density were calculated in lymphedematous limbs and in contralateral extremities. In diseased limbs, the average skin thickness (2.17 mm) was significantly larger (p = 1.5 x 10(-4)) than that of contralateral limb (1.14 mm). Major cutaneous alterations due to lymphedema took place in dermis. In lymphedematous dermis, the significant increase of relaxation time values could be due to a shift in the equilibrium of water inside this tissue in relation to the interactions between macromolecules and water molecules. In lymphedematous epidermis our results showed an increase in the number of free water protons. Information about water and fat distribution in lymphedema was also obtained using chemical shift weighted images. Our results demonstrated a water retention diffusely spread over the entire dermis, and an important fluid retention located in the interlobular spacing and beside the superficial fascia. Inside the subcutis, the mean thickness of the superficial fat lobules was increased more than that of the deep fat lobules. From all the various measurements we could not distinguish primary from secondary lymphedema. PMID:9579546

  14. Comparison of structural changes in skin and amnion tissue grafts for transplantation induced by gamma and electron beam irradiation for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mrázová, H; Koller, J; Kubišová, K; Fujeríková, G; Klincová, E; Babál, P

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is an important step in the preparation of biological material for transplantation. The aim of the study is to compare morphological changes in three types of biological tissues induced by different doses of gamma and electron beam radiation. Frozen biological tissues (porcine skin xenografts, human skin allografts and human amnion) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (12.5, 25, 35, 50 kGy) and electron beam (15, 25, 50 kGy). Not irradiated specimens served as controls. The tissue samples were then thawn and fixed in 10 % formalin, processed by routine paraffin technique and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue at pH 2.5, orcein, periodic acid Schiff reaction, phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, Sirius red and silver impregnation. The staining with hematoxylin and eosin showed vacuolar cytoplasmic changes of epidermal cells mainly in the samples of xenografts irradiated by the lowest doses of gamma and electron beam radiation. The staining with orcein revealed damage of fine elastic fibers in the xenograft dermis at the dose of 25 kGy of both radiation types. Disintegration of epithelial basement membrane, especially in the xenografts, was induced by the dose of 15 kGy of electron beam radiation. The silver impregnation disclosed nuclear chromatin condensation mainly in human amnion at the lowest doses of both radiation types and disintegration of the fine collagen fibers in the papillary dermis induced by the lowest dose of electron beam and by the higher doses of gamma radiation. Irradiation by both, gamma rays and the electron beam, causes similar changes on cells and extracellular matrix, with significant damage of the basement membrane and of the fine and elastic and collagen fibers in the papillary dermis, the last caused already by low dose electron beam radiation. PMID:26649556

  15. Pathomorphological features of calcinosis circumscripta in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Joo

    2016-01-01

    A 19-month-old male German shepherd dog was presented with a hindlimb footpad mass. The mass was excised and histopathology was performed. Grossly, the cut section of the mass had multiple well-circumscribed nodules with a chalky appearance. Histopathologically, basophilic-stained calcium deposits of various sizes were distributed from dermis to subcutis, surrounded by epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells, and reactive fibroblasts. Myxoid metaplasia, calcium deposits in hair follicles, and psammoma-like bodies were also found. These histopathologic observations will greatly help to understand the pathogenesis of calcinosis circumscripta. PMID:27051446

  16. Sweet Syndrome: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Villarreal, C D; Ocampo-Candiani, J; Villarreal-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    Sweet syndrome is the most representative entity of febrile neutrophilic dermatoses. It typically presents in patients with pirexya, neutrophilia, painful tender erytomatous papules, nodules and plaques often distributed asymmetrically. Frequent sites include the face, neck and upper extremities. Affected sites show a characteristical neutrophilic infiltrate in the upper dermis. Its etiology remains elucidated, but it seems that can be mediated by a hypersensitivity reaction in which cytokines, followed by infiltration of neutrophils, may be involved. Systemic corticosteroids are the first-line of treatment in most cases. We present a concise review of the pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and treatment update of this entity. PMID:26826881

  17. A rare case of cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Meah, Nekma; Khirwadkar, Nitin; Ellison, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is a rare microangiopathy first described by Salama and Rosenthal in 2000. Several cases have been reported to date, describing distinct histological findings of thick hyaline collagenous blood vessel walls in the superficial dermis. Clinical confusion can arise with generalised essential telangiectasia. We report a case occurring in a 76-year-old woman who presented with a 2-year history of a telangiectatic rash progressing from her knees upwards. The diagnosis was confirmed on skin biopsy and treatment with pulsed dye laser was later initiated at the patient's request. PMID:25872701

  18. Lentigo maligna mimicking invasive melanoma in Mohs surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tsakok, Teresa; Sheth, Nisith; Robson, Alistair; Gleeson, Catherine; Mallipeddi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Lentigo maligna is a lentiginous proliferation of atypical melanocytes confined to the epidermis, typically on chronically sun-damaged skin. Following biopsy and exclusion of invasive disease, therapy may involve Mohs surgery, topical treatment or radiotherapy. However, lentigo maligna often involves adnexal structures, creating histological difficulty in distinguishing these foci from invasive melanoma. We present a case in which, during Mohs excision, a nodule of severely atypical melanocytes appeared to lie within the dermis, potentially altering treatment and prognosis. The use of laminin-5 provided a means of resolving this diagnostic dilemma, facilitating continuation of Mohs surgery until tumour clearance was achieved. PMID:25075285

  19. Acquired port wine stain of the upper eyelid after cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Vagefi, M Reza; Florell, Scott R; Lin, Chun Cheng; McCann, John D; Anderson, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    A 69-year-old white man with a medical history of left-sided cluster headaches presented for evaluation of dermatochalasis. The left upper eyelid demonstrated red-pink, blanchable macules that coalesced in a patch. The lesion appeared after an episode of a cluster headache. Upper eyelid blepharoplasty permitted en bloc removal of most of the lesion. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated aggregates of telangiectatic blood vessels in the papillary dermis consistent with the diagnosis of an acquired port wine stain. The authors report, to their knowledge, the first description of an acquired port wine stain associated with cluster headaches. PMID:19033853

  20. Direct Transfection of Dendritic Cells in the Epidermis After Plasmid Delivery Enhanced by Surface Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Amante, Dinah H.; Smith, Trevor R.F.; Kiosses, Bill B.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Humeau, Laurent M.P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The skin is rich in antigen-presenting cells and as such is an excellent target tissue for vaccination strategies. Electroporation is a physical delivery method that potentiates the uptake of DNA vaccines into target cells. Intradermal electroporation offers a minimally invasive solution to DNA delivery in the clinic. Here we describe the direct transfection of dendritic cells in the epidermis, using a surface dermal electroporation device, and specifically show a dendritic cell transfected with plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein. The dendritic cell has used its motile capabilities after transfection to move from the epidermis into the dermis, making its way to the lymphatic system. PMID:25470335

  1. Direct transfection of dendritic cells in the epidermis after plasmid delivery enhanced by surface electroporation.

    PubMed

    Amante, Dinah H; Smith, Trevor R F; Kiosses, Bill B; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Humeau, Laurent M P F; Broderick, Kate E

    2014-12-01

    The skin is rich in antigen-presenting cells and as such is an excellent target tissue for vaccination strategies. Electroporation is a physical delivery method that potentiates the uptake of DNA vaccines into target cells. Intradermal electroporation offers a minimally invasive solution to DNA delivery in the clinic. Here we describe the direct transfection of dendritic cells in the epidermis, using a surface dermal electroporation device, and specifically show a dendritic cell transfected with plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein. The dendritic cell has used its motile capabilities after transfection to move from the epidermis into the dermis, making its way to the lymphatic system. PMID:25470335

  2. Differentiation of cutaneous melanoma from surrounding skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jung Hyun; Moon, Youngmin; Lee, Jong Jin; Choi, Sujeong; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to be used as a surgical tool for simultaneous tissue ablation and elemental analysis of the ablated tissue. LIBS may be used to distinguish melanoma lesions from the surrounding dermis based on the quantitative difference of elements within melanoma lesions. Here, we measured the elements in homogenized pellets and real tissues from excised skin samples of melanoma-implanted mice. In addition, statistical analysis of LIBS spectra using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis was performed. Our results showed that this method had high detection sensitivity, highlighting the potential of this tool in clinical applications. PMID:26819817

  3. Cutaneous hemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Naho; Furukawa, Satoshi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2013-06-01

    A male golden retriever of unknown age presented with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous masses from the left elbow to the digits. Histopathologically, multiple tumor foci had formed from the dermis to the subcutaneous tissue. Tumor foci consisted of a vascular structure, alveolar structure and solid proliferative area. The borders among these areas were not clear. Some neoplastic cells resembled a mature endothelium, while others were large pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were usually strongly positive for CD31 and often positive for PROX-1, the lymphatic endothelial cell marker. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a hemangiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation. PMID:23914061

  4. Sweet syndrome on a patient with autoimmune hepatitis on azathioprine and CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Xenophontos, Eleni; Ioannou, Antreas; Constantinides, Thrasos; Papanicolaou, Eleni

    2016-02-01

    Sweet syndrome (SS) is a rare inflammatory process presenting with painful erythematous skin eruptions, accompanied by fever and neutrophilia. It is associated with upper respiratory infection in fertile women (classic form), malignancy, infections, drugs and autoimmune diseases. Its pathogenesis remains to be determined. Nevertheless, cytokines may have a prominent role, due to a rapid response after corticosteroid administration. We describe a 32-year-old female with autoimmune hepatitis on azathioprine and prednisone, presenting with fever and inflammatory skin eruptions. Histologic examination of the skin lesions showed neutrophilic infiltrations of the dermis, confirming the diagnosis of SS. Concurrently, she tested borderline positive for recent CMV infection. PMID:26913201

  5. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M

    2014-03-28

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  6. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P; Padmavathy, L; Srivenkateswaran, K

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  7. Cell Autonomous and Non-autonomous Effects of Senescent Cells in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Demaria, Marco; Desprez, Pierre Yves; Campisi, Judith; Velarde, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse skin accumulate senescent cells in both the epidermis and dermis during aging. When chronically present, senescent cells are thought to enhance the age-dependent deterioration of the skin during extrinsic and intrinsic aging. However, when transiently present, senescent cells promote optimal wound healing. Here, we review recent studies on how senescent cells and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) contribute to different physiological and pathophysiological conditions in the skin with a focus on some of the cell autonomous and non-autonomous functions of senescent cells in the context of skin aging and wound healing. PMID:25855157

  8. Preoperative hair removal.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, H W; Hamilton, K R; Lone, F J

    1977-05-01

    This study compares the efficiency, safety and cost of hair removal before surgery, with a safety razor, an electric clipper and a depilatory. It was found that both the razor and the clipper damaged the surface of the skin, while the depilatory caused a mild lymphocytic reaction in the upper dermis. The depilatory was expensive and may cause sensitivity reactions in a few individuals, but was found to be the easiest and most efficient method of removing hair. It was concluded that if hair has to be removed a depilatory is the agent of choice. PMID:870157

  9. Penile nodule in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, S R; Maji, B P

    1990-06-01

    A 20 year old male presented with a nodule, 1.25 cm x 1 cm, on the ventral aspect of the foreskin of his penis. The nodule was excised by circumcision. On histology it was found to be a multiloculated cyst located in the dermis of the prepuce. It contained eosinophilic material and was lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium. There was no evidence of inflammation or malignancy in any of the sections of this median raphe cyst. The aetiology of such cysts is discussed in addition to a review of the literature. PMID:2346443

  10. Perianal Tick-Bite Lesion Caused by a Fully Engorged Female Amblyomma testudinarium

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Haeng An; Kim, Sung Sun; Joo, Hyun Soo; Chong, Won Seog

    2014-01-01

    A perianal tick and the surrounding skin were surgically excised from a 73-year-old man residing in a southwestern costal area of the Korean Peninsula. Microscopically a deep penetrating lesion was formed beneath the attachment site. Dense and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrations occurred in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues around the feeding lesion. Amorphous eosinophilic cement was abundant in the center of the lesion. The tick had Y-shaped anal groove, long mouthparts, ornate scutum, comma-shaped spiracular plate, distinct eyes, and fastoons. It was morphologically identified as a fully engorged female Amblyomma testudinarium. This is the third human case of Amblyomma tick infection in Korea. PMID:25548423

  11. A multifunctional automated system of 2D laser polarimetry of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.

    2014-09-01

    Multifunctional automated system of 2D laser polarimetry of biological tissues with enhanced functional capabilities is proposed. Two-layer optically thin (attenuation coefficient τ <= 0,1 ) biological structures, formed by "muscle tissue (MT) - the dermis of the skin (DS)" histological cryosections for the two physiological states (normal - dystrophy) were investigated. Complex of objective indexes which characterized by 2D polarization reproduced distributions under the following criteria: histograms of the distributions; statistical moments of the 1st - 4th order; autocorrelation functions; correlation moments; power spectra logarithmic dependencies of the distributions; fractal dimensions of the distributions; spectra moments are presented.

  12. Review of ultrasound appearance in inflammatory breast cancer: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Abeywardhana, Dilupani Y; Nascimento, Vinicius C; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Taylor, Donna; Metcalf, Cecily; Saunders, Christobel; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of breast cancers. It has an aggressive clinical presentation and poor prognosis. The sonographic findings in 41 patients with a clinical diagnosis of IBC and biopsy-proven breast malignancy are presented in this study. The most common finding was the presence of skin thickening (92%). Multiple small anechoic spaces within the dermis, correlating with the presence of dermal lymphatic invasion by tumour emboli on histopathology were noted in approximately one-third of cases. Other sonographic findings included single or multiple masses, parenchymal oedema, axillary lymphadenopathy, echogenic foci consistent with microcalcifications and increased vascularity. PMID:26631841

  13. Nodular Cutaneous Amyloidosis at the Temple.

    PubMed

    Schucht, Kathrin; Schröder, Josef; Siegmund, Heiko; Grafe, Claudia; Schreml, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with a large partially yellow and erythematous tumor on her right temple. She reported that it had grown over the last 4 years. Regional lymph nodes were impalpable. A punch biopsy showed eosinophilic material in the dermis and subcutis. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for kappa and lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed the typical amyloid fibrils (7-10 nm in diameter). There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis, paraproteinemia or underlying plasmacytoma. The tumor was completely removed via curettage. At follow-up, the patient presented in good health with no signs of relapse. PMID:27504090

  14. Effect of prenatal lead toxicity on surface ultrastructural features, elemental composition and infrared absorption characteristics of the skin of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Arjun, J; Das, M; Bhattacharjee, C R; Dkhar, P S

    2001-01-01

    The epidermis and dermis of albino mice born to females receiving oral sublethal doses of lead during pregnancy developed several abnormalities. These included perforations, tissue damage, cell deformity, and disordered organization of collagen bundles, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. An increase in the concentrations of zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium and a decrease in that of copper was evident from atomic absorption spectroscopical analysis, when entire skin tissues were examined. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the occurrence of split bands in the spectra at 1,200-1,000 cm(-1), suggesting a reduction in the symmetry of the sulphate group (glycosaminoglycans) of skin probably caused by covalent bonding of it with lead. PMID:11545451

  15. Effect of sample preparation techniques on the concentrations and distributions of elements in biological tissues using µSRXRF: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ebraheem, A; Dao, E; Desouza, E; Li, C; Wainman, B C; McNeill, F E; Farquharson, M J

    2015-03-01

    Routine tissue sample preparation using chemical fixatives is known to preserve the morphology of the tissue being studied. A competitive method, cryofixation followed by freeze drying, involves no chemical agents and maintains the biological function of the tissue. The possible effects of both sample preparation techniques in terms of the distribution of bio-metals (calcium (Ca), copper (Cu) zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) specifically) in human skin tissue samples was investigated. Micro synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) was used to map bio-metal distribution in epidermal and dermal layers of human skin samples from various locations of the body that have been prepared using both techniques. For Ca, Cu and Zn, there were statistically significant differences between the epidermis and dermis using the freeze drying technique (p = 0.02, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). Also using the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique the levels of Ca, Cu and Zn, were significantly different between the epidermis and dermis layers (p = 0.03, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). However, the difference in levels of Fe between the epidermis and dermis was unclear and further analysis was required. The epidermis was further divided into two sub-layers, one mainly composed of the stratum corneum and the other deeper layer, the stratum basale. It was found that the difference between the distribution of Fe in the two epidermal layers using the freeze drying technique resulted in a statistically significant difference (p = 0.012). This same region also showed a difference in Fe using the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique (p < 0.01). The formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique also showed a difference between the deeper epidermal layer and the dermis (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that studies involving Ca, Cu and Zn might show similar results using both sample preparation techniques, however studies involving Fe would need more

  16. Treatment of acne scarring.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Dover, J S

    Acne scarring is common but surprisingly difficult to treat. Scars can involve textural change in the superficial and deep dermis, and can also be associated with erythema, and less often, pigmentary change. In general, treatment of acne scarring is a multistep procedure. First, examination of the patient is necessary to classify the subtypes of scarring that are present. Then, the patient's primary concerns are elicited, and the patient is offered a menu of procedures that may address the various components of the scarring process. It is important to emphasize to the patient that acne scarring can be improved but never entirely reversed. PMID:17180246

  17. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P.; Padmavathy, L.; Srivenkateswaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  18. Spectral characteristics of two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation from human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans G.; König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    We performed multiphoton imaging of human skin and recorded in combination the complete spectral content of the signals in vivo. The spectra represent the integration of multiphoton signals over the investigated regions of the epidermis and dermis. They are used to study depth-resolved in vivo emission characteristics of main endogenous skin fluorophores like keratin, NAD(P)H, collagen and elastin. The identification of the specific fluorophores is supported by analysis of additional in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging. Furthermore, as a potential application of spectrally selective imaging the possibility to investigate the penetration of nanoparticles from sunscreen lotion into skin in vivo is discussed.

  19. Use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator for repair of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Ronald D; Crandall, Elizabeth; Bellah, Jamie R

    2011-06-01

    We describe the successful treatment of a tarsometatarsal fracture in a mature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) using a locking compression plate as an external fixator. The anatomy of the area (inelastic dermis and minimal subcutaneous space) and the high forces placed on a fracture at that site necessitated a unique approach to fixation. The unconventional use of a locking compression plate as an external fixator was minimally invasive, well tolerated by the eagle, and provided adequate stability in opposing fracture forces. This technique may serve as a method of fixation for tarsometatarsal fractures in other large avian species. PMID:21877449

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of irisin in skin, eye, and thyroid and pineal glands of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Gençer Tarakçı, B; Girgin, A; Timurkaan, S; Yalçın, M H; Gür, F M; Karan, M

    2016-08-01

    Irisin was first identified in muscle cells. We detected irisin immunoreactivity in various organs of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the epidermis, irisin immunoreactivity was localized mainly in stratum basale, stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum layers; immunoreactivity was not observed in the stratum corneum. In the dermis, irisin was found in the external and internal root sheath, cortex and medulla of hair follicles, and in sebaceous glands. Irisin immunoreactivity was found in the neural retina and skeletal muscle fibers associated with the eye. The pineal and thyroid glands also exhibited irisin immunoreactivity. PMID:27192184

  1. Favorable response of reticular erythematous mucinosis to ultraviolet B irradiation using a 308-nm excimer lamp.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ken; Miyajima, Osamu; Yokogawa, Maki; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2010-02-01

    Abstract Reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) is a rare chronic mucinosis. Histologically, the presence of mucin in the upper dermis is the most specific feature. A 73-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a 4-year history of netlike macular erythema with slight edema on her left arm. She was diagnosed as having REM on the basis of the clinical picture and histological findings. She was treated with ultraviolet B irradiation using the VTRAC Excimer Lamp system with favorable response. This is the first reported case that was treated with a 308-nm excimer lamp. PMID:20175851

  2. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive skin lesions. Two case reports with an immunoperoxidase study.

    PubMed

    Rosen, L B; Rywlin, A M; Resnick, L

    1985-12-01

    This study represents the first two case reports of skin lesions positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with the immunoperoxidase technique. A 25-year-old man and a 64-year-old woman with serologic evidence of acute B viral hepatitis and concurrent skin lesions are presented. Immunoperoxidase study of the skin lesions for HBsAg revealed strong positive staining of squamous epidermal cells, eccrine sweat glands, and endothelial cells in the superficial papillary dermis. Immunoperoxidase staining for hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) was negative in both cases. Electron microscopy failed to reveal viral particles. PMID:3911798

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Ara, M; Maillo, C; Peón, G; Clavel, A; Cuesta, J; Grasa, M P; Carapeto, F J

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous papules on the legs. Biopsy of one lesion showed abundant Leishmania amastigotes within epithelial cells of an eccrine sweat gland in the dermis. Leishmania organisms were also found in a blood smear. Rapid and complete clearance of the cutaneous lesions was achieved after antimony therapy. Cutaneous lesions in VL are being reported increasingly frequently in patients with HIV infection and their significance remains in discussion. PMID:9764161

  4. The science of cellulite treatment and its long-term effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Wassef, Cindy; Rao, Babar K

    2012-04-01

    Cellulite is a disorder in which adipose tissue extends through the dermis, producing a cosmetically displeasing dimpling in the affected areas. While many treatments claim to be able to improve the appearance of cellulite, the long-term effectiveness of these treatments and whether the logic behind these treatments can lead to a long-term improvement has not been extensively reviewed. In the following review, our goal is to assess the various cellulite treatments and evaluate the length of time results persist and whether the science behind the treatments warrants them as reliable and effective treatments for cellulite. PMID:22372471

  5. Pediatric rosacea.

    PubMed

    Kellen, Roselyn; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-07-01

    Because rosacea is uncommon in the pediatric population, care must be taken to exclude other papulopustular disorders. Children can present with vascular, papulopustular, and/or ocular findings. Importantly, ocular symptoms can appear before the cutaneous symptoms of rosacea, leading to misdiagnosis. Rosacea is a clinical diagnosis, but histopathologic examination typically reveals dilated vessels, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in the upper dermis, elastosis, and disorganization of the upper dermal connective tissue. Treatment involves avoiding known triggers and utilizing topical and/or systemic therapies. Although treatment can control flares, pediatric rosacea often persists into adulthood. PMID:27529708

  6. Generalized Granuloma Annulare Treated with Monthly Rifampicin, Ofloxacin, and Minocycline Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Baveja, Sukriti

    2013-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the dermis. A variant form of the disease, generalized granuloma annulare (GGA), can be observed in 15% of affected patients. Localized GA is likely to resolve spontaneously within months or a few years, whereas GGA can persist for decades. There are various therapies for treating GGA. Monthly combination therapy of rifampicin 600 mg, ofloxacin 400 mg, and minocycline 100 mg (ROM) is used for treating paucibacillary leprosy which shares both clinical and histopathologic similarities with GA. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the possible efficacy of monthly ROM in a patient with GGA. PMID:23723470

  7. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body.

  8. Tension tests on mammalian collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yehe; Ballarini, Roberto; Eppell, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    A brief overview of isolated collagen fibril mechanics testing is followed by presentation of the first results testing fibrils isolated from load-bearing mammalian tendons using a microelectromechanical systems platform. The in vitro modulus (326 ± 112 MPa) and fracture stress (71 ± 23 MPa) are shown to be lower than previously measured on fibrils extracted from sea cucumber dermis and tested with the same technique. Scanning electron microscope images show the fibrils can fail with a mechanism that involves circumferential rupture, whereas the core of the fibril stays at least partially intact. PMID:26855757

  9. Black Molds and Melanized Yeasts Pathogenic to Humans.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Perfect, John; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-08-01

    A review is given of melanized fungi involved in human infection, including species forming budding cells and strictly filamentous representatives. Classically, they are known as "phaeoid" or "dematiaceous" fungi, and, today, agents are recognized to belong to seven orders of fungi, of which the Chaetothyriales and Pleosporales are the most important. Infections range from cutaneous or pulmonary colonization to systemic or disseminated invasion. Subcutaneous involvement, either primary or after dissemination, may lead to host tissue proliferation of dermis or epidermis. Particularly in the Chaetothyriales, subcutaneous and systemic infections may occur in otherwise apparently healthy individuals. Infections are mostly chronic and require extended antifungal therapy and/or surgery. PMID:25384772

  10. Enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio at depths in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Bouchal, Petr; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2012-01-01

    We present a Fourier domain optical coherence tomography set-up built around an optical configuration that exhibits Talbot bands. To produce Talbot bands, the two interferometer beams, object and reference are laterally shifted in their way towards the diffraction grating. This allows attenuation of mirror terms and optimisation of the sensitivity profile. We imaged the human skin in-vivo, and quantified the profile of the sensitivity profile in tissue by measuring the ratio between the strengths of signals originating in the reticular dermis and in the stratum corneum for different values of the lateral shift of the two interfering beams.

  11. Follicular induction in a case of molluscum contagiosum: possible link with secondary anetoderma-like changes?

    PubMed

    Davey, Jonathan; Biswas, Asok

    2014-02-01

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) can rarely show follicular neogenesis as a result of proliferation of virus-infected basal cells. We report a case of molluscum contagiosum showing multifocal areas of primitive follicular induction involving the adjacent surface epidermis. The underlying dermis showed histological features suggestive of secondary anetoderma. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind development of these microscopic features and the putative link between follicular induction and secondary anetoderma are explored. Awareness of this unusual phenomenon will be helpful in avoiding a misdiagnosis of a superficial basal cell (trichoblastic) carcinoma in such cases. PMID:23676321

  12. Pilomatricoma with a bullous appearance.

    PubMed

    Inui, S; Kanda, R; Hata, S

    1997-01-01

    A 15-year-old Japanese girl had an asymptomatic nodule on the right thigh of seven months' duration. The clinical appearance was similar to that of a bulla. There was a history of blunt trauma from dog scratch to the skin over the tumor shortly before tumor growth. Histopathological findings were consistent with pilomatricoma. In the overlying dermis, the collagen bundles were compressed to the tissue surrounding the tumor and the large space was seen. Around the tumor, some dilated endothelium-lined vascular channels were found, which were identified as lymphatic vessels. PMID:9046744

  13. Development of Halo Nevus Around Nevus Spilus as a Central Nevus, and the Concurrent Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Young; Kim, Mi Yeon

    2008-01-01

    Halo nevus is a benign melanocytic nevus that is surrounded by a hypopigmented zone. The most frequent association with halo nevus is vitiligo, and this also appears in nearby regions, as well as at other remote sites. Although the mechanism for developing the depigmentation around nevus spilus is uncertain an immunologic process may be responsible for the finding of inflammatory infiltrates of the upper dermis in the depigmented lesions. We report here on a 13-year-old boy who showed a depigmented zone around a nevus spilus on the right side of his neck with simultaneous vitiligo lesions on the face. PMID:27303201

  14. Two-photon excited spectroscopies of ex vivo human skin endogenous species irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Luo, Tianshu; Zhao, Jingjun

    2006-10-01

    Two-photon excited spectroscopies from ex vivo human skin are investigated by using a femtosecond laser and a confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 510 META). In the dermis, collagen is responsible for second harmonic generation (SHG); elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), melanin and porphyrin are the primary endogenous sources of two-photon excited autofluorescence. In the epidermis, keratin, NADH, melanin and porphyrins contribute to autofluorescence signals. The results also show that the SHG spectra have the ability to shift with the excitation wavelength and the autofluorescence spectra display a red shift of the spectral peaks when increasing the excitation wavelength. These results may have practical implications for diagnosis of skin diseases.

  15. Characterization of dermal structural assembly in normal and pathological connective tissues by intrinsic signal multiphoton optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubovitsky, Julia G.; Xu, Xiaoman; Sun, Chung-ho; Andersen, Bogi; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2008-02-01

    Employing a reflectance multi-photon microscopy (MPM) technique, we developed novel method to quantitatively study the three-dimensional assembly of structural proteins within bulk of dermal ECMs. Using a structurally simplified model of skin with enzymatically dissected epidermis, we find that low resolution MPM clearly discriminates between normal and pathological dermis. High-resolution images revealed that the backscattered MPM signals are affected by the assembly of collagen fibrils and fibers within this system. Exposure of tissues to high concentrations of potentially denaturing chemicals also resulted in the reduction of SHG signals from structural proteins which coincided with the appearance of aggregated fluorescent structures.

  16. Case for diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Lourenço de Azevedo; Haddad, Natacha de Carvalho Mello; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Martins, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    Degos disease, also known as malignant atrophic papulosis, is a rare occlusive vasculopathy of unknown etiology characterized by infarcts in the dermis, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and other organs. It is characterized by papules, which become umbilicated and evolve with a depressed porcelain-white central area, with an erythematous halo with telangiectasias. Histological findings include wedge-shaped dermoepidermal necrosis and blood vessel thrombosis. Approximately 50-60% of patients with systemic symptoms die within 2-3 years, most due to gastrointestinal perforation. We report a typical case, with lethal outcome, in a 45-year-old woman. PMID:24937836

  17. GENE PROFILING: IMPLICATIONS IN DERMATOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Blumenberg, Miroslav; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-01-01

    Summary DNA microarrays are capable of following the level of expression of, virtually, all genes in a human tissue. This has been employed to determine the aberrant gene expression profiles in many skin diseases, including ultraviolet light damage, inflammatory processes and cancers. Because of its accessibility, skin also served as one of the initial targets of basic research using DNA microarrays. Both the epidermis and dermis have been extensively investigated. Development of bed-side uses of DNA arrays, and the concomitant price reduction of the materials and methods of microarray analyses, holds great promise for improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dermatologic disorders.

  18. Garenoxacin in Skin and Skin Structure Infections Sustained due to Road Traffic Accident

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaprasad, K; Bhargava, Amit Indra

    2014-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections represent a continuum of symptoms that range from uncomplicated cellulitis to the potentially lethal entity necrotizing fasciitis that is often considered to be microbial invasions of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Garenoxacin, a newer oral des-fluoroquinolone having potent antimicrobial activity against wide variety of common pathogens involved in skin and skin structure infections (SSTIs), including the resistant strains offer the advantage of broad spectrum of coverage including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic organisms. This case study indicates the utility of garenoxacin in treating skin and soft tissue infections caused by road traffic accidents. PMID:25121004

  19. Nodular Cutaneous Amyloidosis at the Temple

    PubMed Central

    Schucht, Kathrin; Schröder, Josef; Siegmund, Heiko; Grafe, Claudia; Schreml, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with a large partially yellow and erythematous tumor on her right temple. She reported that it had grown over the last 4 years. Regional lymph nodes were impalpable. A punch biopsy showed eosinophilic material in the dermis and subcutis. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for kappa and lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed the typical amyloid fibrils (7–10 nm in diameter). There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis, paraproteinemia or underlying plasmacytoma. The tumor was completely removed via curettage. At follow-up, the patient presented in good health with no signs of relapse. PMID:27504090

  20. Effects of low frequency pulsed electrical current on keratinocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hinsenkamp, M.; Jercinovic, A.

    1997-05-01

    The effects of low frequency pulsed electrical current on epidermal repair in vitro were examined. Charge-balanced current stimuli proposed for chronic wound treatment were tested on skin keratinocytes cultured at an air-liquid interface on dead human dermis. Results imply that the balance between proliferation and differentiation in electrically treated samples is significantly modified in favor of differentiation. More advanced differentiation, shown through epidermal histology, was obtained in cultures exposed to electrical current, whereas the culture growth, the result of keratinocyte migration and proliferation, was greater in control samples.

  1. Recombinant 1F9 spidroin microgels for murine full-thickness wound repairing.

    PubMed

    Moisenovich, M M; Malyuchenko, N V; Arkhipova, A Yu; Goncharenko, A V; Kotlyarova, M S; Davydova, L I; Vasil'eva, T V; Bogush, V G; Agapov, I I; Debabov, V G; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-01-01

    The study of the stimulating effect of the microgels (MGs) based on recombinant 1F9 spidroin on the regeneration of the deep skin wound in mice was carried out. The use of spidroin MGs was shown to increase significantly the quality of healing compared to the control. The introduction of the MG in the wound edges led to recovery of all the structural elements of the skin: the epidermis, the dermis, including vascular and nervous network, in the periphery of the wound underlying muscles, and skin appendages (sebaceous and sweat glands and hair follicles) was revealed. PMID:27025477

  2. [Topical administration of cyclosporin in psoriasis vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Bunse, T; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G

    1990-06-01

    Two groups of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were topically treated either with 10% cyclosporin in a jelly base or with 5% cyclosporin in an ointment base under occlusion. We found that cyclosporin penetrates into the lower epidermis and the dermis, when it is applied under occlusion. Obviously, the target cells are neutrophil granulocytes, since they decrease in number under cyclosporin, whereas the other inflammatory cells as well as the epidermal proliferation remain unchanged. In contrast to systemic application of cyclosporin, we did not observe any clinical differences between plaques treated with cyclosporin and those treated with placebo. PMID:2202163

  3. Effects of breeder feeding restriction programs and incubation temperatures on progeny footpad development.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, M J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Wilson, J; Montiel, E

    2014-08-01

    Footpad dermatitis begins early in life, and there is evidence of individual susceptibility. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the carryover effects of breeder feed restriction programs and incubation temperatures (TEM) on progeny footpad development at hatch, and 7 and 22 d. Cobb 500 fast feathering breeders were subjected to 2 dietary feed restriction programs during rearing: skip-a-day (SAD) and every-day feeding (EDF). At 60 wk of age, eggs from each group were collected and incubated according to 2 TEM, standard (S) eggshell temperature (38.1°C) and early-low late-high (LH). This second profile had low (36.9°C) eggshell temperature for the first 3 d, and standard temperature until the last 3 d when eggs were subjected to elevated (38.9°C) eggshell temperature. At hatch, 15 chicks from each treatment combination were sampled to obtain footpads for histological analysis. Seventy-two chicks per treatment were placed in 48 cages (6/cage), and raised to 22 d. At 7 and 22 d, 1 and 2 chickens, respectively, were sampled for footpads. The BW and group feed intake were recorded to obtain BW gain and feed conversion ratio at 7 and 21 d. Histological analysis assessed thickness and total area of stratus corneum (SC), epidermis, and dermis, and total papillae height. Data were analyzed as randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There was a negative effect of LH TEM on performance at both ages. An interaction effect on SC area and papillae height was observed at hatch. Additionally, SAD treatment increased thickness and area of footpad dermis. At 7 d, the SC parameters of the SAD progeny were increased. Epidermis thickness was affected by treatment interaction. Furthermore, LH TEM decreased epidermis thickness and dermis area. At 22 d, interaction effects were observed in thickness and area of SC and epidermis. Incubation S TEM increased thickness and area of dermis. It was concluded that breeder feed restriction programs

  4. A case of acquired tufted angioma in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pesapane, Filippo; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Alberti-Violetti, Silvia; Gianotti, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Tufted angioma is a rare vascular tumor whose name derives from its histopathological appearance, characterized by tufts of capillaries within the dermis. Its etiology and pathogenesis are uncertain. Tufted angioma typically occurs during infancy or early childhood and displays various clinical patterns. It may present as a subtle stain-like area that later thickens as a large plaque, infiltrated or dusky blue-purple lesion, or as an exophytic, firm, violaceous, cutaneous nodule. Medical treatment is not necessary for tufted angioma, given its benign nature and slow progression. Only clinical follow-up is therefore recommended. PMID:26312663

  5. Pathomorphological features of calcinosis circumscripta in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2016-03-01

    A 19-month-old male German shepherd dog was presented with a hindlimb footpad mass. The mass was excised and histopathology was performed. Grossly, the cut section of the mass had multiple well-circumscribed nodules with a chalky appearance. Histopathologically, basophilic-stained calcium deposits of various sizes were distributed from dermis to subcutis, surrounded by epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells, and reactive fibroblasts. Myxoid metaplasia, calcium deposits in hair follicles, and psammoma-like bodies were also found. These histopathologic observations will greatly help to understand the pathogenesis of calcinosis circumscripta. PMID:27051446

  6. Asymptomatic Papulo-nodules Localized to One Finger

    PubMed Central

    Rambhia, Kinjal D; Khopkar, Uday S

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous or deep granuloma annulare is a benign asymptomatic condition characterized by firm asymptomatic nodules in deep subcutaneous tissues that may be associated with intradermal lesions. A 53-year-old female presented with asymptomatic skin-colored, firm nodules over the right ring finger. Histopathology revealed a palisading granuloma with central degenerated collagen and mucin deposition in the dermis suggestive of granuloma annulare. Isolated and unilateral involvement of a single digit with clusters of nodules of subcutaneous granuloma annulare (GA) in an adult is rare and differentiation from its simulator rheumatoid nodule is essential. PMID:26538728

  7. Low Level Light Therapy with Light-Emitting Diodes for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    Calderhead, R Glen; Vasily, David B

    2016-07-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is emerging from the mists of black magic as a solid medico-scientific modality, with a substantial buildup of corroborative bodies of evidence for its efficacy and elucidation of the modes of action. Reports are appearing from many different specialties; however, of particular interest to plastic surgeons treating the aging face is the proven action of LED-LLLT on skin cells in both the epidermis and dermis and enhanced blood flow. Thus, LED-LLLT is a safe and effective stand-alone therapy for patients who are prepared to wait until the final effect is perceived. PMID:27363768

  8. The use of reflectance confocal microscopy in selected inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Białek-Galas, Kamila; Wielowieyska-Szybińska, Dorota; Dyduch, Grzegorz; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is a modern, non-invasive diagnostic method that enables real-time imaging of the epidermis and upper layers of the dermis with nearly histological precision and high contrast. The application of this technology to skin imaging during the last years has resulted in progress of dermatological diagnosis, providing virtual access to living skin, without the need for conventional histopathology. The presented method potentially has broad application in the diagnosis of skin diseases. This article provides a summary of the latest reports and previous achievements in the field of reflectance confocal microscopy. General characteristics of confocal images in selected inflammatory skin diseases are presented. PMID:26247522

  9. UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF GENERALIZED MACULAR AMYLOIDOSIS IN A YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Kudur, Mohan H; B, Sathish Pai; H, Sripathi; Prabhu, Smitha

    2008-01-01

    Macular amyloidosis is a common problem seen dermatology out-patient department. Generalized macular amyloidosis presenting with a poikilodermatous appearance is rare. In our case, an 18-year-old male presented with generalized hypopigmented macules with a poikilodermatous appearance of 10-year duration. His developmental milestones were normal with negative family history of similar complaints. Histopathology of hyperpigmented lesions revealed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of epidermis and hypopigmented lesion showing only hyperkeratosis. Both lesions were showing the deposition of amorphous, hazy material in the tips of papillary dermis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. Congo red staining of the amorphous material was positive for amyloid. PMID:19882037

  10. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection. PMID:15745233

  11. Use of fractional laser microablation and ultrasound to facilitate the delivery of gold nanoparticles into skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyuk, G. S.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Ryzhova, M. V.; Tsyganova, N. A.; Chumakov, D. S.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Sazonov, A. A.; Dolotov, L. E.; Tuchin, Valerii V.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Inozemtseva, O. A.

    2012-06-01

    The delivery of gold nanoparticles (nanocages coated with a layer of silicon dioxide (40/20 nm)) dispersed in the solution (glycerol + polyethylene glycol-400, 1 : 1) into the skin tissue is studied experimentally in vivo. From the data of optical coherence tomography and histochemical analysis it follows that simple application of suspension of nanoparticles is not efficient enough for delivery of the particles into the skin as a result of passive diffusion. It is shown that fractional laser microablation of skin before the application of the suspension, followed by the topical treatment by ultrasound allows penetration through the epidermis layer and delivery of nanoparticles into dermis and hypodermis

  12. Regression approach to non-invasive determination of bilirubin in neonatal blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    A statistical ensemble of structural and biophysical parameters of neonatal skin was modeled based on experimental data. Diffuse scattering coefficients of the skin in the visible and infrared regions were calculated by applying a Monte-Carlo method to each realization of the ensemble. The potential accuracy of recovering the bilirubin concentration in dermis (which correlates closely with that in blood) was estimated from spatially resolved spectrometric measurements of diffuse scattering. The possibility to determine noninvasively the bilirubin concentration was shown by measurements of diffuse scattering at λ = 460, 500, and 660 nm at three source-detector separations under conditions of total variability of the skin biophysical parameters.

  13. Clinicopathologic correlate of a fresh eyelid pigment implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, D.T.; Folberg, R.; Moore, K.

    1985-10-01

    An eyelid with freshly applied black eyeliner pigment was examined histologically. X-ray microanalysis of the pigment suspension from the manufacturer's vial indicated that its composition was 98% iron and 2% titanium. Transmission electron microscopic examination disclosed that particles were in the extracellular matrix; intracellular particles were not seen. By light microscopy, implant material was detected in various levels of the dermis and was found in dermal lymphatics as well as within and surrounding a hair follicle. This study suggests that systemic exposure to the implant material is possible and offers explanations for permanent eyelash loss, which the authors have seen following this procedure.

  14. Mid-infrared (λ = 8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakat, Sabbir; Michel, Anna P. M.; Bors, Kevin A.; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2012-08-01

    Back-scattering of mid-infrared light from porcine skin is studied versus wavelength and angle for a Quantum Cascade laser and a broadband infrared light source. Scattering is detected over 30° away from the specular angle for both sources, and modulation patterns with angle are seen when using the laser. A nonlinear increase in scattered light intensity versus input power indicates that directional scattering from within the skin is dominant. Collagen fibers in the dermis layer, over 200 μm deep into the skin, are conducive to such scattering. We conclude that mid-infrared light penetrates deep enough for potential glucose detection in dermal interstitial fluid.

  15. Optical tissue phantoms based on spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Ha, Myungjin; Yu, Sung Kon; Radfar, Edalat; Jun, Eunkwon; Lee, Nara; Jung, Byungjo

    2015-03-01

    Fabrication of optical tissue phantom (OTP) simulating whole skin structure has been regarded as laborious and time consuming work. This study fabricated multilayer OTP optically and structurally simulating epidermis-dermis structure including blood vessel. Spin coating method was used to produce thin layer mimicking epidermal layer, then optimized for reference epoxy and silicone matrix. Adequacy of both materials in phantom fabrication was considered by comparison the fabrication results. In addition similarities between OTP and biological tissue in optical property and thickness was measured to evaluate this fabrication process.

  16. Agminated Fibroblastic Conective Tissue Nevus: A New Clinical Presentation.

    PubMed

    Downey, Camila; Requena, Luis; Bagué, Silvia; Sánchez Martínez, Miquel Ángel; Lloreta, Josep; Baselga, Eulalia

    2016-07-01

    Connective tissue nevi are benign hamartomatous lesions in which one or several of the components of the dermis (collagen, elastin, glicosaminoglycans) show predominance or depletion. Recently, de Feraudy et al broadened the spectrum of connective tissue nevus, describing fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN), which is characterized by proliferation of CD34(+) cells of fibroblastic and myofibroblastic lineage. Only solitary papules and nodules have been described. We present the first case of FCTN with multiple agminated lesions on the leg of an infant and the difficulties encountered in the differential diagnosis with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. PMID:27296971

  17. Actinic reticuloid

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, J.L.; Vale, M.; Dermer, P.; Ragaz, A.; Michaelides, P.; Gladstein, A.H.

    1982-09-01

    A 58-year-old man has his condition diagnosed as actinic reticuloid on the basis of clinical and histologic findings and phototesting data. He had clinical features resembling mycosis fungoides in light-exposed areas. Histologic findings disclosed a bandlike infiltrate with atypical mononuclear cells in the dermis and scattered atypical cells in the epidermis. Electron microscopy disclosed mononuclear cells with bizarre, convoluted nuclei, resembling cerebriform cells of Lutzner. Phototesting disclosed a diminished minimal erythemal threshold to UV-B and UV-A. Microscopic changes resembling actinic reticuloid were reproduced in this patient 24 and 72 hours after exposure to 15 minimal erythemal doses of UV-B.

  18. Skin-light interaction of three main chromofores in skin affected by Port Wine Stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mújica Ascencio, S.; Velázquez González, J. S.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis of the absorption, dispersion and dynamics of laser light generated at 690nm and its interaction with skin affected by the Port Wine Stain is presented. The absorption coefficient and penetration depth of water, hemoglobin and oxy-hemoglobin, as key chromophores are calculated. A suitable wavelength for possible treatment on Port Wine Stain located in the skin layers such as Dermis and Hypodermis is determined. The presentation will include a full fiber laser design description, detailed skin affectation explanation and preliminary results.

  19. Photoplethysmographic Waveform as a Function of Subject's Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippolainen, E.; Podolian, N. P.; Romashko, R. V.; Kulchin, Y. N.; Kamshilin, A. A.

    In this report we present the experimental study of imaging photoplethysmography in the area of the palm and wrist of fifty-six healthy subjects. We found that the amplitude of the PPG waveform is unevenly distributed over the studied area forming the hot spots with the elevated amplitude. There is clear tendency of the amplitude increasing in the hottest spots with the age of the subject. These observations support the recently proposed model of photoplethysmography in which pulse oscillations of the arterial transmural pressure deform the connective-tissue components of the dermis resulting in periodical changes of both the light scattering and absorption.

  20. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: histologic and autoradiographic observations on skin

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Examination of biopsies from exposed and relatively unexposed areas of the face revealed changes that were consistent with actinic elastic degeneration associated with solar exposure, except in the areas in which sources of alpha radiation were detected in the upper dermis. In those areas particles judged to be ion exchange resin were found within a few macrophages and extracellularly among connective tissue fibers. Elastic fibers in those areas showed more advanced degenerative change than fibers not closely associated with heavy concentrations of alpha radiation.

  1. Chemical, microscopic, and ultrastructural characterization of the mineral deposits in tumoral calcinosis

    SciTech Connect

    Boskey, A.L.; Vigorita, V.J.; Sencer, O.; Stuchin, S.A.; Lane, J.M.

    1983-09-01

    The presence of hydroxyapatite has been determined based on ultrastructure, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, and chemical analysis, and confirmed by microprobe analysis in multiple deposits surgically excised from four unrelated patients with tumoral calcinosis. The chemical composition of each of the mineralized deposits resembled bone, rather than dermis, in mineral, uronic acid, total lipid, and complexed acidic phospholipid composition. No collagen abnormalities were detected. However, all of these deposits differed from normal bone mineral, being heavily mineralized and containing larger, more perfect hydroxyapatite crystals. Ultrastructurally, the crystals were both extracellular and within mononuclear cells in close proximity to dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Simulation of the effect of photoprotective titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the thermal response and optical characteristics of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, I. V.; Seteikin, A. Yu.; Popov, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal response of skin covered with a mixture of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles of optimal sizes and irradiated by sunlight has been calculated. The nanoparticles were rubbed into the skin for maximum protection against the incident radiation. The dependences of the temperature dynamics in different skin layers (corneal layer, epidermis, dermis) have been obtained and analyzed upon skin irradiation with light at a wavelength of 310-800 nm. It has been found that increasing light scattering and absorption due to the nanoparticles introduced into the corneal layer resulted in a decrease in the thermal load and penetration depth of the incident radiation.

  3. Rare case of recurrent angiokeratoma of Fordyce on penile shaft.

    PubMed

    Pianezza, Michael L; Singh, Dharm; Van der Kwast, Theodore; Jarvi, Keith

    2006-10-01

    Angiokeratomas are benign cutaneous vascular lesions characterized by dilated thin-walled blood vessels lying in the upper part of the dermis, mostly associated with an epidermal reaction such as acanthosis and/or hyperkeratosis. Angiokeratomas of Fordyce are predominantly located on the scrotum and are only rarely found on the penis and then usually on the glans penis. We report a rare case of angiokeratoma of Fordyce located on the shaft of the penis and associated with two recurrences after appropriate surgical excision. PMID:17070385

  4. Novel method for preventing solar ultraviolet-radiation-induced skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Weimin; Cui, Ting; Sigel, George H., Jr.

    1991-06-01

    We used the Monte Carlo method to evaluate UV-A radiation penetration through human skin (epidermis and dermis). Calculations were performed for multilayered medium, refractive indices mismatch on boundaries of the sample and finite width of incident beam. The fluence rate distributions of UV-A radiation (wavelength 337 nm) within tissue are presented. In order to optimize the laser PUVA treatment of psoriasis were have developed the mathematical model of the dynamics of cell processed within epidermis. The task of optimal control for PUVA treatment is formulated

  5. Penicillamine-induced elastosis of the mucosal lip.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Bethany K H; Chern, Peggy L; Stone, Mary Seabury

    2009-04-01

    Long-term penicillamine therapy has been associated with alterations in dermal elastic tissue. Well-described associated dermatoses include pseudo-pseudoxanthoma elasticum, acquired cutis laxa, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, and anetoderma. Histologically, "lumpy-bumpy" or "bramble-bush" morphologic changes of elastic fibers in the dermis are characteristic. Previous reports of these findings in normal-appearing skin and internal organs suggest a systemic elastolytic process. Here we report an unusual case of penicillamine-induced elastosis affecting the mucosa of the lip with characteristic histologic features. PMID:19293020

  6. The most common mistakes on dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kamińska-Winciorek, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Dermatoscopy is a method of in vivo evaluation of the structures within the epidermis and dermis. Currently, it may be the most precise pre-surgical method of diagnosing melanocytic lesions. Diagnostic errors may result in unnecessary removal of benign lesions or what is even worse, they can cause early and very early melanomas to be overlooked. Errors in assessment of dermatoscopy can be divided into those arising from failure to maintain proper test procedures (procedural and technical errors) and knowledge based mistakes related to the lack of sufficient familiarity and experience in dermatoscopy. The article discusses the most common mistakes made by beginner or inexperienced dermatoscopists. PMID:25821425

  7. Staphylococcal abscess caused by trauma with a rosebush aculeus (Plantae, Rosaceae): apropos of a case.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo; Sasso, Letícia Soares; Gama, Carolina Mendonça; Cenci, Gardênia Borges

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous abscess is a localized collection of pus in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue usually caused by trauma. The authors report the case of a 30-year-old male patient, gardener, that presents an ulcerated plaque in the third right finger, caused by an aculeus plant wound. The examination of the lesion's exudate ruled out the existence of fungi and showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The authors emphasize the sporotrichosis as an important differential diagnosis, especially in endemic areas, and the indication of the exudate culture is discussed. PMID:24474127

  8. Staphylococcal abscess caused by trauma with a rosebush aculeus (Plantae, Rosaceae): apropos of a case*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo; Sasso, Letícia Soares; Gama, Carolina Mendonça; Cenci, Gardênia Borges

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous abscess is a localized collection of pus in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue usually caused by trauma. The authors report the case of a 30-year-old male patient, gardener, that presents an ulcerated plaque in the third right finger, caused by an aculeus plant wound. The examination of the lesion's exudate ruled out the existence of fungi and showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The authors emphasize the sporotrichosis as an important differential diagnosis, especially in endemic areas, and the indication of the exudate culture is discussed. PMID:24474127

  9. Use of fractional laser microablation and ultrasound to facilitate the delivery of gold nanoparticles into skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Terentyuk, G S; Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, A N; Ryzhova, M V; Tsyganova, N A; Chumakov, D S; Khlebtsov, B N; Sazonov, A A; Dolotov, L E; Tuchin, Valerii V; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G; Inozemtseva, O A

    2012-06-30

    The delivery of gold nanoparticles (nanocages coated with a layer of silicon dioxide (40/20 nm)) dispersed in the solution (glycerol + polyethylene glycol-400, 1 : 1) into the skin tissue is studied experimentally in vivo. From the data of optical coherence tomography and histochemical analysis it follows that simple application of suspension of nanoparticles is not efficient enough for delivery of the particles into the skin as a result of passive diffusion. It is shown that fractional laser microablation of skin before the application of the suspension, followed by the topical treatment by ultrasound allows penetration through the epidermis layer and delivery of nanoparticles into dermis and hypodermis.

  10. Elemental concentrations in skin of patients with fibroeptelial polip using synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Júlio C. A. C. R.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/São Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them.

  11. The usefulness of c-Kit in the immunohistochemical assessment of melanocytic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pilloni, L.; Bianco, P.; Difelice, E.; Cabras, S.; Castellanos, M.E.; Atzori, L.; Ferreli, C.; Mulas, P.; Nemolato, S.; Faa, G.

    2011-01-01

    C-Kit (CD117), the receptor for the stem cell factor, a growth factor for melanocyte migration and proliferation, has shown differential immunostaining in various benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. The purpose of this study is to compare c-Kit immunostaining in benign nevi and in primary and metastatic malignant melanomas, to determine whether c-Kit can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. c-Kit immunostaining was performed in 60 cases of pigmented lesions, including 39 benign nevi (5 blue nevi, 5 intra-dermal nevi, 3 junctional nevi, 15 cases of primary compound nevus, 11 cases of Spitz nevus), 18 cases of primary malignant melanoma and 3 cases of metastatic melanoma. The vast majority of nevi and melanomas examined in this study were positive for c-Kit, with minimal differences between benign and malignant lesions. C-Kit cytoplasmatic immunoreactivity in the intraepidermal proliferating nevus cells, was detected in benign pigmented lesions as well as in malignant melanoma, increasing with the age of patients (P=0.007) in both groups. The patient’s age at presentation appeared to be the variable able to cluster benign and malignant pigmented lesions. The percentage of c-Kit positive intraepidermal nevus cells was better associated with age despite other variables (P=0.014). The intensity and percentage of c-Kit positivity in the proliferating nevus cells in the dermis was significantly increased in malignant melanocytic lesions (P=0.015 and P=0.008) compared to benign lesions (compound melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, intradermal nevi, blue nevi). Immunostaning for c-Kit in metastatic melanomas was negative. Interestingly in two cases of melanoma occurring on a pre-existent nevus, the melanoma tumor cells showed strong cytoplasmatic and membranous positivity for c-kit, in contrast with the absence of any immunoreactivity in pre-existent intradermal nevus cells. C-Kit does not appear to be a strong immunohistochemical marker for distinguishing

  12. Multiple roles of timing in somite formation

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Claudio D.; Piatkowska, Agnieszka M.

    2015-01-01

    During development, vertebrate embryos produce serially repeated elements, the somites, on each side of the midline. These generate the vertebral column, skeletal musculature and dermis. They form sequentially, one pair at a time, from mesenchymal tissue near the tail. Somite development is a complex process. The embryo must control the number, size, and timing of somite formation, their subdivision into functional regions along three axes, regional identity such that somites develop in a region-specific way, and interactions with neighbouring tissues that coordinate them with nearby structures. Here we discuss many timing-related mechanisms that contribute to set up the spatial pattern. PMID:26116228

  13. Crosstalk between Desmoglein 2 and Patched 1 accelerates chemical-induced skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Crispi, Donna M; Hossain, Claudia; Sahu, Joya; Brady, Mary; Riobo, Natalia A; Mahoney, Mỹ G

    2015-04-20

    Aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is causative of BCCs and has been associated with a fraction of SCCs. Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2) is an adhesion protein that is upregulated in many cancers and overexpression of Dsg2 in the epidermis renders mice more susceptible to squamous-derived neoplasia. Here we examined a potential crosstalk between Dsg2 and Hh signaling in skin tumorigenesis. Our findings show that Dsg2 modulates Gli1 expression, in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of Dsg2 on Ptc1(+/lacZ) background enhanced epidermal proliferation and interfollicular activation of the Hh pathway. Furthermore, in response to DMBA/TPA, the Dsg2/Ptc1+/lacZ mice developed squamous lessons earlier than the WT, Ptc1(+/lacZ), and Inv-Dsg2 littermates. Additionally, DMBA/TPA induced BCC formation in all mice harboring the Ptc1(+/lacZ) gene and the presence of Dsg2 in Dsg2/Ptc1(+/lacZ) mice doubled the BCC tumor burden. Reporter analysis revealed activation of the Hh pathway in the BCC tumors. However, in the SCCs we observed Hh activity only in the underlying dermis of the tumors. Furthermore, Dsg2/Ptc1(+/lacZ) mice demonstrated enhanced MEK/Erk1/2 activation within the tumors and expression of Shh in the dermis. In summary, our results demonstrate that Dsg2 modulates Hh signaling, and this synergy may accelerate skin tumor development by different mechanisms. PMID:25871385

  14. Preparation and Characterization of a Lecithin Nanoemulsion as a Topical Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huafeng; Yue, Yang; Liu, Guanlan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Qiu; Yan, Zemin; Duan, Mingxing

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to establish a lecithin nanoemulsion (LNE) without any synthetic surfactant as a topical delivery vehicle and to evaluate its topical delivery potential by the following factors: particle size, morphology, viscosity, stability, skin hydration and skin penetration. Experimental results demonstrated that an increasing concentration of soybean lecithin and glycerol resulted in a smaller size LNE droplet and increasing viscosity, respectively. The droplet size of optimized LNE, with the glycerol concentration above 75% (w/w), changed from 92 (F10) to 58 nm (F14). Additionally, LNE, incorporated into o/w cream, improved the skin hydration capacity of the cream significantly with about 2.5-fold increase when the concentration of LNE reached 10%. LNE was also demonstrated to improve the penetrability of Nile red (NR) dye into the dermis layer, when an o/w cream, incorporated with NR-loaded LNE, applied on the abdominal skin of rat in vivo. Specifically, the arbitrary unit (ABU) of fluorescence in the dermis layer that had received the cream with a NR-loaded LNE was about 9.9-fold higher than the cream with a NR-loaded general emulsion (GE). These observations suggest that LNE could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  15. Cutaneous macroglobulinosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Camp, Brendan J; Magro, Cynthia M

    2012-10-01

    Cutaneous macroglobulinosis is a rare skin manifestation of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. It is characterized by the deposition of eosinophilic, immunoglobulin-derived material in the dermis. It typically presents as pink or skin-colored papules favoring the extensor surfaces of the extremities. There are 11 reported cases of cutaneous macroglobulinosis in the literature. In our consultative dermatopathology practice we encountered three additional cases. In Case 1, a 41-year-old female with a monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM)-kappa gammopathy developed skin-colored papules on her extensor extremities, forehead and back. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses revealed periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive pink material in the dermis that stained with IgM. In Case 2, an 83-year-old female with a monoclonal IgM-lambda paraproteinemia developed non-blanching papules and plaques on the lower extremities and cheeks. Skin biopsies showed a striking occlusion of the vessels with a PAS-positive eosinophilic precipitate, which was also found in the extravascular spaces and stained with IgM using direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and immunohistochemical stains. In Case 3, an 80-year-old male with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia developed ulcerated papules and nodules on the lower extremities. The biopsy findings were similar to those of Case 2. We present a series of three patients with cutaneous macroglobulinosis and explore variations in the clinical and histopathological findings of this uncommon entity. PMID:22882527

  16. Cellular Response to a Novel Fetal Acellular Collagen Matrix: Implications for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rennert, Robert C.; Garg, Ravi K.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. PriMatrix (TEI Biosciences Inc., Boston, MA, USA) is a novel acellular collagen matrix derived from fetal bovine dermis that is designed for use in partial- and full-thickness wounds. This study analyzes the cellular response to PriMatrix in vivo, as well as the ability of this matrix to facilitate normal tissue regeneration. Methods. Five by five mm squares of rehydrated PriMatrix were implanted in a subcutaneous fashion on the dorsum of wild-type mice. Implant site tissue was harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometric analyses at multiple time points until day 28. Results. PriMatrix implants were found to go through a biological progression initiated by a transient infiltrate of inflammatory cells, followed by mesenchymal cell recruitment and vascular development. IHC analysis revealed that the majority of the implanted fetal dermal collagen fibers persisted through day 28 but underwent remodeling and cellular repopulation to form tissue with a density and morphology consistent with healthy dermis. Conclusions. PriMatrix implants undergo progressive in vivo remodeling, facilitating the regeneration of histologically normal tissue through a mild inflammatory and progenitor cell response. Regeneration of normal tissue is especially important in a wound environment, and these findings warrant further investigation of PriMatrix in this setting. PMID:23970899

  17. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Darvin, M E; Richter, H; Zhu, Y J; Meinke, M C; Knorr, F; Lademann, J; Gonchukov, S A; Koenig, K

    2014-07-31

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  18. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Ďurčanská, Veronika; Jedličková, Hana; Vašků, Vladimír

    2016-05-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) is a disease characterized by fibrotic changes in the dermis. Connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor β2 are the main mediators of fibrogenesis; this, along with excessive connective tissue production, affects epidermal keratinocytes, and thereby contributes to the changed quality of skin barrier. The objective of this article was to study the objective measurement of the skin barrier quality in LS with transepidermal water loss (TEWL) meter. The measurements of TEWL were performed on LS plaques in all three stages of various body locations. Control measurements were made on the contralateral side of healthy skin. The difference between TEWL in LS area and the contralateral side of the healthy skin was evaluated. A higher average TEWL 7.86 g/m(2) /h (SD 5.29) was observed on LS plaques compared with the control measurements on healthy skin 6.39 g/m(2) /h (SD 2.77). TEWL average values decreased from the inflammatory stage, through the sclerotic and to the atrophic stage. The mean difference 1.301 g/m(2) /h (SD 5.16) was found between TEWL on LS plaques and on the contralateral healthy skin in 82 measurements, i.e., a higher TEWL was observed in LS. The difference was statistically significant with p = 0.0250. Although fibrogenesis in scleroderma is localized in dermis, the skin barrier changes can be detected. PMID:26970329

  19. Ingestion of BioCell Collagen®, a novel hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract; enhanced blood microcirculation and reduced facial aging signs

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen R; Park, Joosang

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging and its clinical manifestation is associated with altered molecular metabolism in the extracellular matrix of the dermis. In a pilot open-label study, we investigated the effect of a dietary supplement, BioCell Collagen® (BCC), which contains a naturally occurring matrix of hydrolyzed collagen type II and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate, in 26 healthy females who displayed visible signs of natural and photoaging in the face. Daily supplementation with 1 g of BCC for 12 weeks led to a significant reduction of skin dryness/scaling (76%, P = 0.002) and global lines/wrinkles (13.2%, P = 0.028) as measured by visual/tactile score. Additionally, a significant increase in the content of hemoglobin (17.7%, P = 0.018) and collagen (6.3%, P = 0.002) in the skin dermis was observed after 6 weeks of supplementation. At the end of the study, the increase in hemoglobin remained significant (15%, P = 0.008), while the increase in collagen content was maintained, but the difference from baseline was not significant (3.5%, P = 0.134). This study provides preliminary data suggesting that dietary supplementation with BCC elicits several physiological events which can be harnessed to counteract natural photoaging processes to reduce visible aging signs in the human face. A controlled study is necessary to verify these observations. PMID:22956862

  20. In men at risk of HIV infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA reach the human foreskin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M P; Karuna, S T; Mize, G J; Fong, Y; Montano, S M; Ganoza, C; Lama, J R; Sanchez, J; McElrath, M J

    2016-05-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less immunoglobulin A (IgA) and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than that in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively present in the colon, whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (P<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources, and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis. PMID:26509877

  1. In vitro percutaneous permeation and skin accumulation of finasteride using vesicular ethosomal carriers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Zhang, Xingguo; Gao, Jianqing; Liang, Wenquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a novel transdermal drug delivery system that facilitates the skin permeation of finasteride encapsulated in novel lipid-based vesicular carriers (ethosomes)finasteride ethosomes were constructed and the morphological characteristics were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size, zeta potential and the entrapment capacity of ethosome were also determined. In contrast to liposomes ethosomes were of more condensed vesicular structure and they were found to be oppositely charged. Ethosomes were found to be more efficient delivery carriers with high encapsulation capacities. In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of finasteride through human cadaver skin was significantly increased when ethosomes were used. The finasteride transdermal fluxes from ethosomes containing formulation (1.34 +/- 0.11 microg/cm(2)/h) were 7.4, 3.2 and 2.6 times higher than that of finasteride from aqueous solution, conventional liposomes and hydroethanolic solution respectively (P < 0.01).Furthermore, ethosomes produced a significant (P < 0.01) finasteride accumulation in the skin, especially in deeper layers, for instance in dermis it reached to 18.2 +/- 1.8 microg/cm(2). In contrast, the accumulation of finasteride in the dermis was only 2.8 +/- 1.3 microg/cm(2) with liposome formulation. The study demonstrated that ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for enhancing percutaneous absorption of finasteride. PMID:18649143

  2. Physical modeling of human skin optical properties using milk and erythrocytes mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdin, Alexander B.; Utz, Sergei R.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    1995-12-01

    We offer a two-layer dermis-like model phantom with controlled concentration of absorbers and scatterers; namely, the mixture of whole milk diluted with isotonic solution and suspension of washed human erythrocytes - as one layer, and teflon base - as another. The optimum milk dilution was determined, and wavelength dependencies of phantom remittance (R) over the range 480 - 680 nm were obtained. We use the mixtures with physiological concentrations of erythrocytes which corresponded to 2 - 18% per volume blood content in human papillary dermis and upper blood plexus. Phantom remittance spectra for the cases of 2% and 4% blood content virtually coincide with remittance spectra of normal and erythema human skin. Collimated transmittance (T) of blood-milk layer was also measured. At 500 nm we estimated the range of linearity of D and D' (D equals $min1gT, D' equals -1gR) dependence on blood content: offset from linearity was observed near 5 - 6% and 10% of blood, respectively.

  3. Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry in Cutaneous Neoplasia: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Leigh A.; Murphy, George F.; Lian, Christine G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important adjunct in the diagnosis of neoplastic skin diseases. In addition to the many established IHC markers currently in use, new markers continue to emerge, although their general acceptance and routine application requires robust validation. Here, we summarize the most well-established and commonly used biomarkers along with an array of newer ones reported in the past several decades that either demonstrate or hold high clinical promise in the field of cutaneous pathology. We also highlight recent applications of novel IHC markers in melanoma diagnosis including genetic mutation status markers [e.g. BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) and NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog)] and an epigenetic alteration marker (e.g. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine). We specifically focus on the role of IHC in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions that fall under the following categories: melanoma, epidermal tumors with an intraepidermal epitheliomatous pattern, spindle cell lesions of the dermis, small round blue cell tumors of the dermis, and cutaneous adnexal tumors. While IHC is a valuable tool in diagnostic dermatopathology, marker selection and interpretation must be highly informed by clinical context and the histologic differential diagnosis. With rapid progress in our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, new IHC markers will continue to emerge in the field of diagnostic dermatopathology. PMID:27047932

  4. Clinical pathologic correlations of Lyme disease by stage.

    PubMed

    Duray, P H; Steere, A C

    1988-01-01

    Lyme disease is capable of producing a wide variety of clinical pathologic conditions and lesions having in common histologic features of collagen-vascular disease. The plasma cell is an omnipotent inflammatory responder in most tissues involved by Lyme disease, ranging from relatively acute to lesions that have gone on for years. Vascular thickening also seems to be prominent, and in the dermis is accompanied by scleroderma-like collagen expansion. The disease in some ways resembles the responses seen in lupus erythematosus such as mild cerebritis with lymphocytes and plasma cells in the leptomeninges. Lymphoplasmacytic panniculitis of Lyme disease resembles lupus profundus, both in the infiltrate and the plasma cell-blood vessel relationship. The onion skin thickened vessels of the synovia resemble the vessels of lupus spleens, while the scleradermoid thickening of the dermis and various skin lesions of stage III Lyme disease suggest a collagen-vascular disorder. Finally, the perivascular lymphoid infiltrate in clinical myositis does not differ from that seen in polymyositis or dermatomyositis. All of these histologic derangements suggest immunologic damage in response to persistence of the spirochete, however few in number. PMID:2847622

  5. Comparison between histopathologic features of leprosy in reaction lesions in HIV coinfected and non-coinfected patients*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marília Brasil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy and HIV are diseases that have a major impact on public health in Brazil. Patients coinfected with both diseases, appear to be at higher risk to develop leprosy reactions. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to describe the histopathological aspects of cutaneous lesions during reactional states in a group of patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection, compared to patients with leprosy, without coinfection. METHODS Two groups were established: group 1 comprised of 40 patients coinfected with HIV-leprosy; group 2, comprised of 107 patients with leprosy only. Patients presenting reactional states of leprosy had their lesions biopsied and comparatively evaluated. RESULTS Reversal reaction was the most frequent feature in both groups, with dermis edema as the most common histopathological finding. Giant cells were seen in all group 1 histopathological examinations. Dermis edema was the most common finding in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. CONCLUSION Few histopathological differences were found in both groups, with reversal reaction as the most significant one, although this fact should be analyzed considering the predominant BT clinical form in the coinfected group and BB form in the group without HIV. Larger prospective studies in patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection are needed to confirm and broaden these results. PMID:25672296

  6. Anti-photoaging properties of the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol in ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Neui; Gil, Chan Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether cilostazol, an activator of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signaling, could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photoaging in HR-1 hairless mice. Cilostazol decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness in UVB-irradiated mice, as well as increased staining of collagen fibers and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the skin. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and collagenase MMP-3 were significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated mice treated with cilostazol. Western blotting showed that UVB-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was significantly inhibited by cilostazol, whereas the activation of Akt was significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Confirmation of localized protein expression in the skin revealed marked p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation that was mainly detected in the dermis. Marked Akt activation was mainly detected in the epidermis. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of ROS and related p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling, and subsequent down-regulation of MMPs. Therefore, cilostazol may protect against photoaging-induced wrinkle formation. PMID:27484958

  7. Gender variations in the optical properties of skin in murine animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabro, Katherine; Curtis, Allison; Galarneau, Jean-Rene; Krucker, Thomas; Bigio, Irving J.

    2011-01-01

    Gender is identified as a significant source of variation in optical reflectance measurements on mouse skin, with variation in the thickness of the dermal layer being the key explanatory variable. For three different mouse strains, the thickness values of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis layers, as measured by histology, are correlated to optical reflectance measurements collected with elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS). In all three strains, males are found to have up to a 50% increase in dermal thickness, resulting in increases of up to 80% in reflectance values and higher observed scattering coefficients, as compared to females. Collagen in the dermis is identified as the primary source of these differences due to its strong scattering nature; increased dermal thickness leads to a greater photon path length through the collagen, as compared to other layers, resulting in a larger scattering signal. A related increase in the observed absorption coefficient in females is also observed. These results emphasize the importance of considering gender during experimental design in studies that involve photon interaction with mouse skin. The results also elucidate the significant impact that relatively small thickness changes can have on observed optical measurements in layered tissue.

  8. The mutant form of lamin A that causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria is a biomarker of cellular aging in human skin.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Dayle; Ratner, Desiree; Lokuge, Meepa; Owens, David M; Gordon, Leslie B; Collins, Francis S; Djabali, Karima

    2007-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670) is a rare disorder characterized by accelerated aging and early death, frequently from stroke or coronary artery disease. 90% of HGPS cases carry the LMNA G608G (GGC>GGT) mutation within exon 11 of LMNA, activating a splice donor site that results in production of a dominant negative form of lamin A protein, denoted progerin. Screening 150 skin biopsies from unaffected individuals (newborn to 97 years) showed that a similar splicing event occurs in vivo at a low level in the skin at all ages. While progerin mRNA remains low, the protein accumulates in the skin with age in a subset of dermal fibroblasts and in a few terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Progerin-positive fibroblasts localize near the basement membrane and in the papillary dermis of young adult skin; however, their numbers increase and their distribution reaches the deep reticular dermis in elderly skin. Our findings demonstrate that progerin expression is a biomarker of normal cellular aging and may potentially be linked to terminal differentiation and senescence in elderly individuals. PMID:18060063

  9. Development of a Murine Infection Model with Leishmania killicki, Responsible for Cutaneous Leishmaniosis in Algeria: Application in Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Eddaikra, Naouel; Kherachi Djenad, Ihcene; Benbetka, Sihem; Benikhlef, Razika; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Oury, Bruno; Sereno, Denis; Harrat, Zoubir

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, and Leishmania killicki (Leishmania tropica) are responsible for cutaneous leishmaniosis. We established a murine model of L. killicki infection to investigate its infective capacity, some immunophysiopathological aspects, and its suitability for pharmacological purposes. Following the injection of L. major or L. killicki metacyclic promastigotes in the ear dermis of BALB/c mice, the course of infection was followed. The infection with L. killicki caused slower lesion formation than with L. major. The presence of L. killicki or L. major DNA and parasites was detected in the ear dermis and in lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Lesions induced by L. killicki were nonulcerative in their aspect, whereas those caused by L. major were highly ulcerative and necrotic, which matches well with the lesion phenotype reported in humans for L. killicki and L. major, respectively. The treatment of L. killicki lesions by injection of Glucantime® significantly reduced the lesion thickness and parasite burden. Ear dermal injection of BALB/c mice constitutes a model to study lesions physiopathology caused by L. killicki and presents interest for in vivo screening of new compounds against this pathogen, emerging in Algeria. PMID:26949705

  10. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  11. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  12. Crosstalk between Desmoglein 2 and Patched 1 accelerates chemical-induced skin tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Crispi, Donna M.; Hossain, Claudia; Sahu, Joya; Brady, Mary; Riobo, Natalia A.; Mahoney, Mỹ G.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is causative of BCCs and has been associated with a fraction of SCCs. Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2) is an adhesion protein that is upregulated in many cancers and overexpression of Dsg2 in the epidermis renders mice more susceptible to squamous-derived neoplasia. Here we examined a potential crosstalk between Dsg2 and Hh signaling in skin tumorigenesis. Our findings show that Dsg2 modulates Gli1 expression, in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of Dsg2 on Ptc1+/lacZ background enhanced epidermal proliferation and interfollicular activation of the Hh pathway. Furthermore, in response to DMBA/TPA, the Dsg2/Ptc1+/lacZ mice developed squamous lessons earlier than the WT, Ptc1+/lacZ, and Inv-Dsg2 littermates. Additionally, DMBA/TPA induced BCC formation in all mice harboring the Ptc1+/lacZ gene and the presence of Dsg2 in Dsg2/Ptc1+/lacZ mice doubled the BCC tumor burden. Reporter analysis revealed activation of the Hh pathway in the BCC tumors. However, in the SCCs we observed Hh activity only in the underlying dermis of the tumors. Furthermore, Dsg2/Ptc1+/lacZ mice demonstrated enhanced MEK/Erk1/2 activation within the tumors and expression of Shh in the dermis. In summary, our results demonstrate that Dsg2 modulates Hh signaling, and this synergy may accelerate skin tumor development by different mechanisms. PMID:25871385

  13. Infrared fiber optic evanescent wave spectroscopy for the study of diffusion in the human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichlin, Yosef; Goldberg, I.; Brenner, Sarah; Shulzinger, Evgeny; Katzir, Abraham

    2002-03-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic systems make use of Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) elements for the study of skin in dermatology. FTIR - ATR allows real time and reagent-less analysis of several components, simultaneously. The potential for skin studies is increased by the development of the flexible fiber optic sensor made from infrared transparent polycrystalline silver halide. Segments of fibers can replace the ATR sensing elements inside an FTIR system. Moreover a Fiberoptic Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS) can also be used for real time in vivo measurement on skin, in situ. We used FEWS to study the diffusion of UV sunscreen lotions from the outer skin layer into the dermis and epidermis, and used the various absorption bands to differentiate between the behavior of the organic and the water molecules in the lotion. FEWS can be a powerful tool for studying the transport of drugs and cosmetic creams through the skin from the stratum corneum to the dermis and epidermis and for studying the lateral diffusion of various molecules into the skin, in vivo and in real time.

  14. A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers: Application to a topical administration study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Min Gyu; Seok, Su Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Lee, Jong Bong; Choi, Hyeon Gwan; Lee, Young Sung; Yoo, Sun Dong

    2015-10-15

    This study describes the development of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantification of avobenzone in rat plasma and skin layers. Separations were performed on a Zorbax SB C8 column using a binary gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. The assay achieved LLOQ of 0.5ng/ml for plasma, 5ng/ml for stratum corneum, and 10ng/ml for epidermis and dermis. This method was applied to a percutaneous absorption study of avobenzone in rats. At 12h following topical application of emulsion and lotion (applied amount of avobenzone 11.7mg/kg), avobenzone was found primarily in the stratum corneum (16.3-17.8%) followed by epidermis (2.0-3.4%) and dermis (0.11-0.15%). Avobenzone was not quantifiable in the plasma samples collected over a 12h sampling period. Given the excellent plasma assay sensitivity, this study provides evidence that the systemic absorption of avobenzone is insignificant, if any, after topical application. PMID:26409261

  15. Type VI Collagen Regulates Dermal Matrix Assembly and Fibroblast Motility.

    PubMed

    Theocharidis, Georgios; Drymoussi, Zoe; Kao, Alexander P; Barber, Asa H; Lee, David A; Braun, Kristin M; Connelly, John T

    2016-01-01

    Type VI collagen is a nonfibrillar collagen expressed in many connective tissues and implicated in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. We hypothesized that type VI collagen regulates matrix assembly and cell function within the dermis of the skin. In the present study we examined the expression pattern of type VI collagen in normal and wounded skin and investigated its specific function in new matrix deposition by human dermal fibroblasts. Type VI collagen was expressed throughout the dermis of intact human skin, at the expanding margins of human keloid samples, and in the granulation tissue of newly deposited ECM in a mouse model of wound healing. Generation of cell-derived matrices (CDMs) by human dermal fibroblasts with stable knockdown of COL6A1 revealed that type VI collagen-deficient matrices were significantly thinner and contained more aligned, thicker, and widely spaced fibers than CDMs produced by normal fibroblasts. In addition, there was significantly less total collagen and sulfated proteoglycans present in the type VI collagen-depleted matrices. Normal fibroblasts cultured on de-cellularized CDMs lacking type VI collagen displayed increased cell spreading, migration speed, and persistence. Taken together, these findings indicate that type VI collagen is a key regulator of dermal matrix assembly, composition, and fibroblast behavior and may play an important role in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:26763426

  16. Cone of skin exists in rat: A "hypertrophic scarring free" animal.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yanhai; Yu, Xiaoping; Lu, Shuliang

    2016-08-01

    Cone of skin is deemed to be related to hypertrophic scarring and absent in such traditionally "hypertrophic scarring and keloid free" animals as rat. The purpose of our study is to determine whether the cone of skin exists in rat. If it was, why it was ignored, and what was the meaning of it. The depilation of left dorsum of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats was performed using a wax/rosin mixture. Skin samples were harvested on 0 d, 3 d, 9 d, 15 d, 21 d, 27 d, 33 d, and 39 d after depilation and stained by hematoxylin and eosin methods. Light microscopic observation of the dermis-fat interface was studied at 25× magnification. It was observed that, "dome" like fat tissue bulged up into the dermis from 3 d to 27 d and hair follicle bulged down into the "dome" like fat tissue from 15 d to 27 d and a "cone" like structure was seen. Cone of skin exists in rat in certain stages of hair follicle cycle, which is a valuable addition to the scientific literature and might be a challenge to the relation between cone of skin and hypertrophic scarring. Anat Rec, 299:1140-1144, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27125905

  17. Multidimensional two-photon imaging of diseased skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    We used combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE) to investigate different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin lesions. Morphological and spectroscopic analyses allowed to characterize both healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors, as well as to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue, in a good agreement with common routine histology. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor-stroma interface, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. The SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID) score was used to characterize each region, finding differences between BCC, healthy skin, tumor-stroma interface, keloids, and fibroblastic proliferation. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher absorption at 800 nm excitation wavelength, and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed a lifetime distribution similar to the corresponding melanocytic nevus (MN) lifetime distribution for the slow lifetime component, and different for the fast lifetime component.

  18. Impact of extracorporeal shock waves on the human skin with cellulite: A case study of an unique instance

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Christoph; Angehrn, Fiorenzo; Sonnabend, Ortrud; Voss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In this case study of an unique instance, effects of medium-energy, high-focused extracorporeal generated shock waves (ESW) onto the skin and the underlying fat tissue of a cellulite afflicted, 50-year-old woman were investigated. The treatment consisted of four ESW applications within 21 days. Diagnostic high-resolution ultrasound (Collagenoson) was performed before and after treatment. Directly after the last ESW application, skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis from the treated and from the contra-lateral untreated area of skin with cellulite. No damage to the treated skin tissue, in particular no mechanical destruction to the subcutaneous fat, could be demonstrated by histopathological analysis. However an astounding induction of neocollageno- and neoelastino-genesis within the scaffolding fabric of the dermis and subcutis was observed. The dermis increased in thickness as well as the scaffolding within the subcutaneous fat-tissue. Optimization of critical application parameters may turn ESW into a noninvasive cellulite therapy. PMID:18488890

  19. Adhesion monitoring of skin grafts by photoacoustic measurement: experiment using rat allograft models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Mutsuo; Sato, Shunichi; Saito, Daizo; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2004-07-01

    Adhesion monitoring of grafted skins is very important in successful treatment of severe burns and traumas. However, current diagnosis of skin grafting is usually done by visual observation, which is not reliable and gives no quantitative information on the skin graft adhesion. When the grafted skin adheres well, neovascularities will be generated in the grafted skin tissue, and therefore adhesion may be monitored by detecting the neovascularities. In this study, we attempted to measure photoacoustic signals originate from the neovascularities by irradiating the grafted skins with 532-nm nanosecond light pulses in rat autograft and allograft models. The measurement showed that immediately after skin grafting, photoacoustic signal originate from the blood in the dermis was negligibly small, while 6 - 24 hours after skin grafting, signal was observed from the dermis in the graft. We did not observe a significant difference between the signals from the autograft and the allograft models. These results indicate that neovascularization would take place within 6 hours after skin grafting, and the rejection reaction would make little effect on adhesion within early hours after grafting.

  20. Efficacy of Slimming Cream Containing 3.5% Water-Soluble Caffeine and Xanthenes for the Treatment of Cellulite: Clinical Study and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sang-Young; Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Heo, Su-Hak; Shim, Jae-Seong; Du, Mi-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Cellulite is a 'cottage cheese-like' cutaneous change caused by subcutaneous fat bulging into the dermis that usually leads to cosmetic problems. Slimming cream containing 3.5% water-soluble caffeine and xanthenes exhibits a lipolytic effect with penetration into the dermis. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of slimming cream for the treatment of cellulite. Methods Fifteen subjects with cellulite applied slimming cream to the thighs and inner side of the upper arms twice daily for 6 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using a standard visual scale, changes in the circumferences of the thighs and upper arms, and patient satisfaction by a questionnaire at baseline, week 3, and week 6. Safety was assessed by inquiring about adverse events through questionnaires. Results The standard visual scale score improved significantly by 0.49 points (19.8%) at week 6. Thigh and upper-arm circumferences decreased by 0.7 cm (1.7%) and 0.8 cm (2.3%), respectively, at week 6. Slight itching and transient flushing were commonly reported, but no serious adverse event occurred. Conclusion The slimming cream tested appears to be effective for the treatment of cellulitis without serious adverse effects. However, additional large clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of slimming cream for the treatment of cellulitis. PMID:26082579

  1. A Patient with Giant Rippled-Pattern Sebaceoma in the Occipital Region.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Arima, Masaru; Iwata, Yohei; Suzuki, Kayoko; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Makoto; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old male visited a nearby hospital with a large tumor in his occipital region, which had existed since 20 years. Since malignant tumor was suspected, he was referred to our department. At the initial consultation, an elastic-hard, yellow-brown, sessile tumor, measuring 8 × 7 × 5 cm and with a flat surface, was observed in the occipital region. The tumor was resected and covered with artificial dermis. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of basal-cell-like cells with nest formation in the dermis. A rippled pattern, or the single-line arrangement of tumor cells involving the stroma, was present. In addition, some tumor clusters revealed the differentiation to sebaceous glands, and these cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen, which is consistent with the staining of sebaceous glands. On the contrary, tumor cells were negative for epithelial antigen (Ber-EP4), and Ki67 (MIB1) index was 5% or lower. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as rippled-pattern sebaceoma and not as basal cell carcinoma. Although this case was quite unique in its large size, immunostaining was useful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27462217

  2. Optimization of an ex vivo wound healing model in the adult human skin: Functional evaluation using photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Garcia, Jenifer; Sebastian, Anil; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-09-01

    Limited utility of in vitro tests and animal models of human repair, create a demand for alternative models of cutaneous healing capable of functional testing. The adult human skin Wound Healing Organ Culture (WHOC) provides a useful model, to study repair and enable evaluation of therapies such as the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Thus, the aim here was to identify the optimal WHOC model and to evaluate the role of PDT in repair. Wound geometry, system of support, and growth media, cellular and matrix biomarkers were investigated in WHOC models. Subsequently, cellular activity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress plus gene and protein levels of makers of wound repair measured the effect of PDT on the optimized WHOC. WHOCs embedded in collagen and supplemented DMEM were better organized showing stratified epidermis and compact dermis with developing neo-epidermis. Post-PDT, the advancing reepithelialization tongue was 3.5 folds longer, and was highly proliferative with CK-14 plus p16 increased (p < 0.05) compared to controls. The neo-epidermis was fully differentiated forming neo-collagen. Proliferating nuclear antigen, p16, COLI, COLIII, MMP3, MMP19, and α-SMA were significantly more expressed (p < 0.05) in dermis surrounding the healing wound. In conclusion, an optimal model of WHOC treated with PDT shows increased reepithelialization and extracellular matrix reconstruction and remodeling, supporting evidence toward development of an optimal ex vivo wound healing model. PMID:26094764

  3. Histopathological detection of entry and exit holes in human skin wounds caused by firearms.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marcus Vinícius; d'Ávila, Solange C G P; d'Ávila, Antônio Miguel M P

    2014-07-01

    The judiciary needs forensic medicine to determine the difference between an entry hole and an exit hole in human skin caused by firearms for civilian use. This important information would be most useful if a practical and accurate method could be done with low-cost and minimal technological resources. Both macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed on skin lesions caused by firearm projectiles, to establish histological features of 14 entry holes and 14 exit holes. Microscopically, in the abrasion area macroscopically observed, there were signs of burns (sub-epidermal cracks and keratinocyte necrosis) in the entrance holes in all cases. These signs were not found in three exit holes which showed an abrasion collar, nor in other exit holes. Some other microscopic features not found in every case were limited either to entry holes, such as cotton fibres, grease deposits, or tattooing in the dermis, or to exit holes, such as adipose tissue, bone or muscle tissue in the dermis. Coagulative necrosis of keratinocytes and sub-epidermal cracks are characteristic of entry holes. Despite the small sample size, it can be safely inferred that this is an important microscopic finding, among others less consistently found, to define an entry hole in questionable cases. PMID:24931861

  4. Automated Segmentation of Skin Strata in Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Depth Stacks.

    PubMed

    Hames, Samuel C; Ardigò, Marco; Soyer, H Peter; Bradley, Andrew P; Prow, Tarl W

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a powerful tool for in-vivo examination of a variety of skin diseases. However, current use of RCM depends on qualitative examination by a human expert to look for specific features in the different strata of the skin. Developing approaches to quantify features in RCM imagery requires an automated understanding of what anatomical strata is present in a given en-face section. This work presents an automated approach using a bag of features approach to represent en-face sections and a logistic regression classifier to classify sections into one of four classes (stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and papillary dermis). This approach was developed and tested using a dataset of 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers in two age groups (20-30 and 50-70 years of age). The classification accuracy on the test set was 85.6%. The mean absolute error in determining the interface depth for each of the stratum corneum/viable epidermis, viable epidermis/dermal-epidermal junction and dermal-epidermal junction/papillary dermis interfaces were 3.1 μm, 6.0 μm and 5.5 μm respectively. The probabilities predicted by the classifier in the test set showed that the classifier learned an effective model of the anatomy of human skin. PMID:27088865

  5. The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Chan, Li-Ming; Wang, Kai-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    In the present cosmetic market, the skin image obtained from a hand-held camera is two-dimensional (2-D). Due to insufficient penetration, only the skin surface can be detected, and thus phenomena in the dermis cannot be observed. To take the place of the conventional 2D camera, a new hand-held imaging system is proposed for three-dimensional (3-D) skin imaging. Featuring non-invasiveness, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the popular medical imaging techniques. The dermal images shown in OCT-related reports were mainly single-colored because of the use of a monotonic light source. With three original-colored beams applied in OCT, a full-colored image can be derived for dermatology. The penetration depth of the system ranges from 0.43 to 0.78 mm, sufficient for imaging of main tissues in the dermis. Colorful and non-invasive perspectives of deep dermal structure help to advance skin science, dermatology and cosmetology.

  6. Combination of Er:YAG laser and CO2 laser treatment on skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Anayb Baleg, Sana Mohammed; Bidin, Noriah; Suan, Lau Pik; Sidi Ahmad, Muhammad Fakarruddin; Krishnan, Ganesan; Johari, Abd Rahman; Hamid, Asmah

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the most important organ in our body, as it protects us from external environmental effects. Study the ability of the skin to stretch and the histological examinations of irradiated tissues have significant values in scientific and medical applications. Only a few studies have been done to study the correlation between epidermis ablation and the changes that occur at dermal levels when using dual lasers in ablative resurfacing mode. The aim of this work is to determine this correlation and to estimate the effects of multiple pulses on induced collagen remodeling and the strength of skin exposed with dual lasers in an in vivo rat model. All laser exposures led to mark improvement in the skin's strength compared to their own controls. The histological investigation indicated that there was a thickness loss in the epidermis layer with the induction of deep collagen coagulation in the dermis layer as the dual laser pulses increased. Additionally, more collagen fibers were remolded in the treated samples by dual wavelengths. We conclude that by combining dual lasers with multiple pulses targeted at not only the epidermis layer of the skin, it could also induce some heat diffusion in the dermis layer which causes more coagulation of collagen fibers. The tensile results confirmed by our histological data demonstrate that the strength of irradiated skin with dual wavelengths increased more than using both lasers separately on the skin tissue since more collagen is induced. PMID:25327511

  7. Armored geckos: A histological investigation of osteoderm development in Tarentola (Phyllodactylidae) and Gekko (Gekkonidae) with comments on their regeneration and inferred function.

    PubMed

    Vickaryous, M K; Meldrum, G; Russell, A P

    2015-11-01

    Osteoderms are bone-rich organs found in the dermis of many scleroglossan lizards sensu lato, but are only known for two genera of gekkotans (geckos): Tarentola and Gekko. Here, we investigate their sequence of appearance, mode of development, structural diversity and ability to regenerate following tail loss. Osteoderms were present in all species of Tarentola sampled (Tarentola annularis, T. mauritanica, T. americana, T. crombei, T. chazaliae) as well as Gekko gecko, but not G. smithii. Gekkotan osteoderms first appear within the integument dorsal to the frontal bone or within the supraocular scales. They then manifest as mineralized structures in other positions across the head. In Tarentola and G. gecko, discontinuous clusters subsequently form dorsal to the pelvis/base of the tail, and then dorsal to the pectoral apparatus. Gekkotan osteoderm formation begins once the dermis is fully formed. Early bone deposition appears to involve populations of fibroblast-like cells, which are gradually replaced by more rounded osteoblasts. In T. annularis and T. mauritanica, an additional skeletal tissue is deposited across the superficial surface of the osteoderm. This tissue is vitreous, avascular, cell-poor, lacks intrinsic collagen, and is herein identified as osteodermine. We also report that following tail loss, both T. annularis and T. mauritanica are capable of regenerating osteoderms, including osteodermine, in the regenerated part of the tail. We propose that osteoderms serve roles in defense against combative prey and intraspecific aggression, along with anti-predation functions. PMID:26248595

  8. Dynamic multiphoton imaging of reversible and irreversible thermal changes in collagen tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Su, Ping-Jung; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Collagen is the major component of skin, tendon, cartilage, cornea, and, as a main structural protein it is the key determinant of thermo-mechanical properties of collagen-rich tissues in mammals. Thermal damage of chicken dermis and tendon, bovine leg tendon, and other collagen contained tissues were investigated with the use of second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited auto-fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy. Samples were heating in a temperature-controlled water bath in the temperature range 18-90° C. SHG time-lapse imaging and analysis of intensity decay showed that the collagen thermal destruction depended on both temperature and heating time, and can be modeled by the Arrhenius equation. Temporal decay of SHG signal from the chicken dermis was single exponential during isothermal treatment at temperatures above 60º C that allowed to determine activation energy and frequency factor of skin collagen denaturation. Furthermore, two-exponential decay and partially reversible change in SHG intensity were registered during the tendon thermal treatment. A simple laser system and procedure is proposed for a real-time monitoring of collagen fiber thermal modification within a microscopic volume of 1 nl.

  9. A Patient with Giant Rippled-Pattern Sebaceoma in the Occipital Region

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Arima, Masaru; Iwata, Yohei; Suzuki, Kayoko; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Makoto; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old male visited a nearby hospital with a large tumor in his occipital region, which had existed since 20 years. Since malignant tumor was suspected, he was referred to our department. At the initial consultation, an elastic-hard, yellow-brown, sessile tumor, measuring 8 × 7 × 5 cm and with a flat surface, was observed in the occipital region. The tumor was resected and covered with artificial dermis. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of basal-cell-like cells with nest formation in the dermis. A rippled pattern, or the single-line arrangement of tumor cells involving the stroma, was present. In addition, some tumor clusters revealed the differentiation to sebaceous glands, and these cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen, which is consistent with the staining of sebaceous glands. On the contrary, tumor cells were negative for epithelial antigen (Ber-EP4), and Ki67 (MIB1) index was 5% or lower. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as rippled-pattern sebaceoma and not as basal cell carcinoma. Although this case was quite unique in its large size, immunostaining was useful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27462217

  10. Structural tissue organization in the beak of Java and Darwin's finches

    PubMed Central

    Genbrugge, Annelies; Adriaens, Dominique; Kegel, Barbara; Brabant, Loes; Hoorebeke, Luc; Podos, Jeffrey; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Birds are well known for occupying diverse feeding niches, and for having evolved diverse beak morphologies associated with dietary specialization. Birds that feed on hard seeds typically possess beaks that are both deep and wide, presumably because of selection for fracture avoidance, as suggested by prior studies. It follows then that birds that eat seeds of different size and hardness should vary in one or more aspects of beak morphology, including the histological organization of the rhamphotheca, the cellular interface that binds the rhamphotheca to the bone, and the organization of trabeculae in the beak. To explore this expectation we here investigate tissue organization in the rhamphotheca of the Java finch, a large granivorous bird, and describe interspecific differences in the trabecular organization of the beak across 11 species of Darwin's finches. We identify specializations in multiple layers of the horny beak, with the dermis anchored to the bone by Sharpey's fibers in those regions that are subjected to high stresses during biting. Moreover, the rhamphotheca is characterized by a tight dermo-epidermal junction through interdigitations of these two tissues. Herbst corpuscles are observed in high density in the dermis of the lateral aspect of the beak as observed in other birds. Finally, the trabecular organization of the beak in Darwin's finches appears most variable in regions involved most in food manipulation, with the density of trabeculae in the beak generally mirroring loading regimes imposed by different feeding habits and beak use in this clade. PMID:22938039

  11. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-based Photodynamic Intense Pulsed Light Therapy Shows Better Effects in the Treatment of Skin Photoaging in Asian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Leihong Flora; Gold, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of photodynamic intense pulsed light therapy on skin photoaging in Asian skin. Methods: This was a prospective, single-blinded, controlled, clinical trial with 40 patients enrolled. The enrolled patients applied 5% 5-aminolevulinic acid on the left side of the face while a placebo was applied on the right side of the face. After a one-hour incubation, the patients received intense pulsed light therapy. After four treatment cycles, the pH values, transepidermal water loss of the dermis of the forehead and canthus skin, as well as the moisture capacity of stratum corneum and the global score of photoaging were assessed. Results: The pH value of forehead and canthus skin, moisture capacity of stratum corneum, and the dermis of forehead and canthus skin of the photodynamic intense pulsed light therapy treated sides were significantly higher than those of the control sides in all of the patients. The photoaging score decreased after the therapy on both sides, with the photodynamic intense pulsed light therapy treated sides decreasing more than the control sides (P<0.01). Conclusion: 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic intense pulsed light therapy showed better effects in the treatment of skin photoaging compared to intense pulsed light therapy alone. PMID:20725543

  12. Evidence and considerations in the application of chemical peels in skin disorders and aesthetic resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Marta I; Berson, Diane S; Cohen, Joel L; Roberts, Wendy E; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-07-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, beta-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  13. Injectable poly-L: -lactic acid: a novel sculpting agent for the treatment of dermal fat atrophy after severe acne.

    PubMed

    Sadove, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects up to 80% of people 11 to 30 years of age, and scarring can occur for up to 95% of these patients. Scarring may be pitted or hypertrophic in nature, although in most cases it is atrophic. Atrophic acne scarring follows dermal collagen and fat loss after moderate to severe acne infection. Injectable poly-L-acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer device that is hypothesized to enhance dermal volume via the endogenous production of fibroblasts and, subsequently, collagen. The gradual improvements in cutaneous volume observed after treatment with injectable PLLA have been noted to last up to 2 years. The case studies presented describe the use of injectable PLLA to correct dermal fat loss in macular atrophic acne scarring of the cheeks. Two female patients underwent three treatment sessions with injectable PLLA over a 12-week period. At each treatment session, the reconstituted product was injected into the deep dermis under the depressed portion of the scar. Both patients were extremely pleased with their results at, respectively, 1- and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Patients experienced minimal swelling and redness after injection and no product-related adverse events such as papule and/or nodule formation. The author believes these data suggest that injectable PLLA is a good treatment option for the correction of macular atropic scarring with thin dermis (off-label use), particularly compared with other injectable fillers currently used for this indication that have shorter durations of effect. PMID:18923863

  14. Anti-photoaging properties of the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol in ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Neui; Gil, Chan Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether cilostazol, an activator of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signaling, could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photoaging in HR-1 hairless mice. Cilostazol decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness in UVB-irradiated mice, as well as increased staining of collagen fibers and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the skin. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and collagenase MMP-3 were significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated mice treated with cilostazol. Western blotting showed that UVB-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was significantly inhibited by cilostazol, whereas the activation of Akt was significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Confirmation of localized protein expression in the skin revealed marked p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation that was mainly detected in the dermis. Marked Akt activation was mainly detected in the epidermis. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of ROS and related p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling, and subsequent down-regulation of MMPs. Therefore, cilostazol may protect against photoaging-induced wrinkle formation. PMID:27484958

  15. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Richter, H.; Zhu, Y. J.; Meinke, M. C.; Knorr, F.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Koenig, K.; Lademann, J.

    2014-07-01

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.

  16. Condylomata lata on the ankle: an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Eri; Goto, Akane; Suzaki, Reiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Dekio, Itaru; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Hayato; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs. Blood samples were positive for rapid plasma reagin (1:64), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (1:20480), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (1:1280). A lesional skin biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis and papillomatosis. The Warthin-Starry and anti-Treponema pallidum antibody stains on the biopsy specimen revealed many spirochetes in the lower epidermis and the papillary dermis. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis with condylomata lata was made. After one week of treatment with oral benzylpenicillin benzathine hydrate (Bicillin(®) G granules 400,000 units; Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), 1.6 million units (U) daily, the ankle lesions had resolved with a small ulcer and pigmentation. Although syphilis is a relatively common disease, this case study reports an unusual presentation as well as dermoscopy findings. PMID:27222772

  17. Condylomata lata on the ankle: an unusual location

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Eri; Goto, Akane; Suzaki, Reiko; Sawada, Mizuki; Dekio, Itaru; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Hayato; Tanaka, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. These structures were surrounded by a yellowish peripheral structureless area and multiple white, small, round structures in the center, corresponding to the macerated horny layer and keratin plugs. Blood samples were positive for rapid plasma reagin (1:64), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (1:20480), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (1:1280). A lesional skin biopsy specimen showed irregular acanthosis and papillomatosis. The Warthin-Starry and anti-Treponema pallidum antibody stains on the biopsy specimen revealed many spirochetes in the lower epidermis and the papillary dermis. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis with condylomata lata was made. After one week of treatment with oral benzylpenicillin benzathine hydrate (Bicillin® G granules 400,000 units; Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), 1.6 million units (U) daily, the ankle lesions had resolved with a small ulcer and pigmentation. Although syphilis is a relatively common disease, this case study reports an unusual presentation as well as dermoscopy findings. PMID:27222772

  18. Measurements of the thermal coefficient of optical attenuation at different depth regions of in vivo human skins using optical coherence tomography: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ya; Yao, X. Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuation’s thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin. PMID:25780740

  19. Visualization of Microvessels in Skin by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saijo, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Hozumi, N.; Tanaka, A.; Sakai, S.

    A non-invasive imaging technique capable of visualizing microvessels through epidermis to subdermis has been strongly desired. A PVDF ultrasonic transducer with the central frequency of 100 MHz and the focal length of 3.2 mm was mechanically scanned over the objects by two linear servo motors controlled by a personal computer. A microvessel model was made of a tungsten wire with a diameter of 100-microns and placed in the water tank. The microvessel model was clearly visualized by 3D ultrasound microscope. In cases of skin imaging, conventional echo gel was used as the coupling medium between transducer and skin surface. In vivo 3D skin morphology was also clearly visualized. In dermis, a microvessel may be shown as small, round, lucent echo areas continuously observed in the serial sections. 3D structure of hair-follicle was also visualized from the skin surface to the bud of hair-follicle in dermis. The 3D ultrasound microscope noninvasively provides important information on the distribution of microvessels in skin.

  20. Dorsal skin reactions of hairless dogs to topical treatment with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Doi, K

    1999-01-01

    Dorsal skin reactions to continuous topical treatment with different types of corticosteroids were histologically investigated in hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs. The preparations tested were prednisolone (ST-1; weak), fluocinolone acetonide (ST-2; moderate), diflucortolone valrerate (ST-3; strong), and mometasone furoate (ST-4; very strong). Grossly, the sites treated with ST-3 and ST-4 showed moderate inflammatory reactions. After completion of the corticosteroid treatment, both sites were less pigmented and had a thin texture. The severity of histologic changes in the skin was dependent on the efficacy of the corticosteroids. The epidermis was prominently thinned from 1 wk after treatment with the corticosteroids, resulting in a flat dermis-epidermis junction. By the end of the corticosteroid treatment, these lesions became progressively more severe. At 2 wk after completion of topical treatment, the epidermal thickness in the sites treated with ST-1 and ST-2 began to return to normal values, whereas the epidermis of the skin treated with ST-3 and ST-4 became thinner. At 3-4 wk after topical treatment with ST-3 and ST-4, the dermis showed hyalinization of collagen bundles. These dermatologic findings in hairless dogs are in accordance with steroid-induced skin atrophy of human beings. These results suggest that the skin of hairless dogs responds sensitively to topical corticosteroids and that these animals are a useful model for investigating the efficacy and adverse effects of cutaneous topical corticosteroids. PMID:10528632

  1. Visualizing depth and thickness of a local blood region in skin tissue using diffuse reflectance images.

    PubMed

    Nishidate, Izumi; Maeda, Takaaki; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for visualizing the depth and thickness distribution of a local blood region in skin tissue using diffuse reflectance images at three isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin: 420, 585, and 800 nm. Monte Carlo simulation of light transport specifies a relation among optical densities, depth, and thickness of the region under given concentrations of melanin in epidermis and blood in dermis. Experiments with tissue-like agar gel phantoms indicate that a simple circular blood region embedded in scattering media can be visualized with errors of 6% for the depth and 22% for the thickness to the given values. In-vivo measurements on human veins demonstrate that results from the proposed method agree within errors of 30 and 19% for the depth and thickness, respectively, with values obtained from the same veins by the conventional ultrasound technique. Numerical investigation with the Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in the skin tissue is also performed to discuss effects of deviation in scattering coefficients of skin tissue and absorption coefficients of the local blood region from the typical values of the results. The depth of the local blood region is over- or underestimated as the scattering coefficients of epidermis and dermis decrease or increase, respectively, while the thickness of the region agrees well with the given values below 1.2 mm. Decreases or increases of hematocrit value give over- or underestimation of the thickness, but they have almost no influence on the depth. PMID:17994894

  2. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M; Firago, V A; Sobchuk, A N

    2014-01-31

    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions. (biophotonics)

  3. Evaluation of change in the skin concentration of tazarotene and betamethasone dipropionate based on drug-drug interaction for transdermal drug delivery in miniature pig.

    PubMed

    Yu, Biao; Ma, Pengcheng; Yuan, Linwen; Chen, Dingding; Yang, Jin

    2015-05-01

    1. The present study was designed to investigate drug-drug interaction in a new combination cream which contains both tazarotene (TZRT) and betamethasone dipropionate (BTMSDP) by comparing the pharmacokinetic (PK) behaviors of TZRT, BTMSDP, and their major metabolites, tazarotenic acid (TZRTAC) and betamethasone (BTMS) with those in the commonly prescribed TZRT gel and BTMSDP cream. 2. The trial was performed on six Bama mini-pigs. The different regions on the back side of each pig were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: TZRT 0.05% gel, BTMSDP 0.05% cream, and combination cream. The stratum corneum and epidermis-dermis samples were collected at various times after drug administration and analyzed for TZRT, TZRTAC, BTMSDP, and BTMS by LC-MS/MS. Compared with TZRT gel alone, TZRT + BTMSDP did not significantly change the PK profiles of TZRT; neither did BTMSDP + TZRT significantly change the PK profiles of BTMSDP, compared with the BTMSDP cream alone. In addition, the concentrations of TZRTAC and BTMS in most samples were below the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ). 3. The results suggest that there was no significant drug-drug interaction trend between TZRT and BTMSDP in the process of transdermal permeation of combination cream into the stratum corneum and epidermis-dermis of mini-pigs. PMID:25410121

  4. Elastosis Perforans Serpiginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Choi, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a rare skin disease characterized by transepidermal elimination of abnormal elastic fibers. This condition classically presents as small papules arranged in serpiginous or annular patterns on the neck, face, arms, or other flexural areas. While these lesions may spontaneously resolve, they often persist for longer periods of time. Though numerous treatment modalities have been described in the literature, most are not very effective. A 35-year-old man presented to Gangnam Severance Hospital with a 2-year history of skin eruptions on his neck, which were refractory to topical antifungal or steroid treatment. On examination, the patient showed multiple crusted and erythematous papules arranged in an annular pattern with central clearing. A biopsy specimen revealed acanthosis with notable transepidermal elimination of nuclear debris and eosinophilic degenerated elastic fibers from the dermis via an epidermal channel. Verhoeff-van Gieson staining showed dense clumps of altered elastic fibers in the papillary dermis. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of elastosis perforans serpisinosa was made. Treatment with topical 0.05% tretinoin application for 6 months resulted in no improvement. PMID:24648695

  5. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, β-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  6. miR-100 Inhibits the Growth and Migration of Burn-Denatured Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Jianghui; Liu, Yunfeng; Yang, Ruijin; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background Burn-denatured dermis is able to regain the function and shape of normal dermis; however, the potential mechanisms are still vague. The aim of this study was to investigate roles of miR-100 involved in the growth and migration of burn-denatured fibroblasts. Material/Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression of miR-100. Transient transfection of miR-100 mimics and inhibitor was used to up-regulate or down-regulate the expression of miR-100. Cell proliferation and colony formation assay were used to test the cell growth, and wound healing assay and transwell migration assay were used to evaluate the cell migration. Results miR-100 expression was notably downregulated in the burn-denatured fibroblasts compared to normal controls. Functionally, transfection of miR-100 inhibitors improved the growth and migration abilities of burn-denatured fibroblasts. In contrast, upregulation of miR-100 inhibits the growth and migration of burn-denatured fibroblasts. Conclusions Based on these observations, we concluded that miR-100 can inhibit the growth and migration of burn-denatured fibroblasts. PMID:26928010

  7. Scrotal calcinosis: idiopathic or dystrophic?

    PubMed

    Dubey, Suparna; Sharma, Rajeev; Maheshwari, Veena

    2010-01-01

    Scrotal calcinosis is a rare benign local process characterized by multiple, painless, hard scrotal nodules in the absence of any systemic metabolic disorder. Histological examination reveals extensive deposition of calcium in the dermis, which may be surrounded by histiocytes and an inflammatory giant cell reaction. Numerous theories have been propounded to explain the pathogenesis of this condition, but the principal debate revolves around whether the calcium is deposited at the site of previous epithelial cysts or the calcified nodules are purely idiopathic. This is the largest study of scrotal calcinosis to date with 100 cases, on which clinical, biochemical, radiological, cytopathological, and histopathological examinations were conducted. The histological picture shows a continuous spectrum of changes ranging from intact epithelial cysts (41.0%) - both normal and inflamed; through inflamed cysts containing calcific material in the lumen but with intact cyst wall (53.0%); calcified inflamed cysts with partial epithelial lining (11.0%); to 'naked' calcium deposits lying in the dermis (100%), sometimes compressing surrounding collagen fibres to form a pseudocyst (56.0%). The presence of normal values of calcium and phosphorus along with this spectrum of changes in histology both support the theory that these form by dystrophic calcification of epithelial cysts in a progression that involves inflammation, rupture, calcification and obliteration of the cyst wall. PMID:20178701

  8. Noninvasive intravital cellular diagnosis of atopic dermatitis by using harmonic optical virtual biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2007-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is now very common in people who live in cities, especially for babies and children. Since the cause of AD is still not completely understood and each person may have his own mixed symptoms that can change over time, diagnosis of AD can not be done precisely. Unlike some skin diseases, physical biopsy is rarely used in diagnosing AD on account of its low urgency. Thus, only indirect diagnoses, like asking for a medical history to learn about the symptoms and to rule out other diseases can be carried out. To gain insight into cellular details of AD for long-term diagnosing without physical biopsy, a noninvasive in vivo tool with a sub-micron subsurface resolution and high penetrability has to be used. In this presentation, we show that harmonic optical virtual biopsy can provide the required noninvasive cellular imaging, and is ideal for future clinical diagnosis of AD. Harmonic optical microscopy has been demonstrated to have the capability to reveal cellular morphology of human skin from epidermis to dermis layer. Third harmonic generation (THG), which is sensitive to inhomogeneous interfaces, can show the structures of skins, and can be used to reveal the morphological changes, for example, the thicken cuticle which is a common symptom of AD. Second harmonic generation (SHG), which occurs in non-centrosymmetric structures, has excellent contrast in collagen fibers and can show the pathological changes of dermis layer. Utilizing both THG and SHG, useful information may be given to facilitate the diagnosis of AD.

  9. Study on the human perception of incipient and overall slippages using a 2D FE fingertip model.

    PubMed

    Zhongkui Wang; Chathuranga, Damith Suresh; Hirai, Shinichi

    2015-08-01

    Slippage on the fingertips is an important phenomenon that occurs constantly in our daily life. However, the mechanism behind the slippage, especially incipient slippage, which appears prior to overall slippage, has not been fully understood. In this paper, a 2D finite element (FE) model of the human fingertip was presented to study how the human fingertip perceives slippages. The 2D geometries of the fingertip were generated based on magnetic resonance (MR) images. The fingertip model consisted of four layers: epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and distal phalanx. The microstructures of the intermediate and limiting ridges in between the epidermis and dermis layers were manually constructed to locate four types of mechanoreceptors. Simulations of pushing and sliding motions were implemented, and mechanical measures of the acceleration and strain energy density (SED) were investigated at the locations of the mechanoreceptors. We found that both incipient and overall slippages could be clearly detected using the acceleration signal captured by the FA-I and SA-I receptors. The SED measurement does not provide useful information for the slippage detection. PMID:26737602

  10. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  11. Damage from periorbital ageing to the multilayered structures and resilience of the skin in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chuh-Kai; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Hu, Chien-Ming; Wei, Po-Li; Su, Ching-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Ageing dynamically disrupts the multilayered supporting components of the skin that are held together by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Skin specimens from 33 female Chinese patients undergoing lower blepharoplasty were divided into three age groups and examined by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Elastica-van Gieson (EVG) stains, western blotting, surface electron microscopy (SEM) and biomechanical tension analysis. The SEM density (skin surface topology) showed a negative linear relationship with age. The triangular pattern of the skin surface in the younger group gradually broke down into quadrangular and irregular patterns in the older group. Collagens and elastic fibres in the dermis showed anisotropy and decreased density in the older groups compared with the younger group, especially in the papillary dermis. Anisotropy means that physical properties differ according to the direction of measurement. E-cadherin and integrin αv (whose functions are to bind epidermal and dermal elements respectively) increased and decreased, respectively, in the oldest group. Skin resilience decreased significantly in this group under repetitive stress. In conclusion, a loss of skin surface textures, integrin αv expressions, epidermal-dermal connections and dermal compactness led to the multilayered structure of the skin becoming separated. This in turn decreased resilience during ageing. These findings may therefore explain why aged skins cannot tolerate repetitive facial expressions, and why this action produces further dynamic wrinkles. PMID:23441675

  12. A unique cross section through the skin of the dinosaur Psittacosaurus from China showing a complex fibre architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a unique preservation of soft tissues in the ventrolateral region of the plant-eating dinosaur Psittacosaurus from the Jehol biota of China. The preservation is of a deep cross section through the dermis, which includes multiple layers of collagenous fibres in excess of 25, among the highest recorded in vertebrates, with a further 15 more layers (poorly preserved) estimated for the entire height of the section. Also, for the first time in a dinosaur two fibre layers parallel to the skin surface are preserved deep within the dermis at the base of the cross section. These fibre layers comprise regularly disposed fibres arranged in left- and right-handed geodesic helices, matching the pattern at the surface and reasonably inferred for the entire section. As noted from the studies on modern-day animals, this fibre structure plays a critical part in the stresses and strains the skin may be subjected to and is ideally suited to providing support and protection. Psittacosaurus gives a remarkable, unprecedented understanding of the dinosaur skin. PMID:18182372

  13. Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking.

    PubMed

    Gong, Peijun; McLaughlin, Robert A; Liew, Yih Miin; Munro, Peter R T; Wood, Fiona M; Sampson, David D

    2014-02-01

    The formation of burn-scar tissue in human skin profoundly alters, among other things, the structure of the dermis. We present a method to characterize dermal scar tissue by the measurement of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient using optical coherence tomography (OCT). To generate accurate en face parametric images of attenuation, we found it critical to first identify (using speckle decorrelation) and mask the tissue vasculature from the three-dimensional OCT data. The resulting attenuation coefficients in the vasculature-masked regions of the dermis of human burn-scar patients are lower in hypertrophic (3.8±0.4  mm(-1)) and normotrophic (4.2±0.9  mm(-1)) scars than in contralateral or adjacent normal skin (6.3±0.5  mm(-1)). Our results suggest that the attenuation coefficient of vasculature-masked tissue could be used as an objective means to assess human burn scars. PMID:24192908

  14. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. Methods: The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. Result: In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam–skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Conclusion: Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer. PMID:25653820

  15. Physical properties of type I collagen extracted from fish scales of Pagrus major and Oreochromis niloticas.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Tanaka, Junzo; Walsh, Dominic; Mann, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    Type I collagens were extracted from fish scales of Pagrus major and Oreochromis niloticas as a possible underutilized resource for medical materials. The fish scales were demineralized with EDTA and digested by pepsin. The resultant type I collagens contained more than 33.6% of glycine as the most abundant amino acid. The denaturation temperatures of the collagens from P. major and O. niloticas were 303 and 308K, respectively, both of which were relatively lower than that of porcine dermis collagen (314K). CD spectra indicated that the denaturation temperatures were dependent on the amount of hydroxyproline, rather than proline residues. Raman spectra also indicated that the relative intensities of Raman lines at 879 and 855cm(-1) assigned to Hyp and Pro rings were changed due to the contents of the imino acids. Significantly, the content of sulphur-containing methionine was higher in the fish scales than in porcine dermis. The enthalpy and entropy estimated from thermal analyses could be correlated to amino acid sequences (Gly-Pro-Hyp) of type I collagens and the number of methionine amino acid residues. PMID:12957317

  16. Fibril-forming collagens in lamprey.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J; Tanaka, S; Hardt, T; Eikenberry, E F; Brodsky, B

    1988-01-15

    Five types of collagen with triple-helical regions approximately 300 nm in length were found in lamprey tissues which show characteristic D-periodic collagen fibrils. These collagens are members of the fibril forming family of this primitive vertebrate. Lamprey collagens were characterized with respect to solubility, mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, carboxylmethyl-cellulose chromatography, peptide digestion patterns, composition, susceptibility to vertebrate collagenase, thermal stability, and segment long spacing-banding pattern. Comparison with fibril-forming collagens in higher vertebrates (types I, II, III, V, and XI) identified three lamprey collagens as types II, V, and XI. Both lamprey dermis and major body wall collagens had properties similar to type I but not the typical heterotrimer composition. Dermis molecules had only alpha 1(I)-like chains, while body wall molecules had alpha 2(I)-like chains combined with chains resembling lamprey type II. Neither collagen exhibited the interchain disulfide linkages or solubility properties of type III. The conservation of fibril organization in type II/type XI tissues in contrast to the major developments in type I and type III tissues after the divergence of lamprey and higher vertebrates is consistent with these results. The presence of type II and type I-like molecules as major collagens and types V and XI as minor collagens in the lamprey, and the differential susceptibility of these molecules to vertebrate collagenase is analogous to the findings in higher vertebrates. PMID:3335531

  17. Noninvasive detection by ATR and NIR-DR methods for skin-care ionic materials transported into the skin by iontophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Toyotoshi; Watanabe, Yukio; Akao, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Harue

    2003-12-01

    Two analytical methods without damage to the skin were proposed in order to detect and measure the quantity of the medication transported into the skin by the iontophoresis. The infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) method was proven to be able to evaluate the content of such a substance as sodium all- trans-retinoate or magnesium ℓ-ascorbyl-2-phosphate in the top (horny) layer of epidermis (about 1 μm under the skin surface), using characteristic bands to the above ion. Another method of near-infrared diffusive-reflection (NIR-DR) technique was shown probably to detect it in the dermis (1 mm under the surface), based on the shift of frequency and the change in intensity for the vibrational combination band of water molecules hydrating the ion. The quantity of the above material decreased monotonically in the horny layer for several hours after the treatment, while in the dermis it increased at first and then decreased via the maximum value.

  18. Development of a Murine Infection Model with Leishmania killicki, Responsible for Cutaneous Leishmaniosis in Algeria: Application in Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Eddaikra, Naouel; Kherachi Djenad, Ihcene; Benbetka, Sihem; Benikhlef, Razika; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Oury, Bruno; Sereno, Denis; Harrat, Zoubir

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, and Leishmania killicki (Leishmania tropica) are responsible for cutaneous leishmaniosis. We established a murine model of L. killicki infection to investigate its infective capacity, some immunophysiopathological aspects, and its suitability for pharmacological purposes. Following the injection of L. major or L. killicki metacyclic promastigotes in the ear dermis of BALB/c mice, the course of infection was followed. The infection with L. killicki caused slower lesion formation than with L. major. The presence of L. killicki or L. major DNA and parasites was detected in the ear dermis and in lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Lesions induced by L. killicki were nonulcerative in their aspect, whereas those caused by L. major were highly ulcerative and necrotic, which matches well with the lesion phenotype reported in humans for L. killicki and L. major, respectively. The treatment of L. killicki lesions by injection of Glucantime® significantly reduced the lesion thickness and parasite burden. Ear dermal injection of BALB/c mice constitutes a model to study lesions physiopathology caused by L. killicki and presents interest for in vivo screening of new compounds against this pathogen, emerging in Algeria. PMID:26949705

  19. Histology of the thick scar on the female, red Duroc pig: Final similarities to human hypertrophic scar

    PubMed Central

    Harunari, Nobuyuki; Zhu, Kathy Q.; Armendariz, Rebecca T.; Deubner, Heike; Muangman, Pornprom; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Engrav, Loren H.

    2010-01-01

    The etiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar remain puzzles even after decades of research. A significant reason is the lack of an accepted animal model of the process. The female, red Duroc pig model was described long ago. Since the skin of the pig is similar to that of humans, we are attempting to validate this model and found it to be encouraging. In this project we quantified myofibroblasts, mast cells and collagen nodules in the thick scar of the Duroc pig and compared these to the values for human hypertrophic scar. We found the results to be quite similar and so further validated the model. In addition, we observed that soon after wounding an inflammatory cell layer forms. The thickness of the inflammatory layer approaches the thickness of the skin removed as if the remaining dermis “knows” how much dermis is gone. In deep wounds this inflammatory layer thickens and this thickness is predictive of the thickness of the ultimate scar. PMID:16905264

  20. Distinct fibroblast lineages determine dermal architecture in skin development and repair

    PubMed Central

    Driskell, Ryan R.; Simons, Ben D.; Charalambous, Marika; Ferron, Sacri R.; Herault, Yann; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Watt, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblasts are the major mesenchymal cell type in connective tissue and deposit the collagen and elastic fibers of the extracellular matrix (ECM)1. Even within a single tissue fibroblasts exhibit remarkable functional diversity, but it is not known whether this reflects the existence of a differentiation hierarchy or is a response to different environmental factors. Here we show, using transplantation assays and lineage tracing, that the fibroblasts of skin connective tissue arise from two distinct lineages. One forms the upper dermis, including the dermal papilla that regulates hair growth and the arrector pili muscle (APM), which controls piloerection. The other forms the lower dermis, including the reticular fibroblasts that synthesise the bulk of the fibrillar ECM, and the pre-adipocytes and adipocytes of the hypodermis. The upper lineage is required for hair follicle formation. In wounded adult skin, the initial wave of dermal repair is mediated by the lower lineage and upper dermal fibroblasts are recruited only during re-epithelialisation. Epidermal beta-catenin activation stimulates expansion of the upper dermal lineage, rendering wounds permissive for hair follicle formation. Our findings explain why wounding is linked to formation of ECM-rich scar tissue that lacks hair follicles2-4. They also form a platform for discovering fibroblast lineages in other tissues and for examining fibroblast changes in ageing and disease. PMID:24336287

  1. Estimating nerve excitation thresholds to cutaneous electrical stimulation by finite element modeling combined with a stochastic branching nerve fiber model.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Hennings, Kristian; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2011-04-01

    Electrical stimulation of cutaneous tissue through surface electrodes is an often used method for evoking experimental pain. However, at painful intensities both non-nociceptive Aβ-fibers and nociceptive Aδ- and C-fibers may be activated by the electrical stimulation. This study proposes a finite element (FE) model of the extracellular potential and stochastic branching fiber model of the afferent fiber excitation thresholds. The FE model described four horizontal layers; stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and hypodermal used to estimate the excitation threshold of Aβ-fibers terminating in dermis and Aδ-fibers terminating in epidermis. The perception thresholds of 11 electrodes with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 20 mm were modeled and assessed on the volar forearm of healthy human volunteers by an adaptive two-alternative forced choice algorithm. The model showed that the magnitude of the current density was highest for smaller electrodes and decreased through the skin. The excitation thresholds of the Aδ-fibers were lower than the excitation thresholds of Aβ-fibers when current was applied through small, but not large electrodes. The experimentally assessed perception threshold followed the lowest excitation threshold of the modeled fibers. The model confirms that preferential excitation of Aδ-fibers may be achieved by small electrode stimulation due to higher current density in the dermoepidermal junction. PMID:21207174

  2. Defects in dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells result in delayed wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyang; Xu, Yingbin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Liang, Guangping; Chen, Lei; Xie, Julin; Tang, Jinming; Zhao, Jingling; Shu, Bin; Qi, Shaohai; Chen, Jian; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun; He, Weifeng; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-01-01

    The skin serves as a physical and chemical barrier to provide an initial line of defense against environmental threats; however, this function is impaired in diabetes. Vγ4 γ δ T cells in the dermis are an important part of the resident cutaneous immunosurveillance program, but these cells have yet to be explored in the context of diabetes. In this study, we observed that the impaired maintenance of dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells is caused by reduced production of IL-7 in the skin of diabetic mice, which was closely associated with weakened activation of the mTOR pathway in the epidermis of diabetic mice. Weakened CCL20/CCR6 chemokine signaling resulted in the impaired recruitment of dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells following wounding in diabetic mice. Meanwhile, reduced levels of IL-23 and IL-1β in the dermis around the wounds of diabetic mice resulted in the impaired production of IL-17 by dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells. Therefore, diminished dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells and impaired IL-17 production by these cells were important factors in the markedly reduced IL-17 levels in the skin around the wounds of diabetic mice. Because reduced IL-17 levels at the wound edge have been closely associated with delayed wound closure in diabetic mice, defects in dermal Vγ4 γ δ T cells may be an important mechanism underlying delayed wound healing in diabetic mice. PMID:27398150

  3. Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2014-01-01

    Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

  4. In vivo histological evaluation of fractional ablative microplasma radio frequency technology using a roller tip: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodan; Fang, Lin; Huang, Luping

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the histological characteristics associated with microplasma radio frequency (MPRF) technology in an animal study using different treatment parameters. Two white piglets, aged 6 months, received MPRF treatment using a roller tip; the treatment site was located on the dorsal skin. Four groups of parameters were adopted regarding the performance of the treatment at four zones on the dorsum. Immediately, at 7 days and at 1, 3, and 6 months posttreatment, we observed the healing process and obtained specimens from each treatment zone. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson stainings of histological sections were performed to assess the degree of tissue injury, the heat effect, the healing process, and neocollagenesis. Heat shock protein (HSP) was also detected using immunohistochemistry. The roller tip generated a fractional treatment, which had a general trend involving an increase in depth and width with increasing pulse energy and decreasing sliding speed. During the wound healing process, dermal neocollagenesis was stimulated, remodeled, and matured gradually. The expression of HSP47 and HPS72 was elevated in the dermis surrounding the microlesions after treatment; it peaked at 1 month posttreatment and became diffuse in the dermis. MPRF is a promising fractional skin resurfacing technique. The roller tip can be used with low risk in the entire treatment zone with rapid healing. An appropriate treatment regimen should be chosen to guarantee therapeutic efficacy and safety. PMID:26396104

  5. In Men at Risk of HIV Infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3 and IgA Reach the Human Foreskin Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Maria P.; Karuna, Shelly T.; Mize, Gregory J.; Fong, Youyi; Montano, Silvia M.; Ganoza, Carmela; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2015-01-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually-acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less IgA and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively in the colon; whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (p<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis. PMID:26509877

  6. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  7. Surfactant-induced chronic pruritus: Role of L-histidine decarboxylase expression and histamine production in epidermis.

    PubMed

    Inami, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Atsushi; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2014-11-01

    Shampoo and cleansers containing anionic surfactants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) often cause pruritus in humans. Daily application of 1-10% SDS for 4 days induced hind-paw scratching (an itch-related behaviour) in a concentration-dependent manner, and 10% SDS also caused dermatitis, skin dryness, barrier disruption, and an increase in skin surface pH in mice. SDS-induced scratching was inhibited by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the H histamine receptor antagonist terfenadine. Mast-cell deficiency did not inhibit SDS-induced scratching, although it almost completely depleted histamine in the dermis. Treatment with SDS increased the histamine content of the epidermis, but not that of the dermis. SDS treatment increased the gene expression and post-translation processing of L-histidine decarboxylase in the epidermis. The present results suggest that repeated application of SDS induces itch through increased production of epidermal histamine, which results from an increase in the gene expression and post-translation processing of L-histidine decarboxylase. PMID:24603881

  8. Clinico-histopathologic and outcome features of cutaneous infundibular keratinizing acanthoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The infundibular keratinizing acanthoma (IKA) is a rare epithelial benign keratin-containing neoplasm of hair follicles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the defining histopathologic architecture of IKA. A typical IKA consisted of a keratin-filled crypt in the dermis and subcutis that opened to the skin surface. Most of this tumor occurred on the back, neck, head, and the shoulders. Microscopically, the dermal nodules were focally contiguous in both the dermis and subcutis. Furthermore, most histological lesions are consistent with a simple or multiloculated cyst filled with keratin and lined by a wall of stratified squamous epithelium; keratin appears as a concentric lamellar mass, with a keratotic pearly aspect. Histological examination of the cutaneous lesions revealed that the growths were comprised of IKA. IKA of man and dog were compared, and it was concluded that although they are similar in many respects, they are not identical entities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of IKAs among the population of owned dogs in Iran. PMID:24890648

  9. Methods to study differences in cell mobility during skin wound healing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Monsuur, Hanneke N; Boink, Mireille A; Weijers, Ester M; Roffel, Sanne; Breetveld, Melanie; Gefen, Amit; van den Broek, Lenie J; Gibbs, Susan

    2016-05-24

    Wound healing events which occur in humans are difficult to study in animals due to differences in skin physiology. Furthermore there are increasing restrictions in Europe for using animals for testing the therapeutic properties of new compounds. Therefore, in line with the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement of test animals), a number of human in vitro models of different levels of complexity have been developed to investigate cell mobility during wound healing. Keratinocyte, melanocyte, fibroblast and endothelial cell mobility are described, since these are the residential cells which are responsible for restoring the main structural features of the skin. A monolayer scratch assay is used to study random fibroblast and endothelial cell migration in response to EGF and bFGF respectively and a chemotactic assay is used to study directional fibroblast migration towards CCL5. In order to study endothelial sprouting in response to bFGF or VEGF, which involves continuous degradation and resynthesis of a 3D matrix, a fibrin gel is used. Human physiologically relevant tissue-engineered skin models are used to investigate expansion of the stratified, differentiated epidermis (keratinocytes and melanocytes) over a fibroblast populated dermis and also to study migration and distribution of fibroblasts into the dermis. Together these skin models provide a platform for testing the mode of action of novel compounds for enhanced and scar free wound healing. PMID:26903411

  10. BMPs mediate lateral inhibition at successive stages in feather tract development.

    PubMed

    Noramly, S; Morgan, B A

    1998-10-01

    The spacing of feather buds in a tract is thought to arise from the interaction between an inducing signal from the dermis and an inhibitory signal generated in the nascent buds. Local BMP-2 expression in the ectoderm precedes the formation of the ectodermal placodes, which are the first morphological sign of bud differentiation. We have altered the activity of BMP-2 or BMP-4 in the ectoderm of the feather field by expressing them or their inhibitor noggin using retroviral vectors. These experiments demonstrate that BMP-2 is necessary and sufficient to mediate the lateral inhibition that positions buds in a tract. After buds are initiated, BMP-2 and BMP-4 continue to inhibit the adoption of bud fates and help to specify the size and shape of the bud. They may do so in part by their regulation of Fgf receptor expression in both the ectoderm and dermis. Additional insights into pattern formation in the feather bud can be inferred from the effects of altered BMP activity on bud morphogenesis. PMID:9729486

  11. Dlx genes integrate positive and negative signals during feather bud development.

    PubMed

    Rouzankina, Iaroslava; Abate-Shen, Cory; Niswander, Lee

    2004-01-01

    In the embryonic chicken skin, feather buds and the intervening interbud tissue form in a reiterated and sequential pattern that is dependent on interactions between the epidermis and dermis. Feather promoting and inhibiting signals such as fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), respectively, direct the formation of this periodic pattern. However, the transcription factors that mediate the response to these signals and transmit this information to downstream effector genes are largely unknown. Here we have explored the DLX transcription factors as candidate transcriptional mediators downstream of the described feather patterning signals. We show that several Dlx members are expressed in the dermis and epidermis of the developing feather buds and their expression is induced in embryonic chick skin by the ectopic activation of BMP and FGF signaling. Misexpression of Dlx in the chick skin leads to both feather loss and feather bud fusions, suggesting that DLX proteins play a negative as well as a positive role in feather development. Moreover, DLX regulates the expression of NCAM and tenascin, molecules that are important for feather bud initiation as well as bud outgrowth and morphogenesis. Our results suggest that DLX transcription factors serve to integrate and transduce feather patterning signals to downstream effector molecules. PMID:14697365

  12. Ventral vs. dorsal chick dermal progenitor specification.

    PubMed

    Fliniaux, Ingrid; Viallet, Jean P; Dhouailly, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The dorsal and the ventral trunk integuments of the chick differ in their dermal cell lineage (originating from the somatic and somatopleural mesoderm respectively) and in the distribution of their feather fields. The dorsal macropattern has a large spinal pteryla surrounded by semi-apteria, whereas the ventral skin has a true medial apterium surrounded by the ventral pterylae. Comparison of the results of heterotopic transplantations of distal somatopleure in place of somatic mesoderm (Mauger 1972) or in place of proximal somatopleure (our data), leads to two conclusions. These are that the fate of the midventral apterium is not committed at day 2 of incubation and that the signals from the environment which specify the ventral and dorsal featherforming dermal progenitors are different. Effectively, Shh, but not Wnt -1 signalling can induce the formation of feather forming dermis from the embryonic somatopleure. Shh is not able, however, to trigger the formation of a feather forming dermis from the extra embryonic somatopleure. This brief report constitutes the first attempt, by comparing old and new preliminary results, to understand whether dermal progenitors at different sites are specified by different signalling pathways. PMID:15272375

  13. BMP-FGF Signaling Axis Mediates Wnt-Induced Epidermal Stratification in Developing Mammalian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification. PMID:25329657

  14. A Comparison Study of Growth Factor Expression following Treatment with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Saline Solution, Povidone-Iodine, and Lavender Oil in Wounds Healing

    PubMed Central

    Koca Kutlu, Adalet; Çeçen, Dilek; Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Sayın, Oya; Çetin, Ferihan

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), saline solution (SS), povidone-iodine (PI), and lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) through expression of growth factors in a rat model of wound healing. Six experimental groups were established, each containing 8 rats: a healthy group with no incision wounds, an incision-control group, an incision and TENS group, an incision and SS group, an incision and PI group, and an incision and lavender oil group. Experiments continued for 5 days, after which the skin in the excision area was removed. Tissue concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-A were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tissue expressions of EGF, PDGF-A, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 were determined using immunohistochemistry. Wound closure progressed more rapidly in the TENS and lavender oil groups than in the control and other study groups. In particular, PDGF-A expressions in the dermis and EGF expression in the epidermis were significantly intense in the TENS group (P < 0.05). In addition, ELISA levels of growth factors such as PDGF-A and EGF were significantly higher in TENS group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). These immunohistochemical and ELISA results suggest that TENS may improve wound healing through increasing growth factors in the dermis and epidermis more than other topical applications. PMID:23861704

  15. Cutaneous and ocular adverse reactions in a dog following meloxicam administration.

    PubMed

    Niza, Maria M R E; Félix, Nuno; Vilela, Cristina L; Peleteiro, Maria C; Ferreira, Antonio J A

    2007-02-01

    The present report addresses the development of cutaneous and ocular reactions possibly related to meloxicam administration in a dog. Based on clinical signs and absence of laboratory data compatible with the other differential diagnoses considered, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) due to meloxicam was considered. Skin biopsy revealed haemorrhage of the superficial and deep dermis, associated with hyperplasia of endothelial cells and epidermal sloughing. Vasculitis in the deep dermis was also noted. Such lesions were considered compatible with an ADR. Although the owner was not aware of any previous allergic reaction to drugs, the animal had a clinical history of atopic dermatitis. Meloxicam is a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the oxicam family, indicated for the control of inflammation and pain in acute and chronic musculoskeletal disorders in dogs. Although meloxicam is usually well tolerated, the present clinical case represents an alert to practitioners about the potential role of NSAIDS in ADRs in dogs with a history of allergic cutaneous diseases. PMID:17222240

  16. Immunohistologic and ultrastructural study of the sclerotic skin in chronic graft-versus-host disease in man.

    PubMed Central

    Janin-Mercier, A.; Devergie, A.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Saurat, J. H.; Bourges, M.; Lapiere, C. M.; Gluckman, E.

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen skin biopsies were performed on 8 patients at different stages of skin sclerosis in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). On the same skin biopsies an immunostaining with antibodies directed against Types I and III procollagen, Types I, III, IV, V collagen, and laminin, and an ultrastructural study were performed. Alterations were observed at the dermal-epidermal junction and in the superficial dermis with a large deposit on Type III procollagen in the incipient scleroses and of Type I procollagen in the oldest ones. In this sclerotic superficial dermis, collagen fibers of irregular diameter were associated with mast cells and active fibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes in close contact. The skin sclerosis in chronic GVHD might be considered a form of cutaneous fibrosis with features of excessive tissue repair related to an immunologic reaction between lymphocytes of the graft and tissue host cells. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 PMID:6372497

  17. Rapid pharmacokinetic evaluation of topical drug formulations.

    PubMed

    Garzouzi, V L

    1999-01-01

    A new in vitro test system was developed to efficiently determine the effect of formulation on topical drug delivery. Sheets of viable, excised pig skin were sandwiched betwween two standard 24-well plates. The lower wells contained receptor fluid and a magnetic stirrer. The upper wells were opened to the atmosphere for formulation application. Using 14C-salicylic acid as a model compound, eight different formulations were evaluated representing hydrophilic and lipophilic solutions, a suspension and o/w and w/o emulsions. Formulations were applied to the skin surface in six different wells on three sets of plates. Twenty-four hours after application, excess drug was wiped from the skin surface and assayed for radiolabel. The stratum corneum was removed by tape stripping. Radiolabel contained in the remaining epidermis, dermis and receptor fluid was also determined. Statistical analysis (ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls multiple-range test, p=0.05) of radiolabel penetrating into the dermis and receptor fluid revealed the following order of formulations: ethanol= aqueous surfactant less than o/w emulsion = w/o emulsion less than lipophilic solution. These results demonstrate the importance of vehicle in directing drug delivery using a test system capable of simultaneously evaluating a large number of formulations. PMID:23985716

  18. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination. PMID:26407180

  19. Effects of systemic indomethacin, meclizine, and BW755C on chronic ultraviolet B-induced effects in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, I E; Moran, M; Lyon, N; Flotte, T; Siebert, E; Gange, R W

    1993-02-01

    Chronic exposure of hairless mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is associated with inflammation as well as an altered macromolecular composition of the dermis. This study was designed to determine whether or not various systemic anti-inflammatory agents inhibit chronic UVB-induced changes in the macromolecular content of the dermis and, if so, whether each agent had the same or different effects. The agents and doses were chosen for their ability to inhibit the changes induced by a single exposure to UVB radiation (increased vasopermeability, neutrophil accumulation, and skin-fold thickness). Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and meclizine, an H1 histamine receptor antagonist, were administered from slow-release pellets. BW755C, a combined cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally 30 min prior to UVB exposure. Animals were exposed to UVB three times per week for 20-26 weeks or were unirradiated. The elastin, glycosaminoglycan and collagen content of the skin were determined by measuring the desmosine, uronic acid, and hydroxyproline levels, respectively. The amount of each macromolecule per area of skin increased after chronic UVB exposure. The increase in desmosine was inhibited by indomethacin; the increase in hydroxyproline was inhibited by meclizine and BW755C. None of the agents inhibited the uronic acid increase. These results suggest that chronic inflammation contributes to the dermal changes seen in chronically UVB-exposed skin and that different inflammatory mediators are involved in the increases observed in elastin, glycosaminoglycans, and collagen. PMID:8429241

  20. [Hypertrophic adipose tissue transplantation secondary to a lipopenisculpture].

    PubMed

    Moullot, P; Nguyen, P-S; Philandrianos, C; Casanova, D

    2014-10-01

    Reconstruction of the penile skin requires a functional and esthetically perfect result, combining a high degree of skin elasticity to allow regular erections and a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. Demand for cosmetic surgery penile augmentation continues to increase for several years. The surgical technique most commonly used is now widening and lengthening lipopenisculpture (LPS), combining an adipocyte graft to a section of the suspensory ligament of the penis. A patient who underwent LPS presented several years after a major hypertrophy of the adipocyte graft, making it impossible to have sexual activities, imposing to perform liposuction. This liposuction was being complicated by necrosis of the penile skin. Reconstruction was required and consisted of an unexpanded thin skin graft associated with artificial dermis. Through technical adaptation of the skin graft on the erect penis, the use of artificial dermis and external stabilization by negative pressure therapy, reconstruction of the penile skin provides excellent aesthetic and functional results. Finally, it is rarely reported in the literature complications of lipofilling like alteration of the aesthetic result after weight gain. PMID:24698337