Sample records for des agents stimulant

  1. Systmes multi-agents et rseaux autonomes Des approches multi-agents pour le contrle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Manuscrit auteur, publié dans "Atelier de travail "Futurama: le Futur des Agents et des Multi-Agents" Plateforme AFIA, 2011, Chambery : France (2011)" #12;Futurama 2011 vise à réduire les coûts de maintenance et

  2. Drug Safety Communication: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Drug Safety and Availability Postmarket Drug ... and Providers Index to Drug-Specific Information FDA Drug Safety Communication: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs): Procrit, Epogen ...

  3. Do ? adrenergic agents directly stimulate gastrin secretion?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kondo; D. F. Magee

    1978-01-01

    Summary Isoproterenol if given during methacholine stimulation in dogs neither depresses gastric secretion nor elevates serum gastrin. Therefore, we conclude that ? adrenergics (isoproterenol) are unlikely to be direct liberators of gastrin, but raise serum gastrin indirectly only if they inhibit gastric secretion.

  4. Cardiotonic agent milrinone stimulates resorption in rodent bone organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N S; Stappenbeck, T S; Stern, P H

    1987-01-01

    The cardiotonic agent amrinone inhibits bone resorption in vitro. Milrinone, an amrinone analog, is a more potent cardiotonic agent with lower toxicity. In contrast to amrinone, milrinone stimulated resorption in cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria and fetal rat limb bones. Threshold doses were 0.1 microM in calvaria and 0.1 mM in limb bones; maximal stimulation occurred in calvaria at 0.1 mM. Maximal responses to milrinone and parathyroid hormone were comparable. Milrinone concentrations below 0.1 mM did not affect calvarial cyclic AMP. 0.5 microM indomethacin inhibited milrinone effects in calvaria but usually not in limb bones. 3 nM calcitonin inhibited milrinone-stimulated resorption and there was no escape from this inhibition. Structural homology between milrinone and thyroxine has been reported. We find similarities between milrinone and thyroxine actions on bone, because prostaglandin production was crucial for the effects of both agents in calvaria but not in limb bones, and neither agent exhibited escape from calcitonin inhibition. PMID:3027124

  5. Une architecture mdiateur pour des agents conversationnels anims

    E-print Network

    Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    1.1. Nouveaux besoins des ACA Aujourd'hui, les Agents Conversationnels Animés (ACA) ont déjà été faut aller plus loin et munir les ACA de deux fonctionnalités supplémentaires qui sont intimement liées : 1. Agent Rationnel : un ACA devrait être capable de raisonnement sur la structure et le

  6. [Factors affecting the response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents].

    PubMed

    Jauréguy, Maïté; Choukroun, Gabriel

    2006-09-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has transformed the management chronic renal failure (CKD) and considerably improved the outcome of patients on regular chronic dialysis. However, a significant number of patients fail to respond to high of Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and several causes of inadequate response to epoetin therapy have been identified. Some factors, such as gender, age, length of time on dialysis, type of dialysis and co-morbidities such as hemoglobinopathy, are not susceptible to clinical intervention. However, many other factors can be adjusted. Iron deficiency, whether functional or absolute, is the most common factor that limits the response to rHuEPO. Monitoring of iron parameters and a large use of iron supplementation result in an efficient epoetin response. Infection and inflammation have been shown to reduce responsiveness to ESAs by disrupting iron metabolism and increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit erythropoiesis. Increase dialysis dose is associated with improvements in anemia correction and reduced requirements for ESAs. Severe hyperparathyroidism and aluminum overload lead to a reduced number of responsive erythroid progenitor cells. Finally, a number of nutritional factors, such as deficiencies of carnitine, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin C, are susceptible to alter erythropoiesis. Optimizing patient response to ESAs therefore requires consideration of many of well-established factors and is important for both patient outcomes and cost of treatment. PMID:17373270

  7. USING ARTIFICIAL AGENTS TO STIMULATE PARTICIPATION IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES

    E-print Network

    Corran, Ruth

    's behavioral profile and known principles of participation derived from social cognition theories, this approach relies on using cognitive agents informed of social cognition theories that are able (1) to infer research directions that consist in the design and the use of artificial cognitive agents, guided by user

  8. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  9. Evaluation and Determinants of Underprescription of Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Pre-Dialysis Patients with Anaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Thilly; Bénédicte Stengel; Stéphanie Boini; Emmanuel Villar; Cécile Couchoud; Luc Frimat

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inadequate anaemia correction (haemoglobin (Hb) <11 g\\/dl without receiving an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) is common in pre-dialysis patients, but little is known about its determinants. We used data from the French end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registry to investigate these determinants and the patients’ anaemia status 1 year after starting dialysis. Methods: Pre-dialysis anaemia care was studied in 6,271 incident

  10. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregoire Leclerc

    1992-01-01

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur

  11. Association of anemia and erythropoiesis stimulating agents with inflammatory biomarkers in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Keithi-Reddy, Sai Ram; Addabbo, Francesco; Patel, Tejas V.; Mittal, Bharati V.; Goligorsky, Michael S.; Singh, Ajay K.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important predictors of cardiovascular mortality especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. Here we explored the relationship of anemia and epoetin treatment to inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with chronic kidney disease. One hundred non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease over 18 years of age were evenly split into anemic and non-anemic cohorts. Of the 50 anemic patients, 23 were receiving erythropoiesis stimulating agents treatments. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were found to be significantly higher and serum albumin was significantly lower with trends towards higher interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in anemic compared to non-anemic patients. Further analysis by multiple logistic regression found that anemic patients treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents had significantly higher odds for the upper two quartiles for IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? compared to non-anemic patients. Our study found that the anemia of chronic kidney disease was associated with up regulation of TNF-?, and possibly IL-6 and IL-8 along with increased levels of these proinflammatory cytokines in patients treated with epoetin. PMID:18547996

  12. Stimulating household flood risk mitigation investments through insurance and subsidies: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    In the period 1998-2009, floods triggered roughly 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard in Europe. Climate change and socio/economic trends are expected to further aggrevate floods losses in many regions. Research shows that flood risk can be significantly reduced if households install protective measures, and that the implementation of such measures can be stimulated through flood insurance schemes and subsidies. However, the effectiveness of such incentives to stimulate implementation of loss-reducing measures greatly depends on the decision process of individuals and is hardly studied. In our study, we developed an Agent-Based Model that integrates flood damage models, insurance mechanisms, subsidies, and household behaviour models to assess the effectiveness of different economic tools on stimulating households to invest in loss-reducing measures. Since the effectiveness depends on the decision making process of individuals, the study compares different household decision models ranging from standard economic models, to economic models for decision making under risk, to more complex decision models integrating economic models and risk perceptions, opinion dynamics, and the influence of flood experience. The results show the effectiveness of incentives to stimulate investment in loss-reducing measures for different household behavior types, while assuming climate change scenarios. It shows how complex decision models can better reproduce observed real-world behaviour compared to traditional economic models. Furthermore, since flood events are included in the simulations, the results provide an analysis of the dynamics in insured and uninsured losses for households, the costs of reducing risk by implementing loss-reducing measures, the capacity of the insurance market, and the cost of government subsidies under different scenarios. The model has been applied to the City of Rotterdam in The Netherlands.

  13. The Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Patients with Therapy-Refractory Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Abdulgabar; Hartnack, Dirk; Lindemann, Hans-Walter; Lange, Hans-Joachim; Rummel, Mathias; Loew, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Many patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) do not respond to standard therapy and/or may develop severe complications which can be of fatal outcome. There is some evidence that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may be helpful in the management of such patients. Methods We describe the effect of ESAs in 12 new patients with therapy-refractory AIHA (7 of warm type and 5 of cold type) and review 5 previously reported cases. Serological testing was performed using standard methods. Results All patients responded well to treatment with ESAs. At least 5 of the 17 patients demonstrated complete recovery, and none of the patients developed significant adverse reactions due to treatment with ESAs. Conclusion The mechanism by which ESAs improves hemolysis in AIHA is not completely clear. In addition to increased production and prolonged RBC survival, it may inhibit eryptosis (programmed cell death). ESAs represent a new option in the treatment of decompensated and/or refractory AIHA of warm and cold type. However, more information is required to assess which patients can be treated with ESAs. PMID:25670934

  14. Stimulation of central A1 adenosine receptors suppresses seizure and neuropathology in a soman nerve agent seizure rat model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thaddeus P; Shih, Tsung-Ming

    2014-09-01

    The current regimen for treating nerve agent poisoning does not sufficiently suppress the excitotoxic activity that causes severe brain damage, especially in cases where treatment is delayed and nerve agent-induced status epilepticus develops. New therapeutic targets are required to improve survivability and minimize neuropathology after irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivation. Earlier studies have shown that systemic delivery of adenosine agonists decreases nerve agent lethality; however, the mechanism of protection remains to be understood. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of central adenosine receptor (AR) stimulation in neuroprotection by directly injecting (6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine agonist specific to the A1 receptor subtype (A1R), into the brain intracerebroventricularly (ICV) in a soman seizure rat model. In addition to general A1R stimulation, we hypothesized that bilateral micro-injection of CPA into the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) could also suppress excitotoxic activity. The results from these studies demonstrated that centrally administered adenosine agonists are anti-seizure and neuroprotective. CPA-delivered ICV prevented seizure and convulsion in 100% of the animals. Moreover, neuropathological evaluation indicated that adenosine treatments reduced brain damage from severe to minimal. Inhibition of the BF via CPA had varied results. Some animals were protected by treatment; however, others displayed similar pathology to the control. Overall, these data suggest that stimulating central ARs could be an effective target for the next generation countermeasures for nerve agent intoxication. PMID:24785252

  15. Rhizoctonia cerealis Van der Hoeven, agent du rhizoc-tone des crales en France. Caractristiques et variabi-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rhizoctonia cerealis Van der Hoeven, agent du rhizoc- tone des céréales en France. Caractéristiques. S'ils appartiennent bien au genre Rhizoctonia, ils se différencient de R. solani par leur vitesse de additionnels : Souches, agressivité, Rhizoctonia solani, blé, orge, variétés. SUMMARY Rhizoctonia cerealis Van

  16. Atorvastatin Increases Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agent Hyporesponsiveness in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Role of Anti-Inflammation Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Kang Chiang; Shao-Yu Yang; Yu-Sen Peng; Shih-Ping Hsu; Mei-Fen Pai; Jen-Wen Huang; Kuan-Yu Hung; Kuan-Dun Wu

    2009-01-01

    Erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness is aggravated by chronic inflammation in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Dyslipidemia is prevalent in MHD patients. Statin therapy has been demonstrated to not only be effective in lowering lipid levels, but also numerous pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and endothelial function improvement. Recently, a retrospective study has shown that statin therapy decreases ESA requirements in MHD

  17. Cardiovascular Risks of Anemia Correction with Erythrocyte Stimulating Agents: Should Blood Viscosity Be Monitored for Risk Assessment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seul-Ki Jeong; Young I. Cho; Marc Duey; Robert S. Rosenson

    2010-01-01

    To date, all major clinical trials for anemia correction using erythrocyte stimulating agents (ESAs) failed to show improved\\u000a outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and vascular thrombosis. Even moderate elevations in hemoglobin (e.g.,\\u000a to 13 g\\/dL) using erythropoietin have been associated with significantly increased risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events\\u000a and heart failure. This review presents a biophysical rationale for increased risk

  18. Cost Should Be the Principal Determinant of Choice of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent in Chronic Haemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aisling E. Courtney; Peter T. McNamee; A. Peter Maxwell

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are effective in the management of the anaemia of chronic kidney disease but add substantially to the treatment costs. We performed a comparison cross-sectional analysis of ESA prescribing in 4 dialysis centres in Northern Ireland. Methods: The ESA prescription and current haemoglobin (Hb) concentration for all patients on haemodialysis (HD) treatment for at least 3 months

  19. Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Policy Decisions on Off-Label Use in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Franklin; Davidoff, Amy J.; Zeidan, Amer M.; Gore, Steven D.; Baer, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anemia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as an off-label indication. In early 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released safety alerts and mandated label changes, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a National Coverage Determination (NCD) in August 2007, dramatically restricting ESA coverage based on specific clinical parameters in non-MDS patients. We sought to determine the effect on ESA use in MDS, examining both treatment initiation and concordance with guidelines designed to target patients most likely to benefit from therapy. Methods We determined receipt of ESA within 6 months of diagnosis. For ESA recipients, we operationalized three National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines: serum erythropoietin determination before ESA initiation, transfusion-independent at ESA initiation, and initial ESA treatment episode of >= 8 weeks. Logistic regression models tested the effect of time (half-year increments pre-post the August ‘07 CMS NCD implementation), controlling for demographics and health status. Results 17,491 (61.1%) of 28,627 beneficiaries with MDS received ESAs. ESA use increased prior to the reference period (Jan.–July 2007), but declined beginning in August 2007, the date of NCD implementation (marginal probability =–0.05, p-value<0.01). Concordance with treatment guidelines changed during the observation period, with increased rates of serum erythropoietin levels, but declined in the other two guidelines. Conclusion These results suggest a mixed pattern of change in the face of the FDA safety warnings and CMS NCD in MDS and highlight the importance of monitoring for unintended consequences of policy changes. PMID:25485173

  20. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and clinical outcomes of invasive breast cancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yinzhi; Palazzo, Juan P; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Hyslop, Terry; Civan, Jesse; Avery, Tiffany; Myers, Ronald E; Li, Bingshan; Ye, Zhong; Xing, Jinliang; Yang, Hushan

    2014-11-01

    The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) to treat anemia in breast cancer patients who are treated with chemotherapy is a matter of ongoing debate. Several recent randomized trials challenged conventional wisdom, which holds that ESAs are contraindicated for breast cancer patients undergoing curative treatment. We aimed to perform the first large national population-based study to analyze the association between ESA use and breast cancer patient outcomes. Cytotoxic chemotherapy-treated invasive breast cancer patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. Non-ESA users were sequentially 1:1 matched to 2,000 randomly sampled ESA users on demographics (age, diagnosis year, race, marital status, and socioeconomic status), tumor presentation (stage, grade, and status of hormone receptors), and treatments (surgery, radiation, and sub-types of chemotherapy) using a minimum distant strategy. Breast cancer-specific survival of ESA and matched non-ESA users was compared using Fine and Gray competing risk model. Compared to ESA users, non-ESA users exhibited dramatically different baseline characteristics such as less advanced tumor, and fewer co-morbidities. Non-ESA users had a significantly more favorable breast cancer-specific survival (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] = 0.75, p < 0.0001). This survival disparity was progressively diminished in the sequential matching of demographics (sHR = 0.74, p = 0.0004), presentation (sHR = 0.86, p = 0.06), and treatment (sHR = 0.89, p = 0.17) variables. Stratified analyses identified subgroups of patients whose breast cancer-specific survival were not different between ESA and non-ESA users. In the SEER-Medicare database, ESA usage does not seem to be associated with unfavorable breast cancer-specific survival in breast cancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. The ESA-breast cancer prognosis association is complex and requires more intensive investigations. PMID:25261294

  1. An evaluation of pretreatment agents for the stimulation of secondary biogenic coalbed natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zaixing

    Coalbed methane is considered to be an underexploited source of clean energy and, with the realization of its biogenic nature, it has attracted increasing interest in recent decades. Most of the published studies on biogenic coal bed natural gas (CBNG) have focused either on biostimulation (the addition of nutrients to stimulate the native microbial populations) or bioaugmentation (the addition of both nutrients and non-native microbial consortia of microorganisms). Although these approaches have shown promise, they are predicated on the assumption that the coal seam is nutrient-limited or that the existing microbial communities are not optimized to convert coal to natural gas. The premise of this research is that the organic matter present within the coal matrix is, for the most part, environmentally inert and not readily available to the microorganisms living within the coal seam. The goal of this research has been to focus on treatments that will increase the solubility, and hence the bioavailability, of coal to the indigenous microbial community. Initially, treatment agents representing acids, bases and oxidants were selected to evaluate the potential for the in situ solubilization and depolymerization of subbituminous coal. The bioavailability of the coal-derived constituents was then evaluated aerobically using biometer assays and anaerobic bioassays. The experiments have shown that the acid (nitric acid) and base (sodium hydroxide) treatments are more efficient than the oxidants (potassium permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) with respect to total organic carbon (TOC). The carbon contained in the solubilized/depolymerized product of nitric acid treatments accounted for approximately 14% of the carbon from the Powder River Basin (PRB) coal evaluated in the study; however, the biometer assays revealed that the bioavailability of the solubilized/depolymerized products was not directly correlated to the amount of dissolved organic carbon (TOC). The permanganate treated samples, which had a much lower TOC (5%), were more promising in terms of biological conversion potential. The biometer assay data indicated that up to 1.1% of the coal carbon was mineralized to carbon dioxide (CO2) within a period of two weeks. On this basis, permanganate treated samples were utilized in subsequent experiments to evaluate potential biogenic methane generation. For the permanganate treated samples, 5.4% of the coal carbon was solubilized/depolymerized, and 3.2% of the soluble carbon was converted to methane (CH4). The methane was rapidly generated and peaked at 40-days with a cumulative amount of 93.4 mumol/g coal (73.9 standard cubic feet (Scf)/ton coal equivalent using linear extrapolation). This compares very favorably to the 22-74 Scf/ton said to exist within the PBR coalbeds prior to resource exploitation. Our data also showed that a small fraction, 143 mumol/g coal, of the soluble carbon which was designated as the volatile fraction (i.e., the purgeable fraction removable by sparging with N2 gas) is essential to the generation of biogenic methane from coal derived constituents. Subsequent studies evaluating the influence of the chemical pretreatment agents (HNO3, NaOH, catalyzed H 2O2, KMnO4) on the subsequent enzymatic conversion of subbituminous coal using a fungal manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by the agaric white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta have shown that chemical pretreatments can also enhance the coal solubilization performance of MnP.

  2. Numerical simulation to study the feasibility of using CO2 as a stimulation agent for enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Zhang, W.; Pruess, K.

    2009-11-15

    A major concern in the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is achieving and maintaining adequate injectivity, while avoiding the development of preferential short-circuiting flow paths such as those caused by thermally-induced stress cracking. Past researches have tended to focus primarily on thermal and hydraulic stimulation. Recent studies suggest that chemical stimulation may improve the performance of EGS reservoirs. Geothermal injection wells are often drilled into formations containing reactive minerals such as calcite. Injecting aqueous chemical agents such as mineral acids, could be effective for mineral dissolution and porosity enhancement at distances of several meters around a well. An alternative to treatment with strong acids is the use of supercritical (SC) CO{sub 2} as stimulation agent for an aqueous-based EGS. Reactive transport modeling is used to investigate the effectiveness of this method. We used the thermal condition and mineralogical composition from a well of Desert Peak EGS site, to examine ways in which mixtures of water and CO{sub 2} can be injected to enhance porosity.

  3. L'valuation des consquences de dcisions stratgiques en levage extensif en Uruguay. Une approche par les systmes multi-agents.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L'évaluation des conséquences de décisions stratégiques en élevage extensif en Uruguay. Une extensif en Uruguay Une approche par les systèmes multi-agents. Doctorat d'Ingénieur soutenu le 12 octobre-6Jul2011 #12;L'évaluation des conséquences de décisions stratégiques en élevage extensif en Uruguay

  4. Patterns of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use among Medicare beneficiaries with myelodysplastic syndromes and consistency with clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, Amy J.; Weiss, Sheila R.; Baer, Maria R.; Ke, Xuehua; Hendrick, Franklin; Zeidan, Amer; Gore, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are used commonly to reduce symptomatic anemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).We assessed population-based patterns of ESA use relative to treatment guidelines using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries, with linked Medicare claims providing detailed treatment data from 2001 through 2005. The study found widespread use (62%) of ESA in Medicare beneficiaries with MDS. Similar ESA use rates regardless of risk status, low frequency (45%) of serum erythropoietin determination prior to ESA initiation, and high prevalence (60.4%) of short-duration ESA episodes suggest clinically important discrepancies between actual practice and guideline-recommended therapy. PMID:23523473

  5. The use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents versus supportive care in newborns with hereditary spherocytosis: a single centre's experience.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jacqueline F; Neufeld, Ellis J; Grace, Rachael F

    2014-08-01

    Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) is a common haemolytic anaemia in which 75% of cases are autosomal dominant. As most newborns with HS have a family history of disease, haematologists often see these infants before their physiologic haemoglobin nadir, which is exaggerated in comparison with healthy infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of implementation and cost of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (EPO) versus transfusion in infants with HS at a single paediatric programme. In the last decade, only 15% of infants with HS at our centre have been treated with EPO, which costs twice that of a single transfusion and EPO treated infants did not always avoid transfusion. Infrequent prescription of EPO therapy to infants with HS at our centre may be related to the incomplete data supporting its use. PMID:24660843

  6. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

    1999-06-14

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas [2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study [3] has been expanded with additional bacteria and fungi. These spectra were acquired on a Finnigan Magnum ion trap using helium buffer gas. A new database of Cl spectra of microorganisms is planned using the CBMS Block II instrument and air as the buffer gas. Using the current database, the fatty acid composition of the organisms was compared using the percentage of the ion current attributable to fatty acids. The data presented suggest promising rules for discrimination of these organisms. Strain, growth media and vegetative state do contribute to some of the distributions observed in the data. However, the data distributions observed in the current study only reflect our experience to date and do not fully represent the variability that might be expected in practice: Acquisition of MS/ MS spectra has begun (using He and air buffer gas) of the protonated molecular ion of a variety of fatty acids and for a number of ions nominally assigned as fatty acids from microorganisms. These spectra will be used to help verify fatty acid .

  7. On modeling of chemical stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system using a high pH solution with chelating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Rose, P.; Fayer, S.; Pruess, K.

    2009-05-01

    Dissolution of silica and calcite in the presence of a chelating agent (NTA) at a high pH was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments using a high-temperature flow reactor. (Note that the term 'silica' used here includes amorphous silica, quartz, and silicate glass bead). The mineral dissolution and associated porosity enhancement in the experiments were reproduced by reactive transport modeling using TOUGHREACT. The chemical stimulation method was applied by numerical modeling to a field geothermal injection well system to investigate its effectiveness. Parameters applicable to the quartz monzodiorite unit at the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) site at Desert Peak (Nevada) were used. Results indicate that the injection of a high pH chelating solution results in dissolution of both calcite and plagioclase, while avoiding precipitation of calcite at high temperature conditions. Consequently reservoir porosity and permeability can be enhanced especially near the injection well. Injection at a lower temperature of 120 C (over 160 C in the base-case) results in a porosity increase that is smaller close to the injection point, but extends to a larger radial distance. A slower kinetic rate results in less aggressive mineral dissolution close to the injection point and larger extent along the flow path, which is favorable for chemical stimulation.

  8. Persistent action of thin-film spreading agents used in cyclic steam stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, C.M.; Scribner, R.E.; Stout, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    The production histories of eight of 15 wells that received injections of a special class of interfacially active chemicals during an earlier field study have been followed during a subsequent cycle in which no chemical was used. When compared to production in the original steam-only cycle, the results show that the positive effect of the original chemical application persists into the next cycle. However, two wells, in which interfacially active agent was injected during the next cycle, gave even greater oil production.

  9. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.

    PubMed

    Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

    2012-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed. PMID:23212430

  10. Agent-Organized Networks for Dynamic Team Formation Matthew E. Gaston Marie desJardins

    E-print Network

    Gaston, Matthew E.

    corre- lated with organizational performance. As multi-agent systems are typically embedded in dynamic for agent- organized networks (AONs) and evaluate their effectiveness for in- creasing organizational performance. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.11 [Distributed Artificial Intelligence]: Multi

  11. Combination treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and intravenous iron alleviates anaemia in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Honar

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) suffer from recurrent epistaxis and bleeding from gastrointestinal telangiectasias that occur despite otherwise normal haemostasis and result in iron deficiency anaemia with increasing severity. In advanced disease, anaemia may be severe, be irresponsive to iron supplementation, and may lead to red blood cell transfusion dependency. Methods We conducted a retrospective study at our Centre for Osler’s Disease to evaluate the effectiveness of adding an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) to intravenous iron supplementation in the management of anaemic HHT patients. Blood values and treatment parameters were collected for nine months before combination therapy (iron supplementation only) and 12 months during combination therapy (iron supplementation plus ESA). Results Four patients received intravenous iron and an ESA with mean weekly doses of 126 mg and 17,300 units (U), respectively. Mean haemoglobin improved significantly during combination therapy, from 106 g/L to 119 g/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Conclusion. Anaemia can be alleviated in patients with HHT who are irresponsive to intravenous iron supplementation, by addition of an ESA. The proposed mechanism behind the iron irresponsiveness is that the anaemia is caused by a combination of recurrent haemorrhage and anaemia of chronic disease. PMID:25188751

  12. tude d'un corpus de requtes en langue naturelle pour des agents assistants

    E-print Network

    Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    (ACA), spécialement dédiés à la fonction d'assistance, pour des pe- tits composants logiciels sujets humains. Par exemple, dans le cadre du site du GT ACA (http://www.limsi.fr/aca/) nous avons section 2.1. 1.2. Contribution de l'étude aux ACA Se pose alors la question de la contribution de telles

  13. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the erythropoiesis stimulating agent sparing potential of a vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialysis membrane

    PubMed Central

    Lines, Simon W.; Carter, Angela M.; Dunn, Emma J.; Lindley, Elizabeth J.; Tattersall, James E.; Wright, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin E (VE) bonded polysulfone dialysis membranes have putative erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA)-sparing and anti-inflammatory properties based on data from a small number of studies. We sought to investigate this in a large, prospective 12-month randomized controlled trial. Methods Two-hundred and sixty prevalent haemodialysis (HD) patients were randomized to dialysis with VE-bonded polysulfone membranes or non-VE-bonded equivalents. All ESA-dosing was performed by means of a computer-based anaemia management decision support system. Monthly data were used to calculate the ESA resistance index (ERI) and blood tests were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months for measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results Of the 260 patients, 123 were randomized to dialysis with the VE-membrane and 12-month data was available for 220 patients. At the study population level, no beneficial effect of the VE membranes on the ERI or CRP levels was observed. Post hoc analyses indicated that there was a significant fall in ERI for patients with the highest baseline ESA resistance dialysed with the VE (9.28 [7.70–12.5] versus 7.70 [5.34–12.7] IU/week/kg/g/dL Hb, P = 0.01) but not the control membranes (9.45 [7.62–12.3] versus 8.14 [4.44–15.6] IU/week/kg/g/dL Hb, P = 0.41); this was not attributable to changes in CRP levels. Conclusions Wholesale switching of all chronic HD patients to dialysis with VE-bonded polysulfone membranes appears not to be associated with improvements in ESA-responsiveness or CRP. These membranes may have utility in patients with heightened ESA resistance. PMID:24293660

  14. Development of an erythropoietin prescription simulator to improve abilities for the prescription of erythropoietin stimulating agents: Is it feasible?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of erythropoietins with long half-lives and the tendency to lengthen the administration interval to monthly injections call for raising awareness on the pharmacokinetics and risks of new erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA). Their pharmacodynamic complexity and individual variability limit the possibility of attaining comprehensive clinical experience. In order to help physicians acquiring prescription abilities, we have built a prescription computer model to be used both as a simulator and education tool. Methods The pharmacokinetic computer model was developed using Visual Basic on Excel and tested with 3 different ESA half-lives (24, 48 and 138 hours) and 2 administration intervals (weekly vs. monthly). Two groups of 25 nephrologists were exposed to the six randomised combinations of half-life and administration interval. They were asked to achieve and maintain, as precisely as possible, the haemoglobin target of 11-12 g/dL in a simulated naïve patient. Each simulation was repeated twice, with or without randomly generated bleeding episodes. Results The simulation using an ESA with a half-life of 138 hours, administered monthly, compared to the other combinations of half-lives and administration intervals, showed an overshooting tendency (percentages of Hb values > 13 g/dL 15.8 ± 18.3 vs. 6.9 ± 12.2; P < 0.01), which was quickly corrected with experience. The prescription ability appeared to be optimal with a 24 hour half-life and weekly administration (ability score indexing values in the target 1.52 ± 0.70 vs. 1.24 ± 0.37; P < 0.05). The monthly prescription interval, as suggested in the literature, was accompanied by less therapeutic adjustments (4.9 ± 2.2 vs. 8.2 ± 4.9; P < 0.001); a direct correlation between haemoglobin variability and number of therapy modifications was found (P < 0.01). Conclusions Computer-based simulations can be a useful tool for improving ESA prescription abilities among nephrologists by raising awareness about the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the various ESAs and recognizing the factors that influence haemoglobin variability. PMID:21332992

  15. Intelligence artificielle Agents intelligents

    E-print Network

    Bonzon, Elise

    Intelligence artificielle Agents intelligents Elise Bonzon http://web.mi.parisdescartes.fr/ bonzon´e Paris Descartes 1 / 21 Intelligence artificielle #12;Agents intelligents Agents intelligents Agents et environnement Rationalit´e PEAS Types d'environnement Structure des agents Conclusion 2 / 21 Intelligence

  16. New advances in the treatment of adult chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: role of thrombopoietin receptor-stimulating agents

    PubMed Central

    Metjian, Ara; Abrams, Charles S

    2009-01-01

    Decades of basic science and clinical research have led to an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), the processes underlying thrombopoiesis, and the treatment of chronic ITP. Now, new agents are available to treat ITP in a nonimmunosuppressive fashion. Lessons learned from the clinical trials of recombinant human thrombopoietin (TPO) have led to the development of a novel class of compounds: nonimmunogenic agonists of the thrombopoietin receptor. Representing the first nonimmunosuppressive agents to treat chronic refractory ITP in decades, medications such as romiplostim and eltrombopag were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. These new agents offer physicians a new tool for treating difficult cases of ITP in their medical armamentarium. Additional TPO mimetics are also being developed that show promise in vitro, and await future development. PMID:20054440

  17. Combined treatment with sustained-release theophylline and beta2-adrenoceptor-stimulating agents in chronic childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Lönnerholm, G; Foucard, T; Lindström, B

    1981-01-01

    The effect of adding theophylline to treatment with a beta2-adrenoceptor stimulant was studied in 18 asthmatic children in a double-blind cross-over trial. Most patients were taking cromolyn sodium (cromoglycic acid) or beclomethasone aerosol, or both. A sustained-release preparation of theophylline was administered in individually titrated doses, producing a mean plasma theophylline concentration of about 8 micrograms/ml. Statistically significant improvements were found during the theophylline treatment in symptom score, consumption of beta2 stimulants in aerosol form, and morning peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume in one second. There was also a reduced need for emergency-room treatment during the theophylline period. Reported side effects were few and mild and were similar during the theophylline and placebo periods. Of the 17 patients who completed the trial, 14 preferred theophylline and three expressed no preference between theophylline and placebo. Adding submaximal doses of sustained-release theophylline to treatment with a beta2 stimulant gave further relief of asthmatic symptoms without appreciable side effects, suggesting that the drug combination has a favourable therapeutic index. PMID:6783231

  18. Etude des modes de survie de l'agent causal de la bactriose vasculaire du manioc, Xanthomo-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis, the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight. Analysis of the mechanisms ensuring persistence of the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight explains the fact

  19. Polymersomes conjugated with des-octanoyl ghrelin for the delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents into brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chu; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Chen, Li-Fang; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Win-Li

    2014-02-01

    The effective protection of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from tight junctions and efflux transport systems ultimately results in the limited entry of 95% of drug/gene candidates, which are potentially beneficial for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In order to enhance the brain-specific delivery, in this study we developed a targeting carrier system, which consists of poly(carboxyl ethylene glycol-g-glutamate)-co-poly(distearin-g-glutamate) (CPEGGM-PDSGM) polymersomes with the conjugation of des-octanoyl ghrelin. Des-octanoyl ghrelin across the BBB was reported to be unidirectional (blood-to-brain direction). However, there is no report about the conjugation of des-octanoyl ghrelin to a drug carrier system to confer the BBB targeting property through des-octanoyl ghrelin binding sites mediated endocytosis. To qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this carrier's properties, coumarin 6, Cy5.5 and met-enkephalin were individually encapsulated in these polymersomes. The experimental results showed that the cellular uptake was significantly higher for des-octanoyl ghrelin-conjugated polymersomes (GPs) than unconjugated polymersomes when co-incubated with the BBB cells. In addition, an enhanced accumulation in brain together with a reduced accumulation in liver and spleen was observed in animal study, indicating better brain selectivity for the GPs. In a hot-plate test, a significant inhibition of nociceptive response could be achieved for an intravenous injection of GPs encapsulated with met-enkephalin. The overall results demonstrated that GPs own a great potential for targeting delivery of drug across the BBB to treat CNS diseases. PMID:24315575

  20. Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agents and Survival in End-Stage Renal Disease: Comparison of Payment Policy Analysis, Instrumental Variables, and Multiple Imputation of Potential Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dore, David D.; Swaminathan, Shailender; Gutman, Roee; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the assumptions and estimands across three approaches to estimating the effect of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) on mortality. Study Design and Setting Using data from the Renal Management Information System, we conducted two analyses utilizing a change to bundled payment that we hypothesized mimicked random assignment to ESA (pre-post, difference-in-difference, and instrumental variable analyses). A third analysis was based on multiply imputing potential outcomes using propensity scores. Results There were 311,087 recipients of ESAs and 13,095 non-recipients. In the pre-post comparison, we identified no clear relationship between bundled payment (measured by calendar time) and the incidence of death within six months (risk difference -1.5%; 95% CI - 7.0% to 4.0%). In the instrumental variable analysis, the risk of mortality was similar among ESA recipients (risk difference -0.9%; 95% CI -2.1 to 0.3). In the multiple imputation analysis, we observed a 4.2% (95% CI 3.4% to 4.9%) absolute reduction in mortality risk with use of ESAs, but closer to the null for patients with baseline hematocrit >36%. Conclusion Methods emanating from different disciplines often rely on different assumptions, but can be informative about a similar causal contrast. The implications of these distinct approaches are discussed. PMID:23849152

  1. Transferrin-polycation-mediated introduction of DNA into human leukemic cells: stimulation by agents that affect the survival of transfected DNA or modulate transferrin receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Cotten, M; Längle-Rouault, F; Kirlappos, H; Wagner, E; Mechtler, K; Zenke, M; Beug, H; Birnstiel, M L

    1990-06-01

    We have subverted a receptor-mediated endocytosis event to transport genes into human leukemic cells. By coupling the natural iron-delivery protein transferrin to the DNA-binding polycations polylysine or protamine, we have created protein conjugates that bind nucleic acids and carry them into the cell during the normal transferrin cycle [Wagner, E., Zenke, M., Cotten, M., Beug, H. & Birnstiel, M. L. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 3410-3414]. We demonstrate here that this procedure is useful for a human leukemic cell line. We enhanced the rate of gene delivery by (i) increasing the transferrin receptor density through treatment of the cells with the cell-permeable iron chelator desferrioxamine, (ii) interfering with the synthesis of heme with succinyl acetone treatment, or (iii) stimulating the degradation of heme with cobalt chloride treatment. Consistent with gene delivery as an endocytosis event, we show that the subsequent expression in K-562 cells of a gene included in the transported DNA depends upon the cellular presence of the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. By contrast, monensin blocks "transferrinfection," as does incubation of the cells at 18 degrees C. PMID:2349215

  2. Low-Dose Treatment with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and Cardiovascular Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Darbepoetin-? More Effective than Expected?

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio; Malaguti, Moreno

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread invalidating condition, leading to erythropoietin deficiency and decreased cardiovascular performance. Darbepoetin-? and epoetin-? are extensively used to correct renal anemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiological outcomes in two groups of CKD patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA: 20 ?g darbepoetin-? weekly vs. 2,000 IU epoetin-? thrice weekly) with an unconventional 1:300 conversion ratio. METHODS: The study was designed as a single center, retrospective, observational study. One hundred stage IV CKD patients were selected. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, C-reactive protein, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and basal echocardiograms were monitored every 3 months. RESULTS: Darbepoetin-? was significantly more effective in increasing Hb levels after 3 (p < 0.0001), 6 (p < 0.0001), 9 (p < 0.01) and 12 months (p < 0.01) compared to epoetin-?. The optimal Hb target level (11 g/dl < Hb < 12 g/dl) was completely reached after 1 year of treatment with darbepoetin-? and in 70% of the patients treated with epoetin-? (p < 0.01). Cardiovascular performance (left ventricular end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction and pro-BNP) was significantly improved after darbepoetin-? treatment at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups compared to epoetin-?. Discussion: Despite the limitations of a retrospective observational study, these results encourage nephrologists to test the 1:300 darbepoetin/epoetin conversion ratio in 'easy' patients, and aggressive protocols for the treatment of anemia in CKD patients are avoided. Darbepoetin-? appeared effective in anemia correction, improving cardiovascular performance in a significantly higher proportion than epoetin. At low doses, on the other hand, it has to be borne in mind that a treatment regimen with only one submaximal administration per week may increase patient compliance and adherence to therapy, explaining in part the observed results. PMID:22493599

  3. Comparative cost efficiency across the European G5 countries of originators and a biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to manage chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aapro, Matti; Cornes, Paul; Sun, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the comparative cost efficiency across the European Union G5 countries of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) epoetin ? (originator [Eprex®] and biosimilar [Binocrit®]; once weekly), epoetin ? (NeoRecormon®; once weekly), and darbepoetin ? (Aranesp®; once weekly or once every 3 weeks) under different scenarios of fixed and weight-based dosing in the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia. Methods: Direct costs of ESA treatment were calculated for one patient with cancer undergoing chemotherapy (six cycles at 3-week intervals) with ESA initiated at week 4 and continued for 15 weeks. Five scenarios were developed under fixed and weight-based dosing: continuous standard dose for 15 weeks; sustained dose escalation to 1.5× or double the standard dose at week 7, continued for 12 weeks; and discontinued dose escalation to 1.5× or double the standard dose at week 7 for a 3-week period, then 9 weeks of standard dose. Results: Under fixed dosing, the average cost of biosimilar epoetin ? treatment across scenarios was €4643 (30,000 IU) or €6178 (40,000 IU). Corresponding estimates were €7168 for originator epoetin ?, €7389 for epoetin ?, €8299 for darbepoetin ? once weekly, and €9221 for darbepoetin ? once every 3 weeks. Under weight-based dosing, the average cost of biosimilar epoetin ? treatment across scenarios was €4726. Corresponding estimates were €5484 for originator epoetin ?, €5652 for epoetin ?, and €8465 for both darbepoetin ? once weekly and once every three weeks. Conclusion: Managing chemotherapy-induced anemia with biosimilar epoetin ? is consistently cost efficient over treatment with originator epoetin ?, epoetin ?, and darbepoetin ? under both fixed and weight-based dosing scenarios. PMID:22590483

  4. Anemia and iron deficiency in COPD patients: prevalence and the effects of correction of the anemia with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous iron

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The purposes of this study were: (i) To study the prevalence and treatment of anemia and ID in patients hospitalized with an exacerbation of COPD. (ii) to study the hematological responses and degree of dyspnea before and after correction of anemia with subcutaneous Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron therapy, in ambulatory anemic patients with both COPD and chronic kidney disease. Methods (i) We examined the hospital records of all patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) to assess the investigation, prevalence, and treatment of anemia and ID. (ii) We treated 12 anemic COPD outpatients with the combination of ESAs and IV-iron, given once weekly for 5 weeks. One week later we measured the hematological response and the severity of dyspnea by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results (i) Anemia and iron deficiency in hospitalized COPD patients: Of 107 consecutive patients hospitalized with an AECOPD, 47 (43.9%) were found to be anemic on admission. Two (3.3%) of the 60 non-anemic patients and 18 (38.3%) of the 47 anemic patients had serum iron, percent transferrin saturation (%Tsat) and serum ferritin measured. All 18 (100%) anemic patients had ID, yet none had oral or IV iron subscribed before or during hospitalization, or at discharge. (ii) Intervention outpatient study: ID was found in 11 (91.7%) of the 12 anemic ambulatory patients. Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct) and the VAS scale scores increased significantly with the ESAs and IV-iron treatment. There was a highly significant correlation between the ?Hb and ?VAS; rs?=?0.71 p?=?0.009 and between the ?Hct and ?VAS; rs?=?0.8 p?=?0.0014. Conclusions ID is common in COPD patients but is rarely looked for or treated. Yet correction of the ID in COPD patients with ESAs and IV iron can improve the anemia, the ID, and may improve the dyspnea. PMID:24564844

  5. Switching Patients with Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease from Oral Iron to Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose: Effects on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Requirements, Costs, Hemoglobin and Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Di Gennaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) often receive an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and oral iron treatment. This study evaluated whether a switch from oral iron to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose can reduce ESA requirements and improve iron status and hemoglobin in patients with ND-CKD. Methods This prospective, single arm and single-center study included adult patients with ND-CKD (creatinine clearance ?40 mL/min), hemoglobin 11–12 g/dL and iron deficiency (ferritin <100 ?g/L or transferrin saturation <20%), who were regularly treated with oral iron and ESA during 6 months prior to inclusion. Study patients received an intravenous ferric carboxymaltose dose of 1,000 mg iron, followed by a 6-months ESA/ ferric carboxymaltose maintenance regimen (target: hemoglobin 12 g/dL, transferrin saturation >20%). Outcome measures were ESA dose requirements during the observation period after initial ferric carboxymaltose treatment (primary endpoint); number of hospitalizations and transfusions, renal function before and after ferric carboxymaltose administration, number of adverse reactions (secondary endpoints). Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin and transferrin saturation were measured monthly from baseline until end of study. Creatinine clearance, proteinuria, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase bimonthly from baseline until end of study. Results Thirty patients were enrolled (age 70.1±11.4 years; mean±SD). Mean ESA consumption was significantly reduced by 83.2±10.9% (from 41,839±3,668 IU/patient to 6,879±4,271 IU/patient; p<0.01). Hemoglobin increased by 0.7±0.3 g/dL, ferritin by 196.0±38.7 ?g/L and transferrin saturation by 5.3±2.9% (month 6 vs. baseline; all p<0.01). No ferric carboxymaltose-related adverse events were reported and no patient withdrew or required transfusions during the study. Conclusion Among patients with ND-CKD and stable normal or borderline hemoglobin, switching from oral iron to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose was associated with significant improvements in hematological and iron parameters and a significant reduction in ESA dose requirements in this single-center pilot study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02232906 PMID:25928811

  6. Effect of iodide on glucose oxidation and /sup 32/P incorporation into phospholipids stimulated by different agents in dog thyroid slices

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, F.Y.; Rani, C.S.; Field, J.B.

    1989-03-01

    Since iodide (I-) inhibits TSH stimulation of cAMP formation, which mediates most of the effects of the hormone, it has been assumed that this accounts for the inhibitory action of iodide on the thyroid. However, TSH stimulation of 32P incorporation into phospholipids and stimulation of thyroid metabolism by other agonists, such as carbachol, phorbol esters, and ionophore A23187, is not cAMP mediated. The present studies examined the effect of iodide on stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by TSH and other agonists to determine if the inhibition of cAMP formation was responsible for the action of iodide. Preincubation of dog thyroid slices for 1 h with iodide (10(-4) M) inhibited TSH-, (Bu)2cAMP-, carbachol-, methylene blue-, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-, ionophore A23187-, prostaglandin E1-, and cholera toxin-stimulated glucose oxidation. I- also inhibited the stimulation by TSH, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, carbachol, and ionophore A23187 of 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The inhibition was similar whether iodide was added 2 h before or simultaneously with the agonist. I- itself sometimes stimulated basal glucose oxidation, but had no effect on basal 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The effects of iodide on basal and agonist-stimulated thyroid metabolism were blocked by methimazole (10(-3) M). When dog thyroid slices were preloaded with 32PO4 or (1-14C)glucose, the iodide inhibition of agonist stimulation disappeared, suggesting that the effect of iodide involves the transport process. In conclusion, I- inhibited stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by all agonists, indicating that the effect is independent of the cAMP system and that iodide autoregulation does not only involve this system. Oxidation and organification of iodide are necessary for the inhibition.

  7. Bacillus cereus brain abscesses occurring in a severely neutropenic patient: successful treatment with antimicrobial agents, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and surgical drainage.

    PubMed

    Sakai, C; Iuchi, T; Ishii, A; Kumagai, K; Takagi, T

    2001-07-01

    Multiple brain and liver abscesses developed immediately after Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. After even 8 weeks of antimicrobial chemotherapy together with administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, every infectious process disappeared but the patient's headache has still persisted. Because the wall of one brain abscess became thin and was in danger of rupturing into the ventricle, surgical drainage was performed, resulting in disappearance of headache and resolution of brain abscess. The present case indicates that a combined medical and surgical approach is mandatory to treat patients with brain abscesses. PMID:11506311

  8. Thrombopoietic agents.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Roberto; Bosworth, Jenny; Rhodes, Elizabeth; Shannon, Muriel S; Willis, Fenella; Gordon-Smith, Edward C

    2010-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the key cytokine involved in thrombopoiesis, and is the endogenous ligand for the thrombopoietin receptor that is expressed on the surface of platelets, megakaryocytes, and megakaryocytic precursors. First-generation thrombopoietic agents were recombinant forms of human TPO, and their development was discontinued after prolonged thrombocytopenia due to neutralizing auto-antibodies cross-reacting with endogenous TPO was observed. Second-generation thrombopoiesis-stimulating molecules are now available, which have unique pharmacological properties and no sequence homology to endogenous TPO. Two of these new agents, romiplostim and eltrombopag, have already completed phase III trials in primary immune thrombocytopenia and have been granted marketing authorization for use in this disease. Phase II and III trials with these novel drugs are ongoing in other conditions characterized by thrombocytopenia, such as chemotherapy, chronic liver disease, and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Most of the other second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors are in early phase clinical development. PMID:20493600

  9. Identification of Des(Gly-Ile)-Endozepine as an Effector of Corticotropin-Dependent Adrenal Steroidogenesis: Stimulation of Cholesterol Delivery is Mediated by the Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. Besman; Kazutoshi Yanagibashi; Terry D. Lee; Masahiro Kawamura; Peter F. Hall; John E. Shively

    1989-01-01

    Delivery of cholesterol to inner mitochondrial membranes is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in the zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex. A protein that stimulates this process was isolated to homogeneity from bovine adrenal tissue. This protein's primary structure has been determined in its entirety by a combination of automated Edman microsequencing, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The sequence was identical to that

  10. Paradoxical stimulation and inhibition by protein kinase C modulating agents of lipopolysaccharide evoked production of tumour necrosis factor in human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, R G; Weakland, L L; Alberts, V A

    1992-01-01

    Human blood monocytes were activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for cytotoxicity of WEHI-164 mouse fibrosarcoma cells, determined by release of 51Cr from WEHI-164 tumour cells incubated with monocyte supernatants. The chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) augmented LPS-induced cytotoxicity but had no effect alone. FMLP but not LPS stimulated phospholipase C (PLC), determined by the release of [3H]inositol phosphates. Addition of tumour promoter and protein kinase C stimulant, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) at concentrations of 3 x 10(-10) M to 3 x 10(-9) M, resulted in an augmentation of 30-200% in LPS-evoked cytotoxicity. The effects of FMLP and PMA, like the effect of LPS alone, were completely blocked by antibody to recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), indicating that cytotoxicity induced by LPS, FMLP, and PMA were due solely to TNF release. Concentrations of PMA greater than 3 x 10(-9) M caused inhibition of TNF release. Okadaic acid (20 ng/ml), an inhibitor of phosphatases I and IIa, augmented the effects of LPS and the stimulatory effects of low levels of PMA, suggesting that phosphorylation was important in the actions of both LPS and PMA. The effects of LPS and of low levels of PMA were augmented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors H-7 (10-30 microM), staurosporine (2-10 nM) and calphostin C (0.1 microM). Higher concentrations of the inhibitors prevented LPS-evoked TNF release and its augmentation by low levels of PMA. However, they did not prevent the inhibition by high levels of PMA. One possible explanation for the results is that different isozymes of PKC may mediate the stimulatory as compared to the inhibitory effects of PKC on TNF production. PMID:1628900

  11. Paradoxical stimulation and inhibition by protein kinase C modulating agents of lipopolysaccharide evoked production of tumour necrosis factor in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Coffey, R G; Weakland, L L; Alberts, V A

    1992-05-01

    Human blood monocytes were activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for cytotoxicity of WEHI-164 mouse fibrosarcoma cells, determined by release of 51Cr from WEHI-164 tumour cells incubated with monocyte supernatants. The chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) augmented LPS-induced cytotoxicity but had no effect alone. FMLP but not LPS stimulated phospholipase C (PLC), determined by the release of [3H]inositol phosphates. Addition of tumour promoter and protein kinase C stimulant, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) at concentrations of 3 x 10(-10) M to 3 x 10(-9) M, resulted in an augmentation of 30-200% in LPS-evoked cytotoxicity. The effects of FMLP and PMA, like the effect of LPS alone, were completely blocked by antibody to recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), indicating that cytotoxicity induced by LPS, FMLP, and PMA were due solely to TNF release. Concentrations of PMA greater than 3 x 10(-9) M caused inhibition of TNF release. Okadaic acid (20 ng/ml), an inhibitor of phosphatases I and IIa, augmented the effects of LPS and the stimulatory effects of low levels of PMA, suggesting that phosphorylation was important in the actions of both LPS and PMA. The effects of LPS and of low levels of PMA were augmented by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors H-7 (10-30 microM), staurosporine (2-10 nM) and calphostin C (0.1 microM). Higher concentrations of the inhibitors prevented LPS-evoked TNF release and its augmentation by low levels of PMA. However, they did not prevent the inhibition by high levels of PMA. One possible explanation for the results is that different isozymes of PKC may mediate the stimulatory as compared to the inhibitory effects of PKC on TNF production. PMID:1628900

  12. CHAPITRE PREMIER De l'excutabilit pistmique des plans

    E-print Network

    Lespérance, Yves

    des solutions dans le cadre du forma- lisme « Cognitive Agents Specification Language » (CASL). Nous fonction des connaissances de l'agent et pas simple- ment de l'état du monde. La définition suppose que l sélectionner l'action qu'ils exécuteront en fonction de leurs plans et des connaissances qu'ils ont sur l

  13. Cardiovascular response to adrenergic stimulation during treatment with tertatolol. A new non-cardioselective beta-blocking agent in primary hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Fasano, M L; Gaeta, I; De Simone, G; Iannuzzi, R; Ferrara, L A

    1991-07-01

    The antihypertensive effects of tertatolol, a new non-cardioselective beta-blocking drug, were investigated in 20 patients with mild to moderate primary arterial hypertension, in a placebo controlled double blind randomized study. After tertatolol 5 mg o.d. significant decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and in heart rate were observed at rest (BP from 155/103 +/- 3/1 to 139/91 +/- 4/3 mmHg p less than 0.01; HR from 79 +/- 2 to 60 +/- 2 bpm p less than 0.01). Peak blood pressure, heart rate and myocardial O2 consumption, indirectly measured as cardiac workload, determined during adrenergic stimulation by 70 degrees head-up tilt, cold pressor test, mental arithmetic stress, isometric exercise and bicycle exercise were also reduced by 4 weeks of tertatolol treatment in comparison to pretreatment levels. No significant changes in the same parameters were induced by placebo. No side effects were observed during treatment. PMID:1683411

  14. The spin trap alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone stimulates peroxidase-mediated oxidation of deferoxamine. Implications for pharmacological use of spin-trapping agents.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M L; Buettner, G R; Britigan, B E

    1995-12-01

    The iron chelator deferoxamine (Desferal; DSFL) reacts with peroxidases and H2O2 to form the DSFL radical (DSFL.), which can be detected by EPR spectroscopy. We have found that DSFL. formation resulting from exposure to H2O2 and any of a number of different peroxidases is greatly enhanced in the presence of the nitrone spin trap alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN). This enhancement was seen at 4-POBN concentrations as low as 200 microM. We observed a modest enhancement of DSFL. formation with 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane. However, no enhancement was seen with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline 1-oxide (DMPO) or phenyl-tert-butylnitrone. A modest enhancement was also seen with the nitrone compound pyridine N-oxide. 2-Methyl-2-nitrosopropane and pyridine N-oxide were additionally capable of increasing enzymatic peroxidase activity as measured by o-dianisidine and/or tetramethylbenzidine oxidation. Furthermore, at high concentrations of 4-POBN (50 mM) in the absence of DSFL, we detected a peroxidase/H2O2-dependent 12-line EPR spectrum that likely represents a 4-POBN/.4-POBN nitrogen-centered spin adduct. In the presence of both 4-POBN (10 mM) and DMPO (100 mM), an 18-line EPR spectrum was observed consistent with formation of a DMPO/.4-POBN nitrogen-centered spin adduct. Thus, the nitrone spin trap 4-POBN can enhance the peroxidase-mediated formation of DSFL., possibly via the formation of a transient 4-POBN radical species. These data suggest the importance of assessing the potential for nitrone spin traps to both inhibit and enhance biological oxidation prior to their use as potential pharmacological agents. PMID:7493957

  15. Nonhematopoietic effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Jelkmann; Reinhard Depping; Eric Metzen

    Erythropoietin (EPO) was originally considered a hormone with action restricted to erythrocytic progenitors. The colony-forming\\u000a units-erythroid (CFU-E) possess abundant EPO receptor (EPOR) molecules, and EPO is essential for their survival, proliferation,\\u000a and differentiation. The mature functional human erythropoietic EPOR is a homodimer of two 484 amino acids transmembrane glycoproteins\\u000a of approximately 60kDa. On binding of 1 EPO molecule, the EPOR

  16. Prise en compte de l'incidence des activits du castor (C. fiber L.) sur la reconstitution des dynamiques d'volution du couvert vgtal et des processus de turbification

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nombreuses analyses de l'impact du castor sur les paysages pour l'espèce nord-américaine Castor canadensis KPrise en compte de l'incidence des activités du castor (C. fiber L.) sur la reconstitution des France sur le castor en tant qu'agent influençant l'évolution de la morphologie des zones humides, des

  17. Biological Agents

    MedlinePLUS

    Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. They have the ability to ... about some of the most virulent and prevalent biological agents. Anthrax . Anthrax is an acute infectious disease ...

  18. Studies of axon-glial cell interactions and periaxonal K+ homeostasis--II. The effect of axonal stimulation, cholinergic agents and transport inhibitors on the resistance in series with the axon membrane.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S; Lieberman, E M

    1988-06-01

    The small electrical resistance in series with the axon membrane is generally modeled as the intercellular pathway for current flow through the periaxonal glial (Schwann cell) sheath. The series resistance of the medial giant axon of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, was found to vary with conditions known to affect the electrical properties of the periaxonal glia. Series resistance was estimated from computer analysed voltage waveforms generated by axial wire-constant current and space clamp techniques. The average series resistance for all axons was 6.2 +/- 0.5 omega cm2 (n = 128). Values ranged between 1 and 30 omega cm2. The series resistance of axons with low resting membrane resistance (less than 1500 omega cm2) increased an average of 30% when stimulated for 45 s to 7 min (50 Hz) whereas the series resistance of high membrane resistance (greater than 1500 omega cm2) axons decreased an average of 10%. Carbachol (10(-7) M) caused the series resistance of low membrane resistance axons to decrease during stimulation but had no effect on high membrane resistance axons. d-Tubocurare (10(-8) M) caused the series resistance of high membrane resistance axons to increase during stimulation but had no effect on low membrane resistance axons. Bumetanide, a Na-K-Cl cotransport inhibitor and low [K+]o, prevented the stimulation-induced increase in series resistance of low membrane resistance axons but had no effect on the high membrane resistance axons. The results suggest that the series resistance of axons varies in response to the activity of the glial K+ uptake mechanisms stimulated by the appearance of K+ in the periaxonal space during action potential generation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3405437

  19. Software agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

    1994-01-01

    this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

  20. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Studies are underway to determine its antidepressant effects. Deep brain stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed as a ... Seminowicz D, Hamani C, Schwalb JM, Kennedy SH. Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron . 2005 ...

  1. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramakrishnan Ramaseshan; Subramanian Sundarrajan; Yingjun Liu; R. S. Barhate; Neeta L. Lala; S. Ramakrishna

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with beta-CD, IBA, a blend of beta-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets

  2. Non–stimulant medications in the treatment of ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Banaschewski; V. Roessner; R. W. Dittmann; P. Janardhanan Santosh; A. Rothenberger

    2004-01-01

    Background Stimulants are the first–line medication in the psychopharmacological treatment of attention–deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, 10 to 30% of all children and adults with ADHD either do not respond to or do not tolerate treatment with stimulants. Objective To describe alternative treatment approaches with various non–stimulant agents, especially atomoxetine. Method General review of empirically based literature concerning efficacy and

  3. Antimicrobial agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Bush; Anuwat Keerasuntonpong; B Zabriskie; Chitsanu Pancharoen; Terapong Tantawichien

    1997-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents active against multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria are considered to be of major commercial potential. Commercially viable agents that have been included in recent successful trials include the streptogramins, novel glycopeptides, oxazolidinones and potent quinolones. Cationic peptides have generated much interest, but their utility as successful drug candidates remains questionable. Novel compound classes for possible exploitation include non-?-lactam ?-lactamaseinhibitors, inhibitors

  4. Sociologie des prenoms... des chiens Baptiste Coulmont

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sociologie des pr´enoms... des chiens Baptiste Coulmont 23 septembre 2011 Introduction L'´etude de donn´ees concernant plus de 10 millions de chiens (ann´ee de naissance, pr´enom, d´epartement de naissance, race), nous donne les infor- mations suivantes : 1. Les pr´enoms des chiens suivent des modes sp

  5. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  6. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  7. De l'executabilite epistemique des plans dans les specifications de syst`emes multiagents

    E-print Network

    Lespérance, Yves

    qui fait que le plan est ex´ecut´e en fonction des connaissances de l'agent et pas simplement de l]. Nous avons particip´e au d´eveloppement d'un tel cadre formel le Cognitive Agents Specifica- tion, les agents doivent s´electionner l'action qu'ils ex´ecuterons en fonction de leurs plans et des

  8. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  9. F104S c-Mpl responds to a transmembrane domain-binding thrombopoietin receptor agonist: Proof of concept that selected receptor mutations in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia can be stimulated with alternative thrombopoietic agents

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Norma E.; Lim, Jihyang; Chen, Rose; Geddis, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether specific c-Mpl mutations might respond to thrombopoietin receptor agonists. Methods We created cell line models of type II c-Mpl mutations identified in CAMT. We selected F104S c-Mpl for further study because it exhibited surface expression of the receptor. We measured proliferation of cell lines expressing WT or F104S c-Mpl in response to thrombopoetin receptor agonists targeting the extracellular (m-AMP4) or transmembrane (LGD 4665) domains of the receptor by MTT assay. We measured thrombopoietin binding to the mutant receptor using an in vitro thrombopoietin uptake assay and identified F104 as a potentially critical residue for the interaction between the receptor and its ligand by aligning thrombopoietin and erythropoietin receptors from multiple species. Results Cells expressing F104S c-Mpl proliferated in response to LGD 4665 but not thrombopoietin or m-AMP4. Compared to thrombopoietin, LGD 4665 stimulates signaling with delayed kinetics in both WT and F104S c-Mpl expressing cells. Although F104S c-Mpl is expressed on the cell surface in our BaF3 cell line model, the mutant receptor does not bind thrombopoietin. Comparison to the erythropoietin receptor suggests that F104 engages in hydrogen bonding interactions that are critical for binding to thrombopoietin. Conclusions These findings suggest that a small subset of patients with CAMT might respond to treatment with thrombopoietin receptor agonists, but that responsiveness will depend on the type of mutation and agonist used. We postulate that F104 is critical for thrombopoietin binding. The kinetics of signaling in response to a transmembrane domain-binding agonist are delayed in comparison to thrombopoietin. PMID:20188141

  10. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Wilby, R

    1998-12-01

    Parasitic diseases predominantly affect the developing world because of poor sanitation, poor living conditions, and lack of medical care. The relative insulation of the developed countries has been protective until recently, when several factors have made populations worldwide potentially at risk of infection by any transmissible agent. Emigration, forced migration of refugees, increasing and rapid world travel, and increased susceptibility of immunocompromised populations, have been methods by which parasites, and quite often their associated vectors, have been imported into and have taken hold in regions previously unaffected. Health officials, clinicians, blood banks and pathologists who have not routinely encountered such diseases are, however, at the forefront in efforts to control these diseases. With regard to antiparasitic agents, the emphasis at this meeting was placed on their current increasing importance. Accompanying the greater incidence and disease spread are the withdrawal of prevention measures and vaccines, the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and lack of awareness and vigilance in medical communities to the threats of resurgent and emerging diseases. A snapshot of these diseases was presented at the symposia. This report highlights the discovery, re-emergence, epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis and therapy of parasitic diseases. A common theme to the presentations was the emergence or re-emergence of organisms previously thought to be under control. Modern biotechnology and biochemical methods are being applied to the problems of causative agent identification and characterization. With better surveillance methods, no doubt the detection of more diseases will continue. No tremendous breakthroughs in parasite prevention, chemotherapy, or successes of antiparasitic agents in clinical trials were reported and are unlikely to be forthcoming in the near future unless greater changes are made in the research community, including the pharmaceutical industry. It was of note that no symposia were devoted wholly to parasites as such, but were directed towards the exposition of emerging pathogens, of which parasites comprise only a segment of the spectrum of causative organisms. PMID:16196468

  11. A comparative study of peste des petits ruminants and Kata in West African dwarf goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Rowland; G. R. Scott; S. Ramachandran; D. H. Hill

    1971-01-01

    Experimental infections of West African Dwarf goats with Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Kata were indistinguishable clinically and pathologically. Goats convalescent from Kata resisted infection with rinderpest virus. Heterologous stimulation of secondary antibody response was observed.

  12. LA REVUE DE L'EPI N 77 DES IMAGES, DES TROUS ET DES BOSSES DES IMAGES, DES TROUS ET DES BOSSES...

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    images (fixes, car pour les images animées c'est encore une autre histoire, au format ".PCX", 320x200 en 256 couleurs). Qu'allons nous en faire ? Les idées ne manquent pas, car une fois numérisée l'image131 LA REVUE DE L'EPI N° 77 DES IMAGES, DES TROUS ET DES BOSSES DES IMAGES, DES TROUS ET DES BOSSES

  13. Extracellular proton release by stimulated neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    van Zwieten, R.; Wever, R.; Hamers, M.N.; Weening, R.S.; Roos, D.

    1981-07-01

    We have tried to elucidate the mechanism of phagosome acidification in human neutrophils. Assuming that phenomena occurring at the plasma membrane reflect reactions in the phagocytic vacuoles, we have stimulated human neutrophils with agents that induce a ''respiratory burst,'' and we have measured the release of protons into the extracellular medium. Phorbol myristate acetate, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and serum-opsonized zymosan particles each caused a rapid release of protons, concomitant with the increase in oxygen consumption. The stimulated release of protons was strictly coupled to the increase respiration of the cells, because inhibition of the respiration of either anaerobiosis, chlorpromazine, or glycolytic inhibitors also inhibited the release of protons. Also, in the presence of the above-mentioned stimulating agents, neutrophils from three patients with chronic granulomatous disease enhanced neither respiration not proton release. In normal cells, the ratio of deltaH+/-deltaO2 was 1.04 +/- 0.19 (mean +/ SD, n . 13). The mechanism of this proton release is not clear. The amount of lactic and carbonic acid produced by stimulated neutrophils was inadequate to explain the amount of protons released. Perhydroxyl radicals were also ruled out as the source of the protons. Because the cells did not release measurable amounts of phosphate ions, a phosphate-hydroxyl-ion antiport was also excluded. Finally, the lack of any effect of uncouplers renders it unlikely that a respiration-driven proton gradient is built up across the plasma membrane.

  14. Une approche facilitant la couverture et l'intelligibilit des influences des traits

    E-print Network

    Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    dans le domaine de la modélisation cognitive des agents (Norling, Jiang, Paiva, SilvermanPaul Sansonnet LIMSICNRS 6 ? ;; ; ; ; ; seq alt par seq seq Sous plan Plan Action terminale Appel de fonction influences psychologiques implémentation : sous plans et actions terminales Action fonction dans une API #12

  15. Agents Assistants Assistance et Rationalit dans le cadre

    E-print Network

    Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    Cantoche : Agents Educatifs ­ Sociologie : Avatars ­ Projet « Le Deuxième monde » ­ Les ACA du `Deuxième Monde' ­ La référence des Chatbots : A. L. I. C. E. ­ Exemple de Chat bot avec ACA ­ Algorithme général ACA sont là... Conclusion : Les ACA sont là... #12;J-P Sansonnet LIFL, 8 juin 2006 3Taxinomie des

  16. Auto-protective redox buffering systems in stimulated macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Jacques Ferret; Emmanuelle Soum; Olivier Negre; Didier Fradelizi

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages, upon encounter with micro-organisms or stimulated by cytokines, produce various effector molecules aimed at destroying the foreign agents and protecting the organism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are front line molecules exerting strong cytotoxic activities against micro-organisms and many cells, including macrophages themselves. Using cells of the murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) stimulated

  17. La stimulation magnétique transcrânienne (SMT) dans la recherche fondamentale et clinique en neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasives telles que la Stimulation Magnétique Transcrânienne (SMT) sont largement utilisées pour établir des inférences causales sur les relations entre cerveau et comportement. Des applications cliniques basées sur la SMT ont également été développées pour traiter des affections neurologiques ou psychiatriques comme la dépression, la dystonie, la douleur, les acouphènes ou les séquelles d’accident vasculaire cérébral. État des connaissances La SMT fonctionne en induisant de manière non invasive et de manière focale des courants électriques dans des régions corticales, modulant ainsi leur niveau d’activité de façon variable suivant la fréquence, le nombre d’impulsions, les intervalles et la durée de stimulation utilisés. S’agissant du cortex moteur, on sait par exemple que les patterns d’impulsions de SMT à basse fréquence ou ceux délivrées de manière continue tendent à déprimer l’activité locale, tandis que la SMT à haute fréquence et discontinus tend à la potentialiser. Outre ses effets locaux, la SMT peut aussi avoir des effets à distance sur les régions cérébrales, véhiculés par les connections anatomiques et qui dépendent de l’efficacité et du signe de ces connexions. Perspectives Dans le domaine de la recherche fondamentale et des applications thérapeutiques, l’utilisation efficace de la SMT requiert, cependant, la compréhension approfondie de ses principes opérationnels, de ses risques, de ses potentialités et de ses limites. Dans cet article, nous présentons les principes par lesquels opèrent les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasive, et en particulier la SMT. Conclusion À l’issue de sa lecture, le lecteur sera en mesure de discuter de façon critique les études scientifiques et cliniques utilisant la SMT, ainsi que de concevoir des applications SMT suivant une hypothèse a priori dans le domaine de la recherche en neuroscience fondamentale et/ou clinique. PMID:21420698

  18. UMBC AgentWeb: Intelligent Software Agents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, sponsored and maintained by the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Laboratory for Advanced Information Technology (LAIT), focuses on intelligent agents, known alternatively as software agents, knowbots, infobots or intentional agents. The site is divided into several parts, some of which are annotated and some of which contain only links to resources. Annotated resources include a bibliography titled Introduction to Agents (under Introductory Material), a list of research projects involving agent technology, and abstracts of and links to articles on a variety of topics such as Agents and Security and Agents in Manufacturing.

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. McKeever

    1999-01-01

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimetry is attractive to the health physics and dosimetry community due to its all-optical character, fast data acquisition and the avoidance of heating the detector. Until recently there was no luminescent material sensitive enough to radiation, and at the same time suitable for stimulation with visible light, for use in this application. However, anion-deficient aluminum oxide

  20. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de communication

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de communication Plans de cours cadre Cours des programmes de premier cycle en sciences de la communication Comité des études de premier cycle Adopté par l..................................................................................................................................3 COM 1150 Rédaction en communication 1

  1. Vascular effects of free radicals generated by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, F.S.; Webb, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    Electrical field stimulation (9 V, 1.0 ms, 4 Hz) of isolated segments of rat tail arteries and dog coronary arteries inhibits contractile response to exogenous norephinephrine and elevated potassium concentration. This inhibitory effect of electrical stimulation is blocked by various agents that alter oxygen metabolism: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, ascorbate, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observations suggest that the inhibitory effect is due to an action of oxygen free radical metabolites that are generated by the electrical stimulation of the oxygen-rich buffer. These free radical metabolites have two actions: 1) they oxidize drugs in the experimental system, and 2) they exert a direct inhbitory action on vascular smooth muscle.

  2. Une architecture d'Agent Conversationnel Ex-Yannick Fouquet --Alexandra Berger --Sylvie Pesty

    E-print Network

    Fouquet, Yannick

    'exprimer des attitudes et des émotions aux niveaux verbal (forme de l'énoncé, intonation, etc.) et non-verbal and emotions at verbal level (sentence, intonation, ...) and non-verbal level (gestures, expressions Conversationnels Animés - WACA'2006. 1. Introduction Les langages «classiques» de communication entre agents, comme

  3. Une architecture d'Agent Conversationnel Ex-Yannick Fouquet --Alexandra Berger --Sylvie Pesty

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'exprimer des attitudes et des émotions aux niveaux verbal (forme de l'énoncé, intonation, etc.) et non-verbal and emotions at verbal level (sentence, intonation, ...) and non-verbal level (gestures, expressions)" #12;1. Introduction Les langages «classiques» de communication entre agents, comme KQML (Know- ledge

  4. Geothermal well stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Hanold, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The stimulation of geothermal production wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 275 to 550/sup 0/F range can be expected and the behavior of fracturing fluids and fracture proppants at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated in laboratory tests. To avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, the high-temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the fracturing fluids, fluid loss additives, and proppants must be verified. In geothermal wells, the necessary stimulation techniques are required to be capable of initiating and maintaining the flow of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional oil field stimulation. The objective of well stimulation is to initiate and maintain additional fluid production from existing wells at a lower cost than either drilling new replacement wells or multiply redrilling existing wells. The economics of well stimulation will be vastly enhanced when proven stimulation techniques can be implemented as part of the well completion (while the drilling rig is still over the hole) on all new wells exhibiting some form of flow impairment. Results from 7 stimulation tests are presented and planned tests are described.

  5. Archives participatives Au milieu des ralisations remarquables de mdiation numrique des bibliothques et des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives participatives Au milieu des réalisations remarquables de médiation numérique des bibliothèques et des musées sur les médias sociaux, les services d'archives ont un positionnement relativement en revanche des projets ambitieux de crowdsourcing, d'« archives participatives » (voir encart

  6. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  7. Interaction laser plasma et accélération des particules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobin, J. L.

    Interaction mechanisms that may generate high amplitude electron plasma waves are reviewed. Such waves are able to communicate very high energies (TeV) to electrons with gradients over 1 GeV/m. Stimulated forward Raman scattering, beating between two electromagnetic waves, laser wiggler beating in a plasma, can be used to create plasma waves whose growth rate and relativistic saturation are investigated. Scaling laws for acceleration are given. An improvement, the « surfatron » is shown to be of interest. The state of the art in theory, numerical simulations and preliminary experiments is discussed. On passe en revue les mécanismes d'interaction susceptibles de conduire à des ondes de plasma électroniques de grande amplitude. Celles-ci sont à leur tour capables de communiquer des énergies extrêmement élevées (TeV) à des électrons, avec des gradients d'accélération dépassant le GeV/m. La diffusion stimulée Raman vers l'avant, les battements entre deux ondes électromagnétiques, les battements laser onduleur peuvent servir à créer les ondes de plasma dont on analyse la croissance, et la saturation sous l'effet de corrections relativistes. On précise les lois d'échelle relatives à l'accélération. On montre l'intérêt des perfectionnements du type « surfatron ». On discute sommairement l'état de l'art : théorie, simulations numériques, expériences préliminaires.

  8. Stimulant-induced trichotillomania.

    PubMed

    Hamalian, Gareen; Citrome, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    A prior report described the presentation of cocaine-induced trichotillomania, which resolved with the cessation of cocaine use. Here the authors describe the case of stimulant-induced trichotillomania that resolved with the discontinuation of stimulants and initiation of olanzapine. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported adult case of stimulant-induced trichotillomania. The case is of a patient with a previous diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder whose symptoms of trichotillomania coincide with abuse of amphetamine and with the resolution of symptoms in the absence of amphetamine use. Given the increase in exposure of prescription amphetamines among adults, further study into the association between stimulants and adverse events such as trichotillomania is needed. PMID:20391272

  9. Deep brain stimulation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... controlled and the cause is unknown ( essential tremor ) Tourette syndrome (in rare cases) Uncontrolled or slow movement ( ... Vandewalle V, Kuhn J. Deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;116:251-258.

  10. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. S. McKeever

    2001-01-01

    Models and the conceptual framework necessary for an understanding of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are described. Examples of various OSL readout schemes are described, along with examples of the use of OSL in radiation dosimetry.

  11. Spinal cord stimulation

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses a mild electric current to block nerve impulses ... stretched into the space on top of your spinal cord. These wires will be connected to a small ...

  12. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  13. Comprhension et valuation des actions intentionnelles: bases psychologiques du sens moral

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    459 Compréhension et évaluation des actions intentionnelles: bases psychologiques du sens moral intentionnelles dirigées par un agent humain vers un patient humain donnent lieu à des évaluations morales. En philosophie morale et en psychologie cognitive, les travaux théoriques et expérimentaux ont jusqu'à présent

  14. STIMULATED LYMPHOCYTE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Lohrmann, Hans-Peter; Graw, Carole M.; Graw, Robert G.

    1974-01-01

    Lymphocytes, stimulated with different doses of plant mitogens or allogeneic cells, incorporate varying amounts of [3H]thymidine. Theoretically, this may be due to different numbers of responding cells, to earlier proliferative response of these cells, and/or to their more or less rapid transit through the cell cycle. Dog peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with different doses of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), or with allogeneic lymphocytes. After their synchronization by incubation with hydroxyurea (4 mM), the mean durations of the cell cycle, and of the different cell cycle phases were constant and unrelated to strength or type of stimulation. PHA-stimulated lymphocyte cultures were maintained in the presence of colchicine, to prevent clonal proliferation of responding lymphocytes. DNA uptake in this setting, attributed to first generation responders, was related to the strength of proliferative lymphocyte response in control cultures without colchicine. Furthermore, cell proliferation occurred earlier with greater stimulation. It is concluded that higher [3H]thymidine uptake in vitro by stimulated lymphocytes is due to greater numbers of responding cells, which are triggered into proliferative response earlier, and not to a more rapid transit of the responding cells through the cell cycle. PMID:4825240

  15. Structure des ADN complmentaires des lactoprotines : application la recherche des gnes et leur localisation chromosomique

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structure des ADN complémentaires des lactoprotéines : application à la recherche des gènes et à entrepris. 1) Construction de banques ovine et bovine d ADN complémentaires !ADNcJ. Sélection et identification des clones recombinants contenant les ADN complé- mentaires des ARNm des 6 principales

  16. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura between DES-exposed and unexposed women ( 10 ). Studies examining the risk of depression among DES daughters ... statistically significant. Researchers will continue to follow these women to study the risk of infertility. Recent studies have found ...

  17. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  18. Delayed awakening in dystonia patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Trombetta; Anupa Deogaonkar; Milind Deogaonkar; Zeyd Ebrahim; Ali Rezai; Andre Machado; Ehab Farag

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to identify the incidence, duration and causes of delayed emergence from anesthesia in patients with dystonia undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS) placement. A retrospective review of patients with dystonia who underwent DBS placement was conducted and the following characteristics were noted: age, gender, comorbid conditions, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, anesthetic agents used, amount of initial

  19. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  20. Agent-user etiquette

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Schiaffino; A. Amandi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the agent-user etiquette. The areas of personal agents and human-computer interaction are the two main contributions. First, it increases understanding of personalization in user-agent interaction. Second, our approach enhances a personal agent's capabilities since it enables developers to build personal agents that will certainly gain higher acceptance among users than traditional personal agents because they take into

  1. Linguistique Des mots et Des hommes

    E-print Network

    Loewith, Robbie

    'applique en cas de conclusion d'un nouveau contrat ou de renouvellement de contrat pour un abonnement Orange éclairage nouveau. Des rubriques variées vous attendent, sur l'activité des chercheurs dans et hors les murs témoigne de cette catastrophe 6 Histoire de l'art A partir d'une vingtaine de toiles dont certains éléments

  2. Effects of sulfur containing amino acids on iron and nitric oxide stimulated catecholamine oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Biasetti; R. Dawson Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Summary.  ?Taurine is a free amino acid found in high concentrations in tissues containing catecholamines. The ability of taurine and\\u000a its metabolic precursors to inhibit or stimulate catecholamine oxidation and subsequent quinone formation was examined. Ferric\\u000a chloride was used as the catalyzing agent to stimulate L-dopa or norepinephrine oxidation and NO donors were also examined\\u000a for their actions to stimulate quinone

  3. Neural stimulation with optical radiation

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Matic, Agnella Izzo; Wells, Jonathon D.; Jansen, E. Duco; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing research on infrared neural stimulation, a means of artificially stimulating neurons that has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is defined as the direct induction of an evoked potential in response to a transient targeted deposition of optical energy. The foremost advantage of using optical radiation for neural stimulation is its spatial resolution. Exogenously applied or trans-genetically synthesized fluorophores are not used to achieve stimulation. Here, current work on INS is presented for motor nerves, sensory nerves, central nervous system, and in vitro preparations. A discussion follows addressing the mechanism of INS and its potential use in neuroprostheses. A brief review of neural depolarization involving other optical methods is also presented. Topics covered include optical stimulation concurrent with electrical stimulation, optical stimulation using exogenous fluorophores, and optical stimulation by transgenic induction of light-gated ion channels. PMID:23082105

  4. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Liu, Yingjun; Barhate, R. S.; Lala, Neeta L.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2006-06-01

    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with ?-CD, IBA, a blend of ?-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane.

  5. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-06-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  7. SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER ScanMaris Michel MOREL (DCNS), Aldo administrations en mer. Toutefois, ils ne recueillent des informations que pour des zones maritimes ou des permanente, un recueil massif de données permettant de mieux gérer les situations en mer et les interventions

  8. Stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis mediates gastroprotective effect of rebamipide in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kleine; Stefan Kluge; Brigitta M. Peskar

    1993-01-01

    The concept that gastroprotection by agents such as mild irritants, antacids, or sucralfate is prostaglandin (PG)-mediated has been challenged recently. These agents do not reproducibly stimulate prostaglandin formation, and indomethacin does not effectively attenuate their protective potency. Rebamipide is a novel antiulcer compound. This study was designed to clarify whether eicosanoids contribute to the gastroprotective activity of the drug. In

  9. Artificial Intelligence Logical Agents

    E-print Network

    Voris, Jonathan

    on slides by Sal Stolfo) #12;The Big Idea · Humans know stuff · We use the stuff we know to help us do things #12;The Big Idea · Do our agents know stuff? #12;The Big Idea · Do our agents know stuff? ­ Well, kind of... #12;The Big Idea · Do our agents know stuff? ­ Well, kind of... · Knowledge encoded in agent

  10. Evolving Agents Adil Qureshi

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    behaviour arising from the interaction of a society of agents. As a consequence, the problem of programming agents. The latter work on the principle that complex intelligent behaviour can emerge from the interaction of a collection of very simple agents. These agents obtain knowledge about actions and behaviours

  11. Software agents: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyacinth S. Nwana

    1996-01-01

    Agent software is a rapidly developing area of research. However, the overuse of the word 'agent' has tended to mask the fact that, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of research being carried out under this banner. This overview paper presents a typology of agents. Next, it places agents in context, defines them and then goes on, inter

  12. The multi-agent programming contest from 2005-2010 - From gold collecting to herding cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tristan M. Behrens; Mehdi Dastani; Jurgen Dix; Michael Koster; Peter Nov'ak

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-Agent Programming Contest is an annual international event on programming multi-agent systems: Teams of agents participate in a simulated cooperative\\u000a scenario. It started in 2005 and is organised in 2010 for the sixth time. The contest is an attempt to stimulate research\\u000a in the area of multi-agent system development and programming by (i) identifying key problems in the field

  13. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  14. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Burgemeestre; Joris Hulstijn; Yao-Hua Tan

    2009-01-01

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assump- tions about thecognitive architectureof theagents. Forexample, aprinciple-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this pa- per we present several cognitive agent architectures

  15. Triangle des vitesses Failles transformantes

    E-print Network

    Grigné, Cécile

    Triangle des vitesses ab Failles transformantes A B A B TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses ab A B Dorsales A B TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses ab B A B A Subduction TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses B A A B C C TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses B

  16. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Paul Amar; Michael L. Levy; Charles Y. Liu; Michael L. J. Apuzzo

    2008-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a safe and reliable treatment adjunct for patients with medically intractable epilepsy. It is both a preventive and an abortive form of therapy, potentially effective against both partial and generalized seizures in adults and children. VNS also has a number of serendipitous effects on mood, memory, and attention and has been approved for the treatment

  17. Women's Studies Intellectually stimulating,

    E-print Network

    Women's Studies Intellectually stimulating, personally fulfilling, and more practical than you might think. The breadth and depth of Women's Studies will amaze you. Our goal is to help you "find your choose Women's Studies on its own or in conjunction with another program, the skills and knowledge you

  18. Rewards to Stimulate Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toll, John S.

    1980-01-01

    In a new environment of decreased enrollments and financial austerity, what incentives and rewards can be used to stimulate increased excellence among professors in colleges and universities? Among the possibilities are salary, tenure, rank, merit considerations, increased time for research, mobility for research pursuits, and funds for research.…

  19. CULTURE DES VIVRIERS. COMBINAISON DES SAVOIRS LOCAUX ET MODERNES. ANTHROPOLOGIE COMME CONSTRUCTION DES PONTS CULTURELS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DES PONTS CULTURELS BAÏNILAGO L. ISDA 2010, Montpellier 28-30 Juin 2010 CULTURE DES VIVRIERS. COMBINAISON DES SAVOIRS LOCAUX ET MODERNES:ANTHROPOLOGIE COMME CONSTRUCTION DES PONTS CULTURELS LOUIS'anthropologie, construction des ponts culturels ABSTRACT : This paper tries to criticize the radical opposition established

  20. Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des frquences harmoniques.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-55 Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des de distorsion centrifuge des molécules XY6 en fonc- tion des fréquences harmoniques ; l for the centrifugal distortion constants as a function of harmonic frequencies ; application is made to SF6 and UF6. 4

  1. Electrical stimulator for surface nerve stimulation by using modulated pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. V. Laguna; E. Cardiel; L. I. Garay; P. R. Hernandez

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the design of an electrical stimulator based on modulated pulses. A reduction of the electrical impedance of the skin is pursued in order to facilitate the nerve stimulation with lower intensities of current and for reducing burning and painful effects as well. The stimulator is controlled by a PC through a graphic interface under the LabVIEW platform.

  2. Pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, J R

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Stimulants that increase alertness/reduce fatigue or activate the cardiovascular system can include drugs like ephedrine available in many over-the-counter medicines. Others such as amphetamines, cocaine and hallucinogenic drugs, available on prescription or illegally, can modify mood. A total of 62 stimulants (61 chemical entities) are listed in the WADA List, prohibited in competition. Athletes may have stimulants in their body for one of three main reasons: inadvertent consumption in a propriety medicine; deliberate consumption for misuse as a recreational drug and deliberate consumption to enhance performance. The majority of stimulants on the list act on the monoaminergic systems: adrenergic (sympathetic, transmitter noradrenaline), dopaminergic (transmitter dopamine) and serotonergic (transmitter serotonin, 5-HT). Sympathomimetic describes agents, which mimic sympathetic responses, and dopaminomimetic and serotoninomimetic can be used to describe actions on the dopamine and serotonin systems. However, many agents act to mimic more than one of these monoamines, so that a collective term of monoaminomimetic may be useful. Monoaminomimietic actions of stimulants can include blockade of re-uptake of neurotransmitter, indirect release of neurotransmitter, direct activation of monoaminergic receptors. Many of the stimulants are amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives, including agents with abuse potential as recreational drugs. A number of agents are metabolized to amphetamine or metamphetamine. In addition to the monoaminomimetic agents, a small number of agents with different modes of action are on the list. A number of commonly used stimulants are not considered as Prohibited Substances. PMID:18500382

  3. Pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

    PubMed

    Docherty, J R

    2008-06-01

    This review examines the pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Stimulants that increase alertness/reduce fatigue or activate the cardiovascular system can include drugs like ephedrine available in many over-the-counter medicines. Others such as amphetamines, cocaine and hallucinogenic drugs, available on prescription or illegally, can modify mood. A total of 62 stimulants (61 chemical entities) are listed in the WADA List, prohibited in competition. Athletes may have stimulants in their body for one of three main reasons: inadvertent consumption in a propriety medicine; deliberate consumption for misuse as a recreational drug and deliberate consumption to enhance performance. The majority of stimulants on the list act on the monoaminergic systems: adrenergic (sympathetic, transmitter noradrenaline), dopaminergic (transmitter dopamine) and serotonergic (transmitter serotonin, 5-HT). Sympathomimetic describes agents, which mimic sympathetic responses, and dopaminomimetic and serotoninomimetic can be used to describe actions on the dopamine and serotonin systems. However, many agents act to mimic more than one of these monoamines, so that a collective term of monoaminomimetic may be useful. Monoaminomimietic actions of stimulants can include blockade of re-uptake of neurotransmitter, indirect release of neurotransmitter, direct activation of monoaminergic receptors. Many of the stimulants are amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives, including agents with abuse potential as recreational drugs. A number of agents are metabolized to amphetamine or metamphetamine. In addition to the monoaminomimetic agents, a small number of agents with different modes of action are on the list. A number of commonly used stimulants are not considered as Prohibited Substances. PMID:18500382

  4. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carles Sierra

    Throughout the last decade there has been a marked increase in the interest shown by the academic and industrial world in the agent-based programming paradigm (Bradshaw 1997), though many IT engineers are still either unaware of it or confuse it with the object oriented paradigm. In this article I will try to introduce the agent-based programming paradigm in some of

  5. International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the IFESS UK & Ireland Chapter: Sheffield, 2015 Stimulating Technology for the Future 5 th Conference of the ... website: www.ifessuki2015.co.uk Attachment Size Stimulating Technology for the Future - IFESS UK&I 2015.pdf ...

  6. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  7. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  8. Klinische Wertbestimmung des Convallatoxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Weicker

    1932-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Untersuchungen über die pharmakologische und klinische Auswertung des Convallatoxins, eines von Karrer aus der Convallaria majalis dargestellten kristallisierten Glykosids der Firma Hoffmann-La Roche erergeben:

  9. New York Canyon Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "����No Go"��� decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  10. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  11. Human Tissue Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

  12. Agent Oriented Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Shoham

    1992-01-01

    Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

  13. Agent Cooperation and Collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Sioutis; Jeffrey Tweedale

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a This paper describes preliminary work performed to gain an understanding of how to implement collaboration between intelligent\\u000a agents in a multi-agent system and\\/or humans. The paper builds on previous research where an agent-development software framework\\u000a was implemented based on a cognitive hybrid reasoning and learning model. Agent relationships are formed using a three-layer\\u000a process involving communication, negotiation and trust. Cooperation

  14. Robust Agent Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandip Sen; Sabyasachi Saha; Stéphane Airiau; Teddy Candale; Dipyaman Banerjee; Doran Chakraborty; Partha Mukherjee; Anil Gursel

    2007-01-01

    We believe that intelligent information agents will represent their users interest in electronic marketplaces and other forums to trade, exchange, share, identify, and locate goods and services. Such informa- tion worlds will present unforeseen opportunities as well as challenges that can be best addressed by robust, self-sustaining agent communi- ties. An agent community is a stable, adaptive group of self-interested

  15. Polite Personal Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    2006-01-01

    Personal agents are computer programs that learn users' interests, preferences, and habits and give them proactive, personalized assistance with a computer application. Such agents are analogous to personal assistants in the real-world work environment. Both agents and assistants gradually learn a target individual's preferences and habits to enhance collaboration and productivity.

  16. Artificial Intelligence Intelligent Agents

    E-print Network

    Voris, Jonathan

    · Actuators: Screen display (questions, tests, diagnoses, treatments, referrals) · Sensors: Keyboard (entry, Environment, Actuators, Sensors) · Environment types · Agent types #12;Agents · An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators

  17. Modeling Adaptive Autonomous Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pattie Maes

    1993-01-01

    One category of research in Artificial Life is concerned with modeling and building so-called adaptive autonomous agents, which are systems that inhabit a dynamic, unpredictable environment in which they try to satisfy a set of time-dependent goals or motivations. Agents are said to be adaptive if they improve their competence at dealing with these goals based on experience. Autonomous agents

  18. Nerve Agents: A Comprehensive Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sage W. Wiener; Robert S. Hoffman

    2004-01-01

    Nerve agents are perhaps the most feared of potential agents of chemical attack. The authors review the history, physical characteristics, pharmacology, clinical effects, and treatment of these agents.

  19. The novel anti-migraine agent rizatriptan inhibits neurogenic dural vasodilation and extravasation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Williamson; Sara L. Shepheard; Raymond G. Hill; Richard J. Hargreaves

    1997-01-01

    These studies in anaesthetised rats showed, using intravital microscopy, that the novel anti-migraine agent, rizatriptan, significantly reduced electrically stimulated dural vasodilation but had no effect on increases in dural vessel diameter produced by exogenous substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Rizatriptan also significantly inhibited dural plasma protein extravasation produced by high intensity electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. We

  20. Tuberculin-induced lymphocyte proliferation in whole blood: an antigen specific method for assessing immunosuppressive agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D Singh; C. G Booth

    2002-01-01

    Antigen-stimulated whole blood cultures have not been used to study the effects of immunosuppressive drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the potential usefulness of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation in whole blood for studying the effects of T cell inhibitory agents. We have investigated whether PPD causes antigen specific T cell proliferation, and the role

  1. Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers, Des Moines, Iowa

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers, Des Moines, Iowa 18 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan opportunities along the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers in the areas of Birdland Park, Central Place and downtown Additional Information: Mississippi Valley Division Rock Island District Des Moines and Raccoon River Damage

  2. Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives

    E-print Network

    Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Préparation : Division de la gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Révision : Bureau du secrétaire général Entrée en vigueur : 15 février 2012 Approbation : (CA-2012-6) Cadre juridique : Loi sur les archives (L

  3. Des pionniers autoconstructeurs aux cooprateurs : histoire des Castors en Aquitaine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Des pionniers autoconstructeurs aux coopérateurs : histoire des Castors en Aquitaine Julie ­ Histoire des Castors en Aquitaine - 2010 2 Préambule Ce travail est un manuscrit en cours de travail. Il Castors en Aquitaine, des pionniers autoconstructeurs aux coopérateurs (1948-1970) initialement traité

  4. MITTEILUNGSBLATT DES REKTORS

    E-print Network

    Gertz, Michael

    Landeshochschulgebühren- gesetzes (LHGebG) vom 1. Januar 2005 (GBl. S. 1, 56 ff.), zuletzt geändert durch Artikel 6 des Dritten Hochschulrechtsänderungsgesetz vom 1. April 2014 (GBl. S. 99, 167) in Verbindung mit § 19 Abs. 1 Nr. 10 Landeshochschulgesetz vom 1. Januar 2005 (GBl. S. 1), zuletzt geändert durch Artikel 1 des

  5. Echte Lipome des Meniscus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Stedtfeld

    1955-01-01

    Es werden 2 Fälle beschrieben, bei denen ein echtes Lipom des Meniscus gefunden wurde. Nach kurzer Wiedergabe der Krankengeschichten und Operationsberichte werden Lokalisation, Form und histologischer Aufbau der Geschwülste in 5 Abbildungen gezeigt. In der abschließenden Epikrise wird auf die diagnostischen Schwierigkeiten hingewiesen und die Entfernung des ganzen Meniscus angeraten.

  6. Name des Akademischen Lehrkrankenhauses

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    -5 99947 Bad Langensalza Name der / des PJ Beauftragten Kontaktaufnahme Frau Prof. Dr. Borg-von Zepelin Unterkunft In Absprache mit der Klinik Ansprechpartner: Frau Eva Ackermann Tel.: 03601- 41 1132 e Kontaktaufnahme Frau Dr. Christiane Först Sekretariat: Frau Rochner Tel.: 0441 / 9615-240 Treffpunkt am 1.Tag des

  7. Agents modeling agents in information economies

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

  8. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les caractéristiques principales des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO), soit le dabigatran, le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban, et répondre aux questions qui font surface lors de la comparaison de ces agents. Qualité des données Une recherche dans PubMed a été effectuée afin de relever les études cliniques récentes (de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire (FA) et pour le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Message principal Selon 3 essais d’envergure, tous les NACO sont au moins aussi efficaces que la warfarine dans la prévention des AVC chez les patients atteints d’une FA non valvulaire, et au moins aussi sûrs pour ce qui est du risque de saignement. Des méta-analyses de ces essais ont montré que, comparativement au traitement par la warfarine, les NACO avaient réduit la mortalité totale, la mortalité d’origine cardiovasculaire et les saignements intracrâniens, et était aussi ressortie une tendance vers la réduction des saignements généraux. Du côté pratique, les avantages des NACO par rapport à la warfarine sont : posologie orale fixe uniquotidienne ou biquotidienne sans devoir surveiller la coagulation et peu d’interactions connues ou définies avec d’autres médicaments ou des aliments. Les désavantages potentiels des NACO sont notamment un risque de saignement qui serait accru chez les patients de plus de 75 ans, une hausse des saignements gastro-intestinaux majeurs avec des doses élevées de dabigatran, une hausse des cas de dyspepsie avec le dabigatran, l’absence d’un test de laboratoire de routine visant à mesurer de façon fiable l’effet anticoagulant et l’absence d’antidote pour renverser l’effet anticoagulant. Aucun essai randomisé contrôlé n’a effectué de comparaison directe des NACO, et le choix d’un NACO est influencé par les caractéristiques individuelles des patients, y compris le risque d’AVC ou de thromboembolie veineuse, le risque de saignement et les comorbidités (p. ex. dysfonctionnement rénal). Conclusion Les NACO sont des solutions de rechange importantes dans la prise en charge des patients atteints de FA et de thromboembolie veineuse, surtout chez les patients pour qui la surveillance régulière de la coagulation est problématique. La 2e partie de cet article traite des différentes éventualités pouvant survenir durant le suivi clinique et la prise en charge prolongés des patients prenant des NACO.

  9. Stimulated Raman scattering cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, W.; Taboada, J.

    1980-08-01

    A cryogenic liquid Raman scattering cell of the Dewar type has been designed for the study of the thresholds of laser-induced damage to the anterior eye material of experimental animals. With the output of a Q-switched neodymium glass laser at 1.06 microns, the stimulated Raman wavelength shift of the nitrogen molecule, 2327 kaysers, yields a Stokes line of wavelength 1.41 microns. When oxygen is used as the scatterer, the shift is 1552 kaysers, yielding a Stokes line of 1.27 microns. Performance data for the 1.06-1.4 micron conversion in N2 are presented.

  10. Geothermal well stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A.R.; Pittard, F.J.; Hanold, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    All available data on proppants and fluids were examined to determine areas in technology that need development for 300 to 500/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/ to 265/sup 0/C) hydrothermal wells. While fluid properties have been examined well into the 450/sup 0/F range, proppants have not been previously tested at elevated temperatures except in a few instances. The latest test data at geothermal temperatures is presented and some possible proppants and fluid systems that can be used are shown. Also discussed are alternative stimulation techniques for geothermal wells.

  11. 2C-2 Pulse Repetition Rate Excitation of Contrast Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Vos; D. E. Goertzu; N. de Jong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new bubble excitation mode, in which larger bubbles are stimulated to oscillate by a sequence of short high-frequency ultrasound (US) pulses. By tuning both the pressure burst and its repetition frequency, ultrasound contrast agent bubbles can achieve significant radial excursion at their apparent resonance frequency. The excitation method can be used in situations where resonance frequencies

  12. Intrinsic optical-fiber sensor for nerve agent sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lalitkumar Bansal; Mahmoud El-Sherif

    2005-01-01

    A novel chemical-sensing technique to detect the nerve agent sarin stimulant dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) is presented. This technique uses a combination of doped polypyrrole as an active chemical material coated on an optical fiber to form an intrinsic fiber-optic sensor. Sensitivity of up to 26 ppm of DMMP with response time of a few seconds is demonstrated. Influence of three different

  13. Eléments de comparaison internationale des patrimoines des ménages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn

    1979-01-01

    [fre] A partir des bribes d'information existant sur les patrimoines de divers pays européens et des USA, une comparaison de la structure des patrimoines des inégalités de répartition et de leur évolution est tentée. Actifs financiers et actifs réels figurent de façon variable dans les patrimoines des différents pays. La Grande-Bretagne, avec une forte part d'actifs financiers, notamment de valeurs

  14. IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents!

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents! Individuals who do not have a full team a "Free Agent". Within the UNLV Intramural Sports program there are multiple ways to improve a Free Agent will not force any team to accept a Free Agent participant. History and research has shown that Free Agents

  15. Une librairie d'objets dialogiques pour des agents

    E-print Network

    Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    length = 74 GRASP PHASE 2 RULELIST length = 9 FLEX = le LEM = le POS = DD KEY = THE@RD TYPE = LEM ID = 54252 FLEX = tres LEM = tres POS = RR KEY = INTLARGE@ RD TYPE = LEM ID = 54253 FLEX = petit LEM = petit POS = JJ KEY = SIZESMALL@RD TYPE = LEM ID = 54254 FLEX = bouton LEM = bouton POS = NN KEY = BUTTON

  16. INFLAMMATION DES NUAGES DE POUSSIERES PAR DES ETINCELLES ET DES SURFACES CHAUFFEES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2001-74 INFLAMMATION DES NUAGES DE POUSSIERES PAR DES ETINCELLES ET DES SURFACES CHAUFFEES C. PROUST - M. BOUDALAA INERIS-BP 2- F60550 Veraeuil-en-Halatte Résumé. Les trois types de sources d'inflammation utilisé. Pour des délais d'inflammation relativement longs (1 à 2 mn), le paramètre caractéristique de l'inflammation

  17. Facult des arts et des sciences Sciences sociales et psychologie | Cartographie de la recherche 2012 TABLE DES MATIRES

    E-print Network

    Leclercq, Remi

    #12;Faculté des arts et des sciences ­ Sciences sociales et psychologie | Cartographie de la ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2 La Faculté des arts et des sciences (FAS), c'est....................................................................................... 3 Sciences sociales et psychologie

  18. Monitoring deployed agent teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gal A. Kaminka; David V. Pynadath; Milind Tambe

    2001-01-01

    Recent years are seeing an increasing need for on-line monitoring of deployed distributed teams of cooperating agents, e.g., for visualization, or performance tracking. However, in deployed systems, we often cannot rely on the agents to communicate their state to the monitoring system: (a) we rarely can change the behavior of already-deployed agents to communicate the required information (e.g., in legacy

  19. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    DNA damaging agents are among the most successful treatments for cancer. The enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (abbreviated PARP) can facilitate repair of DNA damage caused by insult from chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Increased PARP activity is associated with survival of some cancer cells. ABT-888, an orally bioavailable PARP-inhibitor developed by Abbott Laboratories, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of DNA-damaging agents and radiation in preclinical models. Further development of this compound is ongoing.

  20. Machine Learning and Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr J?drzejowicz

    \\u000a The paper reviews current research results integrating machine learning and agent technologies. Although complementary solutions\\u000a from both fields are discussed the focus is on using agent technology in the field of machine learning with a particular interest\\u000a on applying agent-based solutions to supervised learning. The paper contains a short review of applications, in which machine\\u000a learning methods have been used

  1. Extending UML for Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Odell; H. Van Dyke Parunak; Bernhard Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Gaining wide acceptance for the use of agents in industry requires both relating it to the nearest antecedent technology (object-oriented software development) and using artifacts to support the development environment throughout the full system lifecycle. We address both of these requirements in this paper by describing some of the most common requirements for modeling agents and agent-based systems—using a set

  2. Stimulated Cavity-Optomechanics

    E-print Network

    Bahl, Gaurav; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin interaction between sound and light, known to be the strongest optical nonlinearity common to all amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, has been widely studied in fibers and bulk materials but rarely in optical microresonators. The possibility of experimentally extending this principle to excite mechanical resonances in photonic microsystems, for sensing and frequency reference applications, has remained largely unexplored. The challenge lies in the fact that microresonators inherently have large free spectral range, while the phase matching considerations for the Brillouin process require optical modes of nearby frequencies but with different wavevectors. We rely on high-order transverse optical modes to relax this limitation. Here we report on the experimental excitation of mechanical resonances ranging from 49 to 1400 MHz by using forward Brillouin scattering. These natural mechanical resonances are excited in ~100 um silica microspheres, and are of a surface-acoustic whispering-galle...

  3. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  4. Le magazine Prsentation des

    E-print Network

    Le magazine Présentation des guides Abonnez-vous La lettre professionnelle Recevez la newsletter FINANCEMENT EUROPE ET MONDE FORMATION Innovation Online - L´actualité de l'économie de la croissance http://www.innovationonline.fr/articles-magazine

  5. Rho-stimulated contractility drives the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka; Keith Burridge

    1996-01-01

    Activated rhoA, a ras-related GTP-binding protein, stimulates the appearance of stress fibers, focal adhesions, and tyrosine phosphorylation in quiescent cells (Ridley, A.J., and A. Hall, 1992. Cell. 70:389-399). The pathway by which rho triggers these events has not been elucidated. Many of the agents that activate rho (e.g., vasopressin, endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid) stimulate the contractility of smooth muscle and other

  6. Zur Pharmakologie des Cytisins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zachowski

    1938-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Das goldregenalkaloid Cytisin bewirkt wie Nikotin Erregung der vegetativen Schaltganglien mit nachfolgender Lähmung. Die erregende Wirkung des Cytisins betrifft fast nur die sympathischen Schaltganglien.2.Vom Nikotin unterscheidet es sich wesentlich durch die bedeutend stärkere Erregung der sympathischen Schaltganglien und durch die stark abgeschwächte lähmende Wirkung.3.Die im Vergleich zu Nikotin vielfach stärkere adrenalinartige pressorische Wirkung des Cytisins beruht in erster Linie

  7. Miniature stimulator for chronic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Smith

    1978-01-01

    A small lightweight pulse train generator is described. Train frequency and duration and pulse frequency and duration are continuously variable over a range that is suitable for many types of nerve stimulation experiments. Complete electrical specifications and schematics are shown. Also presented are the changes in contraction time of the cat hind leg muscles after 6-week chronic stimulation of the

  8. Are Prescription Stimulants “Smart Pills”?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  9. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  10. Early Identification and Infant Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Brenda

    1976-01-01

    This article describes the Zucker Center's program in Toledo, Ohio which identifies children with developmental delays and enrolls them in a demonstration infant stimulation program. The center provides educational programs in neonatal care, nutrition, general stimulation, and parenting techniques. Available from: PS 504 969. (JMB)

  11. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  12. Neuromuscular blocking agents and reversal agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J Pollard

    2005-01-01

    The neuromuscular blocking agents in routine clinical use may be classed as depolarizing or nondepolarizing. Suxamethonium is the only example of the depolarizing group and is an agonist at the neuromuscular receptor. It has the most rapid onset and the shortest duration of action, though it has a number of important unwanted side-effects. Its duration is prolonged by deficiency or

  13. Relational Agents Page 1 Relational Agents for

    E-print Network

    Bickmore, Timothy

    promotion, one with young adults [3] and one with geriatrics patients [1], both of which demonstrated medication adherence among adults with Schizophrenia. The system runs on a laptop computer as a stand in general and relational agents in particular. Schizophrenia affects 1% of the population worldwide

  14. Agents on the Web Making Agents

    E-print Network

    Huhns, Michael N.

    around for ages. In the 16th century, for instance, Venetian mer- chants used poison and bribery to gain the large amount of information available over the Web -- a task that is beyond human processing power -- but this enhanced processing power can be a dou- ble-edged sword. Because malicious users and their agents can

  15. Opiates inhibit adenylate cyclase by stimulating GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Koski, G; Klee, W A

    1981-01-01

    Specific, GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by membranes prepared from neuroblastoma--glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells can be measured in the presence of adenosine-5'-[beta, gamma-imido] triphosphate (p[NH]ppA), ATP, and a nucleotide triphosphate-regenerating system. Opiates and opioid peptides stimulate low Km GTP hydrolysis when measured in the presence of Na+ and Mg2+. Opiate stimulation is rapid, stereospecific, and reserved by the antagonist naloxone. Potencies of opiates as stimulators of GTP hydrolysis and as inhibitors of adenylate cyclase are closely correlated. Agents that stimulate adenylate cyclase, including prostaglandin E1, 2-Cl-adenosine, secretin, and NaF, have little or no effect upon the rate of GTP hydrolysis. Opiates have no effect upon either adenylate cyclase or GTPase activity in membranes prepared from C6-BU1 glioma cells, which lack opiate receptors. In view of the pivotal role of GTP in the activation of adenylate cyclase, we conclude that receptor-mediated stimulation of GTP hydrolysis is the mechanism by which opiates and other inhibitory hormones lower adenylate cyclase activity in NG108-15 cell membranes. PMID:6117072

  16. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Featured Agents Agents NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) Program Drug Development Primer FDA-Approved Cancer Drugs DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis Program Cancer

  17. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  18. Emotionally Expressive Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magy Seif El-nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen; Donald H. House; Frederic I. Parke

    1999-01-01

    The ability to express emotions is important for creating believable interactive characters. To simulate emotional expressions in an interactive environment, an intelligent agent needs both an adaptive model for generating believ- able responses, and a visualization model for mapping emo- tions into facial expressions. Recent advances in intelligent agents and in facial modeling have produced effective al- gorithms for these

  19. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  20. Distributed information fusion agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Perugini; Dale Lambert; Leon Sterling; Adrian Pearce

    2003-01-01

    Information fusion is typically data driven and applied to adversarial contexts. Advantages of a goal driven fusion process are emerging. An agent approach to fusion applied to friendly contexts, such as logistics, is presented. Agents are suitable for fusion because they can represent autonomous fusion eritities by modelling their capabilities, expertise and intentions. This paper promotes a level 3 centric

  1. Chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Shenoi

    2002-01-01

    There is an increased risk that civilian populations will be targets of domestic terrorism. Release of chemical warfare agents in these populations can cause a large number of casualties, with children being disproportionately affected. Chemical agents pose a significant risk to unprepared medical providers. Emergency medical personnel must be able to diagnose and manage victims of toxic exposures. This article

  2. Activated MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Mark P

    2004-12-01

    The relative non-specificity of the first generation MR contrast agents has meant that a new approach to their design is required. This review focuses on a new class of more specific or functional agents. These are the so-called "activated", "smart" or "responsive" contrast agents. The relaxivity of an activated contrast agent is responsive to (or can be modulated by) a particular in vivo stimulus such as a change in biological environment or activity. More specifically, a "switching on" of contrast in response to an event such as a change in physiological pH, metal ion concentration, enzyme activity or partial pressure of oxygen is sought. The current generation of activated MR contrast agents is discussed herein. PMID:15579041

  3. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  4. PROPRITS MCANIQUES DES VERRES J. ZARZYCKI

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    789 PROPRIÉTÉS MÉCANIQUES DES VERRES J. ZARZYCKI Université de Montpellier 2, Laboratoire des Verres du C. N. R. S., France Résumé. 2014 La résistance mécanique des verres usuels s'écarte très des propriétés mécaniques des verres. Après un brefrappel de la théorie des microfissures (Inglis

  5. Immunosuppressors as multidrug resistance reversal agents.

    PubMed

    Morjani, Hamid; Madoulet, Claudie

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistance (MDR) is the major reason for failure of cancer therapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters contribute to drug resistance via ATP-dependent drug efflux. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is encoded by MDR1 gene, confers resistance to certain anticancer agents. The development of agents able to modulate MDR mediated by Pgp and other ABC transporters remained a major goal for the past 20 years. The calcium blocker verapamil was the first drug shown to be a modulator of Pgp, and since many different chemical compounds have been shown to exert the same effect in vitro by blocking Pgp activity. These included particularly immunosuppressors. Cyclosporin A (CSA) was the first immunosuppressor that have been shown to modulate Pgp activity in laboratory models and entered very early into clinical trials for reversal of MDR. The proof of reversing activity of CSA was found in phase II studies with myeloma and acute leukemia. In phase III studies, the results were less convincing regarding the response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival, which were detected in advanced refractory myeloma. The non-immunosuppressive derivative PSC833 (valspodar) was subsequently developed. This compound showed tenfold higher potency in reversal of MDR mediated by Pgp. However, pharmacokinetic interactions required reductions in the dose of the concurrently administered anticancer agents. The pharmacokinetic interactions were likely because of decreased clearance of the anticancer agents, possibly as a result of Pgp inhibition in organs such as the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, as well as inhibition of cytochrome P450. Finally, CSA and PSC833 have been shown also to modulate the ceramide metabolism which stands as second messenger of anticancer agent-induced apoptosis. In fact, CSA and PSC833 are also able to respectively inhibit ceramide glycosylation and stimulate de novo ceramide synthesis. This could enhance the cellular level of ceramide and potentiate apoptosis induced by some anticancer agents. PMID:19949935

  6. Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.

    PubMed

    Syed, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-15

    Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

  7. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature. PMID:24749822

  8. Travaux de cblage rseaux pour mutation en tlphonie IP l'IUT Moulins Page 1 sur 3 MARCHE VALANT CAHIER DES CHARGES

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    'Université Blaise Pascal - Origine de son pouvoir de signature : Article L 712-2 al. 4 du Code de l des paiements : Agent Comptable de l'Université Blaise Pascal Et La société jours. Le titulaire du marché transmet une facture à la fin des travaux à : l'université Blaise Pascal

  9. Optimisation du dimensionnement des alimentations des machines rluctance variable

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    qui minimisent le dimensionnement du convertisseur tant en courant qu'en tension. Après un rappel des dimensionnement des convertisseurs prenant en compte les valeurs efficaces ou maximales des courant et tension adjoindre un convertisseur d'alimentation à fréquences élevées (jusqu'à quelques kHz). En général, il est à

  10. Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Qualité des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et déchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le développement important de la méthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'être avec des digestats ou non. Les quantités de compost produit ne cessent d

  11. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de psychologie

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    ) L'étudiant choisit les cours du profil Enfants/adolescents (Axe 1), ou du profil Adultes (Axe 2). Cours Axe 1 : Évaluation enfants - adolescents Crédits Inscription Annulation Trimestre Année PSY7236;Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de psychologie Secrétariat des études supérieures Cours Axe 2

  12. SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER ScanMaris Michel MOREL (DCNS), Aldo) «Quiconque est maître sur la mer a un grand pouvoir sur la terre» Cardinal de Richelieu Il est donc Surveillance et de Sauvetage), sémaphores, moyens nautiques et aériens des administrations en mer. Toutefois

  13. Septembre 2012 Paludisme : des moustiques

    E-print Network

    pulvérisations intra domiciliaires d'autres insecticides, les carbamates. Ces derniers agissent différemment au aux pyré- thrinoïdes et pulvérisé des carbamates à l'intérieur des habitations, les scientifiques ont

  14. The DES Story: Lessons Learned

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Robert Hoover discusses the DES followup study, which follows diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposed and unexposed mothers, daughters and sons, and granddaughters for adverse health effects resulting from this exposure.

  15. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  16. Tactile Feeling Display using Functional Electrical Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Tachi, Susumu

    Tactile Feeling Display using Functional Electrical Stimulation Hiroyuki KAJIMOTO, Naoki KAWAKAMI an electro-cutaneous display which stimulate three types of mechanoreceptors in human skin separate- ly. We, electrocutaneous, array elec- trodes, anodic stimulation, functional electrical stimula- tion 1. Introduction

  17. Miniature stimulator for chronic animals.

    PubMed

    Smith, D M

    1978-08-25

    A small lightweight pulse train generator is described. Train frequency and duration and pulse frequency and duration are continuously variable over a range that is suitable for many types of nerve stimulation experiments. Complete electrical specifications and schematics are shown. Also presented are the changes in contraction time of the cat hind leg muscles after 6-week chronic stimulation of the sciatic nerve. The stimulator, with batteries which are sufficient for more than six weeks operation, is small enough to be mounted on cats. PMID:568247

  18. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  19. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  20. Déviance et contrôle des comportements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionel Honoré

    2006-01-01

    (VF)Quel rôle joue le contrôle des comportements et que devient la place de la déviance lorsque les règles s’écartent et que l’autonomie, l’initiative, le progrès constant, deviennent des principes du fonctionnement de l’entreprise et de l’organisation du travail ? Pour tenter d’apporter des éléments de réponses à cette question, nous l’étudions sous l’angle des théories de la déviance. L’objectif est,

  1. Frequency modulated pulsed stimulation in optically stimulated luminescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bulur; L. Bøtter-Jensen; A. S Murray

    2001-01-01

    A new pulsed-OSL stimulation unit capable of producing stimulation pulses down to 4 ?s wide has been developed. A matrix of 49 light emitting diodes (LEDs) are pulsed using a voltage-to-frequency converter, which produces fixed width pulses of adjustable duty cycle in the frequency range 0–10 kHz. Since the average light power falling on a sample is proportional to the

  2. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  3. NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA PAR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE M. CATSARAS J. ANANI Laboratoire Salmonella, 366 prélèvements, dans 125 boucheries, pour lesquels nous avons comparé les techniques d, dus à des coliformes. Ses avantages et ses inconvénients pour la recherche des Salmonella sont

  4. How S-DES Works

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Febiana Hanani; Indri Rahmayuni

    Data Encryption Standard (DES) is one of the most widely used symmetric key cryptography algorithm. Therefore, the susceptibility of DES to different kind of attacks has been a concern since the algorithm was first made public. The problem has escalated to the point that Electronic Frontier Foundation has now built a DES cracking machine, at a cost of less than

  5. Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kreitmair

    1927-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefäße, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drüsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhöht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

  6. Surface Potential Control on Thin Oxide Films with Respect to Electron Stimulated Desorption Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernheim, Marc; Rousse, Gilles

    1995-09-01

    These experiments deal with the study of desorption of negative ions stimulated by low energy electron collisions on insulating surfaces covered with various adsorbates. For such investigation a careful control of the sample surface potential is required to set the incident electron energy accurately as well as to identify the desorbed species by mass spectrometry. Most of the reported experiments concern this surface potential control. We show that, for very thin SiO2 films thermally grown on silicon substrates, a tunnel conduction might set the surface potential accurately. This assertion mainly relies on recording the intensity of electrons transmitted through thin oxides as well as the intensity of backscattered and secondary electrons re-emitted from the surface. A direct comparison of the O^- ion energy distributions confirms the correct control of the surface potential for a large range of incident electron energies. In such condition we noticed that the O^- desorption yields just swiftly varied with incident electron energy. In particular no modification could be detected as the incident electron energy passed the various Auger excitation levels. The discrepancy between this last result and the published data is discussed in the last part of this paper. Des collisions électroniques sur des surfaces peuvent provoquer une éjection d'ions négatifs formés à partir des molécules adsorbées suivant un processus résonnant à très basse énergie. Pour étendre ces études expérimentales aux surfaces isolantes, un contrôle précis du potentiel superficiel devient indispensable tant pour fixer l'énergie finale des électrons sur la surface que pour effectuer la spectrométrie des ions désorbés. L'examen de surfaces de silice en couche mince montre comment une conduction tunnel intervient pour fixer le potentiel des surfaces examinées. Ces travaux expérimentaux effectués dans une configuration de miroir électrostatique reposent principalement sur l'enregistrement des variations de l'intensité des électrons transmis au travers de l'oxyde et de celle des électrons rétrodiffusés par la surface lorsque les potentiels appliqués sont modifiés. La comparaison des distributions énergétiques des ions O^- émis par l'oxyde fournit un contrôle direct de ces résultats. Ces ions résultent d'une décomposition de la silice provoquée par le bombardement électronique. Mais notre montage n'a nullement permis de reproduire les variations rapides de rendement de “désorption” au voisinage des seuils d'excitation Auger du silicium rapportés par d'autres auteurs. A notre avis, différents artefacts expérimentaux ont très vraisemblablement perturbé leurs investigations.

  7. DAMAGING AGENTS AND PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    limit the longevity of individual oaks. People who manage oak trees or woodlands are concerned of the ecological relationships between oaks and damaging agents. Oaks evolved under the challenge of various

  8. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  9. Healthcare Agents: Being One

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Directives Storing Your Advance Directives Healthcare Agents: Being One Advocating for your loved one can be a difficult task. You should ensure ... responsibility and have ongoing conversations with your loved ones about their wishes for end-of-life care. ...

  10. A precision mechanical nerve stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1988-11-01

    An electromechanical device, used to apply and monitor stimulating pulses to a mammalian motor nerve, has been successfully developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Two existing force transducers, a flight skin friction balance and a miniature skin friction balance which were designed for making aerodynamic drag measurements, were modified and incorporated to form this precision instrument. The nerve stimulator is a type one servomechanism capable of applying and monitoring stimulating pulses of 0 to 10 grams with a precision of better than +/- 0.05 grams. Additionally, the device can be independently used to apply stimulating pulses by displacing the nerve from 0 to 0.25 mm with a precision of better than +/- 0.001 mm while measuring the level of the load applied.

  11. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  12. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  13. Wireless Magnetothermal Deep Brain Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ritchie

    Wireless deep brain stimulation of well-defined neuronal populations could facilitate the study of intact brain circuits and the treatment of neurological disorders. Here we demonstrate minimally-invasive and remote neural ...

  14. Electrical stimulation of beef carcasses 

    E-print Network

    McKeith, Floyd Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    - ulation to determine +he various voltages, durations of s+imulation and sites in the slaughter-dressing sequence effect of' quality, palatability and muscle characteristics of' young and mature beef. Elec+rical stimulation parameters for all three.... . ion, (2) ES, a. fter split- ting, of sides and (3) untreated controls, uusplit carcasses or sides. Electrically stimulated carcasses had mor youth- ful, orighter -cclcred longiss mus muscles then control car- casses. Sides from ES carcasses...

  15. 95 stimulations in 63 wells

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, A.I.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1976, extensive studies on the nature of the Eastern gas shales and the production potential from stimulated shale wells have been conducted through joint efforts of industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). Prior to development of this project, the conventional method of stimulating the shales was borehole shooting, and conventional hydraulic fracturing of the shale was just beginning. DOE-industry investigations under the Eastern Gas Shales Project have experimented with other types of stimulations, including massive hydraulic fracturing, foam fracturing, cryogenic fracturing, chemical explosives, and novel treatments. Two of the latter have used (1) nitrogen and (2) oil assisted with nitrogen. Two other treatments, which were unsuccessful, were (1) an open hole packer-stage frac and (2) a kerosene frac. These were operational and conceptual failures. Details of the stimulations and production data, where available, have been complied and studied. The experience that has been gained may prove helpful to those considering stimulation technology in future well drilling ventures in the shale. However, the limited data available in regions of similar geologic factors preclude a thorough analysis of stimulation effectiveness.

  16. Deep brain stimulation for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation for seizures has been applied to cerebellum, caudate, locus coeruleus, subthalamic nucleus, mammillary bodies, centromedian thalamus, anterior nucleus of thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala, hippocampal commissure, corpus callosum, neocortex, and occasionally to other sites. Animal and clinical studies have primarily investigated seizure prevention and, to a lessersmaller extent, seizure interruption. No studies have yet shown stimulation able to cure epilepsy. A wide variety of stimulation parameters have been employed in multiple different combinations of frequencies, amplitudes, and durations. Literature review identifies at least 52 clinical studies of brain stimulation for epilepsy in 817 patients. Two studies were large, randomized, and controlled, one in the anterior nucleus of thalamus and another at the cortical or hippocampal seizure focus; both of these studies showed efficacy and tolerability of stimulation. Many questions remain. We do not know the mechanisms, the best stimulation parameters, the best patient population, or how to predict benefit in advance. We do not know why benefit of neurostimulation for epilepsy seems to increase over time or whether there are long-term deleterious effects. All of these questions may be answerable with a combination of laboratory research and clinical experience. PMID:24112896

  17. TIC et commerce lectronique : laboratoires de la libralisation des changes et des volutions des rgles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 TIC et commerce électronique : laboratoires de la libéralisation des échanges et des évolutions/Département Sciences Economiques et Sociales Les échanges internationaux de produits TIC et le commerce électroniques à terme à l'abolition des droits de douane pour les produits de la filière TIC et les échanges

  18. Agent Server Architecture for the Ajanta MobileAgent System

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    . Keywords: Mobile agents, Distributed computing, Java, Security 1 Introduction Mobile agent and upgrades on remote machines. Security and robustness are the primary con­ cerns in deploying mobile agent. Thus, security mecha­ nisms are necessary. Robustness concerns also require that an agent application

  19. Improving Design with Agents, Improving Agents by Design

    E-print Network

    Brown, David C.

    DCB 1 WPI Improving Design with Agents, or, Improving Agents by Design David C. Brown AI in Design ASSUMPTION Ã? Assume that the design environment is built using agents. i.e., situated, autonomous, flexible Ã?'s future design and synthesis environment will be built as a real multi-agent system. In what follows, we

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the management of painful muscle spasm in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PG Mattison

    1993-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used to treat eight patients with multiple sclerosis who presented with painful lower limb muscle spasms. All eight had experienced a deterioration in functional ability following initial treatment with spasmolytic agents which had produced an undesirable fall in resting muscle tone. Six of the eight patients experienced a significant improvement in symptoms with TENS

  1. Native American medicinal plants. Anemonin from the horse stimulant Clematis hirsutissima.

    PubMed

    Kern, J R; Cardellina, J H

    1983-07-01

    Anemonin, the dilactone of cyclobutane-1,2-diol-1,2-diacrylic acid derived from the cyclodimerization of protoanemonin, a known blistering agent, was isolated from Clematis hirsutissima, a plant used by the Nez Perce and Teton Sioux nations as a horse stimulant. PMID:6632934

  2. Cell Insulin Secretory Response to Oral Hypoglycemic Agents Is Blunted in Humans in Vivo during Moderate Hypoglycemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WALEED ALDHAHI; JEN ARMSTRONG; CLARA BOUCHE; RICHARD D. CARR; ALAN MOSES; ALLISON B. GOLDFINE

    Oral hypoglycemic agents bind to the ATP-sensitive potas- sium channel and lower glucose levels effectively in individ- uals with diabetes. Although the principle mechanism of ac- tion can also promote hypoglycemia, clinically profound hypoglycemia is rare. Decreased stimulation of insulin secre- tion by these agents at mild hypoglycemia could provide pro- tection from more profound hypoglycemia. Sulfonylureas and meglitinides bind

  3. An Implantable Neural Stimulator for Intraspinal MicroStimulation

    PubMed Central

    Troyk, Philip R.; Mushahwar, Vivian K.; Stein, Richard B.; Suh, Sungjae; Everaert, Dirk; Holinski, Brad; Hu, Zhe; DeMichele, Glenn; Kerns, Douglas; Kayvani, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a wireless stimulator device for use in animal experiments as part of an ongoing investigation into intraspinal stimulation (ISMS) for restoration of walking in humans with spinal cord injury. The principle behind using ISMS is the activation of residual motor-control neural networks within the spinal cord ventral horn below the level of lesion following a spinal cord injury. The attractiveness to this technique is that a small number of electrodes can be used to induce bilateral walking patterns in the lower limbs. In combination with advanced feedback algorithms, ISMS has the potential to restore walking for distances that exceed that produced by other types of functional electrical stimulation. Recent acute animal experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of using ISMS to produce the coordinated walking patterns. Here we described a wireless implantable stimulation system to be used in chronic animal experiments and for providing the basis for a system suitable for use in humans. Electrical operation of the wireless system is described, including a demonstration of reverse telemetry for monitoring the stimulating electrode voltages. PMID:23366038

  4. Gestion processuelle des rsultats : Une tude pr-et post-IFRS des dpenses de R&D des

    E-print Network

    1 « Gestion processuelle des résultats » : Une étude pré- et post-IFRS des dépenses de R&D des'adoption des normes IFRS n'a pas neutralisé la capitalisation discrétionnaire des dépenses de R&D, mais que, à. Then the paper focuses on how accounting standards used (PCG/IFRS) alter earnings management based on R

  5. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la résolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

  6. Retinal Stimulation on Rabbit Using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Based Multichip Flexible Stimulator toward Retinal Prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Takashi; Asano, Ryosuke; Sugitani, Sachie; Taniyama, Mari; Terasawa, Yasuo; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Nakauchi, Kazuaki; Fujikado, Takashi; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

    2008-04-01

    The Functionality of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) LSI-based, multichip flexible retinal stimulator was demonstrated in retinal stimulation experiments on rabbits. A 1×4-configured multichip stimulator was fabricated for application to experiments on animals. An experimental procedure including surgical operations was developed, and retinal stimulation was performed with the fabricated multichip stimulator. Neural responses on the visual cortex were successfully evoked by the fabricated stimulator. The stimulator is confirmed to be applicable to acute animal experiments.

  7. The role of aromatase inhibitors in ameliorating deleterious effects of ovarian stimulation on outcome of infertility treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mitwally, Mohamed FM; Casper, Robert F; Diamond, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    Clinical utilization of ovulation stimulation to facilitate the ability of a couple to conceive has not only provided a valuable therapeutic approach, but has also yielded extensive information on the physiology of ovarian follicular recruitment, endometrial receptivity and early embryo competency. One of the consequences of the use of fertility enhancing agents for ovarian stimulation has been the creation of a hyperestrogenic state, which may influence each of these parameters. Use of aromatase inhibitors reduces hyperestrogenism inevitably attained during ovarian stimulation. In addition, the adjunct use of aromatase inhibitors during ovarian stimulation reduces amount of gonadotropins required for optimum stimulation. The unique approach of reducing hyperestrogenism, as well as lowering amount of gonadotropins without affecting the number of mature ovarian follicles is an exciting strategy that could result in improvement in the treatment outcome by ameliorating the deleterious effects of the ovarian stimulation on follicular development, endometrial receptivity, as well as oocyte and embryo quality. PMID:16202169

  8. BULLITIONS NUIT DES SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Gutkin, Boris

    partenariat avec TV5MONDE, Le Monde.fr, France culture Plus et l'Institut français, l'ENS a aussi souhaité de l'événement et des débats animés par Mohamed Kaci (TV5MONDE). Plusieurs thèmes seront abordés : la partager cette nuit avec le plus grand nombre, grâce à un plateau web-tv diffusé en direct dans le monde

  9. COMPORTEMENT SCURITAIRE DES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Robert Latour 1 Résumé Abstract Des données fournies par 109 utilisateurs de systèmes informatiques ont.., CA et Robert Latour L. SC. Com., C.S.E. stat., professeurs agrégés (avec la collaboration de Jacques-5633 Courrier électronique : andre.peres@hec.ca et robert.latour@hec.ca halshs-00587496,version1-20Apr2011

  10. Bilan des turbulences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Milewski; Hervé Péléraux; Olivier Passet; Christine Rifflart; Jean-Marc Daniel

    1994-01-01

    [eng] Turbulences' check-up Département des diagnostics Western economies began their recovery one year ago, but it is still difficult to foresee jobs and capacities creations on the near term. National situations exhibit quite varied imprints of indebtedness and disindebtedness waves brought about by the deregulations and monetary policies. Continental Europe, Germany excepted, has achieved the curbing of corporate failures, but

  11. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  12. Communicating Virtual Agents Nicole Krmer

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    interfaces ¢ Processing of combined verbal and nonverbal user input · Communicating virtual agents Kopp1 KI3 Communicating Virtual Agents Nicole Krämer nicole.kraemer@uni-koeln.de University of Cologne Kopp & Krämer KI3: Communicating virtual agents Meet a communicating virtual agent... Kopp & Krämer KI3

  13. Intelligent Agents Generating Personal Newspapers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cordero; P. Roldan; S. Schiafino; Analía Amandi

    1999-01-01

    NewsAgent i s an intelligent t ype of agent t hat has the capability of generating personal newspapers from particular user preferences extracted by observation and feedback. This agent generates personal newspapers using static word analysis for extracting a global classification and case-based reasoning for dynamic sub- classification. The agent observes users by an applet with capabilities of detecting changes

  14. An Introduction to Agent Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyacinth S. Nwana; Divine T. Ndumu

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent agent technology is a rapidly developing area of research. However, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of work being carried out under the agent banner. In this paper, software agent technology is introduced by briefly overviewing the various agent types currently under investigation by researchers.

  15. Optimal Agents Nicholas James Hay

    E-print Network

    Goodman, James R.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.1 Possible futures, and the expected utility of an agent given a fixed history 41 8.2 Identities of the expected utility of an agent given a fixed history . . . . . 42 8.3 Expectimax agents are optimal agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3 #12;9 Appendix: Odds and Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 9

  16. A 232Channel Epiretinal Stimulator ASIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurits Ortmanns; AndrÉ Rocke; Marcus Gehrke; Hans-JÜergen Tiedtke

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture and design of a stimulator ASIC for a visual prosthesis. The circuit employs fully wireless operation and features 232 channels with a maximum of 116 parallel stimulations. The architecture is separated into shared global functions and locally distributed stimulation functions. High tissue impedance of epiretinal stimulation sets the need for high-voltage output compliance, which is

  17. Salmonella as an Innovative Therapeutic Antitumor Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Wei; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Lack of specificity of the therapeutic agent is a primary limitation in the treatment of a tumor. The use of preferentially replicating bacteria as therapeutic agents is an innovative approach to tumor treatment. This is based on the observation that certain obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria are capable of multiplying selectively in tumors and inhibiting their growth. Bacteria have been employed as antitumor agents that are capable of preferentially amplifying within tumors and inhibiting their growth. Moreover, bacteria-derived factors have an immune-stimulation effect. Therefore, bacteria are able to transfer therapeutic genes into the tumor cells using their infective ability. Herein, we introduce the application of bacteria for tumor therapy and focus on Salmonella, which have been widely used for tumor therapy. Salmonella have mainly been applied as gene-delivery vectors, antitumor immune activators and tumor cell death inducers. This study will not only evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella for the treatment of tumor but will also elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antitumor activities mediated by Salmonella, which involve host immune responses and cellular molecular responses. PMID:25196596

  18. High-frequency, nonlinear flow imaging of microbubble contrast agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Goertz; Andrew Needles; Peter N. Burns; F. Stuart Foster

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that nonlinear scattering can be stimulated from microbubble contrast agents at high-transmit frequencies (14-32 MHz). This work was extended to demonstrate the feasibility of nonlinear contrast imaging through modifications of existing ultrasound biomicroscopy linear B-scan imaging instrumentation. In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of prototype coherent flow imaging instrumentation for nonlinear microbubble imaging

  19. ECOLE DOCTORALE Savoirs scientifiques : pistmologie, histoire des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 ECOLE DOCTORALE Savoirs scientifiques : épistémologie, histoire des sciences, didactique des-DIDEROT, PARIS 7 & DOCTEUR DE L'UNIVERSITE VIRTUELLE DE TUNIS Spécialité : Didactique des mathématiques Présentée'enseignement sur les possibilités d'apprentissage des étudiants Cas des notions ensemblistes fonctionnelles dans la

  20. EVALUATION DES INTERFACES UTILISATEUR : TAXONOMIE ET RECOMMANDATIONS

    E-print Network

    Nigay, Laurence

    'Assurance Qualité se pratique à façon, en fonction des ressources et des objectifs. A chaque cas, sa méthode. Nous Méthodes candidates Résultats souhaités Figure 1 : Choix d'une méthode d'évaluation en fonction des coûts (appel à des experts pratiquant par exemple la technique structurée des ``cognitive walkthrough'' [LEWIS

  1. fevrier 2012 Journes Francophones des Langages Applicatifs JFLA12 Separation des couleurs dans un -calcul bichrome

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AlligatorEggs3 cherche `a expliquer le -calcul `a des enfants. Pour cela il utilise la couleur pour relier des alligators affam´es et des oeufs afin de constituer des familles. La couleur sert `a expliciter les liaisons des variables dans les termes, des oeufs naissent de nouveaux alligators ou familles lors

  2. Effects of sulfur containing amino acids on iron and nitric oxide stimulated catecholamine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Biasetti, M; Dawson, R

    2002-06-01

    Taurine is a free amino acid found in high concentrations in tissues containing catecholamines. The ability of taurine and its metabolic precursors to inhibit or stimulate catecholamine oxidation and subsequent quinone formation was examined. Ferric chloride was used as the catalyzing agent to stimulate L-dopa or norepinephrine oxidation and NO donors were also examined for their actions to stimulate quinone formation. Taurine attenuated iron-stimulated quinone formation from catecholamines suggesting that it may function as an endogenous antioxidant. Several other sulfur-containing amino acids (homocysteic acid, cysteine sulfinic acid and SAM) were found to inhibit catecholamine oxidation. Among other amino acids tested, homocysteine had biphasic effects; attenuating L-dopa oxidation catalyzed by ferric chloride and potentiating norepinephrine's oxidation catalyzed by both ferric chloride and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Homotaurine and homocysteine (1 or 10 mM) greatly stimulated SNP-induced norepinephrine oxidation. Homotaurine potentiated quinone formation in the presence of ferric iron and this effect was attenuated by desferroxamine. In order to exclude a possible NO/iron interaction in SNP's oxidizing action, SIN-1 chloride, a specific NO-donor, was tested as an oxidizing agent. The failure of desferroxamine or taurine to attenuate SIN-1 oxidation of norepinephrine suggests that peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation was likely the dominant mechanism. Our results show that endogenous sulfur containing amino acids, like taurine, could serve a protective role to reduce cellular damage associated with both NO and metal-stimulated catecholamine oxidation. PMID:12107762

  3. Laser stimulation for pain research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Stuart; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.; Jones, Anthony; Chen, Andrew; Derbyshire, Stuart; Townsend, D. W.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Mintun, M. A.; Nichols, T.

    1996-01-01

    Pain is a serious medical problem; it inflicts huge economic loss and personal suffering. Pain signals are conducted via small, non- and partially myelinated A-delta and C nerve fibers and lasers are particularly well suited to stimulating these fibers. Large myelinated fibers convey touch and vibration information and these fibers are also discharged when contact thermodes and other touch pain stimuli are used and this would give a more muddled signal for functional imaging experiments. The advantages of lasers over conventional methods of pain stimulation are good temporal resolution, no variable parameters are involved such as contact area and they give very reproducible results. Accurate inter-stimulus changes can be achieved by computer control of the laser pulse duration, pulse height and repetition rate and this flexibility enables complex stimulation paradigms to be realized. We present a flexible carbon dioxide laser system designed to generate these stimuli for the study of human cerebral pain responses. We discuss the advantages within research of this system over other methods of pain stimulation such as thermal, electrical and magnetic. The stimulator is used in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and electrophysiological methods of imaging the brain's activity. This combination is a powerful tool for the study of pain-induced activity in different areas of the brain. An accurate understanding of the brain's response to pain will help in research into the areas of rheumatoid arthritis and chronic back pain.

  4. The isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from Northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Nanda; A. Chatterjee; A. K. Purohit; A. Diallo; K. Innui; R. N. Sharma; G. Libeau; J. A. Thevasagayam; A. Brüning; R. P. Kitching; J. Anderson; T. Barrett; W. P. Taylor

    1996-01-01

    The aetiological agent responsible for an epizootic of a rinderpest-like disease afflicting sheep and goats in three states of northern India was confirmed as peste des petits ruminants virus. To differentiate the virus from rinderpest a number of diagnostic tests were used, including immunocapture ELISA, specific oligonucleotide primers in a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence with virus specific monoclonal

  5. Total organic carbon disappearance kinetics for supercritical water oxidation of dimethyl methylphospate used as a chemical agent simulant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byoung Min Lee; Bambang Veriansyah; Sung-Hyun Kim; Jae-Duck Kim; Youn-Woo Lee

    2005-01-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) has been proven to be a powerful technology to treat a wide range of wastes, but there\\u000a are few references in the literature about the application of SCWO to chemical weapon agents. In this work, SCWO has been\\u000a tested to treat a chemical agent stimulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), which is similar to the nerve agent VX

  6. Natural antimutagenic agents.

    PubMed

    Mitscher, L A; Telikepalli, H; McGhee, E; Shankel, D M

    1996-02-19

    Following a brief review of recent discoveries in the field of natural antimutagenic and tumor chemopreventive agents, contemporary findings in the author's laboratories employing the direct acting mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate, in modified Ames tests and eukaryotic murine FM3A mammary tumor cells modified to be subject to thymidine-less death are described to illustrate the underlying principles. The EMS studies are illustrated with the isolation of the novel antimutagen, plicatin B, from the medicinal plants, Psoralea juncaea and P. plicata. The FM3A studies are carried out with extracts of Styrax asiatica, a plant previously studied extensively with the EMS system. The FM3A findings closely parallel the earlier work with EMS showing that the responsible agents, cinnamic acid, cinnamoyl ricinoleate and cinnamoyl cinnamate are effective both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic tests and that the new FM3A assay system has useful properties for screening and assay of novel antimutagenic agents. PMID:8657175

  7. Reference Number Non-invasive magnetic stimulation is an emerging technology to stimulate

    E-print Network

    stimulation. Electrical stimulation, however, applies a current directly through the skin of the patient, i contact to the skin and completely painlessly. To cause a stimulus, however, the magnetic stimulation magnetic stimulation did not yet replace electrical stimulation in neuro- logical rehabilitation

  8. Rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Li; Jingyue Bao; Xiaodong Wu; Zhiliang Wang; Junwei Wang; Mingxia Gong; Chunju Liu; Jinming Li

    2010-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral disease of small ruminants. In this report, a one-step, single-tube, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PPRV. A set of six LAMP primers were designed based on the matrix gene sequence of PPRV

  9. Vanadate enhancement of the oxidation of NADH by O2-: effects of phosphate and chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Darr, D; Fridovich, I

    1985-11-15

    Vanadate markedly stimulates the oxidation of NADH by O2-. Both phosphate and Tris are inhibitory, but phosphate diminishes the greater inhibitory effect of Tris and thus gives the appearance of stimulating when added to Tris-buffered reaction mixtures. Chelating agents moderately increased the oxidation of NADH but eliminated the much greater catalytic effect of vanadate. Desferal was the most effective of the chelating agents, and could be used to titrate vanadate spectrophotometrically or in terms of the diminution of its catalytic activity. This permitted the demonstration that metavanadate or orthovanadate could form 1:1 complexes with desferal and that orthovanadate was the catalytically active species. PMID:3851646

  10. CARACTRES CYTOLOGIQUES DES CELLULES GONADOTROPES, THYROTROPES, CORTICOTROPES,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , LTH, ACTH) et les distinguant du groupe des cellules à contenu glycoprotidique (FSH, LH, TSH). b) Bleu distribution très hétérogène des cellules TSH, à l'abondance des cellules ACTH, ces trois dernières catégories

  11. Mobility control agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Hammershaimb; V. A. KuugKraa

    1983-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by means of steam drive, for heavier crudes, and COâ flooding, for lighter, mobilizes oil left behind by more conventional methods and displaces it to producing wells. In higher mobility, fingering, and flow of the drive or flood substance through low permeability paths, reduces the efficiency of EOR. Mobility control agents block these permeable paths. Five

  12. Autonomous Forex Trading Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Pedro Barbosa; Orlando Belo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe an infrastructure for implementing hybrid intelligent agents with the ability to trade in the Forex Market without requiring human supervision. This infrastructure is composed of three modules. The “Intuition Module”, implemented using an Ensemble Model, is responsible for performing pattern recognition and predicting the direction of the exchange rate. The “A Posteriori Knowledge Module”, implemented

  13. Space Travel Agent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Williams

    2010-11-29

    You are in charge of creating a travel brochure to a planet in our solar system. Travel Agent for the Solar System Introduction You are in charge of the new ?Travel the Solar System? account at Universe Travel Agency.

  14. Mobility control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1983-05-17

    Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

  15. Extractable polysaccharides of Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng) root stimulate TNFalpha production by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Assinewe, V A; Amason, J T; Aubry, A; Mullin, J; Lemaire, I

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the immunostimulatory activity of the medicinal plant Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng). Rat alveolar macrophages were treated with different extracts from 4-year old roots, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF) production was used as a measure of immunostimulatory activity. Aqueous extracts of P. quinquefolius root (1-100 microg/ml) were found to significantly stimulate alveolar macrophage TNF release. Both a P. quinquefolius methanol extract containing ginsenosides (but no polysaccharides), and pure ginsenoside-Rb1, the major ginsenoside present in P. quinquefolius, were found to be inactive as TNF-stimulating agents. Significant TNF-stimulating activity was found in the extractable polysaccharide fraction, which was hydrolyzed and found to contain glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, and mannose. This represents the first evidence that North American ginseng exerts cytokine-stimulating activity on macrophages. PMID:12222658

  16. Les mtiers des langues trangres

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    individuel, en groupe, en face à face ou à distance, par téléphone ou en ligne. Il doit être en mesure de s'adapter à des publics sans cesse renouvelé, il faut alors faire preuve de capacités de communication et d'adaptation enseigner les termes de la vie quotidienne à des migrants ou un français plus technique s'il s'adresse à des

  17. V-Durabilit des cramiques et des verres Ce chapitre se propose de traiter de la tenue long terme des cramiques et des verres.

    E-print Network

    V- Durabilité des céramiques et des verres Ce chapitre se propose de traiter de la tenue à long terme des céramiques et des verres. A partir d'exemples présentés dans une première partie, une démarche dans une démarche de conception fiabiliste de composants contenant des verres ou/et des céramiques. V.1

  18. Chemotherapie des metastasierten Nierenzellkarzinoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Beck; C. Huber

    1998-01-01

    Die Lebenserwartung des Patienten mit metastasiertem Nierenzellkarzinom (NZK) ist kurz, so liegt die 5-Jahresüberlebenszeit\\u000a im Stadium IV mit Fernmetastasen unter 10% [5]. Dennoch existiert eine kleine Gruppe von Patienten, die durch günstigeren\\u000a Spontanverlauf und lange Überlebenszeiten charakterisiert ist. Desweiteren kommt es beim NZK zu immer wieder beschriebenen\\u000a Spontanremissionen [12], die jedoch in den wenigen einschlägigen Studien mehrheitlich unter 1% liegen.  

  19. Seltene Tumoren des Integuments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Hofmann; A. Stein; H. Helmbach; A. Philipp; D. Schadendorf

    1999-01-01

    An der Haut manifestieren sich die hufigsten Malignome des Menschen, die epidermalen Plattenepithel- und Basalzellkarzinome,\\u000a sowie auch maligne Melanome mit steigender Inzidenz. Darber hinausgehend sind eine betrchtliche Zahl weiterer, verschiedenartigster,\\u000a jedoch vergleichsweise seltener Tumore am Integument zu beobachten. Das vor allem histologisch bunte Bild resultiert aus Gewebsanteilen\\u000a meso- und ektodermalen Ursprungs, welche in ausgesprochener Differenzierungsvielfalt die Haut und Unterhaut konstituieren.

  20. Strukturanalyse des Hämoglobin Köln

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Carrell; H. Lehmann; W. Pribilla

    1967-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Obwohl das Hb Köln zuerst in Deutschland bei einer Familie aus Köln gefunden wurde, gelang die Aufklärung der molekularen Strukturanomalie erstmalig bei einer aus Glasgow stammenden Familie, die einige deutsche Vorfahren hat. Es konnte mit verschiedenen Methoden gezeigt werden, daß Hb Köln folgende Struktur hat: a2ß2 98 Val?Met. Die in dieser Arbeit dargestellten Untersuchungen zeigen, daß die Strukturanomalie des

  1. Saliva Stimulation and Caries Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Edgar; S. M. Higham; R. H. Manning

    1994-01-01

    The protective role of saliva is demonstrated by the rampant caries seen in human subjects with marked salivary hypofunction, and in desalivated animals. In normal cases, however, the relationship between saliva flow and coronal or root caries experience is doubtful, and to examine the concept that stimulation of saliva might have protective effects against caries, one must look beyond a

  2. Our vision. To stimulate an

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    Our vision. To stimulate an appreciation for lifelong learning within our community. Centre artistic taste 22 July $265| 8 wks Learning guitar for fun 24 July $200 | 8 wks 16 September $200 | 8 wks Indonesian 2 23 September $315 | 10 wks Italian Beginning Italian 1 8 July $265 | 8 wks 23 September $265 | 8

  3. Patient-friendly ovarian stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Olivennes

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal of successful IVF is the birth of a healthy child with no maternal complications. Advances in ovarian stimulation protocols using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) and high doses of gonadotrophins have resulted in increased oocyte numbers with improved pregnancy and birth rates. However, the efficacy of such therapy is controversial when measured against the potential side effects. These

  4. Perception Stimulation in Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBacco, R.

    When handled well, description can give poetry and prose a quality of immediacy and accessibility by creating a dramatic context in which the writer's ideas and feelings can be shared by the reader. The use of perception stimulation can aid the student in producing effective images that lead to this dramatic context. To begin this learning…

  5. Dynamic stimulated Brillouin scattering analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Djupsjobacka; C. Jacobsen; B. Tromborg

    2000-01-01

    We present a new simple analysis-including the effect of spontaneous emission-of the (dynamic) influence of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) on the detected receiver eye diagram. It applies in principle for general types of modulation formats such as the digital formats of amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK), and phase shift keying (PSK). The analysis is formulated for a

  6. ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) at pilot scale. The pilot unit consisted of a conventional baghouse in parallel with an ESFF baghouse, allowing direct comparison. Reported results are for pulse-cl...

  7. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)] [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)] [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  8. Stimulating parameters and de-synchronization in vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-L.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Ma, J.; Feng, W.-J.

    2008-02-01

    The influence of the stimulation parameters on the de-synchronization of small world Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neural network is numerically investigated in the vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy. The simulation shows that synchronization evolves into de-synchronization when a part of neurons (about 10 percent) is stimulated with a pulse current signal. The network de-synchronization appears to be sensitive to the stimulation parameters. For the case of the same stimulation intensity, those weakly coupled networks reach de-synchronization more easily than strongly coupled networks. There exist an optimal stimulation interval and period of continuous stimulation time when other stimulation parameters remain invariable.

  9. Hrp mutant bacteria as biocontrol agents

    PubMed Central

    Hanemian, Mathieu; Zhou, Binbin; Deslandes, Laurent; Marco, Yves; Trémousaygue, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture necessitates development of environmentally safe methods to protect plants against pathogens. Among these methods, application of biocontrol agents has been efficiently used to minimize disease development. Here we review current understanding of mechanisms involved in biocontrol of the main Gram-phytopathogenic bacteria-induced diseases by plant inoculation with strains mutated in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes. These mutants are able to penetrate plant tissues and to stimulate basal resistance of plants. Novel protection mechanisms involving the phytohormone abscisic acid appear to play key roles in the biocontrol of wilt disease induced by Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis thaliana. Fully understanding these mechanisms and extending the studies to other pathosystems are still required to evaluate their importance in disease protection. PMID:23887499

  10. Every agent a web server, every agent community an intranet…

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall Brinn; Todd M. Carrico; Nathan Combs

    2001-01-01

    The research community is struggling with the right approach to integrate emerging agent technology with the exploding web page- based Internet. This paper presents the approach used in Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) under DARPAs Advanced Logistics Project (ALP). In this effort, each agent was constructed with a build- in web server, supported by specialized API for easy creation of modular

  11. Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package

    E-print Network

    Logan, Brian

    built using the core library © Brian Logan 2013 G54DIA Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package 6 #12;Java Javadoc documentation for the core library and the demo code © Brian Logan 2013 G54DIA Tutorial 1: JavaG54DIA: Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package Brian Logan School of Computer

  12. Agent Verification Protocol in Agent-Based IDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LuqmanulHakim Mohd Nasir; Kamaruzzaman Seman; Madihah Mohd Saudi

    2008-01-01

    Agent-based IDS is a powerful technique used by network administrator to monitor traffic activities in their network. However, the widespread network coverage has introduced a possibility of a hacker installing unauthorized agents or fake agents secretly within the network. This is considered as a very serious threat to the network security. This paper proposes a protocol that is used to

  13. Le temps des unes et le temps des autres

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Le temps des unes et le temps des autres ans une journée tout le monde dispose de vingt-quatre heures. De quelle manière le temps est-il compté, quantifié et analysé selon les institutions ? Les temps. Dans les couples, hommes et femmes se ressemblent dans leur usage du temps sauf dans deux

  14. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de sciences biologiques

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    i Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de sciences biologiques Plan de cours Politique sur étudiants de déposer leur copie d'examen et de libérer la salle. Ex : examen d'une durée de 1h45 ou de 2h45 2014 2h45 B-442 Les examens comportent deux parties: une série de 30 questions objectives et 2

  15. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de sciences biologiques

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    i Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de sciences biologiques Plan de cours Politique sur étudiants de déposer leur copie d'examen et de libérer la salle. Ex : examen d'une durée de 1h45 ou de 2h45 examens comportent deux parties: une série de 30 questions objectives et 2-3 questions de synthèse ou d

  16. Rles indirects des microtubules dans la morphogense nuclaire des spermatides

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rôles indirects des microtubules dans la morphogenèse nucléaire des spermatides J.-L. COURTENS. Summary. The indirect roles of microtubules in the nuclear morphogenesis of spermatids. The depolymerization of the microtubules of the spermatid manchette was effective for 4 to 5 h in rat, starting 30 min

  17. Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    'analyse phylogénétique. Les 3 domaines du vivant: Archées, Eubactéries et Eucaryotes. Origine évolutive des Eucaryotes leurs niches écologiques. Éléments de contenu : Chapitre 6 - Origine évolutive des Végétaux. Végétaux et al. 2005 et de Campbell et al. 2012) #12;CALENDRIER Date Local Pavillon Contenu Mer. 8 mai 1409 A

  18. Exploration des Ondelettes en Prtraitement des Documents Anciens Anis Kricha

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Exploration des Ondelettes en Prétraitement des Documents Anciens Anis Kricha 1 ­ Amina Ghardallou de numérisation posent un axe de recherche très récent particulièrement pour les documents anciens présente une étape incontournable pour la restauration et le nettoyage d'un document. Elle permet d

  19. FACULTE DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    FACULT´E DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES D´EPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE AUTOMNE 2013 PLAN DE COURS Sigle du cours: PHY 1234 Titre du cours: Introduction `a la physique num´erique Nombre de cr´edits: 3 Professeur est offert principalement aux ´etudiant(e)s inscrit(e)s au premier cycle en physique et au programme

  20. Cross-Platform Generative Agent Migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In some agent applications agents need to move between locations to perform their tasks. Agent migration, however, is often complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the agent environment. For example, the platform from which an agent migrates (source-platform) may not be compatible with the platform to which the agent migrates (destination platform). Different solutions for cross-platform agent migration are possible.

  1. Electrical Stimulation in Epilepsy: Vagus Nerve and Brain Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C. Jobst

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement  Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for epilepsy is a well established and effective treatment for medically intractable epilepsy.\\u000a VNS is indicated if resective epilepsy surgery is unsuccessful or is not an option. About 50% of patients with VNS have a\\u000a seizure reduction greater than 50%, but less than 10% become seizure-free. VNS also has an alerting effect on patients and

  2. Open Reflective Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Giroux

    1995-01-01

    We started this work with the deep conviction that systems and agents have to be designed as open information systems (OIS) and should behave as envi-ronment sensitive creatures evolving in close accordance with their environment. From this stance, adaptation soon emerged as the central issue, and interoperabil-ity revealed quickly as an adaptive process. To tackle adaptation in OIS, we de-veloped

  3. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  4. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  5. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  6. [New thrombolytic agents].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, G; Samama, M

    1987-01-01

    Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA), Single Chain Urokinase Plasminogen Activator or pro-Urokinase (scu-PA or pro-UK) and acyl enzymes are new thrombolytic agents, characterized by a high fibrin affinity, so that they provoke only mild systemic fibrinolytic effect. Their infusion would allie good thrombolytic activity and reduced hemorragic risks, usually related to fibrinogen and others coagulation factors degradation t-PA and scu-PA are natural, physiological substances, obtained by recombinant DNA technology. t-PA infusion in acute myocardial infusion (AMI) has been shown to be at least as efficient than intracoronary Streptokinase (SK) administration, but fibrinogenolysis was much lower as compared to SK. In vitro studies have shown that scu-PA was an efficient thrombolytic agent and has a relative fibrin specificity, at least as similar to t-PA, but much superior to classical Urokinase. The acyl-enzyme APSAC or Eminase is a SK-plasminogen complex in which the proteolytic site has been inactivated with an anisoic-acid. This acyl enzyme has a longer half-life than t-PA and scu-PA, and can be injected as a bolus. Its administration in AMI have shown that APSAC is as effective as SK, but can also provoke severe fibrinogenolysis. These 3 agents seem to have similar thrombolytic activities on coronary thrombi. However, further studies are required to evaluate the bleeding incidence and coronary reocclusion rates associated with their utilisation. PMID:3113300

  7. Launch commit criteria monitoring agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S. Semmel; Steven R. Davis; Kurt W. Leucht; Daniel A. Rowe; Andrew O. Kelly; Ladislau Bölöni

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when

  8. Personalizing user-agent interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    2006-01-01

    Interface agents are computer programs that provide personalized assistance to users with their computer-based tasks. The interface agents developed so far have focused their attention on learning a user's preferences in a given application domain and on assisting him according to them. However, in order to personalize the interaction with users, interface agents should also learn how to best interact

  9. Comic Actors Representing Software Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knut Manske; Rimbert Rudisch

    1998-01-01

    A growing amount of tasks are expected to be delegated to software agents by human users. Such agents carry personal data of the user and act on his behalf. If mobile software agents leave the users' host, the users are left with an uncomfortable lack of knowledge about and control over “what's going on”. The authors believe that an important

  10. Emergent Behavior and Mobile Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony White; Bernard Pagurek

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring multi-agent systems exhibit remarkable problem solving capabilities even in the absence of centralized planning. These syst ems exhibit complex, emergent behavior that is robust with respect to the failure of indi vidual agents. Such systems are usually characterized by the interaction of a large n umber of simple agents that sense and change their environment locally. In this

  11. Rekonstruktion des Gesichts bei Verbrennungen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Steen

    2003-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die Rekonstruktion des Gesichts bei Schwerbrandverletzten ist ein komplexer Bereich, bei dem schon die primäre Versorgung und Transplantationstechnik wesentlichen Einfluss auf das Endergebnis haben. Neben funktionellen Rekonstruktionen bei Narbenkontrakturen, Ektropion und inkomplettem Lidschluss, narbiger Begrenzung der Mundöffnung und Verlegungen des Naseneingangs finden heute auch Techniken Anwendung, welche vorrangig aus der ästhetischen Chirurgie bekannt sind. Beispiele dafür sind Haartransplantationen, Glättung

  12. Ageismus – Sprachliche Diskriminierung des Alters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Undine Kramer

    Daniel Sanders, einer der bedeutendsten Lexikografen des 19. Jahrhunderts, wertete für sein Wörterbuch Quellen seit der Lutherzeit aus und\\u000a vermerkt im Wörterbuchartikel zu alt eine „bald lobende, bald tadelnde“ Bedeutung des Adjektivs. Sein Zeit- und Berufsgenosse Jacob Grimm benennt in seiner Rede über das Alter die zeitgenössischen Synonyme zu alt und Alter: „aus einheimischen schriftstellern liesze sich eine lange reihe

  13. HABILITATION `A DIRIGER DES RECHERCHES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HABILITATION `A DIRIGER DES RECHERCHES PR´ESENT´EE `A L'UNIVERSIT´E CLAUDE BERNARD LYON I INSTITUT dilogarithme de Rogers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.4 Carquois et cat´egories d cambriens et ´equivalences d´eriv´ees . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.7 Cat´egorification des op

  14. Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by insoluble gadolinium salts.

    PubMed

    Bleavins, Katherine; Perone, Patricia; Naik, Madhav; Rehman, Muneeb; Aslam, Muhammad N; Dame, Michael K; Meshinchi, Sasha; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess insoluble salts containing gadolinium (Gd(3+)) for effects on human dermal fibroblasts. Responses to insoluble Gd(3+) salts were compared to responses seen with Gd(3+) solubilized with organic chelators, as in the Gd(3+)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) used for magnetic resonance imaging. Insoluble particles of either Gd(3+) phosphate or Gd(3+) carbonate rapidly attached to the fibroblast cell surface and stimulated proliferation. Growth was observed at Gd(3+) concentrations between 12.5 and 125 ?M, with toxicity at higher concentrations. Such a narrow window did not characterize GBCA stimulation. Proliferation induced by insoluble Gd(3+) salts was inhibited in the presence of antagonists of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways (similar to chelated Gd(3+)) but was not blocked by an antibody to the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (different from chelated Gd(3+)). Finally, high concentrations of the insoluble Gd(3+) salts failed to prevent fibroblast lysis under low-Ca(2+) conditions, while similar concentrations of chelated Gd(3+) were effective. In conclusion, while insoluble Gd(3+) salts are capable of stimulating fibroblast proliferation, one should be cautious in assuming that GBCA dechelation must occur in vivo to produce the profibrotic changes seen in association with GBCA exposure in the subset of renal failure patients that develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:21882070

  15. Glioma localization and excision using direct electrical stimulation for language mapping during awake surgery

    PubMed Central

    LI, TIANDONG; BAI, HONGMIN; WANG, GUOLIANG; WANG, WEIMIN; LIN, JIAN; GAO, HAN; WANG, LIMIN; XIA, LIHUI; XIE, XUEMIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the method and significance of the application of direct electrical stimulation (DES) to the brain mapping of language functions during glioma surgery. A retrospective analysis of clinical data was performed for 91 cases of brain functional area glioma surgery under DES from January 2003 until January 2012. Following cortical electrical stimulation, 88 patients exhibited seizures involving facial or hand movements and 91 cases experienced language disorders such as counting interruption, naming errors or anomia. The most commonly observed areas of counting interruption were distributed on the posterior part of the left anterior central gyrus (47.7%), the operculum of the left inferior frontal gyrus (24.4%) and the triangular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (12.8%). Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that overall excision was achieved in 53 cases and sub-overall excision was performed in 31 cases. A total of 42 cases (46.2%) exhibited no postoperative neurological dysfunction, 39 cases (42.9%) exhibited brief language dysfunction, 27 cases (29.7%) experienced brief limb movement disorder, and one case appeared to have permanent neurological dysfunction. DES was indicated to be a reliable and noninvasive method for the intraoperative positioning of language areas, and was able to resect gliomas in the language area with maximal safety.

  16. La pertinence informationnelle des chiffres comptables aprs l'adoption des Mise en vidence du rle des facteurs institutionnels

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 La pertinence informationnelle des chiffres comptables après l'adoption des IFRS Mise en évidence informationnelle additionnelle des chiffres comptables due à l'adoption des IFRS. Les tests empiriques ont porté financière (Dyck et Zingales 2007) et les différences entre les normes locales et les IFRS (Bae et al. 2008

  17. POSTES DE GRAVURE HUMIDE MANUELS Ce sont des postes scuriss qui permettent le traitement manuel des plaquettes dans des rcipients

    E-print Network

    Ingrand, François

    POSTES DE GRAVURE HUMIDE MANUELS Ce sont des postes sécurisés qui permettent le traitement manuel des plaquettes dans des récipients contenant le réactif de gravure humide CARACTERISTIQUES PRINCIPALES conduire une gravure humide (attaque chimique) du matériau concerné dans des récipients adaptés posés sur

  18. Les marchs des investisseurs institutionnels sont-ils efficients : cas des fonds de pension et des unit trusts britanniques

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Les marchés des investisseurs institutionnels sont-ils efficients : cas des fonds de pension et des, nous proposons d'étudier la persistance de la performance de deux échantillons de fonds (de pension et long terme, et en investissant sur le marché des actions, les fonds de pension ne semblent pas avoir

  19. Multisensory Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Barbro Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, and various kinds of music therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation has showed promising preliminary results in aphasia and neglect. Patient heterogeneity and the interaction of age, gender, genes, and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post-stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation. It is proposed that we should pay more attention to age, gender, and laterality in clinical studies. PMID:22509159

  20. Method for stimulating well production

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, J.F.

    1980-06-03

    The production of hydrocarbons from a subterranean hydrocarbonbearing formation containing acid-soluble components, such as one composed at least in part of dolomite or limestone, is stimulated by injecting into the formation a composition comprising an aqueous solution of a mineral acid having dissolved therein an oxyalkylated acrylamido alkanesulfonic acid polymer. The increase in the permeability and porosity of the formation achieved utilizing the method of invention results in a substantial improvement in hydrocarbon recovery.

  1. Thermally Stimulated Current Radiation Dosimeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Mitchell; D. G. DeNure

    1973-01-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) radiation dosimeters were made from the borosilicate sealing glass used to make transistor headers. These dosimeters, consisting of a metal-glass-metal sandwich structure with electrodes (Kovar or Nicoseal) bonded to the glass with glass-to-metal seals, were experimentally studied to determine how they operate, and how they can be used in the design of a practical dosimetry system.

  2. Hydraulic redistribution may stimulate decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary T. Aanderud; James H. Richards

    2009-01-01

    Roots influence root litter decomposition through multiple belowground processes. Hydraulic lift or redistribution (HR) by\\u000a plants is one such process that creates diel drying–rewetting cycles in soil. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon influences\\u000a decomposition. Since decomposition in deserts is constrained by low soil moisture and is stimulated when dry soils are rewetted,\\u000a we hypothesized that diel drying–rewetting, via

  3. Elementary processes of stimulated emission

    SciTech Connect

    Elyutin, Pavel V [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-31

    We consider the simplest process of stimulated emission, i.e., evolution of an excited two-level atom interacting with a quantized electromagnetic field being initially in a one-photon state under different boundary conditions imposed on the field. We study the kinetics of evolution, spectral properties and modal composition of the radiation field emerging in such processes. It is shown that in the general case this field is only partly composed of doubly occupied modes.

  4. Maximum Electrical Stimulation for Urge Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Nakamura; Tsutomu Sakurai; Hideki Sugao; Takao Sonoda

    1987-01-01

    Urge incontinence was controlled in 13 (62%) of 21 patients by maximum electrical stimulation which was applied to the anus or the perianal skin. The first session of maximum electrical stimulation was able to determine if this treatment would be successful. This method of patient selection for further stimulation was simple and reliable and achieved clinical success in all of

  5. Cycling by means of functional electrical stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margit Gföhler; Peter Lugner

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this paper was the development of an optimized stimulation pattern of leg muscles that would allow paraplegic subjects to perform the movement of pedaling and thereby to drive a tricycle by means of functional electrical stimulation (FES). To obtain maximum average power output with minimum muscle force, the start, duration and amplitude of the stimulation signal applied

  6. Electrical Stimulation in Isolated Rabbit Retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeng-Shyong Shyu; Mauricio Maia; James D. Weiland; T. O'Hearn; Shih-Jen Chen; E. Margalit; S. Suzuki; M. S. Humayun

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of stimulating electrode parameters (size, position, and waveform shape) on electrically elicited ganglion cell action potentials from isolated rabbit retina. Thirty-eight isolated rabbit retinas were stimulated with bipolar stimulating electrodes (either 125 or 25 mum in diameter) positioned on either the ganglion or the photoreceptor side. Recording electrodes were placed between the optic

  7. ARTICLE / ARTICLE Functional electrical stimulation using

    E-print Network

    Loeb, Gerald E.

    stimulation (2.29 ± 0.37, mean ± SD) and greatly reduced with surface (1.29 ± 0.10) and BIONic stimulation (1/min with surface and 17.8 ± 0.7 m/min with BIONic stimulation. These results suggest that FES delivered by a BION

  8. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Intensities in Cognitive Paradigms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob A. Kaminski; Franziska M. Korb; Arno Villringer; Derek V. M. Ott; Joseph Najbauer

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundTranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become an important experimental tool for exploring the brain's functional anatomy. As TMS interferes with neural activity, the hypothetical function of the stimulated area can thus be tested. One unresolved methodological issue in TMS experiments is the question of how to adequately calibrate stimulation intensities. The motor threshold (MT) is often taken as a reference

  9. Conditioning of eye movements with auditory stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Marr; Dewey J. Bayer; Peter L. Borchelt

    1969-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that response-contingent stimulation is reinforcing. Stimulation to 1 modality was used as reinforcement in conditioning search behavior in another modality. 83 male undergraduates were Ss. Following 1 hr. of restricted or enriched stimulation, eye movements (EMs) to 1 side were followed by high variation in sound, low variation, or no sound, with E blind as to

  10. PHI 1901 : Pense rationnelle et argumentation Dpartement de philosophie, Facult des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    PHI 1901 : Pensée rationnelle et argumentation Département de philosophie, Faculté des arts et des rationalité et de l'importance de l'argumentation. Analyse du concept, de la définition et de la proposition, acceptabilité des prémisses, nécessité et suffisance. Étude des sophismes et des erreurs de raisonnements

  11. Evaluation des proprits thermiques de surface de la neige par assimilation des

    E-print Network

    Ribes, Aurélien

    simulations Crocus/forçage ERA-interim, les réanalyses ERA-interim et les données MODIS. #12;Plan I. Cycles, des simulations Crocus et des réanalyses ERA-interim IV. Conclusion et travaux envisagés #12;I. Cycles partir des données MODIS, des simulations Crocus et des réanalyses ERA-iterim #12;Cartes mensuelles de

  12. Gestion des terminologies riches : l'exemple des et Mathieu MANGEOT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gestion des terminologies riches : l'exemple des acronymes Ying ZHANG 1 et Mathieu MANGEOT 1 (1 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ La gestion des terminologies pose encore des problèmes, en particulier pour des constructions____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Complex terminologies management ­ the case of acronyms Terminology management is still problematic

  13. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  14. Lymphokine stimulation of collagen accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R L; Ziff, M

    1976-01-01

    Lymphokine-rich supernates from normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated by the mitogen phytohemagglutinin, have been shown to cause enhanced collagen accumulation by human embryonic lung fibroblasts (WI-38), as measured by hydroxyproline content of fibroblast monolayers, [14C] proline incorporation into soluble collagen and collagenase release of radioactivity in supernates and monolayers of cultures incubated with [14C] proline. This fibroblast-stimulating activity, demonstrable by suitable dilutions of the supernates, coexisted with a number of other lymphokine activities such as lymphotoxin, proliferation inhibitory factor, and cloning inhibitory factor, which tend to reduce the numbers of function of fibroblasts. The increased content of collagen appeared to be the product of selected surviving and responding fibroblasts. The factor causing this increased collagen accumulation was nondialyzable and stable at -70 degrees C. It represents the first described lymphoid cell-derived activity capable of enhancing collagen accumulation. Fibroblast-stimulating activity may be implicated in the abnormal fibrosis seen in association with chronic inflammation in a variety of disease states. It may have special relevance to progressive systemic sclerosis. PMID:932208

  15. Des Moines Water Works

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

  16. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation coupled with repetitive electrical stimulation on cortical spreading depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Fregni; David Liebetanz; Katia K. Monte-Silva; Manuella B. Oliveira; Angela A. Santos; Michael A. Nitsche; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Rubem C. A. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    We have recently shown that two techniques of brain stimulation – repetitive electrical stimulation (ES) (that mimics transcranial magnetic stimulation) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) – modify the velocity of cortical spreading depression (CSD) significantly. Herein we aimed to study the effects of these two techniques combined on CSD. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to

  17. Formation et intgration Mise jour des dossiers

    E-print Network

    Spino, Claude

    Formation et intégration Mise à jour des dossiers du personnel Intégration des nouveaux employés les moyennes et grandes entreprises, ainsi que dans les domaines publics et de la consultation privée affaires permet aux étudiants d'acquérir des connaissances et des qualités propres au domaine de la gestion

  18. Gntique formelle des pigmentations humaines variations continues

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Génétique formelle des pigmentations humaines à variations continues : beaucoup d'hypothèses, peu et de mesures sont actuellement disponibles concer- nant la biochimie des pigments humains, leur génétique physiologique, les répartitions mondiales des pigmentations de la peau et des cheveux. La

  19. ACTION DES ANTIBIOTIQUES SUR PORCELETS ALLAITS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    VII. - ACTION DES ANTIBIOTIQUES SUR PORCELETS ALLAITÉS E. SALMON LEGAGNEUR M. MICHEL Station de. - Technique de distribution. C. - Animaux. D. - Dosage des antibiotiques. E. - Etude des flores intestinales : a) mortalité ; b) diarrhées ; c) régularité. D. - Étude des flores intestinales : a) Examen

  20. Absorptionsspektrum des Sehpurpurs und des Sehgelb. „Nachbleichung des Sehgelb im Dunkeln“

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Hosoya

    1934-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Eine photoelektrische Versuchsanordnung, die aus einer Selen-Sperrschichtphotozelle, einemMollschen Spiegelgalvanometer und einem Monochromator besteht, ist sehr geeignet das Absorptionsspektrum der photosensiblen Substanz der Netzhaut ohne die Gefahr der Bleichung während der Messung zu bestimmen. Mit diesen Meßgeräten wurde die spektrale Absorption des mit früheren, sowie neuerlich von mir benutzten Extraktionsmitteln hergestellten Sehpurpurs und des Sehgelb genauer und viel schneller als

  1. A prescreening system for potential antiproliferative agents: implications for local treatment strategies of postangioplasty restenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Voisard; Ulrich Seitzer; Regine Baur; Peter C. Dartsch; Hans Osterhues; Martin Höher; Vinzenz Hombach

    1995-01-01

    Background. Recent advances in the understanding of the biology of restenosis indicate that it is predominantly caused by a multifactorial stimulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of five potential antiproliferative agents on smooth muscle cells from human atherosclerotic femoral arteries. Methods and results. Primary stenosing plaque material of

  2. Des recommandations pour prévenir l’ophtalmie néonatale

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Malgré la prévalence décroissante de Neisseria gonorrhoeae au Canada, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie recommande que, le plus tôt possible après la naissance, tous les nourrissons reçoivent un traitement prophylactique de nitrate d’argent, de tétracycline ou d’érythromycine, afin de réduire le risque d’ophtalmie néonatale causée par cet organisme. Le recours à ces agents peut également se révéler bénéfique pour prévenir l’ophtalmie causée par d’autres organismes. De plus, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie appuie le dépistage prénatal systématique de N gonorrhoeae et de Chlamydia trachomatis, de même que le traitement des infections dépistées pendant la grossesse.

  3. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  4. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  5. Analyzing How Social Agents Influence Interpersonal Communication

    E-print Network

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki

    Analyzing How Social Agents Influence Interpersonal Communication Hideyuki Nakanishi1 , Satoshi on interpersonal communication. In the first experiment, the agent supported cross-cultural communication' sentiment toward the agent, and their relations. Keywords: Social agents, interpersonal communication

  6. Fingerprinting malathion vapor: a simulant for VX nerve agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Renbo; Ding, Yujie J.; Zotova, Ioulia B.

    2008-04-01

    Being motivated by the possibility of fingerprinting and detecting VX nerve agent, we have investigated its stimulant, i.e. malathion vapor, which is less toxic and commercially available, in the far-infrared/THz transition region and THz frequency range. Such a spectroscopic study was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Our intention is to obtain a specific spectroscopic signature of VX nerve agent as a chemical warfare agent. Following our experimental result, we have successfully observed eleven new absorption peaks from malathion vapor in the spectral ranges from 15 cm -1 to 68 cm -1 and from 75 cm -1 to 640 cm -1. Specifically, in the far-infrared/THz transition region, we have observed eight peaks and whereas in the THz region we have identified three relatively weak transition peaks. In addition, we have investigated the dependence of the absorption spectra on temperature in the range from room temperature to 60°C. In both of the frequency ranges, we have found that absorption coefficients significantly increase with increasing temperature. By comparing the transition peaks in the two frequency ranges, we have concluded that the frequency range of 400-640cm -1 is an optimal range for fingerprinting this chemical specie. We have designated two peaks for effectively and accurately identifying the VX nerve agents and one peak for differentiating between malathion and VX nerve agent.

  7. Ultrasound contrast agents and their use in monitoring therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Katherine; Dayton, Paul; Shortencarrier, Michaelann; Kruse, Dustin

    2003-10-01

    The shell of ultrasound contrast agents can be modified to include a molecular targeting ligand, and the properties of the agent with and without molecular targeting can be used to monitor changes produced by a therapy. We have investigated the use of ligands targeted to an integrin expressed in cancer, whose expression correlates with tumor grade. Acoustic studies illustrate a 3- to 20-fold increase in echo amplitude from integrin-expressing cells exposed to the targeted contrast agent, as compared to controls, and depending on cell type, stimulation, and targeting ligand. Changes in integrin expression with therapy may be important in future studies. We have also developed a system to quantify small changes in vascular parameters due to effects of new anti-angiogenic drugs using the intrinsic properties of contrast agents. Regions containing intravascular contrast agents are identified using a strategy that combines subharmonic and phase inversion imaging. As predicted by a Rayleigh-Plesset analysis, this strategy can successfully detect flow over a range of transmission frequencies from 4-6 MHz. We demonstrate that regions of viable tumor as small as 1 mm, as verified by histology, can be detected and show similar morphology to images acquired with computed tomography (CT).

  8. Infrared neural stimulation in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud; Bendett, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The application of photonics to manipulate and stimulate neurons and to study neural networks has gained momentum over the last decade. Two general methods have been used: the genetic expression of light or temperature sensitive ion channels in the plasma membrane of neurons (Optogenetics and Thermogenetics) and the direct stimulation of neurons using infrared radiation (Infrared Neural Stimulation, INS). Both approaches have their strengths and challenges, which are well understood with a profound understanding of the light tissue interaction(s). This paper compares the opportunities of the methods for the use in cochlear prostheses. Ample data are already available on the stimulation of the cochlea with INS. The data show that the stimulation is selective, feasible at rates that would be sufficient to encode acoustic information and may be beneficial over conventional pulsed electrical stimulation. A third approach, using lasers in stress confinement to generate pressure waves and to stimulate the functional cochlea mechanically will also be discussed. PMID:25075260

  9. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, Dirk; Pedersen, David A. K.; Benn, Mathias; Jørgensen, John L.

    2014-04-01

    We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical stimulator is used as a test bench to simulate high-precision navigation by different types of camera systems that are used onboard spacecraft, planetary rovers, and for spacecraft rendezvous and proximity maneuvers. Careful hardware design and preoperational calibration of the stimulator result in high precision and long-term stability. The system can be continuously used over several days. By facilitating a full camera including optics in the loop, the stimulator enables the more realistic simulation of flight maneuvers based on navigation cameras than pure computer simulations or camera stimulations without the involvement of the actual optics.

  10. Infrared neural stimulation in the cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud; Bendett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The application of photonics to manipulate and stimulate neurons and to study neural networks has gained momentum over the last decade. Two general methods have been used: the genetic expression of light or temperature sensitive ion channels in the plasma membrane of neurons (Optogenetics and Thermogenetics) and the direct stimulation of neurons using infrared radiation (Infrared Neural Stimulation, INS). Both approaches have their strengths and challenges, which are well understood with a profound understanding of the light tissue interaction(s). This paper compares the opportunities of the methods for the use in cochlear prostheses. Ample data are already available on the stimulation of the cochlea with INS. The data show that the stimulation is selective, feasible at rates that would be sufficient to encode acoustic information and may be beneficial over conventional pulsed electrical stimulation. A third approach, using lasers in stress confinement to generate pressure waves and to stimulate the functional cochlea mechanically will also be discussed. PMID:25075260

  11. Pharmacological agents and bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Umberto; Cerocchi, Irene; Celi, Monica; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Saturnino, Luca; Gasbarra, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common alteration of bone metabolism. It derives from an increase in bone resorption with respect to bone formation and is characterized by microarchitectural alterations, decreased bone mass and increased risk of fracture. The coupling between bone formation and resorption is a fundamental concept in skeletal metabolism, and it explains how a certain amount of removed tissue can be replaced by the same amount of new bone. Various substances used to treat osteoporosis may also be used for orthopaedic conditions such as fracture healing, implant fixation, bone grafts and osteonecrosis. Fracture healing consists in the replacement of the lost bone by a tissue that has the same biomechanical properties as those preceding the fracture. The repair process is triggered by the local response to the tissue injury that damaged the continuity of bone. The duration of each phase of the healing process can vary significantly, depending on the site and characteristics of the fracture, on patient related factors and on the treatment choice. While most of the fractures heal with conventional treatment, they can also cause permanent damage and complications, especially in a certain kind of patients. Osteoporosis and old age may contribute in delaying or impairing the reparative process. In animal models the healing process is slower in older and/or ovariectomized animals. Biomechanical tests have also shown that bone strength is compromised in human osteoporotic cadaver bone. The same problems were highlighted in the surgical treatment of fractures in osteoporotic patients. Mainly in the treatment of hip fractures there is an increased risk of cut-out, re-fractures and implant failure in patients with osteoporosis. Preclinical studies have shown that certain pharmacological agents (bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, teriparatide) may enhance osseointegration and stimulate reparative processes. They may be administered systemically and/or used locally at the fracture site on the implant surface. The aim of fracture treatment is to restore bone biomechanical properties and to allow restoring normal function at the affected site. If the new pharmacological approaches could be translated into clinical benefit and offered to patients with osteoporosis or other factors that put at risk the process of healing (subjects with severe loss of substance or fractures at high risk of complications), they could represent a valuable aid in the treatment of fractures. PMID:22461164

  12. Sildenafil stimulates aqueous humor turnover in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lawrence J; Zamudio, Aldo C; Candia, Oscar A

    2013-06-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ?2 h of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ?45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90-120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 ?L/min to 3.14 ?L/min (P < 0.001, as two-tailed paired data, n = 20 eyes). This observation indicates that sildenafil citrate, which is a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor currently marketed as a vasodilator (e.g., Viagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  13. ARCHIVAL REPORT Nondependent Stimulant Users of Cocaine and

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    ARCHIVAL REPORT Nondependent Stimulant Users of Cocaine and Prescription Amphetamines Show Verbal: Stimulants are used increasingly to enhance social (cocaine) or cognitive performance (stimulants normally and methylphenidate, intensifies these deficits. Key Words: Amphetamine, cocaine, executive function, stimulant

  14. Experimental Simulations for Elimination of Biological and/or Chemical Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-10-01

    The threat of biological and/or chemical agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. The 2oo1 anthrax terror throughout the USA, 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway, and the like are evident for this threat. Elimination and decontamination of biological and/or chemical agents are needed for such an attack. Experimental simulation for elimination of biological and/or chemical agents using an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torch is carried out. The elimination of biological and/or chemical agents through the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and the decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant is presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography (GC) is also presented.

  15. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of imidazolium oximes as nerve agent antidotes

    SciTech Connect

    Musallam, H.A.; Foye, W.O.; Hansch, C.; Harris, R.N.; Engle, R.R.

    1993-05-13

    Organophosphorus-containing pesticides and chemical warfare agents are potent inhibitors of synaptic acetylcholinesterase, a key regulator of cholinergic neurotransmission. These nerve agents have for many years constituted a serious threat to military personnel. These threats stimulated considerable efforts to develop effective medical countermeasures. Several potential drugs have been found recently which are capable of protecting animals from lethal levels of nerve agents. A recent U. S. Army Medical Research and Development Command drug development project synthesized a large number of imidazolium oximes. These compounds were found to possess strong antidotal activity against one of the most lethal nerve agents, soman. The Army's approach, like most conventional drug discovery approaches, depended primarily on the trial and error method. This research was carried out to determine if these potential nerve agent antidotes could have been discovered through the use of Quantitative Structure Activity-Relationships (QSAR) technique.

  16. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: Response to toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.H.; LaMontagne, A.D.; Petito, C.T.; Rong, Xianhui (Charles A. Dana Laboratory of Toxicology, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAmP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents.

  17. Evaluating Competing Agent Strategies for a Voice Email Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn A. Walker; Donald Hindle; Jeanne Fromer; Giuseppe Di Fabbrizio; Craig Mestel

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results comparing a mixed-initiative to a system-initiative dialog strategy i n the context of a personal voice email agent. To independently test the effects of dialog strategy and user expertise, user s in- teract with either the system-initiative or the mixed-init iative agent to perform three successive tasks which are identical for both agents. We report

  18. Antisocial Behavior of Agents in Scheduling Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nandan Garg; Daniel Grosu; Vipin Chaudhary

    2007-01-01

    Truthful task scheduling mechanisms are designed to cope with the selfishness of the participating agents. They assume that the agents are selfish; each agent's goal is to maximize its own profit. However, this is not always the case; an agent may want to cause losses to the other agents besides maximizing its profit. Such an agent is said to be

  19. Developing Multi-agent Systems with JADE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Bellifemine; Agostino Poggi; Giovanni Rimassa

    2000-01-01

    JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) is a software framework to make easy the development of multi-agent applications in compliance with the FIPA specifications. JADE can then be considered a middle-ware that implements an efficient agent platform and supports the development of multi agent systems. JADE agent platform tries to keep high the performance of a distributed agent system implemented with

  20. Agent-based autonomous Examination Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Gawali; B. B. Meshram

    2009-01-01

    Online computerized examination systems is developed using software agent technology. Multi-agent system containing main agent, mobile agent and stationery agent is developed to support the functionality of examination systems in Aglet environment. All these agents in the system communicate with each other to process the operations requested by the user. Authentication of the examinee for valid user name and password

  1. AREA OVERVIEW----Agent & Data Mining Interaction

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    AREA OVERVIEW---- Agent & Data Mining Interaction (ADMI) Longbing Cao Faculty of Information in a Multiple Agent Environment", EWSL91, 1991 Agent-based data mining & knowledge discovery by Davies, W., 1994 Research topics Agent driven data mining Data mining driven agents & multi- agent systems Mutual issues

  2. Distributed multi-agent system approach for sheet metal forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Durmus Karayel; Sinan Serdar Ozkan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a distributed multi-agent system (DMAS) for sheet metal forming is proposed. The system consists of functional agents such as die design agent, knowledge management agent, validation and verification agent, product description agent, operation planning agent, calculating and dimensioning agent, artificial intelligence agent, assembly and disassembly agent. Also there is a design mediator. Each of the functional agents

  3. Programacin de Agentes y Sistemas Multi-Agentes

    E-print Network

    Guerra Hernández, Alejandro

    -Hernández Departamento de Inteligencia Artificial Universidad Veracruzana Facultad de Física e Inteligencia Artificial, defina los planes necesarios para obtener un agente bajo compromiso ciego, racional y emocional. [25

  4. Amlioration des plantes Evolution des caractristiques de la graine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'évolution de l'humidité du capitule et des graines de 25 variétés de tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.), de la of 25 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) varieties were followed from flowering to maturity, the oil

  5. Structure des disques d'accretion autour des etoiles jeunes

    E-print Network

    `eme solaire et de la terre 98% du moment - 0.2% de la masse formation des exoplan`etes And = ´Etudier l`eles de disque stationnaires Couplage hydrostatique-rayonnement, sans B. multi- gris 2 couches 1 couche

  6. Introduction to DES Overview of the DES Algorithm

    E-print Network

    under influence of the National Security Agency (NSA), the design criteria for DES have not been of Standards and Technology (NIST) · Most popular block cipher for most of the last 30 years. · By far best

  7. Ecophysiologie Vitesse d'mission des feuilles des brins matres

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    conditionnement initial des plantules. Hordeum vulgare L = orge / phyllochrone / altitude / type de tallage these fators seem to act through an initial conditioning of the seedlings. Hordeum vulgare L / leaf emergence

  8. Vagal nerve stimulator: Evolving trends.

    PubMed

    Ogbonnaya, Sunny; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Over three decades ago, it was found that intermittent electrical stimulation from the vagus nerve produces inhibition of neural processes, which can alter brain activity and terminate seizures. This paved way for the concept of vagal nerve stimulator (VNS). We describe the evolution of the VNS and its use in different fields of medicine. We also review the literature focusing on the mechanism of action of VNS producing desired effects in different conditions. PUBMED and EMBASE search was performed for 'VNS' and its use in refractory seizure management, depression, obesity, memory, and neurogenesis. VNS has been in vogue over for the past three decades and has proven to reduce the intensity and frequency of seizure by 50% in the management of refractory seizures. Apart from this, VNS has been shown to promote neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus after 48 hours of stimulation of the vagus nerve. Improvement has also been observed in non-psychotic major depression from a randomized trial conducted 7 years ago. The same concept has been utilized to alter behavior and cognition in rodents, and good improvement has been observed. Recent studies have proven that VNS is effective in obesity management in patients with depression. Several hypotheses have been postulated for the mechanism of action of VNS contributing to its success. VNS has gained significant popularity with promising results in epilepsy surgery and treatment-resistant depression. The spectrum of its use has also extended to other fields of medicine including obesity, memory, and neurogenesis, and there is still a viable scope for its utility in the future. PMID:23633829

  9. Laser-stimulated atomic migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILBUR M. FRANKLIN; PAPIYA SENGUPTA

    1972-01-01

    The effects of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and of infrared (IR) absorption on the scattering at defects leading to atomic migration in solids is evaluated in detail for certain systems.DeltaE\\/kT approx sum u_{ic}^{2}\\/langleu_{i}u_{i}rangle, whereDeltaEis the activation energy, uicis the many-body critical displacement in a migration event, andlangleu_{i}u_{i}rangleis the equal-time correlation function including anharmonic terms. Using the equal-time correlation for the

  10. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for medication-refractory movement disorders, and has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of dystonia. The success of DBS in the treatment of dystonia depends on our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of this disorder and close collaboration between neurosurgeons, neurologists, clinical neurophysiologists, neuroradiologists and neuropsychologists. Currently, pallidal DBS is an established treatment option for medically refractive dystonia. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive review of the use of DBS for dystonia, focusing mainly on the surgical aspects, clinical outcome, MRI findings and side effects of DBS. PMID:24444300

  11. Tissue stimulator enclosure welding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the thickness of the stimulator titanium enclosure is directly related to the battery recharge time cycle. Reduction of the titanium enclosure thickness from approximately 0.37 mm (0.015 inch) to 0.05 mm (0.002 inch) significantly reduced the recharge time cycle and thereby patient inconvenience. However, fabrication of titanium enclosures from the thinner material introduced problems in forming, holding, and welding that required improvement in state of the art shop practices. The procedures that were utilized to resolve these fabrication problems are described.

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in neurology

    PubMed Central

    Eldaief, Mark C.; Press, Daniel Z.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurophysiologic technique to noninvasively induce a controlled current pulse in a prespecified cortical target. This can be used to transiently disrupt the function of the targeted cortical region and explore causal relations to behavior, assess cortical reactivity, and map out functionally relevant brain regions, for example during presurgical assessments. Particularly when applied repetitively, TMS can modify cortical excitability and the effects can propagate trans-synaptically to interconnected cortical, subcortical, and spinal cord regions. As such, TMS can be used to assess the functional integrity of neural circuits and to modulate brain activity with potential therapeutic intent. PMID:24353923

  13. Composite stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosov, Boyan T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-04-01

    We introduce a high-fidelity technique for coherent control of three-state quantum systems, which combines two popular control tools—stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) and composite pulses. By using composite sequences of pairs of partly delayed pulses with appropriate phases, the nonadiabatic transitions, which prevent STIRAP from reaching unit fidelity, can be canceled to an arbitrary order by destructive interference, and therefore, the technique can be made arbitrarily accurate. The composite phases are given by simple analytic formulas, and they are universal for they do not depend on the specific pulse shapes, the pulse delay, and the pulse areas.

  14. METABOLIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS ON LEUKOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Graham, R. C.; Karnovsky, M. J.; Shafer, A. W.; Glass, E. A.; Karnovsky, Manfred L.

    1967-01-01

    Morphological and metabolic observations have been made on the effects of endotoxin, deoxycholate, and digitonin (at less than 50 µg/ml) on polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The agents stimulate the respiration and glucose oxidation of these cells in a manner similar to that seen during phagocytosis. Electron microscopy revealed no morphological changes with the first two agents, but dramatic membrane changes were seen in the case of digitonin. Here tubular projections of characteristic size and shape formed on and split off the membrane. All the agents stimulated uptake of inulin, but efforts to demonstrate increased pinocytosis by electron microscopy have not so far succeeded, probably due to limitations in present experimental techniques. PMID:6034482

  15. Factorisons la gestion des vnements des applications interactives !

    E-print Network

    , des périphériques d'entrée/sortie autre que le clavier ou la souris. Afin de pouvoir implémenter et plusieurs composants: un premier pour les éléments classiques d'interface graphique (e.g. Motif), un deuxième pour les éléments plus spécifiques (e.g. OpenGL), un troisième pour la communication avec des

  16. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  17. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1999-05-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

  18. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  19. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous system toxicities occurring most commonly, but only rarely necessitating discontinuance of therapy. In 17 of 18 prospective, randomized, double-blind comparisons with another agent or placebo, fluoroquinolones were tolerated as well as or better than the comparison regimen. Bacterial resistance has been uncommonly documented but occurs, most notably with P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and occasionally other species for which the therapeutic ratio is less favorable. Fluoroquinolones offer an efficacious, well-tolerated, and cost-effective alternative to parenteral therapies of selected infections. PMID:2680058

  20. Radioprotective agents in medicine.

    PubMed

    Durakovi?, A

    1993-12-01

    The diminished probability of strategic nuclear confrontation alleviates some of the global concerns about large numbers of radiation casualties in the event of a nuclear war. As a result of the protection of the environment, the management of smaller numbers of radiation casualties assumes a more predictable and more specific role confined to accidents in nuclear energy projects, industry, technology and science. Recent experience of the consequences of accidents in nuclear power plants, in the field of radiotherapy and in the disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel, present the medical and scientific communities with formidable problems if such events are to lead to minimal adverse effects on the biosphere. Whereas it is not possible to predict a nuclear or radiation accident, radioprotection is hardly an issue of health science alone, but rather an issue of the strictest quality assurance in all aspects of the utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Thus, the medical community concerned with radioprotection will have to confine its emphasis on the management of radiation-induced alterations of the human organism from acute radiation syndromes to the stochastic concepts of chronic alterations of radiosensitive organic systems. Current multidisciplinary research in the field of radioprotection involves all aspects of basic and clinical research ranging from the subatomic mechanisms of free radical formation, macromolecular and intracellular radiation-induced alterations, biochemical and physiological homeostatic mechanisms and organ level manifestations to the clinical management of radiation casualties in a controlled hospital environment. Radioprotective agents, although widely studied in the past four decades and including several thousand agents, have not reached the level of providing the field of medicine with an agent that conforms to all criteria of an optimal radioprotectant, including effectiveness, toxicity, availability, specificity and tolerance. This article discusses the current state of radioprotection in medical therapy, and emphasizes a need for continued research in the area of medical management of radiation casualties from the viewpoint of a realistic probability of nuclear incidents or accidents in the nuclear energy-dependent world at the end of the millennium. PMID:8192608

  1. Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Victor H.; Gehrt, Anna; Reuter, Kirsten; Jing, Zhizi; Jeschke, Marcus; Mendoza Schulz, Alejandro; Hoch, Gerhard; Bartels, Matthias; Vogt, Gerhard; Garnham, Carolyn W.; Yawo, Hiromu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Augustine, George J.; Bamberg, Ernst; Kügler, Sebastian; Salditt, Tim; de Hoz, Livia; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Auditory prostheses can partially restore speech comprehension when hearing fails. Sound coding with current prostheses is based on electrical stimulation of auditory neurons and has limited frequency resolution due to broad current spread within the cochlea. In contrast, optical stimulation can be spatially confined, which may improve frequency resolution. Here, we used animal models to characterize optogenetic stimulation, which is the optical stimulation of neurons genetically engineered to express the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. Approximation of the spatial spread of cochlear excitation by recording local field potentials (LFPs) in the inferior colliculus in response to suprathreshold optical, acoustic, and electrical stimuli indicated that optogenetic stimulation achieves better frequency resolution than monopolar electrical stimulation. Virus-mediated expression of a ChR2 variant with greater light sensitivity in SGNs reduced the amount of light required for responses and allowed neuronal spiking following stimulation up to 60 Hz. Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics. PMID:24509078

  2. Gastric electrical stimulation treatment of type 2 diabetes: effects of implantation versus meal-mediated stimulation. A randomized blinded cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Lebovitz, Harold E; Ludvik, Bernhard; Kozakowski, Jaroslaw; Tarnowski, Wieslaw; Zelewski, Mateusz; Yaniv, Irit; Schwartz, Tse'ela

    2015-07-14

    Gastric electrical stimulation with the implanted DIAMOND device has been shown to improve glycemic control and decrease weight and systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic agents. The objective of this study was to determine if device implantation alone (placebo effect) contributes to the long-term metabolic benefits of DIAMOND(®) meal-mediated gastric electrical stimulation in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study was a 48 week randomized, blinded, cross-over trial in university centers comparing glycemic improvement of DIAMOND(®) implanted patients with type 2 diabetic with no activation of the electrical stimulation (placebo) versus meal-mediated activation of the electrical signal. The endpoint was improvement in glycemic control (HbA1c) from baseline to 24 and 48 weeks. In period 1 (0-24 weeks), equal improvement in HbA1c occurred independent of whether the meal-mediated electrical stimulation was turned on or left off (HbA1c -0.80% and -0.85% [-8.8 and -9.0 mmol/mol]). The device placebo improvement proved to be transient as it was lost in period 2 (25-48 weeks). With electrical stimulation turned off, HbA1c returned toward baseline values (8.06 compared to 8.32%; 64.2 to 67.4 mmol/mol, P = 0.465). In contrast, turning the electrical stimulation on in period 2 sustained the decrease in HbA1c from baseline (-0.93%, -10.1mmol/mol, P = 0.001) observed in period 1. The results indicate that implantation of the DIAMOND device causes a transient improvement in HbA1c which is not sustained beyond 24 weeks. Meal-mediated electrical stimulation accounts for the significant improvement in HbA1c beyond 24 weeks. PMID:26177957

  3. Efficiency of JADE agent platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Chmiel; Maciej Gawinecki; Pawel Kaczmarek; Michal Szymczak; Marcin Paprzycki

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. Agent oriented programming,is often claimed to become,the next breakthrough in development,and implementation,of large-scale complex software systems. At the same time it is rather difficult to find successful applications of agent technology, in particular when,large-scale systems are considered. The aim of this paper is to investigate if one of the possible limits could be the scalability of existing agent environments.

  4. Fabrication of nanocomposite membranes from nanofibers and nanoparticles for protection against chemical warfare stimulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sundarrajan; S. Ramakrishna

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles of MgO were synthesized by Aero gel method. These MgO nanoparticles were then mixed with various polymer solutions\\u000a (poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF copolymer), polysulfone (PSU)) and then\\u000a subjected to electrospinning to produce nanocomposite membranes. The hydrolysis of paraoxon, a never agent stimulant, in presence\\u000a of these membranes was studied using UV. The order of the reactivity of

  5. Timing in the Absence of Supraspinal Input: Effects of Temporally Regular Stimulation on Spinal Plasticity 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kuan Hsien

    2013-08-08

    ????????? 52 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Spinal Plasticity: An Overview The spinal cord has long been viewed as a simple conduit, relaying information from sensory input to the brain. However, research over the last century indicates... of fixed spaced stimulation has been linked to the neurotrophin BDNF; pretreatment with BDNF prior to instrumental learning promotes adaptive plasticity (Huie et al., 2012), whereas the BDNF sequestering agent, TrkB-IgG, blocks the protective effect...

  6. Stimulation of intracellular Ca 2+ elevation in neutrophils by thiol-oxidizing phenylarsine oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jih-Pyang Wang; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Yu-San Chen; Mei-Feng Hsu

    2005-01-01

    Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a trivalent arsenical compound, stimulated [Ca2+]i elevation in rat neutrophils in a Ca2+-containing medium but caused no appreciable response in a Ca2+-free medium. PAO also induced external Mn2+ entry, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), but failed to elicit any appreciable Ba2+ and Sr2+ entry. Pretreatment of neutrophils with thiol-reducing agents including dithiothreitol (DTT), NAC, 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (DMP),

  7. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.

    2007-11-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  8. Spermiation of paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula, Acipenseriformes) stimulated with injection of LHRH analogue and carp pituitary powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otomar Linhart; Steve D. Mims; Boris Gomelsky; Anna E. Hiott; William L. Shelton; Jacky Cosson; Marek Rodina; David Gela

    2001-01-01

    The potential of carp pituitary powder (CPP) at one dose, or the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, des–Gly10,(d–Ala6)–LH-RH–ethylamide, at three different doses to stimulate spermiation in paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) was tested. Single injections of the LH-RH analogue at 0.2, 0.1, or 0.05 mg·kg–1 increased the number of spermatozoa per kilogram of body weight (kg–1 b.w.) by 4.7, 3.4, and 3.4

  9. Fiche technique Dtail des panneaux

    E-print Network

    - Biodiversité des cultures Panneau 4 - Paysage à Madagascar Panneau 5 - Labour d'un champ au Maroc Panneau 6 9 - Récolte d'un essaim d'abeilles au Maroc Panneau 10 - L'innovation en marche Panneau 11

  10. Information -Communication Communication des entreprises

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    Information - Communication 2 PARCOURS Communication des entreprises Communication et solidarité;2 Information - Communication UFR Langues Appliquées, Commerce et Communication PRÉSENTATION Objectifs La Licence Information et communication est destinée aux étudiants qui souhaitent suivre un parcours

  11. Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ammon

    1934-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

  12. PERFORMANCE DES ORGANISATIONS TRANSVERSALES HOSPITALIERES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    organizations, the Mobile Geriatrics Teams (MGTs). The findings draw on action research involving the 14 MGTs, Intangible Capital, Mobile Geriatrics Teams. Au cours des années 2000, le législateur a affirmé sa volonté d

  13. Thorie des ensembles 1. Motivation

    E-print Network

    Dolecki, Szymon

    , comme Georg Cantor (1845-1918), Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932), Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) et autres. Nous de la démonstration (2). Figure I.1. Georg Cantor, Giuseppe Peano et Bertrand Russell La plupart des

  14. Mobility control agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hammershaimb, E.C.; KuugKraa, V.A.

    1983-06-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by means of steam drive, for heavier crudes, and CO/sub 2/ flooding, for lighter, mobilizes oil left behind by more conventional methods and displaces it to producing wells. In higher mobility, fingering, and flow of the drive or flood substance through low permeability paths, reduces the efficiency of EOR. Mobility control agents block these permeable paths. Five tests, two at Santa Fe Energy's Midway-Sunset field, one at Conoco's Cat Canyon, and two at Texaco's San Ardo field, are made to address the excessive channelling of steam through ''theif'' zones, and the progressive increase in steam flow through oil depleted, already swept zones. The success of the tests demonstrates the viability of the process by diverting steam, increasing oil recovery, increasing oil-steam ratio, and improving the water cut.

  15. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  16. JUS 13331 (*,) THESE DE DOCTORATDEL 'ECOLENATIONALE DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    JUS 13331 (*,) THESE DE DOCTORATDEL 'ECOLENATIONALE DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES Spécialité Central des Ponts et Chaussées. Je remercie Monsieur Jean-François COSTE, Directeur du Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, Monsieur Alain BONNET, Directeur des Actions Scientifiques et Techniques

  17. DTERMINATION DE LA TENEUR EN CIRE MICROCRISTALLINE DES MLANGES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    obtenus au cours des différentes opérations de raffinage des huiles lu- brifiantes de pétrole. Des microcristallines étant obtenues en grande partie au cours du raffinage des huiles, un contenu huileux subsiste avec

  18. Stimulation électrique pour estimation rapide de la vitalité des tissus des extrémités en cas d’ischémie critique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Topalov; I Daskalov

    2004-01-01

    Introduction. – In cases of trauma of the extremities, the development of critical tissue ischemia is a frequent complication, requiring surgical intervention with possible amputation. The exact duration of blood supply loss is often difficult to evaluate. Therefore, an easily applicable simple and rapid method for tissues vitality assessment would be of appreciable importance. It could also be used during

  19. Beiträge zur Geochemie des Kupfers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Wedepohl

    1962-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Das Cu kommt in häufigen Eruptivgesteinen nicht wie das Pb und Zn großenteils im Gitter der mineralischen Hauptbestandteile, sondern als Kupferkies vor (Proportionalität zwischen Cu- und S-Werten). Basaltische Gesteine haben wesentlich höhere Kupfergehalte (Mittel: 88 ppm = g\\/t Cu) als granitische (Mittel: 8 ppm Cu). Das Verhalten des Cu bei der Verwitterung und hydrothermalen Gesteinszersetzung und die Begrenzung des Transports

  20. Le Pseudomonas: Experience du Centre des Brules D’Annaba et Revue de la Litterature

    PubMed Central

    Chaibdraa, A.; Medjellekh, M.S.; Saouli, A.; Bentakouk, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Le Pseudomonasest un agent pathogène à l'origine d'infections nosocomiales graves dans les centres des brûlés. Son opportunisme et sa virulence en font une préoccupation majeure. Ce travail se propose d'évaluer la place de cette bactérie dans l'écologie bactérienne locale et d'en apprécier la sensibilité aux antibiotiques. Cette étude rétrospective préliminaire porte sur la période de juin 2003 à décembre 2005. Elle intéresse l'ensemble des prélèvements bactériologiques ayant pu être réalisés au centre des brûlés d'Annaba. L'effectif est de 633 micro-organismes isolés dont 128 Pseudomonas (20,2%): 127 aeruginosa (99,2%), 1 fluorescens (0,8%); distribution selon le site de prélèvement: écouvillon (87,5%), prélèvement trachéobronchique (4,6%), hémoculture (3,1%), cathéters (1,6%), urine (1,6%) et sonde urinaire (1,6%). Le pyocyanique se situe après le staphylocoque pour les prélèvements précoces et repasse en tête après un séjour supérieur à une semaine, où 89% des pyocyaniques sont identifiés. Il est en première position dans les pneumopathies sous ventilation assistée invasive. Il se classe troisième dans les hémocultures et les cultures de cathéters. Dans les infections urinaires il est devancé par Candida et la flore périnéale. Les 128 antibiogrammes regroupent 314 réponses sensibles. La sensibilité à plus de deux antibiotiques est de 68%, à deux antibiotiques 24% et à un antibiotique 8%. Seules quatre molécules restent actives: ciprofloxacine > péfloxacine > pipéracilline > ceftazidime. Une résistance absolue est retrouvée pour trois Pseudomonas (2,4%). Le pronostic sévère des infections nosocomiales à pyocyanique et les risques d'options thérapeutiques très limitées font toute leur gravité, d'où l'intérêt de respecter des règles strictes de prescription des antibiotiques et des mesures de prévention. PMID:21991140

  1. Building an expert travel agent as a software agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present an expert software agent, named Traveller, that assists users in the tourism and travel domain. This agent combines collaborative filtering with content-based recommendations and demographic information about customers to suggest package holidays and tours. The combination of techniques in this hybrid approach takes advantage of the positive aspects of each technique and overcomes the difficulties

  2. Concept features in Re:Agent, an intelligent Email agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Boone

    1998-01-01

    An important issue in the application of machine learningtechniques to information management tasks is the natureof features extracted from textual information. We have createdan intelligent email agent that can learn actions suchas filtering, prioritizing, downloading to palmtops, and forwardingemail to voicemail using automatic feature extraction.Our agent's new feature extraction approach is basedon first learning concepts present within the mail, then

  3. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Accelerates Human Sleep Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Reato, Davide; Gasca, Fernando; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Marshall, Lisa; Parra, Lucas C.

    2013-01-01

    The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO) in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG). A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep. PMID:23459152

  4. Optimal Quantum Cloning via Stimulated Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Christoph; Weihs, Gregor; Zeilinger, Anton

    2000-03-01

    We show that optimal universal quantum cloning can be realized via stimulated emission. Universality of the cloning procedure is achieved by choosing systems that have appropriate symmetries. We first discuss a scheme based on stimulated emission in certain three-level systems, e.g., atoms in a cavity. Then we present a way of realizing optimal universal cloning based on stimulated parametric down-conversion. This scheme also implements the optimal universal NOT operation.

  5. Modlisation didactique et informatique des connaissances des lves en algbre Marie-Caroline Croset MMOIRE DE MASTER 2 RECHERCHE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Modélisation didactique et informatique des connaissances des élèves en algèbre Marie-Caroline Croset MÉMOIRE DE MASTER 2 RECHERCHE ENVIRONNEMENTS INFORMATIQUES D'APPRENTISSAGE HUMAIN ET DIDACTIQUE UNIVERSITE JOSEPH FOURIER Modélisation didactique et informatique des connaissances des élèves en algèbre

  6. Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

    2002-07-01

    Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concrétions fibreuses constituées de pickeringite et d'une faible quantité d'halotrichite.

  7. [Intrauterine insemination: against systematic ovarian stimulation].

    PubMed

    Le Lannou, D

    2007-09-01

    Intrauterine insemination is a technique proposed of first intention in many situations of non-tubal infertilities. It is very frequently associated with a stimulation of ovulation, with the objective of precisely synchronizing the intra uterine stimulation and ovulation, and an increase in follicular recruitment. If intrauterine stimulation is often a determining factor in obtaining pregnancy, stimulation of ovulation does not always bring about an obvious benefit and its interest must be discussed according to the indications, knowing on the other hand that it is determining in the occurring of multiple pregnancies. PMID:17719822

  8. Brain imaging correlates of peripheral nerve stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Ausaf A.; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Direct peripheral nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for a number of disorders including epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, cluster headache, and urological dysfunction. The efficacy of this stimulation is ultimately due to modulation of activity in the central nervous system. However, the exact brain regions involved in each disorder and how they are modulated by peripheral nerve stimulation is not fully understood. The use of functional neuroimaging such as SPECT, PET and fMRI in patients undergoing peripheral nerve stimulation can help us to understand these mechanisms. We review the literature for functional neuroimaging performed in patients implanted with peripheral nerve stimulators for the above-mentioned disorders. These studies suggest that brain activity in response to peripheral nerve stimulation is a complex interaction between the stimulation parameters, disease type and severity, chronicity of stimulation, as well as nonspecific effects. From this information we may be able to understand which brain structures are involved in the mechanism of peripheral nerve stimulation as well as define the neural substrates underlying these disorders. PMID:23230531

  9. Stimulation of mast cell chemotaxis by interleukin 3

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    PWM-activated spleen cell-conditioned medium (SCCM) and a variety of purified hematopoietic growth factors were tested for their ability to stimulate chemotaxis of mouse connective tissue mast cells (CTMC). Of the agents tested, only IL-3 and SCCM promoted mast cell chemotaxis. Neither IL-2, IL-4, GM-CSF, nor endotoxin had any significant mast cell chemotactic activity. Neutralizing antibodies to mouse IL-3 blocked greater than 90% of the chemotactic activity of SCCM, suggesting that IL-3 is the predominant mast cell chemotactic factor produced by activated spleen cells. Our results demonstrate that mature connective tissue type mast cells are capable of moving toward a gradient of spleen cell-derived IL-3 and suggest that movement of mature mast cells toward lymphokines may influence the accumulation of mast cells at sites of inflammatory or immune reactions. PMID:2794861

  10. Anesthetic Challenges for Deep Brain Stimulation: A Systematic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Rajkalyan; Ghazanwy, Mahmood; Tewari, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Ablative intracranial surgery for Parkinson's disease has advanced to embedding electrodes into precise areas of the basal ganglia. Electrode implantation surgery, referred to as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is preferred in view of its reversibility, adjustability, and capability to be safely performed bilaterally. DBS is been increasingly used for other movement disorders, intractable tremors epilepsy, and sometimes chronic pain. Anesthesiologists need to amalgamate the knowledge of neuroanatomical structures and surgical techniques involved in placement of microelectrodes in defined cerebral target areas. Perioperative verbal communication with the patient during the procedure is quintessential and may attenuate the need for pharmacological agents. This review will endeavor to assimilate the present knowledge regarding the patient selection, available/practiced anesthesia regimens, and perioperative complications after our thorough search for literature published between 1991 and 2013. PMID:25210668

  11. Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as

  12. Forward Kinematics for Virtual Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Benitez; Daniel Vallejo

    2007-01-01

    Realistic motion and natural-looking simulations require a thorough understanding of hu- man movement control strategies. This work presents an initial developed on virtual agents. We describe how the agent was built searching an humanoid repre- sentation through a geometric model. Although this research is based on the work of Pettre et al. (16), we are building a solid platform to

  13. Cooperating Air Traffic Control Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Nitschke

    2001-01-01

    The key aim of cooperating air traffic control agents (CAT CA) was to comparatively analyze and evaluate the success of a multiagent system (MAS) and a single agent system (SAS) at addressing a given set of goals in a problem domain amenable to the utilization of either a MAS or SAS. The problem domain selected was air traffic control (AT

  14. Pharmacology of Systemic Antifungal Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth S. Dodds Ashley; Russell Lewis; James S. Lewis; Craig Martin; David Andes

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, many invasive fungal infections were associated with a poor prognosis, because effective ther- apeutic options were limited. The recent development of new antifungal agents has significantly contributed to the successful treatment of fungal diseases. These drugs offer novel mechanisms of action and expanded spectrums of activity over traditional treatment options. However, with these new agents comes the need for

  15. The QueryGuesser agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia N. Schiaffino; Analía Amandi

    Querying a database via different kinds of Internet and Intranet access is generally a repetitive and time-consuming task. QueryGuesser is an intelligent agent with the capability of generating personalized queries to a database system, according to a particular user's interests. This agent observes a user behavior while he is querying a database and builds a model of his preferences with

  16. Multimodal communication between synthetic agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Pelachaud; Isabella Poggi

    1998-01-01

    Dialoging with a synthetic agent is a vast research topic to enhance user-interface friendliness. We present in this paper an on-going project on the simulation of a dialog situation between two synthetic agents. More particularly we focus our interest on finding the appropriate facial expressions of a speaker addressing to different types of listeners (tourist, employee, child, and so on)

  17. Impact for Agents Michael Luck

    E-print Network

    Luck, Michael

    Impact for Agents Tom Wagner ¡ Les Gasser ¢ Michael Luck £ James Odell ¤ Todd Carrico ¥ 1 for agents from their particu- lar vantage point. Sections range from those that are very ap- plied, e.g or help to articulate issues of interest. 2. Motivating Investment ­ Tom Wagner Tom Wagner is currently

  18. Inotropic Agents and Immune Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigetake Sasayama

    2002-01-01

    Since depression of myocardial contractility forms the basis for the development of heart failure, many attempts have been made to enhance the inotropic state of the failing heart by cardiotonic agent as the therapeutic modality. However, large scale clinical trials conducted in the Western societies revealed excess mortality in patients with heart failure received long-term treatment with inotropic agent. Therefore,

  19. Stimulated emission from semiconductor microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, X.; Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Laser-like emissions from semiconductor microcavities at low temperature have attracted considerable attention recently because of the possibility of realizing a non-equilibrium condensate by using cavity-polaritons. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of optical properties of a microcavity near the lasing threshold. They show that the minimum lasing threshold is achieved when the cavity is tuned significantly below the exciton line center. By comparing emission spectra with reflectivity spectra, they also show that well-resolved doublet in the emission spectra near the lasing threshold are not associated with cavity-polaritons. These results suggest that laser-like emissions form the microcavity are due to conventional stimulated emission processes with exciton localization playing a significant role.

  20. Vestibular Stimulation Attenuates Unrealistic Optimism RUNNING HEAD: Vestibular Stimulation and Optimism

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    . Moreover, anosognosia is temporarily abolished by vestibular stimulation, particularly by irrigation Illusions; Vestibular Stimulation; Caloric Irrigation; Anosognosia. #12;3 1. Introduction Unrealistic, recently there has been growing interest in relevant neural and pharmacological mechanisms (Sharot et al

  1. Hepatobiliary MR Imaging with Gadolinium Based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Frydrychowicz, Alex; Lubner, Meghan G.; Brown, Jeffrey J.; Merkle, Elmar M.; Nagle, Scott K.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of gadolinium-based “hepatobiliary” contrast agents offers new opportunities for diagnostic MRI and has triggered a great interest for innovative imaging approaches to the liver and bile ducts. In this review article we will discuss the imaging properties of the two gadolinium-based hepatobiliary contrast agents currently available in the USA, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid, as well as important pharmacokinetic differences that affect their diagnostic performance. We will review potential applications, protocol optimization strategies, as well as diagnostic pitfalls. A variety of illustrative case examples will be used to demonstrate the role of these agents in detection and characterization of liver lesions as well as for imaging the biliary system. Changes in MR protocols geared towards optimizing workflow and imaging quality will also be discussed. It is our aim that the information provided in this article will facilitate the optimal utilization of these agents, and will stimulate the reader‘s pursuit of new applications for future benefit. PMID:22334493

  2. Modélisation des boucles d'immunisation magnétique des navires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dorze, F.; Bongiraud, J. P.; Coulomb, J. L.; Meunier, G.; Brunotte, X.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents the problem of the three-dimensional modeling of degaussing coils in ships with a finite elements method. We show that these current coils are so close to the ferromagnetic sheets of the ship that they require a local very fine mesh which would be unrealistic for the whole complex structure of a real ship. We propose an alternative to the expensive mesh refinement called "reduced scalar potential jump”. The idea is to previously solve the local problem by another method and to use the result in the whole FEM modelling. We present the method of implementation in the FEM software FLUX3D and comparative results on a simple geometry. Cet article présente le problème de la modélisation en trois dimensions des boucles d'immunisation des navires par la méthode des éléments finis. Nous montrons que ces boucles de courant sont si proches des tôles ferromagnétiques du navire que leur modélisation requiert un maillage localement très fin, ce qui est irréaliste pour la structure complexe d'un navire réel. Nous proposons une alternative à ce coûteux affinage du maillage, appelée "saut de potentiel réduit”. L'idée est de résoudre au préalable le problème local par une autre méthode que les éléments finis et d'utiliser le résultat dans la modélisation globale. Nous présentons la méthode utilisée pour l'implantation de cette technique dans le logiciel d'éléments finis FLUX3D, et des résultats comparatifs sur une géométrie simple.

  3. Impact de l'augmentation de la volatilit des prix des commodits sur les coopratives Sabine TRGUER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact de l'augmentation de la volatilité des prix des commodités sur les coopératives laitières Sabine TRÉGUER Janvier 2008 Résumé L'envolée actuelle des prix des matières premières agricoles a des, a augmenté de près de 70% en un an. Cette augmentation du prix des produits industriels laitiers, répercutée

  4. Allowing autonomous agents freedom.

    PubMed

    Cronin, A J

    2008-03-01

    Living-donor kidney transplantation is the "gold standard" treatment for many individuals with end-stage renal failure. Superior outcomes for the graft and the transplant recipient have prompted the implementation of new strategies promoting living-donor kidney transplantation, and the number of such transplants has increased considerably over recent years. Living donors are undoubtedly exposed to risk. In his editorial "underestimating the risk in living kidney donation", Walter Glannon suggests that more data on long-term outcomes for living donors are needed to determine whether this risk is permissible and the extent to which physicians and transplant surgeons should promote living-donor kidney transplantation. In this paper I argue that it is not clear that medical professionals have underestimated this risk, nor is it clear that more data on long-term outcomes are needed in order to determine whether it is permissible for individual autonomous agents to expose themselves to this or, indeed, any risk. The global shortage of organs available for transplantation ultimately means that every year thousands of individuals who value their life die needlessly. This is an unacceptable loss of human life. Saving life is one of the most wonderful things an individual can do for another. Promoting any strategy that will assist in saving life and preventing human suffering within acceptable moral limits is legitimate. PMID:18316449

  5. Belles captives : une histoire des zoos du ct des btes Eric Baratay

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Belles captives : une histoire des zoos du côté des bêtes Eric Baratay Les artistes ont beaucoup représenté les bêtes exposées dans les zoos, se passionnant pour leurs beautés, leurs formes (fig. 147'émergeaient des interrogations sur la légitimité des zoos. Max Slevogt (fig. 150) et Otto Dill (Tigres dans une

  6. Universit des sciences et technologies de Lille cole Doctorale des Sciences Pour l'Ingnieur

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Université des sciences et technologies de Lille École Doctorale des Sciences Pour l'Ingénieur Thèse pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l'Université des sciences et technologies de Lille EN'université Droit et Santé de Lille (Lille II) M. Salah Maouche - Professeur à l'Université des Sciences et

  7. Structure, caractrisation et comportement mcanique des failles sismiques : Etude des pseudotachylites et gouges

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Structure, caractérisation et comportement mécanique des failles sismiques : Etude des pseudotachylites et gouges Résumé L'objectif de ce projet est de mieux caractériser la structure et la formation des processus de formation des failles actives en prenant comme objet d'étude les gouges de failles et

  8. L'Observatoire Jacques-Yves Cousteau des mers et des ctes du Mexique

    E-print Network

    L'Observatoire Jacques-Yves Cousteau des mers et des côtes du Mexique a été lancé en coopération Mer des Caraïbes, sur le Golfe du Mexique et sur le Pacifique. Son objectif est de valoriser les nécessaire pour: Identifier l'origine des changements opérés aux différentes échelles temporelles

  9. LA DIFFUSION DES NEUTRONS Physique des Solides, Universit Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    82 LA DIFFUSION DES NEUTRONS A. GUINIER Physique des Solides, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France Résumé. 2014 On rappellera les bases physiques de la diffusion des neutrons en insistant sur les des neutrons liées à leur faible absorption dans la matière et leur interaction avec les moments

  10. Composition en acides amins des aliments et des rsidus de fermentation in vitro

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Composition en acides aminés des aliments et des résidus de fermentation in vitro M. ANTONGIOVANNI in vitro fermentation with rumen inoculum, and of the faeces relative to an in vivo digestibility trial run fermentation in vitro comme l'ont fait Dennison et Philips (1983) et des fèces. Pour des raisons de place, nous

  11. Les limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 Les limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des conchyliculteurs en limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des conchyliculteurs en France Véronique Le in defining risks in aquaculture and we propose a classification that takes the specificities into account. We

  12. Unilateral electrical stimulation of rat locus coeruleus elicits bilateral response of norepinephrine neurons and sustained activation of medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Marzo, Aude; Totah, Nelson K; Neves, Ricardo M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Eschenko, Oxana

    2014-06-15

    The brain stem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to modulate cortical excitability by norepinephrine (NE) release in LC forebrain targets. The effects of LC burst discharge, typically evoked by a strong excitatory input, on cortical ongoing activity are poorly understood. To address this question, we combined direct electrical stimulation of LC (LC-DES) with extracellular recording in LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an important cortical target of LC. LC-DES consisting of single pulses (0.1-0.5 ms, 0.01-0.05 mA) or pulse trains (20-50 Hz, 50-200 ms) evoked short-latency excitatory and inhibitory LC responses bilaterally as well as a delayed rebound excitation occurring ?100 ms after stimulation offset. The pulse trains, but not single pulses, reliably elicited mPFC activity change, which was proportional to the stimulation strength. The firing rate of ?50% of mPFC units was significantly modulated by the strongest LC-DES. Responses of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons included fast (?100 ms), transient (?100-200 ms) inhibition (10% of units) or excitation (13%) and delayed (?500 ms), sustained (?1 s) excitation (26%). The sustained spiking resembled NE-dependent mPFC activity during the delay period of working memory tasks. Concurrently, the low-frequency (0.1-8 Hz) power of the local field potential (LFP) decreased and high-frequency (>20 Hz) power increased. Overall, the DES-induced LC firing pattern resembled the naturalistic biphasic response of LC-NE neurons to alerting stimuli and was associated with a shift in cortical state that may optimize processing of behaviorally relevant events. PMID:24671530

  13. Anti-Mycotics Suppress Interleukin4 and Interleukin5 Production in Anti-CD3 Plus Anti-CD28Stimulated T Cells from Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Kanda; Utayo Enomoto; Shinichi Watanabe

    2001-01-01

    It is reported that anti-mycotic agents are effective for the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. We studied the in vitro effects of anti-mycotics on T helper-1 and T helper-2 cytokine production in anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28-stimulated T cells from atopic dermatitis patients and normal donors. The amounts of interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 secreted by anti-CD3\\/CD28-stimulated T cells were higher in atopic

  14. 1. The jessInJADE Package We call "Jess agents" those agents that are JADE agents, since they extend the JADE "Agent"

    E-print Network

    Mascardi, Viviana

    1. The jessInJADE Package We call "Jess agents" those agents that are JADE agents, since they extend the JADE "Agent" class, but whose initial beliefs and behaviour are defined in the Jess language that is read by the Java stub of the agent (the JavaStubSkeleton code), and is executed by it. The jessInJADE

  15. Interacting Agent Based Systems Dean Petters

    E-print Network

    Bullinaria, John

    . Emailing agents 4. Computer games 5. Robotics 6. Sociological simulations 7. Psychological simulations #12 is or is not an agent. This talk takes the view that agents are not just: distributed/concurrent systems such as java threads Agents are: autonomous, for example synchronisation occurs at run time and agents are self

  16. JADE - A FIPA-compliant agent framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Bellifemine; Agostino Poggi; Giovanni Rimassa

    1999-01-01

    JADE is a software framework to develop agent applications in compliance with the FIPA specifications for interoperable intelligent multi-agent systems. The goal is to simplify development while ensuring standard compliance through a comprehensive set of system services and agents. JADE can then be considered an agent middle-ware that implements an Agent Platform and a development framework. It deals with all

  17. Revision and removal of stimulating electrodes following long-term therapy with the vagus nerve stimulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Espinosa; Mary T Aiello; Dean K Naritoku

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDA significant concern about vagus nerve stimulation therapy has been the disposition of the spiral stimulating electrodes once treatment is considered ineffective or is no longer desired. Because the electrodes are wrapped around the vagus nerve, there is the potential for nerve injury during their removal.METHODSWe attempted removal of the spiral stimulating electrodes from 10 patients who received long-term vagus

  18. Clinical and research concerns with vibratory stimulation: a review and pilot study of common stimulation devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Prause; Verena Roberts; Margaret Legarretta; Liva M. Rigney Cox

    2012-01-01

    The parameters of vibrators used for sexual stimulation in laboratory settings and therapeutic contexts are usually unknown. The unidentified range of vibrator characteristics commonly used for sexual stimulation would help identify appropriate vibrator for different purposes and clients. Seven vibrators used for sexual stimulation were tested using a piezoelectric accelerometer mounted on their housing to quantify frequency, displacement, and acceleration

  19. Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-11-15

    Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce "killed but metabolically active" microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat biological warfare in the future. PMID:24067444

  20. Stimulation of Chitin Synthesis Rescues Candida albicans from Echinocandins

    PubMed Central

    de Bruijn, Irene; Lenardon, Megan D.; McKinnon, Alastair; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Echinocandins are a new generation of novel antifungal agent that inhibit cell wall ?(1,3)-glucan synthesis and are normally cidal for the human pathogen Candida albicans. Treatment of C. albicans with low levels of echinocandins stimulated chitin synthase (CHS) gene expression, increased Chs activity, elevated chitin content and reduced efficacy of these drugs. Elevation of chitin synthesis was mediated via the PKC, HOG, and Ca2+-calcineurin signalling pathways. Stimulation of Chs2p and Chs8p by activators of these pathways enabled cells to survive otherwise lethal concentrations of echinocandins, even in the absence of Chs3p and the normally essential Chs1p, which synthesize the chitinous septal ring and primary septum of the fungus. Under such conditions, a novel proximally offset septum was synthesized that restored the capacity for cell division, sustained the viability of the cell, and abrogated morphological and growth defects associated with echinocandin treatment and the chs mutations. These findings anticipate potential resistance mechanisms to echinocandins. However, echinocandins and chitin synthase inhibitors synergized strongly, highlighting the potential for combination therapies with greatly enhanced cidal activity. PMID:18389063

  1. Rearrangement of microtubule network under biochemical and mechanical stimulations.

    PubMed

    Celik, Emrah; Abdulreda, Midhat H; Maiguel, Dony; Li, Jie; Moy, Vincent T

    2013-04-01

    Cells are constantly under the influence of various external forces in their physiological environment. These forces are countered by the viscoelastic properties of the cytoskeleton. To understand the response of the cytoskeleton to biochemical and mechanical stimuli, GFP-tubulin expressing CHO cells were investigated using scanning laser confocal microscopy. Cells treated with nocodazole revealed disruption in the microtubule network within minutes of treatment while keeping the cell shape intact. By contrast, trypsin, a proteolytic agent, altered the shape of CHO cells by breaking the peptide bonds at adhesion sites. CHO cells were also stimulated mechanically by applying an indentation force with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber. Mechanical stimulation applied using AFM showed two distinct cytoskeletal responses to the applied force: an immediate response that resulted in the depolymerization and displacement of the microtubules out of the contact zone, and a slower response characterized by tubulin polymerization at the periphery of the indented area. Flow chamber experiments revealed that shear force did not induce formation of new microtubules in CHO cells and that detachment of adherent cells from the substrate occurred independent from the flow direction. Overall, the experimental system described here allows real-time characterization of dynamic changes in cell cytoskeleton in response to the mechano-chemical stimuli and, therefore, provides better understanding of the biophysical and functional properties of cells. PMID:23466787

  2. Rollstuhlbasketball Rolling Devils vs. Promi-Team Im Rahmen des Sporttages des UNISPORT fand in den frhen Abendstunden des

    E-print Network

    Pinnau, René

    Rollstuhlbasketball Rolling Devils vs. Promi-Team Im Rahmen des Sporttages des UNISPORT fand in den Rolling Devils und ein Promi-Team im Rollstuhlbasketball gegenüber. Für das Team der Rolling Devils und der Erstligaspieler Viktor. Des Weiteren rollten Lukas Jung und Paul Nikolaus für die Devils an

  3. Agent 2003 Conference on Challenges in Social Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret Clemmons, ed.

    2003-01-01

    Welcome to the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of agent simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. Agent 2003 is the second conference in which three Special Interest Groups from the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science (NAACSOS) have been involved in planning the program--Computational Social Theory; Simulation Applications; and Methods, Toolkits and Techniques. The theme of Agent 2003, Challenges in Social Simulation, is especially relevant, as there seems to be no shortage of such challenges. Agent simulation has been applied with increasing frequency to social domains for several decades, and its promise is clear and increasingly visible. Like any nascent scientific methodology, however, it faces a number of problems or issues that must be addressed in order to progress. These challenges include: (1) Validating models relative to the social settings they are designed to represent; (2) Developing agents and interactions simple enough to understand but sufficiently complex to do justice to the social processes of interest; (3) Bridging the gap between empirically spare artificial societies and naturally occurring social phenomena; (4) Building multi-level models that span processes across domains; (5) Promoting a dialog among theoretical, qualitative, and empirical social scientists and area experts, on the one hand, and mathematical and computational modelers and engineers, on the other; (6) Using that dialog to facilitate substantive progress in the social sciences; and (7) Fulfilling the aspirations of users in business, government, and other application areas, while recognizing and addressing the preceding challenges. Although this list hardly exhausts the challenges the field faces, it does identify topics addressed throughout the presentations of Agent 2003. Agent 2003 is part of a much larger process in which new methods and techniques are applied to difficult social issues. Among the resources that give us the prospect of success is the innovative and transdisciplinary research community being built. We believe that Agent 2003 contributes to further progress in computational modeling of social processes, and we hope that you find these Proceedings to be stimulating and rewarding. As the horizons of this transdiscipline continue to emerge and converge, we hope to provide similar forums that will promote development of agent simulation modeling in the years to come.

  4. Des Lacs River and Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The Des Lacs River coming in to the Souris River. Des Lacs River is the darker water, which is sediment and the Souris River is the lighter water. >Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  5. Pathologie vgtale Maladies des plantes dues Rhizoctonia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pathologie végétale Maladies des plantes dues à Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) : stratégie et techniques; Plant diseases induced by Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) : strategy and methods of study. Results profession agricole demandant de résoudre des problèmes posés par Rhizoctonia solani ont notablement augmenté

  6. Funktionelle Kernspintomographie des Affengehirns Logothetis, Nikos

    E-print Network

    Funktionelle Kernspintomographie des Affengehirns Logothetis, Nikos Max-Planck-Institut für Korrespondierender Autor: Logothetis, Nikos E-Mail: nikos.logothetis@tuebingen.mpg.de Zusammenfassung Unsere hand, Tätigkeitsbericht 2003 Logothetis, Nikos | Funktionelle Kernspintomographie des Affengehirns 1

  7. Gomodlisation et Informatique : Formalisation des reprsentations et

    E-print Network

    Prié, Yannick

    -francois.rainaud@ifp.fr Laura S. Mastella Petrobras 330, Republica do Chile 20031 Rio de Janeiro Brésil laura.mastella@ petrobras.com.br RESUME Dans les projets d'ingénierie associant des experts métier et des informaticiens

  8. Jahresberichte 1992 und 1993 des Lehrstuhls

    E-print Network

    Weske, Mathias

    Jahresberichte 1992 und 1993 des Lehrstuhls ``Theoretische Informatik'' (Prof. Dr. sc. Christoph Meinel) Fachbereich IV -- Informatik Universit¨ at Trier Universit¨ atsring 15 D­54286 Trier #12; Jahresberichte 1992 und 1993 des Lehrstuhls ``Theoretische Informatik'' (Prof. Dr. sc. Christoph Meinel

  9. DPARTEMENT D'INFORMATIQUE Facult des sciences

    E-print Network

    Spino, Claude

    DÉPARTEMENT D'INFORMATIQUE Faculté des sciences GGuuiiddee ddeess ééttuuddeess ddee 22ee eett 33ee...............................................................................................................................3 1.1 Les études supérieures au Département d'informatique............................................................................................6 4 Gestion des études supérieures au Département d'informatique

  10. Auto-protective redox buffering systems in stimulated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ferret, Pierre-Jacques; Soum, Emmanuelle; Negre, Olivier; Fradelizi, Didier

    2002-01-01

    Background Macrophages, upon encounter with micro-organisms or stimulated by cytokines, produce various effector molecules aimed at destroying the foreign agents and protecting the organism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are front line molecules exerting strong cytotoxic activities against micro-organisms and many cells, including macrophages themselves. Using cells of the murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or interferon (IFN-?), which induce strong endogenous NO production, we examined by which mechanisms a fraction of activated macrophages protect themselves from nitrosative stress and manage to escape destruction? Results We observed that survivors (10–50% depending on the experiments) had acquired a resistant phenotype being capable to survive when further exposed in vitro to an apoptosis inducing dose of the NO donor compound DETA-NO. These cells expressed an increased steady-state levels of Mn SOD, CuZn SOD and catalase mRNA (130–200%), together with an increased activity of the corresponding enzymes. Intracellular concentration of glutathione was also increased (× 3.5 fold at 6 hours, still maintained × 5.2 fold at 48 hours). Neither mRNA for glutathione peroxydase, ?-glutamylcysteine synthase and glutathione reductase, nor thioredoxine and thioredoxine reductase, were significantly modified. Additional experiments in which RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and/or IFN-? in the presence of relatively specific inhibitors of both Mn and Cu/Zn SOD, aminotriazol (ATZ) catalase inhibitor and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) glutathione inhibitor, showed that inhibiting LPS-induced up-regulation of intracellular redox buffering systems also prevented acquisition of the resistant phenotype. Conclusions Our data suggest a direct causal relationship between survival of a fraction of macrophages and a up-regulation of key sets of auto-protective intracellular redox buffering systems, occurring simultaneously with modulation of expression of apoptotic molecules of the Bcl2-Bcl-XL/Bax-Bad family. PMID:11914132

  11. Electrical Stimulation: Neurophysiological Basis and Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerrold Scott Petrofsky

    Electrical stimulation has been used for thousands of years for a variety of purposes including muscle reeducation, muscle strength training and wound healing. However, because it has been used most commonly by individuals in money making schemes, it has been sometimes considered the domain of quacks and charlatans. But electrical stimulation can be a potent tool in the clinical setting

  12. STIMULATION OF PLANT GROWTH BY HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies on the effects of humic substances (HS) on plants consistently show stimulation of plant growth. Both increase in root length and development of secondary roots have been observed for HS in nutrient solutions. Some researchers attributed the stimulative effects of HS to higher uptake of nutr...

  13. Stimulated emission in semiconductor quantum wire heterostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kapon; D. M. Hwang; R. Bhat

    1989-01-01

    We report the first observation of stimulated emission in quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor quantum wires. Amplified spontaneous emission and stimulated emission spectra of the GaAs\\/AlGaAs quantum wires exhibit fine structure arising from transitions between lateral, one-dimensional electron and hole subbands. The observed subband separations, ~10 meV, are consistent with the calculated ones.

  14. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  15. Magnetic stimulation study in mirror movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Konagaya; Y. Mano; M. Konagaya

    1990-01-01

    A young man with congenital mirror movements was studied by non-invasive magnetic stimulation. Radiological examination showed no craniocervical or pituitary abnormality except for mild atrophy of the right hippocampus. Magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex caused large amplitudes in the ipsilateral hand muscles, indicating the possibility of functional disorder in the motor pathways from the motor cortex to muscles in

  16. Deep Stimulation at Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, K.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Garrison, G. H.; Nordin, Y.; Uddenberg, M.; Swyer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is a 5 year field project designed to demonstrate recent technological advances for engineered geothermal systems (EGS) development. Advances in reservoir stimulation, diverter, and monitoring are being tested in a hot (>300 C), dry well (NWG 55-29) drilled in 2008. These technologies could reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The project began in 2010 with two years of permitting, technical planning, and development of a project-specific Induced Seismicity Mitigation Plan (ISMP), and is funded in part by the Department of Energy. In 2012, the well was hydraulically stimulated with water at pressures below the principle stress for 7 weeks, resulting in hydroshearing. The depth of stimulation was successfully shifted by injection of two pills of Thermally-degradable Zonal Isolation Materials (TZIMs). Injectivity changes, thermal profiles and seismicity indicate that fracture permeability in well NWG 55-29 was enhanced during stimulation. This work successfully demonstrated the viability of large-volume (40,000 m3), low-pressure stimulation coupled with non-mechanical diverter technology, and microseismic monitoring for reservoir mapping. Further analysis and field testing in 2013 indicates further stimulation will be required in order to develop an economically viable reservoir, and is scheduled in 2014. The 2014 stimulation will use improved stimulation and monitoring equipment, better knowledge based on 2012 outcomes, and create a deep EGS reservoir in the hottest part of the wellbore.

  17. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Binnie

    2000-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation is an empirically based method for treatment of epilepsy by repeated stimulation of the left vagus nerve through implanted electrodes. Despite studies in animals and man, which show changes in brain electrophysiology, metabolism and neurochemistry, the mode of action remains unknown. Clinical testing has presented methodological challenges, as it is difficult to assess under double blind conditions

  18. Deep brain stimulation: from neurology to psychiatry?

    E-print Network

    been revitalized, starting with treatment of Parkinson's disease, in which deep brain stimulation (DBSDeep brain stimulation: from neurology to psychiatry? Paul Krack1,2 , Marwan I. Hariz3­compulsive disorder, depression and addiction. In this review, we discuss the concept that dysfunction of motor

  19. Factors Associated with Speech-Sound Stimulability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lof, Gregory L.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined stimulability in 30 children (ages 3 to 5) with articulation impairments. Factors found to relate to stimulability were articulation visibility, the child's age, the family's socioeconomic status, and the child's overall imitative ability. Perception, severity, otitis media history, language abilities, consistency of…

  20. Toroid systems for focused neuromagnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Zhang; J. Edrich

    1998-01-01

    As a contactless applicator, the toroidal coil was proposed some time ago for stimulation of neural tissues in order to replace the electrodes. However; as compared to electrical stimulators, conventional toroids exhibit severe disadvantages including their relatively large volumes, their low power efficiency, and their low spatial accuracy. Here, the authors propose and analyse a new approach for toroidal coil

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schlaug; V. Renga; D. Nair

    2008-01-01

    ranscranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) is an emerging technique of noninva- sivebrainstimulationthathasbeenfoundusefulinexaminingcorticalfunctioninhealthy subjects and in facilitating treatments of various neurologic disorders. A better under- standing of adaptive and maladaptive poststroke neuroplasticity and its modulation through noninvasive brain stimulation has opened up experimental treatment options using TDCS for patients recovering from stroke. We review the role of TDCS as a facilitator

  2. Cortical and cervical stimulation after hemispheric infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Berardelli; M Inghilleri; M Manfredi; A Zamponi; V Cecconi; G Dolce

    1987-01-01

    Cortical and cervical stimulation has been performed in 20 patients with hemiparesis or hemiplegia due to hemispheric infarction and in 20 control subjects. The motor action potentials (MAPs) were recorded from biceps and thenar muscles. MAPs evoked by stimulation of the undamaged hemisphere were normal in 18 out of 20 patients and in two there was a slight increase of

  3. Über das sogenannte Bauchdeckenhämatom des vorgerückten Lebensalters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Blond

    1924-01-01

    Ftir die subkutanen Rupturen der Artcria epigastric~ und ihrer Aste oder des Musculus rectus finder man in der Literatur keine einheitliche Nomenklatur. Der Symptomenkomplex ist unter den )\\/amen Spontanruptur des :Rectus abdominis, Ruptur der Arteria epigastric~ oder spontanes Bauehdeckenhs zusammengefa6t. Wohlgemuth nennt c[as Leiden subkutane Ruptur des Mttsculus rectus abdominis. Hilgenreiner spricht von dem spontanen Bauchdeckenh~tma~om des worgertickten Alters und

  4. Les attitudes des ménages : leur signification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe lHardy

    1976-01-01

    [fre] Les attitudes des ménages : leur signification - Instrument privilégié d'analyse conjoncturelle, l'enquête de l'INSEE sur les « attitudes et intentions d'achats des particuliers» cherche également à connaître l'opinion des ménages sur la situation économique française récente et future. A la lumière d'une expérience de plus de quinze années, l'auteur, rapprochant l'évolution observée des opinions émises, s'interroge sur la

  5. Histaminausschüttende und antiallergischen Wirkung des Insulinshocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinrich Bartelheimer; Theodor Afendulis

    1938-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Nachdem von uns in früheren Versuchen festgestellt worden war, daß Insulinshocks den anaphylaktischen Shock des Meerschweinchens\\u000a aufheben oder ihn in hemmendem Sinne beeinflussen, ließ sich jetzt zeigen, daß diese antiallergische Wirkung nicht durch den\\u000a Eiweißcharakter des Insulins oder etwa vorhandene Begleitsubstanzen erfolgt. Auch eine hemmend wirkende Veränderung im Tonus\\u000a des vegetativen Nervensystems während des Insulinshocks konnte, wenigstens beim Meerschweinchen, unwahrscheinlich

  6. Rentre des tudiants UNIVERSIT BLAISE PASCAL

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    Rentrée des étudiants étrangers UNIVERSIT� BLAISE PASCAL www.univ-bpclermont.fr COMMUNIQU� DE PRESSE Accueil des étudiants étrangers de l'Université Blaise Pascal Les échanges internationaux, chaque année, l'université Blaise Pascal envoie des étudiants à l'étranger et accueille des étudiants d

  7. Neurologie et neuropathologie des tigres en captivité

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludo Bogaert; Amico Bignami

    1964-01-01

    1.Chez un tigre adulte, on a observé des signes de néphrite avec crises d'épilepsie, peut être des hallucinations visuelles, des mouvements de manège, un nystagmus, un syndrome méningé à prédominance cervico-thoracique avec opisthotonos et finalement une paralysie de l'avant-train. Il existait un engainement des vaisseaux rétiniens sans exsudats. Evolution en dix semaines avec cachexie importante.2.A l'examen anatomique: méningoencéphalite avec épendymite

  8. Novel agents in indolent lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Michele; Ferrario, Andrea; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Appio, Lorena; Arcaini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (iNHLs) include follicular lymphomas (FL), marginal-zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. First-line standard therapy in advanced, symptomatic iNHL consists of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. The recent rediscovery of the ‘old’ chemotherapeutic agent bendamustine, an alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action, has added a new effective and well-tolerated option to the therapeutic armamentarium in iNHL, increasing response rates and duration. However, patients invariably relapse and subsequent active and well-tolerated agents are needed. In recent years a large number of new targeted agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical experimentation in FL and indolent nonfollicular lymphoma (iNFL), including the new monoclonal antibodies binding CD20 or other surface antigens, immunoconjugates and bispecific antibodies. Moreover novel agents directed against intracellular processes such as proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and agents that target the tumour microenvironment, notably the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, are under active clinical investigation. The development of these new drugs may change in the near future the approach to iNHL patients, leading to better tolerated and effective therapy regimens. PMID:23610620

  9. Novel agents in indolent lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Merli, Michele; Ferrario, Andrea; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Appio, Lorena; Arcaini, Luca; Passamonti, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (iNHLs) include follicular lymphomas (FL), marginal-zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. First-line standard therapy in advanced, symptomatic iNHL consists of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. The recent rediscovery of the 'old' chemotherapeutic agent bendamustine, an alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action, has added a new effective and well-tolerated option to the therapeutic armamentarium in iNHL, increasing response rates and duration. However, patients invariably relapse and subsequent active and well-tolerated agents are needed. In recent years a large number of new targeted agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical experimentation in FL and indolent nonfollicular lymphoma (iNFL), including the new monoclonal antibodies binding CD20 or other surface antigens, immunoconjugates and bispecific antibodies. Moreover novel agents directed against intracellular processes such as proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and agents that target the tumour microenvironment, notably the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, are under active clinical investigation. The development of these new drugs may change in the near future the approach to iNHL patients, leading to better tolerated and effective therapy regimens. PMID:23610620

  10. Reduced discomfort during high-definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine

    PubMed Central

    Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Febles, Nicole; Minhas, Preet; Hahn, Christoph; Bikson, Marom

    2014-01-01

    Background: High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) allows for non-invasive neuromodulation using an array of compact (approximately 1 cm2 contact area) “High-Definition” (HD) electrodes, as compared to conventional tDCS (which uses two large pads that are approximately 35 cm2). In a previous transcutaneous study, we developed and validated designs for HD electrodes that reduce discomfort over >20 min session with 2 mA electrode current. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a chemical pretreatment with 6% benzocaine (topical numbing agent) to further reduce subjective discomfort during transcutaneous stimulation and to allow for better sham controlled studies. Methods: Pre-treatment with 6% benzocaine was compared with control (no pretreatment) for 22 min 2 mA of stimulation, with either CCNY-4 or Lectron II electroconductive gel, for both cathodal and anodal transcutaneous (forearm) stimulation (eight different combinations). Results: Results show that for all conditions and polarities tested, stimulation with HD electrodes is safe and well tolerated and that pretreatment further reduced subjective discomfort. Conclusion: Pretreatment with a mild analgesic reduces discomfort during HD-tDCS. PMID:25071548

  11. Microscopic magnetic stimulation of neural tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Lee, Seung Woo; Freeman, Daniel K.; Polasek, Miloslav; Fried, Shelley I.; Gale, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently used to treat a wide range of cardiovascular, sensory and neurological diseases. Despite its success, there are significant limitations to its application, including incompatibility with magnetic resonance imaging, limited control of electric fields and decreased performance associated with tissue inflammation. Magnetic stimulation overcomes these limitations but existing devices (that is, transcranial magnetic stimulation) are large, reducing their translation to chronic applications. In addition, existing devices are not effective for deeper, sub-cortical targets. Here we demonstrate that sub-millimeter coils can activate neuronal tissue. Interestingly, the results of both modelling and physiological experiments suggest that different spatial orientations of the coils relative to the neuronal tissue can be used to generate specific neural responses. These results raise the possibility that micro-magnetic stimulation coils, small enough to be implanted within the brain parenchyma, may prove to be an effective alternative to existing stimulation devices. PMID:22735449

  12. Le prix des attributs du logement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Cavailhès

    2005-01-01

    [fre] La méthode des « prix hédonistes » permet d'estimer le prix des différents attributs d'un logement (taille, confort, environnement proche ou lointain, etc.) à partir de son prix global. De tels prix ont été estimés pour 1996 pour le secteur locatif libre des villes, de leurs banlieue et de leurs couronnes périurbaines(« aires urbaines »). Ainsi, la surface habitable

  13. Remise des Prix du recteur 2013 Flicitations

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    Communiqué Remise des Prix du recteur 2013 Félicitations à Lorraine Vaillancourt, Prix Initiative, et à l'équipe de production des Affaires publiques, Prix Coup de coeur ! La direction, le corps de la Faculté qui ont été couronnés lors de la récente remise des Prix du recteur, tenue ce mercredi

  14. N. Gorse Oct. 2003 Gestion des Processus

    E-print Network

    Mignotte, Max

    N. Gorse ­ Oct. 2003 Gestion des Processus Introduction à UNIX N. Gorse ­ Oct. 2003Introduction à ordonnanceur N. Gorse ­ Oct. 2003Introduction à UNIX 71 Gestion des Processus Définitions Processus (job, tâche mémoire N. Gorse ­ Oct. 2003Introduction à UNIX 72 Gestion des Processus Définitions Composition de l

  15. 2. PERTURBATIONS ET RECUPERATION DES FONCTIONS COGNITIVES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2. « PERTURBATIONS ET RECUPERATION DES FONCTIONS COGNITIVES CHEZ LE SUJET NORMAL ET CHEZ LE SUJET «Perturbations et récupération des fonctions cognitives chez le sujet normal et chez le sujet pathologique». Ce présenter des dysfonctionnements de la cognition en dehors de toute pathologie avérée. Ces

  16. CONSEIL GENERAL DES CTES D'ARMOR

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CONSEIL GENERAL DES CÔTES D'ARMOR LUTTE PREVENTIVE ET CURATIVE CONTRE LA PROLIFERATION DES MAREES-Michel-en-Grève (Côtes d'Armor) _________ GEOMER ­ LETG UMR 6554 C.N.R.S. Janvier 2005 hal-00271248,version1-12Aug2014 #12;Poche du Yar 2003-2004 ­ GEOMER-UMR 6554 CNRS -1- CONSEIL GENERAL DES COTES D'ARMOR LUTTE

  17. JACK Intelligent Agents - Components for Intelligent Agents in Java

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Busetta; Ralph Rönnquist; Andrew Hodgson; Andrew Lucas

    1999-01-01

    This paper is organised as follows.Section 2 introduces JACK IntelligentAgents, presenting the approach taken byAOS to its design and outlining its majorengineering characteristics. The BDImodel is discussed briefly in Section 3.Section 4 gives an outline of how to buildan application with JACK IntelligentAgents. Finally, in Section 5 we discusshow the use of this framework can bebeneficial to both engineers and

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  19. Generating Super Stimulated-Echoes in MRI and their Application to Hyperpolarized C-13 Diffusion Metabolic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Peder E. Z.; Kerr, Adam B.; Reed, Galen D.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kurhanewicz, John; Pauly, John M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated-echoes in MR can be used to provide high sensitivity to motion and flow, creating diffusion and perfusion weighting as well as T1 contrast, but conventional approaches inherently suffer from a 50% signal loss. The super stimulated-echo, which uses a specialized radiofrequency (RF) pulse train, has been proposed in order to improve the signal while preserving motion and T1 sensitivity. This paper presents a novel and straightforward method for designing the super stimulated-echo pulse train using inversion pulse design techniques. This method can also create adiabatic designs with an improved response to RF transmit field variations. The scheme was validated in phantom experiments and shown in vivo to improve SNR. We have applied a super stimulated-echo to metabolic MRI with hyperpolarized 13C-labeled molecules. For spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized agents, several repetition times are required but only a single stimulated-echo encoding is feasible, which can lead to unwanted motion blurring. To address this, a super stimulated-echo preparation scheme was used in which the diffusion weighting is terminated prior to the acquisition, and we observed a SNR increases of 60% in phantoms and 49% in vivo over a conventional stimulated-echo. Experiments following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate in murine transgenic cancer models have shown improved delineation for tumors since signals from metabolites within tumor tissues are retained while those from the vasculature are suppressed by the diffusion preparation scheme. PMID:22027366

  20. Course Agent Adaptive Online Course Recommendation System

    E-print Network

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    Course Agent Adaptive Online Course Recommendation System Sciences of the Adaptive Online Course Recommendation System. It is specially to Course Agent Course Agent is the new implementation at the School of Information

  1. Interactions of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents with Aqueous

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    Interactions of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents with Aqueous Chlorine: Reaction Kinetics extensively investigated to elucidate the behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents during water of antibacterial agents worldwide, on the basis of annual global sales and therapeutic versatility (1

  2. Oxidative Transformation of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    Oxidative Transformation of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents and Structurally Related Amines in the abiotic degradation of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents in the environment. Introduction Fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) are a group of potent synthetic antibiotics that are widely used

  3. Optimal agent cooperation with local information

    E-print Network

    De Mot, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are in general believed to be more efficient, robust, and versatile than their single-agent equivalents. However, it is not an easy task to design strategies that fully exploit the multi-agent benefits, ...

  4. Rapid detection of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in urine and serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lönnberg; Maria Andrén; Gunnar Birgegård; Malin Drevin; Mats Garle; Jan Carlsson

    A rapid and easy-to-use test kit, EPO WGA MAIIA, which can be used for distinguishing various endogenous human erythropoietins (hEPOs) and several recombinant hEPO and EPO analogues, has been evaluated. The test is based on chromatographic separation of the glycosylated isoforms of EPO using wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and a sensitive immunoassay using anti-EPO carbon black nanostrings and image scanning

  5. Route of administration for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: patient and nursing considerations.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    Several clinical studies have indicated that compared with intravenous (IV) administration, subcutaneous (SC) administration of Epoetin alfa may result in a dose-sparing effect in patients on hemodialysis. However, data also indicate wide inter-patient variability in response, with many patients requiring the same or a higher dose following conversion to SC administration. Convenience favors IV administration of Epoetin alfa in patients on hemodialysis, and patient preferences and comfort should also be primary considerations. For patients who prefer SC injections, the nurse's coordination of the required dosing, administration, and operational factors is key to maintaining and improving anemia-related outcomes. PMID:18041455

  6. Thilly/Stengel/Boini/Villar/Couchoud/Frimat Evaluation and determinants of underprescription of erythropoiesis stimulating agents

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    disease (CKD) and affecting nearly all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The introduction have been associated with anaemia correction in CKD, including lower morbidity and mortality [1/dL in all CKD patients is recommended by several clinical practice guidelines [3,4], but the maintenance

  7. Classification of Intelligent Agent Network Topologies and a New Topological Description Language for Agent Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Lan Zhang; Clement H. C. Leung; Gitesh K. Raikundalia

    2006-01-01

    Topological theory of intelligent agent networks provides crucial information about the structure of agent distribution over a network. Agent network topologies not only take agent distribution into consideration but also consider agent mobility and intelligence in a network. Current research in the agent network topology area adopts topological theory from the distributed system and computing network fields without considering mobility

  8. Stimulated photorefractive optical neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owechko, Y.; Dunning, G.; Nordin, G.; Soffer, B. H.

    1992-12-01

    This final report describes research in optical neural networks performed under DARPA sponsorship at Hughes Aircraft Company during the period 1989-1992. The objective of demonstrating a programmable optical computer for flexible implementation of multi-layer neural network models was successfully achieved. The advantages of optics for neural network implementations include large storage capacity, high connectivity, and massive parallelism which result in high computation rates. The optical neurocomputer developed on this program is based on a new type of holography, cascaded grating holography (CGH), in which the neural network weights are distributed among angularly- and spatially-multiplexed gratings generated by stimulated processes in photorefractive crystals. This approach reduces crosstalk and improves the utilization of the optical input device. Successfully implemented neural networks include the Perceptron, Bidirectional Associative Memory, and multi-layer backpropagation networks. Up to 104 neurons, 2x10(7) weights, and processing rates of 2x10(7) connection updates per second were achieved. Packaging concepts for future versions of the neurocomputer were also studied.

  9. Gastric electrical stimulation for obesity.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Jenny D; Soffer, Edy

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide with a major impact on health and healthcare expenditures. Medical therapy in the form of diet and pharmacotherapy has limited effect on weight. Standard bariatric surgery is effective but is associated with morbidity and mortality, creating an unmet need for alternative therapies. One such therapy, the application of electrical stimulation to the stomach, has been studied extensively for the last two decades. Though pulse parameters differ between the various techniques used, the rationale behind this assumes that application of electrical current can interfere with gastric motor function or modulate afferent signaling to the brain or both. Initial studies led by industry failed to show an effect on body weight. However, more recently, there has been a renewed interest in this therapeutic modality with a number of concepts being evaluated in large human trials. If successful, this minimally invasive and low-risk intervention would be an important addition to the existing menu of therapies for obesity. PMID:25613177

  10. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  11. Immune system stimulation by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Perdigon, G; Alvarez, S; Rachid, M; Agüero, G; Gobbato, N

    1995-07-01

    The immune system consists of organs and several cell types. Antigen interaction with these cells induces a cellular immune response mediated by activated cells and a humoral immune response mediated by antibodies. The cellular interactions are enhanced by adhesion molecules, and the activated cells release different cytokines. These complex cellular interactions induce a systemic immune response. If the antigen penetrates by the oral route, a secretory immune response is obtained, which is mediated by secretory IgA. The determination of the number of T or B cells, the quantitative or qualitative measure of the cytokines, antibody levels, or the study of cellular function such as phagocytic activity is used to evaluate the state of the immune system. The effects of lactic acid bacteria on the systemic immune response and on the secretory immune system are described. Potential health benefits of lactic acid bacteria include protection against enteric infections, use as an oral adjuvant, the immunopotentiator in malnutrition, and the prevention of chemically induced tumors. The results showed that Lactobacillus casei could prevent enteric infections and stimulate secretory IgA in malnourished animals, but could produce bacteria translocation. Yogurt could inhibit the growth of intestinal carcinoma through increased activity of IgA, T cells, and macrophages. PMID:7593855

  12. Bacterial Inhibition by Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Mohammad Reza; Torkaman, Giti

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Much evidence shows that electrical stimulation (ES) promotes the wound healing process. The inhibitory effect of ES on bacterial growth has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the useful effects of ES on wound healing. Bacterial burden has been associated with chronic wounds. The extensive use of antibiotics can lead to the spread of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Whether biophysical energies, such as ES, can be used as a treatment modality against pathogenic microorganisms remains an open question. Recent Advances: The research literature provides evidence for useful effects of ES in terms of inhibition of bacterial growth. The type of ES, its polarity, and the intensity of the current play a major role in establishment of antibacterial effects. Both direct current (DC) and high voltage pulse current are more effective at inhibiting bacterial growth than are other types of ES. The exact mechanism underlying the antibacterial effects of ES is not clear. Critical Issues: Available evidence indicates that microampere DC (?ADC) is better than other ES types for inhibition of bacterial growth. The results of most studies also support the application of cathodal current for bacterial growth inhibition. The current intensity of ES would appear to be tolerable by humans if used clinically for treatment of infected wounds. Future Directions: The cathodal ?ADC appears to be more effective for inhibition of microorganism growth. Further research, especially in vivo, is necessary to clarify the inhibitory effects of ES on wound bacterial infections. PMID:24761349

  13. Hyperthermia Stimulates HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42–45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38–40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity. PMID:22807676

  14. Effects of the Selective 5HT2A Receptor Antagonist MDL 100,907 on MDMA-Induced Locomotor Stimulation in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JH Kehne; HJ Ketteler; TC McCloskey; CK Sullivan; MW Dudley; CJ Schmidt

    1996-01-01

    (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) releases dopamine and serotonin in vivo and stimulates locomotor activity. Previous work demonstrated that MDMA-stimulated dopamine release could be reduced by the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist [R-(+)-a-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidinemethanol] (MDL 100,907). In the present study MDL 100,907 significantly reduced MDMA-stimulated locomotion without affecting basal levels of locomotion. Other agents with 5-HT2A antagonist activity (ritanserin, clozapine, MDL 28,133A, or methiothepin), as

  15. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan (Grafton, MA); Walker, Barbara J. (Auburn, MA); Chang, Chung-yu (Worcester, MA); Niblack, Brett (Nashville, TN); Panchal, Rekha (Shrewsbury, MA)

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  16. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  17. Dynamic Economy with Heterogeneous Agents

    E-print Network

    Peng, Yulei

    2013-08-06

    ) = (cit; yHit ; y l it; xit; Iit), here i = H; h and t = 1; 2; 3. Besides the feasible conditions in every period just as the equation (2.8), (2.9), (2.10), the social planner uses the incentive-compatibility conditions to distinguish agents with di... erent types, and the government recognizes a given agent?s ability at the beginning of period. In third period, the incentive-compatibility condition for high ability agent: U(cH3; LH3) = u(cH3) + v(1 ylH3 HH3 ) u(ch3) + v(1 ylH3 HH3 ): (2...

  18. Family as Economic Socialization Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Kathryn Dalbey

    1983-01-01

    The family operates as an economic socialization agent through the provision of (1) economic information networks, (2) grants and exchanges of resources, (3) economic role models, and (4) an environment for the development of individual human resource attributes. (SK)

  19. Agent-based forward analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiao, Yu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Potok, Thomas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lusk, Rick M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-01-01

    We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

  20. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  1. A amphoteric copolymer profile modification agent

    SciTech Connect

    Wang HongGuan; Yu LianCheng; Tian HongKun [Scientific Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

    1995-11-01

    This report provides a new gel profile modification agent prepared by an amphoteric copolymer (FT-213) and a novel crosslinking agent (BY), and introduces the preparations of the amphoteric polymer, the crosslinking agent and the profile modification agent, the action mechanism, the test conditions and the evaluations of the performance of the agent. The 45 well treatments in oilfields demonstrate that the agent can be prepared conveniently, the agent has better compatibility and application performances, and the treatment life is longer with the use of the agent. 80,000 tons incremental oil and 60,000 m{sup 3} decreasing water production have been achieved.

  2. Effect of a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) preparation on the stimulation of polymorphonulcear leukocytes (PMNL)

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, J.; Chow, D.C.; Skosey, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    During the process of joint inflammation PMNL are attracted into the joint space by chemotactic agents and are stimulated by immune complexes, particular matter (eg, crystals, cartilage debris) and other phlogistic agents. This process occurs in an environment rich in HA. The authors have examined the effect of high molecular weight HA. They have examined the effect of high molecular weight HA upon PMNL stimulation. PMNL were isolated from human blood and stimulated with either opsonized zymosan or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fmlp). The authors assessed stimulation by measuring the ability of cell supernatants to promote the release of /sup 35/S from chips of rabbit articular cartilage labeled in vivo, and the enhancement of oxidation of (1-/sup 14/C)glucose to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Stimulation of cells with zym in the presence of HA, 0.125-2.5 mg/ml, resulted in enhanced /sup 35/S release (33-59% over zym alone) and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production (0.5-64%). However, HA failed to enhance responses when fmlp (+cytochalasin B) was used as the stimulus. It has been demonstrated that high molecular weight HA inhibits phagocytosis of both latex and aggregated IgG. In our studies, it is likely that HA interference with ingestion of zym leads to frustrated phagocytosis and enhancement of PMNL responses. Similar modification of responses of inflammatory mediator cells could occur in inflamed joints.

  3. Intelligent agents: theory and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Woolridge; N. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The concept of an agent has become,important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream,computer,science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues as sociated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as the

  4. Agent-based software engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wooldridge

    1997-01-01

    The technology of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems seems set to radicallyalter the way in which complex, distributed, open systems are conceptualized and implemented.The purpose of this paper is to consider the problem of building a multi-agentsystem as a software engineering enterprise. The article focuses on three issues: (i) howagents might be specified; (ii) how these specifications might be refined

  5. Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Srinivasan; M. Choy

    \\u000a Hybrid systems have grown tremendously in the past few years due to their abilities to offset the demerits of one technique\\u000a by the merits of another. This chapter presents a number of computational intelligence techniques which are useful in the\\u000a implementation of hybrid multi-agent systems. A brief review of the applications of the hybrid multi-agent systems is presented.

  6. Plan recognition for interface agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Gabriel Armentano; Analía Amandi

    2007-01-01

    Interface agents are computer programs that provide personalized assistance to a user dealing with computer based applications.\\u000a By understanding the tasks the user performs in a software application an interface agent could be aware of the context that\\u000a represents the user’s focus of attention at each particular moment. With this purpose, plan recognition aims at identifying\\u000a the plans or goals

  7. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  8. Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Thakral, Gaurav; LaFontaine, Javier; Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K.; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. Method We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Results Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Conclusion Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction. PMID:24049559

  9. Numerical dosimetry of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique capable of stimulating neurons by means of electromagnetic induction. TMS can be used to map brain function and shows promise for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Calculation of fields induced in the brain are necessary to accurately identify stimulated neural tissue during TMS. This allows the development of novel TMS coil designs capable of stimulating deeper brain regions and increasing the localization of stimulation that can be achieved. We have performed numerical calculations of magnetic and electric field with high-resolution anatomically realistic human head models to find these stimulated brain regions for a variety of proposed TMS coil designs. The realistic head models contain heterogeneous tissue structures and electrical conductivities, yielding superior results to those obtained from the simplified homogeneous head models that are commonly employed. The attenuation of electric field as a function of depth in the brain and the localization of stimulating field have been methodically investigated. In addition to providing a quantitative comparison of different TMS coil designs the variation of induced field between subjects has been investigated. We also show the differences in induced fields between adult, adolescent and child head models to preemptively identify potential safety issues in the application of pediatric TMS.

  10. Peripheral nerve stimulation in chronic cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Magis, Delphine; Schoenen, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Cluster headache is well known as one of the most painful primary neurovascular headache. Since 1% of chronic cluster headache patients become refractory to all existing pharmacological treatments, various invasive and sometimes mutilating procedures have been tempted in the last decades. Recently, neurostimulation methods have raised new hope for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache patients. The main focus of this chapter is on stimulation of the great occipital nerve, which has been the best evaluated peripheral nerve stimulation technique in drug-resistant chronic cluster headache, providing the most convincing results so far. Other peripheral nerve stimulation approaches used for this indication are also reviewed in detail. Although available studies are limited to a relatively small number of patients and placebo-controlled trials are lacking, existent clinical data suggest that occipital nerve stimulation should nonetheless be recommended for intractable chronic cluster headache patients before more invasive deep brain stimulation surgery. More studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of supraorbital nerve stimulation and of vagus nerve stimulation in management of cluster headaches. PMID:21422783

  11. Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    ., Richard, D. Les Cordés: anatomie comparée des Vertébrés, 9e éd. (2009) Hildebrand, M. & Goslow, G. Analysis of Vertebrate Structure, 5th ed. (2001) Kardong, KV. Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution, 5th Ed. McGraw Hill (2008) Liem, K., Bemis, W., Walker, WF., Grande, L. Functional Anatomy

  12. Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    Cordés: anatomie comparée des Vertébrés, 9e éd. (2009) Hildebrand, M. & Goslow, G. Analysis of Vertebrate Structure, 5th ed. (2001) Kardong, KV. Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution, 5th Ed. McGraw Hill (2008) Liem, K., Bemis, W., Walker, WF., Grande, L. Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates

  13. UNIVERSIT DE NANTES FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    naturelle sur la reconnaissance des roches par télédétection V-IR : application à la cartographie de l'ophiolite............................................................. 51 2.2 Contexte géologique de l'ophiolite d ..................................................................................................................................... 54 2.2.2 Formation de l'ophiolite et unités lithologiques affleurant dans les montagnes d

  14. VALUATION EMPIRIQUE DES IMPACTS DES VNEMENTS AYANT ABOUTI

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    toujours été appliqués par les entreprises françaises, est l'utilisation de la juste valeur comme principal. Notamment celles examinant l'effet de la comptabilité en juste valeur (i.e. : Barth, Landsman & Whalen (1995'allait représenter la mise en oeuvre des normes IAS/IFRS et notamment IAS 39, celle qui a suscité le plus de

  15. Dpartement de communication Facult des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    'occasion de tester et d'évaluer ses connaissances acquises en communication au Département dans le cadre d'étudiant doit être en mesure : d'évaluer ses habilités et ses compétences personnelles en communication; d'estimer la portée de ses connaissances, de ses aptitudes et de ses compétences vis-à-vis des exigences du

  16. Dpartement de communication Facult des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    'évaluer ses connaissances acquises en communication au Département dans le cadre d'une expérience concrète en : · d'évaluer ses habilités et ses compétences personnelles en communication; · d'estimer la portée de ses connaissances, de ses aptitudes et de ses compétences vis-à-vis des exigences du milieu

  17. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de science politique

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    politique et politique comparée. Chaque champ dispose, en principe, de ses objets et de ses angles d'analyse privilégiés. La politique comparée est un des champs de la science politique. Cependant, si elle a ses objets la science politique avec ses méthodes propres, ses objets d'analyse et ses auteurs de référence. C

  18. Dpartement de communication Facult des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    'évaluer ses connaissances acquises en communication au Département dans le cadre d'une expérience concrète en : d'évaluer ses habiletés et ses compétences personnelles en communication; d'estimer la portée de ses connaissances, de ses aptitudes et de ses compétences vis-à-vis des exigences du milieu

  19. Techniken & Sprachen des Semantic Web Techniken & Sprachen des Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    World Wide Web (7) Tim Berners-Lee Proposal 1989: Hypertextsystem als Infrastrukturprinzp f Berners-Lee) 1989: An intriguing possibility, given a large hypertext database with typed links, Inst. f¨ur KI, Uni Ulm 3 - 10 Techniken & Sprachen des Semantic Web Aber ... CERN Proposal, (Tim

  20. II. DIGESTION DES PROTINES ET ABSORPTION INTESTINALE DES ACIDES AMINS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'influence de la flore du tube digestif du monogastrique a été mise en évidence depuis plusieurs années au Laboratoire des Métabolismes du C.N.R.Z. La flore intes- tinale peut en effet désaminer ou décarboxyler les la présente action concer- tée et, en conséquence, ne sont rappelées ici que pour mémoire (cf. MICHEL