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1

Erythropoietin and erythropoiesis stimulating agents.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormonal regulator of red blood cell production. Recombinant EPO has become the leading drug for treatment of anaemia from a variety of causes; however, it is sometimes misused in sport with the aim of improving performance and endurance. This paper presents an introductory overview of EPO, its receptor, and a variety of recombinant human EPOs/erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) available on the market (e.g. epoetins and their long acting analogs--darbepoetin alfa and continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator). Recent efforts to improve on EPO's pharmaceutical properties and to develop novel replacement products are also presented. In most cases, these efforts have emphasized a reduction in frequency of injections or complete elimination of intravenous or subcutaneous injections of the hormone (biosimilars, EPO mimetic peptides, fusion proteins, endogenous EPO gene activators and gene doping). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) combined with double immunoblotting can detect the subtle differences in glycosylation/sialylation, enabling differentiation among endogenous and recombinant EPO analogues. This method, using the highly sensitive anti-EPO monoclonal antibody AE7A5, has been accepted internationally as one of the methods for detecting misuse of ESAs in sport. PMID:22508651

Debeljak, Nataša; Sytkowski, Arthur J

2012-11-01

2

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents: approaches to modulate activity  

PubMed Central

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), such as the approved agents epoetin alfa and epoetin beta, has been used successfully for over 20 years to treat anemia in millions of patients. However, due to the relatively short half-life of the molecule (approximately 8 hours), frequent dosing may be required to achieve required hemoglobin levels. Therefore, a need was identified in some anemic patient populations for erythropoiesis stimulating agents with longer half-lives that required less frequent dosing. This need led to the development of second generation molecules which are modified versions of rHuEPO with improved pharma-cokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties such as darbepoetin alfa, a hyperglycosylated analog of rHuEPO, and pegzyrepoetin, a pegylated rHuEPO. Third generation molecules, such as peginesatide, which are peptide mimetics that have no sequence homology to rHuEPO have also recently been developed. The various molecular, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of these and other erythropoiesis stimulating agents will be discussed in this review. PMID:23847411

Sinclair, Angus M

2013-01-01

3

Pharmacovigilance in practice: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.  

PubMed

Pharmacovigilance (PV) is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or other problems related to medical products after they have been licensed for marketing. The purpose of PV is to advance the safe use of marketed medical products. Regulatory agencies and license holders collaborate to collect data reported by health care providers, patients, and the public as well as data from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and individual clinical and nonclinical studies. They validate and analyze the data to determine whether safety signals exist, and if warranted, develop an action plan to mitigate the identified risk. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) provide an example of how PV is applied in reality. Among other approved indications, ESAs may be used to treat anemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. ESAs increase hemoglobin levels and reduce the need for transfusions; they are also associated with a known increased risk of thromboembolic events. Starting in 2003, emerging data suggested that ESAs might reduce survival. As a result of PV activities by regulatory agencies and license holders, labeling for ESAs addresses these risks. Meta-analyses and individual clinical studies have confirmed that ESAs increase the risk of thromboembolic events, but when used as indicated, ESAs have not been shown to have a significant effect on survival or disease progression. Ongoing safety studies will provide additional data in the coming years to further clarify the risks and benefits of ESAs. PMID:24890561

Hedenus, Michael; Ludwig, Heinz; Henry, David H; Gasal, Eduard

2014-10-01

4

USING ARTIFICIAL AGENTS TO STIMULATE PARTICIPATION IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES  

E-print Network

's behavioral profile and known principles of participation derived from social cognition theories, for stimulating participation. KEYWORDS Social cognition, cognitive agents, participation, virtual communities, this approach relies on using cognitive agents informed of social cognition theories that are able (1) to infer

Corran, Ruth

5

Mitogen stimulation of splenocytes from mice infected with scrapie agent.  

PubMed

Spleen weights and mitogen responsiveness of splenocyte cultures from scrapie agent-infected and control-inoculated mice were compared over two-month periods following inoculation. Splenocytes from Swiss, C57B1, and BALB/c mice were stimulated with the T (thymus-derived) cell mitogens phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A, the B (bone marrow-derived) cell mitogen bacterial lipopolysaccharide, or pokeweed mitogen, a stimulator of both T and B cells. Although significant splenomegaly was associated with scrapie infection, we failed to observe any significant differences in the activation of experimental and control cells. Studies with BALB/c mice suggested the possibility, however, that with both phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide, specific decreases in lymphocyte activation might occur with more optimal culture conditions. The data are consistent with the idea that the scrapie agent stimulates only subtle immunological changes within the host as it destroys the cells of the central nervous system. PMID:568156

Garfin, D E; Stites, D P; Perlman, J D; Cochran, S P; Prusiner, S B

1978-09-01

6

Bubble Jet agent release cartridge for chemical single cell stimulation.  

PubMed

We present a new method for the distinct specific chemical stimulation of single cells and small cell clusters within their natural environment. By single-drop release of chemical agents with droplets in size of typical cell diameters (d <30 ?m) on-demand micro gradients can be generated for the specific manipulation of single cells. A single channel and a double channel agent release cartridge with integrated fluidic structures and integrated agent reservoirs are shown, tested, and compared in this publication. The single channel setup features a fluidic structure fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon. To allow for simultaneous release of different agents even though maintaining the same device size, the second type comprises a double channel fluidic structure, fabricated by photolithographic patterning of TMMF. Dispensed droplet volumes are V?=?15 pl and V?=?10 pl for the silicon and the TMMF based setups, respectively. Utilizing the agent release cartridges, the application in biological assays was demonstrated by hormone-stimulated premature bud formation in Physcomitrella patens and the individual staining of one single L 929 cell within a confluent grown cell culture. PMID:22833153

Wangler, N; Welsche, M; Blazek, M; Blessing, M; Vervliet-Scheebaum, M; Reski, R; Müller, C; Reinecke, H; Steigert, J; Roth, G; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

2013-02-01

7

New erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and new iron formulations.  

PubMed

Today, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), together with iron supplementation, are the main tool for anemia correction in chronic kidney disease patients. Over the past decades, a number of attempts have been made to modify the erythropoietin molecule in order to improve its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. More recently, small peptides, which are unrelated to erythropoietin but bind to the same receptor, have been developed. In addition to this, other strategies to stimulate erythropoiesis have been followed, such as activin inhibition or stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors. Interestingly, the latter have the advantage of being administered orally. New iron molecules, such as ferumoxytol, ferric carboxymaltose and iron isomaltoside 1000, have recently been marketed. These new agents can administered at high doses while releasing minimal free iron. Their safety profile is good, but long- term post- marketing data are still needed to evaluate the occurrence of rare adverse events. PMID:21625121

Locatelli, Francesco; Del Vecchio, Lucia

2011-01-01

8

[Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in congestive heart failure patients].  

PubMed

Congestive heart failure is a disease of high incidence and prevalence in the elderly. Anemia is associated with an increased mortality in these patients. This article reviews the cumulated evidence about the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in congestive heart failure patients. Although some improvement in quality of life has been shown, it has not been found any decrement on mortality and, as a result, together with the high drug cost, it is not recommended the use of this kind of drugs in heart failure patients. PMID:24012446

Robles Perez-Monteoliva, Nicolás Roberto; Macías Núñez, Juan Francisco; Herrera Pérez de Villar, Julio

2014-03-01

9

INFLUENCE DES AGENTS CHIMIQUES SUR LES PROPRITS SUPERFICIELLES DU MERCURE;  

E-print Network

2I3 INFLUENCE DES AGENTS CHIMIQUES SUR LES PROPRI�T�S SUPERFICIELLES DU MERCURE; PAR M. G. LIPPMANN différence électrique d'une surface de mercure mouillée, soit au moyen d'un courant élec- trique, soit en. La forme de cette fonction a été déterminée dans le cas où le liquide qui mouille le mercure est de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Use of agents stimulating erythropoiesis in digestive diseases.  

PubMed

Anemia is the most common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Control and inadequate treatment leads to a worse quality of life and increased morbidity and hospitalization. Blood loss, and to a lesser extent, malabsorption of iron are the main causes of iron deficiency in IBD. There is also a variable component of anemia related to chronic inflammation. The anemia of chronic renal failure has been treated for many years with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), which significantly improves quality of life and survival. Subsequently, rHuEPO has been used progressively in other conditions that occur with anemia of chronic processes such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis or IBD, and anemia associated with the treatment of hepatitis C virus. Erythropoietic agents complete the range of available therapeutic options for treatment of anemia associated with IBD, which begins by treating the basis of the inflammatory disease, along with intravenous iron therapy as first choice. In cases of resistance to treatment with iron, combined therapy with erythropoietic agents aims to achieve near-normal levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit (11-12 g/dL). New formulations of intravenous iron (iron carboxymaltose) and the new generation of erythropoietic agents (darbepoetin and continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) will allow better dosing with the same efficacy and safety. PMID:19787831

Moreno López, Rosario; Sicilia Aladrén, Beatriz; Gomollón García, Fernando

2009-10-01

11

Pattern of resistance to erythropoietin-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine administration of erythropoietin (EPO)-stimulating agents (ESAs) for the control of anemia has improved the quality of life of subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a wide variation in individual response to ESA is often observed. The reasons for EPO resistance include demographic variables such as age and gender distribution, morbidity pattern, and modality of dialysis. Despite suggestions by

Oluwatoyin F Bamgbola

2011-01-01

12

Costs Associated with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Administration to Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Treatment of anemia in hemodialysis patients usually requires the use of expensive erythropoietic proteins. Cost analyses usually focus on drug acquisition costs. Other costs associated with anemia therapy include resources for anemia monitoring as well as preparation and administration of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. Methods: The nonacquisition costs associated with subcutaneous administration of epoetin alfa were determined in a Canadian

David N. Churchill; David Macarios; Cheryl Attard; Joel Kallich; Ron Goeree

2007-01-01

13

Numerical simulation to study the feasibility of using CO2 as a stimulation agent for enhanced geothermal systems  

E-print Network

simulation program for non-isothermal multiphase reactive geochemical transport in variably saturated geologic media: Applications to geothermalSIMULATION TO STUDY FEASIBILITY OF USING CO 2 AS A STIMULATION AGENT FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL

Xu, T.

2010-01-01

14

Stimulants  

MedlinePLUS

... rate, breathing rate, and brain function. Some stimulants affect only a specific organ, such as the heart, lungs, brain, or nervous system. Epinephrine is a stimulant. It is given during cardiac ...

15

Inhibition and stimulation of activity of purified recombinant CYP11A1 by therapeutic agents.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the biosynthesis of steroid hormones is initiated by cytochrome P450 CYP11A1 which converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. We investigated whether some of the experimental and FDA-approved therapeutic agents alter the activity of CYP11A1 in the reconstituted system in vitro. We found that under the experimental conditions used and when phospholipids are included, ketoconazole, posaconazole, carbenoxolone, and selegiline inhibit CYP11A1-mediated production of pregnenolone by at least 67%. Conversely, pemirolast, clobenpropit, desogestrel, dexmedetomidine, and tizanidine stimulate the enzyme activity by up to 70%. We then evaluated the identified inhibitors and activators for spectral binding to CYP11A1 and their effect on enzyme activity in the absence of phospholipids. The data obtained provide insight into how different drugs interact with CYP11A1 and demonstrate that P450 association with the lipid bilayer determines, in many cases, a drug's effect on enzyme activity. PMID:23089212

Mast, Natalia; Linger, Marlin; Pikuleva, Irina A

2013-05-22

16

Dual dopamine/serotonin releasers: potential treatment agents for stimulant addiction.  

PubMed

"Agonist therapy" for cocaine and methamphetamine addiction involves administration of stimulant-like medications (e.g., monoamine releasers) to reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. A significant problem with this strategy is that many candidate medications possess abuse liability because of activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons in the brain. One way to reduce DA-mediated abuse liability of candidate drugs is to add in serotonin (5-HT) releasing properties, since substantial evidence shows that 5-HT neurons provide an inhibitory influence over mesolimbic DA neurons. This article addresses several key issues related to the development of dual DA/5-HT releasers for the treatment of substance use disorders. First, the authors briefly summarize the evidence supporting a dual deficit in DA and 5-HT function during withdrawal from chronic cocaine or alcohol abuse. Second, the authors discuss data demonstrating that 5HT release can dampen DA-mediated stimulant effects, and the "antistimulant" role of 5-HT-sub(2C) receptors is considered. Next, the mechanisms underlying potential adverse effects of 5-HT releasers are described. Finally, the authors discuss recently published data with PAL-287, a novel nonamphetamine DA/5-HT releasing agent that suppresses cocaine self-administration but lacks positive reinforcing properties. It is concluded that DA/5-HT releasers could be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of cocaine and alcohol addictions, as well as for obesity, attention-deficit disorder, and depression. PMID:19086767

Rothman, Richard B; Blough, Bruce E; Baumann, Michael H

2008-12-01

17

Pattern of resistance to erythropoietin-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Routine administration of erythropoietin (EPO)-stimulating agents (ESAs) for the control of anemia has improved the quality of life of subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a wide variation in individual response to ESA is often observed. The reasons for EPO resistance include demographic variables such as age and gender distribution, morbidity pattern, and modality of dialysis. Despite suggestions by observational data, there is no biological characteristic that puts children at a disadvantage for adequate response to ESA. On the contrary, children possess a superior capacity for red cell production, including extramedullary erythropoiesis. The reasons for larger requirement of ESA in children (than in adults) are greater inflammatory burden, disproportionate blood loss, and greater EPO dosing by pediatric physicians. To minimize the harmful (including fatal) consequences of EPO resistance, surveillance programs must replenish nutrient (for example, iron and folate) stores, minimize oxidative hemolysis, control hyperparathyroidism, avoid catheter infection, and optimize uremic clearance. This clinical approach is justified by the inadequacy of laboratory diagnosis of pertinent etiological factors. Indeed, the best proof for functional nutrient deficiency is often a therapeutic trial. Finally, there are upcoming therapeutic agents that exploit the capacity for an endogenous EPO synthesis in CKD subjects, and may therefore minimize the off-target effect of excess dosages. PMID:21697809

Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F

2011-09-01

18

[Effects of growth-stimulating agents and furazolidone in broiler chicks].  

PubMed

The effect of growth-stimulating agents (15 ppm of virginiamycin, 10 ppm of avoparcin and 12 ppm of nitrovin) and that of seven days' treatment with 300 ppm of furazolidone on the performance of broilers was studied in an experimental study of 9,600 animals. Furazolidone was fed in either the fourth or the fifth week of life and combined with virginiamycin or nitrovin. Non-significant improvements in growth were observed when virginiamycin (1.5 per cent), avoparcin (0.7 per cent) and nitrovin (0.7 per cent) were administered. Treatment with furazolidone for seven days resulted in substantial retardation of growth. When broilers were treated during the fourth week of life, the retardation of growth was largely compensated for during the other two weeks. Treatment in the fifth week of life resulted in lower weights prior to slaughter. Therefore, care should be taken in recommending treatment with furazolidone at the end of the fattening period of broilers. PMID:3920782

Vahl, H A; Stappers, H P

1985-03-01

19

High resolution separation methods for the determination of intact human erythropoiesis stimulating agents. A review.  

PubMed

Human erythropoietin (hEPO), a hormone involved in the formation of red blood cells, is a 30 kDa glycoprotein with a high carbohydrate content. The production of recombinant hEPO has made possible its widespread therapeutic use and its banned use in competition sports. Methods to analyze EPO and other erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are necessary for the characterization and quality control of these biopharmaceuticals and also for doping control. In this paper, high resolution separation methods, namely high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with special attention to CE-coupled mass spectrometry, are reviewed. The usefulness of these techniques when applied in different modes to separate the glycoprotein isoforms, aggregates or excipients are detailed. In addition, sample preparation methods that have been applied to ESA samples for subsequent determination by HPLC or CE, as well as the potential compatibility of other preparation methods, are discussed. Applications of the HPLC and CE methods regarding regulatory considerations for biopharmaceuticals analysis, with emphasis on biosimilars, and doping control are also included. Finally, limitations of the present methods and their possible solutions are considered. PMID:22200302

Girard, Michel; Puerta, Angel; Diez-Masa, Jose Carlos; de Frutos, Mercedes

2012-02-01

20

Dosing of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents Can Be Reduced by a New Administration Regimen  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims At our hemodialysis (HD) unit, we noted a drop in the treatment dose of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) when the frequency of dose adjustment was reduced from weekly, where doses were withheld if hemoglobin was >130 g/l, to monthly, where doses were not withheld. The aim of this study was to find an explanation for this reduction in ESA requirement. Methods This is a retrospective study on 18 stable HD patients. Comparable follow-up periods of 6 months with the two different ESA adjustment regimens were established and data on ESA dose, hemoglobin and known predictors of ESA response were collected. Results With the new ESA administration regimen, a 22.5% drop in the total ESA dose was noted. The corresponding fall in the erythropoietin resistance index was 20.0%. Simultaneously, the dialysis dose and transferrin saturation increased significantly. However, in a multivariate linear regression model, changes in these factors did not significantly predict changes in ESA requirement. No relevant changes were noted in other erythropoiesis-modulating factors. Conclusion Frequent dose adjustments and the current ESA administration practice of withholding ESA doses does not seem to reduce ESA demand. On the contrary, such practice is likely to increase ESA requirement over time. PMID:22470378

Stefánsson, Bergur V.; Haraldsson, Börje; Nilsson, Ulf

2011-01-01

21

Establishing an anemia clinic for optimal erythropoietic-stimulating agent use in hematology-oncology patients.  

PubMed

Erythropoietic-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy has significantly impacted the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) by decreasing the number of red blood cell transfusions required by patients with cancer. However, managing these patients with ESA therapy has become increasingly difficult since the release of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' new National Coverage Determination document because of the disparities between this document and recommendations from expert-reviewed national clinical guidelines on the treatment of anemia. This article describes a collaborative practice agreement between pharmacists and physicians as one approach to managing CIA in hematology-oncology patients in an anemia clinic. The goal of the pharmacist-managed anemia clinic is to improve patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of CIA. This article describes the rationale for the clinic and discusses its design and implementation in managing ESA, iron, folate, and vitamin B12 therapy for CIA in hematology-oncology patients. The pharmacist's role is justified in this clinic model through increased adherence to evidence-based practice guidelines and decreased costs associated with ESA therapy. PMID:18597711

Gilreath, Jeffrey A; Sageser, Daniel S; Jorgenson, James A; Rodgers, George M

2008-07-01

22

Pretransplant Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agent Hyporesponsiveness is Associated with Increased Kidney Allograft Failure and Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Poor response to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) is associated with morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients. It is unclear whether the risk associated with poor ESA response during dialysis extends beyond kidney transplantation. We examined pretransplant ESA response and its effect on allograft failure and mortality. Methods The cohort included all adult Medicare recipients from the United States Renal Data System who had received a kidney transplant during years 2000–2007 and had at least 6 months of hemodialysis immediately prior to transplant. ESA hyporesponsiveness was primarily defined as a monthly ESA dose ?75,000 units and hematocrit ?33% for at least 3 consecutive months in the pretransplant period. Crude and adjusted Cox-proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the effect of ESA hyporesponsiveness on allograft failure and all-cause mortality. Results The study group consisted of 36,450 patients; 1,004 exhibited hyporesponsiveness. The adjusted hazard ratios for allograft failure and mortality post-transplant were 1.23 (95%CI 1.10, 1.42) and 1.61 (1.43, 1.81), respectively, supporting that poor ESA response during hemodialysis is associated with adverse post-transplant outcomes. Conclusions ESA hyporesponsiveness may be useful in identifying potential allograft recipients who are at high-risk for subsequent morbidity and mortality, and may benefit from more intensive pre- and post-transplant follow-up. PMID:23982339

Costa, Nadiesda A.; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.; Wang, Lily; Detwiler, Randal K.; Brookhart, M. Alan

2013-01-01

23

The role of erythropoietin stimulating agents in anemic patients with heart failure: solved and unresolved questions  

PubMed Central

Anemia is a common finding in congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. Several conditions can cause depression of erythroid progenitor cells: reduction of iron absorption and reuptake, decreased bone marrow activity, reduced endogenous erythropoietin production, and chronic inflammatory state. Anemia’s etiology in CHF is complex and partially understood; it involves several systems including impaired hemodynamic condition, reduced kidney and bone perfusion, increased inflammatory activity, and neurohormonal overdrive. The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin and its derivatives is recently debated; the last interventional trial seems to demonstrate a neutral or negative effect in the active arm with darbepoetin treatment. The current data is opposite to many single blind studies and previous meta-analysis showing an improvement in quality of life, New York Heart Association class, and exercise tolerance using ESA therapy. These contrasting data raise several concerns regarding the target of hemoglobin levels needing intervention, the exact anemia classification and categorization, and the standardization of hematocrit cutoffs. Some cardiac and systemic conditions (ie, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, prothrombotic status) may predispose to adverse events, and ESA administration should be avoided. To prevent the negative effects, high-dosage and chronic administration should be avoided. Clarification of these items could probably identify patients that may benefit from additional iron or ESA treatment. In this review, we discuss the interventional trials made in anemic heart failure patients, the underlying mechanism of anemia in CHF, and the potential role of ESA in this setting. PMID:25143739

Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ruocco, Gaetano; Pellegrini, Marco; De Gori, Carmelo; Del Castillo, Gabriele; Giordano, Nicola; Nuti, Ranuccio

2014-01-01

24

The role of erythropoietin stimulating agents in anemic patients with heart failure: solved and unresolved questions.  

PubMed

Anemia is a common finding in congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. Several conditions can cause depression of erythroid progenitor cells: reduction of iron absorption and reuptake, decreased bone marrow activity, reduced endogenous erythropoietin production, and chronic inflammatory state. Anemia's etiology in CHF is complex and partially understood; it involves several systems including impaired hemodynamic condition, reduced kidney and bone perfusion, increased inflammatory activity, and neurohormonal overdrive. The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin and its derivatives is recently debated; the last interventional trial seems to demonstrate a neutral or negative effect in the active arm with darbepoetin treatment. The current data is opposite to many single blind studies and previous meta-analysis showing an improvement in quality of life, New York Heart Association class, and exercise tolerance using ESA therapy. These contrasting data raise several concerns regarding the target of hemoglobin levels needing intervention, the exact anemia classification and categorization, and the standardization of hematocrit cutoffs. Some cardiac and systemic conditions (ie, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, prothrombotic status) may predispose to adverse events, and ESA administration should be avoided. To prevent the negative effects, high-dosage and chronic administration should be avoided. Clarification of these items could probably identify patients that may benefit from additional iron or ESA treatment. In this review, we discuss the interventional trials made in anemic heart failure patients, the underlying mechanism of anemia in CHF, and the potential role of ESA in this setting. PMID:25143739

Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ruocco, Gaetano; Pellegrini, Marco; De Gori, Carmelo; Del Castillo, Gabriele; Giordano, Nicola; Nuti, Ranuccio

2014-01-01

25

Stimulation of central A1 adenosine receptors suppresses seizure and neuropathology in a soman nerve agent seizure rat model.  

PubMed

The current regimen for treating nerve agent poisoning does not sufficiently suppress the excitotoxic activity that causes severe brain damage, especially in cases where treatment is delayed and nerve agent-induced status epilepticus develops. New therapeutic targets are required to improve survivability and minimize neuropathology after irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivation. Earlier studies have shown that systemic delivery of adenosine agonists decreases nerve agent lethality; however, the mechanism of protection remains to be understood. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of central adenosine receptor (AR) stimulation in neuroprotection by directly injecting (6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine agonist specific to the A1 receptor subtype (A1R), into the brain intracerebroventricularly (ICV) in a soman seizure rat model. In addition to general A1R stimulation, we hypothesized that bilateral micro-injection of CPA into the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) could also suppress excitotoxic activity. The results from these studies demonstrated that centrally administered adenosine agonists are anti-seizure and neuroprotective. CPA-delivered ICV prevented seizure and convulsion in 100% of the animals. Moreover, neuropathological evaluation indicated that adenosine treatments reduced brain damage from severe to minimal. Inhibition of the BF via CPA had varied results. Some animals were protected by treatment; however, others displayed similar pathology to the control. Overall, these data suggest that stimulating central ARs could be an effective target for the next generation countermeasures for nerve agent intoxication. PMID:24785252

Thomas, Thaddeus P; Shih, Tsung-Ming

2014-09-01

26

Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agent Use among Patients with Lupus Nephritis Approaching End-stage Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives Little is known about erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) utilization among lupus nephritis (LN) patients with incipient ESRD. We aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with ESA use among incident LN ESRD patients. Methods Among all individuals age ?18 with incident ESRD from 1995-2008 in the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS), we identified those with systemic lupus erythematosus (ICD-9 code 710.0) as the cause of ESRD. ESA use at ESRD onset was ascertained from the Medical Evidence Report. Year of onset, age, sex, race/ethnicity, medical insurance, employment status, residential region, clinical factors and comorbidities were considered potentially associated with ESA use in multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Results We identified 12,533 individuals with incident LN ESRD (1% of entire population). Of those, 4,288 (34%) received an ESA preceding ESRD. In multivariable-adjusted models, ESA users had higher serum albumin and hemoglobin concentrations, were more likely to be women, and to live in the Northeast. Conversely, Medicaid beneficiaries, the uninsured, unemployed, African Americans, Hispanics, and those with IV drug use, congestive heart failure and obesity had lower ESA use. Conclusion Among all U.S. patients and those with LN who developed ESRD, approximately one third received ESAs. Patient sex, race, age, medical insurance, residential region and clinical factors were significantly associated with ESA therapy. While there are no guidelines for ESA use in LN patients approaching ESRD, there has been wide sociodemographic variation, raising questions about ESA prescription practices. PMID:24672742

Gomez-Puerta, Jose A; Waikar, Sushrut S; Solomon, Daniel H; Liu, Jun; Alarcon, Graciela S; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Costenbader, Karen H

2014-01-01

27

Current and upcoming erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, iron products, and other novel anemia medications.  

PubMed

Treatment for anemia has come a long way in the last 20 years since the first recombinant human erythropoietins were licensed for the management of anemia in chronic kidney disease. The first-generation epoetins were succeeded by the development and production of a longer-acting erythropoietin (EPO) analog, darbepoetin alpha, which allowed less frequent dosing, usually once weekly or once every 2 weeks. More recently, another EPO-related molecule has been manufactured called Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator with an even longer half-life, and although for patent reasons this is not available in the United States, it is licensed and is already being used in Europe. Other molecules are in development or are becoming licensed in Europe, including biosimilar epoetin products/follow-on biologics, and elsewhere in the world there are cheaper-production "copy" epoetins. Indeed, it is estimated that up to 80 such products may be sold in countries with less stringent regulatory control of pharmaceutical products. Two different biosimilar epoetins have already been licensed in Europe, one under 2 different brand names and one under 3 different brand names, and others may follow. Hematide is a synthetic peptide-based EPO receptor agonist that, interestingly, has no structural homology with EPO, and yet is still able to activate the EPO receptor and stimulate erythropoiesis. This agent is currently in phase III clinical trials. Research continues for orally active antianemic therapies, and several strategies are being investigated, although none is imminently available. Two new intravenous iron preparations have recently been developed, one in the United States (Ferumoxytol; AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA) and one recently licensed in Europe (ferric carboxymaltose [Ferinject; Vifor Pharma, Zurich, Switzerland]). In conclusion, the development of effective therapies for the treatment of anemia has been a highly active field, both scientifically and economically, over the last two decades. PMID:19233071

Macdougall, Iain C; Ashenden, Michael

2009-03-01

28

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and clinical outcomes of invasive breast cancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy.  

PubMed

The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) to treat anemia in breast cancer patients who are treated with chemotherapy is a matter of ongoing debate. Several recent randomized trials challenged conventional wisdom, which holds that ESAs are contraindicated for breast cancer patients undergoing curative treatment. We aimed to perform the first large national population-based study to analyze the association between ESA use and breast cancer patient outcomes. Cytotoxic chemotherapy-treated invasive breast cancer patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. Non-ESA users were sequentially 1:1 matched to 2,000 randomly sampled ESA users on demographics (age, diagnosis year, race, marital status, and socioeconomic status), tumor presentation (stage, grade, and status of hormone receptors), and treatments (surgery, radiation, and sub-types of chemotherapy) using a minimum distant strategy. Breast cancer-specific survival of ESA and matched non-ESA users was compared using Fine and Gray competing risk model. Compared to ESA users, non-ESA users exhibited dramatically different baseline characteristics such as less advanced tumor, and fewer co-morbidities. Non-ESA users had a significantly more favorable breast cancer-specific survival (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] = 0.75, p < 0.0001). This survival disparity was progressively diminished in the sequential matching of demographics (sHR = 0.74, p = 0.0004), presentation (sHR = 0.86, p = 0.06), and treatment (sHR = 0.89, p = 0.17) variables. Stratified analyses identified subgroups of patients whose breast cancer-specific survival were not different between ESA and non-ESA users. In the SEER-Medicare database, ESA usage does not seem to be associated with unfavorable breast cancer-specific survival in breast cancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. The ESA-breast cancer prognosis association is complex and requires more intensive investigations. PMID:25261294

Lai, Yinzhi; Palazzo, Juan P; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Hyslop, Terry; Civan, Jesse; Avery, Tiffany; Myers, Ronald E; Li, Bingshan; Ye, Zhong; Xing, Jinliang; Yang, Hushan

2014-11-01

29

Detection of Chemical\\/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of Chemical\\/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve

S. H. Harmon; K. J. Hart; A. A. Vass; M. B. Wise; D. A. Wolf

1999-01-01

30

Stimulant doping agents used in Brazil: prevalence, detectability, analytical implications, and challenges.  

PubMed

This article presents the prevalence of stimulant doping among Brazilian athletes, the analytical approaches used, as well as a general evolution of the detectability of the stimulants being used. Results from the Brazilian accredited doping control laboratory are compared with the global statistics disclosed by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The high prevalence of stimulant doping in Brazil can be attributed to several reasons, including "self-administration," a "body-shaping" culture, and the use of nutritional supplements. PMID:24766455

Pereira, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto; Sardela, Vinícius Figueiredo

2014-07-01

31

An evaluation of pretreatment agents for the stimulation of secondary biogenic coalbed natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed methane is considered to be an underexploited source of clean energy and, with the realization of its biogenic nature, it has attracted increasing interest in recent decades. Most of the published studies on biogenic coal bed natural gas (CBNG) have focused either on biostimulation (the addition of nutrients to stimulate the native microbial populations) or bioaugmentation (the addition of both nutrients and non-native microbial consortia of microorganisms). Although these approaches have shown promise, they are predicated on the assumption that the coal seam is nutrient-limited or that the existing microbial communities are not optimized to convert coal to natural gas. The premise of this research is that the organic matter present within the coal matrix is, for the most part, environmentally inert and not readily available to the microorganisms living within the coal seam. The goal of this research has been to focus on treatments that will increase the solubility, and hence the bioavailability, of coal to the indigenous microbial community. Initially, treatment agents representing acids, bases and oxidants were selected to evaluate the potential for the in situ solubilization and depolymerization of subbituminous coal. The bioavailability of the coal-derived constituents was then evaluated aerobically using biometer assays and anaerobic bioassays. The experiments have shown that the acid (nitric acid) and base (sodium hydroxide) treatments are more efficient than the oxidants (potassium permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) with respect to total organic carbon (TOC). The carbon contained in the solubilized/depolymerized product of nitric acid treatments accounted for approximately 14% of the carbon from the Powder River Basin (PRB) coal evaluated in the study; however, the biometer assays revealed that the bioavailability of the solubilized/depolymerized products was not directly correlated to the amount of dissolved organic carbon (TOC). The permanganate treated samples, which had a much lower TOC (5%), were more promising in terms of biological conversion potential. The biometer assay data indicated that up to 1.1% of the coal carbon was mineralized to carbon dioxide (CO2) within a period of two weeks. On this basis, permanganate treated samples were utilized in subsequent experiments to evaluate potential biogenic methane generation. For the permanganate treated samples, 5.4% of the coal carbon was solubilized/depolymerized, and 3.2% of the soluble carbon was converted to methane (CH4). The methane was rapidly generated and peaked at 40-days with a cumulative amount of 93.4 mumol/g coal (73.9 standard cubic feet (Scf)/ton coal equivalent using linear extrapolation). This compares very favorably to the 22-74 Scf/ton said to exist within the PBR coalbeds prior to resource exploitation. Our data also showed that a small fraction, 143 mumol/g coal, of the soluble carbon which was designated as the volatile fraction (i.e., the purgeable fraction removable by sparging with N2 gas) is essential to the generation of biogenic methane from coal derived constituents. Subsequent studies evaluating the influence of the chemical pretreatment agents (HNO3, NaOH, catalyzed H 2O2, KMnO4) on the subsequent enzymatic conversion of subbituminous coal using a fungal manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by the agaric white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta have shown that chemical pretreatments can also enhance the coal solubilization performance of MnP.

Huang, Zaixing

32

Numerical simulation to study the feasibility of using CO2 as a stimulation agent for enhanced geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

A major concern in the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is achieving and maintaining adequate injectivity, while avoiding the development of preferential short-circuiting flow paths such as those caused by thermally-induced stress cracking. Past researches have tended to focus primarily on thermal and hydraulic stimulation. Recent studies suggest that chemical stimulation may improve the performance of EGS reservoirs. Geothermal injection wells are often drilled into formations containing reactive minerals such as calcite. Injecting aqueous chemical agents such as mineral acids, could be effective for mineral dissolution and porosity enhancement at distances of several meters around a well. An alternative to treatment with strong acids is the use of supercritical (SC) CO{sub 2} as stimulation agent for an aqueous-based EGS. Reactive transport modeling is used to investigate the effectiveness of this method. We used the thermal condition and mineralogical composition from a well of Desert Peak EGS site, to examine ways in which mixtures of water and CO{sub 2} can be injected to enhance porosity.

Xu, T.; Zhang, W.; Pruess, K.

2009-11-15

33

Impact of Anti-Inflammatory Agents on the Gene Expression Profile of Stimulated Human Neutrophils: Unraveling Endogenous Resolution Pathways  

PubMed Central

Adenosine, prostaglandin E2, or increased intracellular cyclic AMP concentration each elicit potent anti-inflammatory events in human neutrophils by inhibiting functions such as phagocytosis, superoxide production, adhesion and cytokine release. However, the endogenous molecular pathways mediating these actions are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined their impact on the gene expression profile of stimulated neutrophils. Purified blood neutrophils from healthy donors were stimulated with a cocktail of inflammatory agonists in the presence of at least one of the following anti-inflammatory agents: adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680, prostaglandin E2, cyclic-AMP-elevating compounds forskolin and RO 20-1724. Total RNA was analyzed using gene chips and real-time PCR. Genes encoding transcription factors, enzymes and regulatory proteins, as well as secreted cytokines/chemokines showed differential expression. We identified 15 genes for which the anti-inflammatory agents altered mRNA levels. The agents affected the expression profile in remarkably similar fashion, suggesting a central mechanism limiting cell activation. We have identified a set of genes that may be part of important resolution pathways that interfere with cell activation. Identification of these pathways will improve understanding of the capacity of tissues to terminate inflammatory responses and contribute to the development of therapeutic strategies based on endogenous resolution. PMID:19295914

St-Onge, Mireille; Dumas, Aline; Michaud, Annick; Laflamme, Cynthia; Dussault, Andrée-Anne; Pouliot, Marc

2009-01-01

34

Change in darbepoetin alfa administration schedule affects erythropoiesis-stimulating agent resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis.  

PubMed

One hundred and four patients receiving hemodialysis and undergoing anaemia treatment with darbepoetin alfa intravenously once weekly were switched to a biweekly dosing schedule and followed for 24 weeks. The darbepoetin alfa dose was adjusted to maintain the target Hb concentration of 11-14 g/dL. A significant decline in the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent resistance index was observed over the 24-week follow-up, beginning with week 16, whereas the mean dose of darbepoetin alfa did not change significantly after switching to the biweekly dosing schedule. Other factors that might affect resistance to erythropoiesis remained unchanged. PMID:18791951

Molina, Manuel; Navarro, Maria Jose; de Gracia, Carmen; Alvarez, Gracia; de Alarcon, Rosa; Garcia, Maria Angeles

2008-01-01

35

Patterns of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use among Medicare beneficiaries with myelodysplastic syndromes and consistency with clinical guidelines  

PubMed Central

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are used commonly to reduce symptomatic anemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).We assessed population-based patterns of ESA use relative to treatment guidelines using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries, with linked Medicare claims providing detailed treatment data from 2001 through 2005. The study found widespread use (62%) of ESA in Medicare beneficiaries with MDS. Similar ESA use rates regardless of risk status, low frequency (45%) of serum erythropoietin determination prior to ESA initiation, and high prevalence (60.4%) of short-duration ESA episodes suggest clinically important discrepancies between actual practice and guideline-recommended therapy. PMID:23523473

Davidoff, Amy J.; Weiss, Sheila R.; Baer, Maria R.; Ke, Xuehua; Hendrick, Franklin; Zeidan, Amer; Gore, Steven D.

2013-01-01

36

Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents  

PubMed Central

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

37

Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.  

PubMed

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

38

Estimation du seuil de vitamine D qui peut induire une stimulation de la scrtion de la parathormone chez des femmes africaines vivant en rgion parisienne  

E-print Network

Estimation du seuil de vitamine D qui peut induire une stimulation de la sécrétion de la parathormone chez des femmes africaines vivant en région parisienne Estimation of vitamin D threshold which may- vitamine D au-dessous d'un certain seuil peut induire un état d'hyperparathyroidisme secondaire. Notre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport  

PubMed Central

Oxygen is essential for life, and the body has developed an exquisite method to collect oxygen in the lungs and transport it to the tissues. Hb contained within red blood cells (RBCs), is the key oxygen-carrying component in blood, and levels of RBCs are tightly controlled according to demand for oxygen. The availability of oxygen plays a critical role in athletic performance, and agents that enhance oxygen delivery to tissues increase aerobic power. Early methods to increase oxygen delivery included training at altitude, and later, transfusion of packed RBCs. A breakthrough in understanding how RBC formation is controlled included the discovery of erythropoietin (Epo) and cloning of the EPO gene. Cloning of the EPO gene was followed by commercial development of recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo). Legitimate use of this and other agents that affect oxygen delivery is important in the treatment of anaemia (low Hb levels) in patients with chronic kidney disease or in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anaemia. However, competitive sports was affected by illicit use of rHuEpo to enhance performance. Testing methods for these agents resulted in a cat-and-mouse game, with testing labs attempting to detect the use of a drug or blood product to improve athletic performance (doping) and certain athletes developing methods to use the agents without being detected. This article examines the current methods to enhance aerobic performance and the methods to detect illicit use. PMID:18362898

Elliott, S

2008-01-01

40

Continuing beneficial action of thin film spreading agents injected during cyclic steam stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies demonstrated that large increases in oil production result when thin film spreading agents (TFSA) are injected into S. California wells during the cyclic steam process. The production histories of wells which had received TFSA in this earlier study have been followed during a subsequent cycle in which no TFSA was injected. The results indicate a substantial persistence of

C. A. Stout; C. M. Jr. Blair; R. E. Scribner

1983-01-01

41

Description automatique de dynamiques de groupes dans des simulations base d'agents  

E-print Network

et en ligne comme le montrent les analyses réalisées à la fois sur des simulations Netlogo et sur des enough to be applied both offline and online, and we illustrate it with both a NetLogo and a CSV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Persistent action of thin-film spreading agents used in cyclic steam stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The production histories of eight of 15 wells that received injections of a special class of interfacially active chemicals during an earlier field study have been followed during a subsequent cycle in which no chemical was used. When compared to production in the original steam-only cycle, the results show that the positive effect of the original chemical application persists into the next cycle. However, two wells, in which interfacially active agent was injected during the next cycle, gave even greater oil production.

Blair, C.M.; Scribner, R.E.; Stout, C.A.

1983-03-01

43

On modeling of chemical stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system using a high pH solution with chelating agent  

SciTech Connect

Dissolution of silica and calcite in the presence of a chelating agent (NTA) at a high pH was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments using a high-temperature flow reactor. (Note that the term 'silica' used here includes amorphous silica, quartz, and silicate glass bead). The mineral dissolution and associated porosity enhancement in the experiments were reproduced by reactive transport modeling using TOUGHREACT. The chemical stimulation method was applied by numerical modeling to a field geothermal injection well system to investigate its effectiveness. Parameters applicable to the quartz monzodiorite unit at the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) site at Desert Peak (Nevada) were used. Results indicate that the injection of a high pH chelating solution results in dissolution of both calcite and plagioclase, while avoiding precipitation of calcite at high temperature conditions. Consequently reservoir porosity and permeability can be enhanced especially near the injection well. Injection at a lower temperature of 120 C (over 160 C in the base-case) results in a porosity increase that is smaller close to the injection point, but extends to a larger radial distance. A slower kinetic rate results in less aggressive mineral dissolution close to the injection point and larger extent along the flow path, which is favorable for chemical stimulation.

Xu, T.; Rose, P.; Fayer, S.; Pruess, K.

2009-05-01

44

DNA-damaging agents stimulate gene expression at specific loci in Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Operon fusions in Escherichia coli were obtained that showed increased beta-galactosidase expression in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C. These fusions were generated by using the Mud(ApR, lac) vector to insert the lactose structural genes randomly into the bacterial chromosome. Induction of beta-galactosidase in these strains, which carried fusions of lac to these din (damage-inducible) loci, was (i) triggered by UV light as well as by mitomycin C and (ii) abolished by either a recA- or a lexA- mutation. Similar characteristics of induction were observed when the lactose genes were fused to a prophage lambda promoter by using Mud(ApR, lac). These results indicate that E. coli contains a set of genes that, like prophage lambda genes, are expressed in response to DNA-damaging agents and regulated by the recA and lexA gene products. These din genes map at five bacterial loci. One din::Mud(ApR, lac) insertion results in a UV-sensitive phenotype and may be within the uvrA transcriptional unit.

Kenyon, C.J.; Walker, G.C.

1988-05-01

45

Agent-Organized Networks for Multi-Agent Production and Exchange Matthew E. Gaston and Marie desJardins  

E-print Network

, mariedj}@cs.umbc.edu Abstract As multi-agent systems grow in size and complexity, social networks social network by autonomously adapting their local connectivity structure. In this paper, we present several properties of the resulting network structures and consider their relationship to the observed

Gaston, Matthew E.

46

Continuing beneficial action of thin film spreading agents injected during cyclic steam stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Earlier studies demonstrated that large increases in oil production result when thin film spreading agents (TFSA) are injected into S. California wells during the cyclic steam process. The production histories of wells which had received TFSA in this earlier study have been followed during a subsequent cycle in which no TFSA was injected. The results indicate a substantial persistence of beneficial chemical effect when compared to the original steam-only cycle. However, other wells, in which TFSA were injected during the subsequent cycle, generally showed even greater oil production. These results and other evidence indicate that thick, hydrophobic films of asphaltic or other semipolar constituents from petroleum form on high energy surfaces such as reservoir rock to cause oil wetting of the rock and less oil mobility. It appears that TFSA introduced into the reservoir adsorbs preferentially at the rock oil interface to displace the oil film, promote water wetting, and facilitate oil displacement during the production cycle. 10 references.

Stout, C.A.; Blair, C.M. Jr.; Scribner, R.E.

1983-01-01

47

Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.  

PubMed

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed. PMID:23212430

Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

2012-12-01

48

Variant hemoglobin phenotypes may account for differential erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosing in African-American hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

African-American patients with end-stage renal disease have historically lower hemoglobin concentrations and higher requirements of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). While disparities in health-care access may partially explain these findings, the role of variant hemoglobin, such as sickle trait, has not been investigated. To clarify this, we evaluated 154 African-American patients receiving in-center hemodialysis with available hemoglobin phenotyping. The primary exposure was any abnormal hemoglobin variant and the primary outcome of higher-dose ESA was defined as a dose of 6500 or more units per treatment. Logistic regression assessed the association between variant hemoglobin and higher-dose ESA. Covariates included age, gender, diabetes, iron parameters, intravenous iron dose, parathyroid hormone, albumin, phosphorus, body mass index, vascular access type, hospitalization/missed treatments, smoking status, alcohol abuse, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Of 33 patients with variant hemoglobin, 24 had HbAS and 9 had HbAC. Univariate odds of higher-dose ESA among those with hemoglobin variants were twice that of those with the normal HbAA phenotype (odds ratio 2.05). In multivariate models, the likelihood of higher-dose ESA had an odds ratio of 3.31 and the nature of this relationship did not change in Poisson regression or sensitivity analyses. Hence, our findings may explain, in part, the difference in ESA dosing between Caucasians and African-Americans with end-stage renal disease but await further study. PMID:21849972

Derebail, Vimal K.; Nachman, Patrick H.; Key, Nigel S.; Ansede, Heather; Falk, Ronald J.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.

2012-01-01

49

Variant hemoglobin phenotypes may account for differential erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosing in African-American hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

African-American patients with end-stage renal disease have historically lower hemoglobin concentrations and higher requirements of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). While disparities in health-care access may partially explain these findings, the role of variant hemoglobin, such as sickle trait, has not been investigated. To clarify this, we evaluated 154 African-American patients receiving in-center hemodialysis with available hemoglobin phenotyping. The primary exposure was any abnormal hemoglobin variant and the primary outcome of higher-dose ESA was defined as a dose of 6500 or more units per treatment. Logistic regression assessed the association between variant hemoglobin and higher-dose ESA. Covariates included age, gender, diabetes, iron parameters, intravenous iron dose, parathyroid hormone, albumin, phosphorus, body mass index, vascular access type, hospitalization/missed treatments, smoking status, alcohol abuse, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Of 33 patients with variant hemoglobin, 24 had HbAS and 9 had HbAC. Univariate odds of higher-dose ESA among those with hemoglobin variants were twice that of those with the normal HbAA phenotype (odds ratio 2.05). In multivariate models, the likelihood of higher-dose ESA had an odds ratio of 3.31 and the nature of this relationship did not change in Poisson regression or sensitivity analyses. Hence, our findings may explain, in part, the difference in ESA dosing between Caucasians and African-Americans with end-stage renal disease but await further study. PMID:21849972

Derebail, Vimal K; Nachman, Patrick H; Key, Nigel S; Ansede, Heather; Falk, Ronald J; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V

2011-11-01

50

Risk of pure red cell aplasia in patients with hepatitis C receiving antiviral therapy and an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent.  

PubMed

Antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) has been primarily observed in patients with chronic kidney disease treated with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA); only a few anecdotal cases have been reported in other patient populations. We searched the Amgen Global Safety Adverse Event Database and identified 14 patients with hepatitis C who developed severe anemia, anti-erythropoietin antibodies, and bone marrow biopsy-proven PRCA, while receiving interferon therapy (with or without ribavirin) and an ESA. During the follow-up period and after ESA treatment stopped, 11 patients no longer required transfusions and 3 did. Analysis of antibody isotypes showed that, contrary to reports of patients with chronic kidney disease, immunoglobulin G1 was the predominant isotype rather than immunoglobulin G4 (immunoglobulin G4 was detected in only 1 of 6 patients). Epitope mapping showed the anti-erythropoietin antibodies bound domains required for receptor binding. Therefore, the potential benefits of ESA therapy must be weighed against the risk for PRCA in patients with hepatitis C who are receiving treatment with interferon and ribavirin. PMID:24120841

Rossert, Jerome; Yue, Susan; Smirnakis, Karen; Mytych, Daniel T; Johnson, Larry; Kouchakji, Elias; Casadevall, Nicole

2014-02-01

51

Reduced use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron with ferric citrate: a managed care cost-offset model  

PubMed Central

Background Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder in development for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In clinical trials, FC improved patient serum phosphorus levels and increased serum ferritin and percent transferrin saturation. Because nephrologists respond to increases in these iron measures by reducing intravenous (IV) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) doses, the decreased use of iron and ESA associated with FC may reduce costs. Objectives To develop a cost-offset model from a managed care perspective estimating the cost savings associated with FC use. Methods We created a cost-offset model from the managed care payer perspective that compared the treatment costs of ESRD for patients given FC. The model considered the number of dialysis sessions per month; number of ESRD patients enrolled in the health plan; cost of ESAs, iron, and dialysis sessions; and the proportion of patients on phosphate binder therapy. The model assumed equivalent efficacy and cost neutrality between FC and other phosphate binders. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted by varying model inputs. Results When FC was compared to other phosphate binders, the monthly cost of ESA and IV iron per 500 patients with ESRD (85% treated with phosphate binders) was reduced by 8.15% and 33.2%, respectively. When incorporated into the total cost of dialysis for patients with ESRD (dialysis, ESA, and IV iron), the decrease in the monthly cost of dialysis care was US$80,214 per 500 ESRD patients. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that a plan serving 500 dialysis patients could save between US$626,000 and US$1,106,000 annually with the use of FC. Conclusion The use of FC in ESRD patients with hyperphosphatemia may help reduce treatment costs. PMID:23662073

Mutell, Richard; Rubin, Jaime L; Bond, T Christopher; Mayne, Tracy

2013-01-01

52

Hepcidin-25 in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients Is Related to Residual Kidney Function and Not to Treatment with Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents  

PubMed Central

Hepcidin-25, the bioactive form of hepcidin, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis as it induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes. Hepcidin levels are increased in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, but as of yet, limited information on factors associated with hepcidin-25 in these patients is available. In the current cross-sectional study, potential patient-, laboratory- and treatment-related determinants of serum hepcidin-20 and -25, were assessed in a large cohort of stable, prevalent HD patients. Baseline data from 405 patients (62% male; age 63.7±13.9 [mean SD]) enrolled in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556) were studied. Predialysis hepcidin concentrations were measured centrally with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Patient-, laboratory- and treatment related characteristics were entered in a backward multivariable linear regression model. Hepcidin-25 levels were independently and positively associated with ferritin (p<0.001), hsCRP (p<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (p?=?0.02) and inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p?=?0.01), absolute reticulocyte count (p?=?0.02) and soluble transferrin receptor (p<0.001). Men had lower hepcidin-25 levels as compared to women (p?=?0.03). Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or iron therapy. In conclusion, in the currently studied cohort of chronic HD patients, hepcidin-25 was a marker for iron stores and erythropoiesis and was associated with inflammation. Furthermore, hepcidin-25 levels were influenced by residual kidney function. Hepcidin-25 did not reflect ESA or iron dose in chronic stable HD patients on maintenance therapy. These results suggest that hepcidin is involved in the pathophysiological pathway of renal anemia and iron availability in these patients, but challenges its function as a clinical parameter for ESA resistance. PMID:22808058

van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Bots, Michiel L.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; den Hoedt, Claire H.; Mazairac, Albert H. A.; Nube, Menso J.; Penne, E. Lars; Gaillard, Carlo A.; Wetzels, Jack F. M.; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; ter Wee, Piet M.

2012-01-01

53

Association of malnutrition-inflammation complex and responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in long-term hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Protein-energy wasting, inflammation and refractory anemia are common in long-term hemodialysis patients. A decreased responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) is often the cause of the refractory anemia. We hypothesized that the malnutrition–inflammation complex is an independent predictor of decreased responsiveness to ESAs in hemodialysis patients. Methods This cohort study of 754 hemodialysis patients was examined for an association between inflammatory and nutritional markers, including the malnutrition–inflammation score (MIS) and responsiveness to ESA. Cubic spline models were fitted to verify found associations. Results The mean (±SD) age of patients was 54 ± 15 years, 53% were diabetic and 32% blacks. MIS was worse in the highest quartile of ESAs responsiveness index (ERI, ESA dose divided by hemoglobin) when compared with 1st quartile (6.5 ± 4.5 versus 4.4 ± 3.4; P < 0.001). Both C-reactive protein (log CRP) (? = 0.19) and interleukin-6 (log IL-6) (? = 0.32) were strong and independent predictors of ERI using multivariate linear regression. Serum albumin (? = ?0.30) and prealbumin levels (? = ?0.14) were inversely associated with ERI. Each 1 SD higher MIS, higher CRP and lower albumin were associated with 86, 44 and 97% higher likelihood of having highest versus three lowest ERI quartiles in fully adjusted models [odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of 1.86 (1.31–2.85), 1.44 (1.08–1.92) and 1.97 (1.41–2.78)], respectively. Cubic splines confirmed the continuous and incremental nature of these associations. Conclusions Malnutrition–inflammation complex is an incremental predictor of poor responsiveness to ESAs in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to assess whether modulating inflammatory or nutritional processes can improve anemia management. PMID:23045431

Rattanasompattikul, Manoch; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Zaritsky, Joshua J.; Hatamizadeh, Parta; Jing, Jennie; Norris, Keith C.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2013-01-01

54

Effects of Iron Supplementation on Erythropoietic Response in Patients with Cancer-Associated Anemia Treated by Means of Erythropoietic Stimulating Agents  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, intravenous iron supplementation to ESA (erythropoiesis-stimulating agent) therapy has emerged as an option to augment hemoglobin response in anemic cancer patients. In this paper, the results of seven published randomized clinical trials assessing the role of iron supplementation to ESA therapy in the hematology/oncology setting will be discussed. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind functional iron deficiency, a major reason for ESA hyporesponsiveness in cancer, will also be described. PMID:22111015

Karlsson, Torbjorn

2011-01-01

55

Application of stimulating agents on the immobilized bioluminescence strain Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206, preserved by deep-freezing, for the convenient biomonitoring.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop methods for the application of an immobilized bioluminescence strain (KG1206), preserved by deep-freezing (DF), for the monitoring of contaminated environments. The immobilized cells, preserved by DF, required approximately 2 hr for reconstitution of their activity. A large reduction in bioluminescence was observed due to the DF process; 0.07-0.58 times that of the non deep-frozen (NDF) immobilized strain. The decreased bioluminescence activity induced by the DF process was enhanced by the stimulants, sodium lactate (SL) and KNO3. However, regardless of the inducer chemical tested, the immobilized strain modified with KNO3 consistently produced greater bioluminescence than that treated with SL, in the range of 3.0-10.7 (avg. 6.7 +/- 3.69) and 1.2-4.2 (avg. 2.4 +/- 1.47) times that of control, respectively. All KNO3 treatments of contaminated groundwater samples also resulted in an increase in bioluminescence activity, but the rate of stimulation varied for each sample. Also, no strong linear correlation was observed between the bioluminescence and the total concentration of an inducer, which may related to the complex characteristics of the environmental samples. Overall, the results demonstrated the ability of immobilized genetically engineered bacteria, preserved by DF, to measure a specific group of environmental contaminants using a stimulating agent (KNO3), suggesting the potential for its preliminary application in a field-ready bioassay. PMID:21174982

Kong, In Chul

2010-01-01

56

Intelligence artificielle Agents intelligents  

E-print Network

Intelligence artificielle Agents intelligents Elise Bonzon http://web.mi.parisdescartes.fr/ bonzon´e Paris Descartes 1 / 21 Intelligence artificielle #12;Agents intelligents Agents intelligents Agents et environnement Rationalit´e PEAS Types d'environnement Structure des agents Conclusion 2 / 21 Intelligence

Bonzon, Elise

57

A bulge binding agent with novel wedge-shape topology for stimulation of DNA triplet repeat strand slippage synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of DNA repeat sequences is associated with many human genetic diseases. Bulged DNA structures have been implicated as intermediates in DNA slippage within the DNA repeat regions. Herein a bulge binding agent with novel wedge-shape topology of the aromatic moiety was designed and synthesized. The compound–bulge DNA interactions were characterized via UV melting experiments, circular dichroism and were quantitated

Liangliang Liu; Heyang Li; Long Yi; Xing Yang; Xin Wen; Zhen Xi

2008-01-01

58

WACA 2010 Des Agents et des Hommes Lille, 25 et 26 novembre 2010 A la recherche d'indices de culture et/ou de langue dans les  

E-print Network

choix, et, en parallèle, du degré d'extraversion. Les jugements sont faits sur des micro-clés : culture, langue, extraversion, contrôle prosodique, micro-gestualité, interjections, bursts, grunts. Keywords: culture, language, extraversion, prosody, micro-gestures, interjections, bursts, grunts. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate stimulates simian virus 40 induction by DNA-damaging agents and tumor initiators  

SciTech Connect

Simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed Syrian hamster kidney cells produce infectious SV40 virus particles after treatments which damage DNA, such as UV irradiation or mitomycin C treatment. We have found that the induction of SV40 by DNA-damaging agents is greatly stimulated when a typical tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), is present in the medium. Phorbol, which has a molecular structure similar to TPA but does not have any tumor-promoting activity, showed no such stimulatory effect on SV40 induction. This apparent synergistic effect of DNA-damaging agents and tumor promoter (TPA) was more pronounced when a tumor initiator, benzo (a)pyrene or 2-acetamido-fluorene, was combined with TPA. The effect of TPA on UV-triggered SV40 induction was greatly influenced by the timing of TPA addition to the culture medium, which was most efficient when addition of TPA was 5 to 20 h before UV irradiation. The effect of TPA, however, was not observed in SV40 rescue from hamster cells by cell fusion with permissive monkey (C7) cells.

Nomura, S.; Shobu, N.; Oishi, M.

1983-05-01

60

Antitumor agent cabozantinib decreases RANKL expression in osteoblastic cells and inhibits osteoclastogenesis and PTHrP-stimulated bone resorption.  

PubMed

Cabozantinib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor signaling, decreases bone lesions in patients with prostate cancer. To determine direct effects of cabozantinib on bone, resorption in neonatal mouse bone organ culture and on gene expression, proliferation, and phenotypic markers in osteoblast and osteoclast cell lines were examined. Cabozantinib, 0.3 and 3?µM, prevented PTHrP-stimulated calcium release from neonatal mouse calvaria. Since the effect on resorption could reflect effects on osteoblasts to prevent osteoclast activation, or direct inhibition of osteoclasts, responses in osteoblastic and osteoclast precursor cell lines were examined. Twenty-four-hour treatment of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells with 3?µM cabozantinib decreased expression of receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) and alkaline phosphatase. Forty-eight-hour treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with 3?µM cabozantinib inhibited cell proliferation and decreased MTT activity. Effects on alkaline phosphatase activity were biphasic, with small stimulatory effects at concentrations below 3?µM. When RAW 264.7 osteoclast precursor cells differentiated with 20?ng/ml RANKL were co-treated for 24?h with 3?µM cabozantinib, expression of RANK, TRAP, cathepsin K, alpha v or beta 3 integrin, or NFATc1 were unaffected. Five-day treatment of RANKL-treated RAW 264.7 cells with 3?µM cabozantinib decreased TRAP and MTT activity. The results suggest that the osteoblast could be the initial target, with subsequent direct and indirect effects on osteoclastogenesis leading to decreased resorption. The multiple effects of cabozantinib on the cell microenvironment of bone are consistent with its effectiveness in reducing lesions from prostate cancer metastases. PMID:25042887

Stern, Paula H; Alvares, Keith

2014-11-01

61

The anticancer agent YC-1 suppresses progestin-stimulated VEGF in breast cancer cells and arrests breast tumor development  

PubMed Central

Recent epidemiological studies show that postmenopausal women taking estrogen-progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have a higher risk of breast cancer than women on an HRT regimen lacking progestins. This may be related to the observation that progestin-treated breast cancer cells express and secrete high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor that promotes breast tumor growth. Anti-progestins such as RU-486 block this effect, indicating that progesterone receptors (PR) are involved in promoting VEGF induction; however antiprogestins cross-react with other steroid receptors which limits their clinical use. Alternative strategies are, therefore, needed to arrest the growth of progestin-dependent tumors. 3-(5?-hydroxymethyl-2?-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), a novel anticancer drug initially developed as an inhibitor of HIF-1?, is currently undergoing preclinical trials against various forms of cancer. Since HIF-1? has recently been implicated in PR-mediated VEGF synthesis, we undertook studies to determine whether YC-1 inhibits progestin-dependent VEGF induction and tumor progression. Surprisingly, we found that YC-1 downregulated PR in human breast cancer cells, both in vivo and in vitro, thereby blocking progestin-dependent induction of VEGF and tumor growth. YC-1 also inhibited progestin-accelerated DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats, properties which would likely render it effective against progestin-dependent tumors which frequently develop in post-menopausal women. We, therefore, propose that based on our observations, YC-1 warrants further investigation as a novel agent which could prove extremely useful as an anti-angiogenic chemotherapeutic drug. PMID:23123638

CARROLL, CANDACE E.; LIANG, YAYUN; BENAKANAKERE, INDIRA; BESCH-WILLIFORD, CYNTHIA; HYDER, SALMAN M.

2013-01-01

62

Parallel stimulation of ACTH, beta-LPH + beta-endorphin and alpha-MSH release by alpha-adrenergic agents in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture.  

PubMed

Characteristics of the alpha-adrenergic stimulation of ACTH, beta-endorphin + beta-LPH and alpha-MSH release were studied in rat anterior pituitary cells in primary culture. Parallel changes of ACTH, beta-endorphin + beta-LPH and alpha-MSh release were found under all stimulatory and inhibitory conditions by natural and synthetic catecholamine agonists and antagonists. (-)Epinephrine and (-)norepinephrine lead to a 8--10-fold stimulation of peptide release at ED50 values of 20 and 90 nM, respectively. The stereoselectivity of the alpha-adrenergic stimulatory action on peptide release is indicated by a 100-fold higher activity of (-)- than (+)norepinephrine while (-)epinephrine is 10 times more potent than the corresponding (+) stereoisomer. The involvement of a typical alpha-adrenergic mechanism in the control of release of ACTH, beta-endorphin and related peptides in rat anterior pituitary gland is indicated by the following order of potency of a series of catecholaminergic agents (ED50 values): (-)epinephrine (20 nM) greater than (-)norepinephrine (90 nm) greater than phenylephrine (400 nM) greater than isoproterenol (6000 nM). The stimulatory effect of (-)epinephrine or phenylephrine is completely reversed by low concentrations of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine while the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol has no effect up to 10 muM. Beside providing an easily accessible pure population of post-synaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors having potential applications as a model for other less accessible alpha-adrenergic brain systems, the present data suggest the possibility of the direct involvement of a catecholamine in the physiological control of ACTH secretion in the rat anterior pituitary gland. PMID:6114000

Raymond, V; Lépine, J; Giguère, V; Lissitzky, J C; Côté, J; Labrie, F

1981-06-01

63

Between subjects variability in haemoglobin and dose are not associated with the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent used to treat anaemia in dialysis: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Aims We aimed to compare mean and between subject variability in haemoglobin (Hb) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) dose across the ESA compounds used to treat anaemia in dialysis patients. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluating ESA in adult patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis (target Hb 9–13.5 g dl?1), and compared mean Hb and its standard deviation (SD), and ESA dose and its coefficient of variation (CV) between the different agents [rHuEPO alfa or beta, darbepoetin alfa, pegylated-epoetin beta (PEG-EPO) or other epoetins]. The effect of route and frequency of administration, frequency of dose adjustments, study blinding and type, baseline value, Hb target and sampling frequency were also assessed. Results Among 4983 patients from 16 studies, pooled Hb mean and SD during the evaluation phase were 11.5 g dl?1 (95% CI 11.3, 11.7) and 0.99 g dl?1 (0.88, 1.09), respectively. The Hb mean and SD were not significantly influenced by the covariates tested. Only Hb SD was significantly lower in maintenance studies relative to correction studies. No differences in mean ESA dose and CV were found across the covariates, except that PEG-EPO monthly dose was 42% higher than the every 2 weeks dose and the rHuEPO i.v. dose was 32% higher than the s.c. dose. Conclusions Between subject variability in haemoglobin and ESA dose in dialysis patients is not associated with the type of ESA, nor with the dosing interval or route of administration, except for higher dose requirements in PEG-EPO monthly administration relative to every 2 weeks or rHuEPO i.v. relative to s.c. PMID:22803621

Perez-Ruixo, Juan Jose; Cucala-Ramos, Mercedes; Garcia-Gonzalo, Ester; Del Val Romero, Beatriz; Valveny, Neus

2013-01-01

64

Polymersomes conjugated with des-octanoyl ghrelin for the delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents into brain tissues.  

PubMed

The effective protection of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from tight junctions and efflux transport systems ultimately results in the limited entry of 95% of drug/gene candidates, which are potentially beneficial for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In order to enhance the brain-specific delivery, in this study we developed a targeting carrier system, which consists of poly(carboxyl ethylene glycol-g-glutamate)-co-poly(distearin-g-glutamate) (CPEGGM-PDSGM) polymersomes with the conjugation of des-octanoyl ghrelin. Des-octanoyl ghrelin across the BBB was reported to be unidirectional (blood-to-brain direction). However, there is no report about the conjugation of des-octanoyl ghrelin to a drug carrier system to confer the BBB targeting property through des-octanoyl ghrelin binding sites mediated endocytosis. To qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this carrier's properties, coumarin 6, Cy5.5 and met-enkephalin were individually encapsulated in these polymersomes. The experimental results showed that the cellular uptake was significantly higher for des-octanoyl ghrelin-conjugated polymersomes (GPs) than unconjugated polymersomes when co-incubated with the BBB cells. In addition, an enhanced accumulation in brain together with a reduced accumulation in liver and spleen was observed in animal study, indicating better brain selectivity for the GPs. In a hot-plate test, a significant inhibition of nociceptive response could be achieved for an intravenous injection of GPs encapsulated with met-enkephalin. The overall results demonstrated that GPs own a great potential for targeting delivery of drug across the BBB to treat CNS diseases. PMID:24315575

Chen, Yung-Chu; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Chen, Li-Fang; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Win-Li

2014-02-01

65

Effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on survival and other outcomes in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies: a study-level meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are approved to treat anemia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. ESAs reduce transfusion rates, but some clinical studies suggest that ESAs may reduce survival or increase disease progression. This study-level meta-analysis examined the effects of darbepoetin alfa, epoetin alfa or epoetin beta on mortality, disease progression and transfusion incidence in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies, using randomized, controlled trials of patients receiving chemotherapy and ESAs or standard of care. The odds ratio (OR) for mortality was 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81–1.34, random-effects model, 10 studies); the risk difference was ? 0.01 (95% CI, ? 0.03–0.02). The OR for disease progression was 1.02 (95% CI 0.81–1.30, random-effects model, five studies). A lower proportion of ESA-treated patients than controls received transfusions (seven studies). In this meta-analysis, ESAs reduced transfusions with no clear effect on mortality or disease progression in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies receiving chemotherapy. PMID:22497574

2012-01-01

66

Lysophosphatidic acid and microtubule-destabilizing agents stimulate fibronectin matrix assembly through Rho-dependent actin stress fiber formation and cell contraction.  

PubMed Central

Fibronectin (FN) matrix assembly is a cell-dependent process mediated by cell surface-binding sites for the 70-kDa amino-terminal region of FN. We have shown recently that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a stimulator of FN matrix assembly. Disruption of microtubules has been shown to mimic some of the intracellular effects of LPA including the formation of actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation. We compared the effects of microtubule disruption and LPA on FN binding and actin cytoskeleton organization. The disruption of microtubules by nocodazole or vinblastine increased FN binding to adherent cells. The modulation of binding sites was rapid, dynamic, and reversible. Enhanced binding was due to increases in both the number and affinity of binding sites. These effects are similar to the effects of LPA on FN binding. Binding induced by nocodazole was inhibited by the microtubule-stabilizing agent Taxol but not by pretreatment with a concentration of phospholipase B that totally abolished the stimulatory effect of LPA. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a close correlation among actin stress fiber formation, cell contraction, and FN binding. Blockage of the small GTP binding protein Rho or actin-myosin interactions inhibited the effects of both nocodazole and LPA on FN binding. These observations demonstrate that Rho-dependent actin stress fiber formation and cell contraction induce increased FN binding and represent a rapid labile way that cells can modulate FN matrix assembly. Images PMID:9285815

Zhang, Q; Magnusson, M K; Mosher, D F

1997-01-01

67

Low hemoglobin levels and hypo-responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent associated with poor survival in incident Japanese hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Although erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are effective at treating anemia, the association between hemoglobin (Hb) levels and survival is still unclear, especially for the incident Japanese hemodialysis (HD) population. The Japan Erythropoietin Treatment (JET) Study is an open multi-center, prospective, observational study designed to evaluate the relationship between the maintenance of Hb levels and new HD patient prognosis after the first administration of epoetin beta. Landmark analyses were performed to examine the relationship between Hb levels at 6 months and survival. Among a total of 10?310 patients, 6631 completed the initial 6 months of epoetin beta treatment (induction phase) and were followed up for a further 2.5 years (maintenance phase). Three-year survival rate of patients with <9?g/dL Hb levels after 6 months was 74.1%, which was significantly lower than 89.3% for patients with Hb levels 10 to 11?g/dL; the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 2.08 (95% CI, 1.57-2.77; P?

Akizawa, Tadao; Saito, Akira; Gejyo, Fumitake; Suzuki, Masashi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Akiba, Takashi; Hirakata, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuzo; Kawanishi, Hideki; Bessho, Masami; Udagawa, Yukio; Aoki, Kotonari; Uemura, Yukari; Ohashi, Yasuo

2014-10-01

68

Stimulative effect of the fungal biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Striga on abundance of nitrifying prokaryotes in a maize rhizosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as total archaeal and bacterial communities. AOB only showed significant increases in the Machanga soil when organic residues were added. Furthermore, there were transient detectable significant increases in total archaea and AOA due to Striga inoculation which also varied with the soil. The variation in treatment effects in the two soils was highly linked to the differences in soil properties such as dissolved organic carbon and soil pH which showed significant (P

Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

2014-05-01

69

Anemia and iron deficiency in COPD patients: prevalence and the effects of correction of the anemia with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous iron  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The purposes of this study were: (i) To study the prevalence and treatment of anemia and ID in patients hospitalized with an exacerbation of COPD. (ii) to study the hematological responses and degree of dyspnea before and after correction of anemia with subcutaneous Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron therapy, in ambulatory anemic patients with both COPD and chronic kidney disease. Methods (i) We examined the hospital records of all patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) to assess the investigation, prevalence, and treatment of anemia and ID. (ii) We treated 12 anemic COPD outpatients with the combination of ESAs and IV-iron, given once weekly for 5 weeks. One week later we measured the hematological response and the severity of dyspnea by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results (i) Anemia and iron deficiency in hospitalized COPD patients: Of 107 consecutive patients hospitalized with an AECOPD, 47 (43.9%) were found to be anemic on admission. Two (3.3%) of the 60 non-anemic patients and 18 (38.3%) of the 47 anemic patients had serum iron, percent transferrin saturation (%Tsat) and serum ferritin measured. All 18 (100%) anemic patients had ID, yet none had oral or IV iron subscribed before or during hospitalization, or at discharge. (ii) Intervention outpatient study: ID was found in 11 (91.7%) of the 12 anemic ambulatory patients. Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct) and the VAS scale scores increased significantly with the ESAs and IV-iron treatment. There was a highly significant correlation between the ?Hb and ?VAS; rs?=?0.71 p?=?0.009 and between the ?Hct and ?VAS; rs?=?0.8 p?=?0.0014. Conclusions ID is common in COPD patients but is rarely looked for or treated. Yet correction of the ID in COPD patients with ESAs and IV iron can improve the anemia, the ID, and may improve the dyspnea. PMID:24564844

2014-01-01

70

Antistaphylococcal Activity of DX-619, a New Des-F(6)-Quinolone, Compared to Those of Other Agents  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, was tested against staphylococci and compared to those of other antimicrobials. DX-619 had the lowest MIC ranges/MIC50s/MIC90s (?g/ml) against 131 Staphylococcus aureus strains (?0.002 to 2.0/0.06/0.5) and 128 coagulase-negative staphylococci (0.004 to 0.25/0.016/0.125). Among strains tested, 76 S. aureus strains and 51 coagulase-negative staphylococci were resistant to ciprofloxacin. DX-619 had the lowest MIC50/MIC90 values against 127 quinolone-resistant staphylococci (0.125/0.5), followed by sitafloxacin (0.5/4), moxifloxacin (2/8), gatifloxacin (4/16), levofloxacin (16/>32), and ciprofloxacin (>32/>32). Raised quinolone MICs were associated with mutations in GyrA (S84L) and single or double mutations in GrlA (S80F or Y; E84K, G, or V) in all S. aureus strains tested. A recent vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strain (Hershey) was resistant to available quinolones and was inhibited by DX-619 at 0.25 ?g/ml and sitafloxacin at 1.0 ?g/ml. Vancomycin (except VRSA), linezolid, ranbezolid, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all strains, and teicoplanin was active against S. aureus but less active against coagulase-negative staphylococci. DX-619 produced resistant mutants with MICs of 1 to >32 ?g/ml after <50 days of selection compared to 16 to >32 ?g/ml for ciprofloxacin, sitafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were also more active than other tested drugs against selected mutants and had the lowest mutation frequencies in single-step resistance selection. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were bactericidal against six quinolone-resistant (including the VRSA) and seven quinolone-susceptible strains tested, whereas gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were bactericidal against 11, 10, 7, and 5 strains at 4× MIC after 24 h, respectively. DX-619 was also bactericidal against one other VRSA strain, five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains, and four vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci. Linezolid, ranbezolid, and tigecycline were bacteriostatic and quinupristin-dalfopristin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were bactericidal against two, eight, and nine strains, and daptomycin and oritavancin were rapidly bactericidal against all strains, including the VRSA. DX-619 has potent in vitro activity against staphylococci, including methicillin-, ciprofloxacin-, and vancomycin-resistant strains. PMID:16048943

Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Esel, Duygu; Kelly, Linda M.; Bozdogan, Bulent; Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M.; Hoellman, Dianne B.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

2005-01-01

71

Antistaphylococcal activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, compared to those of other agents.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, was tested against staphylococci and compared to those of other antimicrobials. DX-619 had the lowest MIC ranges/MIC(50)s/MIC(90)s (microg/ml) against 131 Staphylococcus aureus strains (32), and ciprofloxacin (>32/>32). Raised quinolone MICs were associated with mutations in GyrA (S84L) and single or double mutations in GrlA (S80F or Y; E84K, G, or V) in all S. aureus strains tested. A recent vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strain (Hershey) was resistant to available quinolones and was inhibited by DX-619 at 0.25 microg/ml and sitafloxacin at 1.0 microg/ml. Vancomycin (except VRSA), linezolid, ranbezolid, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all strains, and teicoplanin was active against S. aureus but less active against coagulase-negative staphylococci. DX-619 produced resistant mutants with MICs of 1 to >32 microg/ml after <50 days of selection compared to 16 to >32 microg/ml for ciprofloxacin, sitafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were also more active than other tested drugs against selected mutants and had the lowest mutation frequencies in single-step resistance selection. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were bactericidal against six quinolone-resistant (including the VRSA) and seven quinolone-susceptible strains tested, whereas gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were bactericidal against 11, 10, 7, and 5 strains at 4x MIC after 24 h, respectively. DX-619 was also bactericidal against one other VRSA strain, five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains, and four vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci. Linezolid, ranbezolid, and tigecycline were bacteriostatic and quinupristin-dalfopristin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were bactericidal against two, eight, and nine strains, and daptomycin and oritavancin were rapidly bactericidal against all strains, including the VRSA. DX-619 has potent in vitro activity against staphylococci, including methicillin-, ciprofloxacin-, and vancomycin-resistant strains. PMID:16048943

Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Esel, Duygu; Kelly, Linda M; Bozdogan, Bülent; Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M; Hoellman, Dianne B; Appelbaum, Peter C

2005-08-01

72

Identification of des-(Gly-Ile)-endozepine as an effector of corticotropin-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis: stimulation of cholesterol delivery is mediated by the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed Central

Delivery of cholesterol to inner mitochondrial membranes is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in the zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex. A protein that stimulates this process was isolated to homogeneity from bovine adrenal tissue. This protein's primary structure has been determined in its entirety by a combination of automated Edman microsequencing, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The sequence was identical to that previously reported for bovine brain endozepine, except that it lacks the last two residues, -Gly-Ile, at the C terminus. To our knowledge, isolation of an endozepine-related protein from a tissue other than brain has not been reported previously. Endozepine competes with benzodiazepines for saturable binding sites in synaptosomes and in mitochondria of specific peripheral tissues. Previous reports have localized the adrenal benzodiazepine receptor to the outer mitochondrial membrane. In this report, we show that the prototypic benzodiazepine, diazepam, effects a stimulation of adrenal mitochondrial cholesterol delivery similar to that observed for endozepine. The effective diazepam concentration was consistent with that previously shown to displace a high-affinity ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor. The action of diazepam in adrenal mitochondria suggests that the mediation of corticotropin-induced steroidogenesis may be the physiological function of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor. These studies provide new insights into the previously unknown function of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and should allow new investigations into the stimulation of steroidogenesis by endozepines and benzodiazepines in the brain and in certain peripheral tissues. PMID:2544879

Besman, M J; Yanagibashi, K; Lee, T D; Kawamura, M; Hall, P F; Shively, J E

1989-01-01

73

Inhibition of MAO-A and stimulation of behavioural activities in mice by the inactive prodrug form of the anti-influenza agent oseltamivir  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Oseltamivir is the most widely prescribed anti-influenza medication. However, in rare instances, it has been reported to stimulate behavioural activities in adolescents. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for these behavioural activities. Experimental Approach We performed an in vitro assay of MAO-A, the enzyme responsible for neurotransmitter degradation, using either the active form – oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or the inactive prodrug – oseltamivir ethyl ester (OEE). We also analysed the docking of MAO-A with OEE or OC?in silico. Mouse behaviours after OEE or OC administration were monitored using automated video and computer analysis. Key Results OEE, but not OC, competitively and selectively inhibited human MAO-A. The estimated Ki value was comparable with the Km values of native substrates of MAO-A. Docking simulations in silico based on the tertiary structure of MAO-A suggested that OEE could fit into the inner pocket of the enzyme. Behavioural monitoring using automated video analysis further revealed that OEE, not OC, significantly enhanced spontaneous behavioural activities in mice, such as jumping, rearing, sniffing, turning and walking. Conclusions and Implications Our multilevel analyses suggested OEE to be the cause of the side effects associated with oseltamivir and revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the stimulated behaviours induced by oseltamivir in some circumstances. PMID:23320399

Hiasa, Miki; Isoda, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Saitoh, Kenta; Kimura, Yasuaki; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Hatakeyama, Dai; Kirino, Yutaka; Kuzuhara, Takashi

2013-01-01

74

Immunomodulatory agents lenalidomide and pomalidomide co-stimulate T cells by inducing degradation of T cell repressors Ikaros and Aiolos via modulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4(CRBN.).  

PubMed

Cereblon (CRBN), the molecular target of lenalidomide and pomalidomide, is a substrate receptor of the cullin ring E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, CRL4(CRBN) . T cell co-stimulation by lenalidomide or pomalidomide is cereblon dependent: however, the CRL4(CRBN) substrates responsible for T cell co-stimulation have yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that interaction of the transcription factors Ikaros (IKZF1, encoded by the IKZF1 gene) and Aiolos (IKZF3, encoded by the IKZF3 gene) with CRL4(CRBN) is induced by lenalidomide or pomalidomide. Each agent promotes Aiolos and Ikaros binding to CRL4(CRBN) with enhanced ubiquitination leading to cereblon-dependent proteosomal degradation in T lymphocytes. We confirm that Aiolos and Ikaros are transcriptional repressors of interleukin-2 expression. The findings link lenalidomide- or pomalidomide-induced degradation of these transcriptional suppressors to well documented T cell activation. Importantly, Aiolos could serve as a proximal pharmacodynamic marker for lenalidomide and pomalidomide, as healthy human subjects administered lenalidomide demonstrated Aiolos degradation in their peripheral T cells. In conclusion, we present a molecular model in which drug binding to cereblon results in the interaction of Ikaros and Aiolos to CRL4(CRBN) , leading to their ubiquitination, subsequent proteasomal degradation and T cell activation. PMID:24328678

Gandhi, Anita K; Kang, Jian; Havens, Courtney G; Conklin, Thomas; Ning, Yuhong; Wu, Lei; Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Waldman, Michelle F; Thakurta, Anjan; Klippel, Anke; Handa, Hiroshi; Daniel, Thomas O; Schafer, Peter H; Chopra, Rajesh

2014-03-01

75

Quels agents incrimin?s dans les mycoses du pied ? Enqu?te aupr?s des diab?tiques consultant au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech  

PubMed Central

Les infections mycosiques du pied constituent un motif fréquent de consultation chez les diabétiques, le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant les lésions cutanéomuqueuses. L'objectif de ce travail était d'identifier la flore mycologique locale responsable des lésions du pied chez le diabétique et déterminer les facteurs favorisant la survenue de mycoses. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale intéressant des diabétiques suivis en consultation; un prélèvement mycologique, avec examen direct et culture, a été réalisé devant toute suspicion clinique de lésion mycosique. Quatre-vingt-deux patients ont été inclus. L'hémoglobine glycosylée moyenne a été de9,2% ± 2,23. Un intertrigo inter orteil a été noté dans 90,2% des cas; l'examen mycologique était positif dans 64,8% des cas, avec 18 cas de Trichophyton rubrum et 11 cas de Candida albicans. Une atteinte unguéale a été suspectée chez 65,9% patients; la culture a mis en évidence un Trichosporon pathogène chez sept patients, un Candida albicansdans six cas, un Trichophyton rubrum dans quatre cas, avec trois cas de Trichophyton mentagrophytes et deux cas de Scytalidium dimidiatum. L’étude analytique, après confirmation mycologique, en fonction des principales caractéristiques des patients a montré que l'atteinte mycosique du pied est significativement corrélée au déséquilibre glycémique. Ce travail a montré la prédominance du Trichophyton rubrum dans les lésions d'intertrigo inter orteil et du Trichosporon dans les onychomycoses, avec une prédominance globale plus globale plus élevée du TR.

Chegour, Hakima; El Ansari, Nawal; El Mghari, Ghizlane; Tali, Abdelali; Zoughaghi, Laila; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

2014-01-01

76

Stimulant drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulants are a key element in the treatment of ADHD. Carefully designed trials of stimulants have found substantial improvement\\u000a in ADHD core behaviours in 65–75% of subjects with ADHD. Most standard stimulants are rapidly absorbed, with their behavioural\\u000a effects appearing within 30 minutes, reaching a peak within one to three hours and disappearing within five hours. Doses at\\u000a school are

Paramala Janardhanan Santosh; Eric Taylor

2000-01-01

77

?-Adrenergic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Two groups of substances which stimulate the adrenergic system are listed as prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Stimulants\\u000a are prohibited in-competition only and ?2-agonists are prohibited in- and out-of-competition. While ?2-agonists act directly on the target receptors, sympathomimetic amines can exert their action directly and indirectly. Due\\u000a to differences in pharmacology but mainly due to differences in administered dose,

Peter Van Eenoo; Frans T. Delbeke

78

Nonhematopoietic effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythropoietin (EPO) was originally considered a hormone with action restricted to erythrocytic progenitors. The colony-forming\\u000a units-erythroid (CFU-E) possess abundant EPO receptor (EPOR) molecules, and EPO is essential for their survival, proliferation,\\u000a and differentiation. The mature functional human erythropoietic EPOR is a homodimer of two 484 amino acids transmembrane glycoproteins\\u000a of approximately 60kDa. On binding of 1 EPO molecule, the EPOR

Wolfgang Jelkmann; Reinhard Depping; Eric Metzen

79

Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rates among US chronic dialysis patients during changes to Medicare end-stage renal disease (ESRD) reimbursement systems and erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) labels  

PubMed Central

Background Several major ESRD-related regulatory and reimbursement changes were introduced in the United States in 2011. In several large, national datasets, these changes have been associated with decreases in erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) utilization and hemoglobin concentrations in the ESRD population, as well as an increase in the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in this population. Our objective was to examine the use of RBC transfusion before and after the regulatory and reimbursement changes implemented in 2011 in a prevalent population of chronic dialysis patients in a large national claims database. Methods Patients in the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Databases with evidence of chronic dialysis were selected for the study. The proportion of chronic dialysis patients who received any RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates per 100 patient-months were calculated in each month from January 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012. The results were analyzed overall and stratified by primary health insurance payer (commercial payer or Medicare). Results Overall, the percent of chronic dialysis patients with RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates per 100 patient-months increased between January 2007 and March 2012. When stratified by primary health insurance payer, it appears that the increase was driven by the primary Medicare insurance population. While the percent of patients with RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates did not increase in the commercially insured population between 2007 and 2012 they did increase in the primary Medicare insurance population; the majority of the increase occurred in 2011 during the same time frame as the ESRD-related regulatory and reimbursement changes. Conclusions The regulatory and reimbursement changes implemented in 2011 may have contributed to an increase in the use of RBC transfusions in chronic dialysis patients in the MarketScan dataset who were covered by Medicare plus Medicare supplemental insurance. PMID:25015348

2014-01-01

80

Predictors of haemoglobin levels and resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients treated with low-flux haemodialysis, haemofiltration and haemodiafiltration: results of a multicentre randomized and controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Predictors of haemoglobin (Hb) levels and resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in dialysis patients have not yet been clearly defined. Some mainly uncontrolled studies suggest that online haemodiafiltration (HDF) may have a beneficial effect on Hb, whereas no data are available concerning online haemofiltration (HF). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of convective treatments (CTs) on Hb levels and ESA resistance in comparison with low-flux haemodialysis (HD) and to evaluate the predictors of these outcomes. Methods Primary multivariate analysis was made of a pre-specified secondary outcome of a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled study in which 146 chronic HD patients from 27 Italian centres were randomly assigned to HD (70 patients) or CTs: online pre-dilution HF (36 patients) or online pre-dilution HDF (40 patients). Results CTs did not affect Hb levels (P = 0.596) or ESA resistance (P = 0.984). Hb correlated with polycystic kidney disease (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (P = 0.025), ferritin (P = 0.018), ESA dose (P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (P = 0.021). The participating centres were the main source of Hb variability (partial eta2 0.313, P < 0.001). ESA resistance directly correlated with serum ferritin (P = 0.030) and beta2 microglobulin (P = 0.065); participating centres were again a major source of variance (partial eta2 0.367, P < 0.001). Transferrin saturation did not predict either outcome variables (P = 0.277 and P = 0.170). Conclusions In comparison with low-flux HD, CTs did not significantly improve Hb levels or ESA resistance. The main sources of variability were participating centres, ESA dose and the underlying disease. PMID:22622452

Locatelli, Francesco; Altieri, Paolo; Andrulli, Simeone; Sau, Giovanna; Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Pedrini, Luciano A.; Basile, Carlo; David, Salvatore; Feriani, Mariano; Nebiolo, Pier Eugenio; Ferrara, Rocco; Casu, Domenica; Logias, Francesco; Tarchini, Renzo; Cadinu, Francesco; Passaghe, Mario; Fundoni, Gianfranco; Villa, Giuseppe; Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Zoccali, Carmine

2012-01-01

81

Les agents de l'État en 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les agents de l'État en 1975 - Jusqu'alors, pour connaître le nombre et les caractéristiques des agents de l'état, l'INSEE procédait à leur recensement; le dernier remonte à 1969. L'exploitation coordonnée des fichiers informatiques de paie des administrations (lesquels se sont généralisés) permet désormais de se dispenser de cette lourde opération. L'article présente les principaux résultats obtenus avec la

Dominique Quarré; Jean-Noël Durvy; Gérard Badeyan

1977-01-01

82

Sensitive Agent: Sensitive Agent  

E-print Network

social interaction must be simulated. Conventional agents already have rich communication skills including nonverbal communication; however, lack the sensitivity that is necessary for social interaction-78. [13] MIT, Affective Computing, http://affect.media.mit.edu/AC_affect.html [14] Helmut Prendinger

Nakanishi, Hideyuki

83

agronomie: plant genetics and breeding tude srologique des souches marocaines  

E-print Network

agronomie: plant genetics and breeding �tude s�rologique des souches marocaines d'Agrobacterium tumefaciens, agent de la galle du collet des rosac�es fruiti�res A Benjama N Alami EM Saadaoui 1 Laboratoire of Moroccan strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causal agent of crown- gall in stone-fruit trees

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions  

PubMed Central

The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling. PMID:24818076

Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

2014-01-01

85

Les banques américaines et la baisse des taux d'intérêt  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Faut-il s'attendre à ce que la baisse des taux d'intérêt observée en Europe depuis plusieurs mois se répercute intégralement dans l'allégement du coût des crédits bancaires et stimule ainsi la croissance du crédit qui favoriserait la reprise des dépenses d'investissement des entreprises et de logement et de consommation des ménages ? Les Etats-Unis ont précédé l'Europe dans les évolutions

Jacques Le Cacheux

1994-01-01

86

Radiation, hypoxia and genetic stimulation: implications for future therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular stress response, whereby very low doses of cytotoxic agents induce resistance to much higher doses, is an evolutionary defence mechanism and is stimulated following challenges by numerous chemical, biological and physical agents including particularly radiation, drugs, heat and hypoxia. There is much homology in the effects of these agents which are manifest through the up-regulation of various genetic

Gerald E. Adams; Na'il M. Hasan; Michael C. Joiner

1997-01-01

87

Biological Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

88

Software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

1994-01-01

89

[Diuretic agent].  

PubMed

This clause explains a diuretic as an antihypertensive agent. A diuretic is a medicine used as a first-line agent also in the present. As an antihypertensive agent, a thiazide-type diuretic drug is used in many cases. Use of furosemide is not recommended other than a chronic kidney disease patient. Considering future medical economics, it is desirable to use a diuretic drug positively. PMID:25167755

Hirama, Akio; Tsuruoka, Shuichi

2014-08-01

90

Steam stimulation: an evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam-stimulation process is evaluated by considering the increase in production rate and the effect of steam stimulation on ultimate recovery. A simplified equation is shown for calculating the ratio of production rates for the steam-stimulated reservoir and an unstimulated reservoir. The primary simplification in this equation results from the assumption that the heat in the stimulated reservoir will be

Farouq Ali

1967-01-01

91

Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with beta-CD, IBA, a blend of beta-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets

Ramakrishnan Ramaseshan; Subramanian Sundarrajan; Yingjun Liu; R. S. Barhate; Neeta L. Lala; S. Ramakrishna

2006-01-01

92

Prise en compte de l'incidence des activits du castor (C. fiber L.) sur la reconstitution des dynamiques d'volution du couvert vgtal et des processus de turbification  

E-print Network

nombreuses analyses de l'impact du castor sur les paysages pour l'espèce nord-américaine Castor canadensis KPrise en compte de l'incidence des activités du castor (C. fiber L.) sur la reconstitution des France sur le castor en tant qu'agent influençant l'évolution de la morphologie des zones humides, des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of EMS, DES and gamma-rays in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on chlorophyll mutation frequency after treatment with EMS, DES and gamma-rays and sequential administration of gamma-rays and the two alkylating agents in three varieties of rice have been used to work out quantitatively the effectiveness and efficiency of each mutagen and combination treatment. For effectiveness, the order is EMS > DES and for efficiency it is EMS > DES

M. L. H. Kaul; A. K. Bhan

1977-01-01

94

Analytical strategy for detecting doping agents in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lists of banned classes of doping agents are released by the International Olympic Committee, adopted by other sports authorities and updated regularly, including the substance classes stimulants, narcotics, diuretics, anabolic agents, peptide hormones, beta-blockers etc. There are different classes of restriction:•anabolic and masking agents (anabolic steroids, diuretics etc.) are always banned for athletes regardless of their topical activity (training or

D. Thieme; J. Grosse; H. Sachs; R. K. Mueller

2000-01-01

95

Animated Agents in K-12 Outreach: Preferred Agent Characteristics Across Developmental Levels  

E-print Network

Characteristics, Developmental Levels, K-12 Outreach #12;3 Introduction According to Social Cognitive Theory' perceptions of the experience. The authors suggested that animated agents stimulate cognitive activities which. School of Social and Family Dynamics Arizona State University Abstract Animated agents have been found

Reisslein, Martin

96

Response to Comment on “Movement Intention After Parietal Cortex Stimulation in Humans”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karnath et al. argue that the behavioral effects observed in our study after direct parietal and premotor electrical stimulation (DES) could reflect a decrease of local cortical activity. If so, intention and awareness would not reflect the activity of the stimulated area but the recruitment of remote regions. Although tenable, this view does not seem to be the most plausible.

Sirigu, Angela; Mottolese, Carmine; Desmurget, Michel

2010-03-01

97

Stimulation with the Aureobasidium pullulans-produced ?-glucan effectively induces interferon stimulated genes in macrophage-like cell lines  

PubMed Central

A ?-(1,3),(1,6)-D-glucan produced by A. pullulans (AP-PG) is known to be an immune stimulating agent. In this study, we demonstrate that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) in macrophage-like cell lines. The ISGs, Mx1, ISG15, and viperin mRNAs were significantly increased in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with AP-PG. The stimulation with AP-PG transiently induced IFN-? mRNA. However, the expression of viperin mRNA was also increased after stimulation with AP-PG even when new protein synthesis was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide. Further, in IFN-? receptor knockdown RAW264.7 cells, AP-PG stimulation more effectively induced viperin mRNA compared with that of IFN-? stimulation. The phosphorylation of Ser 727 in STAT1 involved in the enhancement of STAT1 activation was immediately increased after stimulation with AP-PG. In addition, viperin mRNA expression induced after stimulation with IFN-? was significantly increased by combined stimulation with AP-PG. These results suggest that stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the ISGs through the induction of IFN and the enhancement of STAT1-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:24759061

Muramatsu, Daisuke; Kawata, Koji; Aoki, Shiho; Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Atsushi

2014-01-01

98

Antidiabetic Agents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

99

L'?valuation du risque cardiaque avant l'utilisation de stimulants chez les enfants et les adolescents  

PubMed Central

Les décisions en matière de réglementation et les documents scientifiques au sujet de la prise en charge du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) soulèvent des questions quant à l’innocuité des médicaments et à l’évaluation convenable à effectuer avant le traitement afin de déterminer la pertinence d’une pharmacothérapie. Ce constat est particulièrement vrai en présence de cardiopathies structurelles ou fonctionnelles. Le présent article contient l’analyse des données disponibles, y compris les publications révisées par des pairs, des données tirées du site Web de la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis au sujet des réactions indésirables déclarées chez des enfants qui prennent des stimulants, ainsi que des données de Santé Canada sur le même problème. Des lignes directrices consensuelles sur l’évaluation pertinente sont proposées d’après l’apport des membres de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, de la Société canadienne de cardiologie et de l’Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, qui possèdent notamment des compétences et des connaissances précises tant dans le secteur du TDAH que de la cardiologie pédiatrique. Le présent document de principes prône une anamnèse et un examen physique détaillés avant la prescription de stimulants et s’attarde sur le dépistage des facteurs de risque de mort subite, mais il ne contient pas de recommandations systématiques de dépistage électrocardiographique ou de consultations avec un spécialiste en cardiologie, à moins que les antécédents ou que l’examen physique ne le justifient. Le document contient un questionnaire pour repérer les enfants potentiellement vulnérables à une mort subite (quel que soit le type de TDAH ou les médicaments utilisés pour le traiter). Même si les recommandations dépendent des meilleures données probantes disponibles, le comité s’entend pour affirmer que d’autres recherches s’imposent pour optimiser l’approche de ce scénario clinique courant.

Belanger, SA; Warren, AE; Hamilton, RM; Gray, C; Gow, RM; Sanatani, S; Cote, J-M; Lougheed, J; LeBlanc, J; Martin, S; Miles, B; Mitchell, C; Gorman, DA; Weiss, M; Schachar, R

2009-01-01

100

Microfluidic temporal cell stimulation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a novel microfluidic platform for investigating cellular signaling networks, combining a programmable system for generating arbitrarily complex temporal input stimulant concentration profiles with ...

Craig, David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

101

Alkylating Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Alkylating agents were the first anticancer molecules developed and are still used today. The family contains 6 major classes:\\u000a nitrogen mustards, aziridines, alkyl sulfonates, epoxides, nitrosoureas and triazene compounds. Due to their chemical properties,\\u000a these drugs can, either directly or after biological activation react and form covalent bonds with macromolecules such as\\u000a DNA, RNA and proteins. Their cytotoxic properties are

Laurent Gate; Kenneth D. Tew

102

Antiparasitic agents.  

PubMed

Several important developments have occurred in recent years in the chemotherapy for and prophylaxis of parasitic infections. Although mefloquine is clearly the most effective agent for prevention of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, its use has been compromised by side effects, both real and imagined. Well-designed studies have shown that side effects occur no more frequently with low-dose mefloquine than with chloroquine. Use of mefloquine in pregnant women has not been associated with birth defects, but the incidence of stillbirths may be increased. Malarone is a new agent that combines atovaquone and proguanil, and it may be as effective as mefloquine; however, it is not yet available in the United States. Several newer agents have appeared in response to the development of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, especially in Southeast Asia. Halofantrine is available for the treatment of mild to moderate malaria due to P. falciparum and for P. vivax infections. Because of severe toxic effects, use of halofantrine should be restricted to only those unusual and rare situations in which other agents cannot be used. Artemisinin (an extract of the Chinese herbal remedy qinghaosu) and two derivatives, artesunate and artemether, are active against multidrug resistant P. falciparum and are widely used in Asia in oral, parenteral, and rectal forms. The antibacterial azithromycin in combination with atovaquone or quinine has now been reported to treat babesiosis effectively in experimental animals and in a few patients. Azithromycin in combination with paromomycin has also shown promise in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (and toxoplasmosis when combined with pyrimethamine) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Albendazole is currently the only systemic agent available for treatment of microsporidiosis, an infection primarily of patients with AIDS. In addition, albendazole and ivermectin have emerged as effective broad-spectrum antihelminthics, with albendazole becoming the drug of choice for hydatid disease (echinococcosis), neurocysticercosis, and most intestinal nematode infections (except strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis). Liposomal amphotericin B is the first drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:10560606

Rosenblatt, J E

1999-11-01

103

Stimulated petroleum biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulated biodegradation has been considered as a method for removal of petroleum pollutants. Various methods have been proposed for increasing rates of petroleum biodegradation, including physical or chemical modification of petroleum polutants, modification of environmental parameters around polluting oil, and modification of microbial populations around petroleum pollutants. Physical or chemical means for stimulating petroleum biodegradation include removal of particular petroleum

Ronald M. Atlas; Richard L. Raymond

1977-01-01

104

FEMININ, MASCULIN : ANTHROPOLOGIE DES  

E-print Network

#12;#12;FEMININ, MASCULIN : ANTHROPOLOGIE DES CAT�GORIES ET DES PRATIQUES MEDICALES 2007 #12;AUX;FEMININ, MASCULIN. ANTHROPOLOGIE DES CAT�GORIES ET DES PRATIQUES MEDICALES Sous la direction de Virginie, en France, du paradoxe d'une surmortalité masculine et d'une surmor- bidité féminine. Cette apparente

Boyer, Edmond

105

Multi-agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structurally, an agent is a bundle of sensors, decision-makers and actuators. Behaviorally, an agent is a mapping from an in-space (the set of things the agent can sense) to an out-space (the set of things the agent can affect). Cells, ants, computer programs, robots and people are examples of agents. Larger agents (multi-agent systems) are organizations of lesser agents. Immune

S. Talukdar

2004-01-01

106

Geothermal well stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

The stimulation of geothermal production wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 275 to 550/sup 0/F range can be expected and the behavior of fracturing fluids and fracture proppants at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated in laboratory tests. To avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, the high-temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the fracturing fluids, fluid loss additives, and proppants must be verified. In geothermal wells, the necessary stimulation techniques are required to be capable of initiating and maintaining the flow of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional oil field stimulation. The objective of well stimulation is to initiate and maintain additional fluid production from existing wells at a lower cost than either drilling new replacement wells or multiply redrilling existing wells. The economics of well stimulation will be vastly enhanced when proven stimulation techniques can be implemented as part of the well completion (while the drilling rig is still over the hole) on all new wells exhibiting some form of flow impairment. Results from 7 stimulation tests are presented and planned tests are described.

Hanold, R.J.

1982-01-01

107

CHEMICAL STIMULATION BY ALCOHOLS IN THE BAR- NACLE, THE FROG AND PLANARIA  

E-print Network

The several types of stimulation ~ are usually classified according to the nature of the environmental agent acting upon a receptor, and the classificatory terms "photoreception, " "mechanical excitation, " or "chemical stimulation " are used merely to indicate that the stimulation has been initiated by a certain type of stimulating agent. Subsequent events within the receptor may or may not be similar to the first effect at the receptive surface. All of the processes at the receptive surface and within the receptor involve the redistribution or the transformation of energy. It should therefore be possible to analyse the successive steps in stimulation and reception by tracing the energy changes. Studies on photic stimulation (Hecht, 1919-20, 1920-21, 1922-23, 1926-27, 1927-28, 1928-29, and 1929, and papers quoted therein), and on mechanical stimulation (Crozier, 1923-24; Crozier

H. Cole; Am J. B. Allison

108

UMBC AgentWeb: Intelligent Software Agents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, sponsored and maintained by the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Laboratory for Advanced Information Technology (LAIT), focuses on intelligent agents, known alternatively as software agents, knowbots, infobots or intentional agents. The site is divided into several parts, some of which are annotated and some of which contain only links to resources. Annotated resources include a bibliography titled Introduction to Agents (under Introductory Material), a list of research projects involving agent technology, and abstracts of and links to articles on a variety of topics such as Agents and Security and Agents in Manufacturing.

109

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. ...SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance...Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. ...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a...

2011-01-01

110

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. ...RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial...Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. ...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...

2011-01-01

111

Vascular effects of free radicals generated by electrical stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Electrical field stimulation (9 V, 1.0 ms, 4 Hz) of isolated segments of rat tail arteries and dog coronary arteries inhibits contractile response to exogenous norephinephrine and elevated potassium concentration. This inhibitory effect of electrical stimulation is blocked by various agents that alter oxygen metabolism: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, ascorbate, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observations suggest that the inhibitory effect is due to an action of oxygen free radical metabolites that are generated by the electrical stimulation of the oxygen-rich buffer. These free radical metabolites have two actions: 1) they oxidize drugs in the experimental system, and 2) they exert a direct inhbitory action on vascular smooth muscle.

Lamb, F.S.; Webb, R.C.

1984-11-01

112

Using Artificial Agents to Stimulate Participation in Virtual Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting-up s uccessful virtual communities represents an effective way for facilitating the circulation of knowledge in organizations and groups. However the design of such successful communities represents a main challenge that is principally related to the difficulty to engage people into a knowledge exchange process and to establish a sustainable level of participation. This short paper presents some research directions

Thierry Nabeth; Albert A. Angehrn; Pradeep Kumar Mittal; Claudia Roda

2005-01-01

113

Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models and the conceptual framework necessary for an understanding of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are described. Examples of various OSL readout schemes are described, along with examples of the use of OSL in radiation dosimetry.

Stephen W. S. McKeever

2001-01-01

114

Characterization of haematological parameters with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone versus melphalan-prednisone in newly diagnosed myeloma, with evaluation of long-term outcomes and risk of thromboembolic events with use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: analysis of the VISTA trial.  

PubMed

Although haematological toxicities, such as anaemia, are common in multiple myeloma (MM), no clear consensus exists on the use and impact of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) on outcomes in MM. This analysis characterizes haematological toxicities and associated interventions in the phase III VISTA (Velcade(®) as Initial Standard Therapy in Multiple Myeloma: Assessment with Melphalan and Prednisone) study of bortezomib plus melphalan/prednisone (VMP, n?=?344) versus MP (n?=?338) in previously untreated MM patients ineligible for high-dose therapy, and evaluates the impact of ESA use or red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusions on outcomes and thromboembolic risk. Incidence of haematological toxicities was similar with VMP and MP; similar rates of interventions and associated complications (e.g. bleeding, febrile neutropenia) were observed. Two hundred thirty three patients received ESA; 204 had RBC transfusions. Frequency of thromboembolic events was low and not affected by ESA use. Median time-to progression (TTP) was similar between ESA/non-ESA [hazard ratio: 1·03 (95% confidence interval 0·76-1·39); P?=?0·8478] in both arms (VMP: 19·9/not reached; MP: 15·0/17·5?months). Three-year overall survival (OS) rates were similar between ESA/non-ESA in each arm. Patients receiving RBC transfusions had significantly shorter OS (P?

Richardson, Paul; Schlag, Rudolf; Khuageva, Nuriet; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Shpilberg, Ofer; Kropff, Martin; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Rossiev, Viktor; Hou, Jian; Robak, Tadeusz; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Anderson, Kenneth; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Cakana, Andrew; Liu, Kevin; Deraedt, William; van de Velde, Helgi; San Miguel, Jesús F

2011-04-01

115

Studying Network Mechanisms Using Intracranial Stimulation in Epileptic Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients suffering from focal drug-resistant epilepsy who are explored using intracranial electrodes allow to obtain data of exceptional value for studying brain dynamics in correlation with pathophysiological and cognitive processes. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) of cortical regions and axonal tracts in those patients elicits a number of very specific perceptual or behavioral responses, but also abnormal responses due to specific configurations of epileptic networks. Here, we review how anatomo-functional brain connectivity and epilepsy network mechanisms can be assessed from DES responses measured in patients. After a brief summary of mechanisms of action of brain electrical stimulation, we recall the conceptual framework for interpreting DES results in the context of brain connectivity and review how DES can be used for the characterization of functional networks, the identification of the seizure onset zone, the study of brain plasticity mechanisms, and the anticipation of epileptic seizures. This pool of exceptional data may be underexploited by fundamental research on brain connectivity and leaves much to be learned. PMID:21060722

David, Olivier; Bastin, Julien; Chabardes, Stephan; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe

2010-01-01

116

Genistein stimulates hematopoiesis and increases survival in irradiated mice.  

PubMed

Radiation protection from death and stimulating hematopoietic recovery by oral administrations of genistein, 160 mg/kg b.w., once daily for seven consecutive days before whole-body gamma-rays irradiation, were confirmed by tests with adult male BALB/c mice. Moreover, the protective action of genistein was compared to that of diethylstilbestrol (DES). Based on the studies of survival, behavior of hematograms, endogenous hematopoietic spleen colony formation (endoCFUs), and numbers of nucleated cell, granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM) in bone marrow following irradiation, it was demonstrated that genistein was an effective radioprotector. The survival of irradiated mice protected by genistein was significantly increased and statistically higher than that of mice pre-treated with DES. Stimulated recovery of leukocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes and thrombocytes were observed in mice pre-treated with genistein or DES, however, the effects of genistein on promoting recovery of bone marrow nucleated cells, leukocytes and lymphocytes were significantly higher than those of DES. Enhanced endoCFUs, numbers of bone marrow nucleated cells and CFU-GM were also found in mice pre-treated with genistein as well as DES. Meanwhile, endoCFU numbers in mice pre-treated with genistein was 3.47-fold higher than that in the irradiated control group, although no significant difference was found between genistein administration and DES administration. It could be deduced that the radioprotective action against death is induced by a possible process of enhanced regeneration of the hematopoietic stem cells due to not only strengthened radioresistance and increased numbers of remained hematopoietic cells, but also enhanced post-irradiation repair or promoted proliferation of the hematopoietic stem cells. These effects of genistein may have some therapeutic implications for radiation-induced injuries. PMID:16394633

Zhou, Yong; Mi, Man-Tian

2005-12-01

117

Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Electrical Stimulation of the Scalp  

E-print Network

Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Electrical Stimulation of the Scalp M Mennemeier, PhD1, AR Abstract Background--Most methods of sham, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (r-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscript #12;Keywords TMS; rTMS; sham Introduction Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used

Chatterjee, Anjan

118

Detecting agents.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

Johnson, Susan C

2003-01-01

119

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma 2013  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE D

Cerf, Nicolas

120

Stimulants: Therapeutic Actions in ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine are currently the most common treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For years, it was assumed that stimulants had paradoxical calming effects in ADHD patients, whereas stimulating ‘normal’ individuals and producing locomotor activation in rats. It is now known that low doses of stimulants focus attention and improve executive function in both normal

Amy F T Arnsten; AFT Arnsten

2006-01-01

121

L’observatoire national des asthmes professionnels  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'Observatoire National des Asthmes Professionnels (ONAP) was created in 1996 by two French professionals societies to estimate the incidence of occupational asthma. Occupational and chest physicians were asked to report newly diagnosed cases of work-related asthma and reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS). The information collected included age, sex, occupation, suspected causal agents and diagnostic methods. In 1997, 82.3% of 559

M.-C Kopferschmitt-Kubler; E Popin; D Vervloet; J Ameille; G Pauli

2003-01-01

122

Des Programmes de recherche  

E-print Network

'aléa sismique. La cartographie du risque de tsunami obtenue - véritable photographie instantanée de l chercheurs expliquent certains modes de propagation du tsunami le long des côtes thaïlandaises. Ainsi, la'élaboration des plans d'urbanisation des zones côtières et le maintien ou la réimplan- tation des protections

123

Remote Agent Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

1999-01-01

124

Muscle Stimulation Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a Goddard Space Flight Center contract, Electrologic of America was able to refine the process of densely packing circuitry on personal computer boards, providing significant contributions to the closed-loop systems for the Remote Manipulator System Simulator. The microcircuitry work was then applied to the StimMaster FES Ergometer, an exercise device used to stimulate muscles suffering from paralysis. The electrical stimulation equipment was developed exclusively for V-Care Health Systems, Inc. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

1997-01-01

125

Die Entwicklung des Universums  

E-print Network

/= =AbstandzwischenzweientferntenGalaxien Evolution des Universums (Einstein) Alter des Universums ~ 15 Milliarden Jahre Urknall Beobachtungen+ = Hintergrundstrahlung Rotverschiebung Alter ~ Jahre Chemie : 75% H, 25% He 10 1015 #12;T.Hebbeker Evolution des Universums (a la Einstein) == krit m 3 /3 mAtomeH - · Hubble-Konstante (kinetische Energie

Hebbeker, Thomas

126

Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.  

PubMed

Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ?-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization. PMID:25051278

Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

2014-09-01

127

Duodenal nutrient exclusion improves metabolic syndrome and stimulates villus hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective Surgical interventions that prevent nutrient exposure to the duodenum are among the most successful treatments for obesity and diabetes. However, these interventions are highly invasive, irreversible and often carry significant risk. The duodenal-endoluminal sleeve (DES) is a flexible tube that acts as a barrier to nutrient-tissue interaction along the duodenum. We implanted this device in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats to gain greater understanding of duodenal nutrient exclusion on glucose homeostasis. Design ZDF rats were randomised to four groups: Naive, sham ad libitum, sham pair-fed, and DES implanted. Food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition were measured for 28 days postoperatively. Glucose, lipid and bile acid metabolism were evaluated, as well as histological assessment of the upper intestine. Results DES implantation induced a sustained decrease in BW throughout the study that was matched by pair-fed sham animals. Decreased BW resulted from loss of fat, but not lean mass. DES rats were also found to be more glucose tolerant than either ad libitum-fed or pair-fed sham controls, suggesting fat mass independent metabolic benefits. DES also reduced circulating triglyceride and glycerol levels while increasing circulating bile acids. Interestingly, DES stimulated a considerable increase in villus length throughout the upper intestine, which may contribute to metabolic improvements. Conclusions Our preclinical results validate DES as a promising therapeutic approach to diabetes and obesity, which offers reversibility, low risk, low invasiveness and triple benefits including fat mass loss, glucose and lipid metabolism improvement which mechanistically may involve increased villus growth in the upper gut. PMID:24107591

Habegger, Kirk M; Al-Massadi, Omar; Heppner, Kristy M; Myronovych, Andriy; Holland, Jenna; Berger, Jose; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanging; Lehti, Maarit; Ottaway, Nickki; Amburgy, Sarah; Raver, Christine; Muller, Timo D; Pfluger, Paul T; Kohli, Rohit; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Seeley, Randy J; Tschop, Matthias H

2014-01-01

128

Effects of sulfur containing amino acids on iron and nitric oxide stimulated catecholamine oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Taurine is a free amino acid found in high concentrations in tissues containing catecholamines. The ability of taurine and\\u000a its metabolic precursors to inhibit or stimulate catecholamine oxidation and subsequent quinone formation was examined. Ferric\\u000a chloride was used as the catalyzing agent to stimulate L-dopa or norepinephrine oxidation and NO donors were also examined\\u000a for their actions to stimulate quinone

M. Biasetti; R. Dawson Jr.

2002-01-01

129

Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with ?-CD, IBA, a blend of ?-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane.

Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Liu, Yingjun; Barhate, R. S.; Lala, Neeta L.; Ramakrishna, S.

2006-06-01

130

Stimulating energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Office of Technology Assessment considers the various options available to Congress for stimulating new energy technology development and commercialization in the area of onsite systems designed to serve specific industrial, commercial, or residential applications. The two basic approaches for encouraging the public to use new technologies lie in direct or indirect subsidies and public education programs. Subsidies may

1977-01-01

131

Isolated Stimulator OPERATORS MANUAL  

E-print Network

seconds. A feature of this stimulator is the automatic overload circuit preventing excessive output current being drawn by reducing the output pulse width to less than 10µs when an overload current is detected. An overload current is sensed when the output reaches approximately 50mA. It is also worth noting

Kleinfeld, David

132

Central nervous system stimulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes

Alan J. George

2000-01-01

133

Stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis mediates gastroprotective effect of rebamipide in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept that gastroprotection by agents such as mild irritants, antacids, or sucralfate is prostaglandin (PG)-mediated has been challenged recently. These agents do not reproducibly stimulate prostaglandin formation, and indomethacin does not effectively attenuate their protective potency. Rebamipide is a novel antiulcer compound. This study was designed to clarify whether eicosanoids contribute to the gastroprotective activity of the drug. In

Andreas Kleine; Stefan Kluge; Brigitta M. Peskar

1993-01-01

134

Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

Not Available

1980-08-01

135

New York Canyon Stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "����No Go"��� decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

Raemy, B. Principal Investigator, TGP Development Company, LLC

2012-06-21

136

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method for applying electromagnetic fields to the brain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a rTMS can induce alterations of neuronal activity that outlast the stimulation period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a By modulating the excitability of the auditory cortex, rTMS can influence tinnitus perception.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Single sessions of rTMS over the temporal or temporoparietal cortex have been successful in transiently

Tobias Kleinjung; Berthold Langguth; Eman Khedr

137

Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging  

PubMed Central

Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

2010-01-01

138

Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

1993-01-01

139

Spacecraft sanitation agent development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

1972-01-01

140

Stimulated parametric emission microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel microscopy technique based on the four-wave mixing (FWM) process that is enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance induced by a pump pulse along with stimulated emission induced by a dump pulse. A Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator are used as light sources for the pump and dump pulses, respectively. We demonstrate that our proposed FWM

Keisuke Isobe; Shogo Kataoka; Rena Murase; Wataru Watanabe; Tsunehito Higashi; Shigeki Kawakami; Sachihiro Matsunaga; Kiichi Fukui; Kazuyoshi Itoh

2006-01-01

141

Stimulated dielectric wakefield accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dielectric-lined waveguide can be built that supports multi-mode, nearly non-dispersive propagation; wherein a superposition of TM0n wakefields is shown to result in highly peaked axial electric fields localized on each driving bunch in a periodic sequence. This allows stimulated emission of wakefield energy to occur at a rate which is much larger than the coherent spontaneous emission from a

T.-B. Zhang; J. L. Hirshfield; T. C. Marshall; B. Hafizi

1997-01-01

142

Human Tissue Stimulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

1982-01-01

143

Privatisation et performances des firmes des économies de l'Est  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Nous proposons une revue de la littérature consacrée, depuis la transition, aux liens entre l'organisation de la propriété et les performances des firmes de l'Est. Nous examinons les nombreuses études empiriques conduites sur ce thème et nous évoquons leurs résultats souvent contradictoires et quelquefois contraires aux attentes théoriques. Nous suggérons que le modèle principal-agent axé sur le conflit d'intérêt

Daniel Labaronne

2002-01-01

144

Electrical Stimulation: A Societal Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the

D. R. Gater; S. M. McDowell; J. J. Abbas

2000-01-01

145

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding...Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent...this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...may cause each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform...

2011-01-01

146

In Vitro Activities of DX619 and Four Comparator Agents against 376 Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to antimicrobial agents has been observed in many if not most clinically significant pathogenic bacteria and is increasing in prevalence. New classes of antimicrobial agents and modifications of existing agents, as well as of methods of blocking bacterial resistance mechanisms, are essential for im- proving activity against these resistant organisms. DX-619 is a newly developed des-F(6)-quinolone (Fig. 1) that

D. Molitoris; M.-L. Vaisanen; M. Bolanos; S. M. Finegold

2006-01-01

147

Pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)  

PubMed Central

This review examines the pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Stimulants that increase alertness/reduce fatigue or activate the cardiovascular system can include drugs like ephedrine available in many over-the-counter medicines. Others such as amphetamines, cocaine and hallucinogenic drugs, available on prescription or illegally, can modify mood. A total of 62 stimulants (61 chemical entities) are listed in the WADA List, prohibited in competition. Athletes may have stimulants in their body for one of three main reasons: inadvertent consumption in a propriety medicine; deliberate consumption for misuse as a recreational drug and deliberate consumption to enhance performance. The majority of stimulants on the list act on the monoaminergic systems: adrenergic (sympathetic, transmitter noradrenaline), dopaminergic (transmitter dopamine) and serotonergic (transmitter serotonin, 5-HT). Sympathomimetic describes agents, which mimic sympathetic responses, and dopaminomimetic and serotoninomimetic can be used to describe actions on the dopamine and serotonin systems. However, many agents act to mimic more than one of these monoamines, so that a collective term of monoaminomimetic may be useful. Monoaminomimietic actions of stimulants can include blockade of re-uptake of neurotransmitter, indirect release of neurotransmitter, direct activation of monoaminergic receptors. Many of the stimulants are amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives, including agents with abuse potential as recreational drugs. A number of agents are metabolized to amphetamine or metamphetamine. In addition to the monoaminomimetic agents, a small number of agents with different modes of action are on the list. A number of commonly used stimulants are not considered as Prohibited Substances. PMID:18500382

Docherty, J R

2008-01-01

148

PROGRAMMES DES LYCES MATHMATIQUES  

E-print Network

8 Le B.O. N°7 1ER SEPT. 2005 PROGRAMMES DES LYC�ES MATH�MATIQUES CLASSE TERMINALE - S�RIE LITT�RAIRE HORS-S�RIE Annexe #12;9Le B.O. N°7 1ER SEPT. 2005 PROGRAMMES DES LYC�ES MATH�MATIQUES CLASSE TERMINALE - S�RIE LITT�RAIRE HORS-S�RIE #12;10 Le B.O. N°7 1ER SEPT. 2005 PROGRAMMES DES LYC�ES

Menichi, Luc

149

Galaxy clusters in DES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters are one of the four key cosmic acceleration probes used by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to measure cosmological parameters with unprecedented precision. DES has recently completed commissioning of its instrument and accomplished a successful science verification data taking phase. The survey proper started in Aug 31, 2013. In this talk, I review the motivation for using clusters of galaxies in cosmology, discuss the DES expected performance and present the prospects to improve our understanding of dark energy by constraining cosmological models using galaxy clusters found by the Voronoi Tesselation galaxy cluster finding algorithm. We show results of our galaxy cluster analysis based on the early DES data sets.

Soares-Santos, Marcelle; DES Collaboration

2014-01-01

150

The prevention of stimulant misuse.  

PubMed

The term 'stimulant' refers to a class of drugs that increase psychophysiological arousal. From the viewpoint of prevention, it is more useful to look primarily at the social consequences and functions of stimulants. Every society has a documented use of stimulants. When planning interventions the dynamics of use must be placed in the foreground. Stimulant epidemics, like problematic stimulant users, have a natural tendency to burn themselves out. Different types of stimulants may differ in their origins, but their epidemiological consequences and use functions tend to be similar. Implications for prevention can be drawn from the characteristics of stimulant use epidemics. Users at risk for socially unacceptable patterns should be targeted for prevention efforts. Mass media campaigns that single out stimulants should be avoided. Much of the harm associated with stimulants is a consequence of life-styles characterized by polydrug use and unhealthy practices. Prevention should be timed to the appropriate period of the epidemic. Interventions useful at period 1 will not work at period 2. The recommendations of the WHO Advisory Group on the Adverse Effects of Cocaine and Coca provide a good model for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention for all forms of stimulant misuse. Stimulant prevention must be creative in finding ways of encouraging the movements of the drug to the periphery of users' lives. PMID:7841865

Kaplan, C D; Husch, J A; Bieleman, B

1994-11-01

151

Geothermal well stimulation  

SciTech Connect

All available data on proppants and fluids were examined to determine areas in technology that need development for 300 to 500/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/ to 265/sup 0/C) hydrothermal wells. While fluid properties have been examined well into the 450/sup 0/F range, proppants have not been previously tested at elevated temperatures except in a few instances. The latest test data at geothermal temperatures is presented and some possible proppants and fluid systems that can be used are shown. Also discussed are alternative stimulation techniques for geothermal wells.

Sinclair, A.R.; Pittard, F.J.; Hanold, R.J.

1980-01-01

152

Antiarrhythmic Actions of Amiodarone: A Profile of a Paradoxical Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amiodarone, a complex compound with variegated electropharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties and an equally complex side-effect profile, continues to have a critical role in the control of ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias as the use of class I agents has declined. Such is also the case with sotalol. Unlike other so-called class III agents, amiodarone non-competitively blocks sympathetic stimulation, and its effects

Bramah N Singh

1996-01-01

153

Die Behandlung des tachykarden Vorhofflimmerns durch kathetergestützte elektrische Stimulation des kardialen parasympathischen Nervensystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Treatment of tachycardic atrial fibrillation (AF) is difficult in patients with congestive heart failure because many drugs which exert negative dromotropic effects (beta-blockers, calcium channel antagonists) may depress ventricular contractility and\\/or decrease arterial blood pressure. We have identified 2 intravascular sites in the superior (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC) where parasympathetic nerves, which innervate the atrioventricular node, can

P. Schauerte; B. J. Scherlag

2000-01-01

154

Vestibular Stimulation Attenuates Unrealistic Optimism RUNNING HEAD: Vestibular Stimulation and Optimism  

E-print Network

1 Vestibular Stimulation Attenuates Unrealistic Optimism RUNNING HEAD: Vestibular Stimulation. Moreover, anosognosia is temporarily abolished by vestibular stimulation, particularly by irrigation vestibular stimulation of both ears in succession. During each stimulation episode, and at baseline

Royal Holloway, University of London

155

Riot Control Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged exposure, ... an enclosed area, may lead to long-term effects such as eye problems including scarring, glaucoma, and ...

156

Health care agents  

MedlinePLUS

... do not have a living will or an advanced directive, your health care agent will be the one ... organs, unless you've stated otherwise in your advance directive Before you choose a health care agent, you ...

157

Contrast agent for radiography  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A lanthanide phosphate provides a contrast agent useful in radiographic contrast compositions and surgical elements. Radiographic imaging methods which employ this contrast agent and methods of making lanthanide phosphate-containing radiographic contrast compositions are also disclosed.

1982-01-12

158

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

159

Biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military\\u000a or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical\\u000a aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological\\u000a warfare agents and epidemiology of

Miroslav Pohanka; Kamil Ku?a

160

LA GESTION DES RESULTATS COMPTABLES LORS DES FUSIONS  

E-print Network

in the year preceding the takeover. Key Words: Earnings management; Mergers and Acquisitions; InternationalLA GESTION DES RESULTATS COMPTABLES LORS DES FUSIONS ET ACQUISITIONS: UNE ANALYSE DANS LE CONTEXTE des résultats comptables lors des fusions et acquisitions: Une analyse dans le contexte Suisse Résumé

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

MIGRATION DES JOINTS DE GRAINS LA MIGRATION DES JOINTS INTERGRANULAIRES  

E-print Network

MIGRATION DES JOINTS DE GRAINS LA MIGRATION DES JOINTS INTERGRANULAIRES O. DIMITROV Centre d nombre de faits fondamentaux concernant la migration des joints de grains sont brièvement rappelés considérant les forces qui provoquent ou qui freinent la migration. L'évolution des modèles proposés pour

Boyer, Edmond

162

Elimination des noeuds dans le probleme newtonien des quatre corps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Nous appliquons la méthode des transformations canoniques à variables imposées à la réduction du problème newtonien des quatre corps. L'élimination du centre de gravité étant supposée faite, le problème est ramené à celui des trois corps fictifs. Alors nous menons à bien la réduction dûe aux intégrales des aires explicitement sous forme Hamiltonienne en tenant compte de l'aspect géométrique

Françoise Boigey; M. Curie

1982-01-01

163

Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de communication  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de communication Plans de cours cadre Cours des programmes de premier cycle en sciences de la communication Comité des études de premier cycle Adopté par l..................................................................................................................................3 COM 1150 Rédaction en communication 1

Parrott, Lael

164

APP: AGENT PLANNING PACKAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

C† Abstract. Nowadays, a large number of planning systems exist. The majority of them are either applicable only to specific domains (domain dependent) or support only plan generation, but not plan execution and supervision. This paper presents Agent Planning Package (APP), a new domain independent planner which facilitates the creation of intelligent agents. Through the use of APP, agents can

S RADOVANOVI ´ C

165

APP: Agent Planning Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Nowadays, a large number of planning systems exist. The majority of them are either applicable only to specific domains (domain dependent) or support only plan gener- ation, but not plan execution and supervision. This paper presents Agent Planning Package (APP), a new domain independent planner which facilitates the creation of intelligent agents. Through the use of APP, agents can

Sasa Tosi; Milos Radovanovi; Mirjana Ivanovic

166

BIOLOGICAL AND SYNTHETIC AGENTS  

E-print Network

#12;INSECT CONTROL BIOLOGICAL AND SYNTHETIC AGENTS #12;This page intentionally left blank #12;INSECT CONTROL BIOLOGICAL AND SYNTHETIC AGENTS EDITED BY LAWRENCE I. GILBERT SARJEET S. GILL Amsterdam://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions). Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Insect control : biological and synthetic agents

Hammock, Bruce D.

167

Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Scarrow, Robert C. (Minneapolis, MN); White, David L. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01

168

Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents  

SciTech Connect

Chelating agents are disclosed having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

Raymond, K.N.; Scarrow, R.C.; White, D.L.

1987-10-06

169

MOBILE AGENTS AND SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a software agent can suspend its execution on a host computer, transfer itself to another agent-enabled host on the network, and resume execution on the new host. The use of mobile code has a long history dating back to the use of remote job entry systems in the 1960's. Today's

W. A. Jansen

1999-01-01

170

Artificial Intelligence Intelligent Agents  

E-print Network

-agents" ? #12;Agents and Environments · The agent function maps from percept histories to actions: [f: P* A, customers ­ Actuators: Steering wheel, accelerator, brake, signal, horn ­ Sensors: Cameras, sonar · Actuators: Screen display (questions, tests, diagnoses, treatments, referrals) · Sensors: Keyboard (entry

Voris, Jonathan

171

Whole Body Cleansing Agent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject invention relates to a human cleansing agent particularly suitable for use in long duration spaceflight and a method of bathing with the agent. The agent of the subject invention is in the form of a paste having a pH of 5.0 to 7.9 which compri...

S. E. Lentsch

1990-01-01

172

Vincent Manet Mthode des  

E-print Network

Vincent Manet Méthode des éléments finis Vulgarisation des aspects mathématiques et illustration de la méthode Version 3 du 20 août 2013 cel-00763690,version3-22Aug2013 #12;Vincent Manet -- 2013 (Ceci

173

Agents modeling agents in information economies  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

174

Deep Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have identified an association between memory deficits and defects of the integrated neuronal cortical areas known collectively as the default mode network. It is conceivable that the amyloid deposition or other molecular abnormalities seen in patients with Alzheimer’s disease may interfere with this network and disrupt neuronal circuits beyond the localized brain areas. Therefore, Alzheimer’s disease may be both a degenerative disease and a broader system-level disorder affecting integrated neuronal pathways involved in memory. In this paper, we describe the rationale and provide some evidence to support the study of deep brain stimulation of the hippocampal fornix as a novel treatment to improve neuronal circuitry within these integrated networks and thereby sustain memory function in early Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23346514

Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Pendergrass, Jo Cara; Lozano, Andres M.

2012-01-01

175

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-print Network

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01

176

The onset of polymorphonuclear leucocyte membrane-stimulated metabolic activity.  

PubMed Central

The time course of polymorphonuclear leucocyte oxidative metabolism following membrane stimulation by four different agents was examined using the techniques of luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. After addition of opsonized zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate or digitonin to polymorphonuclear leucocytes there was a lag period of between 35 and 55 sec before the onset of chemiluminiscence. In contrast, after addition of the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), the lag period before chemiluminescence was less than 19 sec. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was reduced by superoxide dismutase and almost abolished by sodium azide. The inhibitory effect of the latter was less marked when using FMLP. Lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and enhanced by sodium azide. Cytochalasin B reduced zymosan and digitonin stimulated chemiluminescence but increased FMLP stimulated chemiluminescence. The results of the onset of polymorphonuclear leucocyte metabolic activity using other techniques. PMID:7275176

Williams, A J; Cole, P J

1981-01-01

177

IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents!  

E-print Network

IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents! Individuals who do not have a full team a "Free Agent". Within the UNLV Intramural Sports program there are multiple ways to improve a Free Agent will not force any team to accept a Free Agent participant. History and research has shown that Free Agents

Hemmers, Oliver

178

Effect of different prokinetic agents and a novel enterokinetic agent on postoperative ileus in rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIM—The effects of different prokinetic agents, the motilide erythromycin and the substituted benzamides metoclopramide and cisapride, were investigated in a rat model of postoperative ileus. These effects were compared with that of granisetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, and a novel enterokinetic agent, prucalopride, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist.?METHODS—Different degrees of inhibition of gastrointestinal transit, measured by the migration of Evans blue, were achieved by skin incision, laparotomy, or laparotomy plus mechanical stimulation of the gut.?RESULTS—Metoclopramide decreased the transit after laparotomy with or without mechanical stimulation, whereas cisapride increased it after all three operations. Granisetron had no effect on the transit after the three operations when given alone. Prucalopride tended to increase the transit after laparotomy with or without mechanical stimulation when given alone. However, statistical significance was only reached when prucalopride was combined with granisetron. Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, did not improve postoperative ileus in the rat.?CONCLUSIONS—Cisapride, but not metoclopramide or erythromycin, is able to improve postoperative ileus in the rat. The results suggest that a combination of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and 5-HT4 receptor agonist properties may be required to obtain a beneficial effect on surgery induced ileus in the rat. Furthermore, they indirectly indicate that stimulation of the excitatory mechanisms is not able to overcome the inhibitory influence of the neural reflex pathways activated during abdominal surgery.???Keywords: ileus; motilin; cisapride; metoclopramide; 5-HT3 receptor; 5-HT4 receptor PMID:10517907

De Winter, B Y; Boeckxstaens, G; De Man, J G; Moreels, T; Schuurkes, J; Peeters, T; Herman, A; Pelckmans, P

1999-01-01

179

Dmographie Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

� sera maintenue). Professeur: LACHAUD, James Courriel: james.lachaud@umontreal.ca Local: C-5031'analyse explicative: les causes et cons�quences des ph�nom�nes. Le cours ciblera les r�gressions lin�aires et non-lin

Parrott, Lael

180

Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"?  

PubMed Central

Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

2013-01-01

181

Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

2007-01-01

182

Subliminal Stimulation: Hoax or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subliminal stimulation is defined as that which is perceived by an individual below the threshold of awareness or cognizance. This article traces the history of research in subliminal stimulation to illustrate that under certain circumstances and conditions, this behavioral phenomenon does occur. Although subliminal stimuli do affect human…

Trank, Douglas M.

183

Miniature stimulator for chronic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small lightweight pulse train generator is described. Train frequency and duration and pulse frequency and duration are continuously variable over a range that is suitable for many types of nerve stimulation experiments. Complete electrical specifications and schematics are shown. Also presented are the changes in contraction time of the cat hind leg muscles after 6-week chronic stimulation of the

David M. Smith

1978-01-01

184

Electrical stimulation for propelling endoscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Methods are needed for propulsion of endoscopes and wireless video capsules along the small intestine. This work aims to test the hypothesis that electrical stimulation could propel an endoscope by stimulating muscular contraction. Methods: Prototype acrylic ovoid-shaped devices were constructed with 2 stainless steel electrodes mounted on the tapered section. Five devices 15 to 23 mm diameter with a

C. Alexander Mosse; Timothy N. Mills; Mark N. Appleyard; Srinathan S. Kadirkamanathan; C. Paul Swain

2001-01-01

185

Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Experimental Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysregulation characterized by a sustained increase of sympathetic drive and by withdrawal of parasympathetic activity. Sympathetic overdrive and increased heart rate are predictors of poor long-term outcome in patients with HF. Considerable evidence exists that supports the use of pharmacologic agents that partially inhibit sympathetic activity as effective long-term therapy for patients with HF; the classic example is the wide use of selective and non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. In contrast, modulation of parasympathetic activation as potential therapy for HF has received only limited attention over the years given its complex cardiovascular effects. In this article, we review results of recent experimental animal studies that provide support for the possible use of electrical Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as a long-term therapy for the treatment of chronic HF. In addition to exploring the effects of chronic VNS on left ventricular (LV) function, the review will also address the effects of VNS on potential modifiers of the HF state that include cytokine production and nitric oxide elaboration. Finally, we will briefly review other nerve stimulation approaches also currently under investigation as potential therapeutic modalities for treating chronic HF. PMID:21128115

Sabbah, Hani N.; Ilsar, Itamar; Zaretsky, Asaph; Rastogi, Sharad; Wang, Mengjun; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2013-01-01

186

The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

2011-01-01

187

Raft River well stimulation experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. The first well stimulation experiment, performed on Well RRGP-4, used the Kiel dendritic fracturing process. A 200-foot vertical fracture was created at the wellbore. Post-stimulation production data indicate that the Well RRGP-4 productivity was improved, but not to the hoped-for level of other wells in the field. The second well stimulation experiment, performed on Well RRGP-5, was a conventional massive hydraulic fracture treatment. A new vertical fracture of 140+ feet was created. Production tests suggested that the hydraulically created fracture intersected natural fractures very near the wellbore or intersected leg A. Although the final well production rates were not as high as desired, the field experiments were technically successful in creating the artifical hydraulic fractures planned and have contributed significantly to the development of geothermal well stimulation technology.

Morris, C.W.; Verity, R.V.; Sinclair, A.R.

1980-09-01

188

Agent Architectures for Compliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

189

APP: Agent Planning Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nowadays, a large number of planning systems exist. The majority of them are either applicable only to specific domains (domain\\u000a dependent) or support only plan generation, but not plan execution and supervision. This paper presents Agent Planning Package\\u000a (APP), a new domain independent planner which facilitates the creation of intelligent agents. Through the use of APP, agents\\u000a can generate plans

Saša Toši?; Miloš Radovanovi?; Mirjana Ivanovi?

190

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

The “Featured Agents” portion of the DCTD Website provides information for researchers involved in drug discovery and development. Any public preclinical and clinical data that DCTD has on a particular agent are presented here. New agents will be added periodically to the current list. DCTD Website visitors may subscribe to the Listserv on this page to be notified when additions to the list are made.

191

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

DNA damaging agents are among the most successful treatments for cancer. The enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (abbreviated PARP) can facilitate repair of DNA damage caused by insult from chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Increased PARP activity is associated with survival of some cancer cells. ABT-888, an orally bioavailable PARP-inhibitor developed by Abbott Laboratories, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of DNA-damaging agents and radiation in preclinical models. Further development of this compound is ongoing.

192

Healthcare Agents: Being One  

MedlinePLUS

Planning Ahead > Advance Directives Advance Directives Download Your State's Advance Directives What are Advance Directives? Healthcare Agents: Four Quick Steps to Naming Someone to Speak4me Healthcare ...

193

Interactive agent generated architecture  

E-print Network

The thesis explores architectural form generation through two behavior based artificial intelligence approaches: the communication of agents in an unpredictable simulation system, and the codification of information within ...

Krause, Jeffrey Charles Stanley

1996-01-01

194

Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators

D. R. Vincent; W. S. Bradshaw; G. M. Booth; R. E. Seegmiller; S. D. Allen

1992-01-01

195

Indépendance des banques centrales, politiques monétaire et budgétaire : une approche stratégique  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Le thème de l'indépendance de la Banque centrale a reçu récemment une attention importante, tant dans la littérature théorique que dans le débat public. Celle-ci empêcherait les gouvernements de pratiquer des politiques économiques trop expansionnistes, qui, intégrées dans les anticipations des agents, sont impuissantes à soutenir l'activité et ne font qu'engendrer de l'inflation. Elle crédibiliserait la volonté de l'Etat

Henri Sterdyniak; Fabrice Capoen

1994-01-01

196

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma juin 2013 1 / 16  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma juin 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma juin 2013 2 / 16 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE

Cerf, Nicolas

197

PROCDURE DE DCLARATION DES ACCIDENTS, DES INCIDENTS ET DES SITUATIONS DANGEREUSES EN MILIEU DE TRAVAIL Novembre 2013  

E-print Network

PROC�DURE DE D�CLARATION DES ACCIDENTS, DES INCIDENTS ET DES SITUATIONS DANGEREUSES EN MILIEU DE de déclaration des accidents, des incidents et des situations dangereuses en milieu de travail. Ce, tout accident ou incident doit faire l'objet d'une déclaration officielle auprès de l'employeur. Selon

Meunier, Michel

198

INTRODUCTION Dans le cadre des facilites offertes aux utilisateurs des ressources Unix du CC In2p3 il a t  

E-print Network

du CC In2p3 il a été décidé d'ouvrir un service de courrier accessible a partir des machines d: Mail User Agent. C'est le logiciel qui permet de lire ou d'envoyer du courrier (ie: pine, elm) . MTA: Mail Transport Agent. C'est le logiciel qui permet au courrier d'être transférer d'une machine a une

199

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOEpatents

A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

200

Discoveries Change Agents  

E-print Network

Discoveries Change Agents A new kind of researcher moves from practice to research to policy) "is to graduate `change agents' who are able to bridge the worlds of research and academia, clinical in this area presently." That situation is changing because of the Scholars in HeAlth Research Program (SHARP

Shihadeh, Alan

201

Change Agent Survival Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

Dunbar, Folwell L.

2011-01-01

202

Delegating to software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is currently a great deal of interest in the development of intelligent agents. While there is little agreement on exactly what constitutes an intelligent agent, many definitions embody a user interface model that differs from the traditional one where users perform tasks with the help of computer-based \\

Allen E. Milewski; Steven H. Lewis

1997-01-01

203

Measuring Software Agent's Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a methodology to test agent's intelligence using the general intelligence factor (factor g) and the theory of multiple intelligence in humans. The method presented is also based on the evolutionary theory and deals with knowledge as a kind of stored intelligence. A set of tests assess the multiple intelligences of the agents analyzing their behavior and performance

Dino Franklin; Ana Abrao

204

Etiological agents of diarrhoea.  

PubMed

Two decades of research have established newer pathogens and techniques in establishing several organisms of diarrhoeal diseases as aetiological agents. It is now possible to detect an agent in 80% of the situation of diarrhoea in a standard laboratory. The brief review describes the list of pathogens, their diagnostic techniques with short description on clinical and epidemiological status. PMID:2101388

Ghosh, A R; Paul, M; Pal, S C; Sen, D

1990-01-01

205

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Featured Agents Agents NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) Program Drug Development Primer FDA-Approved Cancer Drugs DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis Program Cancer

206

Agent-Based Computing and Programming of Agent Systems  

E-print Network

, drawing on the recently-published AgentLink III Roadmap of Agent Based Computing Technologies. 1, and addressing these challenges will be crucial for the development of agent technologies. We discuss Introduction Since Shoham's seminal paper [14] on agent-oriented programming in 1993, pro- gramming of agent

Luck, Michael

207

Agent-based Computing and Programming of Agent Systems  

E-print Network

, drawing on the recently-published AgentLink III Roadmap of Agent Based Computing Technologies. 1, and addressing these challenges will be crucial for the development of agent technologies. We discuss Introduction Since Shoham's seminal paper [14] on agent-oriented programming in 1993, pro- gramming of agent

McBurney, Peter

208

Pediatric Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

2009-01-01

209

How do agents represent?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

Ryan, Alex

210

Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns  

ScienceCinema

Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

2014-08-06

211

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

Powerpoint sont en anglais tandis que je parle surtout en fran�ais et la plupart des discussions en classe se �tudiants devront pr�parer des diapositives en utilisant le logiciel PowerPoint. Les �tudiants doivent donc l'enseignement du fonctionnement des logiciels tels que PowerPoint, QuarkXPress, InDesign ou autre

Parrott, Lael

212

SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER  

E-print Network

, clandestine immigrants, piracy, toxic waste pollution, accidents, etc.). Key words: Maritime border security1 SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER ScanMaris Michel MOREL (DCNS), Aldo produits illicites, l'immigration clandestine, la sur exploitation des ressources halieutiques, les

Boyer, Edmond

213

La modelisation mathematique des plasmas au service des technologies spatiales  

E-print Network

1 La mod�elisation math�ematique des plasmas au service des technologies spatiales C. Besse (1) P'activit�e solaire sur l'environnement terrestre . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3 Qu'est ce qu'un plasma.3.2 Plasmas froids et plasmas chauds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3.3 Autres aspects des

Vignal, Marie-Hélène

214

Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER  

E-print Network

Qualité des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et déchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le développement important de la méthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'être avec des digestats ou non. Les quantités de compost produit ne cessent d

Boyer, Edmond

215

Brain stimulation and conscious experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libet discovered that a substantial duration (>0.5–1.0s) of direct electrical stimulation of the surface of the somatosensory cortex at threshold currents is required before human subjects can report that a conscious somatosensory experience had occurred. Using a reaction time method we confirm that a similarly long stimulation duration at threshold currents is required for activation of elementary visual experiences (phosphenes)

Daniel A. Pollen

2004-01-01

216

Electrical stimulation of beef carcasses  

E-print Network

- ulation to determine +he various voltages, durations of s+imulation and sites in the slaughter-dressing sequence effect of' quality, palatability and muscle characteristics of' young and mature beef. Elec+rical stimulation parameters for all three.... . ion, (2) ES, a. fter split- ting, of sides and (3) untreated controls, uusplit carcasses or sides. Electrically stimulated carcasses had mor youth- ful, orighter -cclcred longiss mus muscles then control car- casses. Sides from ES carcasses...

McKeith, Floyd Kenneth

2012-06-07

217

The DES Story: Lessons Learned  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Robert Hoover discusses the DES followup study, which follows diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposed and unexposed mothers, daughters and sons, and granddaughters for adverse health effects resulting from this exposure.

218

Agents on the Web Philosophical  

E-print Network

Agents on the Web Philosophical Agents T he improvements in Internet-based software agents software agents? We think it will be reasonable to endow agents with a phi- losophy. Then, by understanding. As they become longer, more complicated, and farther away, the software systems controlling them

Huhns, Michael N.

219

Des conflits toutes les chelles  

E-print Network

Des conflits à toutes les échelles Des conflits à toutes les échelles La ressource en eau se raréfie et la demande s'accroît. Cette situation peut être source de tensions ou raviver des conflits déjà ayant droits d'amont et ceux d'aval, - différends entre deux rives d'un même canal, - conflits entre des

220

Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefäße, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drüsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhöht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

H. Kreitmair

1927-01-01

221

SYNTHSE DES RUNS AVEC RAPPEL  

E-print Network

SYNTH�SE DES RUNS ORCA05 AVEC RAPPEL Octobre 2009 Patrice Bellec et Thierry Huck Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (UMR 6523 CNRS IFREMER IRD UBO) #12;Sommaire DESCRIPTION DES RUNS ORCA05 ........................................................................................3 ORCA05-BPB14 : run libre de 1958 à 2008

Huck, Thierry

222

NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA  

E-print Network

NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA PAR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE M. CATSARAS J. ANANI Laboratoire Salmonella, 366 prélèvements, dans 125 boucheries, pour lesquels nous avons comparé les techniques d, dus à des coliformes. Ses avantages et ses inconvénients pour la recherche des Salmonella sont

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Dioxin, agent orange  

SciTech Connect

This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

Gough, M.

1986-01-01

224

An Implantable Neural Stimulator for Intraspinal MicroStimulation  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on a wireless stimulator device for use in animal experiments as part of an ongoing investigation into intraspinal stimulation (ISMS) for restoration of walking in humans with spinal cord injury. The principle behind using ISMS is the activation of residual motor-control neural networks within the spinal cord ventral horn below the level of lesion following a spinal cord injury. The attractiveness to this technique is that a small number of electrodes can be used to induce bilateral walking patterns in the lower limbs. In combination with advanced feedback algorithms, ISMS has the potential to restore walking for distances that exceed that produced by other types of functional electrical stimulation. Recent acute animal experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of using ISMS to produce the coordinated walking patterns. Here we described a wireless implantable stimulation system to be used in chronic animal experiments and for providing the basis for a system suitable for use in humans. Electrical operation of the wireless system is described, including a demonstration of reverse telemetry for monitoring the stimulating electrode voltages. PMID:23366038

Troyk, Philip R.; Mushahwar, Vivian K.; Stein, Richard B.; Suh, Sungjae; Everaert, Dirk; Holinski, Brad; Hu, Zhe; DeMichele, Glenn; Kerns, Douglas; Kayvani, Kevin

2013-01-01

225

Une charte pour scuriser la pratique des stages charte des stages des tudiants en entreprise  

E-print Network

Une charte pour sécuriser la pratique des stages charte des stages des étudiants en entreprise Le 26 avril 2006, une charte, dont l'objectif est de sécuriser la pratique des stages, a été conclue parcours pédagogique. Un stage ne peut être considéré comme un emploi. Cette charte, rédigée par les

Di Girolami, Cristina

226

Historic Des Moines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The early 20th century was a bustling time for many cities in the Midwest, and Des Moines was no exception. During this time, the city added streetcars, built many new public schools, and welcomed thousands of new residents. This digital collection from Drake University's Cowles Library offers hundreds of images of the city from 1904 through 1914. First-time visitors should read the introductory essay by John Zeller titled "From the Real to the Ideal; Images of Des Moines in the Progressive Era." After reading this piece, visitors will have a sense of the historical context of the images in the archive and Des Moines's history during this period. Visitors can browse at their leisure, and they can also use the interactive map to wander virtually around the city. Visitors should use the map to look at some of the wonderful homes around Union Park, including the L. Aulmann residence at 1712 Pennsylvania Avenue.

2012-02-24

227

Agent and environment  

E-print Network

This paper is about how agents learn. There is a picture of learning that is very influential in epistemology; I call it 'the Classical Picture'. As influential as it is, it is a flawed picture of learning, and epistemology ...

Rochford, Damien (Damien Joseph)

2013-01-01

228

Agent oriented programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

Shoham, Yoav

1994-01-01

229

Instructable Autonomous Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial...

S. B. Huffman

1994-01-01

230

Motion sickness: a cholinomimetic agent hypothesis.  

PubMed

Motion sickness has been defined as a set of physiological signs and symptoms produced as a result of prolonged sensory conflict in central nervous system vestibular centers. It has long been noted that the particular pattern of motion sickness signs and symptoms does not fit the conventional "fight or flight vs. rest and digest" autonomic synergy. We argue that most of the progression of symptoms is consistent with a new etiologic hypothesis: that an as-yet-unidentified ganglionic cholinomimetic agent is slowly released in proportion to sensory conflict. The agent accumulates systemically and stimulates the peripheral sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, the adrenal medulla, and potentiates the response of central cholinergic emetic pathways to the same conflict stimulus. The predominant effects of ganglionic stimulation on each autonomic organ, determined by resting tone, are selectively enhanced or inhibited by adrenal catecholamine release, producing the atypical pattern of autonomic changes seen in motion sickness. The adrenergic response may eventually also counter the central emetic drive. The hypothesis could be experimentally pursued via human and animal experiments employing a nicotinic antagonist that has both central and peripheral ganglionic actions such as mecamylamine. PMID:21846953

Sheehan, Scott E; Oman, Charles M; Duda, Kevin R

2011-01-01

231

Autonomy of Autonomous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomy is one of the most notable attributes of agency, and this paper presents a formal framework for modelling it. By\\u000a representing the mental states of agents, we provide an analysis of some attributes of autonomy. In particular, we define\\u000a three sorts of autonomous agents and examine their structure. We also outline features of higher autonomy. Our framework can\\u000a be

Dongmo Zhang; Norman Y. Foo

2000-01-01

232

Chemopreventive Agent Development  

Cancer.gov

This group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The focus is to identify and develop agents with the potential to help detect, block, reverse, or delay early stages of cancer. Preclinical studies evaluate potential new drugs and combinations in model systems using emergent knowledge of genetic and biochemical mechanisms, while early phase trials emphasize pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety.

233

Agent amplified communication  

SciTech Connect

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1996-12-31

234

Laser stimulation for pain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pain is a serious medical problem; it inflicts huge economic loss and personal suffering. Pain signals are conducted via small, non- and partially myelinated A-delta and C nerve fibers and lasers are particularly well suited to stimulating these fibers. Large myelinated fibers convey touch and vibration information and these fibers are also discharged when contact thermodes and other touch pain stimuli are used and this would give a more muddled signal for functional imaging experiments. The advantages of lasers over conventional methods of pain stimulation are good temporal resolution, no variable parameters are involved such as contact area and they give very reproducible results. Accurate inter-stimulus changes can be achieved by computer control of the laser pulse duration, pulse height and repetition rate and this flexibility enables complex stimulation paradigms to be realized. We present a flexible carbon dioxide laser system designed to generate these stimuli for the study of human cerebral pain responses. We discuss the advantages within research of this system over other methods of pain stimulation such as thermal, electrical and magnetic. The stimulator is used in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and electrophysiological methods of imaging the brain's activity. This combination is a powerful tool for the study of pain-induced activity in different areas of the brain. An accurate understanding of the brain's response to pain will help in research into the areas of rheumatoid arthritis and chronic back pain.

Clark, Stuart; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.; Jones, Anthony; Chen, Andrew; Derbyshire, Stuart; Townsend, D. W.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Mintun, M. A.; Nichols, T.

1996-01-01

235

Deep brain stimulation: new techniques.  

PubMed

The technology of the hardware used in deep brain stimulation (DBS), and the mode of delivering the stimulation have not significantly evolved since the start of the modern era of DBS 25 years ago. However, new technology is now being developed along several avenues. New features of the implantable pulse generator (IPG) allow fractionation of the electric current into variable proportions between different contacts of the multi-polar lead. Another design consists in leads that allow selective current steering from directionally placed electrode contacts that would deliver the stimulation in a specific direction or even create a directional shaped electric field that would conform to the anatomy of the brain target aimed at, avoiding adjacent structures, and thus avoiding side effects. Closed loop adaptive stimulation technologies are being developed, allowing a tracking of the pathological local field potential of the brain target, and delivering automatically the stimulation to suppress the pathological activity as soon as it is detected and for as long as needed. This feature may contribute to a DBS therapy "on demand", instead of continuously. Finally, advances in imaging technology are providing "new" brain targets, and increasingly allowing DBS to be performed accurately while avoiding the risks of microelectrode recording. PMID:24262179

Hariz, Marwan

2014-01-01

236

Electrical brain stimulation for epilepsy.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation enables adjustable and reversible modulation of disease symptoms, including those of epilepsy. Two types of brain neuromodulation, comprising anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation and responsive neurostimulation at seizure foci, are supported by Class I evidence of effectiveness, and many other sites in the brain have been targeted in small trials of neurostimulation therapy for seizures. Animal studies have mainly assisted in the identification of potential neurostimulation sites and parameters, but much of the clinical work is only loosely based on fundamental principles derived from the laboratory, and the mechanisms by which brain neurostimulation reduces seizures remain poorly understood. The benefits of stimulation tend to increase over time, with maximal effect seen typically 1-2 years after implantation. Typical reductions of seizure frequency are approximately 40% acutely, and 50-69% after several years. Seizure intensity might also be reduced. Complications from brain neurostimulation are mainly associated with the implantation procedure and hardware, including stimulation-related paraesthesias, stimulation-site infections, electrode mistargeting and, in some patients, triggered seizures or even status epilepticus. Further preclinical and clinical experience with brain stimulation surgery should lead to improved outcomes by increasing our understanding of the optimal surgical candidates, sites and parameters. PMID:24709892

Fisher, Robert S; Velasco, Ana Luisa

2014-05-01

237

Infrared Neural Stimulation of Thalamocortical Brain Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been well characterized in the peripheral nervous system, and has been shown to enable stimulation with high spatial precision and without causing the typical electrical stimulation artifact on the recording electrode. The next step in the development of INS is to demonstrate feasibility to stimulate neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS). Thalamocortical brain

Jonathan M. Cayce; Chris C. Kao; Jonathan D. Malphrus; Peter E. Konrad; Anita Mahadevan-Jansen; E. Duco Jansen

2010-01-01

238

Stimulation of Photophosphorylation and Cytochrome c Photooxidation by Pteridines 1  

PubMed Central

A number of pteridines were examined for activity in promoting photophosphorylation in broken spinach chloroplasts and in stimulating cytochrome c photooxidation in sonicated chloroplasts. Correlation was found between activities for the 2 reactions. Photophosphorylation promoted by pteridines was inhibited by DCMU and by anaerobic conditions. It is concluded that pteridines may stimulate photophosphorylation by linking photosystem 1 with molecular oxygen and thereby allowing noncyclic electron flow. Aromatic pteridines in both the 2,4-dihidroxy- and 2-amino-4-hydroxy-series were active; substitution at the 6 (or 7) position was a necessary but not sufficient condition for activity in both reactions. Reducing agents increased photophosphorylation activity of aromatic pteridines and an oxidant increased activity of a tetrahydropteridine. It is postulated that pteridines are most active in their semiquinone or unstable dihydro forms. PMID:5938184

Maclean, F. I.; Fujita, Y.; Forrest, H. S.; Myers, J.

1966-01-01

239

Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la résolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

Sauty, C.

240

Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception. Researchers have used single-pulse and repetitive TMS to stimulate the lip representation in the motor cortex. The excitability of the lip motor representation can be investigated by applying single TMS pulses over this cortical area and recording TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) via electrodes attached to the lip muscles (electromyography; EMG). Larger MEPs reflect increased cortical excitability. Studies have shown that excitability increases during listening to speech as well as during viewing speech-related movements. TMS can be used also to disrupt the lip motor representation. A 15-min train of low-frequency sub-threshold repetitive stimulation has been shown to suppress motor excitability for a further 15-20 min. This TMS-induced disruption of the motor lip representation impairs subsequent performance in demanding speech perception tasks and modulates auditory-cortex responses to speech sounds. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that the motor cortex contributes to speech perception. This article describes how to localize the lip representation in the motor cortex and how to define the appropriate stimulation intensity for carrying out both single-pulse and repetitive TMS experiments. PMID:24962266

Mottonen, Riikka; Rogers, Jack; Watkins, Kate E.

2014-01-01

241

Conservation des Textiles  

E-print Network

Conservation des Textiles Les 22 et 23 mai 2013 Soit 2 jours - 14 heures OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION essentielles dans la gestion de collections textiles, depuis leur identification jusqu'à leur conservation conservation d'éléments et de collections textiles, et toutes personnes travaillant dans le domaine du

Brest, Université de

242

Therapiestrategien des fortgeschrittenen Nierenkarzinoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Therapie des metastasierten Nierenkarzinoms hat in den letzten Jahren eine grundlegende Wandlung erfahren. Galt diese Entität früher als infaust und inoperabel, so gilt mittlerweile als gesichert, dass die Tumornephrektomie auch bei metastasierten Primärtumoren als urologisch-onkologischer Standard gilt, sofern im individuellen Fall vertretbar und technisch machbar. Auch die operative Entfernung von Metastasen, sofern eine komplette Resektion möglich ist, gilt als

M. Staehler; N. Haseke; G. Schöppler; T. Stadler; C. Adam; C. G. Stief

2006-01-01

243

The role of aromatase inhibitors in ameliorating deleterious effects of ovarian stimulation on outcome of infertility treatment  

PubMed Central

Clinical utilization of ovulation stimulation to facilitate the ability of a couple to conceive has not only provided a valuable therapeutic approach, but has also yielded extensive information on the physiology of ovarian follicular recruitment, endometrial receptivity and early embryo competency. One of the consequences of the use of fertility enhancing agents for ovarian stimulation has been the creation of a hyperestrogenic state, which may influence each of these parameters. Use of aromatase inhibitors reduces hyperestrogenism inevitably attained during ovarian stimulation. In addition, the adjunct use of aromatase inhibitors during ovarian stimulation reduces amount of gonadotropins required for optimum stimulation. The unique approach of reducing hyperestrogenism, as well as lowering amount of gonadotropins without affecting the number of mature ovarian follicles is an exciting strategy that could result in improvement in the treatment outcome by ameliorating the deleterious effects of the ovarian stimulation on follicular development, endometrial receptivity, as well as oocyte and embryo quality. PMID:16202169

Mitwally, Mohamed FM; Casper, Robert F; Diamond, Michael P

2005-01-01

244

Agent independent task planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

Davis, William S.

1990-01-01

245

Autonomous Interface Agents Henry Lieberman  

E-print Network

, autonomous agents, Web, browsing, search, learning. I NTRODUCT I ON The definition of an agent is the subjectAutonomous Interface Agents Henry Lieberman Media Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology in operating an interactive interface, and autonomous agents, software that takes action without user

246

Programmability of Intelligent Agent Avatars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an approach to the programmabil- ity of intelligent agent avatars, supported by the distributed logic programming language DLP. Intelligent agent avatars can be considered as one of the applications of web agents. As one of the testbeds of 3D web agents, we are developing and implementing soccer playing avatars. We discuss how the language DLP

Zhisheng Huang; Anton Eli; Cees Vissser

2001-01-01

247

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

248

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

249

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

250

Cooperation of Computational Intelligence Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a multi agent platform targeted toward the area of computational intelligence modeling is presented. We show the design of various computational agents creating multi agent systems, as well as the infrastructure capabilities. The focus of the system is the cooperation of agents, their interchangeability autonomous behavior, and emergence of new models. Two main areas of cooperation are

Roman Neruda

2006-01-01

251

Priming Frequencies of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over Wernicke's  

E-print Network

Priming Frequencies of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over Wernicke's Area Modulate Word in 14 healthy men. Frameless stereo- taxy was used to guide the transcranial magnetic stimulation coil stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, Wernicke's area Introduction Stimulation frequency is a major

Pallier, Christophe

252

Cardiac inotropes: current agents and future directions.  

PubMed

Intrinsic inotropic stimulation of the heart is central to the regulation of cardiovascular function, and exogenous inotropic therapies have been used clinically for decades. Unfortunately, current inotropic drugs have consistently failed to show beneficial effects beyond short-term haemodynamic improvement in patients with heart failure. To address these limitations, new agents targeting novel mechanisms are being developed: (i) istaroxime has been developed as a non-glycoside inhibitor of the sodium-potassium-ATPase with additional stimulatory effects on the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) and has shown lusitropic and inotropic properties in experimental and early clinical studies; (ii) from a mechanistic point of view, the cardiac myosin activators, directly activating the acto-myosin cross-bridges, are most appealing with improved cardiac performance in both animal and early clinical studies; (iii) gene therapy approaches have been successfully employed to increase myocardial SERCA2a; (iv) nitroxyl donors have been developed and have shown evidence of positive lusitropic and inotropic, as well as potent vasodilatory effects in early animal studies; (v) the ryanodine receptor stabilizers reduce pathological leak of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum with initial promising pre-clinical results; and finally, (vi) metabolic energy modulation may represent a promising means to improve contractile performance of the heart. There is an urgent clinical need for agents that improve cardiac performance with a favourable safety profile. These current novel approaches to improving cardiac function provide the hope that such agents may soon be available. PMID:21388993

Hasenfuss, Gerd; Teerlink, John R

2011-08-01

253

Salmonella as an Innovative Therapeutic Antitumor Agent  

PubMed Central

Lack of specificity of the therapeutic agent is a primary limitation in the treatment of a tumor. The use of preferentially replicating bacteria as therapeutic agents is an innovative approach to tumor treatment. This is based on the observation that certain obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria are capable of multiplying selectively in tumors and inhibiting their growth. Bacteria have been employed as antitumor agents that are capable of preferentially amplifying within tumors and inhibiting their growth. Moreover, bacteria-derived factors have an immune-stimulation effect. Therefore, bacteria are able to transfer therapeutic genes into the tumor cells using their infective ability. Herein, we introduce the application of bacteria for tumor therapy and focus on Salmonella, which have been widely used for tumor therapy. Salmonella have mainly been applied as gene-delivery vectors, antitumor immune activators and tumor cell death inducers. This study will not only evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella for the treatment of tumor but will also elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antitumor activities mediated by Salmonella, which involve host immune responses and cellular molecular responses. PMID:25196596

Chang, Wen-Wei; Lee, Che-Hsin

2014-01-01

254

Activities to Stimulate Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes sample vocational activities that stimulate critical thinking: (1) setting up an accounting system (business education); (2) developing a marketing plan (marketing education); (3) developing a fertilizer application plan (agricultural education); (4) making the best purchase (home economics); (5) planning a repair/remodeling project…

Haynes, Thomas B.; Schroeder, Connie

1989-01-01

255

Stimulating a Plant Developmental Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention takes advantage of the aforementioned natural plant developmental responses to reflected far-red (FR), the far-red/red (FR/R) ratio, and the quantity of reflected blue light to selectively stimulate a desired plant development response; and ...

M. J. Kasperbauer, P. G. Hunt, D. R. Decoteau

1990-01-01

256

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epileptic conditions are characterized by an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory influences at the cortical level. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a noninvasive evaluation of separate excitatory and inhibitory functions of the cerebral cortex. In addition, repetitive TMS (rTMS) can modulate the excitability of cortical networks. We review the different ways that TMS has been used to investigate pathophysiological

Carlo Alberto Tassinari; Massimo Cincotta; Gaetano Zaccara; Roberto Michelucci

2003-01-01

257

Electric Acoustic Stimulation in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The combined electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) of one ear is a topic that has received considerable attention over the last 10 years, the technique having originally been introduced by Prof. Christoph A. von Ilberg for so-called borderline adult cochlear implant (CI) candidates. Its development has followed several parallel strands, including the modification of existing surgical approaches and the use

Henryk Skarzynski; Artur Lorens

2010-01-01

258

A biomimetic retinal stimulating array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retinal prosthesis capable of restoring face recognition, reading, and mobility to blind patients is within the capability of microsystems technology. Electrode arrays can be made dense enough to be able to place thousands of pixels into the macula. Electrode materials can supply safe and effective stimulus current. This review examines some prior work in electrical stimulation of the retina

JAMES D. WEILAND; MARK S. HUMAYUN

2005-01-01

259

ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) at pilot scale. The pilot unit consisted of a conventional baghouse in parallel with an ESFF baghouse, allowing direct comparison. Reported results are for pulse-cl...

260

What agents can do in workflow management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workflow management systems are an emerging category of information systems, currently under dynamic evolution. On the other\\u000a hand software agents are a distinct research area as well as an emerging paradigm for information systems design and development.\\u000a This paper tries to examine the integration of these two fields; reveal the stimulation and the advantages of such a mixing.\\u000a Popular standards

Pavlos Delias; Anastasios D. Doulamis; Nikolaos F. Matsatsinis

2011-01-01

261

Designing Roles for Situated Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering non-trivial open multi-agent systems is a challeng- ing task. Our research focusses on situated multi-agent systems, i.e. systems in which agents are explicitly placed in an environment which agents can per- ceive and in which they can act. Situated agents do not use long-term planning to decide what action sequence should be executed, but select actions based on the

Elke Steegmans; Danny Weyns; Tom Holvoet; Yolande Berbers

2004-01-01

262

SELF-MOTIVATED AUTONOMOUSE AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our design of a behaviour-based control system for autonomous agents with accent on self-control and self-motivation aspects of the agent control. Agents could be represented by simulated agents - animates or by physical robots. The traditional agent behaviour is usually initialised by external signals and motivations. On the other side in the nature systems we

263

Apprendre dialoguer avec des lves : le cas des dialogues philosophiques  

E-print Network

.*, & Daniel, M.-F. (2009). Apprendre à dialoguer > avec des élèves : le cas des dialogues philosophiques Daniel Laboratoire P.A.E.D.I. Iufm d'Auvergne, JE2432 & Laboratoire de psychologie cognitive et clinique maître qu'aux élèves ? Du côté du maître, existe-t-il des gestes professionnels susceptibles d'amener

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Expos de synthse Etude immunochimique des molcules du CMH des  

E-print Network

Exposé de synthèse Etude immunochimique des molécules du CMH des bovins (BoLA) D. Levy, J'histocompatibilité - réunion scientifique - structure - fonction Bovine CMH (BoLA) molecules : immunochemical study major'histocom- patibilité (CMH) des bovins (BOLA) pré- sente un triple intérêt : - sur le plan économique, les bovins

Boyer, Edmond

265

charnues, des sauges, et des cosmos peine sor-  

E-print Network

°39 L'hebdo de l'�cole normale supérieure NOUVELLES DES SERVICES ELLES se nomment Lili Marlen, Queen'esprit de l'as- sidu du snack vers des nourritures moins terrestres, distraire le candidat au concours de des savoirs [cf. normale sup' info n°4] qui a pour vocation de mettre à la disposition de tous les

Gutkin, Boris

266

UNIVERSIT DE MONTRAL Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIT� DE MONTR�AL Faculté des arts et des sciences Département d'informatique et de recherche'étudiant :_____________________________________________________________ (en caractère d'imprimerie) Code permanent : ________________________________________ Programme : M.Sc. Maîtrise (2-175-1-0) Informatique Ph.D. Doctorat (3-175-1-0) Informatique Trimestre/Année du début des

Montréal, Université de

267

Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented.

Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

2004-02-01

268

Die Kommerzialisierung des Kinderfernsehens unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Merchandising.  

E-print Network

??Die vorliegende Arbeit thematisiert die Kommerzialisierungsentwicklungen im Kinderfernsehprogramm im deutschsprachigen Raum unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Praxis des Merchandising. Die Beobachtung, dass uns Figuren aus dem… (more)

Nigl, Andrea

2009-01-01

269

Les protéines des corps d'inclusion des Baculovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  La comparaison des granules ou des protéines de granules desBaculovirus dePieris brassicae, Pygaera anastomosis, Hyphantria cunea, Carpocapsa pomonella, Mythimna unipuncta, Mamestra oleracea a été entreprise par les techniques d'électrophorèse, d'agglutination, d'immunofluorescence et de précipitation en gel. L'électrophorèse\\u000a fait apparaître l'étroite ressemblance qui existe entre les protéines des six sortes de corps d'inclusion. L'analyse immunochimique\\u000a montre que chaque granule est bien

G. Croizier; G. Meynadier

1973-01-01

270

Die Theorie des Radikalen Konstruktivismus im Kommunikationsmodell des NLP.  

E-print Network

??Der Radikale Konstruktivismus setzt sich mit dem Verhältnis von Wissen und Wirklichkeit auseinander. In der Theorie des Radikalen Konstruktivismus ist die Wirklichkeit keine objektive Voraussetzung,… (more)

Brezna, Christa

2009-01-01

271

Stimulating parameters and de-synchronization in vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the stimulation parameters on the de-synchronization of small world Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neural network is numerically investigated in the vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy. The simulation shows that synchronization evolves into de-synchronization when a part of neurons (about 10 percent) is stimulated with a pulse current signal. The network de-synchronization appears to be sensitive to the stimulation parameters. For the case of the same stimulation intensity, those weakly coupled networks reach de-synchronization more easily than strongly coupled networks. There exist an optimal stimulation interval and period of continuous stimulation time when other stimulation parameters remain invariable.

Li, Y.-L.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Ma, J.; Feng, W.-J.

2008-02-01

272

Space Travel Agent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are in charge of creating a travel brochure to a planet in our solar system. Travel Agent for the Solar System Introduction You are in charge of the new ?Travel the Solar System? account at Universe Travel Agency.

Williams, Ms.

2010-11-29

273

Research Article Secret Agents  

E-print Network

& Baillargeon, 2000; Leslie & Keeble, 1987) and reasoning about intentional agents in terms of their goals of causal force, the source of motion or change, in an interaction (Leslie, 1994). Adults both distinguish and patient in simple, fully visible inter- actions by 7 to 10 months of age (Leslie, 1984; Leslie & Keeble

Gabrieli, John

274

Agent Amplified Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for informa- tion gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on expertise location within a large organization. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an or- ganization are used to \\

Henry A. Kautz; Bart Selman; Al Milewski

1996-01-01

275

Programmation des activits pdagogiques  

E-print Network

Programmation des activités pédagogiques B.Sc. Biochimie de la santé Version 9 S'adresse aux 411 *Enzymologie de la cellule humaine (BCM 318).....................2 BCM 420 *Bio-informatique (BCL dans le programme. 22 mai 2014 Activités pédagogiques à option (16 crédits) Automne CHM 400 Biochimie

Spino, Claude

276

DOE Geothermal well stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

An effective stimulation treatment requires the interaction of four separate items: frac fluids, proppants, equipment, and planned and properly engineered schedules. While there are good fluid systems and proppants, only judicious combinations and a well thought out schedule which uses all of these materials and available equipment to best advantage is an optimum stimulation treatment. Generally, high flow rates and convective cooling can be used either with conventional (planar) fracturing or with a dendritic fracturing technique. Many of todays fluid systems have been tested to above 400/sup 0/F. Some fluids have survived quite well. Current tests on proppants have shown temperature sensitivities in sand; however, there are resin coated materials and sintered bauxite which are not temperature sensitive. (MHR)

Hanold, R.J.; Campbell, D.A.; Sinclair, A.R.

1980-10-20

277

Using Questions To Stimulate Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article states that research shows 93% of teacher questions are focusing on recall of facts and that type of questioning does not stimulate the mathematical thinking of students who are engaged in open ended investigations. To improve the quality of teacher questioning techniques, the author suggests dividing questions into four main categories: starter questions, questions to stimulate mathematical thinking, assessment questions and final discussion questions and then to follow with a rigorous question. A link to an addendum to the article provides a table of generic questions that can be used by teachers to guide children through a mathematical investigation, and at the same time prompt higher order thinking, as espoused by Bloom and others.

Way, Jenni

2001-10-01

278

Update on deep brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a commonly used neurosurgical form of therapeutic brain stimulation that has been demonstrated to be safe, well tolerated, and effective for the treatment of essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and primary dystonia. These particular uses have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Investigational studies using DBS have been conducted for refractory epilepsy, obesity, chronic pain, tardive dyskinesia, Tourette syndrome, and other movement disorders, but none of these studies has led to FDA approval for these indications. Although the use of DBS has been approved by the FDA under a Humanitarian Device Exemption for the treatment of treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder, studies systematically investigating the potential use of DBS for various severe chronic psychiatric disorders are in their earliest stages, and further studies are warranted. PMID:24702284

Howland, Robert H

2014-04-01

279

Multisensory Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, and various kinds of music therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation has showed promising preliminary results in aphasia and neglect. Patient heterogeneity and the interaction of age, gender, genes, and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post-stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation. It is proposed that we should pay more attention to age, gender, and laterality in clinical studies. PMID:22509159

Johansson, Barbro Birgitta

2012-01-01

280

Stimulators of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase: Future Clinical Indications  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is expressed in mammalian cytoplasm and catalyzes the synthesis of the second messenger guanosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cGMP) involved in important physiological functions such as relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of platelet aggregation, modulation of inflammation, and control of vascular permeability. sGC is the intracellular receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and the active moiety in traditional organic nitrate therapy, recently as an inhalant in the intensive care unit and experimentally in improving microcirculatory flow in shock. However, dysfunction of the heme moiety on sGC occurs in a number of cardiovascular diseases, which reduces NO effectiveness. Methods In this review, we examine animal studies and early clinical trials on agents that can directly stimulate sGC and may have future clinical application in cardiovascular disease and in perioperative care. Conclusions Animal and early clinical studies have shown that sGC stimulator agents have great promise for treating cardiopulmonary disorders and may also have a role in modulating the inflammatory response observed in perioperative care. PMID:23532174

Nossaman, Bobby D.; Kadowitz, Philip J.

2013-01-01

281

Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical components of large-aperture, high irradiance and high fluence lasers can experience significant levels of stimulated scattering along their transverse dimensions. The authors have observed transverse stimulated Raman scattering in large aperture ...

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray

1995-01-01

282

Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function  

PubMed Central

Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle. PMID:22737049

Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

2012-01-01

283

Breast Cancer Stimulation of Osteolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this second year of funding, we have completed analysis of two tumors and have found mRNA and protein for GM-CSF, IGF-I and II, PTHrP, and TNF- alpha. We have also determined that TNF-alpha, but not GM-CSF, IGF-I or II, or PTHrP act as survival agents ...

M. J. Oursler

1999-01-01

284

Hydraulic redistribution may stimulate decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots influence root litter decomposition through multiple belowground processes. Hydraulic lift or redistribution (HR) by\\u000a plants is one such process that creates diel drying–rewetting cycles in soil. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon influences\\u000a decomposition. Since decomposition in deserts is constrained by low soil moisture and is stimulated when dry soils are rewetted,\\u000a we hypothesized that diel drying–rewetting, via

Zachary T. Aanderud; James H. Richards

2009-01-01

285

Muscular contraction by implanted stimulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implanted stimulators have been used at a number of sites within the body, which include (apart from the heart) the bladder,\\u000a rectum and urethra. A small radio-frequency generator is commonly used externally, coupling to an implanted pick-up coil and\\u000a rectifying system. The design of both the electronic circuitry and the electrode geometry is dependent on the physiology and\\u000a anatomy of

P. G. Lale

1966-01-01

286

Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling  

SciTech Connect

Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2011-08-12

287

Elementary processes of stimulated emission  

SciTech Connect

We consider the simplest process of stimulated emission, i.e., evolution of an excited two-level atom interacting with a quantized electromagnetic field being initially in a one-photon state under different boundary conditions imposed on the field. We study the kinetics of evolution, spectral properties and modal composition of the radiation field emerging in such processes. It is shown that in the general case this field is only partly composed of doubly occupied modes.

Elyutin, Pavel V [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2012-03-31

288

Stimulating Instruction in Social Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To promote content literacy, students have to be actively involved. This article focuses on strategies that stimulate student interest by involving them with the content during pre-reading, during-reading and post-reading activities. these processes provide students with optimal opportunities for comprehension. The authors recommend the use of a variety of materials to supplement the social studies text, recoginizing, however, that the

La Vonne Key; Jack A. Bradley; Karen Sue Bradley

2010-01-01

289

Beta-blocking agents during electroconvulsive therapy: a review.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with at least transient episodes of hypertension and tachycardia. Beta-blocking agents may be indicated to prevent cardiovascular complications and may shorten seizure duration. This review evaluates studies that used beta-blocking agents during ECT to determine which agent has the most favourable outcomes on cardiovascular variables and seizure duration. A Medline database search was made using the combined keywords 'adrenergic beta-antagonists' and 'electroconvulsive therapy'. The search was restricted to double-blind randomized controlled trials and yielded 29 original studies. With the use of esmolol, significant attenuating effects were found on cardiovascular parameters in the first 5 min after stimulation; its shortening effects on seizure duration may be dose-related. With the use of labetalol, findings on cardiovascular effects were inconsistent during the first minutes after stimulation but were significant after 5 min and thereafter; seizure duration was scarcely studied. Landiolol attenuates heart rate but with inconsistent findings regarding arterial pressure (AP); seizure duration was mostly unaffected. Esmolol appears to be effective in reducing the cardiovascular response, although seizure duration may be affected with higher dosages. Landiolol can be considered a suitable alternative, but effects on AP need further investigation. Labetalol has been studied to a lesser extent and may have prolonged cardiovascular effects. The included studies varied in design, methodology, and the amount of exact data provided in the publications. Further study of beta-blocking agents in ECT is clearly necessary. PMID:24942714

Boere, E; Birkenhäger, T K; Groenland, T H N; van den Broek, W W

2014-07-01

290

Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane  

PubMed Central

Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-?m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentration depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2?/? mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer activity to sulforaphane. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane. PMID:21219867

Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fahey, Jed W.; Bryan, Kelley E.; Healy, Zachary R.; Talalay, Paul

2011-01-01

291

Chronic precentral stimulation in trigeminal neuropathic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The results of Deep Brain Stimulation in deafferentation pain syndromes, in particular in thalamic pain, indicate that excellent long-term pain relief can hardly ever be achieved. We report 7 cases using Motor-Cortex-Stimulation for treating severe trigeminal neuropathic pain syndromes, i.e., dysaesthesia, anaesthesia dolorosa and postherpetic neuralgia. The first implantation of the stimulation device for precentral cerebral stimulation was performed

H. Ebel; D. Rust; V. Tronnier; D. Böker; S. Kunze

1996-01-01

292

ORGANISATION DES ETUDES La licence professionnelle Gestion des  

E-print Network

: · coordinateur(trice) du Personnel. · assistant(e) Ressources Humaines. · assistant(e) gestion du personnel. · gestionnaire de paie / collaborateur (trice) de paie. I U T La licence professionnelle forme des coordinateurs/trices, projets RH, ...). Licence Professionnelle Gestion des ressources humaines Spécialité Coordinateur/trice du

Pellier, Damien

293

Transcranial magnetic stimulation: the method and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive method for stimulation of brain that is based on the ability of magnetic field to penetrate skull and brain meninges, subsequently inducing electric current in the brain tissues that produces neuronal depolarization and generation of action potentials. Moreover, transcranial magnetic stimulation has effects on neurochemical and synaptic processes in neurons. Due to its

Jacqueline Höppner; Osvaldas Rukš?nas

2006-01-01

294

Vomiting Center reanalyzed: An electrical stimulation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical stimulation of the brainstem of 15 decerebrate cats produced stimulus-bound vomiting in only 4 animals. Vomiting was reproducible in only one cat. Effective stimulating sites were located in the solitary tract and reticular formation. Restricted localization of a vomiting center, stimulation of which evoked readily reproducible results, could not be obtained.

Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

1982-01-01

295

Photic stimulation — standardization of screening methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale — In many EEG laboratories in Europe, intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) is not performed routinely, and consequently, great variation exists in the type of photo stimulator used, the methodology employed, and the interpretation of the EEG curves, thus leading to different outcomes.Methodology — It was decided to hold a consensus meeting with experts in the field of photic stimulation

D. G. A Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité; C. D Binnie; G. F. A Harding; A Wilkins; T Covanis; O Eeg-Olofsson; L Goosens; O Henriksen; G Krämer; F Leyten; F. H Lopes Da Silva; A Martins Da Silva; R Naquet; B Pedersen; S Ricci; G Rubboli; H Spekreijse; S Waltz

1999-01-01

296

Unconscious processes, subliminal stimulation, and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since Poetzl’s studies, subliminal stimulation has been used as a paradigm to explore the connection between unconscious processes and psychopathology. Inspired by the psychodynamic tradition, folk psychology attributes a dramatic power to subliminal stimulation. In contrast, most modern researchers argue that effects of subliminal stimulation are rather limited. Does that mean that the unconscious is irrelevant to psychopathology? Not

Birgit Mayer; Harald Merckelbach

1999-01-01

297

Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01

298

REGEN AGENT: A MODULAR AND GENERALIZED FOREST REGENERATION AGENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the implementation of two software applications: REGEN Agent and REGEN Agent for Excel. REGEN Agent is an expert system and modeling application providing a mechanism for forest regeneration prediction based on the Loftis regeneration model. The Loftis model is both a stochastic and a competitive model that utilizes expert knowledge encoded in a knowledge base and applies

DAVID AGUSTIN BOUCUGNANI

299

Stimulation of Fibroblast Proliferation by Insoluble Gadolinium Salts  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess insoluble salts containing gadolinium (Gd3+) for effects on human dermal fibroblasts. Responses to insoluble Gd3+ salts were compared to responses seen with Gd3+ solubilized with organic chelators, as in the Gd3+-based contrast agents (GBCAs) used for magnetic resonance imaging. Insoluble particles of either Gd3+-phosphate or Gd3+-carbonate rapidly attached to the fibroblast cell surface and stimulated proliferation. Growth was observed at Gd3+ concentrations between 12.5 and 125 ?M, with toxicity at higher concentrations. Such a narrow window did not characterize GBCA stimulation. Proliferation induced by insoluble Gd3+ salts was inhibited in the presence of antagonists of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways (similar to chelated Gd3+) but was not blocked by an antibody to the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (different from chelated-Gd3+). Finally, high concentrations of the insoluble Gd3+ salts failed to prevent fibroblast lysis under low-Ca2+ conditions while similar concentrations of chelated-Gd3+ were effective. In conclusion, while insoluble Gd3+ salts are capable of stimulating fibroblast proliferation, one should be cautious in assuming that GBCA dechelation must occur in vivo to produce the profibrotic changes seen in association with GBCA exposure in the subset of renal failure patients that develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:21882070

Bleavins, Katherine; Perone, Patricia; Naik, Madhav; Rehman, Muneeb; Aslam, Muhammad N.; Dame, Michael K.; Meshinchi, Sasha; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James

2011-01-01

300

Hrp mutant bacteria as biocontrol agents  

PubMed Central

Sustainable agriculture necessitates development of environmentally safe methods to protect plants against pathogens. Among these methods, application of biocontrol agents has been efficiently used to minimize disease development. Here we review current understanding of mechanisms involved in biocontrol of the main Gram-phytopathogenic bacteria-induced diseases by plant inoculation with strains mutated in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes. These mutants are able to penetrate plant tissues and to stimulate basal resistance of plants. Novel protection mechanisms involving the phytohormone abscisic acid appear to play key roles in the biocontrol of wilt disease induced by Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis thaliana. Fully understanding these mechanisms and extending the studies to other pathosystems are still required to evaluate their importance in disease protection. PMID:23887499

Hanemian, Mathieu; Zhou, Binbin; Deslandes, Laurent; Marco, Yves; Tremousaygue, Dominique

2013-01-01

301

New antifungal agents.  

PubMed

Two new antifungal agents, voriconazole and caspofungin, are now available for treatment of systemic fungal infections. Voriconazole is an extended-spectrum triazole that is fungicidal for filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus, Scedosporium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and is active against all species of Candida. It has become first-line therapy for invasive aspergillosis. Voriconazole is given either by the oral or the intravenous route. Clinicians must be aware of drug-drug interactions and side effects, including visual disturbances and photosensitivity rash that can occur when voriconazole is used. Caspofungin is the first drug available from a new class of antifungal agents, echinocandins, that act to inhibit fungal cell wall synthesis. Caspofungin is fungicidal for all species of Candida and more slowly kills Aspergillus species. Caspofungin, available only for intravenous administration, has minimal side effects and very few drug interactions. The echinocandins will find most use for Candida infections and as second-line therapy for Aspergillus infections. PMID:16088465

Kauffman, Carol A

2004-04-01

302

21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. 882.5805...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an...

2012-04-01

303

21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. 882.5805...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an...

2013-04-01

304

21 CFR 882.5805 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system.  

... false Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. 882.5805...5805 Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system. (a) Identification. A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation system is an...

2014-04-01

305

AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange  

MedlinePLUS

... Toll Free Numbers VA » Health Care » Public Health » Military Exposures » Agent Orange » Veterans' Diseases Associated with Agent ... Orange Public Health Public Health Public Health Home Military Exposures Military Exposures Home 4 Ways to Find ...

306

Rigid bifunctional chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

1998-07-21

307

Rigid bifunctional chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

2000-02-08

308

Trusting an Information Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

: While the common kinds of uncertainties in databases(e.g., null values, disjunction, corrupt\\/missing data, domain mismatch,etc.) have been extensively studied, a relatively unexploredform of uncertainty in databases, called inaccurate data, demandsdue attention. Inaccurate data results when data are contributedby various information agents with some known reliability. Thoughthe data itself is total or complete, the reliability of the data nowdepends on

Hasan M. Jamil; Fereidoon Sadri

1993-01-01

309

Surface polymerization agents  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

1996-12-01

310

Programmed Six-Channel Electrical Stimulator for Complex Stimulation of Leg Muscles During Walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in the field of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of stroke patients are presented together with a short history of the development of the field. The methodical steps which led towards the construction of a six-channel electrical stimulator are given. The criteria for detennining the number of stimulation channels are highlighted and FES problems of stance phase active stimulation

P. Strojnik; A. Kralj; I. Ursic

1979-01-01

311

Transcutaneous functional electrical stimulator "Compex Motion".  

PubMed

Research groups in the field of functional electrical stimulation (FES) are often confronted with the fact that existing and commercially available FES stimulators do not provide sufficient flexibility and cannot be used to perform different FES tasks. The lack of flexibility of the commercial systems until now forced various FES research teams to develop their own stimulators. This paper presents a newly developed firmware and graphical programming software for the commercial Compex 2 stimulator which enhances the versatility and capabilities of the stimulator from a medical and therapeutic device to a neuroprosthesis and research tool. The new stimulator, called Compex Motion, can now be used to develop various custom-made neuroprostheses, neurological assessment devices, muscle exercise systems, and experimental setups for physiological studies. It can be programmed to generate any arbitrary stimulation sequence that can be controlled or regulated by various external sensors, sensory systems, or laboratory equipment. By interconnecting two or more Compex Motion stimulators, the number of stimulation channels can be increased to multiples of four channels, 8, 12, 16, 20, and so forth. The stimulation sequences and the control strategies are programmed and stored on exchangeable credit card-sized memory chip cards. The stimulator has four biphasic current-regulated stimulation channels and two general purpose analog input channels that can be configured to measure the output voltage of a variety of sensors such as goniometers, inclinometers, gyroscopes, or electromyographic (EMG) sensors. For real-time EMG control of the stimulation patterns, an EMG processing algorithm with software stimulation artifact blanking was implemented. The Compex Motion stimulator is manufactured by the Swiss company Compex SA and is currently undergoing clinical trials. PMID:11940017

Keller, Thierry; Popovic, Milos R; Pappas, Ion P I; Müller, Pierre-Yves

2002-03-01

312

Designing Agent Organisations using a Role Algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-agent systems can be viewed as organisations of individual agents. Designing an agent organisation is a complex process involving defining the structural relationships among agents, the lines of inter-agent communication, and the agent functionality. Existing approaches to agent organisation design are difficult to apply in practice since they require the human designer to take design decisions while working at a

Anthony Karageorgos; Simon Thompson; Nikolay Mehandjiev

313

LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES  

E-print Network

LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES UMR 8502 Centre Universitaire, Bât. 510 91405 Orsay cedex) 212503. #12;LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES UMR 8502 Centre Universitaire, Bât. 510 91405 Orsay cedex fundamental fine particle magnetism utilizing colloidal dispersions or ferrofluids as the medium for study

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

314

Mensch, Kepler! von Studierenden des  

E-print Network

Mensch, Kepler! von Studierenden des Europaeum und des Lehrstuhls für Vergleichende.europaeum.de vom 10.05. bis 05.10. im Kepler Gedächtnishaus Regensburg Alt bekannt neu entdeckt Mensch, Kepler,wieso bist du überallbekannt? Mensch, Kepler, hattest du eigentlich Kinder? Mensch, Kepler, wie hast du das

Schubart, Christoph

315

Über die Rotationswärme des Wasserstoffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die neuere Entwicklung der Bandentheorie macht bei zweiatomigen Molekülen ein Elektronenimpulsmoment 1\\/2 senkrecht zur Kernverbindungslinie wahrscheinlich. Der Einfluß hiervon auf die Theorie der Rotationswärme besteht hauptsächlich darin, das berechnete Trägheitsmoment des Moleküls auf 2\\/3 des früheren Wertes herabzudrücken, das ist auf 1,4. 10-41 beim Wasserstoff, was zu anderweitigen Schätzungen (Konstante der Dampfdruckformel, Viellinienspektrum) besser stimmt.

Erwin Schrödinger

1924-01-01

316

Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en R?publique D?mocratique du Congo: cons?cration d'un double standard dans l'acc?s aux soins  

PubMed Central

Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

Dunia, Gisele Mawazo Binti

2013-01-01

317

RACTIONS DES POPULATIONS ANIMALES ET MICROBIENNES DU SOL A LA PRIVATION DES APPORTS ANNUELS DE LITIRE  

E-print Network

1 R�ACTIONS DES POPULATIONS ANIMALES ET MICROBIENNES DU SOL A LA PRIVATION DES APPORTS ANNUELS DE entraînera des désordres au sein des populations animales et microbiennes et donc retentira sur la structure des friches nitrophiles. Secondairement ce phénomène va retentir sur les populations animales et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Intention Reconciliation by Collaborative Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on resource-bounded agents has established that rational agents need to be able to revise their commitments in the light of new opportunities. In the context of collabo- rative activities, rational agents must be able to reconcile their intentions to do team-related actions with other, con- flicting intentions. The SPIRE experimental system allows the process of intention reconciliation in team

David G. Sullivan; Barbara J. Grosz; Sarit Kraus

2000-01-01

319

Agent-based project scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent technology offers a new way of thinking about many of the classic problems in operations research. Among these are problems such as project scheduling subject to resource constraints. In this paper, we develop and experimentally evaluate eight agent-based algorithms for solving the multimode, resource-constrained project scheduling problem. Our algorithms differ in the priority rules used to control agent access

Gary Knotts; Moshe Dror; Bruce C. Hartman

2000-01-01

320

Environment Monitoring -Robotic Sensor Agents  

E-print Network

- Integrating many sensors into one system can often use many in expensive devices to provide dataEnvironment Monitoring - Robotic Sensor Agents Emil M. Petriu, FIEEE Professor University of Ottawa REALITY ENVIRONMENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORK Mobile Robotic Sensor Agent Mobile Robotic Sensor Agent

Petriu, Emil M.

321

Privilege Management of Mobile Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most mobile agent systems use internal data structures within an agent to control and specify its security requirements and properties. These structures typically contain authorization information regarding access to computational resources on distributed systems and conceptually serve as an internal passport for the agent. While these structures are often very similar semantically, they differ greatly in their implementation, depending to

Wayne Jansen; Tom Karygiannis

2000-01-01

322

Infrared neural stimulation in the cochlea  

PubMed Central

The application of photonics to manipulate and stimulate neurons and to study neural networks has gained momentum over the last decade. Two general methods have been used: the genetic expression of light or temperature sensitive ion channels in the plasma membrane of neurons (Optogenetics and Thermogenetics) and the direct stimulation of neurons using infrared radiation (Infrared Neural Stimulation, INS). Both approaches have their strengths and challenges, which are well understood with a profound understanding of the light tissue interaction(s). This paper compares the opportunities of the methods for the use in cochlear prostheses. Ample data are already available on the stimulation of the cochlea with INS. The data show that the stimulation is selective, feasible at rates that would be sufficient to encode acoustic information and may be beneficial over conventional pulsed electrical stimulation. A third approach, using lasers in stress confinement to generate pressure waves and to stimulate the functional cochlea mechanically will also be discussed. PMID:25075260

Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud; Bendett, Mark

2014-01-01

323

NEUROMARKETING ET NEUROSCIENCES AU SERVICE DES PUBLICITAIRES  

E-print Network

1 NEUROMARKETING ET NEUROSCIENCES AU SERVICE DES PUBLICITAIRES : QUESTIONNEMENTS ETHIQUES Didier neuromarketing et des neurosciences au service des publicitaires soulève immanquablement des questions éthiques débats éthiques entre les personnes adeptes du neuromarketing (les "pro-neuromarketing") et les "anti-neuromarketing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Die „cortinähnliche“ Wirkung des g-Strophanthins  

Microsoft Academic Search

An normalen Kaninchen bewirkten höhere Dosen des Strophanthins eine Steigerung des Blutchlorid-, Natrium- und Zuckerspiegels und eine Erniedrigung der Plasmakaliumkonzentration. An normalen Hunden wird der Chlorid- und Natriumgehalt des Blutes auf Strophanthin erhöht, der Kaliumgehalt des Plasmas gesenkt. Die mit dem Harn ausgeschiedenen Natriummengen sanken nach Strophanthinbehandlung ab und gleichzeitig nahm die Kaliumausscheidung stark zu. Im Lichte dieser auf den

E. Varga; D. Bagdy; L. Kesztyüs

1949-01-01

325

Service social des tudiants Les Assistantes Sociales  

E-print Network

Service social des étudiants Les Assistantes Sociales : * vous informent sur la vie à l'Université et ses conditions matérielles : bourses, logement, budget, prêt, législation sociale social * effectuent, avec votre accord, des interventions, des liaisons auprès des organismes (CROUS

Di Girolami, Cristina

326

Le microscope des mathmaticiens Tribune du Net  

E-print Network

Le microscope des mathématiciens Tribune du Net Guillaume Theyssier Laboratoire de Mathématiques chercheur TIC = Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication 2 ordinateur : le microscope des des articles : web Démonstration... #12;Ordinateur : Le microscope des mathématiciens Rappels

Theyssier, Guillaume

327

CHRONIQUE: RGLEMENT ALTERNATIF DES CONFLITS Note prliminaire  

E-print Network

CHRONIQUE: R�GLEMENT ALTERNATIF DES CONFLITS Note pr�liminaire Les m�thodes alternatives de r�glement des conflits sont de plus en plus jug�es int�ressantes tant pour les justiciables que pour le syst�judiciaris� des conflits�. Ce forum, multidisciplinaire, regroupait des participants provenant du droit, de la

Spino, Claude

328

Brain stimulation and inhibitory control.  

PubMed

Inhibitory control mechanisms are important in a range of behaviours to prevent execution of motor acts which, having been planned, are no longer necessary or appropriate. Examples of this can be seen in a range of sports, such as cricket and baseball, where the choice between execution and inhibition of a bat swing must be made in a very brief time window. Deficits in inhibitory control have been associated with problems in behavioural regulation in impulsive violence as well as a range of clinical disorders. The roles of various areas, including the frontal eye fields (FEF), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the inferior frontal gyrus, in inhibitory control have been investigated using an inhibitory control task and both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Typically effects on response inhibition but no effects on response generation have been seen. The contributions of these areas to performance seem to differ with, for example, pre-SMA being involved when the task is relatively novel whereas this is not the case for FEF. The findings from brain stimulation studies offer both insight into which areas are necessary for effective inhibitory control and recent extension of findings for the role of the inferior frontal gyrus illustrate how the specific functions by which these areas contribute may be further clarified. Future work, including making use of the temporal specificity of TMS and combination of TMS/tDCS with other neuroimaging techniques, may further clarify the nature and functions played by the network of areas involved in inhibitory control. PMID:22494830

Juan, Chi-Hung; Muggleton, Neil G

2012-04-01

329

Des Moines Water Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

2001-01-01

330

Tapering Enhanced Stimulated Superradiant Amplification  

E-print Network

High conversion efficiency between electrical and optical power is highly desirable both for high peak and high average power radiation sources. In this paper we discuss a new mechanism based on stimulated superradiant emission in a strongly tapered undulator whereby an optimal undulator tapering is calculated by dynamically matching the resonant energy variation to the ponderomotive decelerating gradient. The method has the potential to allow the extraction of a large fraction (~50%) of power from a relativistic electron beam and convert it into coherent narrow-band tunable radiation, and shows a clear path to very high average power radiation sources.

Duris, Joseph; Musumeci, Pietro

2014-01-01

331

Olfactory stimulation curbs food cravings.  

PubMed

Based on the logic of mutual competition between cravings and odours for limited-capacity resources, this study investigated whether a simple olfactory task, involving a brief odour exposure, could reduce food cravings. In support, Experiment 1 showed that smelling a neutral unfamiliar odorant reduced cravings for highly desired food items, relative to a comparison auditory task and a no-task control condition. Experiment 2 replicated these findings specifically for chocolate cravings, which can be particularly problematic. Thus olfactory stimulation offers potential scope for curbing unwanted food cravings. PMID:22766488

Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

2013-02-01

332

Flexible, secure agent development framework  

DOEpatents

While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

Goldsmith; Steven Y. (Rochester, MN)

2009-04-07

333

Learning models of intelligent agents  

SciTech Connect

Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Computer Science Dept., Haifa (Israel)

1996-12-31

334

Antithrombotic reversal agents.  

PubMed

The actively bleeding anticoagulated patient presenting to the emergency department requires rapid evaluation and treatment, which is made increasingly complicated by the ever-evolving antithrombotic treatment options used in medicine. Even with excellent supportive care, the timeliness with which reversal decisions need to be made continues to demand of the emergency practitioner a familiarity with the properties and general characteristics of a variety of antithrombotic agents. Reversal options vary and may include vitamin K, FFP, PCC, rFVIIa, platelets, and desmopressin, among others. PMID:25060258

Wilson, Matthew D; Davis, Jonathan E

2014-08-01

335

Humans as Geomorphic Agents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) The students read an article from the literature on humans as geomorphic agents as an introduction to order-of-magnitude calculations. 2) The class discusses the article in a 50-minute class 3) The students complete a problem set that introduces them to dimensional analysis, walks them through a comparison of the article's results to natural geomorphic rates, and explores how the author derived the article's final numbers. 4) Once the students are done with the problem set, the class discusses the results and implications as a group.

Riihimaki, Catherine

336

Sophorolipids as antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs), glycolipids produced by yeasts, have been reported to have immunomodulating activity and to reduce the mortality rate in animal models of sepsis. In the present study, the antibacterial activities of SLs and several derivatives were tested against a selection of standard bacterial isolates using the broth microdilution method. The SL derivatives tested did not show any significant antibacterial activity in vitro when tested at clinically relevant concentrations. Most likely the reported decrease of mortality rate in the rat septic shock model was not secondary to antibacterial activity of SLs. The SLs may be used as anti-inflammatory agents or immunomodulators without affecting the host's bacterial flora. PMID:19201743

Sleiman, Joseph N; Kohlhoff, Stephan A; Roblin, Patricia M; Wallner, Sabine; Gross, Richard; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Zenilman, Michael E; Bluth, Martin H

2009-01-01

337

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

Tandutinib (MLN518), previously known as CT53518, is a small-molecule inhibitor of the type III receptor tyrosine kinases, including the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Tandutinib is relatively selective, having no appreciable activity against EGFR, FGFR, KDR, or several non-receptor kinases. FLT3, c-Kit, and ßPDGFR are equally inhibited by tandutinib, while the agent is much less active against CSF-1R (in vitro IC50 of 3.4 µM).

338

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

339

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most common problems contributing to suffering and disability worldwide. Unfortunately, NP is also largely refractory to treatments, with a large number of patients continuing to report significant pain even when they are receiving recommended medications and physical therapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need for additional effective treatments. In recent years, nonpharmacologic brain stimulation techniques have emerged as potential therapeutic options. Many of these techniques and procedures – such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and motor cortical stimulation – have very limited availability, particularly in developing countries. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation procedure that has shown promise for effectively treating NP, and also has the potential to be widely available. This review describes tDCS and the tDCS procedures and principles that may be helpful for treating NP. The findings indicate that the analgesic benefits of tDCS can occur both during stimulation and beyond the time of stimulation. The mechanisms of cortical modulation by tDCS may involve various activities in neuronal networks such as increasing glutamine and glutamate under the stimulating electrode, effects on the ?-opioid receptor, and restoration of the defective intracortical inhibition. Additional research is needed to determine (1) the factors that may moderate the efficacy of tDCS, (2) the dose (e.g. number and frequency of treatment sessions) that results in the largest benefits and (3) the long-term effects of tDCS treatment.

Ngernyam, Niran; Jensen, Mark P; Auvichayapat, Narong; Punjaruk, Wiyada; Auvichayapat, Paradee

2013-01-01

340

Regulation of food intake by acyl and des-acyl ghrelins in the goldfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our recent research has indicated that intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of n-octanoic acid-modified ghrelin (acyl ghrelin) stimulates food intake and locomotor activity in the goldfish. The manner in which peripherally administered acyl ghrelin regulates food intake, however, remains unclear. In contrast to acyl ghrelin, non-acylated ghrelin (des-acyl ghrelin) does not exert an orexigenic action or induce hypermotility. To

Kouhei Matsuda; Tohru Miura; Hiroyuki Kaiya; Keisuke Maruyama; Sei-Ichi Shimakura; Minoru Uchiyama; Kenji Kangawa; Seiji Shioda

2006-01-01

341

13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section...BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture...Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with SBA approval, shall appoint a Selling Agent to select...

2010-01-01

342

13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section...BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture...Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with SBA approval, shall appoint a Selling Agent to select...

2011-01-01

343

46 CFR Sec. 2 - General Agents' authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Agents' authority. Sec. 2 Section 2...AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY OF GENERAL AGENTS TO UNDERTAKE EMERGENCY REPAIRS IN FOREIGN PORTS Sec. 2 General Agents' authority. The General Agents...

2010-10-01

344

46 CFR Sec. 2 - General Agents' authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General Agents' authority. Sec. 2 Section 2...AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY OF GENERAL AGENTS TO UNDERTAKE EMERGENCY REPAIRS IN FOREIGN PORTS Sec. 2 General Agents' authority. The General Agents...

2011-10-01

345

A prescreening system for potential antiproliferative agents: implications for local treatment strategies of postangioplasty restenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Recent advances in the understanding of the biology of restenosis indicate that it is predominantly caused by a multifactorial stimulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of five potential antiproliferative agents on smooth muscle cells from human atherosclerotic femoral arteries. Methods and results. Primary stenosing plaque material of

Rainer Voisard; Ulrich Seitzer; Regine Baur; Peter C. Dartsch; Hans Osterhues; Martin Höher; Vinzenz Hombach

1995-01-01

346

Colloid deposition kinetics with surface-active agents: Evidence for discrete surface charge effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the subject of colloid-mediated contaminant transport in porous media has stimulated numerous investigators to define the conditions under which particle movement may be environmentally relevant. Latex particle deposition kinetics in granular quartz beds were compared with and without surface-active agents to evaluate the effects of surface heterogeneities. Hydrophobic regions or metal oxide impurities were masked with sodium dodecyl

G. M. Litton; T. M. Olson

1994-01-01

347

New agents to treat lower urinary tract and pelvic floor disorders.  

PubMed

For patients with overactive bladder and a suboptimal response to antimuscarinic therapy, there are several options to consider including alteration of the antimuscarinic regimen, switching to an agent with an alternate mechanism of action (i.e., mirabegron), posterior tibial nerve stimulation, or botulinum toxin. These options are summarized in this brief review. PMID:24523836

Kelleher, Cornelius

2013-09-01

348

A conscious-rabbit model to study vardenafil hydrochloride and other agents that influence penile erection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental models to study the effect of agents on penile erection usually include electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves in anesthetized animals combined with systemic or intracavernous injection of drugs. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that conscious rabbits can be used as a simple and quantitative model for the assessment of compounds that show potential for the treatment

E Bischoff; K Schneider

2001-01-01

349

Holograms as Teaching Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

Walker, Robin A.

2013-02-01

350

Spermiation of paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula, Acipenseriformes) stimulated with injection of LHRH analogue and carp pituitary powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of carp pituitary powder (CPP) at one dose, or the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, des–Gly10,(d–Ala6)–LH-RH–ethylamide, at three different doses to stimulate spermiation in paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) was tested. Single injections of the LH-RH analogue at 0.2, 0.1, or 0.05 mg·kg–1 increased the number of spermatozoa per kilogram of body weight (kg–1 b.w.) by 4.7, 3.4, and 3.4

Otomar Linhart; Steve D. Mims; Boris Gomelsky; Anna E. Hiott; William L. Shelton; Jacky Cosson; Marek Rodina; David Gela

2001-01-01

351

Introduction to DES Overview of the DES Algorithm  

E-print Network

Encryption Standard (DES) encrypts blocks of size 64 bit. � Developed by IBM based on the cipher Lucifer;! The Permutation P 4.Permutation P � Bitwise permutation. � Introduces diffusion. � Output bits of one S-Box effect

352

Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

2002-12-01

353

Extending SATPLAN to Multiple Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-agent planning is a core issue in the multi-agent systems field. In this work we focus on the coordination of multiple agents in a setting where agents are able to achieve individual goals that may be either independent, or necessary for the achievement of a global common goal. The agents are able to generate individual plans in order to achieve their own goals, but, as they share the same environment, they need to find a coordinated course of action that avoids harmful (or negative) interactions, and benefits from positive interactions, whenever this is possible. Moreover, agents are interested in finding plans with optimal length where preference is given to the length of the joint plan. We formalize these problems in a more general way with respect to previous works and present a coordination algorithm which provides the optimal solution in the case of two agents. In this algorithm, agents use ?-SATPLAN as the underlying planner for generating individual and joint consistent plans. This planner is an extension of the well known classical planner SATPLAN, aiming to deal with negative and positive interactions and, therefore, with multi-agent planning problem. Finally we present the experimental results using the multi-agent planning problems from the domains proposed and used in classical planning, which demonstrate the effectiveness of ?-SATPLAN and the coordination algorithm.

Dimopoulos, Yannis; Hashmi, Muhammad Adnan; Moraitis, Pavlos

354

Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Accelerates Human Sleep Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO) in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG). A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep. PMID:23459152

Reato, Davide; Gasca, Fernando; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Marshall, Lisa; Parra, Lucas C.

2013-01-01

355

Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

2011-02-01

356

L'IMPLANTATION DES DIFICES CULTUELS DES TMOINS DE  

E-print Network

), Oyonnax, Rodez, Montceau-les-Mines, Bruay-en-Artois (Pas-de-Calais). Le mouvement des �tudiants de la dans le prosélytisme en France. Mais le russellisme s'est tout de même développé dans le Nord-Pas-de-Calais. Russell attribuait ce fait à l'influence « néfaste » des catholiques et il n'investissait pas beaucoup

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

BOURSE MUSODOC Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

BOURSE MUS�ODOC Faculté des arts et des sciences Doctorat La bourse Muséodoc est offerte chaque muséologie. La bourse vise à encourager le développement et la réalisation de projets de recherche créatifs candidature plusieurs années de suite. Toutefois, la bourse ne peut être attribuée qu'une seule fois à la même

Parrott, Lael

358

Caractrisation des systmesCaractrisation des systmes industriels  

E-print Network

Chapitre 3 Caractérisation des systèmesCaractérisation des systèmes industriels Aymeric Histace 1 Plan 1. Performances d'un système industriel 2. Etude temporelle 3. Etude fréquentielleq Aymeric comment concrètement les prévoir ou les mesurer pratiquement pour un système industriel donné. Aymeric

Histace, Aymeric

359

Extrospection: Agents Reasoning About the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practices for agent-infrastructure interaction en- force agent designers to hard code the name and the use of the infrastructure components in the agent. Therefore, agents can only function within an environment which is a priori known to the agent designer. Even in these en- vironments, agents are not robust against the modification or failure of the infrastructures that may

Daghan L. Acay; Philippe Pasquier; Liz Sonenberg

360

Agent-based autonomous Examination Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online computerized examination systems is developed using software agent technology. Multi-agent system containing main agent, mobile agent and stationery agent is developed to support the functionality of examination systems in Aglet environment. All these agents in the system communicate with each other to process the operations requested by the user. Authentication of the examinee for valid user name and password

R. D. Gawali; B. B. Meshram

2009-01-01

361

The adipsin-acylation stimulating protein system and regulation of intracellular triglyceride synthesis.  

PubMed Central

We have previously characterized an activity from human plasma that markedly stimulates triglyceride synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts and human adipocytes. Based on its in vitro activity we named the active component acylation stimulating protein (ASP). The molecular identity of the active serum component has now been determined. NH2-terminal sequence analysis, ion spray ionization mass spectroscopy, and amino acid composition analysis all indicate that the active purified protein is a fragment of the third component of plasma complement, C3a-desArg. As well, reconstitution experiments with complement factors B, D, and complement C3, the components necessary to generate C3a, have confirmed the identity of ASP as C3a. ASP appears to be the final effector molecule generated by a novel regulatory system that modulates the rate of triglyceride synthesis in adipocytes. Images PMID:8376604

Baldo, A; Sniderman, A D; St-Luce, S; Avramoglu, R K; Maslowska, M; Hoang, B; Monge, J C; Bell, A; Mulay, S; Cianflone, K

1993-01-01

362

Renaturation of Escherichia coli-Derived Recombinant Human Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhM-CSF), a homodimeric, disulfide bonded protein, was expressed inEscherichia coliin the form of inclusion bodies. Reduced and denatured rhM-CSF monomers were refolded in the presence of a thiol mixture (reduced and oxidized glutathione) and a low concentration of denaturing agent (urea or guanidinium chloride). Refolding was monitored by nonreducing gel electrophoresis and recovery of bioactivity.

AnhDao Tran-Moseman; Neil Schauer; Eliana De Bernardez Clark

1999-01-01

363

Brain stimulation and morphine reward deficits in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The rewarding effects of lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation, various natural rewards, and several drugs of abuse are attenuated\\u000a by D1 or D2 dopamine receptor (D1R or D2R) antagonists. Much of the evidence for dopaminergic involvement in rewards is based\\u000a on pharmacological agents with limited or “relative” selectivity for dopamine receptor subtypes. Genetically engineered animal\\u000a models provide a complementary approach to

G. I. Elmer; J. O. Pieper; J. Levy; M. Rubinstein; M. J. Low; D. K. Grandy; R. A. Wise

2005-01-01

364

Prior morphine exposure enhances ibogaine antagonism of morphine-induced locomotor stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ibogaine is currently being investigated for its potential use as an anti-addictive agent. In the present study we sought to determine whether prior morphine exposure influences the ability of ibogaine to inhibit morphine-induced locomotor stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated once a day for 1–4 days with morphine (5, 10, 20 or 30 mg\\/kg, IP) or saline and then received

S. M. Pearl; S. D. Glick; D. W. Johnson

1995-01-01

365

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of imidazolium oximes as nerve agent antidotes  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphorus-containing pesticides and chemical warfare agents are potent inhibitors of synaptic acetylcholinesterase, a key regulator of cholinergic neurotransmission. These nerve agents have for many years constituted a serious threat to military personnel. These threats stimulated considerable efforts to develop effective medical countermeasures. Several potential drugs have been found recently which are capable of protecting animals from lethal levels of nerve agents. A recent U. S. Army Medical Research and Development Command drug development project synthesized a large number of imidazolium oximes. These compounds were found to possess strong antidotal activity against one of the most lethal nerve agents, soman. The Army's approach, like most conventional drug discovery approaches, depended primarily on the trial and error method. This research was carried out to determine if these potential nerve agent antidotes could have been discovered through the use of Quantitative Structure Activity-Relationships (QSAR) technique.

Musallam, H.A.; Foye, W.O.; Hansch, C.; Harris, R.N.; Engle, R.R.

1993-05-13

366

Experimental Simulations for Elimination of Biological and/or Chemical Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of biological and/or chemical agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. The 2oo1 anthrax terror throughout the USA, 1995 sarin nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway, and the like are evident for this threat. Elimination and decontamination of biological and/or chemical agents are needed for such an attack. Experimental simulation for elimination of biological and/or chemical agents using an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torch is carried out. The elimination of biological and/or chemical agents through the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and the decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant is presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography (GC) is also presented.

Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

2003-10-01

367

Optical stimulation of peripheral nerves in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation documents the emergence and validation of a new clinical tool that bridges the fields of biomedical optics and neuroscience. The research herein describes an innovative method for direct neurostimulation with pulsed infrared laser light. Safety and effectiveness of this technique are first demonstrated through functional stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve in vivo. The Holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2.12 mum) is shown to operate at an optimal wavelength for peripheral nerve stimulation with advantages over standard electrical neural stimulation; including contact-free stimulation, high spatial selectivity, and lack of a stimulation artifact. The underlying biophysical mechanism responsible for transient optical nerve stimulation appears to be a small, absorption driven thermal gradient sustained at the axonal layer of nerve. Results explicitly prove that low frequency optical stimulation can reliably stimulate without resulting in tissue thermal damage. Based on the positive results from animal studies, these optimal laser parameters were utilized to move this research into the clinic with a combined safety and efficacy study in human subjects undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. The clinical Holmium:YAG laser was used to effectively stimulate human dorsal spinal roots and elicit functional muscle responses recorded during surgery without evidence of nerve damage. Overall these results predict that this technology can be a valuable clinical tool in various neurosurgical applications.

Wells, Jonathon D.

368

Reassessing the principles of electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which electrical stimulation (ES) of carcasses can be used to modulate meat quality are reviewed. Evidence to support an effect of ES on tenderness (and other meat quality attributes) based solely on changes in the pH/temperature profile within carcass muscles are presented. The interactions between electrical parameters and the contraction responses of carcass muscles are described to provide generalised principles to guide the design of electrical stimulation technology. The commercial risks to meat quality of inappropriate use of electrical stimulation, particularly excessive stimulation to produce PSE-like conditions, are considered. PMID:22063176

Simmons, N J; Daly, C C; Cummings, T L; Morgan, S K; Johnson, N V; Lombard, A

2008-09-01

369

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Stroke Recovery  

PubMed Central

TDCS - Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation - is an emerging technique of non-invasive brain stimulation that has been found useful in examining cortical function in normal subjects and in facilitating treatments of various neurological disorders. A better understanding of adaptive as well as maladaptive post-stroke neuroplasticity and its modulation through non-invasive brain stimulation has opened up experimental treatment options using TDCS for patients recovering from stroke. We will review TDCS’s role as a facilitator of stroke recovery, the different modes of transcranial direct current stimulation, and the potential mechanisms underlying the neural effects of TDCS. PMID:19064743

Schlaug, Gottfried; Renga, Vijay; Nair, Dinesh

2009-01-01

370

Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

Berenji, Hamid R.

1997-01-01

371

Agent-based enterprise integration  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

1999-05-01

372

Agent-based enterprise integration  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

1998-12-01

373

Titel des Moduls: Schallmesstechnik und  

E-print Network

Titel des Moduls: Schallmesstechnik und Signalverarbeitung (Measurement Technique and Signal. Fortgeschrittene" und/oder mit Modulen TA 2 und TA 6 "Noise and Vibration Control", "Advanced Noise and Vibration

Berlin,Technische Universität

374

Corosolic acid stimulates osteoblast differentiation by activating transcription factors and MAP kinases.  

PubMed

Recently, the use of anabolic agents to enhance bone mass has been a source of interest. Previous work by us suggested that corosolic acid (2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid), an active component of banaba leaves (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.), potentially stimulates the differentiation of mouse osteoblasts. Therefore, the present study investigated whether corosolic acid stimulates osteoblast differentiation, and its possible mechanisms of action. At low concentrations (up to 5 microm), corosolic acid significantly stimulated osteoblast differentiation and mineralization without cytotoxicity. Corosolic acid induced NF-kappaB and MAP kinase activity at an early stage of osteoblast differentiation and increased the activity of the transcription factor AP-1 during late-stage osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that the anabolic effects of corosolic acid upon osteoblast differentiation could result from its activation of transcription factors and MAP kinases. PMID:19441063

Shim, Ki Shuk; Lee, Su-Ui; Ryu, Shi Yong; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Hwan

2009-12-01

375

Pharmacological agents for NASH.  

PubMed

NASH is a common liver disease that increases liver-related mortality and reduces survival. The need for optimal management of NASH is therefore a priority for today's practicing hepatologist. The rationale for specific pharmacological therapy for NASH is based on the potential for disease progression and the difficulties that many patients have successfully implementing, in the long term, diet and lifestyle changes. Even in those that succeed, limited evidence exists that severe liver injury in patients with NASH can be reversed by diet and lifestyle measures alone. This Review provides a personal and critical assessment of the histological efficacy and safety of agents tested in randomized trials in patients with NASH. PMID:24126564

Ratziu, Vlad

2013-11-01

376

Newer antihypertensive agents.  

PubMed

Three recent additions to the list of antihypertensive agents have been approved for use as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. Betaxolol hydrochloride (Kerlone) maintains its effect for 24 hours, making it a true once-a-day beta blocker. Penbutolol sulfate (Levatol) is as effective as other beta blockers and diuretics. Doxazosin mesylate (Cardura), a selective alpha 1 blocker, also allows once-a-day dosing and has produced favorable changes in lipid profiles. Two new drug delivery systems, one for verapamil hydrochloride (Verelan) and one for extended-release nifedipine (Procardia XL), allow less frequent dosing and may offer other advantages, such as greater compliance and a more tolerable side-effect profile. PMID:2008405

Rey, A M; Grauer, K; Gums, J G

1991-04-01

377

New agents for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The therapeutic landscape of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been revolutionized by the arrival of multiple novel agents in the past 2 years. Immunotherapy in the form of sipuleucel-T, androgen axis inhibitors, including abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, a chemotherapeutic agent, cabazitaxel, and a radiopharmaceutical, radium-223, have all yielded incremental extensions of survival and have been recently approved. A number of other agents appear promising in early studies, suggesting that the armamentarium against castrate-resistant prostate cancer is likely to continue to expand. Emerging androgen pathway inhibitors include androgen synthesis inhibitors (TAK700), androgen receptor inhibitors (ARN-509, ODM-201), AR DNA binding domain inhibitors (EPI-001), selective AR downregulators or SARDs (AZD-3514), and agents that inhibit both androgen synthesis and receptor binding (TOK-001/galeterone). Promising immunotherapeutic agents include poxvirus vaccines and CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab). Biologic agents targeting the molecular drivers of disease are also being investigated as single agents, including cabozantinib (Met and VEGFR2 inhibitor) and tasquinimod (angiogenesis and immune modulatory agent). Despite the disappointing results seen from studies evaluating docetaxel in combination with other agents, including GVAX, anti-angiogentic agents (bevacizumab, aflibercept, lenalinomide), a SRC kinase inhibitor (dasatinib), endothelin receptor antagonists (atrasentan, zibotentan), and high-dose calcitriol (DN-101), the results from the trial evaluating docetaxel in combination with the clusterin antagonist, custirsen, are eagerly awaited. New therapeutic hurdles consist of discovering new targets, understanding resistance mechanisms, the optimal sequencing and combinations of available agents, as well as biomarkers predictive for benefit. Novel agents targeting bone metastases are being developed following the success of zoledronic acid and denosumab. Finally, all of these modalities do not appear curative, suggesting that clinical trial enrollment and a better understanding of biology remain of paramount importance. PMID:24658665

Agarwal, N; Di Lorenzo, G; Sonpavde, G; Bellmunt, J

2014-09-01

378

Knowledge Agents on the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper introduces and evaluates a new paradigm, called Knowledge Agents, that incorporates agent technology into the process\\u000a of domainspecific Web search. An agent is situated between the user and a search engine. It specializes in a specific domain\\u000a by extracting characteristic information from search results. Domains are thus user-defined and can be of any granularity\\u000a and specialty. This information

Yariv Aridor; David Carmel; Ronny Lempel; Aya Soffer; Yoëlle S. Maarek

2000-01-01

379

Switching biologic agents for uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo observe whether switching between biological agents helps to gain or maintain uveitis remission in cases with sight-threatening refractory uveitis.MethodsWe reviewed the case notes of seven patients with refractory uveitis, who had switched between biological agents. The switch between biological agents (infliximab or adalimumab) was for gaining control of systemic symptoms, uveitis, or for the ease of administration.ResultsThere were three

N Dhingra; J Morgan; A D Dick

2009-01-01

380

Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents\\u000a must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges,\\u000a based on Hofstede’s model of national cultures. The context is a trade network for goods with a hidden quality attribute.\\u000a The negotiation model is based on the ABMP negotiation

Gert Jan Hofstede; Catholijn M. Jonker; Tim Verwaart

2010-01-01

381

Communicative Actions for Artificial Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper considers,the semantics,of the agent com- munication,language,KQML. By using,this language for communication, agents will be able to request and provide services. Indeed, numerous projects have shown,how the language,can profitably,support,in- teroperation among distributed agents. However, he- fore becoming a widely-accepted standard, it would be worthwhile to examine the language in detail, espe-

Philip R. Cohen; Hector J. Levesque

1995-01-01

382

Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations sont elements de la serie h_{p,q}= [ (p(m+2)-qm)^2-4] /(8m(m+2)) ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs, p et q etant de meme parite, et p+q<= m+2. La charge centrale est donnee par c(m)={3over 2}-{12over m(m+2)} avec m >= 2. Les vecteurs singuliers | Psi_{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+2-q} > sont respectivement de poids h _{p,q}+pq/2 et h_ {p,q}+(m-p)(m+2-q)/2.. Les vecteurs singuliers ont une norme nulle et on doit les eliminer des representations pour que celles -ci soient unitaires. Cette elimination engendrent des equations (super-)differentielles qui dependent directement de la forme explicite des vecteurs singuliers et auxquelles doivent obeir les fonctions de correlations de la theorie. Ainsi la connaissance de ces vecteurs singuliers est intimement reliee au calcul des fonctions de correlation. Les equations definissant les vecteurs singuliers forment un systeme lineaire surdetermine dont le nombre d'equations est de l'ordre de N(pq), le nombre de partitions de l'entier pq. Puisque les vecteurs singuliers jouent un role capital en theorie conforme, il est naturel de chercher des formes explicites pour les vecteurs (ou pour des familles infinies de ceux -ci). Nous donnons ici la forme explicite pour la famille infinie de vecteurs singuliers ayant un de ses indices egal a 1, pour les algebres de Virasoro et de Neveu-Schwarz. Depuis ces decouvertes, d'autres techniques de construction des vecteurs singuliers ont ete developpees, dont celle de Bauer, Di Francesco, Itzykson et Zuber pour l'algebre de Virasoro qui reproduit directement l'expression explicite des vecteurs singuliers |Psi _{1,q}> et |Psi_{p,1}>. Ils ont utilise l'algebre des produits d'operateurs et la fusion entre representations irreductibles pour engendrer des relations de recurence produisant les vecteurs singuliers. Dans le dernier chapitre de cette these nous adaptons cet algorithme a la construction des vecteurs singuliers de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz.

Benoit, Louis

383

'Bloch wave' modification of stimulated Raman by stimulated Brillouin scattering  

SciTech Connect

Using the reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method, we study the coupling of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (BSBS) in regimes where the reflectivity involves the nonlinear behavior of particles trapped in the daughter plasma waves. The temporal envelope of a Langmuir wave (LW) obeys a Schroedinger equation where the potential is the periodic electron density fluctuation resulting from an ion-acoustic wave (IAW). The BSRS-driven LWs in this case have a Bloch wave structure and a modified dispersion due to the BSBS-driven spatially periodic IAW, which includes frequency band gaps at k{sub LW}{approx}k{sub IAW}/2{approx}k{sub 0} (k{sub LW}, k{sub IAW}, and k{sub 0} are the wave number of the LW, IAW, and incident pump electromagnetic wave, respectively). This band structure and the associated Bloch wave harmonic components are distinctly observed in RPIC calculations of the electron density fluctuation spectra and this structure may be observable in Thomson scatter. Bloch wave components grow up in the LW spectrum, and are not the result of isolated BSRS. Self-Thomson scattered light from these Bloch wave components can have forward scattering components. The distortion of the LW dispersion curve implies that the usual relationship connecting the frequency shift of the BSRS-scattered light and the density of origin of this light may become inaccurate. The modified LW frequency results in a time-dependent frequency shift that increases as the IAW grows, detunes the BSRS frequency matching condition, and reduces BSRS growth. A dependence of the BSRS reflectivity on the IAW Landau damping results because this damping determines the levels of IAWs. The time-dependent reflectivity in our simulations is characterized by bursts of sub-picosecond pulses of BSRS alternating with multi-ps pulses of BSBS, and BSRS is observed to decline precipitously as soon as SBS begins to grow from low levels. In strong BSBS regimes, the Bloch wave effects in BSRS are strong and temporal anti-correlation with BSRS is due to pump depletion in addition to frequency detuning. In most cases studied, BSBS suppressed the time-averaged reflectivity of BSRS compared to the levels obtained with fixed ions (and therefore no BSBS). The strong spatial modulation of the Bloch Langmuir waves appears to weaken electron trapping and thereby lowers the inflated reflectivity levels of BSRS.

Dodd, E. S.; DuBois, D. F.; Bezzerides, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Vu, H. X. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California in San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2013-03-15

384

Note technique Rgionalisation des scnarios  

E-print Network

dépasser les 35 °C selon les données fournies par notre scénario. Mots clés : cataclysme ; climat ; effet: climate; environment monitoring; France; greenhouse effect; models, theoratical; natural disasters Les de concentration des gaz à effet de serre et des aérosols pour le XXIE siècle [1]. Ces scénarios sont

Ribes, Aurélien

385

Flexibility of Motor Pattern Generation Across Stimulation Conditions by the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that “locomotor-like” rhythmic patterns can be evoked in the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord by several means, including pharmacological neuromodulation and electrical stimulation of various pathways. Recent studies have used stimulation of afferent pathways to evoke rhythmic patterns, relying on synaptic activation of interneuronal systems rather than global imposition of neuromodulatory state by pharmacological agents. We use the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord with attached hindlimb to examine the muscle activation patterns evoked by stimulation of these different pathways and evaluate whether stimulation of these pathways all evoke the same patterns. We find that the patterns evoked by bath application of serotonin (5-HT) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) consisted of alternation between hip flexors and extensors and similar alternation was observed in the patterns evoked by electrical stimulation of the cauda equina (CE) or contralateral fifth lumbar (L5) dorsal nerve root. In contrast, the knee extensor/hip flexor rectus femoris (RF) and knee flexor/hip extensor semitendinosus (ST) were activated differentially across stimulation conditions. In 5-HT/NMDA patterns, RF was active in late flexion and ST in late extension. In CE patterns, these two muscles switched places with RF typically active in late extension and ST active in flexion. In L5 patterns, ST was activated in extension and RF was silent or weakly active during flexion. There were also systematic differences in the consistency of rhythms evoked by each stimulation method: patterns evoked by electrical stimulation of CE or L5 were less consistently modulated with the rhythm when compared with 5-HT/NMDA-evoked patterns. All differences were preserved following deafferentation, demonstrating that they reflect intrinsic properties of spinal systems. These results highlight the intrinsic flexibility of motor pattern generation by spinal motor circuitry which is present from birth and provides important information to many studies examining spinal pattern generating networks. PMID:20089814

Klein, David A.; Patino, Angelica

2010-01-01

386

Modern management of epilepsy: Vagus nerve stimulation.  

PubMed

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was first tried as a treatment for seizure patients in 1988. The idea to stimulate the vagus nerve and disrupt or prevent seizures was proposed by Jacob Zabarra. He observed a consistent finding among several animal studies which indicated that stimulation of the vagus nerve could alter the brain wave patterns of the animals under study. His hypothesis formed the basis for the development of the vagus nerve stimulator, an implantable device similar to a pacemaker, which is implanted in the left chest and attached to the left vagus nerve via a stimulating lead. Once implanted, the stimulator is programmed by a physician to deliver regular stimulation 24 hours a day regardless of seizure activity. Patients can also activate extra 'on-demand' stimulation with a handheld magnet. Clinical studies have demonstrated VNS therapy to be a safe and effective mode of treatment when added to the existing regimen of severe, refractory patients with epilepsy. Efficacy ranges from seizure free to no response with the majority of patients (> 50%) reporting at least a 50% improvement in number of seizures after 1.5 years of treatment. The side-effect profile is unique and mostly includes stimulation-related sensations in the neck and throat. The mechanism of action for VNS is not clearly understood although two theories have emerged. First, the direct connection theory hypothesizes that the anticonvulsant action of VNS is caused by a threshold raising effect of the connections to the nucleus of the solitary tract and on to other structures. The second is the concept that chronic stimulation of the vagus nerve increases the amount of inhibitory neurotransmitters and decreases the amount of excitatory neurotransmitters. Additional research into the optimal use of VNS is ongoing. Animal and clinical research have produced some interesting new data suggesting there are numerous ways to improve the clinical performance of vagus nerve stimulation as a treatment for refractory patients. PMID:9068884

Ben-Menachem, E

1996-12-01

387

Agent Tcl: A flexible and secure mobile-agent system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile agent is an autonomous program that can migrate under its own control from machine to machine in a heterogeneous network. In other words, the program can suspend its execution at an arbitrary point, transport itself to another machine, and then resume execution from the point of suspension. Mobile agents have the potential to provide a single, general framework

Robert S. Gray

1997-01-01

388

Olga -a conversational agent with gestures Multimodal Agent Interfaces  

E-print Network

to delegate some tasks to an interface agent. Tasks can be established by, for example, explicit user of predictability, control and comprehension for the user (Schneiderman, 1997). Natural language, especially speech, offers a natural mechanism by which users can explicitly provide an agent with tasks. A speech interface

Beskow, Jonas

389

Software Agents and Multiagent Systems Agent Oriented Software Engineering  

E-print Network

, and is meant only for students' personal use. Any use different from the students' personal use is prohibited methodologies 3 Notation techniques 4 MAS infrastructures 5 Our research experience: WEST2EAST SIIT Master. Challenges and Research Directions in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering. Journal of Autonomous Agents

Mascardi, Viviana

390

Metabolic heat production in electrically stimulated and non-stimulated muscle  

E-print Network

found between electrically stimulated, non- stimulated, and post glycolysis treatments. This would indicate dif- ferences in theoretical metabolic heat generation, Apparent specific heat was determined using a differential scanninng ce1orimeter as a... measure of actual metabolic heat produc- tion. Some significant differences were found in the apparent specific heat of electrically stimulated vs. non-stimulated and. post glycolysis muscle samples. The theoretical amount of metabolic heat production...

Fitzwater, Roy James

2012-06-07

391

Response to painful stimulation as a function of environmental complexity and severity of the stimulation  

E-print Network

RESPONSE TO PAINFUL STIMULATION AS A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEXITY AND SEVERITY OF THE STIMULATION A Thesis by SARA SLOAN HARDING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... and content by: c (Chairman of Com ittee) (Member) ( ( ead of Department) (Member) August 1971 ABSTRACT Response to painful Stimulation as a Function of Environmental Complexity and Severity of the Stimulation (August 1971) Sara Sloan Harding, B. A...

Harding, Sara Sloan

2012-06-07

392

TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

393

Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concrétions fibreuses constituées de pickeringite et d'une faible quantité d'halotrichite.

Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

2002-07-01

394

Analysis of a novel magnetic stimulation system: Magnetic harmonic multi-cycle stimulation (MHMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic stimulation is nowadays a standard instrument in research as well as clinical applications. But available systems still have some vital problems; these include the extreme energetic ineffectiveness and the poor flexibility of stimulation properties. In the following text we analyse a new degree of freedom for stimulation devices in the time domain. This approach owes its high potential from

S. M. Goetz; T. Weyh; H.-G. Herzog

2009-01-01

395

Long-Term Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Hippocampal Reactivity to Afferent Stimulation  

E-print Network

Long-Term Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Hippocampal Reactivity to Afferent 84105, Israel Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a prom- ising treatment of affective; perforant path Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new noninvasive, safe, and painless method

Segal, Menahem

396

Unilateral electrical stimulation of rat locus coeruleus elicits bilateral response of norepinephrine neurons and sustained activation of medial prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

The brain stem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to modulate cortical excitability by norepinephrine (NE) release in LC forebrain targets. The effects of LC burst discharge, typically evoked by a strong excitatory input, on cortical ongoing activity are poorly understood. To address this question, we combined direct electrical stimulation of LC (LC-DES) with extracellular recording in LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an important cortical target of LC. LC-DES consisting of single pulses (0.1-0.5 ms, 0.01-0.05 mA) or pulse trains (20-50 Hz, 50-200 ms) evoked short-latency excitatory and inhibitory LC responses bilaterally as well as a delayed rebound excitation occurring ?100 ms after stimulation offset. The pulse trains, but not single pulses, reliably elicited mPFC activity change, which was proportional to the stimulation strength. The firing rate of ?50% of mPFC units was significantly modulated by the strongest LC-DES. Responses of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons included fast (?100 ms), transient (?100-200 ms) inhibition (10% of units) or excitation (13%) and delayed (?500 ms), sustained (?1 s) excitation (26%). The sustained spiking resembled NE-dependent mPFC activity during the delay period of working memory tasks. Concurrently, the low-frequency (0.1-8 Hz) power of the local field potential (LFP) decreased and high-frequency (>20 Hz) power increased. Overall, the DES-induced LC firing pattern resembled the naturalistic biphasic response of LC-NE neurons to alerting stimuli and was associated with a shift in cortical state that may optimize processing of behaviorally relevant events. PMID:24671530

Marzo, Aude; Totah, Nelson K; Neves, Ricardo M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Eschenko, Oxana

2014-06-15

397

Étude de quelques caractères de l'infection et de la spécificité de la léthargie des larves de Melolontha melolontha [Col.: Scarabaeidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  L'agent de la léthargie des larves du Hanneton commun,Melolontha melolontha L., n'appartient à aucun des types de micro-organismes connus. La maladie affecte 80% des vers blancs par injection dans\\u000a l'hemocoele ou dans le tube digestif antérieur. Les premiers insectes malades s'observent au bout de 1 mois à 24°C mais l'incubation\\u000a peut durer 4 mois chez certains individus à 20°C. Elle

B. Hurpin; P. H. Robert

1975-01-01

398

ANALYSE DES DETERMINANTS DE LA GESTION DES RESULTATS : CAS DES FIRMES CANADIENNES FRANCAISES ET TUNISIENNES  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser l'impact des déterminants de la gestion des résultats en référence aux modèles comptables Anglo-américain et Euro-continental. La France et le Canada sont, respectivement, issus de deux environnements sociaux-économiques différents. La Tunisie a procédé à la réforme de son système comptable pour passer du modèle comptable Euro-continental au modèle comptable Anglo-américain. Néanmoins les traits de

Hakim Ben Othman; Daniel Zéghal

2006-01-01

399

Tactile stimulation lowers stress in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, physical stimulation, such as massage therapy, reduces stress and has demonstrable health benefits. Grooming in primates may have similar effects but it remains unclear whether the positive effects are due to physical contact or to its social value. Here we show that physical stimulation reduces stress in a coral reef fish, the surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus. These fish regularly

Rui F. Oliveira; Albert F. H. Ros; Alexandra S. Grutter; Redouan Bshary; Marta C. Soares

2011-01-01

400

Spinal Cord Stimulation in Deafferentation Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) was used in 49 cases to control resistant deafferentation pain resulting from causalgia, phantom limb, plexus and nerve root avulsion, postherpetic neuralgia, reflex sympathetic dystrophy and amputation. In all cases, one or two Standard percutaneous leads were introduced into the epidural space and manipulated until the spinal segment at which external stimulation provoked paresthesic sensation in

M. J. Sánchez-Ledesma; G. García-March; P. Diaz-Cascajo; J. Gómez-Moreta; J. Broseta

1989-01-01

401

Stimulant drug treatment of hyperactive adolescents.  

PubMed

The characteristics and classroom behavior changes of hyperactive (HA) school children treated with stimulants during the years, 1969-1974, were evaluated in relation to the age of the child. Fourteen children who began taking stimulants before age 8 were compared to 11 who were initiated on stimulant treatment at age 13-16. Next, 13 children who continued on stimulants into their teens were studied to compare their pre-teen with their teenage drug response. The major findings were: 1) The therapeutic response of stimulants for hyperactivity did not significantly change from age 6 to age 16. 2) Pre-treatment teacher ratings indicated that as a group, teenage HA children were as inattentive as younger HA children, but less aggressive and overactive. 3) The mean dose of stimulant medication to achieve a successful classroom response for school age HA children did not significantly increase with age. 4) Parental resistances to stimulants were not related to the age of the HA child, but behavioral resistances by the child increased significantly during the teens. 5) There were no reports of abuse of stimulants by HA teenagers. PMID:1164867

Safer, D J; Allen, R P

1975-08-01

402

Follicular Dendritic Cells (B Lymphocyte Stimulating)  

E-print Network

immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), prion diseases and follicular lymphomas. A betterFollicular Dendritic Cells (B Lymphocyte Stimulating) Mohey Eldin M El Shikh, Virginia Commonwealth Sciences (ELS) article, Follicular Dendritic Cells (B Lymphocyte Stimulating) by Gregory F Burton, Zoher F

Burton, Greg F.

403

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used to investigate almost all areas of cognitive neuroscience. This article discusses the most important (and least understood) considerations regarding the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation for cognitive neuroscience and outlines advances in the use of this technique for the replication and extension of findings from neuropsychology. We also take a more speculative look forward

Vincent Walsh; Alan Cowey

2000-01-01

404

Wirelessly powering miniature implants for optogenetic stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional methods for in vivo optogenetic stimulation require optical fibers or mounted prosthesis. We present an approach for wirelessly powering implantable stimulators using electromagnetic midfield. By exploiting the properties of the midfield, we demonstrate the ability to generate high intensity light pulses in a freely moving animal.

Yeh, Alexander J.; Ho, John S.; Tanabe, Yuji; Neofytou, Evgenios; Beygui, Ramin E.; Poon, Ada S. Y.

2013-10-01

405

Self-Stimulation in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Sprague-Dawley rats pressed a bar for electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus. The threshold for such behavior correlated positively with the threshold to stop feeding and the threshold to escape from prolonged stimulation at the same electrode site. The results again open the question of the role that the ventromedial area is playing in positively reinforcing and punishment systems.

Gordon G. Ball

1972-01-01

406

Cyclic Steam Stimulation With Formation Parting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic steam stimulation in highly viscous oil-bearing formations, such as those of Cold Lake, entails formation parting in many cases. This work presents a numeric treatment of the phenomena involved in this process, viz., fluid flow in cyclic steam stimulation, formation parting, fracture propagation, and closure. The latter part of the model involves the calculation of stresses and strains in

S. M. Farouq. Ali; J. Blunschi

1983-01-01

407

Steam stimulation Tidelands operations, Wilmington oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated many times over that the producing formations and well bores under waterflood operations in the Wilmington field have been remarkable responsive to the energies of steam. The injection of steam for short periods of time may be classified as one of the best methods known for oil stimulation. Under waterflood, results of the steam stimulation of

1970-01-01

408

Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the role of spinal cord stimulation in contemporary chronic pain management. The anatomical and neurophysiological correlates of stimulation of the intraspinal structures are discussed. The most common indications are presented, including failed back syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, and spinal cord injury, etc. The most common complications are presented, including paralysis, infection, electrode migration,

Giancarlo Barolat

2000-01-01

409

Immunomodulatory agents for prophylaxis and therapy of infections.  

PubMed

The advent of the antibiotic era ushered in a shift towards non-pathogen-specific therapy of infectious diseases. This led to an overt emphasis on targeting microbial pathogens while strategies directed towards enhancing host immunity were neglected. In an effort to decrease sole reliance on antimicrobials, the time has come for a critical reappraisal of nonantibiotic, albeit immune response-enhancing substances. The diverse array of natural, synthetic, and recombinant immunomodulators discussed in this review succinctly demonstrate the potential of these agents to stimulate host defense mechanisms for prophylaxis and treatment of various microbial infections. PMID:10773486

Masihi, K N

2000-04-01

410

Rearrangement of microtubule network under biochemical and mechanical stimulations  

PubMed Central

Cells are constantly under the influence of various external forces in their physiological environment. These forces are countered by the viscoelastic properties of the cytoskeleton. To understand the response of the cytoskeleton to biochemical and mechanical stimuli, GFP-tubulin expressing CHO cells were investigated using scanning laser confocal microscopy. Cells treated with nocodazole revealed disruption in the microtubule network within minutes of treatment while keeping the cell shape intact. By contrast, trypsin, a proteolytic agent, altered the shape of CHO cells by breaking the peptide bonds at adhesion sites. CHO cells were also stimulated mechanically by applying an indentation force with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber. Mechanical stimulation applied using AFM showed two distinct cytoskeletal responses to the applied force: an immediate response that resulted in the depolymerization and displacement of the microtubules out of the contact zone, and a slower response characterized by tubulin polymerization at the periphery of the indented area. Flow chamber experiments revealed that shear force did not induce formation of new microtubules in CHO cells and that detachment of adherent cells from the substrate occurred independent from the flow direction. Overall, the experimental system described here allows real-time characterization of dynamic changes in cell cytoskeleton in response to the mechano-chemical stimuli and, therefore, provides better understanding of the biophysical and functional properties of cells. PMID:23466787

Celik, Emrah; Abdulreda, Midhat; Maiguel, Dony; Li, Jie; Moy, Vincent T.

2013-01-01

411

Brain Stimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Feedback control of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease has great potential to improve efficacy, reduce side effects, and decrease the cost of treatment. In this, the timing and intensity of stimulation are titrated according to biomarkers that capture current clinical state. Stimulation may be at standard high frequency or intelligently patterned to directly modify specific pathological rhythms. The search for and validation of appropriate feedback signals are therefore crucial. Signals recorded from the DBS electrode currently appear to be the most promising source of feedback. In particular, beta-frequency band oscillations in the local field potential recorded at the stimulation target may capture variation in bradykinesia and rigidity across patients, but this remains to be confirmed within patients. Biomarkers that reliably reflect other impairments, such as tremor, also need to be established. Finally, whether brain signals are causally important needs to be established before stimulation can be specifically patterned rather than delivered at empirically defined high frequency. PMID:22830645

Little, Simon; Brown, Peter

2012-01-01

412

Microscopic magnetic stimulation of neural tissue  

PubMed Central

Electrical stimulation is currently used to treat a wide range of cardiovascular, sensory and neurological diseases. Despite its success, there are significant limitations to its application, including incompatibility with magnetic resonance imaging, limited control of electric fields and decreased performance associated with tissue inflammation. Magnetic stimulation overcomes these limitations but existing devices (that is, transcranial magnetic stimulation) are large, reducing their translation to chronic applications. In addition, existing devices are not effective for deeper, sub-cortical targets. Here we demonstrate that sub-millimeter coils can activate neuronal tissue. Interestingly, the results of both modelling and physiological experiments suggest that different spatial orientations of the coils relative to the neuronal tissue can be used to generate specific neural responses. These results raise the possibility that micro-magnetic stimulation coils, small enough to be implanted within the brain parenchyma, may prove to be an effective alternative to existing stimulation devices. PMID:22735449

Bonmassar, Giorgio; Lee, Seung Woo; Freeman, Daniel K.; Polasek, Miloslav; Fried, Shelley I.; Gale, John T.

2012-01-01

413

Optical nerve stimulation for a vestibular prosthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared Nerve Stimulation (INS) offers several advantages over electrical stimulation, including more precise spatial selectivity and improved surgical access. In this study, INS and electrical stimulation were compared in their ability to activate the vestibular branch of the VIIIth nerve, as a potential way to treat balance disorders. The superior and lateral canals of the vestibular system of Guinea pigs were identified and approached with the aid of precise 3-D reconstructions. A monopolar platinum stimulating electrode was positioned near the ampullae of the canals, and biphasic current pulses were used to stimulate vestibular evoked potentials and eye movements. Thresholds and input/output functions were measured for various stimulus conditions. A short pulsed diode laser (Capella, Lockheed Martin-Aculight, Inc., Bothell WA) was placed in the same anatomical position and various stimulus conditions were evaluated in their ability to evoke similar potentials and eye movements.

Harris, David M.; Bierer, Steven M.; Wells, Jonathon D.; Phillips, James O.

2009-02-01

414

Humean agent-neutral reasons?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his recent book Slaves of the Passions, Mark Schroeder defends a Humean account of practical reasons (hypotheticalism). He argues that it is compatible with ‘genuinely agent-neutral reasons’. These are reasons that any agent whatsoever has. According to Schroeder, they may well include moral reasons. Furthermore, he proposes a novel account of a reason's weight, which is supposed to vindicate

Daan Evers

2009-01-01

415

Proactive Communications in Agent Teamwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capabilities for agents in a team to anticipate information- needs of teammates and proactively ofier relevant information are highly desirable. However, such behaviors have not been fully prescribed by ex- isting agent theories. To establish a theory about proactive information exchanges, we flrst introduces the concept of \\\\information-needs\\

John Yen; Xiaocong Fan; Richard A. Volz

2003-01-01

416

SOCIALLY INTELLIGENT AGENTS Creating Relationships  

E-print Network

Relationship: An Agent Architecture for Voluntary Mutual Control 29 Alan H. Bond 4 Developing Agents Who can Edmund Chattoe 14 Robotic Playmates: Analysing Interactive Competencies of Children with Autism Playing Théberge-Turmel 16 Affective Social Quest: Emotion Recognition Therapy for Autistic Children 133 Katharine

Cañamero, Lola

417

Team Description Paper Agent competition  

E-print Network

Traichioiu and Arnoud Visser Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, NL http approach State Description The state space for the task of fire fighting in RoboCup Rescue is limited) can in turn be divided into fire, police and ambulance agents. The center agents func- tion

Visser, Arnoud

418

Itinerant agents for mobile computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a framework for itinerant agents that can be used to implement secure, remote applications in large, public networks such as the Internet or the IBM Global Network. Itinerant agents are programs, dispatched from a source computer, that roam among a set of networked servers until they accomplish their task. This is an extension to the client\\/server model in which

David Chess; Benjamin Grosof; Colin Harrison; David Levine; Colin Parris; Gene Tsudik

1995-01-01

419

Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason  

E-print Network

Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

2010-01-01

420

Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and

Edwin E. Geldreich

1996-01-01

421

Artificial agents learning human fairness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in technology allow multi-agent systems to be de- ployed in cooperation with or as a service for humans. Typically, those systems are designed assuming individually rational agents, according to the principles of classical game theory. However, re- search in the field of behavioral economics has shown that humans are not purely self-interested: they strongly care about fairness. Therefore,

Steven De Jong; Karl Tuyls; Katja Verbeeck

2008-01-01

422

Programming Satan's Agents Volker Roth  

E-print Network

Programming Satan's Agents Volker Roth Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Dept. Security Satan's Computer" [1], which was published in 1995. A version of its abstract serves us as introduction from programming Satan's agents [computer] may be helpful in tackling the more common problem

Roth, Volker

423

Ethical issues confronting travel agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of current and prospective ethical issues facing commercial (as opposed to leisure) travel agents. Industry wide ethical issues include conflicting pressures from suppliers and clients, competency requirements for agents and misleading advertising and sales claims (“vaporware” in industry jargon). Issues with travel suppliers include calculation and payment of commissions, fare loopholes, frequent flyer plans and

Thomas W. Dunfee; Bruce M. Black

1996-01-01

424

Agent-Based Literacy Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this theoretical essay is to explore the limits of traditional conceptualizations of reader and text and to propose a more general theory based on the concept of a literacy agent. The proposed theoretical perspective subsumes concepts from traditional theory and aims to account for literacy online. The agent-based literacy theory…

McEneaney, John E.

2006-01-01

425

Cooperating Air Traffic Control Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key aim of cooperating air traffic control agents (CAT CA) was to comparatively analyze and evaluate the success of a multiagent system (MAS) and a single agent system (SAS) at addressing a given set of goals in a problem domain amenable to the utilization of either a MAS or SAS. The problem domain selected was air traffic control (AT

Geoff Nitschke

2001-01-01

426

Gelled Anti-icing Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pectin added to antifreeze/water mixture. Formulations include water with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as deicer and pectin as gel former. Without gelling agent, deicer runs off vertical surfaces. Without pectin solution will completely evaporate in far less time. Agents developed have wide potential for ice prevention on runways, highways, bridges and sidewalks.

Markles, O. F.; Sperber, H. H.

1983-01-01

427

Hypothesis Testing for Complex Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agents approach animal-like complexity, evaluat- ing them becomes as difficult as evaluating animals. This paper describes the application of techniques for characterizing animal behavior to the evaluation of com- plex agents. We describe the conditions that lead to the behavioral variability that requires experimental meth- ods. We then review the state of the art in psychologi- cal experimental design

Joanna Bryson; Will Lowey; Lynn Andrea Stein

2000-01-01

428

Intelligent agents for intrusion detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on intrusion detection and countermeasures with respect to widely-used operating systems and networks. The design and architecture of an intrusion detection system built from distributed agents is proposed to implement an intelligent system on which data mining can be performed to provide global, temporal views of an entire networked system. A starting point for agent intelligence in

Guy G. Helmer; Johnny S. K. Wong; Vasant Honavar; Les Miller

1998-01-01

429

Nr. 057 / 2014 // 3. April 2014 Knstlerische Darstellung des ,,Giant impact", des Aufpralls eines kleineren  

E-print Network

Nr. 057 / 2014 // 3. April 2014 1/7 Künstlerische Darstellung des ,,Giant impact", des Aufpralls freundlicher Genehmigung des NASA/Jet Propulsion Labors am California Institute of Technology. In ,,Nature- zeichnet. Der ,,Giant impact" und seine Folgen: Die Entstehung des Mondes und Veränderungen im Erdmantel

Ullmann, G. Matthias

430

Bacterial Inhibition by Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Significance: Much evidence shows that electrical stimulation (ES) promotes the wound healing process. The inhibitory effect of ES on bacterial growth has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the useful effects of ES on wound healing. Bacterial burden has been associated with chronic wounds. The extensive use of antibiotics can lead to the spread of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Whether biophysical energies, such as ES, can be used as a treatment modality against pathogenic microorganisms remains an open question. Recent Advances: The research literature provides evidence for useful effects of ES in terms of inhibition of bacterial growth. The type of ES, its polarity, and the intensity of the current play a major role in establishment of antibacterial effects. Both direct current (DC) and high voltage pulse current are more effective at inhibiting bacterial growth than are other types of ES. The exact mechanism underlying the antibacterial effects of ES is not clear. Critical Issues: Available evidence indicates that microampere DC (?ADC) is better than other ES types for inhibition of bacterial growth. The results of most studies also support the application of cathodal current for bacterial growth inhibition. The current intensity of ES would appear to be tolerable by humans if used clinically for treatment of infected wounds. Future Directions: The cathodal ?ADC appears to be more effective for inhibition of microorganism growth. Further research, especially in vivo, is necessary to clarify the inhibitory effects of ES on wound bacterial infections. PMID:24761349

Asadi, Mohammad Reza; Torkaman, Giti

2014-01-01

431

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-01-01

432

Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

2008-01-01

433

Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents  

DOEpatents

Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

Keener, William K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-08-07

434

Absorption des substances dissoutes dans le milieu, des particules et des produits de la digestion extracellulaire chez Actinia equina  

E-print Network

Absorption des substances dissoutes dans le milieu, des particules et des produits de la digestion. Absorption of substances dissolved in the sea-environment, particles and extra- cellular digestion products with the prey. The transfer (in both directions) of the different absorbed substances between the ecto- derm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

435

Influence du nmatode des tiges, Ditylenchus dipsaci (Khn) Fil. dans le dveloppement de la bactriose  

E-print Network

et nématologiques effectués sur des aulx prélevés en culture ont montré la présence de ces agents-bactérie, inoculation, désinfection du sol, DD. SUMMARY Effect of stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) on the development. Research was undertaken on the possible effect of stem nematode in a bacterial disease of garlic, commonly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

Responsables des Services Administratifs et Financiers  

E-print Network

­ 24 avenue des Landais ­ BP 80026 ­ 63711 Aubière cedex Personnel enseignant et HC (70.11) Marie-Jo BERTHOLET / Suzanne HERNANDEZ Responsable Dominique BESSE (70.16) Gestion des salles, Examens, ADE (70

Sart, Remi

437

FACULT DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES -SORBONNE  

E-print Network

FACULT� DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES - SORBONNE LICENCE EN SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES ANN�E UNIVERSITAIRE 2013-2014 MENTION SCIENCES DU Vaillant 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt L3, M1 et M2 Faculté des Sciences

Pellier, Damien

438

FACULT DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES -SORBONNE  

E-print Network

FACULT� DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES - SORBONNE LICENCE EN SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES ANN�E UNIVERSITAIRE 2013-2014 MENTION SCIENCES DE L'�DUCATION L3 Faculté des Sciences humaines et sociales

Pellier, Damien

439

Detection of nerve agent stimulants based on photoluminescent porous silicon interferometer  

PubMed Central

Porous silicon (PSi) exhibiting dual optical properties, both Fabry-Pérot fringe and photolumincence, was developed and used as chemical sensors. PSi samples were prepared by an electrochemical etch of p-type silicon under the illumination of 300-W tungsten lamp during the etch process. The surface of PSi was characterized by cold field-emission scanning electron microscope. PSi samples exhibited a strong visible orange photoluminescence at 610?nm with an excitation wavelength of 460?nm as well as Fabry-Pérot fringe with a tungsten light source. Both reflectivity and photoluminescence were simultaneously measured under the exposure of organophosphate vapors. An increase of optical thickness and quenching photoluminescences under the exposure of various organophosphate vapors were observed. PMID:23009146

2012-01-01

440

Thilly/Stengel/Boini/Villar/Couchoud/Frimat Evaluation and determinants of underprescription of erythropoiesis stimulating agents  

E-print Network

with diabetic or polycystic kidney disease and more likely in those with malignancy, unplanned haemodialysis ­ dialysis - end-stage renal disease ­ registry - underprescription Abstract Background: Inadequate anaemia-stage renal disease (ESRD) registry to investigate these determinants and the patients' anaemia status one

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

Persistent Action of Thin-Film Spreading Agents Used in Cyclic Steam Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production histories of eight of 15 wells that received injections of a special class of interfacially active chemicals during an earlier field study have been followed during a subsequent cycle in which no chemical was used. When compared to production in the original steam-only cycle, the results show that the positive effect of the original chemical application persists into

Blair C. M; R. E. Scribner; C. A. Stout

1983-01-01

442

Anti-Mycotics Suppress Interleukin4 and Interleukin5 Production in Anti-CD3 Plus Anti-CD28Stimulated T Cells from Patients with Atopic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is reported that anti-mycotic agents are effective for the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. We studied the in vitro effects of anti-mycotics on T helper-1 and T helper-2 cytokine production in anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28-stimulated T cells from atopic dermatitis patients and normal donors. The amounts of interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 secreted by anti-CD3\\/CD28-stimulated T cells were higher in atopic

Naoko Kanda; Utayo Enomoto; Shinichi Watanabe

2001-01-01

443

LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 58 DES SECONDES ET DES PC EN HISTOIRE-GOGRAPHIE DES "SECONDES" ET DES "PC"  

E-print Network

allumer le PC, mettre la disquette système, mettre la disquette du programme. Avec la multiplication de l : comprendre) ses erreurs (cf. La vie du lac sur PC, ou Esporif sur Nanoréseau). D'autres programmes permettent129 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N° 58 DES SECONDES ET DES PC EN HISTOIRE-G�OGRAPHIE DES "SECONDES" ET DES

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can differentially inhibit integrin- dependent and CAM-stimulated neurite outgrowth  

PubMed Central

We have used monolayers of parental 3T3 cells and 3T3 cells expressing one of three transfected cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) (NCAM, N- cadherin, and L1) as a culture substrate for rat cerebellar neurons. A number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been tested for their ability to inhibit neurite outgrowth over parental 3T3 monolayers which we show to be partly dependent on neuronal integrin receptor function, as compared with neurite outgrowth stimulated by the above three CAMs. Whereas genistein (100 microM), lavendustin A (20 microM), and tyrphostins 34 and 47 (both at 150 microM) had no effect on integrin dependent or CAM stimulated neurite outgrowth, the erbstatin analogue (10-15 micrograms/ml) and tyrphostins 23 and 25 (both at 150 microM) specifically inhibited the response stimulated by all three CAMs. CAM stimulated neurite outgrowth can be accounted for by a G-protein- dependent activation of neuronal calcium channels; experiments with agents that directly activate this pathway localized the erbstatin analogue site of action upstream of the G-protein and calcium channels, whereas tyrphostins have sites of action downstream from calcium channel activation. These data suggest that activation of an erbstatin sensitive tyrosine kinase is an important step upstream of calcium channel activation in the second messenger pathway underlying the neurite outgrowth response stimulated by a variety of CAMs, and that this kinase is not required for integrin-dependent neurite outgrowth. PMID:8132706

1994-01-01

445

Activity of [des-Aspartyl1]-Angiotensin II in Primary Aldosteronism  

PubMed Central

This study describes the effects of [des-Aspartyl1]-angiotensin II ([des-Asp]-AII) on blood pressure and aldosterone production in patients with primary aldosteronism due to aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA) and idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IHA), and in normotensive control subjects. 10 patients with primary aldosteronism, 7 with APA and 3 with IHA, and 6 normotensive control subjects were placed on a constant 150-meq sodium diet for 4 days. [des-Asp]-AII was infused for 30 min at 6, 12, and 18 pmol/kg per min. Three groups of patients were identified on the basis of aldosterone response to [des-Asp]-AII. Group I, composed of normotensive control subjects, showed incremental increases in plasma aldosterone concentration from 6±1 to 14±3 ng/100 ml (P < 0.01) with [des-Asp]-AII infusion. Group II, composed of patients with primary aldosteronism, showed incremental increases in plasma aldosterone concentration from 33±8 to 65±13 ng/100 ml (P < 0.05) with 12 pmol/kg per min of [des-Asp]-AII. Group III, also composed of patients with primary aldosteronism, showed no increase of plasma aldosterone concentration with [des-Asp]-AII. Groups I and II showed similar percentage increases in plasma aldosterone concentration (P = NS). Group III showed significantly lower aldosterone responses than group I (P < 0.01). Group II included all patients with IHA and two patients with APA. Group III included only patients with APA. The blood pressure responses to [des-Asp]-AII of subjects in group I did not differ significantly from those of groups II or III. Thus, patients with IHA and a subgroup of patients with APA showed responsiveness to [des-Asp]-AII which was limited to adrenal cortical stimulation of aldosterone biosynthesis. This suggests that adrenal responsiveness to angiotensin is a major control mechanism in some forms of primary aldosteronism. The differential adrenal responsiveness to [des-Asp]-AII in patients with APA indicates either that there are two distinct subpopulations of APA, or that alteration in tumor response to angiotensin occurs during the natural progression of the disease history. PMID:438332

Carey, Robert M.; Ayers, Carlos R.; Vaughan, E. Darracott; Peach, Michael J.; Herf, Steven M.

1979-01-01

446

Des volcans et des hommes depuis le dernier interglaciaire en Basse Auvergne (Massif Central, France)  

E-print Network

of volcanic activity . In the Massif Central, selected case- studies allow us to discuss the effect of local climatiques quaternaires ont rythmé la différenciation des biotopes. Le volcanisme a brutalement perturbé l et provoqué des modifications brutales des versants et des tracés des cours d'eau : c'est le cas en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

DOSAGE DES LIPIDES DES FCES EXTRACTION SPARE, IMPORTANCE ET COMPOSITION EN ACIDES GRAS  

E-print Network

DOSAGE DES LIPIDES DES F�CES EXTRACTION S�PAR�E, IMPORTANCE ET COMPOSITION EN ACIDES GRAS DES ce travail a été la mise au point d'une méthode de dosage des lipides des fèces qui permette d nécessaire d'en tenir compte dans les calculs de digestibilité. Cependant, dans certains cas, il importe de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

448

Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?  

PubMed Central

Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce “killed but metabolically active” microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat biological warfare in the future. PMID:24067444

Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-01-01

449

Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?  

PubMed

Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce "killed but metabolically active" microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat biological warfare in the future. PMID:24067444

Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-11-15

450

Magnesium stimulates renal phosphate reabsorption.  

PubMed

In the kidney, approximately 80% of the filtered phosphate (Pi) is reabsorbed along the proximal tubule. Changes in renal Pi reabsorption are associated with modulation of the sodium-dependent Pi cotransporter type IIa (NaPi-IIa) and type IIc (NaPi-IIc) protein abundance in the brush-border membrane (BBM) of proximal tubule cells. NaPi-IIa is mainly regulated by dietary Pi intake and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effect of alteration in dietary magnesium (Mg2+) intake on renal Pi handling. Urinary Pi excretion and renal expression of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc were analyzed in rats fed a normal (0.2%) or high-Mg2+ (2.5%) diet. A high-Mg2+ diet resulted in decreased renal Pi excretion and increased protein expression of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc. Serum FGF-23 (fibroblast growth factor 23) levels were unchanged under a high-Mg2+ diet. Serum PTH levels were slightly decreased under a high-Mg2+ diet. To examine whether the observed changes in renal Pi reabsorption are PTH dependent, expression of NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIc was also analyzed in parathyroidectomized (PTX) rats fed a normal or high-Mg2+ diet. In PTX rats, Mg2+ had no significant effect on renal Pi excretion or NaPi-IIa protein expression. Mg2+ increased NaPi-IIc protein expression in PTX rats. This experiment shows for the first time on the molecular level how Mg2+ stimulates renal Pi reabsorption. Under a high-Mg2+ diet, NaPi-IIa expression is dependent on PTH levels, whereas NaPi-IIc expression seems to be independent of PTH levels. PMID:18701629

Thumfart, Julia; Jung, Susanne; Amasheh, Salah; Krämer, Stephanie; Peters, Harm; Sommer, Kerstin; Biber, Jürg; Murer, Heini; Meij, Iwan; Querfeld, Uwe; Wagner, Carsten A; Müller, Dominik

2008-10-01

451

Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing  

PubMed Central

Background There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. Method We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Results Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Conclusion Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction. PMID:24049559

Thakral, Gaurav; LaFontaine, Javier; Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K.; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence A.

2013-01-01

452

A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

2012-02-01

453

Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve.  

PubMed

Direct electrical stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by cochlear implants (CIs) enables open speech comprehension in the majority of implanted deaf subjects(1-) (6). Nonetheless, sound coding with current CIs has poor frequency and intensity resolution due to broad current spread from each electrode contact activating a large number of SGNs along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea(7-) (9). Optical stimulation is proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation that promises spatially more confined activation of SGNs and, hence, higher frequency resolution of coding. In recent years, direct infrared illumination of the cochlea has been used to evoke responses in the auditory nerve(10). Nevertheless it requires higher energies than electrical stimulation(10,11) and uncertainty remains as to the underlying mechanism(12). Here we describe a method based on optogenetics to stimulate SGNs with low intensity blue light, using transgenic mice with neuronal expression of channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)(13) or virus-mediated expression of the ChR2-variant CatCh(14). We used micro-light emitting diodes (µLEDs) and fiber-coupled lasers to stimulate ChR2-expressing SGNs through a small artificial opening (cochleostomy) or the round window. We assayed the responses by scalp recordings of light-evoked potentials (optogenetic auditory brainstem response: oABR) or by microelectrode recordings from the auditory pathway and compared them with acoustic and electrical stimulation. PMID:25350571

Hernandez, Victor H; Gehrt, Anna; Jing, Zhizi; Hoch, Gerhard; Jeschke, Marcus; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

2014-01-01

454

Die Gestaltungen des Wahnsinns bei William Shakespeare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Shakespeare gilt als der groe Menschenbeschreiber am Beginn der Neuzeit. Wie bei vielen seiner Zeitgenossen war der Wahnsinn ein ganz zentrales Thema seines Schaffens. Diese Arbeit geht der Frage des kulturgeschichtlichen und gesellschaftlichen Umfeldes nach, aus dem heraus Shakespeare Figuren entwickelt hat, die aus diesem Kontext weit herausragen. Dabei liegt ein wesentlicher Schwerpunkt auf der historischen Semantik des Wortfelds des

Thomas Stompe; Kristina Ritter; Alexander Friedmann

2006-01-01

455

UNIVERSIT DE SHERBROOKE SERVICE DES IMMEUBLES  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIT� DE SHERBROOKE SERVICE DES IMMEUBLES GUIDE DE L'ENTREPRENEUR POUR LES TRAVAUX DE CONSTRUCTION 9 JANVIER 2013 #12;Table des matières Guide de l'entrepreneur ­ Université de Sherbrooke 2 1. PROC�DURE DE CADENASSAGE DES �QUIPEMENTS PAR LE MA�TRE D'OEUVRE (ENTREPRENEUR G�N�RAL

Spino, Claude

456

Lipodystrophies : perceptions et souffrance des personnes atteintes,  

E-print Network

Lipodystrophies : perceptions et souffrance des personnes atteintes, réponses collectives 117 Alice Desclaux, Sokhna Boye 1. INTRODUCTION Les lipodystrophies sont définies par la médecine comme des ailleurs il existe actuellement un débat sur la prévalence des lipodystrophies dans les pays du Sud. Elles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

457

Comores (Union des) Admission 1 er  

E-print Network

#12;2014-02-25 Secteur mathématiques et informatique Liste complète des programmes en sciences pures demandés Administration des systèmes informatiques Multimédia Programmation2014-02-25 Comores (Union des) Admission 1 er cycle Programmes à capacité d'accueil limitée

Montréal, Université de

458

Alfred Adler: Der Sinn des Lebens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Meinung des Individuums vom Sinn des Lebens ist in letzter Linie die Richtschnur für sein Denken, Fühlen und Handeln.\\u000a Der wahre Sinn des Lebens aber zeigt sich in dem Widerstand, der sich dem unrichtig handelnden Individuum entgegensetzt“ (S.\\u000a 39).

Dorit Hejze

459

Seminal transforming growth factor beta1 stimulates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production and inflammatory cell recruitment in the murine uterus.  

PubMed

Mating in rodents evokes an inflammatory-like reaction within the uterine endometrium, characterized by extensive infiltration and activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. This response is initiated when seminal vesicle gland-derived factors in the ejaculate stimulate uterine epithelial cells to release proinflammatory cytokines including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Experiments in which seminal vesicle secretions were fractionated by Sephacryl S-400 chromatography and assayed in vitro for GM-CSF-stimulating activity revealed that the seminal moiety coeluted with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) in the 150-440-kDa range and was neutralized by anti-TGFbeta1 antibodies. Comparable amounts of recombinant TGFbeta1 stimulated GM-CSF release in cultures of uterine epithelial cells from estrous mice and, when instilled into the uterine lumen, caused an increase in GM-CSF content and an infiltration of leukocytes into the endometrium similar to the postmating response. These results show that seminal vesicular fluid contains TGFbeta1 at levels sufficient to be the primary causative agent in the postmating inflammatory cascade through induction of GM-CSF synthesis by uterine epithelial cells. Seminal TGFbeta1 is thus implicated as a key factor in initiation of the remodeling events and immunological changes that occur in the uterus during the preimplantation period of pregnancy. PMID:9603256

Tremellen, K P; Seamark, R F; Robertson, S A

1998-05-01

460

Pharmacologic review of thrombolytic agents.  

PubMed

Thrombolytic therapy has significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality that was once associated with acute myocardial infarction. Because of the substantial benefits associated with this therapy, investigation has intensified in search of the optimal agent or agents. Five agents are currently being investigated individually and in various combinations to determine which agent(s) will outperform the others in terms of reperfusion, patency, mortality reduction, and clinical events. Two of the agents, t-PA and scu-PA, are considered fibrin selective, whereas the other three, streptokinase, urokinase and APSAC are nonselective. Whether this distinction provides substantial benefit is still not known. All of the FDA-approved agents (streptokinase, t-PA, and APSAC) have demonstrated survival benefit and will continue to be administered in AMI patients. In addition, the 1990s begins a new era that includes broadened selection criteria for AMI patients as well as expanding cardiovascular indications for thrombolytic therapy. The challenge to nurses is to improve and implement nursing care practices at the same rapid pace set by the medical discipline. This includes astute assessment and observational skills necessary to prevent and detect potential complications associated with thrombolytic therapy. Rapidly changing medical techniques mandate ongoing nursing research, which is needed to determine the most effective interventions in reducing complications associated with thrombolytic therapy and in promoting positive adaptive behaviors in the AMI patient. Thrombolytic therapy is an intervention for the 1990s, and nursing care is essential in maintaining the beneficial effects of this dynamic therapy. PMID:2096866

Kline, E M

1990-12-01

461

Generating Super Stimulated-Echoes in MRI and their Application to Hyperpolarized C-13 Diffusion Metabolic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Stimulated-echoes in MR can be used to provide high sensitivity to motion and flow, creating diffusion and perfusion weighting as well as T1 contrast, but conventional approaches inherently suffer from a 50% signal loss. The super stimulated-echo, which uses a specialized radiofrequency (RF) pulse train, has been proposed in order to improve the signal while preserving motion and T1 sensitivity. This paper presents a novel and straightforward method for designing the super stimulated-echo pulse train using inversion pulse design techniques. This method can also create adiabatic designs with an improved response to RF transmit field variations. The scheme was validated in phantom experiments and shown in vivo to improve SNR. We have applied a super stimulated-echo to metabolic MRI with hyperpolarized 13C-labeled molecules. For spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized agents, several repetition times are required but only a single stimulated-echo encoding is feasible, which can lead to unwanted motion blurring. To address this, a super stimulated-echo preparation scheme was used in which the diffusion weighting is terminated prior to the acquisition, and we observed a SNR increases of 60% in phantoms and 49% in vivo over a conventional stimulated-echo. Experiments following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate in murine transgenic cancer models have shown improved delineation for tumors since signals from metabolites within tumor tissues are retained while those from the vasculature are suppressed by the diffusion preparation scheme. PMID:22027366

Larson, Peder E. Z.; Kerr, Adam B.; Reed, Galen D.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kurhanewicz, John; Pauly, John M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

2011-01-01

462

Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

Stephen Wolhart

2005-06-30

463

31 CFR 10.4 - Eligibility for enrollment as enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Eligibility for enrollment as enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent. 10.4 Section 10.4 Money and Finance...10.4 Eligibility for enrollment as enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent. (a)...

2011-07-01

464

76 FR 2617 - User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents; Hearing Cancellation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1545-BJ65 User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue...relating to the imposition of user fees for enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents....

2011-01-14

465

75 FR 76940 - User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1545-BJ65 User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury...relating to the imposition of user fees for enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents. The...

2010-12-10

466

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

1997-12-30

467

Symptom management for schizophrenic agents  

SciTech Connect

Behavior-based paradigms are a promising avenue towards creating full-blown integrated autonomous agents. However, until now they have had a major stumbling block: programmers can create robust, subtle, and expressive behaviors, but the agent`s overall behavior gradually falls apart as these behaviors are combined. For small numbers of behaviors, this disintegration can be managed by the programmer, but as more behaviors are combined their interactions become so complex that they become at least time-consuming and at worst impossible to manage.

Sengers, P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

468

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

Smith, Paul H. (Los Alamos, NM); Brainard, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

469

[Hemodynamic effects following bolus administration of different vasopressive agents for blood pressure stabilization during peridural anesthesia].  

PubMed

Vasopressors are often used to counteract hypotension induced by sympathetic blockade during epidural or spinal anaesthesia. This study contains data of invasive haemodynamic investigations following single-shot applications of different vasoconstrictor agents (Akrinor, etilefrine, ephedrin, norfenefrin, amezinium) during a combination of epidural block and controlled ventilation with oxygen and nitrous oxide. In a preceding dose finding study equipotent dosage of the substances used was confirmed. Usually bolus application of these vasopressors causes only a short-lasting circulatory stimulation, which does not cover the whole period of sympathetic blockade (exception: amezinium). Even small doses of drugs acting only upon alpha-receptors, may cause unwanted peripheral vasoconstriction and decrease of the already lowered cardiac output (example: norfenefrine). The rise of blood pressure after betamimetics may be delayed by an initial vascular beta 2 stimulation (example: etilefrine). In other sympathetic stimulants venoconstriction and therefore improvement of cardiac output by increase of preload takes place after an interval of some minutes to cardiac stimulation (example: ephedrin, Akrinor). Though the use of vasopressor agents during central blockade cannot be recommended in general, substances with alpha- as well as beta-stimulation should be preferred, if necessary. When using substances with short duration of action continuous infusion has to be taken into consideration. PMID:2863856

Müller, H; Brähler, A; Börner, U; Boldt, J; Stoyanov, M; Hempelmann, G

1985-07-01

470

Head-to-Head Comparison of Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation, Transcranial AC Stimulation, and Transcranial DC Stimulation for Tinnitus  

PubMed Central

Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external sound stimulus. This phantom sound has been related to plastic changes and hyperactivity in the auditory cortex. Different neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been used in an attempt to modify local and distant neuroplasticity as to reduce tinnitus symptoms. Recently, two techniques of pulsed electrical stimulation using weak electrical currents – transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) – have also shown significant neuromodulatory effects. In the present study we conducted the first head-to-head comparison of three different transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques, namely tDCS, tACS, and tRNS in 111 tinnitus patients by placing the electrodes overlying the auditory cortex bilaterally. The results demonstrated that tRNS induced the larger transient suppressive effect on the tinnitus loudness and the tinnitus related distress as compared to tDCS and tACS. Both tDCS and tACS induced small and non-significant effects on tinnitus symptoms, supporting the superior effects of tRNS as a method for tinnitus suppression. PMID:24391599

Vanneste, Sven; Fregni, Felipe; De Ridder, Dirk

2013-01-01

471

21 CFR 882.5820 - Implanted cerebellar stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cerebellar stimulator is a device used to stimulate electrically a patient's cerebellar cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, spasticity, and some movement disorders. The stimulator consists of an implanted receiver with electrodes that are...

2012-04-01

472

21 CFR 882.5820 - Implanted cerebellar stimulator.  

...cerebellar stimulator is a device used to stimulate electrically a patient's cerebellar cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, spasticity, and some movement disorders. The stimulator consists of an implanted receiver with electrodes that are...

2014-04-01

473

Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Southern High Plains archaeological sites  

E-print Network

Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Southern High Plains archaeological sites James K of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, applying mainly single-grain analyses, was therefore. Keywords: Optically stimulated luminescence; Single-grain resolution; Southern High Plains; Paleoindian

Holliday, Vance T.

474

21 CFR 882.1880 - Evoked response mechanical stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Evoked response mechanical stimulator. 882.1880 Section...Devices § 882.1880 Evoked response mechanical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response mechanical stimulator is a device used to...

2010-04-01

475

21 CFR 882.1880 - Evoked response mechanical stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Evoked response mechanical stimulator. 882.1880 Section...Devices § 882.1880 Evoked response mechanical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response mechanical stimulator is a device used to...

2012-04-01

476

21 CFR 882.1880 - Evoked response mechanical stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Evoked response mechanical stimulator. 882.1880 Section...Devices § 882.1880 Evoked response mechanical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response mechanical stimulator is a device used to...

2011-04-01

477

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over Posterior Parietal  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over Posterior Parietal Cortex in transsaccadic memory in eight subjects by simultaneously applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation stimulation coincided more closely with saccade timing. Here, the capacity to compare presaccadic

Crawford, Doug

478

Brief Communications Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Disrupts the Perception  

E-print Network

Brief Communications Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Disrupts the Perception and Embodiment somatosensory cortex (rSC) with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) while participants; embodied cognition; emotion; transcranial magnetic stimulation; somatosensory cortex; occipital face area

Duchaine, Bradley C.

479

21 CFR 882.5820 - Implanted cerebellar stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cerebellar stimulator is a device used to stimulate electrically a patient's cerebellar cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, spasticity, and some movement disorders. The stimulator consists of an implanted receiver with electrodes that are...

2010-04-01

480

21 CFR 882.1880 - Evoked response mechanical stimulator.  

...2014-04-01 false Evoked response mechanical stimulator. 882.1880 Section...Devices § 882.1880 Evoked response mechanical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response mechanical stimulator is a device used to...

2014-04-01

481

21 CFR 882.1880 - Evoked response mechanical stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Evoked response mechanical stimulator. 882.1880 Section...Devices § 882.1880 Evoked response mechanical stimulator. (a) Identification. An evoked response mechanical stimulator is a device used to...

2013-04-01

482

21 CFR 522.1002 - Follicle stimulating hormone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Follicle stimulating hormone. 522.1002 Section 522.1002 ...§ 522.1002 Follicle stimulating hormone. (a)(1) Specifications ...NIH-FSH-S1) of follicle stimulating hormone. The other vial contains 10...

2013-04-01

483

21 CFR 522.1002 - Follicle stimulating hormone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Follicle stimulating hormone. 522.1002 Section 522.1002 ...§ 522.1002 Follicle stimulating hormone. (a)(1) Specifications ...NIH-FSH-S1) of follicle stimulating hormone. The other vial contains 10...

2010-04-01

484

21 CFR 522.1002 - Follicle stimulating hormone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Follicle stimulating hormone. 522.1002 Section 522.1002 ...§ 522.1002 Follicle stimulating hormone. (a)(1) Specifications ...NIH-FSH-S1) of follicle stimulating hormone. The other vial contains 10...

2012-04-01

485

21 CFR 522.1002 - Follicle stimulating hormone.  

...2014-04-01 false Follicle stimulating hormone. 522.1002 Section 522.1002 ...§ 522.1002 Follicle stimulating hormone. (a)(1) Specifications. ...NIH-FSH-S1) of follicle stimulating hormone. The other vial contains 10...

2014-04-01

486

21 CFR 522.1002 - Follicle stimulating hormone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Follicle stimulating hormone. 522.1002 Section 522.1002 ...§ 522.1002 Follicle stimulating hormone. (a)(1) Specifications ...NIH-FSH-S1) of follicle stimulating hormone. The other vial contains 10...

2011-04-01

487

21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775 ...2775 Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. An electrical peripheral nerve stimulator (neuromuscular...effect of anesthetic drugs and gases. (b)...

2013-04-01

488

21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.  

...false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775 ...2775 Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. (a) Identification. An electrical peripheral nerve stimulator (neuromuscular...effect of anesthetic drugs and gases. (b)...

2014-04-01

489

Towards a Switched-Capacitor Based Stimulator for Efficient Deep-Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

We have developed a novel 4-channel prototype stimulation circuit for implantable neurological stimulators (INS). This Switched-Capacitor based Stimulator (SCS) aims to utilize charge storage and charge injection techniques to take advantage of both the efficiency of conventional voltage-controlled stimulators (VCS) and the safety and controllability of current-controlled stimulators (CCS). The discrete SCS prototype offers fine control over stimulation parameters such as voltage, current, pulse width, frequency, and active electrode channel via a LabVIEW graphical user interface (GUI) when connected to a PC through USB. Furthermore, the prototype utilizes a floating current sensor to provide charge-balanced biphasic stimulation and ensure safety. The stimulator was analyzed using an electrode-electrolyte interface (EEI) model as well as with a pair of pacing electrodes in saline. The primary motivation of this research is to test the feasibility and functionality of a safe, effective, and power-efficient switched-capacitor based stimulator for use in Deep Brain Stimulation. PMID:21095987

Vidal, Jose; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2013-01-01

490

7 CFR 58.722 - Emulsifying agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Emulsifying agents. 58.722 Section 58.722 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.722 Emulsifying agents. Emulsifying agents...

2010-01-01

491

Ignorable Information in Multi-Agent Scenarios  

E-print Network

In some multi-agent scenarios, identifying observations that an agent can safely ignore reduces exponentially the size of the agent's strategy space and hence the time required to find a Nash equilibrium. We consider games ...

Milch, Brian

2008-05-12

492

46 CFR Sec. 3 - General Agents' responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Agents' responsibilities. Sec. 3 Section...AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY OF GENERAL AGENTS TO UNDERTAKE EMERGENCY REPAIRS IN FOREIGN PORTS Sec. 3 General Agents' responsibilities. In the...

2010-10-01

493

46 CFR Sec. 3 - General Agents' responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General Agents' responsibilities. Sec. 3 Section...AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY OF GENERAL AGENTS TO UNDERTAKE EMERGENCY REPAIRS IN FOREIGN PORTS Sec. 3 General Agents' responsibilities. In the...

2011-10-01

494

Retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulate osteoclast formation by different mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The effects of retinoic acid (RA) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) on osteoclast formation were examined in intact fetal long bones of different ages/developmental stages maintained in organ culture using a chemically defined medium with or without the presence of serum. Besides stimulating bone resorption, RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased the number of osteoclasts in 19-day-old fetal rat tibiae. Likewise, these bone-resorbing agents induced and stimulated osteoclast formation in 19- and 18-day-old metatarsal bones which were osteoclast-free at the beginning of the culture. The response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 was greatly enhanced by 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) irrespective of the developmental stage of the long bone. The response to RA was not. Light microscopic autoradiography after labeling of the cultures with tritiated thymidine showed that both RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 induced osteoclast differentiation from proliferating and postmitotic precursors. However, neither agent was able to stimulate proliferation of osteoclast progenitor cells in the older bones (19 days). Studies on the formation of osteoclast-like (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive) cells in bone marrow cultures indicated that FBS was a potent inducer of osteoclast-like cell formation. In the presence of FBS, 1,25-(OH)2D3 significantly stimulated this response, but RA did not. The results demonstrate that although both RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulate osteoclast formation from proliferating and postmitotic precursors in long bones in vitro, they do so by different mechanisms.

Scheven, B.A.; Hamilton, N.J. (Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen (Scotland))

1990-01-01

495

ADK: An Agent Development Kit Based on a Formal Design Model for Multi-Agent Systems  

E-print Network

agent is defined as an agent that has the ability to perceive and to respond to a changing environment a reactive agent an event-driven agent, and an event could be any environment change that may influence1 ADK: An Agent Development Kit Based on a Formal Design Model for Multi-Agent Systems Haiping Xu

Xu, Haiping

496

76 FR 21805 - User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This document contains amendments to the regulations relating to the imposition of user fees for enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents. The final regulations lower the initial enrollment and renewal of enrollment user fees for enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents and separate the enrolled retirement plan agent user fees from the enrolled agent user fees. The final......

2011-04-19

497

Intelligent agent for aircraft collision avoidance  

E-print Network

System Silicon Graphics Incorporated Soft Pilot/Flight Management System Interface TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol TFC Agent TRAG UDP Traffic Agent Ground Course Tracking Agent User Datagram Protocol vn VFR VMF Visual... System Silicon Graphics Incorporated Soft Pilot/Flight Management System Interface TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol TFC Agent TRAG UDP Traffic Agent Ground Course Tracking Agent User Datagram Protocol vn VFR VMF Visual...

Shandy, Surya Utama

2012-06-07

498

Agent-based forward analysis  

SciTech Connect

We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Lusk, Rick M [ORNL

2008-01-01

499

Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

2005-01-01

500

Dynamic Economy with Heterogeneous Agents  

E-print Network

. As in traditional, the production function G( H ; xHt; yHHt) is strictly increasing and concave. With regarding knowledge spillovers, just as in Eaton and Eckstein [31], Lucas [67], in the proceeding of human capital accumulation, as a result of the di erence 11...)2 @Hh3 @yHh2 = ( U LH2 H 0H2 + U LH3 ylh3 (H"H3)2 @H"H3 @yHh2 ) (2.31) Here U denotes the utility when high ability agent pretends to be low ability agent. The high ability agent?s physical capital xHt which is used for human capital...

Peng, Yulei

2013-08-06