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1

Le financement des agents non financiers en Europe : le rôle des intermédiaires financiers demeure prépondérant  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Le financement des agents non financiers en Europe: le rôle des intermédiaires financiers demeure prépondérant . . Le degré d’intermédiation des financements de treize pays européens entre 1994 et 2001 est évalué à partir des comptes financiers nationaux (base Eurostat). Deux approches sont distinguées. L’approche par la demande adopte le point de vue des agents à besoin de financement

Jézabel Couppey-Soubeyran; Gunther Capelle-Blancard

2003-01-01

2

Historical Information on Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Historical Information on Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA) (marketed as Procrit, Epogen, and Aranesp). Healthcare Professional Information. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

3

Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) 11.08.07- Overview  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... a public health advisory about revisions to the product labeling for the erythropoiesis- [eh RITH ro POH eh sis] stimulating agents, known as ES-As. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugsafetypodcasts

4

Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among\\u000a the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected\\u000a and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one\\u000a of the top three

K. Deventer; K. Roels; F. T. Delbeke; P. Van Eenoo

5

Optimum use of diverting agents in well stimulation treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal well conditions which require diversion emphasis are (1) thick heterogeneous pay zones; (2) poor cement jobs; (3) multiple pay zones; (4) open hole completions; and (5) densely perforated intervals. Proper use and sizing of diverting agent stages can lead to more effective stimulation. Test results indicate both fluid leakoff rate and block strength of great importance to diverting

B. W. Best; L. O. Miller

1973-01-01

6

Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included. PMID:21479548

Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

2011-04-09

7

[Factors affecting the response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents].  

PubMed

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has transformed the management chronic renal failure (CKD) and considerably improved the outcome of patients on regular chronic dialysis. However, a significant number of patients fail to respond to high of Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and several causes of inadequate response to epoetin therapy have been identified. Some factors, such as gender, age, length of time on dialysis, type of dialysis and co-morbidities such as hemoglobinopathy, are not susceptible to clinical intervention. However, many other factors can be adjusted. Iron deficiency, whether functional or absolute, is the most common factor that limits the response to rHuEPO. Monitoring of iron parameters and a large use of iron supplementation result in an efficient epoetin response. Infection and inflammation have been shown to reduce responsiveness to ESAs by disrupting iron metabolism and increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit erythropoiesis. Increase dialysis dose is associated with improvements in anemia correction and reduced requirements for ESAs. Severe hyperparathyroidism and aluminum overload lead to a reduced number of responsive erythroid progenitor cells. Finally, a number of nutritional factors, such as deficiencies of carnitine, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin C, are susceptible to alter erythropoiesis. Optimizing patient response to ESAs therefore requires consideration of many of well-established factors and is important for both patient outcomes and cost of treatment. PMID:17373270

Jauréguy, Maïté; Choukroun, Gabriel

2006-09-01

8

Effect of erythropoietin-stimulating agent on uremic inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of the present study was to explore the effect of medications that are commonly prescribed for CKD patients on uremic state. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. From January 2006 to October 2009, 1,623 patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) commenced hemodialysis (HD) at the 9 participating hospitals. The criteria for exclusion from the database were 1) serum C-reactive protein (CRP)?>?3?mg/dL, 2) WBC count?>?9,000/mm3 or <4,000/mm3, and 3) patients with cancer, immune complex disease, or vasculitis. A total of 900 patients were entered into the final database. We explored the association of serum CRP just before the first HD session with clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and medications for CKD in the predialysis period. Results On univariate analysis, age, CTR, eGFR, and WBC were significantly correlated with CRP. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum albumin, LDL-C, HDL-C, Hb, Cr, and Ca were inversely associated with CRP. Use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) using (r?=??0.111, p?=?0.0015), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (r?=??0.083, p?=?0.0154), and calcium channel blockers (r?=??0.1, p?=?0.0039) was also negatively correlated with CRP. However, only use of ESA showed a significant negative correlation with CRP that was independent of other clinical factors and CKD medications on multiple regression analysis. Conclusion ESA may strongly reduce uremic inflammation in addition to improving anemia. To confirm this potential effect, a large-scale longitudinal study would be required.

2012-01-01

9

Patient and physician characteristics associated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes  

PubMed Central

Patient and physician characteristics associated with use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in myelodysplastic syndrome patients have not yet been described. Myelodysplastic syndrome patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2005 were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. Multivariate regressions examined the association between patient and physician characteristics and the probability of receiving any erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and of receiving therapeutic-length (?8 week) treatment episodes. Among the 6,588 myelodysplastic syndrome patients studied, 65% received erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents was lower for blacks compared to whites (OR 0.78; 95% CI:0.61–0.99), single persons compared to married (OR 0.77; 95% CI:0.62–0.97), Medicaid recipients (OR 0.66; 95% CI:0.55–0.79), and those living in census tracts with lower educational attainment. Patients who did not consult a hematology-oncology specialist were less likely to receive erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Specialist access, financial resources and mobility are key determinants of receipt of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents among myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

Davidoff, Amy J.; Weiss Smith, Sheila; Baer, Maria R.; Ke, Xuehua; Bierenbaum, Jason M.; Hendrick, Franklin; McNally, Diane L.; Gore, Steven D.

2012-01-01

10

Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin stimulates human vascular endothelial cell growth and migration.  

PubMed

Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is an aberrant prothrombin produced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Serum and tissue DCP expressions are thought to reflect the biological malignant potential of HCC. However, the role of DCP in the development of angiogenesis is not well understood. Herein, we report the effects of DCP on growth and migration of human vascular endothelial cells. DCP significantly stimulated the proliferation of HUVEC (ECV304) cells in a dose and time dependent manner, as measured by the MTT assay. A continuous rapid migration of ECV304 cells was observed in the presence of DCP measured by the scratch wound assay. The continuous rapid invasive activity, measured by transwell chamber assay also showed that DCP increased endothelial cells migration through the reconstituted extracellular matrix (Matrigel). Further, the tube formation of vascular endothelial cells on 3-D Matrigel showed an increased number of branch points of ECV304 cells induced by DCP in a dose dependent manner. The levels of vascular endothelial cell growth-related angiogenic factors and matrix metalloproteinase were also examined. DCP significantly stimulated the expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (latent and active). Together, these data suggest that DCP is a novel type of vascular endothelial growth factor that possesses potent mitogenic and migrative activities in angiogenesis of HCC. PMID:19263229

Wang, Su-Bo; Cheng, Yan-Na; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Zhong, Julia Li; Ward, S G; Sun, Li-Rui; Chen, Ming-Hui; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tang, Wei; Qu, Xian-Jun

2009-03-05

11

Use of agents stimulating erythropoiesis in digestive diseases  

PubMed Central

Anemia is the most common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Control and inadequate treatment leads to a worse quality of life and increased morbidity and hospitalization. Blood loss, and to a lesser extent, malabsorption of iron are the main causes of iron deficiency in IBD. There is also a variable component of anemia related to chronic inflammation. The anemia of chronic renal failure has been treated for many years with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), which significantly improves quality of life and survival. Subsequently, rHuEPO has been used progressively in other conditions that occur with anemia of chronic processes such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis or IBD, and anemia associated with the treatment of hepatitis C virus. Erythropoietic agents complete the range of available therapeutic options for treatment of anemia associated with IBD, which begins by treating the basis of the inflammatory disease, along with intravenous iron therapy as first choice. In cases of resistance to treatment with iron, combined therapy with erythropoietic agents aims to achieve near-normal levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit (11-12 g/dL). New formulations of intravenous iron (iron carboxymaltose) and the new generation of erythropoietic agents (darbepoetin and continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) will allow better dosing with the same efficacy and safety.

Moreno Lopez, Rosario; Sicilia Aladren, Beatriz; Gomollon Garcia, Fernando

2009-01-01

12

Pattern of resistance to erythropoietin-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine administration of erythropoietin (EPO)-stimulating agents (ESAs) for the control of anemia has improved the quality of life of subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a wide variation in individual response to ESA is often observed. The reasons for EPO resistance include demographic variables such as age and gender distribution, morbidity pattern, and modality of dialysis. Despite suggestions by

Oluwatoyin F Bamgbola

2011-01-01

13

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and pure red-cell aplasia: you can’t fool Mother Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtle alterations in the properties of biopharmaceutical agents may increase their immunogenicity and lead to the production of autoantibodies. Biosimilar agents may not undergo the same quality control in their production, packaging, storage, and distribution as their patented competitors. The extensive use of biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agents led to an epidemic of pure red-cell aplasia in Thailand. The response of Thai

Jay B Wish

2011-01-01

14

Unraveling the Mystery of Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agents in Cancer Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) are approved for use in treating chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies. However, recent clinical trials have shown evidence of inferior overall survival and\\/or locore- gional control of tumors in patients receiving ESAs. Given these concerning data, current studies are focused on elucidat- ing the biological mechanisms by which ESAs may contribute to cancer promotion. Evidence

Kelly A. May; Fadlo R. Khuri

15

Peeling agents and irritants, unlike tretinoin, do not stimulate collagen synthesis in the photoaged hairless mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tretinoin has been shown to stimulate the synthesis of collagen in photoaged human and hairless mouse skin. It has been suggested\\u000a that this partial reversal of photodamage by tretinoin is a consequence of low-grade inflammation. The purpose of this study\\u000a was to compare the effect of tretinoin with a number of irritants and peeling agents on collagen synthesis. Hairless mice

Lorraine H. Kligman; Allen N. Sapadin; Elaine Schwartz

1996-01-01

16

Des-?-carboxy prothrombin stimulates human vascular endothelial cell growth and migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is an aberrant prothrombin produced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Serum and tissue\\u000a DCP expressions are thought to reflect the biological malignant potential of HCC. However, the role of DCP in the development\\u000a of angiogenesis is not well understood. Herein, we report the effects of DCP on growth and migration of human vascular endothelial\\u000a cells. DCP significantly

Su-Bo Wang; Yan-Na Cheng; Shu-Xiang Cui; Julia Li Zhong; S. G. Ward; Li-Rui Sun; Ming-Hui Chen; Norihiro Kokudo; Wei Tang; Xian-Jun Qu

2009-01-01

17

Peginesatide: a potential erythropoiesis stimulating agent for the treatment of anemia of chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) have revolutionized the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Peginesatide is an investigational pegylated, peptide-based, once-monthly ESA for increasing and maintaining hemoglobin (Hb). In phase 2 studies, peginesatide increases and maintains target Hb levels in patients with CKD, both those on hemodialysis and those not on hemodialysis; phase 3 trials have recently been completed. This article discusses unmet needs in the management of anemia of CKD, presents peginesatide attributes, reviews the results of select peginesatide clinical studies, and discusses the potential value of peginesatide as an alternative anemia management option. PMID:21290916

Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

18

Erythropoietin stimulating agents in the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Anemia is a very common clinical problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in these patients. Erythropoietin is a hormone synthesized in the kidney responsible for red blood cell maturation in the bone marrow. It is deficient in the majority of patients with advanced kidney disease thereby predisposing to anemia. Since the approval of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin alfa) by the US FDA in 1989, epoetin alfa and similar agents now collectively known as erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) have become the standard of care for the treatment of the erythropoietin-deficient anemia that occurs in most patients with CKD. In this review, we have outlined the considerations that need to be taken into account when prescribing ESA for the treatment of anemia in CKD.

Hayat, Amir; Haria, Dhiren; Salifu, Moro O

2008-01-01

19

Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters  

SciTech Connect

The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

1987-03-01

20

Inhibition and stimulation of activity of purified recombinant CYP11A1 by therapeutic agents.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the biosynthesis of steroid hormones is initiated by cytochrome P450 CYP11A1 which converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. We investigated whether some of the experimental and FDA-approved therapeutic agents alter the activity of CYP11A1 in the reconstituted system in vitro. We found that under the experimental conditions used and when phospholipids are included, ketoconazole, posaconazole, carbenoxolone, and selegiline inhibit CYP11A1-mediated production of pregnenolone by at least 67%. Conversely, pemirolast, clobenpropit, desogestrel, dexmedetomidine, and tizanidine stimulate the enzyme activity by up to 70%. We then evaluated the identified inhibitors and activators for spectral binding to CYP11A1 and their effect on enzyme activity in the absence of phospholipids. The data obtained provide insight into how different drugs interact with CYP11A1 and demonstrate that P450 association with the lipid bilayer determines, in many cases, a drug's effect on enzyme activity. PMID:23089212

Mast, Natalia; Linger, Marlin; Pikuleva, Irina A

2012-10-23

21

Sulphydryl-containing agents stimulate the healing of duodenal ulceration in man.  

PubMed

This prospective randomized double-blind study examined whether sulphydryl-containing agents stimulate the healing and prevent the recurrence of duodenal ulceration in man. To this end, DL-methionine methyl sulphonium chloride (MMSC, 500 mg four times daily) or DL-cysteine (200 mg four times daily) were orally administered with cimetidine. Symptomatic endoscopy-proven duodenal ulcer patients who were smokers and social drinkers were randomized to receive for 8 weeks cimetidine (400 mg b.d.), cimetidine (400 mg b.d.) with MMSC, or cimetidine (400 mg b.d.) with cysteine. These patients were then kept on their respective oral regimens (except for cimetidine which was changed to 400 mg at bedtime) for 1 year (maintenance) and followed up for another. After 8 weeks of treatment, the ulceration healed in 65 patients (74%) given cimetidine alone but in all the patients given MMSC (n = 87) or cysteine (n = 86) with cimetidine (p less than 0.01). During the maintenance year, 15 patients (29%) given cimetidine at night relapsed. Addition of MMSC or cysteine to cimetidine incurred a significantly (p less than 0.001) lower relapse rate. During the year following maintenance therapy, the relapse rate in the group that had been previously treated with cimetidine alone (63%, n = 51) was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than that in the groups previously treated with MMSC and cimetidine (6%, n = 67) or cysteine with cimetidine (6%, n = 64). The results suggest that sulphydryl-containing agents stimulate the healing and protect against the recurrence of duodenal ulceration. PMID:1438525

Salim, A S

1992-01-01

22

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are not associated with increased risk of thrombosis in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited reports of thrombosis among myelodysplastic syndrome patients exposed to erythropoiesis stimulating agents. It is not clear whether erythropoiesis stimulating agents are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis in myelodysplastic syndromes, as they are among patients with solid tumors. Design and Methods The association between use of erythropoiesis stimulating agent and transient thrombosis risk in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes was assessed in a case-crossover study nested within a cohort of incident myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Using the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Medicare-linked database, cases with an incident diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis were identified. Using conditional logistical regression, the odds of exposure to erythropoiesis stimulating agents in the 12 weeks prior to the incident deep vein thrombosis (hazard period) was compared to the exposure odds in a prior 12-week comparison period. Results Within the cohort of eligibles with myelodysplastic syndromes (n=5,673) there were 212 incident cases of deep vein thrombosis events. Mean age was 76.2 (standard deviation=±8.6) years. Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents was not associated with deep vein thrombosis in the crude nor the adjusted models (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.60, 2.43). Central venous catheter placement (OR=6.47, 95% CI: 2.37, 17.62) and red blood cell transfusion (OR=4.60, 95% CI: 2.29, 9.23) were associated with deep vein thrombosis. Conclusions Despite the link between use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents and thrombosis among patients with solid tumors, this study provides evidence that their safety profile may be different among patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

Smith, Sheila Weiss; Sato, Masayo; Gore, Steven D.; Baer, Maria R.; Ke, Xuehua; McNally, Diane; Davidoff, Amy

2012-01-01

23

Discrepancies in the response of the insulin secreting cells of the dog and rat to different adrenergic stimulating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Our experiments were carried outin vitro on different isolated and perfused pancreas preparations: adult rat pancreas, newborn dog pancreas, uncinate process and\\u000a splenic portion of adult dog pancreas. The perfusion liquid contained 1.5 g\\/l glucose. 1) L-isoprenaline (0.05 µM), a stimulating\\u000a agent of the ?-adrenergic receptors, provoked only a slight and brief stimulation of insulin secretion from the rat pancreas.

Marie-Madeleine Loubatières-Mariani; Jeannie Chapal; Gérard Ribes; Auguste-Louis Loubatières

1977-01-01

24

Microtubule-Disrupting Agents Inhibit Nitric Oxide Production in Murine Peritoneal Macrophages Stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide or Paclitaxel (Taxol)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclitaxel (Taxol), a yew-derived antimitotic agent which binds to microtubules, can mimic certain effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on macrophages from LPS responder mouse strains. The production of nitric oxide (NO) by the peritoneal macrophages of LPS responder C3H\\/HeN mice stimulated with taxol or LPS was partially, but not completely, suppressed by microtubule-disrupting agents, such as colchicine, podophyllo- toxin,vinblastine,andnocodazole,butnotbylumicolchicine,aninactivederivativeofcolchicine.InducibleNO synthase protein

TERUO KIRIKAE; FUMIKO KIRIKAE; YOICHI OGHISO; ANDMASAYASU NAKANO

1996-01-01

25

High resolution separation methods for the determination of intact human erythropoiesis stimulating agents. A review.  

PubMed

Human erythropoietin (hEPO), a hormone involved in the formation of red blood cells, is a 30 kDa glycoprotein with a high carbohydrate content. The production of recombinant hEPO has made possible its widespread therapeutic use and its banned use in competition sports. Methods to analyze EPO and other erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are necessary for the characterization and quality control of these biopharmaceuticals and also for doping control. In this paper, high resolution separation methods, namely high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with special attention to CE-coupled mass spectrometry, are reviewed. The usefulness of these techniques when applied in different modes to separate the glycoprotein isoforms, aggregates or excipients are detailed. In addition, sample preparation methods that have been applied to ESA samples for subsequent determination by HPLC or CE, as well as the potential compatibility of other preparation methods, are discussed. Applications of the HPLC and CE methods regarding regulatory considerations for biopharmaceuticals analysis, with emphasis on biosimilars, and doping control are also included. Finally, limitations of the present methods and their possible solutions are considered. PMID:22200302

Girard, Michel; Puerta, Angel; Diez-Masa, Jose Carlos; de Frutos, Mercedes

2011-11-25

26

Association of pre-transplant erythropoiesis-stimulating agent responsiveness with post-transplant outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The role of pre-transplant erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) responsiveness in affecting post-transplant outcomes is not clear. Methods Linking the 5-year patient data of a large dialysis organization to the ‘Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients’, we identified 8795 hemodialyzed patients who underwent first kidney transplantation. Mortality or graft failure, delayed graft function (DGF) and acute rejection risks were estimated by Cox regression [hazard ratio (HR)] and logistic regression, respectively. Results Patients were 48 ± 14 years old and included 38% women and 36% diabetics. Compared to renal allograft recipients who were in the first quartile of pre-transplant ESA responsiveness index (ERI), i.e. ESA dose divided by hemoglobin and weight, recipients in second, third and fourth quartiles had higher adjusted graft-censored death HR (and 95% confidence intervals) of 1.7 (1.0–2.7), 1.8 (1.1–2.9) and 2.3 (1.4–3.9) and higher death-censored graft failure HR of 1.6 (1.0–2.5), 2.0 (1.2–3.1) and 1.6 (0.9–2.6), respectively. No significant association between pre-transplant ERI and post-transplant DGF or acute rejection was detected. Conclusions Higher pre-transplant ERI during the hemodialysis treatment period was associated with worse post-transplant long-term outcomes including increased all-cause death and higher risk of graft failure.

Molnar, Miklos Z.; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Huang, Edmund; Krishnan, Mahesh; Nissenson, Allen R.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2012-01-01

27

Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of peginesatide, a novel erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, in rats  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetics(PK) (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) of peginesatide.a synthetic, PEGylated, investigational, peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), was evaluated in rats. The PK profile was evaluated at 0.1-5 mg·kg?1 IV using unlabeled or [14C]-labeled peginesatide. Mass balance, tissue distribution and metabolism were evaluated following IV administration of 5 mg·kg?1 [14C]-peginesatide, with tissue distribution also evaluated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) following an IV dose of 17 mg·kg?1[14C]-peginesatide. Plasma clearance was slow and elimination was biphasic with unchanged peginesatide representing >90% of the total radioactivity of the total radioactive exposure. Slow uptake of the radiolabeled compound from the vascular compartment into the tissues was observed. Biodistribution to bone marrow and extramedullary hematopoietic sites, and to highly vascularized lymphatic and excretory tissues occurred. A predominant degradation event to occur in vivo was the loss of one PEG chain from the branched PEG moiety to generate mono-PEG. Renal excretion was the primary mechanism (41%) of elimination, with parent molecule (67%) the major moiety excreted. In conclusion, elimination of [14C]-peginesatide-derived radioactivity was extended, retention preferentially occurred at sites of erythropoiesis (bone marrow), and urinary excretion was the primary elimination route.

Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Holmes, Christopher P.; Wilson, Susan D.; Fong, Kei-Lai; Press, Randall J.; Moriya, Yuu; Tagawa, Yoshihiko

2011-01-01

28

Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of peginesatide, a novel erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, in rats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics (PK) (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) of peginesatide, a synthetic, PEGylated, investigational, peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), was evaluated in rats. The PK profile was evaluated at 0.1-5 mg·kg(-1) IV using unlabeled or [(14)C]-labeled peginesatide. Mass balance, tissue distribution and metabolism were evaluated following IV administration of 5 mg·kg(-1) [(14)C]-peginesatide, with tissue distribution also evaluated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) following an IV dose of 17 mg·kg(-1) [(14)C]-peginesatide. Plasma clearance was slow and elimination was biphasic with unchanged peginesatide representing >90% of the total radioactivity of the total radioactive exposure. Slow uptake of the radiolabeled compound from the vascular compartment into the tissues was observed. Biodistribution to bone marrow and extramedullary hematopoietic sites, and to highly vascularized lymphatic and excretory tissues occurred. A predominant degradation event to occur in vivo was the loss of one PEG chain from the branched PEG moiety to generate mono-PEG. Renal excretion was the primary mechanism (41%) of elimination, with parent molecule (67%) the major moiety excreted. In conclusion, elimination of [(14)C]-peginesatide-derived radioactivity was extended, retention preferentially occurred at sites of erythropoiesis (bone marrow), and urinary excretion was the primary elimination route. PMID:22188389

Woodburn, Kathryn W; Holmes, Christopher P; Wilson, Susan D; Fong, Kei-Lai; Press, Randall J; Moriya, Yuu; Tagawa, Yoshihiko

2011-12-22

29

Qualitative and quantitative assessment of marketed erythropoiesis-stimulating agents by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Formulated erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) containing erythropoietin (EPO)-alpha, EPO-beta or darbepoetin-alpha were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with a previously published method requiring no sample pre-treatment [1]. In this study, the method proved to be applicable to all formulations encountered, that is, in the presence of polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20 or human serum albumin as major excipients, thus extending the range of products that can be analyzed without pre-treatment. Method performance was evaluated and showed good linearity, range, precision and sensitivity. No significant matrix effects were observed for the various formulations. The ability of the method to resolve isoforms of each of the three active ingredients enabled comparison of the isoform distribution of finished products with that of the respective drug substance. In general, finished products and their corresponding drug substances showed similar isoform distribution and all were within manufacturer specifications. In addition, the content in active ingredient in the various dosage strengths was found to be in close agreement with the label claims with the exception of 2 out of 131 containers analyzed. Overall, this study demonstrated that the capillary zone electrophoresis method could be successfully applied to the analysis of most of the ESA products currently on the market in North America and Europe and that all products were found to have good batch-to-batch consistency. PMID:22954449

Boucher, Sylvie; Kane, Anita; Girard, Michel

2012-08-24

30

Développement local et formation des agents de développement en milieu rural  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] En milieu rural, l'enjeu principal du développement réside dans l'articulation entre politiques sectorielles et logiques territoriales. Quelques exemples l'illustrent et montrent que les projets économiques, sociaux et culturels sont indissociables et concourrent au développement global. Au cœur de cette dynamique se trouve l'agent de développement local dont la formation doit être réenvisagée. [eng] In rural development, the main issue

Bernard Patoureaux

1985-01-01

31

Stimulator  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A stimulator for use in marital orgasmic therapy is provided. The stimulator uses a step-down transformer and a water-proof case. The stimulator oscillates at 2000-8000 (preferably 3000-3600) cycles per minute throughout an angle of operation chosen from the range of 10 to 80 (preferably 20 to 60) degrees. An integrated set includes several different detachable attachments and a handle with mechanical oscillating means.

Woog; Philippe-Guy E. (Geneva, CH); Moret; Michel A. (Geneva, CH)

1991-11-26

32

Current and upcoming erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, iron products, and other novel anemia medications.  

PubMed

Treatment for anemia has come a long way in the last 20 years since the first recombinant human erythropoietins were licensed for the management of anemia in chronic kidney disease. The first-generation epoetins were succeeded by the development and production of a longer-acting erythropoietin (EPO) analog, darbepoetin alpha, which allowed less frequent dosing, usually once weekly or once every 2 weeks. More recently, another EPO-related molecule has been manufactured called Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator with an even longer half-life, and although for patent reasons this is not available in the United States, it is licensed and is already being used in Europe. Other molecules are in development or are becoming licensed in Europe, including biosimilar epoetin products/follow-on biologics, and elsewhere in the world there are cheaper-production "copy" epoetins. Indeed, it is estimated that up to 80 such products may be sold in countries with less stringent regulatory control of pharmaceutical products. Two different biosimilar epoetins have already been licensed in Europe, one under 2 different brand names and one under 3 different brand names, and others may follow. Hematide is a synthetic peptide-based EPO receptor agonist that, interestingly, has no structural homology with EPO, and yet is still able to activate the EPO receptor and stimulate erythropoiesis. This agent is currently in phase III clinical trials. Research continues for orally active antianemic therapies, and several strategies are being investigated, although none is imminently available. Two new intravenous iron preparations have recently been developed, one in the United States (Ferumoxytol; AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA) and one recently licensed in Europe (ferric carboxymaltose [Ferinject; Vifor Pharma, Zurich, Switzerland]). In conclusion, the development of effective therapies for the treatment of anemia has been a highly active field, both scientifically and economically, over the last two decades. PMID:19233071

Macdougall, Iain C; Ashenden, Michael

2009-03-01

33

Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialysis Hb is proposed. During 18?months follow-up, CVE, hospitalizations and mortality were collected. Results After dialysis, Hb cocentration rise by 6.1?±?5.6%. Using postdialysis Hb, the weight-adjusted ESA dosage would be lower respect to the prescription using predialysis Hb: 104?±?120 vs 128?±?124 U/kg/week (P?

2012-01-01

34

Detection of Chemical\\/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of Chemical\\/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve

S. H. Harmon; K. J. Hart; A. A. Vass; M. B. Wise; D. A. Wolf

1999-01-01

35

Cardiovascular Risks of Anemia Correction with Erythrocyte Stimulating Agents: Should Blood Viscosity Be Monitored for Risk Assessment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, all major clinical trials for anemia correction using erythrocyte stimulating agents (ESAs) failed to show improved\\u000a outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and vascular thrombosis. Even moderate elevations in hemoglobin (e.g.,\\u000a to 13 g\\/dL) using erythropoietin have been associated with significantly increased risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events\\u000a and heart failure. This review presents a biophysical rationale for increased risk

Seul-Ki Jeong; Young I. Cho; Marc Duey; Robert S. Rosenson

2010-01-01

36

Predictors of Hyporesponsiveness to Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of predictors of hyporesponsiveness to erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) in hemodialysis (HD) patients may help improve anemia management and reduce hemoglobin variability. Study Design We conducted repeated measure and logistic regression analyses in a retrospective cohort of long-term HD patients to examine the association of iron markers and measures of renal osteodystrophy with ESA-responsiveness. The ESA-response coefficient at the individual level, i.e., the least-confounded dose-response association, was separated from the population level, assumed to represent confounding by medical indication. Setting/Participants The national database of a large dialysis organization (DaVita) with 38,328 surviving prevalent HD patients over 12 months, who received ESA for at least 3 consecutive calendar quarters, was examined. Predictors Serum levels of ferritin, iron saturation ratio (ISAT), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Outcomes/Other Measurements The main outcome was case-mix adjusted hemoglobin response to quarterly averaged ESA dose at individual level. The odds ratio (OR) of the greatest vs. poorest ESA-response quartile at patient level was calculated. OR<1.0 indicated ESA hyporesponsiveness and OR>1.0 enhanced responsiveness. Results The mean (±SD) ESA-response coefficients of the least to most responsive quartiles were 0.301±0.033, 0.344±0.004, 0.357±0.004, and 0.389±0.026 g/dL higher hemoglobin per 1,000 units/week higher ESA dose in each quarter, respectively. The ORs of the greatest vs. poorest ESA-responsiveness at patient level were the following: Serum ferritin<200 ng/ml: 0.77 [95% confidence interval: 0.70–0.86] (reference: 200–500 ng/ml), ISAT<20%: 0.54 [0.49–0.59] (reference: 20–30%), intact PTH?600 pg/ml: 0.54 [0.49–0.60] (reference: 150–300 pg/ml), and alkaline phosphatase ?160 IU/L: 0.64 [0.58–0.70] (reference: 80–120 IU/L). Lower estimated dietary protein intake and serum levels of nutritional markers were also associated with higher risk of ESA-hyporesponsiveness. Limitations Our results may incorporate uncontrolled confounding. Achieved hemoglobin may have different associations than targeted hemoglobin. Conclusions In long-term HD patients, low iron stores, hyperparathyroidism and high turnover bone disease are associated with significant ESA-hyporesponsiveness. Prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.

Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Lee, Grace H; Miller, Jessica E.; Streja, Elani; Jing, Jennie; Robertson, John A; Kovesdy, Csaba P.

2009-01-01

37

Modulation of cellular Mg2+ content in cardiac cells by ?1-adrenoceptor stimulation and anti-arrhythmic agents.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is used pharmacologically to sedate specific forms of arrhythmias. Administration of pharmacological doses of catecholamine or adrenergic receptor agonists often results in arrhythmias onset. Results from the present study indicate that stimulation of cardiac adrenergic receptors elicits an extrusion of cellular Mg(2+) into the extracellular space. This effect occurs in both perfused hearts and isolated cells within 5-6 min following either ?- or ?1- adrenergic receptor stimulation, and is prevented by specific adrenergic receptors antagonists. Sequential stimulation of the two classes of adrenergic receptor results in a larger mobilization of cellular Mg(2+) provided that the two agonists are administered together or within 1-2 min from each other. A longer delay in administering the second stimulus results in the abolishment of Mg(2+) extrusion. Hence, these data suggest that the stimulation of ?- and ?1-adrenergic receptors mobilizes Mg(2+) from two distinct cellular pools, and that Mg(2+) loss from either pool triggers a Mg(2+) redistribution within the cardiac myocyte. At the sarcolemmal level, Mg(2+) extrusion occurs through a Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchange mechanism phosphorylated by cAMP. Administration of quinidine, a patent anti-arrhythmic agent, blocks Na(+) transport in a non-specific manner and prevents Mg(2+) extrusion. Taken together, these data indicate that catecholamine administration induces dynamic changes in total and compartmentalized Mg(2+) pools within the cardiac myocytes, and suggest that prevention of Mg(2+) extrusion and redistribution may be an integral component of the effectiveness of quinidine and possibly other cardiac antiarrhythmic agents. Confirmation of this possibility by future experimental and clinical studies might result in new patents of these compounds as Mg(2+) preserving agents. PMID:23092432

Romani, Andrea M P

2012-12-01

38

Modulation of Cellular Mg2+ Content in Cardiac Cells by ?1-Adrenoceptor Stimulation and Anti-Arrhythmic Agents  

PubMed Central

Magnesium (Mg2+) is used pharmacologically to sedate specific forms of arrhythmias. Administration of pharmacological doses of catecholamine or adrenergic receptor agonists often results in arrhythmias onset. Results from the present study indicate that stimulation of cardiac adrenergic receptors elicits an extrusion of cellular Mg2+ into the extracellular space. This effect occurs in both perfused hearts and isolated cells within 5-6 min following either ?- or ?1-adrenergic receptor stimulation, and is prevented by specific adrenergic receptors antagonists. Sequential stimulation of the two classes of adrenergic receptor results in a larger mobilization of cellular Mg2+ provided that the two agonists are administered together or within 1-2 min from each other. A longer delay in administering the second stimulus results in the abolishment of Mg2+ extrusion. Hence, these data suggest that the stimulation of ?- and ?1-adrenergic receptors mobilizes Mg2+ from two distinct cellular pools, and that Mg2+ loss from either pool triggers a Mg2+ redistribution within the cardiac myocyte. At the sarcolemmal level, Mg2+ extrusion occurs through a Na+/Mg2+ exchange mechanism phosphorylated by cAMP. Administration of quinidine, a patent anti-arrhythmic agent, blocks Na+ transport in a non-specific manner and prevents Mg2+ extrusion. Taken together, these data indicate that catecholamine administration induces dynamic changes in total and compartmentalized Mg2+ pools within the cardiac myocytes, and suggest that prevention of Mg2+ extrusion and redistribution may be an integral component of the effectiveness of quinidine and possibly other cardiac anti-arrhythmic agents. Confirmation of this possibility by future experimental and clinical studies might result in new patents of these compounds as Mg2+ preserving agents.

Romani, Andrea M.P

2012-01-01

39

Stimulant and depressant effects of ? -adrenoceptor blocking agents on isolated heart muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronotropic and inotropic effects of fourteen ß-adrenoceptor blocking agents were studied in vitro on preparations of isolated heart muscle from kittens and guinea pigs. Most of the agents exert negative inotropic and chronotropic effects that increase rapidly with concentration above 10-6 M. Exceptions are the closely related compounds practolol and atenolol, which have minimal depressant effects in concentrations as

A. J. Kaumann; J. R. Blinks

1980-01-01

40

Evaluation of Acid-Gelling Agents for Use in Well Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various polymers and other thickening agents have been evaluated as gelling agents for hydrochloric acid (HCl). These materials were compared on the basis of thickening efficiency, acid stability, and residue formation upon spending of the acid. Well test results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments using HCl with XP. 75 refs.

C. W. Crowe; R. C. Martin; A. M. Jr. Michaelis

1981-01-01

41

PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN LASERS AND CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Influence of a quenching agent on parameters of stimulated enthalpy scattering in iodine photodissociation lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is made of the influence of quenching of excited iodine on the parameters of stimulated enthalpy scattering in iodine photodissociation lasers. It is shown that the stability of the active mixtures of these lasers during evolution of stimulated scattering by thermal waves may be improved by selecting a suitable quenching agent and a suitable concentration.

Orlov, E. P.

1989-04-01

42

Patterns of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use among Medicare beneficiaries with myelodysplastic syndromes and consistency with clinical guidelines.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are used commonly to reduce symptomatic anemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We assessed population-based patterns of ESA use relative to treatment guidelines using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries, with linked Medicare claims providing detailed treatment data from 2001 through 2005. The study found widespread use (62%) of ESA in Medicare beneficiaries with MDS. Similar ESA use rates regardless of risk status, low frequency (45%) of serum erythropoietin determination prior to ESA initiation, and high prevalence (60.4%) of short-duration ESA episodes suggest clinically important discrepancies between actual practice and guideline-recommended therapy. PMID:23523473

Davidoff, Amy J; Weiss, Sheila R; Baer, Maria R; Ke, Xuehua; Hendrick, Franklin; Zeidan, Amer; Gore, Steven D

2013-03-21

43

Detection of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in human anti-doping control: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Stimulation of erythropoiesis is one of the most efficient ways of doping. This type of doping is advantageous for aerobic physical exercise and of particular interest to endurance athletes. Erythropoiesis, which takes place in bone marrow, is under the control of EPO, a hormone secreted primarily by the kidneys when the arterial oxygen tension decreases. In certain pathological disorders, such as chronic renal failure, the production of EPO is insufficient and results in anemia. The pharmaceutical industry has, thus, been very interested in developing drugs that stimulate erythropoiesis. With this aim, various strategies have been, and continue to be, envisaged, giving rise to an expanding range of drugs that are good candidates for doping. Anti-doping control has had to deal with this situation by developing appropriate methods for their detection. This article presents an overview of both the drugs and the corresponding methods of detection, and thus follows a roughly chronological order. PMID:22831473

Leuenberger, Nicolas; Reichel, Christian; Lasne, Françoise

2012-07-01

44

GABAergic agents prevent alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone induced anxiety and anorexia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is a hypothalamic peptide believed to play a tonic inhibitory role in feeding and energy homeostasis. Systemic administration of ?-MSH is known to produce anorexia and anxiety. Since synaptic contacts between gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic terminals and ?-MSH neurons in the hypothalamus have been reported, the present work was undertaken to refine our knowledge on the role

T. Lakshmi Rao; Dadasaheb M. Kokare; Sumit Sarkar; Rahul T. Khisti; Chandrabhan T. Chopde; Nishikant Subhedar

2003-01-01

45

Integrating Multi-agents in a 3D Serious Game Aimed at Cognitive Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Therapies for cognitive stimulation must be developed when some of the cognitive functions are not working properly. In many\\u000a applications there is a strong dependence on therapist’s intervention to control the patient’s navigation in the environment\\u000a and to change the difficulty level of a task. In general, these interventions, cause distractions, reducing the level of user\\u000a immersion in the activities.

Priscilla F. de Abreu; Luis de Carvalho; Vera Werneck; Rosa da Costa

46

DNA-damaging agents stimulate gene expression at specific loci in Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Operon fusions in Escherichia coli were obtained that showed increased beta-galactosidase expression in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C. These fusions were generated by using the Mud(ApR, lac) vector to insert the lactose structural genes randomly into the bacterial chromosome. Induction of beta-galactosidase in these strains, which carried fusions of lac to these din (damage-inducible) loci, was (i) triggered by UV light as well as by mitomycin C and (ii) abolished by either a recA- or a lexA- mutation. Similar characteristics of induction were observed when the lactose genes were fused to a prophage lambda promoter by using Mud(ApR, lac). These results indicate that E. coli contains a set of genes that, like prophage lambda genes, are expressed in response to DNA-damaging agents and regulated by the recA and lexA gene products. These din genes map at five bacterial loci. One din::Mud(ApR, lac) insertion results in a UV-sensitive phenotype and may be within the uvrA transcriptional unit.

Kenyon, C.J.; Walker, G.C.

1988-05-01

47

Enzymatic Debriding Agents Are Safe in Wounds With High Bacterial Bioburdens and Stimulate Healing  

PubMed Central

Background: Debridement is essential for successful wound management. Enzymatic debridement is commonly utilized in wound care but has been reported to be unsafe in wounds with significant bacterial bioburden, unless used in conjunction with topical antimicrobials. We examine this hypothesis with 2 commercially available, commonly used preparations of enzymatic debriding agents. Materials and Methods: Using a standard rodent model of a chronically infected granulating wound with bacterial levels greater than 1 × 105 Colony Forming Units per gram of tissue, commercially available preparations of collagenase and papain-urea were utilized to investigate the response of infected wounds to these preparations, and to evaluate their ability to overcome the inhibition of infection on wound healing. Quantitative bacteriology of tissue biopsies and wound healing trajectories were used to compare the preparations to saline-treated negative controls. Results: Collagenase- and papain-urea-treated wounds demonstrated a reduction in bacterial burden of wounds to < 105 colony forming units/gram of tissue (P < .05). This decrease in bacterial bioburden occurred rapidly, allowing wounds to achieve bacterial balance in a short period of time. Wounds treated with enzymatic debriding agents healed significantly faster and to greater extent than saline-treated controls (P < .01); a direct reflection of the decreasing bacterial load of the wound. Conclusions: Collagenase and papain-urea appear beneficial and safe even in wounds with high bacterial loads, and appear to significantly aid extent and rate of healing, probably by lowering bacterial burden through their positive enzymatic actions on bacteria and necrotic tissue.

Payne, Wyatt G.; Salas, R. Emerick; Ko, Francis; Naidu, Deepak K.; Donate, Guillermo; Wright, Terry E.; Robson, Martin C.

2008-01-01

48

Antistaphylococcal Activity of DX619, a New Des-F(6)-Quinolone, Compared to Those of Other Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, was tested against staphylococci and compared to those of other antimicrobials. DX-619 had the lowest MIC ranges\\/MIC50s\\/MIC90 s( g\\/ml) against 131 Staph- ylococcus aureus strains (<0.002 to 2.0\\/0.06\\/0.5) and 128 coagulase-negative staphylococci (0.004 to 0.25\\/0.016\\/ 0.125). Among strains tested, 76 S. aureus strains and 51 coagulase-negative staphylococci were resistant to ciprofloxacin.

Tatiana Bogdanovich; Duygu Esel; Linda M. Kelly; Bulent Bozdogan; Kim Credito; Gengrong Lin; Kathy Smith; Lois M. Ednie; Dianne B. Hoellman; Peter C. Appelbaum

2005-01-01

49

Agents.  

PubMed

Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists. PMID:12132261

Chambers, David W

2002-01-01

50

Low-Dose Treatment with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and Cardiovascular Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Darbepoetin-? More Effective than Expected?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread invalidating condition, leading to erythropoietin deficiency and decreased cardiovascular performance. Darbepoetin-? and epoetin-? are extensively used to correct renal anemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiological outcomes in two groups of CKD patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA: 20 ?g darbepoetin-? weekly vs. 2,000 IU epoetin-? thrice weekly) with

Luca Di Lullo; Fulvio Floccari; Antonio Granata; Moreno Malaguti

2012-01-01

51

Effect of Intravenous Iron Sucrose in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Who Receive Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents for Anemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although iron therapy is essential to optimize use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), randomized, controlled trials have heretofore been unavailable to evaluate reliably the efficacy of intravenous iron as an adjuvant to ESA treatment in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In a multicenter trial, patients who had anemia, PD-dependent chronic kidney disease, stable ESA therapy, and a broad range of iron status

Harmeet Singh; John Reed; Sylvia Noble; Jose L. Cangiano; David B. Van Wyck

52

Virtual Screening and Pharmacophore Design for a Novel Theoretical Inhibitor of Macrophage Stimulating Factor as a Metastatic Agent  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Metastasis is a crucial aspect of cancer. Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) is a single chain protein and can be cleaved by serum proteases. MSP has several roles in metastasis. In this in silico study, MSP as a metastatic agent was considered as a drug target. Methods: Crystallographic structure of MSP was retrieved from protein data bank. To find a chemical inhibitor of MSP, a library of KEGG compounds was screened and 1000 shape complemented ligands were retrieved with FindSite algorithm. Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD) software was used for docking simulation of shape complemented ligands against MSP. Moldock score was used as scoring function for virtual screening and potential inhibitors with more negative binding energy were obtained. PLANS scoring function was used for revaluation of virtual screening data. Results: The top found chemical had binding affinity of -183.55 based on MolDock score and equal to -66.733 PLANTs score to MSP structure. Conclusion: Based on pharmacophore model of potential inhibitor, this study suggests that the chemical which was found in this research and its derivate can be used for subsequent laboratory studies.

Torktaz, Ibrahim; Mohamadhashem, Faezeh; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Sharifzadeh, Sara

2013-01-01

53

Utilization Patterns of IV Iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Anemic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Multihospital Study.  

PubMed

Intravenous (IV) iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) are recommended for anemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed utilization patterns of IV iron and ESA in patients over 18 years of age admitted to University Health System Hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of CKD between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A clustered binomial logistic regression using the GEE methodology was used to identify predictors of IV iron utilization. Only 8% (n = 6678) of CKD patients on ESA therapy received IV iron supplementation in university hospitals. Those receiving iron used significantly less amounts of ESAs. Patient demographics (age, race, primary payer), patient clinical conditions (admission status, severity of illness, dialysis status), and physician specialty were identified as predictors of IV iron use in CKD patients. Use of IV iron with ESAs was low despite recommendations from consensus guidelines. The low treatment rate of IV iron represents a gap in treatment practices and signals an opportunity for healthcare improvement in CKD anemic patients. PMID:22577528

Joshi, Avani D; Holdford, David A; Brophy, Donald F; Harpe, Spencer E; Mays, Darcy; Gehr, Todd W B

2012-04-19

54

Shortened red blood cell lifespan is related to the dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents requirement in patients on hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Renal anemia is an important complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). One of the most important complications of renal anemia is reduced red blood cell (RBC) lifespan, but there has been little research conducted into the causes of and treatments for this anemia. We measured alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) and then estimated RBC lifespan in patients on hemodialysis (HD). We also examined their requirement for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), HD dose, nutrition factors, iron metabolism factor, reticulocyte counts and % reticulocytes. We enrolled 140 patients undergoing intermittent HD; among this group, 31 were not administered ESA and the others were on ESA therapy. Twelve healthy volunteers served as controls. The RBC lifespans in the healthy volunteers and in the HD patients were 128 ± 28 and 89 ± 28 days (mean ± SD), respectively. The RBC lifespan significantly and negatively correlated with ESA requirement (r = -0.489, P < 0.0001) in the HD patients. Other factors suspected to influence the RBC lifespan did not significantly correlate with the RBC lifespan in HD patients, in contrast to the correlation observed for S-Cr, BUN, S-ALB and total cholesterol vs. RBC lifespan. A shortened RBC lifespan seems to rather significantly affect the ESA requirement. Better nutritional status or active HD patients also seem to have longer RBC lifespans and lower ESA requirement. PMID:23190511

Sato, Yasuyuki; Mizuguchi, Takashi; Shigenaga, Sawako; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Chujo, Keiko; Minakuchi, Jun; Kawashima, Syu

2012-08-08

55

Variant hemoglobin phenotypes may account for differential erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosing in African-American hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

African-American patients with end-stage renal disease have historically lower hemoglobin concentrations and higher requirements of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). While disparities in health-care access may partially explain these findings, the role of variant hemoglobin, such as sickle trait, has not been investigated. To clarify this, we evaluated 154 African-American patients receiving in-center hemodialysis with available hemoglobin phenotyping. The primary exposure was any abnormal hemoglobin variant and the primary outcome of higher-dose ESA was defined as a dose of 6500 or more units per treatment. Logistic regression assessed the association between variant hemoglobin and higher-dose ESA. Covariates included age, gender, diabetes, iron parameters, intravenous iron dose, parathyroid hormone, albumin, phosphorus, body mass index, vascular access type, hospitalization/missed treatments, smoking status, alcohol abuse, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Of 33 patients with variant hemoglobin, 24 had HbAS and 9 had HbAC. Univariate odds of higher-dose ESA among those with hemoglobin variants were twice that of those with the normal HbAA phenotype (odds ratio 2.05). In multivariate models, the likelihood of higher-dose ESA had an odds ratio of 3.31 and the nature of this relationship did not change in Poisson regression or sensitivity analyses. Hence, our findings may explain, in part, the difference in ESA dosing between Caucasians and African-Americans with end-stage renal disease but await further study.

Derebail, Vimal K.; Nachman, Patrick H.; Key, Nigel S.; Ansede, Heather; Falk, Ronald J.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.

2012-01-01

56

Differentiating factors between erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: an update to selection for anaemia of chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have become a hallmark of anaemia therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although different ESAs are available for the treatment of renal anaemia, each nephrologist should select a single ESA for an individual patient. Epoetin alfa and epoetin beta have been used 1-3 times weekly but extended-interval dosing up to every 4 weeks is also effective in a substantial majority of CKD patients. However, the epoetin dose necessary to achieve or maintain target haemoglobin (Hb) levels increases substantially as the dosing interval increases. Subcutaneous administration of short-acting ESAs is more effective than the intravenous route of administration. Darbepoetin alfa and the continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) have been developed as a treatment for anaemia with extended administration intervals (every 2 weeks and every 4 weeks, respectively). Dose requirements for these long-acting ESAs are independent of the route of administration. Patents of short-acting ESAs have expired, which has opened the field for biosimilars. Epoetin biosimilars approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been shown to have a comparable efficacy and safety profile to their originators. An alarming increase in pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in Thailand with follow-on epoetins manufactured in Asia (but also those manufactured in Latin America) indicates that stringent country-specific approval and pharmacovigilance protocols for ESAs manufactured in non-North American and non-EU European countries are urgently needed. Two PRCA cases occurring with subcutaneous HX575 (one certain, one likely) indicate that chances of inducing a more immunogenic product are unpredictable, even with a biosimilar epoetin approved under the EMA biosimilar approval pathway. Phase III clinical trials with peginesatide, a pegylated synthetic peptide-based ESA without any homology to erythropoietin raised safety concerns in non-dialysis CKD patients but not in dialysis patients. PMID:23338536

Hörl, Walter H

2013-02-01

57

Hepcidin-25 in chronic hemodialysis patients is related to residual kidney function and not to treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents.  

PubMed

Hepcidin-25, the bioactive form of hepcidin, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis as it induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes. Hepcidin levels are increased in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, but as of yet, limited information on factors associated with hepcidin-25 in these patients is available. In the current cross-sectional study, potential patient-, laboratory- and treatment-related determinants of serum hepcidin-20 and -25, were assessed in a large cohort of stable, prevalent HD patients. Baseline data from 405 patients (62% male; age 63.7 ± 13.9 [mean SD]) enrolled in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556) were studied. Predialysis hepcidin concentrations were measured centrally with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Patient-, laboratory- and treatment related characteristics were entered in a backward multivariable linear regression model. Hepcidin-25 levels were independently and positively associated with ferritin (p<0.001), hsCRP (p<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (p = 0.02) and inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01), absolute reticulocyte count (p = 0.02) and soluble transferrin receptor (p<0.001). Men had lower hepcidin-25 levels as compared to women (p = 0.03). Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or iron therapy. In conclusion, in the currently studied cohort of chronic HD patients, hepcidin-25 was a marker for iron stores and erythropoiesis and was associated with inflammation. Furthermore, hepcidin-25 levels were influenced by residual kidney function. Hepcidin-25 did not reflect ESA or iron dose in chronic stable HD patients on maintenance therapy. These results suggest that hepcidin is involved in the pathophysiological pathway of renal anemia and iron availability in these patients, but challenges its function as a clinical parameter for ESA resistance. PMID:22808058

van der Weerd, Neelke C; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Bots, Michiel L; van den Dorpel, Marinus A; den Hoedt, Claire H; Mazairac, Albert H A; Nubé, Menso J; Penne, E Lars; Gaillard, Carlo A; Wetzels, Jack F M; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Swinkels, Dorine W; Blankestijn, Peter J; Ter Wee, Piet M

2012-07-13

58

Hepcidin-25 in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients Is Related to Residual Kidney Function and Not to Treatment with Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents  

PubMed Central

Hepcidin-25, the bioactive form of hepcidin, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis as it induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes. Hepcidin levels are increased in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, but as of yet, limited information on factors associated with hepcidin-25 in these patients is available. In the current cross-sectional study, potential patient-, laboratory- and treatment-related determinants of serum hepcidin-20 and -25, were assessed in a large cohort of stable, prevalent HD patients. Baseline data from 405 patients (62% male; age 63.7±13.9 [mean SD]) enrolled in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556) were studied. Predialysis hepcidin concentrations were measured centrally with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Patient-, laboratory- and treatment related characteristics were entered in a backward multivariable linear regression model. Hepcidin-25 levels were independently and positively associated with ferritin (p<0.001), hsCRP (p<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (p?=?0.02) and inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p?=?0.01), absolute reticulocyte count (p?=?0.02) and soluble transferrin receptor (p<0.001). Men had lower hepcidin-25 levels as compared to women (p?=?0.03). Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or iron therapy. In conclusion, in the currently studied cohort of chronic HD patients, hepcidin-25 was a marker for iron stores and erythropoiesis and was associated with inflammation. Furthermore, hepcidin-25 levels were influenced by residual kidney function. Hepcidin-25 did not reflect ESA or iron dose in chronic stable HD patients on maintenance therapy. These results suggest that hepcidin is involved in the pathophysiological pathway of renal anemia and iron availability in these patients, but challenges its function as a clinical parameter for ESA resistance.

van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Bots, Michiel L.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; den Hoedt, Claire H.; Mazairac, Albert H. A.; Nube, Menso J.; Penne, E. Lars; Gaillard, Carlo A.; Wetzels, Jack F. M.; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; ter Wee, Piet M.

2012-01-01

59

Reduced use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron with ferric citrate: a managed care cost-offset model  

PubMed Central

Background Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder in development for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In clinical trials, FC improved patient serum phosphorus levels and increased serum ferritin and percent transferrin saturation. Because nephrologists respond to increases in these iron measures by reducing intravenous (IV) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) doses, the decreased use of iron and ESA associated with FC may reduce costs. Objectives To develop a cost-offset model from a managed care perspective estimating the cost savings associated with FC use. Methods We created a cost-offset model from the managed care payer perspective that compared the treatment costs of ESRD for patients given FC. The model considered the number of dialysis sessions per month; number of ESRD patients enrolled in the health plan; cost of ESAs, iron, and dialysis sessions; and the proportion of patients on phosphate binder therapy. The model assumed equivalent efficacy and cost neutrality between FC and other phosphate binders. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted by varying model inputs. Results When FC was compared to other phosphate binders, the monthly cost of ESA and IV iron per 500 patients with ESRD (85% treated with phosphate binders) was reduced by 8.15% and 33.2%, respectively. When incorporated into the total cost of dialysis for patients with ESRD (dialysis, ESA, and IV iron), the decrease in the monthly cost of dialysis care was US$80,214 per 500 ESRD patients. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that a plan serving 500 dialysis patients could save between US$626,000 and US$1,106,000 annually with the use of FC. Conclusion The use of FC in ESRD patients with hyperphosphatemia may help reduce treatment costs.

Mutell, Richard; Rubin, Jaime L; Bond, T Christopher; Mayne, Tracy

2013-01-01

60

Contribution of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to the acute mobilization of endothelial precursor cells by vascular disrupting agents.  

PubMed

Vascular disrupting agents (VDA) cause acute shutdown of abnormal established tumor vasculature, followed by massive intratumoral hypoxia and necrosis. However, a viable rim of tumor tissue invariably remains from which tumor regrowth rapidly resumes. We have recently shown that an acute systemic mobilization and homing of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial precursor (CEP) cells could promote tumor regrowth following treatment with either a VDA or certain chemotherapy drugs. The molecular mediators of this systemic reactive host process are unknown. Here, we show that following treatment of mice with OXi-4503, a second-generation potent prodrug derivative of combretastatin-A4 phosphate, rapid increases in circulating plasma vascular endothelial growth factor, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels are detected. With the aim of determining whether G-CSF is involved in VDA-induced CEP mobilization, mutant G-CSF-R(-/-) mice were treated with OXi-4503. We found that as opposed to wild-type controls, G-CSF-R(-/-) mice failed to mobilize CEPs or show induction of SDF-1 plasma levels. Furthermore, Lewis lung carcinomas grown in such mice treated with OXi-4503 showed greater levels of necrosis compared with tumors treated in wild-type mice. Evidence for rapid elevations in circulating plasma G-CSF, vascular endothelial growth factor, and SDF-1 were also observed in patients with VDA (combretastatin-A4 phosphate)-treated cancer. These results highlight the possible effect of drug-induced G-CSF on tumor regrowth following certain cytotoxic drug therapies, in this case using a VDA, and hence G-CSF as a possible therapeutic target. PMID:19738066

Shaked, Yuval; Tang, Terence; Woloszynek, Jill; Daenen, Laura G; Man, Shan; Xu, Ping; Cai, Shi-Rong; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Voest, Emile E; Chaplin, David J; Smythe, Jon; Harris, Adrian; Nathan, Paul; Judson, Ian; Rustin, Gordon; Bertolini, Francesco; Link, Daniel C; Kerbel, Robert S

2009-09-08

61

Antistaphylococcal Activity of DX-619, a New Des-F(6)-Quinolone, Compared to Those of Other Agents  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, was tested against staphylococci and compared to those of other antimicrobials. DX-619 had the lowest MIC ranges/MIC50s/MIC90s (?g/ml) against 131 Staphylococcus aureus strains (?0.002 to 2.0/0.06/0.5) and 128 coagulase-negative staphylococci (0.004 to 0.25/0.016/0.125). Among strains tested, 76 S. aureus strains and 51 coagulase-negative staphylococci were resistant to ciprofloxacin. DX-619 had the lowest MIC50/MIC90 values against 127 quinolone-resistant staphylococci (0.125/0.5), followed by sitafloxacin (0.5/4), moxifloxacin (2/8), gatifloxacin (4/16), levofloxacin (16/>32), and ciprofloxacin (>32/>32). Raised quinolone MICs were associated with mutations in GyrA (S84L) and single or double mutations in GrlA (S80F or Y; E84K, G, or V) in all S. aureus strains tested. A recent vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strain (Hershey) was resistant to available quinolones and was inhibited by DX-619 at 0.25 ?g/ml and sitafloxacin at 1.0 ?g/ml. Vancomycin (except VRSA), linezolid, ranbezolid, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all strains, and teicoplanin was active against S. aureus but less active against coagulase-negative staphylococci. DX-619 produced resistant mutants with MICs of 1 to >32 ?g/ml after <50 days of selection compared to 16 to >32 ?g/ml for ciprofloxacin, sitafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were also more active than other tested drugs against selected mutants and had the lowest mutation frequencies in single-step resistance selection. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were bactericidal against six quinolone-resistant (including the VRSA) and seven quinolone-susceptible strains tested, whereas gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were bactericidal against 11, 10, 7, and 5 strains at 4× MIC after 24 h, respectively. DX-619 was also bactericidal against one other VRSA strain, five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains, and four vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci. Linezolid, ranbezolid, and tigecycline were bacteriostatic and quinupristin-dalfopristin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were bactericidal against two, eight, and nine strains, and daptomycin and oritavancin were rapidly bactericidal against all strains, including the VRSA. DX-619 has potent in vitro activity against staphylococci, including methicillin-, ciprofloxacin-, and vancomycin-resistant strains.

Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Esel, Duygu; Kelly, Linda M.; Bozdogan, Bulent; Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M.; Hoellman, Dianne B.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

2005-01-01

62

Antistaphylococcal activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, compared to those of other agents.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, was tested against staphylococci and compared to those of other antimicrobials. DX-619 had the lowest MIC ranges/MIC(50)s/MIC(90)s (microg/ml) against 131 Staphylococcus aureus strains (32), and ciprofloxacin (>32/>32). Raised quinolone MICs were associated with mutations in GyrA (S84L) and single or double mutations in GrlA (S80F or Y; E84K, G, or V) in all S. aureus strains tested. A recent vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strain (Hershey) was resistant to available quinolones and was inhibited by DX-619 at 0.25 microg/ml and sitafloxacin at 1.0 microg/ml. Vancomycin (except VRSA), linezolid, ranbezolid, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all strains, and teicoplanin was active against S. aureus but less active against coagulase-negative staphylococci. DX-619 produced resistant mutants with MICs of 1 to >32 microg/ml after <50 days of selection compared to 16 to >32 microg/ml for ciprofloxacin, sitafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were also more active than other tested drugs against selected mutants and had the lowest mutation frequencies in single-step resistance selection. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were bactericidal against six quinolone-resistant (including the VRSA) and seven quinolone-susceptible strains tested, whereas gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were bactericidal against 11, 10, 7, and 5 strains at 4x MIC after 24 h, respectively. DX-619 was also bactericidal against one other VRSA strain, five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains, and four vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci. Linezolid, ranbezolid, and tigecycline were bacteriostatic and quinupristin-dalfopristin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were bactericidal against two, eight, and nine strains, and daptomycin and oritavancin were rapidly bactericidal against all strains, including the VRSA. DX-619 has potent in vitro activity against staphylococci, including methicillin-, ciprofloxacin-, and vancomycin-resistant strains. PMID:16048943

Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Esel, Duygu; Kelly, Linda M; Bozdogan, Bülent; Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M; Hoellman, Dianne B; Appelbaum, Peter C

2005-08-01

63

Effects of Iron Supplementation on Erythropoietic Response in Patients with Cancer-Associated Anemia Treated by Means of Erythropoietic Stimulating Agents  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, intravenous iron supplementation to ESA (erythropoiesis-stimulating agent) therapy has emerged as an option to augment hemoglobin response in anemic cancer patients. In this paper, the results of seven published randomized clinical trials assessing the role of iron supplementation to ESA therapy in the hematology/oncology setting will be discussed. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind functional iron deficiency, a major reason for ESA hyporesponsiveness in cancer, will also be described.

Karlsson, Torbjorn

2011-01-01

64

Stimulation of Proliferation of U138MG Glioblastoma Cells by Gastrin-Releasing Peptide in Combination with Agents That Enhance cAMP Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence indicates that gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) acts as an autocrine growth factor for brain tumors. However, it remains unclear whether the cAMP\\/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway plays a role in mediating the mitogenic effects of GRP. We show here that GRP combined with agents that stimulate the cAMP\\/PKA pathway promotes proliferation of human gliobastoma cells. Treatment with GRP

Caroline Brunetto Farias; Rodrigo Cruz Lima; Luciana Otero Lima; Debora Gazzana Flores; Luise Meurer; Algemir Lunardi Brunetto; Gilberto Schwartsmann; Rafael Roesler

2008-01-01

65

Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental method using simultaneously different ? emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs ? a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

Bureau, M. F.

1997-03-01

66

Numerical simulation to study the feasibility of using CO2 as a stimulation agent for enhanced geothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern in the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is achieving and maintaining adequate injectivity, while avoiding the development of preferential short-circuiting flow paths such as those caused by thermally-induced stress cracking. Past researches have tended to focus primarily on thermal and hydraulic stimulation. Recent studies suggest that chemical stimulation may improve the performance of EGS reservoirs. Geothermal

T. Xu; W. Zhang; K. Pruess

2009-01-01

67

Well stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for stimulating a well completed in an unconsolidated formation. The unconsolidated formation is fractured without having had any prior consolidation treatment. The fracture step employs a propping agent. A portion of the propping agent is consolidated in the fractures created by the fracturing step. The unconsolidated formation remains essentially unconsolidated after the treatment has been completed.

L. H. Miles; F. G. Martin

1977-01-01

68

New advances in the treatment of adult chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: role of thrombopoietin receptor-stimulating agents  

PubMed Central

Decades of basic science and clinical research have led to an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), the processes underlying thrombopoiesis, and the treatment of chronic ITP. Now, new agents are available to treat ITP in a nonimmunosuppressive fashion. Lessons learned from the clinical trials of recombinant human thrombopoietin (TPO) have led to the development of a novel class of compounds: nonimmunogenic agonists of the thrombopoietin receptor. Representing the first nonimmunosuppressive agents to treat chronic refractory ITP in decades, medications such as romiplostim and eltrombopag were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. These new agents offer physicians a new tool for treating difficult cases of ITP in their medical armamentarium. Additional TPO mimetics are also being developed that show promise in vitro, and await future development.

Metjian, Ara; Abrams, Charles S

2009-01-01

69

On modeling of chemical stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system using a high pH solution with chelating agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolution of silica and calcite in the presence of a chelating agent (NTA) at a high pH was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments using a high-temperature flow reactor. (Note that the term 'silica' used here includes amorphous silica, quartz, and silicate glass bead). The mineral dissolution and associated porosity enhancement in the experiments were reproduced by reactive transport modeling using

T. Xu; P. Rose; S. Fayer; K. Pruess

2009-01-01

70

Alpha-lipoic acid, a scavenging agent for H 2 O 2 , reduces ethanol-stimulated locomotion in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The main system of central ethanol oxidation is mediated by the enzyme catalase. By reacting with H2O2, brain catalase forms compound I (the catalase–H2O2 system), which is able to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde in the brain. Previous studies have demonstrated that pharmacological\\u000a manipulations of brain catalase activity modulate the stimulant effects of ethanol in mice. However, the role of H2O2

Juan Carlos Ledesma; Carlos M. G. Aragon

71

Cockayne syndrome B protein stimulates apurinic endonuclease 1 activity and protects against agents that introduce base excision repair intermediates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein—defective in a majority of patients suffering from the rare autosomal disorder CS—is a member of the SWI2\\/SNF2 family with roles in DNA repair and transcription. We demonstrate herein that purified recombinant CSB and the major human apurinic\\/ apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, APE1, physically and functionally interact. CSB stimulates the AP site incision activity of APE1

Heng-Kuan Wong; Meltem Muftuoglu; Gad Beck; Syed Z. Imam; Vilhelm A. Bohr; David M. Wilson III

2007-01-01

72

Antihypertensive role of glossopharyngeal nerve stimulation by nifedipine using as calcium channel blocking agent in hypertension: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Nifedipine is a therapeutic drug in acute attacks of hypertension because of its rapid absorption from oral mucosa. Taste receptors are innervated by glossopharyngeal nerves (GPN) as well as by facial and vagal nerves. Sensory neurons of the GPNs are localised in the petrous ganglion (PG). Transection of the taste sensitive GPN fibres causes taste bud and PG degeneration and spontaneous hypertension. In this study, the role of chemical stimulation of the taste buds of the GPN by nifedipine and its role in treatment of hypertension were investigated in rabbits. Nifedipine was dropped sublingually (20 mg) for 4 days in the study group, followed by measuring blood pressures again. Then, the lingual branches of GPNs were cut. One month later, blood pressures were measured for 4 days. All animals were sacrificed humanely at the end of the experiment, and normal and degenerated neuron densities in the petrosal ganglions were enumerated stereologically. The antihypertensive effect of nifedipine decreased after GPNs denervation, in accordance with the increase of degenerated neurons in the PG. The chemical stimulation of taste buds of the GPNs by nifedipine may be an important effect of nifedipine application in addition to its calcium channel blocking effect. The rapid decrease in blood pressure following sublingual use of nifedipine may also result from the direct stimulation of taste buds innervated by the GPNs. PMID:20091275

Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Bayram, Ednan; Halici, Zekai; Aydin, Nazan; Atalay, Canan; Ulvi, Hizir; Kotan, Dilcan; Gundogdu, Cemal

2009-11-01

73

Application of stimulating agents on the immobilized bioluminescence strain Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206, preserved by deep-freezing, for the convenient biomonitoring.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop methods for the application of an immobilized bioluminescence strain (KG1206), preserved by deep-freezing (DF), for the monitoring of contaminated environments. The immobilized cells, preserved by DF, required approximately 2 hr for reconstitution of their activity. A large reduction in bioluminescence was observed due to the DF process; 0.07-0.58 times that of the non deep-frozen (NDF) immobilized strain. The decreased bioluminescence activity induced by the DF process was enhanced by the stimulants, sodium lactate (SL) and KNO3. However, regardless of the inducer chemical tested, the immobilized strain modified with KNO3 consistently produced greater bioluminescence than that treated with SL, in the range of 3.0-10.7 (avg. 6.7 +/- 3.69) and 1.2-4.2 (avg. 2.4 +/- 1.47) times that of control, respectively. All KNO3 treatments of contaminated groundwater samples also resulted in an increase in bioluminescence activity, but the rate of stimulation varied for each sample. Also, no strong linear correlation was observed between the bioluminescence and the total concentration of an inducer, which may related to the complex characteristics of the environmental samples. Overall, the results demonstrated the ability of immobilized genetically engineered bacteria, preserved by DF, to measure a specific group of environmental contaminants using a stimulating agent (KNO3), suggesting the potential for its preliminary application in a field-ready bioassay. PMID:21174982

Kong, In Chul

2010-01-01

74

Mouse model for noninvasive imaging of HIF prolyl hydroxylase activity: assessment of an oral agent that stimulates erythropoietin production.  

PubMed

Many human diseases are characterized by the development of tissue hypoxia. Inadequate oxygenation can cause cellular dysfunction and death. Tissues use many strategies, including induction of angiogenesis and alterations in metabolism, to survive under hypoxic conditions. The heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a master regulator of genes that promote adaptation to hypoxia. HIF activity is linked to oxygen availability because members of the EGLN family hydroxylate HIFalpha subunits on specific prolyl residues when oxygen is present, which marks them for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. We created a mouse that ubiquitously expresses a bioluminescent reporter consisting of firefly luciferase fused to a region of HIF that is sufficient for oxygen-dependent degradation. Our validation studies suggest that this mouse will be useful for monitoring hypoxic tissues and evaluating therapeutic agents that stabilize HIF. One such agent, the HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4383, was active in the liver and kidney after systemic administration as determined by bioluminescence imaging, transcription profiling, and production of erythropoietin, indicating that the HIF transcriptional program can be manipulated in vivo with orally active organic small molecules. PMID:16373502

Safran, Michal; Kim, William Y; O'Connell, Fionnuala; Flippin, Lee; Günzler, Volkmar; Horner, James W; Depinho, Ronald A; Kaelin, William G

2005-12-22

75

Induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters.  

PubMed Central

The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating activity (GM-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice which were topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting diterpene esters. Extremely large increases in GM-CSA were found in skin treated with the strongly tumor-promoting 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the weakly promoting mezerein, while only a very slight increase was found with the non-promoting 4-O-methyl-TPA (4-OMe-TPA). Untreated areas of skin had very little GM-CSA. In the treated skins, the elevated GM-CSA was noted within a few hours and lasted for greater than 24 h after treatment. Although the levels of GM-CSA induced in the skin correspond to the degree of inflammation elicited by the respective treatments, the leukocytes in the acute inflammatory infiltrate did not appear to be responsible for the increased GM-CSA. Both epidermis and dermis had increased GM-CSA following TPA treatment of skin. Treatment of fibroblast and epithelial continuous cell lines with diterpene esters resulted in a similar pattern of GM-CSA induction in their supernatant media as that noted in the skin extracts. A large majority of the colonies stimulated by the diterpene-ester induced GM-CSA were composed of only macrophages. The results demonstrate that the topical administration of an inflammatory diterpene ester results in a rapid, marked yet local GM-CSA induction in the skin of treated mice. This indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells a growth regulatory factor for other types of cells may be an important element in carcinogenesis. Images Fig. 2.

Koury, M J; Balmain, A; Pragnell, I B

1983-01-01

76

Stimulant and depressant effects of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents on isolated heart muscle. A positive inotropic effect not mediated through andrenoceptors.  

PubMed

The chronotropic and inotropic effects of fourteen beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents were studied in vitro on preparations of isolated heart muscle from kittens and guinea pigs. Most of the agents exert negative inotropic and chronotropic effects that increase rapidly with concentration above 10(-6) M. Exceptions are the closely related compounds practolol and atenolol, which have minimal depressant effects in concentrations as high as 2 X 10(-3) M. Dose-response relations for the depressant effects are similar for pacemaker frequency and for tension development in atrial and papillary muscle. The cardiodepressant effects of beta-blockers are non-stereospecific and are apparently unrelated to the actions of the drugs at beta-adrenoceptors. Many beta-blockers exert positive inotropic and chronotropic effects at concentrations lower than those that depress. The stimulant effects are slow in onset and do not fade. In most instances these effects are blocked by propranolol and may therefore be considered to be mediated throught beta-adrenoceptors; (-)-enantiomers are more potent than (+)-enantiomers as adrenoceptor stimulants. Adrenoceptor-mediated inotropic effects are usually more pronounced in atrial than in ventricular muscle. Certain beta-blockers, notably INPEA and sotalol, exert positive inotropic effects that are not blocked by propranolol or phenyoxybenzamine. The effects are very slow in onset and offset, and are accompanied by the development of contractions with a late tonic component which coincides with a greatly prolonged action potential. Unlike the adrenoceptor-mediated effect, the non-sympathomimetic inotropic effect is more pronounced in ventricular than in atrial muscle, and is not stereospecific. Pindolol also causes the development of a late tonic component, but the accompanying positive inotropic effect is overcome by the simultaneous development of the depressant action of the drug. PMID:6104791

Kaumann, A J; Blinks, J R

1980-04-01

77

Habitude, cognition et actions des dirigeants  

Microsoft Academic Search

(VF)Nous montrons, à travers l’exemple des habitudes de deux dirigeants, comment le patrimoine des habitudes du dirigeant peut influencer ou bloquer son action, voire celle de l’organisation. Le patrimoine des habitudes est à la base d’intuitions et de la perspicacité du dirigeant et celui-ci est un agent à la fois créateur et transmetteur de routines organisa-tionnelles qu’il a incorporées au

Martine Séville

2008-01-01

78

The anticancer agent YC-1 suppresses progestin-stimulated VEGF in breast cancer cells and arrests breast tumor development  

PubMed Central

Recent epidemiological studies show that postmenopausal women taking estrogen-progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have a higher risk of breast cancer than women on an HRT regimen lacking progestins. This may be related to the observation that progestin-treated breast cancer cells express and secrete high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor that promotes breast tumor growth. Anti-progestins such as RU-486 block this effect, indicating that progesterone receptors (PR) are involved in promoting VEGF induction; however antiprogestins cross-react with other steroid receptors which limits their clinical use. Alternative strategies are, therefore, needed to arrest the growth of progestin-dependent tumors. 3-(5?-hydroxymethyl-2?-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), a novel anticancer drug initially developed as an inhibitor of HIF-1?, is currently undergoing preclinical trials against various forms of cancer. Since HIF-1? has recently been implicated in PR-mediated VEGF synthesis, we undertook studies to determine whether YC-1 inhibits progestin-dependent VEGF induction and tumor progression. Surprisingly, we found that YC-1 downregulated PR in human breast cancer cells, both in vivo and in vitro, thereby blocking progestin-dependent induction of VEGF and tumor growth. YC-1 also inhibited progestin-accelerated DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats, properties which would likely render it effective against progestin-dependent tumors which frequently develop in post-menopausal women. We, therefore, propose that based on our observations, YC-1 warrants further investigation as a novel agent which could prove extremely useful as an anti-angiogenic chemotherapeutic drug.

CARROLL, CANDACE E.; LIANG, YAYUN; BENAKANAKERE, INDIRA; BESCH-WILLIFORD, CYNTHIA; HYDER, SALMAN M.

2013-01-01

79

Molecular characteristics and in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, including the des-fluoro(6) quinolone DX-619, of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the community and hospitals.  

PubMed

Highly virulent, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes have been found increasingly worldwide. Among a total of 2,101 MRSA strains isolated from patients in hospitals in Japan, two were positive for PVL genes. One strain was identified as a community-acquired MRSA strain with genotype sequence type 30 (ST30) and spa (staphylococcal protein A gene) type 19 from Japan and was resistant only to beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. The other strain was closely related to PVL+ multidrug-resistant, hospital-acquired MRSA strains (ST30, spa type 43) derived from nosocomial outbreaks in the 1980s to 1990s in Japan but with a divergent sequence type, ST765 (a single-locus variant of ST30). Twenty-two PVL+ MRSA strains, including those from Japan and those from other countries with various sequence types (ST1, ST8, ST30, ST59, and ST80) and genotypes, were examined for susceptibility to 31 antimicrobial agents. Among the agents, DX-619, a des-fluoro(6) quinolone, showed the greatest activity, followed by rifampin and sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone. The data suggest that DX-619 exhibits a superior activity against PVL+ MRSA strains with various virulence genetic traits from the community as well as from hospitals. PMID:17043124

Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Dohmae, Soshi; Saito, Kohei; Otsuka, Taketo; Takano, Tomomi; Chiba, Megumi; Fujikawa, Katsuko; Tanaka, Mayumi

2006-10-16

80

Molecular Characteristics and In Vitro Susceptibility to Antimicrobial Agents, Including the Des-Fluoro(6) Quinolone DX-619, of Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from the Community and Hospitals?  

PubMed Central

Highly virulent, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes have been found increasingly worldwide. Among a total of 2,101 MRSA strains isolated from patients in hospitals in Japan, two were positive for PVL genes. One strain was identified as a community-acquired MRSA strain with genotype sequence type 30 (ST30) and spa (staphylococcal protein A gene) type 19 from Japan and was resistant only to ?-lactam antimicrobial agents. The other strain was closely related to PVL+ multidrug-resistant, hospital-acquired MRSA strains (ST30, spa type 43) derived from nosocomial outbreaks in the 1980s to 1990s in Japan but with a divergent sequence type, ST765 (a single-locus variant of ST30). Twenty-two PVL+ MRSA strains, including those from Japan and those from other countries with various sequence types (ST1, ST8, ST30, ST59, and ST80) and genotypes, were examined for susceptibility to 31 antimicrobial agents. Among the agents, DX-619, a des-fluoro(6) quinolone, showed the greatest activity, followed by rifampin and sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone. The data suggest that DX-619 exhibits a superior activity against PVL+ MRSA strains with various virulence genetic traits from the community as well as from hospitals.

Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Dohmae, Soshi; Saito, Kohei; Otsuka, Taketo; Takano, Tomomi; Chiba, Megumi; Fujikawa, Katsuko; Tanaka, Mayumi

2006-01-01

81

Centrally acting hypotensive agents with affinity for 5-HT1A binding sites inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in calf hippocampus.  

PubMed Central

1. A number of centrally acting hypotensive agents and other ligands with high affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) recognition sites have been tested on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in calf hippocampus, a functional model for 5-HT1A-receptors. 2. Concentration-dependent inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was elicited by the reference 5-HT1-receptor agonists (mean EC50 value, nM): 5-HT (22), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 3.2), 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 8.6), N,N-dipropyl-5-carboxamidotryptamine (DP-5-CT, 2.3), 1-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (PAPP or LY 165163, 20), 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H indole (RU 24969, 20), buspirone (65) and ipsapirone (56). Emax amounted to 18-20% inhibition for all but the latter two agonists (14%). 3. The following hypotensive agents with high affinity for 5-HT1A sites were potent agonists in this system (mean EC50 value, nM): flesinoxan (24), indorenate (99), erythro-1-(1-[2-(1,4-benzodioxan-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-piperidyl )- 2-benzimidazolinone (R 28935, 2.5), urapidil (390) and 5-methyl-urapidil (3.5). The first two agents were full agonists, whereas the latter three acted as partial agonists with 60-80% efficacy. 4. Metergoline and methysergide behaved as full agonists and cyanopindolol as a partial agonist with low efficacy. Spiroxatrine and 2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)aminomethyl- 1,4-benzodioxane (WB 4101) which bind to 5-HT1A sites with nanomolar affinity, were agonists and inhibited potently forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in calf hippocampus, showing mean EC50 values of 23 and 15 nM, respectively. Spiroxatrine and WB 4101 yielded 90% and 50% efficacy, respectively. 5. Spiperone and methiothepin (each 1 microM) caused rightward shifts of the concentration-effect curve to 8-OH-DPAT, without loss of the maximal effect, as did the partial agonist cyanopindolol (0.1 microM) and the (-)- and (+)-enantiomers of pindolol (1 microM and 0.1 mM, respectively). 6. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.90, P = 0.0001) between the pEC50 values (ranging from 6.4 to 8.7) of the 19 agonists tested at adenylate cyclase and their pKD for 5-HT1A recognition sites. Apparent pKB values of antagonists at adenylate cyclase and their pKD values for 5-HT1A binding sites were also significantly correlated. 7. This study further indicates that the 5-HT1A recognition site and the 5-HT receptor mediating inhibition of adenylate cyclase in hippocampus are the same.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Schoeffter, P.; Hoyer, D.

1988-01-01

82

Quelle est la place de la stimulation magnétique transcrânienne dans la prise en charge des hallucinations de l’enfant souffrant de schizophrénie à début très précoce ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations (AVH) constitute extremely frequent positive symptoms in early-onset schizophrenia. These symptoms are all the more invalidating as they are often drug-resistant. The procedure of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), used in such cases in adult subjects with schizophrenia, showed good efficiency and tolerability. We present here the case of an 11-year-old child with a diagnosis of very-early onset

R. Jardri

2009-01-01

83

High Hematocrit Resulting from Administration of Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agents Is Not Fully Predictive of Mortality or Toxicities in Preclinical Species.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective analysis of publicly available preclinical toxicology studies with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to examine common adverse events in rats, Beagle dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys. Mortality and/or thrombotic events were reported sporadically in a subset of studies and attributed to the high hematocrit (HCT) achieved in the animals. However, similarly high HCT was achieved in both high-dose and low-dose groups, but there were no reported adverse events in the low-dose group suggesting HCT was not the sole contributing factor leading to toxicity. Our analysis indicated that increased dose, dose frequency, and dosing duration in addition to high HCT contributed to mortality and thrombosis. To further evaluate this relationship, the incidence of toxicities was compared in rats administered an experimental hyperglycosylated analog of recombinant human erythropoietin (AMG 114) at varying dosing schedules in 1-month toxicity studies. The incidence of mortality and thrombotic events increased in higher dose groups and when dosed more frequently, despite a similarly high HCT in all animals. The results from the investigative study and retrospective analysis demonstrate that ESA-related toxicities in preclinical species are associated with dose level, dose frequency, and dosing duration, and not solely dependent upon a high HCT. PMID:23674390

Andrews, Dina A; Pyrah, Ian T G; Boren, Babette M; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah H; Lightfoot-Dunn, Ruth M

2013-05-14

84

The Use of Preoperative Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) in Patients Who Underwent Knee or Hip Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been used in orthopedic patients to reduce allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT). The purpose of this systematic review of randomized clinical trials is to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative administration of ESAs on hemoglobin level at discharge and frequency of ABT in patients undergoing hip or knee surgery. Pooled results of 26 trials with 3560 participants showed that the use of preoperative ESAs reduced ABT in patients undergoing hip or knee surgery [RR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.60, P<0.00001]. Hemoglobin mean difference between ESA and control groups was 7.16 (g/L) [95% CI of 4.73 to 9.59, P=0.00001]. There was no difference in the risk of developing thromboembolism between ESA and control groups [RD: 0, 95 % CI: -1%-2%, P=0.95]. ESAs offer an alternative blood conservation method to avoid ABT in patients undergoing hip or knee surgery. PMID:23528548

Alsaleh, Khalid; Alotaibi, Ghazi S; Almodaimegh, Hind S; Aleem, Aamer A; Kouroukis, C Tom

2013-03-23

85

Long-term outcome of anemic lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes without 5q deletion refractory to or relapsing after erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.  

PubMed

A large proportion of lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) respond to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), but most responses are transient. We updated a previously reported cohort of lower-risk MDS patients treated with ESA and analyzed outcomes after ESA failure. In 120 patients with primary resistance and 66 patients with relapse after an initial response to ESA, the 5-year cumulative incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after failure was 18.9% and 11.6%, respectively (P=0.20). Median overall survival (OS) after failure was 40.1 and 44.9 months (P=0.35), respectively. We further categorized patients as 'early failures' (including resistance and relapse after <6 months of response), or 'later failures' (that is, relapse after ?6 months). The 5-year cumulative incidence of AML and median OS after failure in early and later failure were 21.6% and 9% (P=0.02) and 36.7 and 54.3 months (P=0.02), respectively. Early failure to ESA and a baseline diagnosis of refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-1 were independent prognostic factors for AML progression and, along with trisomy 8, for shorter OS. Median OS from treatment onset was 40, 90.7 and 65.8 months in early failure, later failure and no relapse, respectively (P=0.001). Lower-risk MDS with early failure to ESA have a relatively unfavorable outcome, and should be offered alternative treatments. PMID:23370672

Kelaidi, C; Park, S; Sapena, R; Beyne-Rauzy, O; Coiteux, V; Vey, N; Stamatoullas, A; Choufi, B; Delaunay, J; Gourin, M-P; Cheze, S; Ravoet, C; Ferrant, A; Escoffre-Barbe, M; Aljassem, L; Raffoux, E; Itzykson, R; Adès, L; Dreyfus, F; Fenaux, P

2013-01-16

86

Comparative cost efficiency across the European G5 countries of originators and a biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to manage chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients with cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the comparative cost efficiency across the European Union G5 countries of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) epoetin ? (originator [Eprex®] and biosimilar [Binocrit®]; once weekly), epoetin ? (NeoRecormon®; once weekly), and darbepoetin ? (Aranesp®; once weekly or once every 3 weeks) under different scenarios of fixed and weight-based dosing in the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia. Methods: Direct costs of ESA treatment were calculated for one patient with cancer undergoing chemotherapy (six cycles at 3-week intervals) with ESA initiated at week 4 and continued for 15 weeks. Five scenarios were developed under fixed and weight-based dosing: continuous standard dose for 15 weeks; sustained dose escalation to 1.5× or double the standard dose at week 7, continued for 12 weeks; and discontinued dose escalation to 1.5× or double the standard dose at week 7 for a 3-week period, then 9 weeks of standard dose. Results: Under fixed dosing, the average cost of biosimilar epoetin ? treatment across scenarios was €4643 (30,000 IU) or €6178 (40,000 IU). Corresponding estimates were €7168 for originator epoetin ?, €7389 for epoetin ?, €8299 for darbepoetin ? once weekly, and €9221 for darbepoetin ? once every 3 weeks. Under weight-based dosing, the average cost of biosimilar epoetin ? treatment across scenarios was €4726. Corresponding estimates were €5484 for originator epoetin ?, €5652 for epoetin ?, and €8465 for both darbepoetin ? once weekly and once every three weeks. Conclusion: Managing chemotherapy-induced anemia with biosimilar epoetin ? is consistently cost efficient over treatment with originator epoetin ?, epoetin ?, and darbepoetin ? under both fixed and weight-based dosing scenarios.

Aapro, Matti; Cornes, Paul; Sun, Diana

2012-01-01

87

Low-Dose Treatment with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and Cardiovascular Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Darbepoetin-? More Effective than Expected?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread invalidating condition, leading to erythropoietin deficiency and decreased cardiovascular performance. Darbepoetin-? and epoetin-? are extensively used to correct renal anemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiological outcomes in two groups of CKD patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA: 20 ?g darbepoetin-? weekly vs. 2,000 IU epoetin-? thrice weekly) with an unconventional 1:300 conversion ratio. Methods The study was designed as a single center, retrospective, observational study. One hundred stage IV CKD patients were selected. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, C-reactive protein, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and basal echocardiograms were monitored every 3 months. Results Darbepoetin-? was significantly more effective in increasing Hb levels after 3 (p < 0.0001), 6 (p < 0.0001), 9 (p < 0.01) and 12 months (p < 0.01) compared to epoetin-?. The optimal Hb target level (11 g/dl < Hb < 12 g/dl) was completely reached after 1 year of treatment with darbepoetin-? and in 70% of the patients treated with epoetin-? (p < 0.01). Cardiovascular performance (left ventricular end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction and pro-BNP) was significantly improved after darbepoetin-? treatment at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups compared to epoetin-?. Discussion: Despite the limitations of a retrospective observational study, these results encourage nephrologists to test the 1:300 darbepoetin/epoetin conversion ratio in ‘easy’ patients, and aggressive protocols for the treatment of anemia in CKD patients are avoided. Darbepoetin-? appeared effective in anemia correction, improving cardiovascular performance in a significantly higher proportion than epoetin. At low doses, on the other hand, it has to be borne in mind that a treatment regimen with only one submaximal administration per week may increase patient compliance and adherence to therapy, explaining in part the observed results.

Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio; Malaguti, Moreno

2012-01-01

88

Low-Dose Treatment with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and Cardiovascular Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Darbepoetin-? More Effective than Expected?  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread invalidating condition, leading to erythropoietin deficiency and decreased cardiovascular performance. Darbepoetin-? and epoetin-? are extensively used to correct renal anemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiological outcomes in two groups of CKD patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA: 20 ?g darbepoetin-? weekly vs. 2,000 IU epoetin-? thrice weekly) with an unconventional 1:300 conversion ratio. METHODS: The study was designed as a single center, retrospective, observational study. One hundred stage IV CKD patients were selected. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, C-reactive protein, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and basal echocardiograms were monitored every 3 months. RESULTS: Darbepoetin-? was significantly more effective in increasing Hb levels after 3 (p < 0.0001), 6 (p < 0.0001), 9 (p < 0.01) and 12 months (p < 0.01) compared to epoetin-?. The optimal Hb target level (11 g/dl < Hb < 12 g/dl) was completely reached after 1 year of treatment with darbepoetin-? and in 70% of the patients treated with epoetin-? (p < 0.01). Cardiovascular performance (left ventricular end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction and pro-BNP) was significantly improved after darbepoetin-? treatment at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups compared to epoetin-?. Discussion: Despite the limitations of a retrospective observational study, these results encourage nephrologists to test the 1:300 darbepoetin/epoetin conversion ratio in 'easy' patients, and aggressive protocols for the treatment of anemia in CKD patients are avoided. Darbepoetin-? appeared effective in anemia correction, improving cardiovascular performance in a significantly higher proportion than epoetin. At low doses, on the other hand, it has to be borne in mind that a treatment regimen with only one submaximal administration per week may increase patient compliance and adherence to therapy, explaining in part the observed results. PMID:22493599

Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio; Malaguti, Moreno

2011-12-16

89

Propensity score matched assessment of treatment patterns and cost of erythropoiesis stimulating agent treatment in patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To examine epoetin alfa (EPO) and darbepoetin alfa (DARB) treatment patterns and erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) costs in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy (CRC), and to compare the results observed in the pre-matched total study population (TSP) with a propensity score matched population (PSMP). METHODS: A medical claims analysis was conducted from 1 January 2004 through 31 July 2009 using the HealthCore Integrated Research Database. Patients were at least 18 years old, newly initiated on EPO or DARB, received???2 ESA doses, and had???1 claim for cancer and chemotherapy proximate to ESA treatment. Patients were matched using propensity scores. January 2010 Wholesale Acquisition Cost was used to calculate drug cost. Mean cumulative ESA dose and drug costs were evaluated in the TSP and PSMP. RESULTS: 4921 EPO and 9173 DARB patients with CRC were identified. In the TSP, mean cumulative ESA doses were EPO: 398,770 units and DARB: 1508 mcg, with similar treatment durations for each. Mean cumulative drug costs were EPO: $6041 and DARB: $7861 (30% higher for DARB). The cumulative dose ratio (EPO units: DARB mcg) was 264:1. The PSMP analysis identified 4831 ESA treated CRC patients in each group. Mean drug costs were EPO: $6055 and DARB: $7863 (30% higher for DARB). The observed dose ratio (EPO units: DARB mcg) was 265:1. CONCLUSION: In both analyses, the costs of DARB were higher, even after accounting for baseline differences in the PSMP. Similar trends in dose ratios were also observed in both groups. PMID:23235918

Tunceli, Ozgur; Bailey, Robert A; Stephenson, Judith J; Singer, Joseph

2012-12-12

90

Effects of the dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents on cardiovascular events, quality of life, and health-related costs in hemodialysis patients: the clinical evaluation of the dose of erythropoietins (C.E. DOSE) trial protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a risk factor for death, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and poor quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents (ESA) are commonly used to increase hemoglobin levels in this population. In observational studies, higher hemoglobin levels (around 11-13 g\\/dL) are associated with improved survival and quality of life compared to hemoglobin levels around

Giovanni FM Strippoli

2010-01-01

91

Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

Gore, Deborah, Ed.

1988-01-01

92

Measurement of Anti-Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent IgG4 Antibody as an Indicator of Antibody-Mediated Pure Red Cell Aplasia  

PubMed Central

Patients treated with erythropoietin-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) can develop a rare but life-threatening condition called antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (amPRCA). The antibody characteristics in a nephrology patient with amPRCA include high antibody concentrations with neutralizing activity and a mixed IgG subclass including anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies. In contrast, anti-ESA IgG4 antibody is generally not detected in baseline samples and antibody-positive non-PRCA patients. Therefore, we validated a highly sensitive immunoassay on the ImmunoCAP 100 instrument to quantitate anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies using a human recombinant anti-epoetin alfa (EPO) IgG4 antibody as a calibrator. The biotinylated ESA was applied to a streptavidin ImmunoCAP, and bound anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies were detected using a ?-galactosidase-conjugated mouse anti-human IgG4 antibody. The validated assay was used to detect anti-ESA IgG4 in amPRCA and non-PRCA patients. The immunoassay detected 15 ng/ml of human anti-EPO IgG4 antibody in the presence of a 200 M excess of human anti-ESA IgG1, IgG2, or IgM antibody and tolerated 2 ?g/ml of soluble erythropoietin. All patient samples with confirmed amPRCA had measurable anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies. In addition, 94% (17/18) of non-PRCA patient samples were antibody negative or had below 15 ng/ml of anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies. This novel immunoassay can measure low-nanogram quantities of human anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies in the presence of other anti-ESA antibodies. An increased concentration of anti-ESA IgG4 antibody is associated with the development of amPRCA. We propose that the measurement of anti-ESA specific IgG4 antibodies may facilitate early detection of amPRCA in patients receiving all ESAs structurally related to human erythropoietin.

Weeraratne, Dohan K.; Kuck, Andrew J.; Chirmule, Narendra

2013-01-01

93

Measurement of anti-erythropoiesis-stimulating agent IgG4 antibody as an indicator of antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia.  

PubMed

Patients treated with erythropoietin-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) can develop a rare but life-threatening condition called antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (amPRCA). The antibody characteristics in a nephrology patient with amPRCA include high antibody concentrations with neutralizing activity and a mixed IgG subclass including anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies. In contrast, anti-ESA IgG4 antibody is generally not detected in baseline samples and antibody-positive non-PRCA patients. Therefore, we validated a highly sensitive immunoassay on the ImmunoCAP 100 instrument to quantitate anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies using a human recombinant anti-epoetin alfa (EPO) IgG4 antibody as a calibrator. The biotinylated ESA was applied to a streptavidin ImmunoCAP, and bound anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies were detected using a ?-galactosidase-conjugated mouse anti-human IgG4 antibody. The validated assay was used to detect anti-ESA IgG4 in amPRCA and non-PRCA patients. The immunoassay detected 15 ng/ml of human anti-EPO IgG4 antibody in the presence of a 200 M excess of human anti-ESA IgG1, IgG2, or IgM antibody and tolerated 2 ?g/ml of soluble erythropoietin. All patient samples with confirmed amPRCA had measurable anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies. In addition, 94% (17/18) of non-PRCA patient samples were antibody negative or had below 15 ng/ml of anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies. This novel immunoassay can measure low-nanogram quantities of human anti-ESA IgG4 antibodies in the presence of other anti-ESA antibodies. An increased concentration of anti-ESA IgG4 antibody is associated with the development of amPRCA. We propose that the measurement of anti-ESA specific IgG4 antibodies may facilitate early detection of amPRCA in patients receiving all ESAs structurally related to human erythropoietin. PMID:23114696

Weeraratne, Dohan K; Kuck, Andrew J; Chirmule, Narendra; Mytych, Daniel T

2012-10-31

94

Continued challenges with the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with cancer: perspectives and issues on policy-guided health care.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are approved as an alternative to blood transfusions for treating anemia secondary to chemotherapy in patients with cancer. Recently, ESAs have been a source of controversy and confusion in the oncology community. This began when two European trials-the Breast Cancer Erythropoietin Survival Trial (BEST) and the Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated with Radiotherapy (ENHANCE) Study-raised safety concerns about decreased overall survival and increased venous thromboembolic events. In 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened its Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) to review the data and reassess the risks and benefits of ESAs in patients with cancer. On May 10, 2007, ODAC reconvened when five trials (BEST, ENHANCE, AMG-20010103, AMG-20000161, and EPO-CAN-20) showed decreased overall survival. The briefing document noted that studies demonstrating detrimental effects on survival and/or tumor outcomes used an unapproved treatment regimen designed to maintain hemoglobin levels above 12 g/dl. On May 14, 2007, just days after the ODAC reconvened, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released a proposed decision memo for a national coverage determination (NCD) imposing restrictions on ESAs. For health care providers, aspects of the proposed NCD were markedly inconsistent with FDA-approved ESA use and generally were considered ambiguous and unclear. Over objections of several professional associations and members of Congress, on July 30, 2007, CMS posted the final NCD and declared it effective immediately. When compared with FDA-approved labeling and professional society guidelines, the NCD revealed differences in ESA initiation, dosage escalation, dosage reduction, and definition of response. These discrepancies have generated confusion among health care providers, who are struggling over whether they can feasibly provide a dual system of care-one for Medicare patients and another for non-Medicare patients-that is evidence based. With this supplement, we hope to educate health care providers on the issues and challenges associated with policy-guided health care when discrepancies exist between the policy and evidence-based practice; offer guidance on implementing the NCD; and highlight the important role of pharmacists in the process. PMID:18447704

Arbuckle, Rebecca B; Griffith, Niesha L; Iacovelli, Lew M; Johnson, Philip E; Jorgenson, James A; Kloth, Dwight D; Lucarelli, Charles D; Muller, Raymond J

2008-05-01

95

Effects of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists and catecholamine depleting agents on the locomotor stimulation induced by dizocilpine in mice.  

PubMed

Low doses of the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) induce locomotor stimulation in mice, whereas higher doses are associated with ataxia, stereotyped behaviors and catalepsy. We investigated the role of dopamine receptors and presynaptic dopamine neurons in the locomotor effects of dizocilpine. For comparison, we studied several other drugs that induce locomotor stimulation in mice. Pretreatment of male mice with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) completely prevented the stimulation of normally coordinated locomotion induced by a non-intoxicating dose of dizocilpine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.); haloperidol also attenuated the locomotor stimulation produced by phencyclidine (PCP, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.), d-amphetamine (2 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Haloperidol (doses up to 2.5 mg/kg) did not attenuate the ataxia and decreased locomotion induced by higher doses of dizocilpine (1 and 2 mg/kg). The active cis isomer of flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), an antagonist of both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, also diminished the stimulant actions of all of the test drugs, whereas its inactive trans form did not. The selective D1 antagonist R(+/-)-SCH 23390 (0.1 mg/kg) and the selective D2 antagonist raclopride (1 mg/kg) had little effect on the stimulatory effect of dizocilpine, although they did reduce the stimulation produced by PCP, d-amphetamine and diazepam. However, pretreatment with a combination of R(+/-)SCH 23390 and raclopride completely prevented dizocilpine-induced locomotor stimulation. Pretreatment with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT, 50 and 250 mg/kg), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, or with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OH-DA, 50 micrograms, i.c.v.), a neurotoxin that destroys brain dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons, did not attenuate the locomotor stimulation induced by dizocilpine, although these treatments did reduce the stimulant effects of d-amphetamine. In AMPT or 6-OH-DA pretreated mice, haloperidol (0.125 mg/kg) prevented the stimulatory effect of dizocilpine. These results support a role for dopamine receptors in the stimulation of normally coordinated locomotion by dizocilpine. However, the locomotor stimulant effect of dizocilpine, unlike that of d-amphetamine, can be expressed in the presence of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor blockade and does not appear to be dependent on intact presynaptic mechanisms. PMID:8561905

Lapin, I P; Rogawski, M A

1995-10-01

96

Effects of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists and catecholamine depleting agents on the locomotor stimulation induced by dizocilpine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low doses of the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) induce locomotor stimulation in mice, whereas higher doses are associated with ataxia, stereotyped behaviors and catalepsy. We investigated the role of dopamine receptors and presynaptic dopamine neurons in the locomotor effects of dizocilpine. For comparison, we studied several other drugs that induce locomotor stimulation in mice. Pretreatment of male

Izyaslav P. Lapin; Michael A. Rogawski

1995-01-01

97

Définition des priorités sanitaires et rationnement. L'opinion des Suisses, des Administrateurs hospitaliers et des Départements sanitaires des Cantons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectifs. Le but de cette analyse est,[i] de présenter l'opinion actuelle de la population suisse sur des thèmes liés à la limitation des ressources, à la définition des priorités et au rationnement dans le secteur sanitaire, [ii] de comparer cette opinion avec celle d'autres groupes professionnellement engagés dans le secteur (administrateurs des hôpitaux et directions des Départements sanitaires des cantons)

Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Jenny MAGGI

2000-01-01

98

Cholinergic Agents and Inhibitors of Extracellular Calcium Influx Suppress the Secretion of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormones) by Human Thyrotropic Adenoma Cells Maintained in Long-Term Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent reports from various centers have described effects of muscarinic agonists and blockers on anterior pituitary secretion in both animals and humans. Studies of intact organisms are limited, however, by the frequent significant stress such agents ind...

H. G. Fein N. E. Butkus R. C. Smallridge

1986-01-01

99

Infiltration of lymphocytes in the limbic brain following stimulation of subclinical cellular immunity and low dosages of lithium and a cholinergic agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was designed to investigate the hypothesis that single small dosages of lithium (1.5 mEq\\/kg), the muscarinic agent pilocarpine (15 mg\\/kg) and spinal cord emulsion encourage perivascular infiltration of lymphocytes into the brain even when overt symptoms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis are not apparent. The brains of rats that had received this small dosage of lithium and pilocarpine exhibited

Lisa L Cook; M. A Persinger

1999-01-01

100

Der Sauerstoffverbrauch des stillstehenden, des leerschlagenden und des flimmernden Herzens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Hunden mit offenem Thorax wurden unter Verwendung eines extrakorporalen Kreislaufs vergleichende Messungen von O2-Verbrauch und Durchblutung des stillstehenden, leerschlagenden und flimmernden Herzens durchgeführt. Durch eine besondere Technik war es möglich, ohne Kanulierung beide Coronarien zu durchströmen und damit den O2-Verbrauch des ganzen Herzens zu messen.

Hans-Eberhard Hoffmeister; Heinrich Kreuzer; Wilhelm Schoeppe

1959-01-01

101

Accumulation des profits et désendettement des entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

En modélisant un arbitrage intertemporel, le désendettement est un choix rationnel en présence d'un rendement marginal des nouveaux investissements inférieur au taux d'intérêt réel sur l'encours de la dette et supérieur au coût d'opportunité des placements des fonds internes. Dans ce cas, le désendettement évince l'investissement ; les profits n'ont pas d'effet sur l'investissement et un effet négatif sur le

Jean-Bernard Chatelain

1998-01-01

102

Inhibition of MAO-A and stimulation of behavioural activities in mice by the inactive prodrug form of the anti-influenza agent oseltamivir  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Oseltamivir is the most widely prescribed anti-influenza medication. However, in rare instances, it has been reported to stimulate behavioural activities in adolescents. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for these behavioural activities. Experimental Approach We performed an in vitro assay of MAO-A, the enzyme responsible for neurotransmitter degradation, using either the active form – oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or the inactive prodrug – oseltamivir ethyl ester (OEE). We also analysed the docking of MAO-A with OEE or OC?in silico. Mouse behaviours after OEE or OC administration were monitored using automated video and computer analysis. Key Results OEE, but not OC, competitively and selectively inhibited human MAO-A. The estimated Ki value was comparable with the Km values of native substrates of MAO-A. Docking simulations in silico based on the tertiary structure of MAO-A suggested that OEE could fit into the inner pocket of the enzyme. Behavioural monitoring using automated video analysis further revealed that OEE, not OC, significantly enhanced spontaneous behavioural activities in mice, such as jumping, rearing, sniffing, turning and walking. Conclusions and Implications Our multilevel analyses suggested OEE to be the cause of the side effects associated with oseltamivir and revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the stimulated behaviours induced by oseltamivir in some circumstances.

Hiasa, Miki; Isoda, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Saitoh, Kenta; Kimura, Yasuaki; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Hatakeyama, Dai; Kirino, Yutaka; Kuzuhara, Takashi

2013-01-01

103

Sarcophine-Diol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent, Inhibits Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Mouse Melanoma B16F10 Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B16F10 cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3) and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP). SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B16F10 tumor cells.

Szymanski, Pawel T.; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham

2011-01-01

104

Évaluation des produits combinés  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... des Centres respectifs. Les cases du tableau présentent quelques- unes des principales étapes d'examen. Veuillez noter ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

105

Cyclic AMP-elevating agents down-regulate the oxidative burst induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in adherent neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

Human neutrophils, plated on fibronectin-precoated wells, were found to release large quantities of superoxide anion (O2-) in response to GM-CSF. O2- production was reduced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the phosphodiesterase type IV (PDE IV) inhibitor RO 20-1724. Both agents are known to increase intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels by inducing its production (PGE2) or blocking its catabolism (RO 20-1724). When added in combination, PGE2 and RO 20-1724 had a marked synergistic inhibitory effect, which was reproduced by replacing PGE2 with a direct activator of adenylate cyclase, i.e. forskolin (FK). Moreover, the neutrophil response to GM-CSF was inhibited by a membrane-permeable analogue of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. As GM-CSF and PGE2 are known to be generated at tissue sites of inflammation, the results suggest the existence of a PGE2-dependent regulatory pathway potentially capable of controlling the neutrophil response to GM-CSF, in turn limiting the risk of local oxidative tissue injury. Moreover, owing to its susceptibility to amplification by RO 20-1724, the PGE2-dependent pathway and in particular PDE-IV may represent a pharmacological target to reduce the generation of histotoxic oxidants by GM-CSF-responding neutrophils.

Ottonello, L; Morone, M P; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

1995-01-01

106

Surfactants for well stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of surface-active agents as related to oil and gas well stimulation are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the use of surfactants in acidizing operations of limestone and dolomite reservoirs. Surfactants are used to retard the reaction rate of acid on carbonate rocks, to inhibit corrosion of steel, to prevent and break acid-oil emulsions and sludge formation, to suspend

B. E. Hall; R. M. Lasater

1970-01-01

107

Chronique des tendances de la société française  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Cette chronique porte sur quatre des tendances que Louis Dirn suit régulièrement : • L'effort pour assurer une meilleure égalité des chances sco- laires se heurte à des effets pervers qui résultent des politiques de gestion des établissements et des stratégies des familles. La diver- sification des établissements offre une nouvelle liberté de choix aux familles qui en jouent

Alain Beurdeley; Jean-Pierre Jaslin; Nicolas Herpin; Serge Paugam

1995-01-01

108

Effets secondaires des androgènes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume  Les androgènes utilisés à des doses 10 à 100 fois supérieures aux doses thérapeutiques provoquent des effets qui peuvent être\\u000a classés en 4 catégories: 1) Effets androgéniques: Chez l’homme, les androgènes provoquent atrophie testiculaire et azoospermie\\u000a avec stérilité, réversibles en 2 à 3 mois à l’arrêt du traitement. Il serait utile de surveiller à long terme la prostate\\u000a des sujets

I. Mowszowicz

1995-01-01

109

[Inductive stimulation].  

PubMed

Electrical stimulation, which has long been known, has recently been complemented by electromagnetic stimulation. This method is based on the law of induction and employs coils in place of electrodes. The effect of this process is deduced from both the relationship between magnetic and electrical fields and the stimulating effect. A new type of stimulator has been developed from a resonant circuit, thus allowing nerves to be excited with low-frequency pulses up to fusion frequency. PMID:2372568

Eichhorn, K F; Arndt, B; Claus, D; Heinrich, W; Sembach, O; Schreivogel, K

1990-06-01

110

Les vacances des Français  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Depuis 1964, l'INSEE effectue chaque année une enquête sur les vacances. De 1964 à 1977, la proportion des Français qui sont partis en vacances a augmenté de 44 % à 53 %; pendant la période, la part des séjours d'hiver est passée de 15 à 29 %. Il faut remarquer toutefois la baisse du taux de départ entre 1976

Jean Anfré; Jean-Michel Rempp

1978-01-01

111

La structure des verres étudiée par diffraction des neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La diffraction des neutrons est une méthode largement utilisée pour déterminer la structure des matériaux amorphes et en particulier des verres. L'utilisation de la méthode de substitution isotopique permet d'extraire les fonctions de distribution de paires partielles centrées autour d'un élément choisi. Nous présentons quelques exemples récents d'études par diffraction des neutrons sur des verres qui ont permis de mieux comprendre à la fois le réseau polymérique de la matrice vitreuse et l'environnement local et à moyenne distance autour des cations. Ces études ont révélées un ordre structural s'étendant au delà des premiers voisins, jusque vers de distances d'environ 10Å. Le couplage avec d'autres méthodes expérimentales (diffraction anormale des rayons X) et des techniques de simulations (dynamique moléculaire, Monte Carlo Inverse ou RMC) sont indispensables pour affiner nos connaissances de la structure des verres.

Cormier, L.

2003-09-01

112

La structure des solutions aqueuses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En commençant par l'étude par diffraction neutronique de la structure des liquides moléculaires puis de l'hydratation des ions en solution, ce cours montrera comment les principes présentés lors des cours précédents peuvent être appliqués à des systèmes aqueux. Des exemples tirés de la littérature seront utilisés pour illustrer les considérations expérimentales propre à ce domaine et le genre d'informations que nous pouvons obtenir. Ce cours montrera également l'applicaton de la diffraction neutronique à des systèmes d'intérêt biologique et environnemental et se terminera par un examen de la complémentarité fournie par la diffraction des rayons X, l'EXAFS et la RMN.

Powell, D. H.

2003-09-01

113

Information on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESA) ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... marketed as Procrit, Epogen), Darbepoetin alfa (marketed as Aranesp ... failure, chemotherapy, certain treatments for Human Immunodeficiency Virus ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

114

Public Health Advisory: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... FDA and Amgen, the manufacturer of these products, and Ortho Biotech Products, LP, a Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceuticals Research and ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

115

Public Health Advisory: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... AZT (zidovudine), there are no data to support claims of improvement in health-related quality of life, including effects on fatigue, energy or strength. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

116

Effects of the dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents on cardiovascular events, quality of life, and health-related costs in hemodialysis patients: the clinical evaluation of the dose of erythropoietins (C.E. DOSE) trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is a risk factor for death, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and poor quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents (ESA) are commonly used to increase hemoglobin levels in this population. In observational studies, higher hemoglobin levels (around 11-13 g/dL) are associated with improved survival and quality of life compared to hemoglobin levels around 9-10 g/dL. A systematic review of randomized trials found that targeting higher hemoglobin levels with ESA causes an increased risk of adverse vascular outcomes. It is possible, but has never been formally tested in a randomized trial, that ESA dose rather than targeted hemoglobin concentration itself mediates the increased risk of adverse vascular outcomes. The Clinical Evaluation of the DOSe of Erythropoietins (C.E. DOSE) trial will assess the benefits and harms of a high versus a low fixed ESA dose for the management of anemia in patients with end stage kidney disease. Methods/Design This is a randomized, prospective open label blinded end-point (PROBE) trial due to enrol 2204 hemodialysis patients in Italy. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to 4000 IU/week versus 18000 IU/week of intravenous epoietin alfa or beta, or any other ESA in equivalent doses. The dose will be adjusted only if hemoglobin levels fall outside the 9.5-12.5 g/dL range. The primary outcome will be a composite of all-cause mortality, non fatal stroke, non fatal myocardial infarction and hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. Quality of life and costs will also be assessed. Discussion The C.E.DOSE study will help inform the optimal therapeutic strategy for the management of anemia of hemodialysis patients, improving clinical outcomes, quality of life and costs, by ascertaining the potential benefits and harms of different fixed ESA doses. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00827021

2010-01-01

117

Target haemoglobin to aim for with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: a position statement by ERBP following publication of the Trial to reduce cardiovascular events with Aranesp therapy (TREAT) study.  

PubMed

The European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), which are issued by ERA-EDTA, are suggestions for clinical practice in areas in which evidence is lacking or weak, together with position statements on recently published randomized controlled trials, or on existing guidelines and recommendations. In 2009, the Anaemia Working Group of ERBP published its first position statement about the haemoglobin target to aim for with erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) and on issues that were not covered by K-DOQI in 2006-07. This second position paper of the group follows the publication of the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) Study. This multi-centre, placebo-controlled trial compared cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 4038 patients with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease not on dialysis, and anaemia who were randomized to complete anaemia correction (haemoglobin target of 13 g/dL using darbepoetin alpha) or placebo (with a haemoglobin rescue value of 9 g/dL). Following the findings of the TREAT study, the Anaemia Working Group of ERBP maintains its view that 'Hb values of 11-12 g/dL should be generally sought in the CKD population without intentionally exceeding 13 g/dL' and that the doses of ESA therapy to achieve the target haemoglobin should also be considered. More caution is suggested when treating anaemia with ESA therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes not undergoing dialysis (and probably in diabetics at all CKD stages). In those with ischaemic heart disease or with a previous history of stroke, possible benefits should be weighed up against an increased risk of stroke recurrence, when deciding which Hb level to aim for. These recommendations are not intended to represent a new guideline as they are not the result of a systematic review of the evidence. PMID:20591813

Locatelli, Francesco; Aljama, Pedro; Canaud, Bernard; Covic, Adrian; De Francisco, Angel; Macdougall, Iain C; Wiecek, Andrzej; Vanholder, Raymond

2010-06-29

118

Zur Physiologie des Liegens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Durch Unterwasseraufnahmen wird die Winkelstellung in Hüfte und Knie bei maximaler Entspannung ermittelt sowie die Abhängigkeit des Kniewinkels vom Hüftwinkel bei Zwischenstellungen zwischen Sitzen und Liegen. Die gewonnenen Unterlagen können für die zweckmäßige Konstruktion von Liegestühlen verwendet werden.

Gunther Lehmann

1940-01-01

119

Anatomophysiologie des algies pudendales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les algies pudendales sont périnéales de type tronculaire et somatique. Elles siègent dans le territoire du nerf atteint et\\u000a sont positionnelles, ce qui évoque un phénomène de compression lors de la position assise. L’anatomophysiologie de ces douleurs\\u000a met l’accent sur plusieurs items: a) définition et innervation du périnée; b) étude du parcours des voies de la douleur; étude\\u000a des structures

R. Robert; Y. Beaudic; O. Hamel; M. Khalfallah; J.-J. Labat; T. Riant

2007-01-01

120

?-Adrenergic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Two groups of substances which stimulate the adrenergic system are listed as prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Stimulants\\u000a are prohibited in-competition only and ?2-agonists are prohibited in- and out-of-competition. While ?2-agonists act directly on the target receptors, sympathomimetic amines can exert their action directly and indirectly. Due\\u000a to differences in pharmacology but mainly due to differences in administered dose,

Peter Van Eenoo; Frans T. Delbeke

121

Stimulator system  

SciTech Connect

An electrical stimulator system is described incorporating rechargeable batteries and a charging circuit. A charging set and electrode support are alternatively connected to the stimulator system via a single common two-pole terminal. The system is designed to prevent current from flowing directly from the battery to the electrode support along the charging circuit while allowing charge current to flow in the opposite direction along the charging circuit if the charging set is connected to the system instead of the electrode support.

Hakansson, B.H.; Saario, R.A.

1984-02-14

122

Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefäße, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drüsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhöht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

H. Kreitmair

1927-01-01

123

La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

2003-02-01

124

La vitalité des spermatozoïdes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Malgré l’existence de nombreux moyens d’étude de la vitalité des spermatozoïdes, la plupart restent dans le domaine de la\\u000a recherche biomédicale. Ce sont surtout les tests classiques, tels que le test à l’éosinenigrosine et le test de gonflement\\u000a flagellaire en milieu hypo-osmolaire (HOST) qui permettent d’apprécier le pourcentage de vitalité des spermatozoïdes en spermiologie\\u000a courante. Un résultat anormalement bas définit

T. Forges; P. Monnier-Barbarino; B. Foliguet

2001-01-01

125

Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la résolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

Sauty, C.

126

Software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

1994-01-01

127

La rigidité des prix en France : quelques enseignements des relevés de prix à la consommation  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La rigidité des prix en France: quelques enseignements des relevés de prix à la consommation . . Pour décrire À l’aide de l’échantillon des relevés de prix utilisés pour le calcul de l’indice des prix à la consommation (IPC), les la rigidité des prix à la consommation en France, divers indicateurs (durée de vie des prix, fréquence et amplitude

Laurent Baudry; Hervé Le Bihan; Patrick Sevestre; Sylvie Tarrieu

2005-01-01

128

Betriebliche Determinanten des Überstundeneinsatzes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auswertungen repräsentativer Daten des IAB-Betriebspanels für Westdeutschland von 1993 bis 1998 zeigen, dass nur zwischen 20 und 30 Prozent aller Betriebe bezahlte Überstunden einsetzten. In diesen Betrieben fielen im Durchschnitt 1,6 bezahlte Überstunden pro abhängig Beschäftigten und Woche an. Weniger als 7 Prozent der Betriebe griffen in jedem Jahr auf Überstunden zurück, wozu vor allem Großbetriebe zählten. Auch generell stieg

Thorsten Schank; Claus Schnabel

2004-01-01

129

Le Chemin des Ecoliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is developed from extracts from a report of a study undertaken by the authors on the availability and use of television in primary and nursery schools. It looks at ‘Le Chemin des Ecoliers’ developed by CNDP (the Centre National de Documentation Pedagogique), Paris and transmitted on the French TV Channel TF1. It estimates the audiences, sees how the

Josette Blanc

1991-01-01

130

Method and apparatus for well flow stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is provided for stimulating fluid flow from a subsurface earth formation traversed by a borehole. The apparatus consists of a collapsible container means, and a quantity of liquid and particles of propping agent disposed in the collapsible container means. A first compressing means is mounted above the container means for compressing the liquid and propping agent downward in

Venghiattis

1968-01-01

131

Anabolic agents.  

PubMed

This article provides a comprehensive but practical discussion of four anabolic agents used by athletes. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, human growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor are discussed. A thorough review of available literature on the basic chemistry and physiology, epidemiology, reasons for use, and performance and side effects of each agent are also presented. PMID:9580841

Sturmi, J E; Diorio, D J

1998-04-01

132

Anthropoid agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of agents on the Internet, we often ascribe to them human qualities, such as beliefs and intentions. These qualities are best understood as metaphors that give developers a way to talk about and design the capabilities and applications of agents. Despite all the progress in computing, users have been slow to accept the technology. They have often

Michael N. Huhns; Munindar P. Singh

1998-01-01

133

Broad agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oz project at Carnegie Mellon is developing technology for dramatic virtual worlds. One requirement of such worlds is the presence of broad, though perhaps shallow, agents. To support our needs, we are developing an agent architecture that provides goals and goal directed reactive behavior, emotional state and its effects on behavior, some natural language abilities (especially pragmatics based language

Joseph Bates; Bryan Loyall; W. Scott Reilly

1991-01-01

134

Une justification par les comptes de surplus des subventions à l'agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Face à revenus qui agriculteurs revendiquent réajustements en renâclant à passer pour des assistés. L'aide qu'ils sollicitent auprès de l'Etat ne représente en fait qu'une contre-partie d'un trop perçu par les agents implantés aussi bien en amont qu'en aval de la filière agroalimentaire. Les subventions accordées, loin d'être des largesses, ne sont qu'une restitution de gains grandement mérités par

Michel Bourdon

1982-01-01

135

Die bestimmung des diacetyls im sprit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die für die Bestimmung des Diacetylgehaltes im Sprit entwickelte Methode beruht auf der photometrischen Messung der in einer Pyridin-Äthylendiaminhydrat-lösung des bis-2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazons des Diacetyls entstandenen violetten Färbung. Bis-2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazon des Diacetyls wird von anderen Hydrazonen, wenigstens von dem Hydrazon des Acetaldehydes and dem bei den Reaktionsumständen sich bildenden Monohydrazon des Acetylmethylearbinols Bowie von dem überschüssigen Reagens auf Grund seiner Schwerlöslichkeit in

Tapio Salo; Heikki Suomalainen

1957-01-01

136

Les budgets des ménages  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] L'enquête sur les budgets des ménages effectuée en 1979 renoue avec la série interrompue en 1972. Au-delà du budget moyen, ses résultats mettent en lumière les comportements typiques de sous-groupes de la population : les jeunes, les familles, les vieux. Le niveau de vie reste la première variable selon laquelle s'agencent les comportements, mais il n'explique pas tout. Divers

Mireille Moutardier; Michel Glaude

1982-01-01

137

Stimulation technique using only nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The fracture efficiency of nitrogen, as related to leakoff and flow capacity testing with no propping agent, has been investigated to analyze the effectiveness of nitrogen stimulation. Also, field data are presented which demonstrate successful results of the nitrogen technique in both oil and gas reservoirs. From the laboratory studies and field results, several conclusions were drawn concerning nitrogen stimulation. Of primary interest is that most of the width reduction in an unpropped fracture will occur in the early stage of production which indicated a sharp decline of the well flow rate after a relatively short period. 13 refs.

Freeman, E.R.; Abel, J.C.; Kim, C.M.; Heinrich, C.C.

1981-01-01

138

Response to Comment on “Movement Intention After Parietal Cortex Stimulation in Humans”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karnath et al. argue that the behavioral effects observed in our study after direct parietal and premotor electrical stimulation (DES) could reflect a decrease of local cortical activity. If so, intention and awareness would not reflect the activity of the stimulated area but the recruitment of remote regions. Although tenable, this view does not seem to be the most plausible.

Sirigu, Angela; Mottolese, Carmine; Desmurget, Michel

2010-03-01

139

Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

140

Chemical Agents  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... FDA has cleared for use by the US military a liquid decontamination lotion intended to remove or neutralize chemical warfare agents and T-2 fungal ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness

141

Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

2004-12-01

142

Erythropoietic Agents and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin is a peptide hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. There are several agents in clinical use and in development, which either act as ligands for the cell surface receptors of erythropoietin or promote erythropoietin production that stimulates erythropoiesis. These are known as erythropoietic agents. The agents already in use include epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin alfa. Newer agents stimulating erythropoiesis (such as continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) or proline hydroxylase inhibitors that increase HIF-1 thereby stimulating erythropoietin production and iron availability and supply) are under active investigation. Erythropoietic agents have been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and to decrease post-stroke infarct size in mouse models. They have also been reported to shorten survival when used to treat anemia in many cancer patients and to increase thromboembolism. In contrast, rapid decrease of erythropoietin levels as observed in astronauts and high-altitude dwellers upon rapid descent to sea level leads to the decrease of erythroid mass, a phenomenon known as neocytolysis. The relative decrease in the serum erythropoietin level is known to occur in some subjects with otherwise unexplained anemia of aging. Anemia by itself is a predictor of poor physical function in the elderly and is a significant economic burden on society. One out of every five persons in the United States will be elderly by 2050. Erythropoietic agents, by preventing and treating otherwise unexplained anemias of the elderly and anemia associated with other disease conditions of the elderly, have the potential to improve the functional capacity and to decrease the morbidity and mortality in the elderly, thereby alleviating the overall burden of medical care in society.

Agarwal, Neeraj; Prchal, Josef T.

2008-01-01

143

An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes\\/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent

Pericles A. Mitkas; Andreas L. Symeonidis; Dionisis Kehagias; Ioannis N. Athanasiadis; Gokce Laleci; Gokhan Kurt; Yildiray Kabak; Aybar C. Acar; Asuman Dogac

2004-01-01

144

Sunscreening Agents  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.

Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

2013-01-01

145

Framework for Dynamic Agent Retraining: Agent Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes\\/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent

P. Mitkas; A. Symeonidis; D. Kechagias; I. Athanasiadis; G. Laleci; G. Kurt; Y. Kabak; A. Acar; A. Dogac

146

Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein.  

PubMed

Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP) is a hyperglycosylated analogue of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) that stimulates erythropoiesis by the same mechanism as the native hormone. The addition of two extra carbohydrate chains, however, gives NESP greater metabolic stability in vivo, and its terminal half-life after IV administration is three-fold longer than for IV rHuEPO. This allows injections of both IV and SC NESP to be given less frequently, and indeed studies have shown that once-weekly, and even once every other week, dosing can maintain the hemoglobin concentration in patients treated for renal anemia. The optimum starting dose is 0.45 microg/kg once weekly via the IV and SC routes of administration. Adverse effects are very similar to those seen with rHuEPO, and no antibodies have been detected in over 1,500 patients exposed to NESP thus far. NESP therefore represents a triumph for drug synthesis by recombinant DNA technology, and we can look to the future of this new therapeutic agent with much hope and expectation. PMID:10928340

Macdougall, I C

2000-07-01

147

Time-Extended Payoffs of Collectives of Autonomous Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collective is a set of self-interested agents which try to maximize their own utilities, along with a well-defined, time-extended world utility function which rates the performance of the entire system. In this paper, we use theory of collectives to des...

K. Turner A. K. Agogino

2003-01-01

148

Fonction diélectrique des milieux inhomogènes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review article is based on the thesis of Berthier — Laboratoire d'Optique des solides, Université P. et M. Curie— and on various contributions or ulterior works. Its aim is to present a critical and detailed review of the main theories of the optical dielectric function of inhomogeneous media. Together with a mathematical description of the theories, we give a physical interpretation of the results and the practical limits of validity. Each theory is compared to experimental results and other theoretical predictions as well. This study is introduced by theoretical reminders about the electric polarization and considerations about the physical meaning of some fundamental parameters when going from a microscopic to a macroscopic point of view. Cette revue est tirée de la thèse de Berthier préparée au Laboratoire d'Optique des Solides, Université P. et M. Curie, ainsi que des travaux qui lui font suite (thèse en préparation de Driss-Khodja) ou de ceux menés parallèlement (systèmes 2D) par d'autres membres de l'équipe. Son ambition est de présenter une étude approfondie et critique des différentes théories de la fonction diélectrique optique des milieux inhomogènes à trois dimensions. Après une description mathématique détaillée des principales théories, nous donnons une interprétation physique des résultats et les limites concrètes d'utilisation de chacune d'elles. Chaque grande théorie est confrontée à la fois à des résultats expérimentaux et aux prédictions des autres théories. Cette étude est précédée de rappels théoriques sur la polarisation électrique et de considérations sur la signification réelle de certains paramètres lors du passage d'un système microscopique isolé à un système macroscopique aléatoire.

Berthier, Serge

149

Direct electrical stimulation as an input gate into brain functional networks: principles, advantages and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  While the fundamental and clinical contribution of direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain is now well acknowledged,\\u000a its advantages and limitations have not been re-evaluated for a long time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Here, we critically review exactly what DES can tell us about cerebral function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  First, we show that DES is highly sensitive for detecting the cortical and axonal eloquent structures. Moreover,

Emmanuel Mandonnet; Peter A. Winkler; Hugues Duffau

2010-01-01

150

Über das Bandenspektrum des Wismuthydrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Im Bandenspektrum des Wismuthydrids sind drei Bandensysteme gefunden, ein1S*-1S- und ein1S*-1II-System, die gemeinsamen Anfangszustand haben, und ein1Sx-1Sy- System, welches mit den anderen Systemen nicht kombiniert. In1S und in1II sind die drei ersten Kernschwingungsniveaus und in1S* die zwei ersten Kernschwingungsniveaus festgestellt worden. Im1Sx-1Sy-System sind das gefundene Kernschwingungsniveau des Anfangszustandes alsv=0 und die beiden Kernschwingungsniveaus des Endzustandes alsv=0 undv=1 bezeichnet. Die

Alf Heimer

1935-01-01

151

Analytical strategy for detecting doping agents in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lists of banned classes of doping agents are released by the International Olympic Committee, adopted by other sports authorities and updated regularly, including the substance classes stimulants, narcotics, diuretics, anabolic agents, peptide hormones, beta-blockers etc. There are different classes of restriction:•anabolic and masking agents (anabolic steroids, diuretics etc.) are always banned for athletes regardless of their topical activity (training or

D. Thieme; J. Grosse; H. Sachs; R. K. Mueller

2000-01-01

152

Effet établissement et salaires des diplômés des universités françaises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A la suite notamment des travaux de Card et Krueger en 1992, une abondante littérature micro-économétrique, principalement développée aux Etats-Unis, a étudié les liens entre qualité de l'éducation, mesurée par différents inputs éducatifs et salaires des diplômés ou les rendements de l'éducation. À partir de données françaises provenant de l'enquête « Génération 98 » du Céreq enrichies pour les sortants

Jean-François Giret; Mathieu Goudard

2008-01-01

153

Antidiabetic agents.  

PubMed

Although either insulin or oral hypoglycemics may be used in conjunction with diet and exercise in the management of type II diabetes, drug therapy for type I diabetes involves only insulin. C-peptide levels can be tested to assess whether the patient has remaining pancreatic endocrine function. Patients being started on insulin for the first time should receive a single injection of an intermediate-acting insulin of "human" origin at a dose of approximately 0.5 U/kg. Thereafter, fasting, mid-morning, mid-afternoon, bedtime, and possibly early morning blood sugars should be examined periodically to determine if the insulin dose needs to be increased, decreased, split, or if the patient needs to be on a two-insulin regimen. Intensive insulin therapy has become commonplace to control plasma glucose levels in the majority of patients receiving insulin therapy. Proper patient education regarding the insulin regimen, injection techniques, blood glucose monitoring, as well as diet, exercise, and foot care are essential if the patient's diabetes is to be controlled adequately. Guidelines for "adequate" glycemic control are outlined in Table 6. Recent evidence suggests that tight control of plasma glucose levels may decrease the macrovascular complications of diabetes. Although there is also evidence to suggest that the onset of microvascular complications might be delayed with strict glycemic control, the data are conflicting. The benefits of strict control must be weighted against the problems of hypoglycemia experienced by many patients who attempt tight control of their blood glucose levels. Biguanide compounds are available in Europe, but the sulfonylureas comprise the only class of oral agents in the United States commercially available for the treatment of type II diabetes. The two generations of these drugs reflect their potency and possible side-effect profiles. Of the first-generation agents, tolbutamide and chlorpropamide are the most widely prescribed. Tolbutamide is the weakest of the sulfonylureas, possibly making it a good drug for initiating oral therapy in the elderly. Chlorpropamide is becoming a less popular agent because of its long duration of action and its increased incidence of side effects. Of the second-generation agents, glyburide offers a better dosing schedule (once daily compared with twice daily for glipizide); however, glyburide may produce a greater incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly in the elderly or in patients with significant renal impairment. There are few good studies comparing these two drugs so that recommending one over the other is difficult. Drug interactions are numerous with the first-generation drugs, but less so with the newer second-generation agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2236334

Francisco, G E

1990-09-01

154

Rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral disease of small ruminants. In this report, a one-step, single-tube, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PPRV. A set of six LAMP primers were designed based on the matrix gene sequence of PPRV

Lin Li; Jingyue Bao; Xiaodong Wu; Zhiliang Wang; Junwei Wang; Mingxia Gong; Chunju Liu; Jinming Li

2010-01-01

155

Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

R. Ammon

1934-01-01

156

CONTRÔLE DES RISQUES DE CONTAMINATION ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... avoisinants ne polluent pas les zone de culture de produits ... la conservation des ressources naturelles (National Resources Conservation Service ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

157

Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations sont elements de la serie h_{p,q}= [ (p(m+2)-qm)^2-4] /(8m(m+2)) ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs, p et q etant de meme parite, et p+q<= m+2. La charge centrale est donnee par c(m)={3over 2}-{12over m(m+2)} avec m >= 2. Les vecteurs singuliers | Psi_{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+2-q} > sont respectivement de poids h _{p,q}+pq/2 et h_ {p,q}+(m-p)(m+2-q)/2.. Les vecteurs singuliers ont une norme nulle et on doit les eliminer des representations pour que celles -ci soient unitaires. Cette elimination engendrent des equations (super-)differentielles qui dependent directement de la forme explicite des vecteurs singuliers et auxquelles doivent obeir les fonctions de correlations de la theorie. Ainsi la connaissance de ces vecteurs singuliers est intimement reliee au calcul des fonctions de correlation. Les equations definissant les vecteurs singuliers forment un systeme lineaire surdetermine dont le nombre d'equations est de l'ordre de N(pq), le nombre de partitions de l'entier pq. Puisque les vecteurs singuliers jouent un role capital en theorie conforme, il est naturel de chercher des formes explicites pour les vecteurs (ou pour des familles infinies de ceux -ci). Nous donnons ici la forme explicite pour la famille infinie de vecteurs singuliers ayant un de ses indices egal a 1, pour les algebres de Virasoro et de Neveu-Schwarz. Depuis ces decouvertes, d'autres techniques de construction des vecteurs singuliers ont ete developpees, dont celle de Bauer, Di Francesco, Itzykson et Zuber pour l'algebre de Virasoro qui reproduit directement l'expression explicite des vecteurs singuliers |Psi _{1,q}> et |Psi_{p,1}>. Ils ont utilise l'algebre des produits d'operateurs et la fusion entre representations irreductibles pour engendrer des relations de recurence produisant les vecteurs singuliers. Dans le dernier chapitre de cette these nous adaptons cet algorithme a la construction des vecteurs singuliers de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz.

Benoit, Louis

158

Alloplastischer Ersatz des vorderen Kreuzbandes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Es wurden 24 Polythylenterephtalatbnder (acht Dacron-, elf Trevira-und fnf Ligaprobnder), die als Ersatz des vorderen\\u000a Kreuzbandes wegen Ruptur oder Lockerung explantiert werden muten, histologisch untersucht. Die wnschenswerte Ausbildung\\u000a von longitudinal orientiertem Typ-I-Kollagen entlang des Kunstbandes fand sich als eine Art “Neoligament” nur in einem Treviraband.\\u000a Die Kollagenfaserbndel haben sich bei allen drei Bandarten in nur geringer Menge gebildet und sich

G. Sowa; D. Sowa; J. Koebke

1991-01-01

159

Hemmstoffe des Folsäure-Stoffwechsels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Anders als die Antibiotika-Forschung steht die Erforschung des Folsäure-Stoffwechsels und der Folsäure-Antagonisten ganz in der klassischen aufPaul Ehrlich zurückgehenden Tradition der Chemotherapie. Mit der Aufklärung des Wirkungsmechanismus der Sulfonamide wurde eine wichtige Voraussetzung zum Verständnis der Biosynthese der Folsäure geschaffen. Die Synthese von Inhibitoren der Dihydrofolat-Reduktase orientierte sich einerseits an der Struktur der Dihydrofolsäure selbst, andererseits an der Tatsache,

J. Drews

1980-01-01

160

La stimulation magn?tique transcr?nienne (SMT) dans la recherche fondamentale et clinique en neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Introduction Les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasives telles que la Stimulation Magnétique Transcrânienne (SMT) sont largement utilisées pour établir des inférences causales sur les relations entre cerveau et comportement. Des applications cliniques basées sur la SMT ont également été développées pour traiter des affections neurologiques ou psychiatriques comme la dépression, la dystonie, la douleur, les acouphènes ou les séquelles d’accident vasculaire cérébral. État des connaissances La SMT fonctionne en induisant de manière non invasive et de manière focale des courants électriques dans des régions corticales, modulant ainsi leur niveau d’activité de façon variable suivant la fréquence, le nombre d’impulsions, les intervalles et la durée de stimulation utilisés. S’agissant du cortex moteur, on sait par exemple que les patterns d’impulsions de SMT à basse fréquence ou ceux délivrées de manière continue tendent à déprimer l’activité locale, tandis que la SMT à haute fréquence et discontinus tend à la potentialiser. Outre ses effets locaux, la SMT peut aussi avoir des effets à distance sur les régions cérébrales, véhiculés par les connections anatomiques et qui dépendent de l’efficacité et du signe de ces connexions. Perspectives Dans le domaine de la recherche fondamentale et des applications thérapeutiques, l’utilisation efficace de la SMT requiert, cependant, la compréhension approfondie de ses principes opérationnels, de ses risques, de ses potentialités et de ses limites. Dans cet article, nous présentons les principes par lesquels opèrent les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasive, et en particulier la SMT. Conclusion À l’issue de sa lecture, le lecteur sera en mesure de discuter de façon critique les études scientifiques et cliniques utilisant la SMT, ainsi que de concevoir des applications SMT suivant une hypothèse a priori dans le domaine de la recherche en neuroscience fondamentale et/ou clinique.

Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Coubard, Olivier A.

2011-01-01

161

Physiopathologie des syndromes myélodysplasiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelodysplastic syndromes are clonal diseases of the hematopoietic stem cell with normal or increased bone marrow cellularity and peripheral cytopenias. Pathophysiology of these diseases is complex with frequent ras mutations, a growth defect of immature progenitors mainly erythroid progenitors, and increased apoptosis of differentiated cells. This growth defect could be linked to (1) a resistance to hematopoietic cytokine stimulation although,

Y.-E. Claessens; M. Fontenay-Roupie

2002-01-01

162

Nouvelles régulations territoriales et l'évaluation des activités des entreprises et de leurs système de parties prenantes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous analysons dans ces travaux de recherche l'évolution des stratégies des entreprises et des territoires vers des logiques fonctionnelles comme conséquence de l'importance de plus en plus grande des enjeux environnementaux dans la création et l'évaluation de la valeur produite et partagée entre les acteurs. L'importance d'une cohérence des performances économiques, environnementales et sociales d'une part des activités des entreprises

Ingrid Vaileanu Paun

2011-01-01

163

Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concrétions fibreuses constituées de pickeringite et d'une faible quantité d'halotrichite.

Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

2002-07-01

164

Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en R?publique D?mocratique du Congo: cons?cration d'un double standard dans l'acc?s aux soins  

PubMed Central

Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité.

Dunia, Gisele Mawazo Binti

2013-01-01

165

Studying network mechanisms using intracranial stimulation in epileptic patients.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from focal drug-resistant epilepsy who are explored using intracranial electrodes allow to obtain data of exceptional value for studying brain dynamics in correlation with pathophysiological and cognitive processes. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) of cortical regions and axonal tracts in those patients elicits a number of very specific perceptual or behavioral responses, but also abnormal responses due to specific configurations of epileptic networks. Here, we review how anatomo-functional brain connectivity and epilepsy network mechanisms can be assessed from DES responses measured in patients. After a brief summary of mechanisms of action of brain electrical stimulation, we recall the conceptual framework for interpreting DES results in the context of brain connectivity and review how DES can be used for the characterization of functional networks, the identification of the seizure onset zone, the study of brain plasticity mechanisms, and the anticipation of epileptic seizures. This pool of exceptional data may be underexploited by fundamental research on brain connectivity and leaves much to be learned. PMID:21060722

David, Olivier; Bastin, Julien; Chabardès, Stéphan; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe

2010-10-20

166

Studying Network Mechanisms Using Intracranial Stimulation in Epileptic Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients suffering from focal drug-resistant epilepsy who are explored using intracranial electrodes allow to obtain data of exceptional value for studying brain dynamics in correlation with pathophysiological and cognitive processes. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) of cortical regions and axonal tracts in those patients elicits a number of very specific perceptual or behavioral responses, but also abnormal responses due to specific configurations of epileptic networks. Here, we review how anatomo-functional brain connectivity and epilepsy network mechanisms can be assessed from DES responses measured in patients. After a brief summary of mechanisms of action of brain electrical stimulation, we recall the conceptual framework for interpreting DES results in the context of brain connectivity and review how DES can be used for the characterization of functional networks, the identification of the seizure onset zone, the study of brain plasticity mechanisms, and the anticipation of epileptic seizures. This pool of exceptional data may be underexploited by fundamental research on brain connectivity and leaves much to be learned.

David, Olivier; Bastin, Julien; Chabardes, Stephan; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe

2010-01-01

167

Architecture gouvernementale ouverte:Évolution des normes, des standards de consortium et des logiciels libres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette étude, réalisée pour le Conseil du trésor du Québec, a pour objectifs de présenter, dans un contexte d’architecture d’entreprise, les récents développements dans l’évolution des normes et standards par les différents acteurs du milieu, les consortiums industriels et les comités de normalisation internationaux en s’arrimant avec les logiciels ouverts.Pour pouvoir atteindre ses objectifs de services auprès des citoyens et

François Coallier; Robert Gérin-Lajoie

2005-01-01

168

F104S c-Mpl responds to a transmembrane domain-binding thrombopoietin receptor agonist: Proof of concept that selected receptor mutations in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia can be stimulated with alternative thrombopoietic agents  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether specific c-Mpl mutations might respond to thrombopoietin receptor agonists. Methods We created cell line models of type II c-Mpl mutations identified in CAMT. We selected F104S c-Mpl for further study because it exhibited surface expression of the receptor. We measured proliferation of cell lines expressing WT or F104S c-Mpl in response to thrombopoetin receptor agonists targeting the extracellular (m-AMP4) or transmembrane (LGD 4665) domains of the receptor by MTT assay. We measured thrombopoietin binding to the mutant receptor using an in vitro thrombopoietin uptake assay and identified F104 as a potentially critical residue for the interaction between the receptor and its ligand by aligning thrombopoietin and erythropoietin receptors from multiple species. Results Cells expressing F104S c-Mpl proliferated in response to LGD 4665 but not thrombopoietin or m-AMP4. Compared to thrombopoietin, LGD 4665 stimulates signaling with delayed kinetics in both WT and F104S c-Mpl expressing cells. Although F104S c-Mpl is expressed on the cell surface in our BaF3 cell line model, the mutant receptor does not bind thrombopoietin. Comparison to the erythropoietin receptor suggests that F104 engages in hydrogen bonding interactions that are critical for binding to thrombopoietin. Conclusions These findings suggest that a small subset of patients with CAMT might respond to treatment with thrombopoietin receptor agonists, but that responsiveness will depend on the type of mutation and agonist used. We postulate that F104 is critical for thrombopoietin binding. The kinetics of signaling in response to a transmembrane domain-binding agonist are delayed in comparison to thrombopoietin.

Fox, Norma E.; Lim, Jihyang; Chen, Rose; Geddis, Amy E.

2010-01-01

169

Sécurité virale des produits dérivés du plasma  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Par exemple, certaines étapes de précipitation et de séparation dans le processus de fabrication des produits dérivés du plasma et des produits ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

170

Aktuelle Entwicklungen des Wettbewerbs der Gesellschaftsrechte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die drei causes célèbres des EuGH zur Niederlassungsfreiheit der Gesellschaften, Centros, Überseering und Inspire Art , haben eine Flut von Anmerkungen, Besprechungsaufsätzen und Monographien hervorgebracht, die den Beginn des Wettbewerbs der Gesellschaftsrechtsordnungen\\

Eva-Maria Kieninger

171

Thrombolytic agents.  

PubMed

Thrombolytic agents are plasminogen activators that convert the zymogen plasminogen to the active enzyme plasmin, which degrades fibrin. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of physiological fibrinolysis opened up a new era of fibrin-specific thrombolysis. Fibrin-specific plasminogen activators, including tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) and staphylokinase (Sak), preferentially activate fibrin-associated plasminogen. Generated plasmin remains associated with fibrin, where it is protected from rapid inhibition and can efficiently degrade fibrin, avoiding systemic activation of the fibrinolytic system. Following a decade of clinical investigation t-PA and variants thereof are routinely used for treatment of patients with thromboembolic disease. PMID:15841305

Collen, Désiré; Lijnen, H Roger

2005-04-01

172

Les attitudes des ménages : leur signification  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les attitudes des ménages : leur signification - Instrument privilégié d'analyse conjoncturelle, l'enquête de l'INSEE sur les « attitudes et intentions d'achats des particuliers» cherche également à connaître l'opinion des ménages sur la situation économique française récente et future. A la lumière d'une expérience de plus de quinze années, l'auteur, rapprochant l'évolution observée des opinions émises, s'interroge sur la

Philippe lHardy

1976-01-01

173

Ephémérides astronomiques 2011 : Connaissance des Temps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cet ouvrage d'éphémérides destiné aux astronomes, aux professeurs et aux étudiants est divisé en deux parties. Il donne les positions des astres pour l'année 2011. Le livre présente l'état actuel des connaissances sur les bases et les explications de calculs des éphémérides puis donne sous forme d'éphémérides tabulées les données permettant d'obtenir la position des astres à observer. En utilisant le CD-ROM, l'utilisateur peut préparer ses observations.

Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl); Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Observatoire de Paris

2011-12-01

174

La Dyssymétrie des Régimes Pluviaux au Nord et au sud des Alpes Suisses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé L'indice de similitude calculé entre une station alpine, Sion en Valais, et quelques localités situées de part et d'autre des Alpes met en évidence la dissemblance des régimes pluviaux des deux versants. Au Nord, les indices quasi normaux reflètent la distribution homogène des pluies en plages de grandes dimensions; au Sud, les indices trop faibles trahissent l'irrégularité des zones

Max Bouët

1951-01-01

175

L'astronomie des Anciens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

Nazé, Yaël

2009-04-01

176

Une théorie des années quatre-vingt  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les années quatre-vingt présentent, pour les analyses macroéconomiques habituelles, des énigmes majeures, dont, aux premiers rangs, la persistance d'un chômage élevé en Europe et la désynchronisation des conjonctures américaine et européennes pendant la première moitié de la décennie. Des «faits» nouveaux, qui distinguent la période considérée sont mal pris en compte par les modèles usuels. Cet article propose une

Jacques Le Cacheux; Jean-Paul Fitoussi

1989-01-01

177

Le contrôle des réseaux de franchise  

Microsoft Academic Search

La problématique du contrôle des réseaux de franchise doit prendre en compte la nature spécifique de ce type de réseau, les motivations et les comportements du franchiseur et des franchisés et les modalités techniques du contrôle mis en oeuvre. Une analyse du contrôle au sein des réseaux de franchise est développée mettant en évidence ses diverses modalités et leur évolution

Catherine Goullet; François Meyssonnier

2009-01-01

178

Le contrôle des réseaux de franchise  

Microsoft Academic Search

La problématique du contrôle des réseaux de franchise est dégagée, prenant en compte la nature spécifique de ce type de réseau, les motivations et les comportements du franchiseur et des franchisés et les différentes dimensions du contrôle mis en oeuvre. Une analyse du contrôle au sein des réseaux de franchise est développée mettant en évidence ses diverses modalités et leur

Catherine Goullet; François Meyssonnier

2009-01-01

179

Le piratage des biens d'information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Où se situe le juste milieu entre les propos alarmistes des uns (“le piratage tue la production musicale!”) et les appels libertaires des autres (“l'accès à toute information doit être libre!”) ? Une analyse économique simple nous permet de mieux comprendre les enjeux et de dégager des pistes de réflexion pour l'avenir.

Paul Belleflamme

2003-01-01

180

Diffusion et usage des comptes de chèques  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Actuellement, les dépôts à vue représentent en France les deux tiers des disponibilités monétaires alors qu'ils en constituaient seulement la moitié en 1950 et environ le tiers en 1938. . Ces dépôts à vue proviennent, pour une grande part, des ménages. Quelles sont les caractéristiques des titulaires de compte-chèque ? . Une enquête par sondage réalisée en 1967 (8

André Villeneuve

1969-01-01

181

Chronique des tendances de la société française  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Cette chronique couvre quatre domaines : • Le mouvement d'égalisation des revenus des ménages a marqué les années 1965- 1979 et a contribué à la prépondérance de la classe moyenne durant ces années. Depuis, différentes enquêtes permettent de constater que l'échelle des revenus se distend de nouveau, amenant de plus en plus de ménages à la lisière de la

Louis Dirn

1997-01-01

182

PERFORMANCE COMPTABLE ET GESTION DES RESULTATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'étude porte sur la gestion des résultats afin d'éviter les pertes et les baisses de résultats. L'analyse des distributions de résultats et de variation des résultats, et la mise en oeuvre de tests complémentaires, permettent de vérifier les hypothèses sur un échantillon de 294 entreprises françaises cotées.

Yves Mard

2003-01-01

183

L'INFLUENCE SUR LA REMUNERATION DES DIRIGEANTS DES LIENS HUMAINS ENTRE LES ADMINISTRATEURS DES SOCIETES COTEES : UNE ANALYSE DU RESEAU DES SOCIETES COTEES AU SBF 250  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article a pour objectif d'étudier la structure des liens humains entre les conseils d'administration et son influence sur la rémunération incitative du premier dirigeant. Un échantillon de 181 dirigeants des sociétés du SBF 250 entre 2002 et 2005 est retenu. Nos résultats montrent que la position du conseil dans le réseau des liens, appréhendée par la centralité de proximité,

Ali Dardour

2009-01-01

184

Agent Design for Agent-Based Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To build an agent-based computational model of a specific socioenvironmental system requires that answers be found to several important questions including: what social actors and contextual entities are to be modelled as software agents? With what mental functions must these software agents be equipped? What standard design or designs should be used to create the software agents? This paper concentrates

Jim Doran

185

Evolution of Agent Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent architectures provide the blueprints for the design and development of individual agents. The purpose of agent architecture is to define modes and modules of agent's interaction in the world as well as connections among internal components of an agent. An agent can be understood in terms of its architectural description of its perceptual, deliberation, and acting capabilities. Architectures have

Henry Hexmoor

2002-01-01

186

Detecting agents.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed.

Johnson, Susan C

2003-01-01

187

[Ziedses des Plantes: inventor of planigraphy and subtraction].  

PubMed

Bernard George Ziedses des Plantes (1902-1993) trained in Utrecht, the Netherlands, as specialist in nervous diseases, but his lifelong passion was to improve X-ray imaging of living tissues. In the 1930s he not only built the first machine for planigraphy, in which the X-ray tube and the film moved together around the plane of interest, but he also designed the subtraction method to improve images after injection of contrast agents. Eventually a full-time radiologist, he also developed the 'somersault' technique of ventriculography and pioneered isotope scintigraphy. PMID:21418697

van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

2011-01-01

188

5-azacytidine Stimulates Fetal Hemoglobin Synthesis in Anemic Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to stimulate Hb F synthesis in baboons by means other than erythropoietic stress, we considered the possibility that an agent that inhibits methylation of CpG sequences in DNA may be effective. 5-Azacytidine, a cytosine analogue that cannot be methylated, is such an agent. Animals whose packed red cell volume was maintained at approximately 20% by bleeding were

Joseph Desimone; Paul Heller; Lemuel Hall; David Zwiers

1982-01-01

189

Myths and realities of continuous dopaminergic stimulation.  

PubMed

Motor fluctuations and dyskinesia in later stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic factors, intermittent dopaminergic stimulation being one of the most important. In the healthy brain, dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta fire tonically at a steady rate of about 4 cycles/second. In later stages of PD, steady firing is replaced by pulsatile stimulation which causes molecular and physiologic changes in the basal ganglia. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation has been shown to dramatically improve motor fluctuations and dyskinesia by modifications of oral treatment (dopamine agonists, smaller, more frequent levodopa doses, controlled-release formulation of levodopa, addition of agents that slow down the catabolism of dopamine, such as inhibitors of catechol-O-methyl transferase and monoamine oxidase), transdermal delivery (rotigotine), infusion therapies (intravenous levodopa, subcutaneous application of apomorphine and lisuride, duodenal infusion of levodopa) and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:21448103

Pirtošek, Zvezdan

2011-03-01

190

Transport quantique dans des nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum transport in nanostructures This work is devoted to the design, fabrication and magnetotransport investigations of mesoscopic devices. The sample are obtain by e-beam lithography and the measurements are performed at low temperature in a dilution refrigerator in the presence of a magnetic field. We have used MBE grown AlGaAs/GaAs heterojonctions as starting material to fabricate a bipartite tiling of rhombus called mathcal{T}3 lattice. We observe for the first time large amplitude h/e oscillations in this network as compared to the one measured in square lattices of similar size. These oscillations are the signature of a recently predited localization phenomenon induced by Aharonov-Bohm interferences on this peculiar topology. For particular values of the magnetic field the propagation of the electron wave function is bounded in a small number of cells, called Aharonov-Bohm cages. More strikingly, at high magnetic field, h/2e oscillations appear whose amplitude can be much higher than the fundamental period. Their temperature dependence is similar to that of the h/e signal. These observations withdraw a simple interpretation in terms of harmonics generation. The origin of this phenomenon is still unclear and needs more investigations. The influence electrical width of the wire defining the network and so the rule of the number of channels can be studied using a gate deposited over the lattice. In particular we have measured the amplitude dependence of the h/e and h/2e signal versus the gate voltage. Ce travail est consacré à la réalisation d'échantillons mésoscopiques à partir de la lithographie électronique ainsi qu'à leur caractérisation à très basse température en magnétotransport. Nous avons pour cela exploité le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons situé à l'interface d'une hétérojonction AlGaAs/GaAs pour réaliser un réseau de boucle d'une géométrie particulière baptisée la géométrie mathcal{T}3. Nous avons observé sur cette structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

Naud, C.

2002-09-01

191

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex\\u000a structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging\\u000a agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly\\u000a prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups

Kamil Ku?a; Miroslav Pohanka

192

Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier thématique sur un sujet d'actulaité, pour cette année : "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après".

Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

2005-07-01

193

Proprietes optiques et mecanismes de relaxation de l'energie des porteurs dans des boites quantiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objet de ce doctorat est l'etude des proprietes optiques, et en particulier de la relaxation de l'energie des porteurs dans des structures a boites quantiques d'InAs/GaAs. Le travail experimental a ete realise grace aux techniques de photoluminescence (PL) continue et de photoluminescence resolue dans le temps, sur des echantillons comprenant un tres grand nombre de boites. A l'aide des mesures experimentales effectuees sur une serie d'echantillons de boites quantiques interdiffusees a divers degres, et des calculs variationnels de leurs etats electroniques, nous avons demontre clairement que la largeur des raies d'emission de la PL, qui est due aux inhomogeneites dans l'ensemble de boites etudie, peut etre attribuee principalement a des fluctuations de la hauteur des boites. D'autre part, la determination des temps de montee et de decroissance des intensites de photoluminescence a montre l'importance de certains mecanismes de transport et de relaxation, en fonction des conditions experimentales. En effet, les temps caracteristiques de la capture, de la relaxation interniveaux et de la recombinaison des porteurs varient significativement, selon le mecanisme predominant, en fonction de la temperature, de la densite d'excitation et de la separation interniveaux quantiques. Ainsi, les principaux mecanismes mis en evidence sont: la localisation des porteurs dans les barrieres a basse temperature dans le cas des echantillons interdiffuses, les collisions de type Auger sous forte excitation, les processus multiphononiques et la re-emission thermique a haute temperature. Un modele de relaxation, base sur les equations d'evolution de la population de porteurs de chaque niveau quantique, a aussi ete developpe pour mieux identifier l'effet de chacun des principaux mecanismes de relaxation des porteurs considere separement. Ces simulations ont permis une analyse plus approfondie du role de ces mecanismes. Ainsi, nous avons mis en evidence l'importance de la localisation des porteurs dans la couche de mouillage, ainsi que l'importance des mecanismes de collisions Auger lors de la capture, la capture et la relaxation interniveaux des porteurs vers tous les niveaux d'energie inferieure simultanement. Finalement, les resultats experimentaux montrent que la relaxation de l'energie des porteurs est beaucoup plus rapide que cela avait ete predit initialement par la theorie du "phonon bottleneck". Nos resultats indiquent que l'intensite lumineuse emise par les boites est regie principalement par le taux de capture/relaxation interniveaux des porteurs dans les boites. Mais elle est limitee par la re-emission thermique des porteurs hors des boites, a haute temperature. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Perret, Nathalie Emmanuelle

194

Souvenirs du monde des montagnes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a particular book called Souvenirs du monde des montagnes, which draws its iconography from the history of a Swiss mountain family from 1910 to 1930. By simply dipping into the first few pages, the reader will be lost between real and virtual universes, wonder about the evolution of the images’ meanings, and question an object’s true content.

Camille Scherrer

2009-01-01

195

Souvenirs du monde des montagnes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a particular book called Souvenirs du monde des montagnes, which draws its iconography from the history of a Swiss mountain family from 1910 to 1930. By simply dipping into the first few pages, the reader will be lost between real and virtual universes, wonder about the evolution of the images' meanings, and question an object's true content.

Camille Scherrer; Julien Pilet; Vincent Lepetit; Pascal Fua

2009-01-01

196

Le maintien du tourbillon des ondes planétaires stationnaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

La dynamique des ondes planétaires stationnaires est étudiée à l'aide des données de la PEMG de janvier 1979. On a calculé et comparé les moyennes temporelles des divers termes de l'équation du tourbillon. La variance zonale des termes principaux atteint des maxima en trois régions : le flanc nord du courant jet stratosphérique, le centre et le flanc nord du

Bernard Dugas; Jacques Derome

1987-01-01

197

Transcutaneous Functional Electrical Stimulator \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research groups in the field of functional elec- trical stimulation (FES) are often confronted with the fact that existing and commercially available FES stimulators do not provide sufficient flexibility and cannot be used to perform different FES tasks. The lack of flexibility of the commercial systems until now forced various FES research teams to develop their own stimulators. This paper

Thierry Keller; Milos R. Popovic; Ion P. I. Pappas; Pierre-Yves Muller

2002-01-01

198

Security enhanced mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a security model for mobile agent based systems. The model defines the notion of a security-enhanced agent and outlines security management components in agent platform bases and considers secure migration of agents from one base to another. The security enhanced agent carries a passport that contains its security credentials and some related security code. Then we describe

Vijay Varadharajan

2000-01-01

199

Stimulant-Responsive and Stimulant-Refractory Aggressive Behavior Among Children with ADHD  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to examine factors that are associated with aggression that is responsive versus refractory to individualized optimization of stimulant monotherapy among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS Children who were aged 6 to 13 years and had ADHD, either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, significant aggressive behavior, and a history of insufficient response to stimulants completed an open stimulant monotherapy optimization protocol. Stimulant titration with weekly assessments of behavior and tolerability identified an optimal regimen for each child. Families also received behavioral therapy. Parents completed the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale (R-MOAS) at each visit. Children were classified as having stimulant-refractory aggression on the basis of R-MOAS ratings and clinician judgment. Differences that pertained to treatment, demographic, and psychopathology between groups with stimulant monotherapy–responsive and –refractory aggression were evaluated. RESULTS Aggression among 32 (49.3%) of 65 children was reduced sufficiently after stimulant dosage adjustment and behavioral therapy to preclude adjunctive medication. Those who responded to stimulant monotherapy were more likely to benefit from the protocol’s methylphenidate preparation (once-daily, triphasic release), showed a trend for lower average dosages, and received fewer behavioral therapy sessions than did children with stimulant-refractory aggression. Boys, especially those with higher ratings of baseline aggression and of depressive and manic symptoms, more often exhibited stimulant-refractory aggression. CONCLUSIONS Among children whose aggressive behavior develops in the context of ADHD and of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, and who had insufficient response to previous stimulant treatment in routine clinical care, systematic, well-monitored titration of stimulant monotherapy often culminates in reduced aggression that averts the need for additional agents.

Blader, Joseph C.; Pliszka, Steven R.; Jensen, Peter S.; Schooler, Nina R.; Kafantaris, Vivian

2010-01-01

200

Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

Sedlacek, James R.

201

Caspase 3–mediated stimulation of tumor cell repopulation during cancer radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cancer treatment, apoptosis is a well-recognized cell death mechanism through which cytotoxic agents kill tumor cells. Here we report that dying tumor cells use the apoptotic process to generate potent growth-stimulating signals to stimulate the repopulation of tumors undergoing radiotherapy. Furthermore, activated caspase 3, a key executioner in apoptosis, is involved in the growth stimulation. One downstream effector that

Qian Huang; Fang Li; Xinjian Liu; Wenrong Li; Wei Shi; Fei-Fei Liu; Brian O'Sullivan; Zhimin He; Yuanlin Peng; Aik-Choon Tan; Ling Zhou; Jingping Shen; Gangwen Han; Xiao-Jing Wang; Jackie Thorburn; Andrew Thorburn; Antonio Jimeno; David Raben; Joel S Bedford; Chuan-Yuan Li

2011-01-01

202

Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.  

PubMed

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

2011-10-18

203

Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents  

PubMed Central

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents.

Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

2011-01-01

204

Using Artificial Agents to Stimulate Participation in Virtual Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting-up s uccessful virtual communities represents an effective way for facilitating the circulation of knowledge in organizations and groups. However the design of such successful communities represents a main challenge that is principally related to the difficulty to engage people into a knowledge exchange process and to establish a sustainable level of participation. This short paper presents some research directions

Thierry Nabeth; Albert A. Angehrn; Pradeep Kumar Mittal; Claudia Roda

2005-01-01

205

Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) 11.0807 - Full ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... patients with cancer whose anemia is caused by chemotherapy, in patients ... care professionals and patients to report serious side effects after using ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugsafetypodcasts

206

Questions and Answers on Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agents ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy had faster tumor growth ... An increased risk of blood clots in the lungs, brain and major ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

207

Diagnostic et prise en charge des néoplasies intraépithéliales vulvaires et des cancers invasifs de la vulve  

Microsoft Academic Search

RésuméObjectif: Mise au point à propos du diagnostic et de la prise en charge des néoplasies intraépithéliales vulvaires (VIN) et des cancers de la vulve. Méthode: Revue de la littérature. Résultats: La classification des VIN évolue vers deux modèles anatomo-cliniques distincts: les VIN classiques et les VIN différenciées. De nouveaux traitements, moins traumatisants et tout aussi efficaces, des lésions pré-invasives

Philippe Sauthier; Patrick Petignat

2007-01-01

208

Dossier Engagement public des chercheurs Cultures épistémiques et engagement public des chercheurs dans la controverse OGM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé - De l'appel Berg en 1974 aux appels « Défendons la recherche » et « Ouvrons la recherche » en 2003, les biologistes n'ont cessé d'interpeller et de se faire interpeller dans l'espace public autour des enjeux et des risques potentiels liés au génie génétique. Les engagements éphémères, mais proactifs, des années 1970 s'opposent aux engagements plus réactifs des

Christophe Bonneuil

2006-01-01

209

Caractérisation des convertisseurs matriciels : II. Synthèse des fonctions de connexion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the wished conversion levels (-1,0,1) of a power converter, this paper describes a particular method for setting the corresponding states of switches into the matrix converter. In a first step, a mathematical analysis establishes the relations linking the states of switches with the conversion functions. Afterwards, the presented method gives the inverse relations which constitute the sequential part of the converter control. The turn-on and the turn-off sequences are designed by considering the on-line wished level conversions. This general method enhances the idea that a converter functionnality must be defined by its structure and its control. Cet article propose une méthode originale pour définir la séquence de commande d'un convertisseur à partir de la fonction de conversion globalement souhaitée. Les auteurs procèdent d'abord à une analyse mathématique précise des relations qui existent entre les états des interrupteurs et les fonctions de conversion obtenues. À partir de cette analyse, la méthode developpée permet d'établir systématiquement les relations inverses qui constituent alors le module séquentiel de la commande rapprochée du convertisseur. Les ordres d'ouverture et de fermeture des interrupteurs sont élaborés en considérant à tout instant les niveaux de conversion souhaités pour les grandeurs électriques. Cette méthode générale renforce l'idée que la fonction remplie par un convertisseur moderne doit être définie à la fois par sa structure et sa commande.

François, B.; Cambronne, J. P.; Hautier, J. P.

1996-05-01

210

Sensibilité des résultats bancaires au taux d'intérêt  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La concurrence accrue, la restructuration mais aussi l'harmonisation prudentielle à l'échelle internationale des conditions d'activités dans l'industrie bancaire oblige à s'interroger sur d'éventuelles spécificités de la réaction des systèmes bancaires à l'évolution des taux d'intérêt. Cet article propose ainsi une évaluation empirique de la sensibilité des résultats des banques des pays du G5 au niveau et à la volatilité

Daniel Goyeau; Alain Sauviat; Amine Tarazi

1998-01-01

211

Determination Des ‘Épaisseurs Équivalentes’ Des Couches D'un Empilement Multidielectrique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous proposons de calculer les ‘épaisseurs équivalentes’ théoriques d'un filtre qui éclairé suivant une incidence normale ou oblique aurait les mêmes propriétés optiques (j u) et T (u) qu'un filtre obtenu expérimentalement dont les épaisseurs des couches seraient réalisées avec des erreurs quelconques supposées connues. Les calculs ont été faits par une méthode générale analytique approchée et vérifiée par des

J. M. Saurel

1982-01-01

212

Iatrogénie Sexuelle des Médicaments: conduite à tenir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Une des étapes primordiale de la prise en charge des troubles sexuelles est l’identification d’une éventuelle cause médicamenteuse.\\u000a De nombreux médicaments sont en fait probablement moins impliqués eux-mêmes dans la survenue de troubles sexuels que la maladie\\u000a pour laquelle ils ont été prescrits. Ainsi, l’analyse critique de la littérature, la standardisation des paramètres mesurables\\u000a de la sexualité utilisés en études

Stéphane Droupy

2005-01-01

213

Plan directeur d'exploitation des carrieres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Le Plan Directeur d'Exploitation des Carrières (PDM) fut élaboré pour répondre au besoin d'intégrer et d'adapter l'activité\\u000a d'extraction des minéraux aux directives de l'aménagement métropolitain. Ce projet réunit des contributions du Bureau des\\u000a Affaires Métropolitaines de l'Etat de Sao Paulo (SNM), du Département national de Production Minérale (DNPM), de l'EMPLASA—Entreprise\\u000a Métropolitaine de Planification de la Région de Sao Paulo S.A.,

Ivan Carlos Maglio; Nivaldo José Chiossi; Décio S. Casadei; Décio J. A. M. Freire; Ubirajara Fontes; Cleide Poletto; Marisa Frischembruder; Anelise Bassoli

1984-01-01

214

Syndrome des jambes sans repos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Le syndrome des jambes sans repos (SJSR) est caractérisé par un besoin urgent de mouvoir les jambes, ou d’autres parties du\\u000a corps parfois, typiquement induit et\\/ou aggravé par le repos avec une recrudescence vespérale et nocturne. Ce syndrome pourrait\\u000a affecter 7 à 10 % de la population dans le monde et 8,5 % de la population francçise. Une histoire familiale

L. Guilloton; A. Drouet; D. Felten

2008-01-01

215

Paroxetine-associated spontaneous sexual stimulation.  

PubMed

The sexual side-effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been widely accepted and clinicians should only prescribe these agents for the treatment of premature ejaculation in the real clinical practice. We recently experienced three cases of paroxetine-associated sexual stimulation in the outpatient clinic. Because there is little information in the existing literature on this issue, we report three female cases who developed frequent spontaneous orgasm and increased libido during paroxetine treatment. PMID:16192845

Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Kim, Jung-Jin; Lee, Chang-Uk; Lee, Soo-Jung; Lee, Chul; Paik, In-Ho

2005-11-01

216

Surface Potential Control on Thin Oxide Films with Respect to Electron Stimulated Desorption Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These experiments deal with the study of desorption of negative ions stimulated by low energy electron collisions on insulating surfaces covered with various adsorbates. For such investigation a careful control of the sample surface potential is required to set the incident electron energy accurately as well as to identify the desorbed species by mass spectrometry. Most of the reported experiments concern this surface potential control. We show that, for very thin SiO2 films thermally grown on silicon substrates, a tunnel conduction might set the surface potential accurately. This assertion mainly relies on recording the intensity of electrons transmitted through thin oxides as well as the intensity of backscattered and secondary electrons re-emitted from the surface. A direct comparison of the O^- ion energy distributions confirms the correct control of the surface potential for a large range of incident electron energies. In such condition we noticed that the O^- desorption yields just swiftly varied with incident electron energy. In particular no modification could be detected as the incident electron energy passed the various Auger excitation levels. The discrepancy between this last result and the published data is discussed in the last part of this paper. Des collisions électroniques sur des surfaces peuvent provoquer une éjection d'ions négatifs formés à partir des molécules adsorbées suivant un processus résonnant à très basse énergie. Pour étendre ces études expérimentales aux surfaces isolantes, un contrôle précis du potentiel superficiel devient indispensable tant pour fixer l'énergie finale des électrons sur la surface que pour effectuer la spectrométrie des ions désorbés. L'examen de surfaces de silice en couche mince montre comment une conduction tunnel intervient pour fixer le potentiel des surfaces examinées. Ces travaux expérimentaux effectués dans une configuration de miroir électrostatique reposent principalement sur l'enregistrement des variations de l'intensité des électrons transmis au travers de l'oxyde et de celle des électrons rétrodiffusés par la surface lorsque les potentiels appliqués sont modifiés. La comparaison des distributions énergétiques des ions O^- émis par l'oxyde fournit un contrôle direct de ces résultats. Ces ions résultent d'une décomposition de la silice provoquée par le bombardement électronique. Mais notre montage n'a nullement permis de reproduire les variations rapides de rendement de “désorption” au voisinage des seuils d'excitation Auger du silicium rapportés par d'autres auteurs. A notre avis, différents artefacts expérimentaux ont très vraisemblablement perturbé leurs investigations.

Bernheim, Marc; Rousse, Gilles

1995-09-01

217

Towards Seamless Agent Middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current evolution of agent middleware, supporting and promoting an autonomous agent component model. We first assess the current state of agent technology, then we make a case for increased integration between agents and their environment, composed by entities with different models. We notice that this integration trend emerged more and more in the last few years,

Andrea Omicini; Giovanni Rimassa

2004-01-01

218

Software agents: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent software is a rapidly developing area of research. However, the overuse of the word 'agent' has tended to mask the fact that, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of research being carried out under this banner. This overview paper presents a typology of agents. Next, it places agents in context, defines them and then goes on, inter

Hyacinth S. Nwana

1996-01-01

219

Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation.  

PubMed

Since its inception in the 1970s, peripheral neuromodulation has become an increasingly common procedure to treat chronic neuropathic disorders. Historically, peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) originated with the placement of large surface cuff electrodes, which was refined by the introduction of functional nerve mapping with circumferential electrical stimulation. This substantially improved the targeting of sensory fascicles. Surgical placement of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) 'button type' paddle electrodes was replaced when the introduction of percutaneous cylindrical SCS electrodes expanded the spectrum of PNS applications and improved the ability to target afferent sensory fibers as well as reducing the complication rate. To further refine functional mapping for the placement of these percutaneous electrodes, radiofrequency needle probes have more recently been employed to elicit paresthesias in awake patients to map the pain generators and guide treatment. In this chapter, we provide a description of the development and basic mechanisms of peripheral nerve stimulation, as well as a more detailed description of the two most commonly employed forms of peripheral nerve stimulation: occipital nerve stimulation for occipital neuralgia, and subcutaneous peripheral nerve field stimulation to stimulate free nerve endings within the subcutaneous tissue when the pain is limited to a small, well-localized area. The closely related ideas of internal and external targeted subcutaneous stimulation are also discussed. PMID:21422775

Aló, Kenneth M; Abramova, Marina V; Richter, Erich O

2011-03-21

220

Foam stimulation - state-of-the-art  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam in stimulating oil and gas wells has increased tremendously since 1973. Results of application of foam have far surpassed expectations during its early use. Because the behavior of foam in stimulation treatments is unlike the more conventional fluids used in the past, a totally new outlook on the design and performance of these type treatments is required. Foam, as used in the stimulation of oil and gas wells, consists of a liquid, such as water, oil, acid, or water-alcohol mixtures, a foamer which is a surfactant, and a gas which is usually nitrogen. Other chemicals such as gelling agents, clay stabilizers, nonemulsifiers, scale and paraffin inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, and fluid loss additives can be added to the system as needed. This study discusses the advances which have been made in foams in the laboratory and in the field, its application, results, and limitations.

Tiner, R.L.; Folmnsbee, G.E.

1981-01-01

221

Containing agents : contexts, projections, and agents.  

SciTech Connect

Agent-based models have historically maintained a tight coupling between individuals, their behaviors, and the space in which they interact. As a result, many models have been designed in a way that limits their ability to express behaviors and interactions. In this paper, we propose a new approach toward designing simulations that builds upon the experiences of developing and working with several agent-based toolkits. This approach encourages flexibility and reusability of components and models. A preliminary implementation is the core structure of the upcoming Repast Simphony agent-based modeling and simulation toolkit. By creating a 'proto-space' called a Context, we provide model designers with a container that can maintain a localized state for agents. A Context's state can maintain multiple interaction spaces called Projections, as well as more typical state information. Projections are designed such that they can be used to represent a wide range of abstract spaces, from graphs to grids to realistic geographic spaces. Importantly, projections and agents or individuals are independent of one another. Agents can be agnostic toward the type of projection in which they are interacting, and projections can be agnostic toward the type of agents whose relationships they maintain. Finally, the context provides a logical location to maintain agent behaviors that are dependent on localized agent interactions and environment.

Howe, T. R.; Collier, N. T.; North, M. J.; Parker, M. T.; Vos, J. R. (Decision and Information Sciences); (PantaRei Corp.); (Univ. of Chicago); (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana)

2006-01-01

222

Goat immune response to capripox vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin protein of peste des petits ruminants.  

PubMed

Sheep-pox and capripox are contagious diseases of domestic small ruminants for which the causal agent is a poxvirus classified into the Capripoxvirus genus. Viruses of this group have a host range specific to sheep, goats, cattle, and possibly buffalo. Thus, they are clearly indicated as vectors for the development of recombinant vaccines for peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Here we report the immune response of goats inoculated with a recombinant capripox-PPR hemagglutinin. PMID:12381569

Diallo, A; Minet, C; Berhe, G; Le Goff, C; Black, D N; Fleming, M; Barrett, T; Grillet, C; Libeau, G

2002-10-01

223

Une application de la métrique circum-radiale à l'étude des déplacements urbains  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Une application de la métrique circum-radiale à l'étude des déplacements urbains. . Dans un certain nombre de villes, la métrique rectilinéaire peut être utilisée pour analyser les déplacements. Toutefois, pour les villes anciennes, cette représentation ne convient pas. Pour se rendre d'un point à un autre, les agents passent par le centre ou par le périphérique de manière à

Jacky Perreur; Jacques-François Thisse

1974-01-01

224

Retraite choisie et réduction des déficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Jean-Olivier Hairault François Langot Thepthida Sopraseuth Retraite choisie et réduction des déficits. Nous proposons un modèle de cycle de vie où les décisions de départ à la retraite sont endogènes, ainsi que les choix de consommation et d'épargne, dans un environnement marqué par des risques de chômage en fin de vie active et une incertitude sur la date de

Jean-Olivier Hairault; François Langot; Thepthida Sopraseuth

2004-01-01

225

Analyse des possibilités de fonctionnement en régime des désexcitation des moteurs à aimants permanents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the extending of speed range of motors (or generators) with permanent magnet inductor and supplied by electronic converter. The amplitude of phase voltage and current waveforms are limited by electronics supply. The aim of this study is to achieve a maximum power near of the base speed one on an extended speed range. This require an airgap flux weakening so called “flux weakening” above base speed. A parametric analysis of motor electromagnetic characteristics is made to show the influence of armature reaction and magnetic saliency on speed range. We show that exists an ideal condition to obtain a constant power speed range theoretically unlimited. Magnetic saliency permits to enhance the power factor especially when L_d> L_q. As main hypotheses, we consider no saturation, e.m.f. and current sine waveforms and a sinusoidal airgap flux density. Finally, we recapitulate the permanent magnet rotor structures able to obtain a flux-weakening operation. Cet article traite de l'extension de la plage de vitesse des moteurs (ou alternateurs) à excitation par aimants permanents et alimentés par convertisseur électronique. La tension et le courant sont limités en amplitude par l'alimentation électronique.L'objectif est d'obtenir une puissance proche de celle correspondant au régime de base sur une plage de vitesse étendue. Ceci nécessite une réduction de flux d'entrefer ou “désexition” au delà de la vitesse de base. Une analyse paramétrique des caractéristiques du moteur est effectuée pour mettre en évidence l'influence de la réaction d'induit et de la saillance magnétique. Nous montrons qu'il existe une condition idéale pour obtenir une plage de fonctionnement à puissance constante théoriquement illimitée. La saillance magnétique permet d'accroître le facteur de puissance surtout lorsque L_d> L_q. Les principales hypothèses de cette étude sont l'absence de saturation, des f.e.m. et des courants sinusoïdaux et une induction spatiale sinusoïdale dans l'entrefer. Enfin, nous effectuons un bilan des structures de rotors permettant un fonctionnement en régime de désexcitation.

Multon, Bernard; Lucidarme, Jean; Prévond, Laurent

1995-05-01

226

La réfrigération des grandes machines supraconductrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large scale superconducting devices which are now in operation for deviation of heavy particles, acceleration of light particles or plasma confinement need very large powers of refrigeration. After a short survewing of the different functions of refrigerators and the special requirements for large units, the paper describes some existing or envisaged cooling systems which have an equivalent cooling power in the range of 5 kW at 4.5 K. Les grands appareils de physique utilisant les supraconducteurs demandent des puissances cryogéniques de plus en plus importantes. Après un examen des fonctions élémentaires assurées par un réfrigérateur liées au cahier des charges spécifique à chaque utilisation, les spécificités des grosses unités de réfrigération (fiabilité, efficacité, flexibilité, automatisme) sont mises en évidence. Les solutions proposées dans plusieurs grands projets nécessitant des puissances froides supérieures à 5 kW à 4,5 K sont discutées.

Gistau, Guy

1991-02-01

227

Bioterrorism: agents of concern.  

PubMed

The intentional dispersal of biological agents by terrorists is a potential problem that increasingly concerns the intelligence, law enforcement, medical, and public health communities. Terrorists might choose biological agents over conventional and chemical weapons for multiple reasons, although it is difficult to predict, with certainty, which biological agents might prove attractive to terrorists. One can more confidently, however, derive a list of those few agents which, if used, would be of greatest public health consequence. It is these agents which will require the most robust countermeasures. We discuss the derivation of this short list of agents and the specific diseases involved. PMID:10977609

Cieslak, T J; Eitzen, E M

2000-07-01

228

Continuous dopaminergic stimulation and novel formulations of dopamine agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now accumulating evidence that the combination of progressive pathology of Parkinson’s disease, the change in drug\\u000a pharmacodynamics, and the pulsatile manner in which short-acting dopaminergic agents stimulate striatal dopamine receptors\\u000a are the key contributing factors to the priming of the basal ganglia for induction of motor complications. Long-acting drugs\\u000a provide a more physiological dopaminergic stimulation. Dopamine agonists have

Fabrizio Stocchi

2011-01-01

229

Laboratory and theoretical modeling of diverting agent behavior  

SciTech Connect

Diverting agents composed of finely ground, oil soluble polymer or resin particles were tested in the laboratory and modeled with a numerical simulator to determine their effectiveness in matrix stimulation treatments. First, the diverting agents were characterized with linear core flood tests, and then experiments were performed in a physical wellbore model scaled to a typical well completion. A numerical simulator was developed to predict the effect of diverting agent on injected fluid distribution. This paper describes the laboratory and mathematical models of diverting agent behavior and the results obtained with these models. Among the conclusions drawn from this study are: the finely ground oil-soluble polymer or resin diverting agents are effective for matrix diversion; diverting agent added continuously to treating fluid equalizes the flow to all zones; diverting agent injected in small stages ahead of treating fluids can cause a highly skewed distribution of injected fluid.

Hill, A.D.; Galloway, P.J.

1983-02-01

230

Asian Lineage of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Africa  

PubMed Central

Interest in peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has been stimulated by recent changes in its host and geographic distribution. For this study, biological specimens were collected from camels, sheep, and goats clinically suspected of having PPRV infection in Sudan during 2000–2009 and from sheep soon after the first reported outbreaks in Morocco in 2008. Reverse transcription PCR analysis confirmed the wide distribution of PPRV throughout Sudan and spread of the virus in Morocco. Molecular typing of 32 samples positive for PPRV provided strong evidence of the introduction and broad spread of Asian lineage IV. This lineage was defined further by 2 subclusters; one consisted of camel and goat isolates and some of the sheep isolates, while the other contained only sheep isolates, a finding with suggests a genetic bias according to the host. This study provides evidence of the recent spread of PPRV lineage IV in Africa.

Kwiatek, Olivier; Ali, Yahia Hassan; Saeed, Intisar Kamil; Khalafalla, Abdelmelik Ibrahim; Mohamed, Osama Ishag; Abu Obeida, Ali; Abdelrahman, Magdi Badawi; Osman, Halima Mohamed; Taha, Khalid Mohamed; Abbas, Zakia; El Harrak, Mehdi; Lhor, Youssef; Diallo, Adama; Lancelot, Renaud; Albina, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

231

Radiolabelled spiroperidol: Possible pituitary adenoma imaging agent  

SciTech Connect

Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. Detection currently depends on physical symptoms, elevated serum prolactin levels and CT scans. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas based on some functional characteristic of the tumor would be of considerable clinical value not only for early detection but also for monitoring of therapy. Tritiated spiroperidol (/sup 3/H-Sp) was selected for evaluation based on 1) the presence of D-2 receptors in normal anterior pituitary and adenoma tissue and 2) the high affinity of spiroperidol for D-2 receptors. Recent data have established that implantation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in Fischer F344 rats induced prolactin-secreting tumors in the pituitary. /sup 3/HSp was evaluated in pituitary tissue of both control and DES-treated rats. /sup 3/HSp concentration in normal female anterior pituitary tissue was found to be about 0.27% kg dose/g from 5 min to 4hrs. This value was about 10 times levels in cortex, cerebellum and striatum. In DES-treated rats the % kg dose/g values remained approximately the same. A 5-fold increase in serum prolactin was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ. The data suggests that although total pituitary weight has increased due to tumor growth (reflected in increased values for % dose/organ), the relative number of receptors per g of tissue has remained constant. This result is in agreement with observations of others on D-2 receptor concentration in prolactinomas.

Otto, C.A.; Marshall, J.C.; Lloyd, R.V.; Sherman, P.S.; Wieland, D.M.

1984-01-01

232

Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

Hacini, Lyes

233

Agents Technology Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a comprehensive description of three separate efforts pursued by the agents technology research group. The efforts were focused on: state abstraction methods for reinforcement learning, the multi- agent credit assignment problem, and ...

J. Hudack N. Gemelli R. Wright S. Loscalzo T. K. Lue

2010-01-01

234

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

235

Biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military\\u000a or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical\\u000a aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological\\u000a warfare agents and epidemiology of

Miroslav Pohanka; Kamil Ku?a

236

Agent-enhanced Workflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agent-enhanced workflow, a community of intelligent, distributed and autonomous software agents is used to improve the management of business processes under the control of a workflow management system. These improvements are achieved by allowing the software agents to negotiate with each other to establish contracts that govern the distribution of work across a number of processing centres. Furthermore, the

Donald Judge; Brian Odgers; John Shepherdson; Zhan Cui

1998-01-01

237

Robust Agent Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that intelligent information agents will represent their users interest in electronic marketplaces and other forums to trade, exchange, share, identify, and locate goods and services. Such informa- tion worlds will present unforeseen opportunities as well as challenges that can be best addressed by robust, self-sustaining agent communi- ties. An agent community is a stable, adaptive group of self-interested

Sandip Sen; Sabyasachi Saha; Stéphane Airiau; Teddy Candale; Dipyaman Banerjee; Doran Chakraborty; Partha Mukherjee; Anil Gursel

2007-01-01

238

Agents for the masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it possible to make development of sophisticated agents simple enough to be practical? This article discusses the authors' theoretical and tool-creation efforts to answer that question in the affirmative. Building sophisticated agent-based systems of the future will require research advances on at least three fronts: we must continue work on agent theory so that many currently unanswered questions about

Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Mark Greaves; Heather Holmback; Tom Karygiannis; Wayne Jansen; B. G. Silverman; N. Suri; A. Wong

1999-01-01

239

Characteristics of Nerve Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are three types of nerve agents currently stored in chemical stockpiles in the United States: VX, GB and GA. All three nerve agents are members of the organophosphate family. Nerve agent VX, a clear, odorless and tasteless liquid, has an appearance ...

2007-01-01

240

Geothermal Well Stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

1981-03-01

241

Optimizing magnetic stimulator design.  

PubMed

Optimal magnetic stimulation depends on application and design. The best design generates the desired depolarization current in the desired area with acceptable current speed. Power and cooling requirements, electrical and mechanical safety, stimulus rate, reliability, and ease of use are additional considerations. By understanding the interactions among these requirements, suitable choices are made. Magnetic stimulation requires moving enough charge through an electrically sensitive tissue to depolarize it reliably. Usually there is a need to depolarize a delimited volume of tissue and to repeat the depolarization at convenient intervals. A good design achieves the focality and speed needed for the application. Since the applications for magnetic stimulation are varied, however, the designs for the stimulators also will be different, and defining the application (or applications) is, therefore, a requirement for optimization. PMID:1773761

Cadwell, J

1991-01-01

242

Creating a Stimulating Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested that a stimulating environment, rich with color, relaxed in mood, and imaginative in arrangement, will produce a favorable effect on the child's senses and hopefully create an attitude that will be favorable toward learning. (Author)

Greabell, Leon C.; Forseth, Sonia D.

1981-01-01

243

Stimulating Human Services Reform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Suggestions for stimulating reform in human services agencies are focused on persuading policymakers and managers about the need for change; on grouping community, local, and organizational agencies for change; and on coordinating the activities of the pr...

H. W. Demone

1978-01-01

244

The Stimulated Raman Effect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the main experimental and theoretical developments in stimulated Raman scattering of light, which has been actively investigated since 1962. The effect cannot be discussed properly without paying attention to related nonlinear effects wh...

N. Bloembergen

1967-01-01

245

ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test  

MedlinePLUS

... gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol. ... The health care provider will measure the cortisol in your blood before and 60 minutes after an ACTH injection. A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, ...

246

Oil well stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Emphasizes quantitative aspects of stimulation, including chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of reservoir materials; formation damage; perforating techniques; hydraulic fracturing; matrix acidizing; and sand control methods. Provides models engineers can use with hand-held calculators.

Schechter, R.S.

1992-01-01

247

Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models and the conceptual framework necessary for an understanding of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are described. Examples of various OSL readout schemes are described, along with examples of the use of OSL in radiation dosimetry.

Stephen W. S. McKeever

2001-01-01

248

Electron Stimulation of Biopolymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report represents the first attempt to compile and organize works relative to the discovery and studies of the nature of electron-stimulated states of the two principal classes of biopolymers: proteins and nucleinic acids. Particular attention is give...

S. V. Konev

1968-01-01

249

Vascular effects of free radicals generated by electrical stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Electrical field stimulation (9 V, 1.0 ms, 4 Hz) of isolated segments of rat tail arteries and dog coronary arteries inhibits contractile response to exogenous norephinephrine and elevated potassium concentration. This inhibitory effect of electrical stimulation is blocked by various agents that alter oxygen metabolism: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, ascorbate, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observations suggest that the inhibitory effect is due to an action of oxygen free radical metabolites that are generated by the electrical stimulation of the oxygen-rich buffer. These free radical metabolites have two actions: 1) they oxidize drugs in the experimental system, and 2) they exert a direct inhbitory action on vascular smooth muscle.

Lamb, F.S.; Webb, R.C.

1984-11-01

250

La technique des incidents critiques pour cerner l'efficacité des feed-back de correction en danse moderne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé — Les études descriptives en classe de danse ont démontré qu'une des principales habiletés d'intervention des professeurs consiste à corriger les erreurs d'exécutions motrices des étudiants. Les professeurs utilisent à cette fin un vaste éventail de stratégies. Y a-t- il des stratégies plus efficaces que d'autres? Pour répondre à cette question, la méthodologie qualitative des incidents critiques a été

Sylvie Fortin

1988-01-01

251

LA GESTION DES RESULTATS COMPTABLES LORS DES FUSIONS ET ACQUISITIONS: UNE ANALYSE DANS LE CONTEXTE SUISSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette recherche examine la gestion des résultats comptables par les dirigeants d'entreprises sujettes à des offres publiques d'achat (OPA) dans le contexte Suisse. La recherche comptable suggère que les transactions de fusions et acquisitions offrent un cadre propice à la gestion des résultats tant pour les dirigeants de l'entreprise cible que pour ceux de l'acquéreur (Easterwood, 1998 ; Erickson et

Franck Missonier-Piera; Walid Ben-Amar

2005-01-01

252

Modélisation et simulation à topologie variable des convertisseurs statiques et des entraînements électromécaniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the automatic modeling with changeable topology of static converters (ideal discret-time modeling of switches), mainly for their own simulation and specifically the one of electric drives. Nous proposons une approche pour synthétiser automatiquement le modèle à topologie variable des convertisseurs statiques (modèle discret idéal des semi-conducteurs), principalement en vue de leur propre simulation et notamment celle des entraînements électromécaniques.

Gerbaud, L.; Lechevalier, C.; Bolopion, A.; Bigeon, J.

1998-06-01

253

Gesundheitsökonomische Aspekte des telematischen Glaukom-Monitorings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung\\u000a Hintergrund  Ein ambulantes telematisch gestütztes Glaukom-Monitoring gehört gegenwärtig nicht zum Leistungsumfang der gesetzlichen Krankenkassen.\\u000a Verschiedene klinische Studien geben Hinweise, dass es mittels des 24-h-Augeninnendruck- und Blutdruck-Monitorings besser\\u000a gelingt, die individuelle Erkrankungssituation des Glaukompatienten zu erfassen. Wenn die hierfür erforderlichen Parameter\\u000a durch Anwendung des telematisch gestützten Glaukom-Monitorings erhoben werden, ließe sich der Umfang heute noch ausschließlich\\u000a stationär zu erbringender 24-h-Augeninnendruck-Profile zu

T. Swierk; C. Jürgens; R. Großjohann; S. Fleßa; F. Tost

2011-01-01

254

Nerve Agents: A Comprehensive Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve agents are perhaps the most feared of potential agents of chemical attack. The authors review the history, physical characteristics, pharmacology, clinical effects, and treatment of these agents.

Sage W. Wiener; Robert S. Hoffman

2004-01-01

255

Die Vereinbarkeit des Handels mit LMOs gemäß den Vorgaben des Biosafety-Protokolls mit den Vorschriften des WTO\\/GATT-Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Die gegenwärtige Weltwirtschaftsordnung zielt auf eine Liberalisierung des grenzüberschreitenden Wirtschaftsverkehrs.677 Sie tut dies nicht als Selbstzweck, sondern, wie die Präambel des Übereinkommens zur Errichtung der WTO ausweist, als Mittel\\u000a zur Erhöhung des Lebensstandards, zur Sicherung der Vollbeschäftigung, für ein beständiges steigendes Realeinkommen, eine\\u000a wirksame Nachfrage sowie eine Ausweitung der Produktion und des Handels.678 Die zu erwartenden Vorteile einer fortlaufenden Handelsliberalisierung

Markus Böckenförde

256

Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le quatrieme probleme porte sur le developpement d'une nouvelle methode de transmission exacte a 3 microphones applicable a des materiaux ou systemes symetriques ou non. Dans le cas symetrique, on montre que cette approche permet une nette amelioration de la caracterisation des proprietes dynamiques intrinseques d'un materiau. Mots cles. materiaux poreux, tube d'impedance, transmission sonore, absorption sonore, impedance acoustique, symetrie, porosite, matrice de transfert.

Salissou, Yacoubou

257

Hémoparasites des oiseaux sauvages à Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUME : Cette étude évalue la prévalence et la densité des hémoparasites chez 387 oiseaux appartenant à 43 espèces,et collectés sur 6 sites répartis dans différents milieux bio-climatiques de Madagascar. 139 (35,9%) se sont révélés porteurs d'au moins un hémoparasite avec par ordre de fréquence Plasmodium et\\/ou Haemoproteus (19,9% des 387 oiseaux), microfilaires (13,7%), Leucocytozoon (11,1%) et Trypanosoma (1,0%). Pour

Raharimanga V; Soula F; Raherilalao MJ; Goodman SM; Tall A; Randrianarivelojosia M; Raharimalala L; Duchemin JB; Ariey F; Robert V

258

Aspects macroscopiques des lymphomes digestifs primitifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les lymphomes primitifs du tube digestif ont, en général, une présentation macroscopiqe proche du celles des adénocarcinomes,\\u000a tumeurs malignes les plus fréquentes du tube digestif. Le diagnostic macroscopique différentiel de ces deux affections est\\u000a aléatoire; parmi les rares critères de différenciation, on peut citer la multifocalité des lésions dans les lymphomes et la\\u000a présence d’un relief muqueux cérébriforme.\\u000a \\u000a La classification

Anne Jouret; J. Haot

1998-01-01

259

Sedimentologie des Lias der Berchtesgadener Kalkalpen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Ausgehend von der herrschenden Vorstellung einer Transgression roter Liaskalke zur Zeit des oberen Unterlias über ein subaerisch verkarstetes Dachsteinkallerelief, untersuchte ich die Liassedimente in den Berchtesgadener Alpen eingehender und unternahm vergleichende Begehungen im östlichen Hagengebirge, im Steinernen Meer und in den Steinbrüchen von Adnet.Die Sedimente des Lias liegen in einer Graukalk- und einer abwechslungsreicheren Rotkalk-Fazies (F.Fabricius 1962) vor. Ammoniten zeigten,

Hermann Jurgan

1968-01-01

260

Les instruments des politiques d'environnement  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les instruments des politiques d'environnement . Les problèmes d'environnement peuvent être ramenés à l'analyse du marché de chaque bien concerné : eau, air, espaces naturels... L'inexistence ou l'imperfection des marchés de ces ressources mène souvent à leur sur-exploitation, car le prix auquel elles sont disponibles est en général inférieur à leur coût pour la collectivité. Le dysfonctionnement d'autres marchés

Xavier Delache; Sylviane Gastaldo

1992-01-01

261

Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture  

SciTech Connect

Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

Stampfer, M.R.

1982-06-01

262

Metabolic responses to selective ?-adrenergic stimulation in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of plasma free fatty acid, glucose, lactate, insulin and growth hormone to intravenous administration of the predominantly ?-2 stimulant, salbutamol, were studied in nine normal subjects. Four subjects received the predominantly ?-1 blocking agent, practolol, together with salbutamol.Salbutamol produced a marked rise in free fatty acid levels and there was also an appreciable increase in insulin values; lactate

R. Goldberg; B. I. Joffe; I. Bersohn; M. van As; L. Krut; H. C. Seftel

1975-01-01

263

Ferrihydrite reduction by Geobacter species is stimulated by secondary bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geobacter species such as G. bremensis, G. pelophilus, and G. sulfurreducens are obligately anaerobic and grow in anoxic, non-reduced medium by fast reduction of soluble ferric citrate. In contrast, insoluble ferrihydrite was either only slowly or not reduced when supplied as electron acceptor in similar growth experiments. Ferrihydrite reduction was stimulated by addition of a reducing agent or by concomitant

Kristina L. Straub; Bernhard Schink

2004-01-01

264

Uropharmacology: IX. Direct-acting smooth muscle stimulants and depressants.  

PubMed

Agents which exert their effect on the lower urinary tract by stimulating or depressing the activity of smooth muscle directly are discussed. Many of these drugs also exert other actions on the urinary tract mediated via the autonomic nervous system. PMID:695160

Finkbeiner, A E; Welch, L T; Bissada, N K

1978-08-01

265

Uncaria tomentosa stimulates the proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceThe Asháninkas, indigenous people of Peru, use cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) to restore health. Uncaria tomentosa has antioxidant activity and works as an agent to repair DNA damage. It causes different effects on cell proliferation depending on the cell type involved; specifically, it can stimulate the proliferation of myeloid progenitors and cause apoptosis of neoplastic cells. Neutropenia is the

Iria Farias; Maria do Carmo Araújo; Estevan Sonego Zimmermann; Sergio Luiz Dalmora; Aloisio Luiz Benedetti; Marcio Alvarez-Silva; Ana Carolina Cavazzin Asbahr; Gustavo Bertol; Júlia Farias; Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger

2011-01-01

266

Aromatase inhibitors in stimulated IVF cycles  

PubMed Central

Aromatase inhibitors have been introduced as a new treatment modality that could challenge clomiphene citrate as an ovulation induction regiment in patients with PCOS. Although several randomized trials have been conducted regarding their use as ovulation induction agents, only few trials are available regarding their efficacy in IVF stimulated cycles. Current available evidence support that letrozole may have a promising role in stimulated IVF cycles, either when administered during the follicular phase for ovarian stimulation. Especially for women with poor ovarian response, letrozole appears to have the potential to increase clinical pregnancy rates when combined with gonadotropins, whereas at the same time reduces the total gonadotropin dose required for ovarian stimulation. However, given that in all of the trials letrozole has been administered in GnRH antagonist cycles, it is intriguing to test in the future how it may perform when used in GnRH agonist cycles. Finally administration of letrozole during luteal phase in IVF cycles offers another treatment modality for patients at high risk for OHSS taking into account that it drastically reduces estradiol levels

2011-01-01

267

Stimulants: Therapeutic Actions in ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine are currently the most common treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For years, it was assumed that stimulants had paradoxical calming effects in ADHD patients, whereas stimulating ‘normal’ individuals and producing locomotor activation in rats. It is now known that low doses of stimulants focus attention and improve executive function in both normal

Amy F T Arnsten; AFT Arnsten

2006-01-01

268

Antiarrhythmic Actions of Amiodarone: A Profile of a Paradoxical Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amiodarone, a complex compound with variegated electropharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties and an equally complex side-effect profile, continues to have a critical role in the control of ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias as the use of class I agents has declined. Such is also the case with sotalol. Unlike other so-called class III agents, amiodarone non-competitively blocks sympathetic stimulation, and its effects

Bramah N Singh

1996-01-01

269

Emotions and Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encounter between emotion research and agent-based technology is multifaceted. One the one hand, results from emotion\\u000a research start to serve as role model from nature, providing inspirations for technical design criteria for individual agents\\u000a at the micro level and agent groups and societies at the macro level as well as the sophisticated linkages in between them.\\u000a On the other

Paolo Petta; Robert Trappl

2001-01-01

270

Reasoning about agent deliberation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a family of sound and complete logics for reasoning about deliberation strategies for SimpleAPL programs. SimpleAPL\\u000a is a fragment of the agent programming language 3APL designed for the implementation of cognitive agents with beliefs, goals\\u000a and plans. The logics are variants of PDL, and allow us to prove safety and liveness properties of SimpleAPL agent programs\\u000a under different

Natasha Alechina; Mehdi Dastani; Brian Logan; John-Jules Ch. Meyer

2011-01-01

271

Analyse évaluative des unités conventionnées et des unités autonomes de services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyse évaluative des unités conventionnées et des unités autonomes de services analyzes the contribution of financial easing and power delegations granted to units which have committed themselves by signing Accountability and Performance Agreements (APAs) and to autonomous service units (ASUs) as far as performance improvement is concerned. The results clearly show that the financial easing as well as easing of

Benoit A. Aubert; Simon Bourdeau; Frédéric Gagné; Nicolas Perreault

2005-01-01

272

Des orphelins de la JAC aux enfants perdus des parcours individuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] En France, en 1966, la politique de la formation professionnelle a été organisée en fonction d'un public bien précis : les jeunes exploitants familiaux. Elle a été ensuite étendue aux femmes, aux salariés, aux jeunes chômeurs. A l'heure actuelle, la décentralisation des décisions pose des problèmes de cohérence au niveau national et de priorité en fonction de la CEE.

Jean-François Chosson

1987-01-01

273

Equations de transport relatives à des champs de vecteurs non-lipschitziens et mécanique des fluides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le but de cet article est l'étude des équations de transport relatives à des champs de vecteurs non-lipschitziens, mais seulement logarithmiquement lipschitziens. Ces champs possèdent un flot dont la régularité hölderienne est exponentiellement décroissante. On exhibe une solution de l'équation d'Euler bidimensionnelle présentant effectivement ce phénomène.

H. Bahouri; J.-Y. Chemin

1994-01-01

274

IMPACT DE LA QUALITE DU RESULTAT COMPTABLE SUR LE COUT DES FONDS PROPRES DES ENTREPRISES TUNISIENNES  

Microsoft Academic Search

En se basant sur le modèle de Fama et French (1993), nous avons essayé de mesurer l'impact de la qualité du résultat comptable sur le coût des fonds propres des entreprises tunisiennes. La revue de la littérature nous renseigne que plus la qualité de l'information – véhiculée par le résultat comptable – est meilleure, moins sera le risque informationnel, ce

Fatma Triki; Rym Hachana

2008-01-01

275

Architectures for Agents that Track Other Agents in Multi-Agent Worlds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In multi-agent environments, an intelligent agent often needs to interact with other individuals or groups of agents to achieve its goals. Agent tracking is one key capability required for intelligent interaction. It involves monitoring the observable act...

M. Tambe P. S. Rosenbloom

1996-01-01

276

Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with ?-CD, IBA, a blend of ?-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane.

Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Liu, Yingjun; Barhate, R. S.; Lala, Neeta L.; Ramakrishna, S.

2006-06-01

277

Stimulation of neutrophil FC-receptor-mediated ingestion  

SciTech Connect

Neutrophils (PMN) treated with amphotericin B (AmB), chemotactic peptide (FMLP), phorbol ester (PMA), a low molecular weight (< 10,000 M/sub r/), heat-labile cytokine (CK), or media were incubated with sheep erythrocytes coated with IgG (EIgG) and ingestion assessed as a phagocytic index (PI=number of EIgG ingested/100 PMN). PMN incubated with media bound but did not ingest EIgG (PI=35) as efficiently as PMN stimulated with the following reagents: 4..mu..M AmB (PI=150), 10/sup -9/M FMLP (PI=135), 5ng/ml PMA (PI=310), and CK (PI=350). PMN treated with .25% butanol bound but did not ingest EIgG even after stimulation by the above agents. Monoclonal anti-PMN Fc receptor (3G8) treatment of non-stimulated and stimulated PMN inhibited both attachment and ingestion of EIgG. 1C2, a monoclonal antibody which precipitates a 54,000 M/sub r/ protein from PMN, had no effect on EIgG attachment or ingestion by non-stimulated PMN, yet inhibited EIgG ingestion but not attachment by PMN stimulated with CK (PI=40), AmB (PI=35), and FMLP (PI=60), but not PMA (PI=280). These data indicate that phagocytosis mediated by 3G8-positive Fc receptors may be inhibited by agents which decrease membrane fluidity (e.g. butanol) and may be enhanced by agents which require the molecule recognized by 1C2 (AmB, FMLP, and CK) and an agent which does not (PMA).

Gresham, H.; Blackburn, W.; Clement, L.; Volanakis, J.

1986-03-05

278

Influence of acetycholine on the positive inotropic effect evoked by ?- or ?-adrenoceptor stimulation in the rabbit heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of acetylcholine (ACh) on the positive inotropic responses to a- as well as ß-adrenoceptor stimulation was investigated in the isolated electrically driven rabbit ventricular muscle.1.Stimulation of muscarinic receptors by ACh (10-9–10-4 mol\\/l) reduced the positive inotropic effect evoked by isoprenaline (10-8 mol\\/l) via ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, but enhanced the positive inotropic effect of the a-adrenoceptor stimulating agent phenylephrine (10-6

J. Inui; O.-E. Brodde; H. J. Schümann

1982-01-01

279

Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des BSAP-I optimisés à travers une caractérisation complète des propriétés mécaniques et de la durabilité a été réalisée. A la suite de cette étude, les résultats obtenus nous permettent de conclure que : (1) L'utilisation d'un BSAP-I avec un gros granulat de 5 – 14 mm, des rapports E/L = 0,37 et S/G = 0,52 et une teneur en air de 6 à 9% a été possible en conférant un équilibre optimal fluidité / stabilité à l'état frais, ainsi qu'un niveau de thixotropie adéquate au chantier permettant d'optimiser la conception du coffrage des piliers de pont et de conférer des qualités de surfaces très acceptables de ces infrastructures. (2) La méthode adaptée pour l'essai L-Box contenant 2 barres et une vibration de 5 secondes a permis de bien caractériser la capacité de remplissage d'un BSAP-I. (3) L'utilisation d'un plan factoriel 23 a permis d'obtenir des modèles statistiques fiables, capables de prédire les propriétés rhéologiques à l'état frais et les résistances en compression des BSAP-I avec des dosages en liant entre 370 et 420 kg/m3, des rapports E/L entre 0,34 et 0,40 et S/G entre 0,47 et 0,53. (4) Des mesures de vitesse d'écoulement T40 d'un BSAP-I sont très semblables à celles d'un BAP. En plus, des valeurs T40 montrent une bonne corrélation linéaire avec celles de T400 mesurés dans la boîte L-Box. (5) À la frontière du BAP et du BCV, une bande rhéologique possédant un ?0 entre 30 et 320 Pa et un ? entre 10 et 140 Pa.s a été trouvée pour la conception optimale des BSAP-I. (6) Les BSAP-I optimisés ont également conféré une très bonne performance à l'état frais, en permettant maintenir un bon équilibre entre la rhéologie et la stabilité dans le temps, lorsqu'on utilise une énergie de vibration minimale pour amorcer son écoulement. (7) À l'état durci Les BSAP-I ont conféré une bonne performance présentant des résistances mécaniques élevées et des niveaux négligeables de pénétration aux ions chlores, de perte de masse par écaillage et des attaques par le gel/dégel. (8) L'utilisation des c

Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

280

Stimulated brillouin scattering.  

PubMed

Stimulated Brillotuin scattering, the efficient scattering of light from parametrically amplified therma acoustic waves, has found many valuable uses since its initial observation and identification. Among these uses are included the measurement of hypersonic velocities and absorption in the gigaherz frequency range, laser frequency shifting, laser Q switching and others. A description of the process, as well as its applications is presented. PMID:20072477

Goldblatt, N

1969-08-01

281

Heliostat Stimulator operator's manual  

SciTech Connect

The Heliostat Stimulator is a portable test tool, housed in a suitcase, which can be used to perform the following functions: (1) acceptance testing of newly manufactured Heliostat Controllers (HC) and Heliostat Field Controllers (HFC); (2) aid in the installation and alignment of Heliostats; and (3) provide diagnostic troubleshooting capability in the event of Heliostat failure in the field.

Not Available

1980-11-01

282

Herbal immune system stimulant  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention concerns an immune system stimulator comprising Ganoderma Lucidum, Dioscoreae Oppositae, Chrysanthemum Morifolium, Radix Astragali, and Folium Isatidis. The composition is capable of mediating enhanced production of Interleukin-1 beta without causing an increase in the production of Interleukin-4.

2002-10-15

283

Oil well stimulation  

SciTech Connect

This paper emphasizes the quantitative aspects of well stimulation processes that have received increased interest because of proven opportunities for increased oil production without large capital investments. Using models which can be applied by hand calculators, indepth coverage includes the chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of reservoir materials; formation damage; perforating techniques; hydraulic fracturing; matrix acidizing; and sand control methods.

Schechter, R.S.

1992-01-01

284

Central nervous system stimulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes

Alan J. George

2000-01-01

285

Deep brain stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a routine method for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), leading to striking improvements in motor function and quality of life of PD patients. It is associated with minimal morbidity. The rationale of targeting specific structures within basal ganglia such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the internal segment

Sorin Breit; Jörg B. Schulz; Alim-Louis Benabid

2004-01-01

286

Effects of sulfur containing amino acids on iron and nitric oxide stimulated catecholamine oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Taurine is a free amino acid found in high concentrations in tissues containing catecholamines. The ability of taurine and\\u000a its metabolic precursors to inhibit or stimulate catecholamine oxidation and subsequent quinone formation was examined. Ferric\\u000a chloride was used as the catalyzing agent to stimulate L-dopa or norepinephrine oxidation and NO donors were also examined\\u000a for their actions to stimulate quinone

M. Biasetti; R. Dawson Jr.

2002-01-01

287

In Vivo Characterization of Intracellular Signaling Pathways Activated by the Nerve Agent Sarin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents, such as sarin, exert acute effects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which results in accumulation of acetylcholine and, in turn, an excessive stimulation of nicotinic an...

T. A. Shih G. L. Snyder J. P. Hendrick A. A. Fienberg J. H. McDonough

2004-01-01

288

Programming Satan's Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Mobile agent security is still a young discipline and most naturally, the focus up to the timeof writing was on inventing new cryptographic protocols for securing various aspects ofmobile agents. However, past experience shows that protocols can be flawed, and flawsin protocols can remain unnoticed for a long period of time. The game of breaking andfixing protocols is a

Volker Roth

2001-01-01

289

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous

S. Chauhan; R. D’Cruz; S. Faruqi; K. K. Singh; S. Varma; M. Singh; V. Karthik

2008-01-01

290

Detecting Biological Warfare Agents  

PubMed Central

We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

2005-01-01

291

Delegating to software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is currently a great deal of interest in the development of intelligent agents. While there is little agreement on exactly what constitutes an intelligent agent, many definitions embody a user interface model that differs from the traditional one where users perform tasks with the help of computer-based \\

Allen E. Milewski; Steven H. Lewis

1997-01-01

292

Travel agents’ destination recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel agents’ recommendations can strongly influence clientel’s satisfaction and the success of touristic businesses, attractions, and destinations. But little is known about their recommendation process. This article presents a conceptual model of this process and empirically examines the impact on agents’ destination recommendations of two factors from the model: trip type and origin, which create important differences in destination recommendations.

David B Klenosky; Richard E Gitelson

1998-01-01

293

Change Agent Survival Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

Dunbar, Folwell L.

2011-01-01

294

Chemical Agent Detector Kits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TOP 8-2-555 establishes general procedures and guidance for determining the technical performance and safety aspects of chemical agent detector kits that are designed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the atmosphere, on the surfaces of various ...

1989-01-01

295

Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects (see (3), for example, and (11), for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied conversational agent's main activity: \\

Dirk Heylen; Anton Nijholt; Rieks Op Den Akker; Maarten Vissers; R. Aylett; D. Ballin; T. Rist

2003-01-01

296

Evolutionary intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary intelligent agents (EIA) are intelligent agents provided with a genotype that controls their capabilities to carry out various tasks, i.e., their phenotype. EIA are a cognitive and genetically controlled version of ants and bees, with links to both artificial intelligence and neural networks. The evolution of the population is task dependent and favors the predominance of the individuals best

Paul CRISTEA; Aurel ARSENE; Bogdan NITULESCU

2000-01-01

297

Emotionally Expressive Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to express emotions is important for creating believable interactive characters. To simulate emotional expressions in an interactive environment, an intelligent agent needs both an adaptive model for generating believ- able responses, and a visualization model for mapping emo- tions into facial expressions. Recent advances in intelligent agents and in facial modeling have produced effective al- gorithms for these

Magy Seif El-nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen; Donald H. House; Frederic I. Parke

1999-01-01

298

Investigation of the H2 Oxidation System in Rhizobium japonicum 122 DES Nodule Bacteroids 1  

PubMed Central

The H2-oxidizing complex in Rhizobium japonicum 122 DES bacteroids failed to catalyze, at a measurable rate, 2H1H exchange from a mixture of 2H2 and 1H2 in presence of 2H2O and 1H2O, providing no evidence for reversibility of the hydrogenase reaction in vivo. In the H2 oxidation reaction, there was no significant discrimination between 2H2 and 1H2, indicating that the initial H2-activation step in the over-all H2 oxidation reaction is not rate-limiting. By use of improved methods, an apparent Km for H2 of 0.05 micromolar was determined. The H2 oxidation reaction in bacteroids was strongly inhibited by cyanide (88% at 0.05 millimolar), theonyltrifluoroacetone, and other metal-complexing agents. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone at 0.005 millimolar and 2,4-dinitrophenol at 0.5 millimolar inhibited H2 oxidation and stimulated O2 uptake. This and other evidence suggest the involvement of cytochromes and nonheme iron proteins in the pathway of electron transport from H2 to O2. Partial pressures of H2 at 0.03 atmosphere and below had a pronounced inhibitory effect on endogenous respiration by bacteroid suspensions. The inhibition of CO2 evolution by low partial pressures of H2 suggests that H2 utilization may result in conservation of oxidizable substrates and benefits the symbiosis under physiological conditions. Succinate, acetate, and formate at concentrations of 50 millimolar inhibited rates of H2 uptake by 8, 29, and 25%, respectively. The inhibition by succinate was noncompetitive and that by acetate and formate was uncompetitive. A concentration of 11.6 millimolar CO2 (initial concentration) in solution inhibited H2 uptake by bacteroid suspensions by 18%. Further research is necessary to establish the significance of the inhibition of H2 uptake by succinate, acetate, formate, and CO2 in the metabolism of the H2-uptake-positive strains of Rhizobium.

Emerich, David W.; Ruiz-Argueso, Tomas; Russell, Sterling A.; Evans, Harold J.

1980-01-01

299

L'IMPORTANCE DES INSTITUTIONS POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT LOCAL : LE RÔLE DES AGENTS LOCAUX AU QUEBEC ET MINAS GERAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of economic development is also a process of development of institutions. For this, strengthening the institutions is one of the actions necessary to local development. This article has the thematic discussion on the development from the contribution of local institutions. To this end, trying to highlight the role of various institutions that promote actions for development in order

Sara Souza; Gonçalves Antunes; Ferrera de Lima

300

Point de vue réglementaire sur le développement des vaccins ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... et des centres universitaires sur le développement clinique et l'homologation des produits, notamment les vaccins contre le paludisme, le VIH et la ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

301

La variabilité des canaux semi-circulaires osseux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Depuis le début du siècle les observations anatomiques ont révélé la variabilité de la disposition des canaux semi-circulaires osseux (canales semi-circulares ossei) et celle des appareils vestibulaires droit et gauche pris dans leur ensemble.

M. Caix; G. Outrequin

1979-01-01

302

Effect of different prokinetic agents and a novel enterokinetic agent on postoperative ileus in rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIM—The effects of different prokinetic agents, the motilide erythromycin and the substituted benzamides metoclopramide and cisapride, were investigated in a rat model of postoperative ileus. These effects were compared with that of granisetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, and a novel enterokinetic agent, prucalopride, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist.?METHODS—Different degrees of inhibition of gastrointestinal transit, measured by the migration of Evans blue, were achieved by skin incision, laparotomy, or laparotomy plus mechanical stimulation of the gut.?RESULTS—Metoclopramide decreased the transit after laparotomy with or without mechanical stimulation, whereas cisapride increased it after all three operations. Granisetron had no effect on the transit after the three operations when given alone. Prucalopride tended to increase the transit after laparotomy with or without mechanical stimulation when given alone. However, statistical significance was only reached when prucalopride was combined with granisetron. Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, did not improve postoperative ileus in the rat.?CONCLUSIONS—Cisapride, but not metoclopramide or erythromycin, is able to improve postoperative ileus in the rat. The results suggest that a combination of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and 5-HT4 receptor agonist properties may be required to obtain a beneficial effect on surgery induced ileus in the rat. Furthermore, they indirectly indicate that stimulation of the excitatory mechanisms is not able to overcome the inhibitory influence of the neural reflex pathways activated during abdominal surgery.???Keywords: ileus; motilin; cisapride; metoclopramide; 5-HT3 receptor; 5-HT4 receptor

De Winter, B Y; Boeckxstaens, G; De Man, J G; Moreels, T; Schuurkes, J; Peeters, T; Herman, A; Pelckmans, P

1999-01-01

303

Learning enabled cooperative agent behavior in an evolutionary and competitive environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed method is implemented in three steps: first, when a variation in environment is perceived, agents take appropriate\\u000a actions. Second, the behaviors are stimulated and controlled through communication with other agents. Finally, the most frequently\\u000a stimulated behavior is adopted as a group behavior strategy. In this paper, two different reward models, reward model 1 and\\u000a reward model 2, are

Mal Rey Lee; Eung-kwan Kang

2006-01-01

304

Virtual electrode stimulation in a multi-channel stimulation system.  

PubMed

Virtual electrode stimulation can provide extra selective spatial stimulation sites given if there is a highly configurable and controllable multi-channel stimulator system. The system has to have low latency between the loaded input data and output stimulation pulse, precise timing on simultaneously stimulation and an interface with external device such that a computer or FPGA can directly control each of the stimulation channels. This paper presents a general concept of virtual electrode stimulation and a multi-channel stimulation system that can support such operation. The system is designed in CMOS 0.35µm occupies 3.4×2.7mm(2) and consumes 2.3mW. PMID:23366779

Hoang, Linh; Zhi, Yang; Liu, Wentai

2012-01-01

305

Évolution des prix alimentaires : les enquêtes confirment l'indice  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] L'indice des prix à la consommation fournit, mois par mois, une estimation de l'évolution des prix. Pour les prix alimentaires, une autre estimation annuelle est possible, à partir de données recueillies auprès des ménages. Ces deux estimations, complètement indépendantes, ne s'écartent que de 0,2% pour la période 1970-1982. . Pour certains postes, les deux sources conduisent à des écarts

Tanneguy de Jouvencel

1986-01-01

306

Politique des déchets : l'approche du Royaume-Uni  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Politique des déchets : l'approche du Royaume-Uni . L'évolution récente de la réglementation européenne en dématière de déchets risque d'entraîner des coûts importants pour les États membres. L'exemple britannique est d'autant plus intéressant pour la France que les deux pays présentent des similitudes : quantité presque identique de déchets ménagers (environ 20 millions de tonnes), faible capacité des incinérateurs

David Litvan

1995-01-01

307

L'Internet des objets. Quels enjeux pour les Européens ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'Internet accueille aujourd'hui des milliards de connexions et d'échanges qui en font l'outil le plus puissant jamais inventé pour le partage de l'information. En quelques décennies, il est devenu le moteur de profondes transformations dans la vie des entreprises, des individus et des institutions. Cet élan n'est pas près de cesser et dans tous les pays ingénieurs et techniciens, industriels

Pierre-Jean Benghozi; Sylvain Bureau; Françoise Massit-Folea

2008-01-01

308

Recouvrement des coûts et demande de soins dans les PED  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Boubou Cissé Stéphane Luchini Jean-Paul Moatti Recouvrement des coûts et demande de soins dans les PED Suite à la crise financière qui a durement frappé les pays en développe- ment dès le début des années 1980, l'instauration du recouvrement des coûts d'accès aux soins (politique de tarification des prestations de services de santé) a été proposée à ces pays

Boubou Cissé; Stéphane Luchini; Jean-Paul Moatti

2004-01-01

309

Évolution des salaires : normes collectives et facteurs individuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] L'évolution individuelle des salaires est influencée par des facteurs collectifs comme les taux uniformes résultant des négociations salariales ou l'existence de l'avancement à l'ancienneté. Mais des facteurs individuels jouent aussi, promotions au choix, événements divers de la vie professionnelle de chacun. L'article propose un indicateur original pour séparer ces deux ensembles de facteurs. Les salariés sont répartis en groupes

Christian Baudelot

1982-01-01

310

Shadow agent: a new type of virtual agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shadow agent is a new type of intelligent virtual agent exploiting the metaphor of the shadow as a medium. The core of the shadow agent is a behavioral architecture inspired by the BDI (Belief, Desire and Intention) cognitive agent model. The shadow agent perceives the world through two video cameras and a microphone. Advanced computer graphics techniques are used

Philippe Pasquier; Eunjung Han; Kirak Kim; Keechul Jung

2008-01-01

311

Social training of autistic children with interactive intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of autistic children to learn by applying logical rules has been used widely in behavioral therapies for social training. We propose to teach social skills to autistic children through games that simultaneously stimulate social behavior and include recognition of elements of social interaction. For this purpose we created a multi-agent platform of interactive blocks, and we created appropriate

Emilia Barakova; Jan Gillessen; Loe Feijs

2009-01-01

312

Selective inhibition of urea transport by oxidizing agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Urea and water transport across the toad bladder epithelial cell appears to take place through independent vasopressin-stimulated pathways. Agents such as chromate, for example, when added to the luminal bathing medium, inhibit urea transport without inhibiting osmotic water flow, providing evidence for such independent pathways. In the present study, selective inhibition of urea transport is shown for permanganate and

Nicholas Franki; Roland Einhorn; Richard M. Hays

1975-01-01

313

2C-2 Pulse Repetition Rate Excitation of Contrast Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new bubble excitation mode, in which larger bubbles are stimulated to oscillate by a sequence of short high-frequency ultrasound (US) pulses. By tuning both the pressure burst and its repetition frequency, ultrasound contrast agent bubbles can achieve significant radial excursion at their apparent resonance frequency. The excitation method can be used in situations where resonance frequencies

H. J. Vos; D. E. Goertzu; N. de Jong

2006-01-01

314

Über die Verweildauer des Blutersatzmittels Subsidon im Kreislauf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Das Plasmavolumen von Hunden wurde mit Hilfe von mit J131 markiertem Plasmaalbumin bei Hunden vor und nach Ersatz einer größeren Blutmenge durch Subsidon überprüft. Gleichzeitig wurde das Verhalten des Plasmaprotein verfolgt. Auch nach 9–18 Std läßt sich ein Abwandern von Flüssigkeit nicht nachweisen. Der Gehalt des Plasma an Eiweiß nimmt rasch wieder zu. Subsidon hemmt die physiologische Regeneration des

K. Lang; H. Lang

1952-01-01

315

Formen des politischen Terrorismus: ein Plädoyer für eine Differentialdiagnose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ziel dieses Beitrag ist die Herausarbeitung einer präziseren Definition des Terrorismus anhand eines Minimalsatzes an Kriterien (Teil 1). Sodann werden verschiedene Typologien des Terrorismus diskutiert, mit Schwerpunkt auf substaatlichem politischem Terrorismus (Teil 2). Anschließend wird ein Kausalmodell des Terrorismus auf vier Erklärungsebenen entwickelt, von der individuellen über die Gruppen- und Organisationsebene bis zur staatlichen und globalen Ebene. Kausale Zusammenhänge zwischen

Ekkart Zimmermann

2009-01-01

316

Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

Not Available

1980-08-01

317

Biological warfare agents  

PubMed Central

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

318

Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimetry is attractive to the health physics and dosimetry community due to its all-optical character, fast data acquisition and the avoidance of heating the detector. Until recently there was no luminescent material sensitive enough to radiation, and at the same time suitable for stimulation with visible light, for use in this application. However, anion-deficient aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al2O3:C) appears to be not only an extremely sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) material, but is also well-suited to OSL applications. Several OSL readout protocols have been suggested, including cw-OSL, pulsed OSL (POSL), and 'delayed' OSL (DOSL). The paper discusses the physical mechanisms that give rise to the OSL signals and the dependence of these signals upon absorbed dose. Example applications of the use of OSL from Al2O3:C in environmental radiation and ultraviolet-B dosimetry are discussed.

McKeever, Stephen W.

1999-02-01

319

New York Canyon Stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "����No Go"��� decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

Raemy, B. Principal Investigator, TGP Development Company, LLC Kulikowski Tan, A Subcontractor, AKT Consulting Inc. LLC

2012-06-21

320

Devonian production needs stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The diverse elements of water, oil, alcohol, liquefied petroleum gas, foam, and dynamite have been used at one time or another to fracture of stimulate production from a well, and have had varying degrees of success. E.I.Dupont de Nemours and Co., Inc., has a product which surpasses all of the aforementioned. Dupont has developed a water-gel explosive called EL836 which has increased initial flow rates to twice that of wells stimulated with conventional dynamite. Dupont recently conducted tests on wells in Putnam County, W.Va., in cooperation with Cabot Oil and Gas Corp. and the Department of Energy, to gage the effectiveness of El836. The advantages and disadvantages of EL836 are discussed.

Conkel, D.

1982-02-01

321

Optical stimulated nutation echo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of the optical analog of the delayed nutation echo [V. S. Kuz'min et al., Zh. Éksp. Teor. Fiz. 99, 215 (1991) [Sov. Phys. JETP 72, 121 (1991)] recently shown in nuclear magnetic resonance is reported. We call this echo a stimulatednnutationnecho (SNE) in analogy to the three-pulse-stimulated echo that is produced from a hole pattern burnt into an inhomogeneous

A. Szabo; R. N. Shakhmuratov

1997-01-01

322

Deep hole stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems encountered in stimulation of deep, hot wells have become more critical as the search for energy leads to deeper and deeper wells. Less than 10 yr ago, wells in the 10,000-ft range stretched the limits of treatment fluid technology. Today, both materials and equipment are regularly called upon to function satisfactorially at depths in excess of 20,000 ft.

Barrett

1977-01-01

323

Le rôle des banques dans le gouvernement des entreprises allemandes. Etude à travers trois cas d'OPA hostiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le gouvernement d'entreprises (désormais GE) allemand a connu ces dernières années une évolution importante. S'inclinant devant les directives européennes, le Parlement a adopté des nouvelles lois visant, principalement, à améliorer le fonctionnement du marché des capitaux et à réduire l'influence des banques. Notre article consiste à étudier le rôle important des banques dans le GE allemand afin de comprendre la

Mehdi Nekhili

2000-01-01

324

Biaryl isoxazolinone antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

In an era of increasing resistance to classical antibacterial agents, the synthetic oxazolidinone series of antibiotics has attracted much interest. Zyvoxtrade mark was the first oxazolidinone to be approved for clinical use against infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In the course of studies directed toward the discovery of novel antibacterial agents, a new series of synthetic phenyl-isoxazolinone agents that displayed potent activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains was recently discovered at Bristol-Myers Squibb. Extensive investigation of various substitutions on the phenyl ring was then undertaken. We report here, the synthesis and antibacterial activity of a series of biaryl isoxazolinone compounds. PMID:15869878

Quesnelle, Claude A; Gill, Patrice; Roy, Stephan; Dodier, Marco; Marinier, Anne; Martel, Alain; Snyder, Lawrence B; D'Andrea, Stanley V; Bronson, Joanne J; Frosco, Marybeth; Beaulieu, Danielle; Warr, Glen A; Denbleyker, Ken L; Stickle, Terry M; Yang, Hyekyung; Chaniewski, Susan E; Ferraro, Cheryl A; Taylor, Dennis; Russell, John W; Santone, Kenneth S; Clarke, Junius; Drain, Rebecca L; Knipe, Jay O; Mosure, Kathleen; Barrett, John F

2005-06-01

325

The human agent virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a multi-agent simulation called the Human Agent Virtual Environment (or HAVE). HAVE is a test bed to explore agent-environment interaction in multi- agent simulation for defence applications. The primary re- search driver in the development of HAVE is to explore representations of virtual environments in which both hu- mans and agents are situated, perceive these

Michael Papasimeon; Adrian R. Pearce; Simon Goss

2007-01-01

326

Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le travail de recherche effectue dans le cadre de ce projet de doctorat a permis la mise au point d'une methode de mesure des pertes ac destinee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Pour le choix des principes de cette methode, nous nous sommes inspires de travaux anterieurs realises sur les supraconducteurs conventionnels, afin de proposer une alternative

Patricia Dolez

1998-01-01

327

La structure des systèmes désordonnés et sa mesure par diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert de moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

Barnes, A. C.; Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.

2003-09-01

328

Development of Hemostatic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To translate investigational hemostatic agents developed in the rat model to swine models of lethal groin injury and liver laceration. This objective evaluated the efficacy of patch and granule formulations of capsaicin (CP-305) in normal and coagulopathi...

B. M. Moore

2008-01-01

329

Agents for absorption machines  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention proposes adding an alkaline solution or a mixture of two or more alkaline solutions to the agent system of absorption machines operating with ammonia or methylamine as the agent and water as the solvent. This addition of an alkaline solution or an alkaline solution mixture has a number of advantageous effects. These are, i.a. 1. The dissolving respectively expelling heat of the agent is reduced, raising the output figure. 2. The agent vapor generated is very pure. A dephlegmator is obviated. 3. The alkaline solution makes steel surfaces inert when sealed from air and in a high vaccum, thereby obviating corrosion inhibitors. 4. The viscosity of the solvent is reduced, decreasing pump operation.

1998-03-10

330

Healthcare Agents: Being One  

MedlinePLUS

... Preparing Your Advance Directives Storing Your Advance Directives Healthcare Agents: Being One Advocating for your loved one ... will be to communicate with your loved ones healthcare providers to ensure your loved ones wishes are ...

331

Riot Control Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... to riot control agent, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and ... medical care as quickly as possible. Removing your clothing: Quickly take off clothing that may have riot ...

332

Des recommandations pour pr?venir l'ophtalmie n?onatale  

PubMed Central

Malgré la prévalence décroissante de Neisseria gonorrhoeae au Canada, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie recommande que, le plus tôt possible après la naissance, tous les nourrissons reçoivent un traitement prophylactique de nitrate d’argent, de tétracycline ou d’érythromycine, afin de réduire le risque d’ophtalmie néonatale causée par cet organisme. Le recours à ces agents peut également se révéler bénéfique pour prévenir l’ophtalmie causée par d’autres organismes. De plus, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie appuie le dépistage prénatal systématique de N gonorrhoeae et de Chlamydia trachomatis, de même que le traitement des infections dépistées pendant la grossesse.

2002-01-01

333

Krankheitskosten des akuten Koronarsyndroms in Deutschland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung\\u000a Einleitung  Das akute Koronarsyndrom (AKS) ist eine akute Form der Erkrankung bei Patienten mit koronarer Herzkrankheit (KHK). Ziel dieses\\u000a Beitrages ist es, die Krankheitskosten des AKS zu erfassen und die Ressourcenverbräuche den unterschiedlichen Behandlungsstationen\\u000a zuzuordnen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methodik  Die Krankheitskosten wurden mittels einer systematischen Literaturrecherche erhoben.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Ergebnisse  Die Behandlung des AKS verursacht mit 3,3 Mrd. EUR pro Jahr etwa die Hälfte der direkten Kosten der

K. Damm; C. Runge; U. Zeymer; J.-M. Graf von der Schulenburg

2011-01-01

334

Effet antihypertenseur des feuilles d’ Inula viscosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  L’effet antihypertenseur de l’extrait aqueux (EA) des feuilles d’Inula viscosa a été évalué sur des rats rendus hypertendus par un traitement au L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine méthyle ester). L’évolution\\u000a de la pression artérielle est évaluée en mesurant la pression artérielle systolique (PAS) à l’aide d’un plétysmographe. Nos\\u000a investigations ont porté sur trois groupes de rats: un groupe témoin, un groupe traité au

J. Kattouf; M. Belmoukhtar; H. Harnafi; H. Mekhfi; A. Ziyyat; M. Aziz; M. Bnouham; A. Legssyer

2009-01-01

335

Der Einfluß des Wetters auf den Scharlach  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Bei 1090 Aufnahmen mit Scharlach in der Bremer Kinderklinik währen 4 Jahren wurde der Beginn genau festgelegt.2.Die Krankheit begann—nach Eliminierung des Jahresganges—überzufällig oft bei den warmen Wetterphasen (Wph 3A warm-trocken und Wph 4 warm-feucht) mit einem Meteorotropie-Index von 1,31 (Beobachtungswert 1,31 zu Erwartungswert 1,00).3.Das Auftreten des Exanthems zeigte eine besonders ausgeprägte Biotropie, da bei warmen Wetterphasen (Wph 3A+4) der Abstand

Ingrid Nicolai; Helmuth Brezowsky; Wolfgang Menger

1964-01-01

336

New antithrombotic agents.  

PubMed

The main clinical indications for anticoagulant agents are treatment and prophylaxis of venous and arterial thromboembolism and acute coronary syndromes. For decades, two anticoagulants, heparin and warfarin, have been the principal drugs available. Dicumaroid agents have serious limitations due to their narrow therapeutic range, needing close monitoring. The interaction with food and drugs and the numerous interindividual variations result in unstable effects on coagulation parameters. On the other side, heparins have an exclusive parenteral use and a risk of immunological adverse reactions. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia is the most serious complication. The limitations of existing oral and parenteral anticoagulant agents have prompted the search for alternative anticoagulant drugs. This paper reviews new anticoagulant agents describing their pharmacological and clinical properties. It focuses on the target of their anticoagulant action inside the coagulation pathway, and analyzes the clinical trials providing indications for new clinical anticoagulation strategies. Agents currently under study include direct thrombin inhibitors, indirect activated factor X inhibitors, and inhibitors of tissue factor and activated factor VII. The new anticoagulant agents may demonstrate improvements in effectiveness, safety convenience and cost-effectiveness compared with current anticoagulants. PMID:17215797

Castelli, R; Porro, F; Savo, D; Cassinerio, E

2006-12-01

337

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each Licensee to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2009-01-01

338

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each Licensee to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2010-01-01

339

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition...each Licensee to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions...Monitor the performance of the Selling Agent, Poolers, CRA, and...documentation as SBA shall direct by written...

2013-01-01

340

Agent-based infrastructure modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investiga...

M. J. North

2000-01-01

341

Quantitative structure-activity relationships of imidazolium oximes as nerve agent antidotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphorus-containing pesticides and chemical warfare agents are potent inhibitors of synaptic acetylcholinesterase, a key regulator of cholinergic neurotransmission. These nerve agents have for many years constituted a serious threat to military personnel. These threats stimulated considerable efforts to develop effective medical countermeasures. Several potential drugs have been found recently which are capable of protecting animals from lethal levels of nerve

H. A. Musallam; W. O. Foye; C. Hansch; R. N. Harris; R. R. Engle

1993-01-01

342

Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

Syed, Muhammad Ali

2013-08-22

343

Methodologies for Designing Agent Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Todaypsilas complex systems can be addressed by exploiting software agents, and in particular sets of interacting agents. Agent societies represent a powerful means to design organization-oriented agent-based systems, in particular those where agents belonging to different users meet and interact. To effectively exploit them, developers must be supported by appropriate methodologies. In this paper we present a survey of agent-based

Giacomo Cabri; Letizia Leonardi; Mariachiara Puviani

2008-01-01

344

Annual Program Management Report, 1991, Des Moines Recreational River and Greenbelt, Des Moines River, Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The General Design Memorandum (GDM) and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Des Moines Recreational River and Greenbelt were approved on August 1, 1988. The GDM included a recommendation to increase the Federal construction cost estimate, ...

1991-01-01

345

Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny  

SciTech Connect

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators have shown in rats that PCB (Arochlor) causes liver adenofibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, atypical mitochondria, and dilation of both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Matthews et al. (1978) also reported that 4, 4{prime} chlorinated biphenyl was the most potent inducer of monooxygenases, irrespective of chlorination at other sites. Although these compounds have been studied extensively in mammals, there is a paucity of data examining their effects when non-fetotoxic amounts are administered chronically and orally during gestation. The present study is part of a larger effort designed to establish a protocol for testing the developmental effects of xenobiotics such as DES and PCB. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured as an indicator of the integrity of nerve transmission in the central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a marker for the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an important amine metabolizing enzyme. Testosterone and estradiol are important sex steroids in mammals, and effects upon levels of the two hormones may signal anomalies in development of sex characteristics. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Vincent, D.R.; Bradshaw, W.S.; Booth, G.M.; Seegmiller, R.E. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Allen, S.D. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

1992-06-01

346

Spinal cord stimulation revisited.  

PubMed

The proportion of patients with intractable pain successfully managed with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) remains disputed. We analyze 27 consecutive patients with intractable pain treated with SCS using identical hardware (Itrel II System; Medtronic Neurological, Inc Minneapolis, MN, USA) by a single satisfactory diagnosis 1992 through 1995. A rigid selection protocol was used: 1. A satisfactory diagnosis of the pathologic process resulting in pain was made. 2. A corrective surgical procedure was judged not feasible by surgeons experienced in the particular pathology, e.g., vascular peripheral nerve, spine. 3. Lack of satisfactory response to noninterventional pain management modalities by an interdisciplinary pain clinic. 4. Independent psychological evaluation, including a structured interview was performed by a psychologist specialized in chronic pain management. In the last eight cases, a battery of self-report tests designed to assess psychosocial and behavioral consequences of the chronic pain problem were administered as well. All cases were of nonmalignant pain, except for one patient. Thirteen cases were diagnosed with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), one older patient with lumbosacral radiculopathy who refused decompression, one cervical radiculopathy and Klippel-Feil syndrome, six with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), two with peripheral vascular ischemic disease, one with post-thoracotomy pain syndrome, one with leg pain following resection of angiolipoma, one with traumatic superficial peroneal neuropathy, and one with Pancoast's tumor. Fifteen patients were female and twelve were male. All were Caucasian. Their ages ranged from 27 to 84 years (mean:48). The average follow-up was 21 months (range: 48-6). All patients underwent a three day trial screening with Pisces-Quad/Resume epidural leads connected to a temporary external stimulator. An Itrel II System pulse-generator was internalized in each of the 24 patients who had successful trial (three cervical and twenty-one thoracic-lumbar). There was no morbidity. Pain reduction was sustained in 22 out of the 24 patients who continue to use the stimulator. The same number would choose to receive in an electrical stimulator again. Normalization or improvement in Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test (Q-SART) and Thermography was documented in the patients with RSD. We conclude that rigid selection protocol can maximize the proportion of patients with intractable pain who are successfully treated with SCS. Strict neurosurgical technique eliminates infection risk. Hardware selection minimizes incidence of malfunction. PMID:9664583

Segal, R; Stacey, B R; Rudy, T E; Baser, S; Markham, J

1998-07-01

347

Stimulated parametric emission microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel microscopy technique based on the four-wave mixing (FWM) process that is enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance induced by a pump pulse along with stimulated emission induced by a dump pulse. A Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator are used as light sources for the pump and dump pulses, respectively. We demonstrate that our proposed FWM technique can be used to obtain a one-dimensional image of ethanol-thinned Coumarin 120 solution sandwiched between a hole-slide glass and a cover slip, and a two-dimensional image of a leaf of Camellia sinensis.

Isobe, Keisuke; Kataoka, Shogo; Murase, Rena; Watanabe, Wataru; Higashi, Tsunehito; Kawakami, Shigeki; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Fukui, Kiichi; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

2006-01-01

348

Influence des défauts de la structure du verre sur la résistance mécanique des fibres optiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For silica (pure and doped) optical fibers prepared from preforms irradiated by thermal neutrons and Ar^+ ions, the measurements of lifetime under transverse stress were carried out. It is found that the neutron bombardment leads to decrease of the lifetime and the strength of fiber while the ion implantation results in increasing of these parameters. The influence of particle irradiation on the glass strength is explained by the generation of structural defects which were observed by the infrared an Raman spectroscopy methods. The direction of the change of mechanical properties of fibers is determined by the type of defects and their distribution in the cross-section of fiber. Des préformes de fibres optiques de silice ont été exposées à un bombardement par des faisceaux de neutrons thermiques et d'ions Ar^+ à énergie de 40 keV afin d'engendrer des défauts de la structure respectivement dans le volume ou dans la couche superficielle des échantillons. Les fibres obtenues des préformes irradiées et non irradiées ont été mises en charge de flexion. On a déterminé leur temps de rupture sous diverses contraintes de traction sur la surface extérieure de la fibre en flexion. On a observé une diminution du temps de rupture des fibres après le bombardement neutronique et une augmentation après l'implantation ionique. L'analyse de la nature des défauts en faisant appel à la spectroscopie infrarouge et Raman a fait ressortir que l'irradiation aux ions entraînait essentiellement des liaisons chimiques dans une fine couche superficielle de l'échantillon alors que l'irradiation aux neutrons occasionnait une déformation des zones du réseau silicique dans toute la section de la préforme et de la fibre. L'amélioration de la résistance mécanique s'explique par une augmentation de la mobilité des éléments structuraux de la matrice de verre par suite d'une rupture partielle des liaisons chimiques et sa diminution par l'apparition de concentrateurs supplémentaires de contraintes à l'échelle moléculaire.

Chmel, A.; Baptizmanski, V. V.; Kharshak, A. A.

1992-12-01

349

The prevention of stimulant misuse.  

PubMed

The term 'stimulant' refers to a class of drugs that increase psychophysiological arousal. From the viewpoint of prevention, it is more useful to look primarily at the social consequences and functions of stimulants. Every society has a documented use of stimulants. When planning interventions the dynamics of use must be placed in the foreground. Stimulant epidemics, like problematic stimulant users, have a natural tendency to burn themselves out. Different types of stimulants may differ in their origins, but their epidemiological consequences and use functions tend to be similar. Implications for prevention can be drawn from the characteristics of stimulant use epidemics. Users at risk for socially unacceptable patterns should be targeted for prevention efforts. Mass media campaigns that single out stimulants should be avoided. Much of the harm associated with stimulants is a consequence of life-styles characterized by polydrug use and unhealthy practices. Prevention should be timed to the appropriate period of the epidemic. Interventions useful at period 1 will not work at period 2. The recommendations of the WHO Advisory Group on the Adverse Effects of Cocaine and Coca provide a good model for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention for all forms of stimulant misuse. Stimulant prevention must be creative in finding ways of encouraging the movements of the drug to the periphery of users' lives. PMID:7841865

Kaplan, C D; Husch, J A; Bieleman, B

1994-11-01

350

P&G Agent Distribution  

Cancer.gov

Pharmaceutical Management Branch Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, DCTD, NCI Policy and Guidelines for INVESTIGATIONAL AGENT DISTRIBUTION Policy: The Pharmaceutical Management Branch (PMB) provides investigational agents for use

351

Etude de la validité d’une classification a priori des compétences des elèves requises par les apprentissages scolaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  A l’occasion de la publication par le Ministère français de l’Education Nationale des résultats d’une enquête ayant pour objet\\u000a l’évaluation des acquisitions des élèves à la fin de la scolarité élementaire (âge: 11 ans), des experts en pédagogie ont\\u000a élaboré une classification des differents exercices de Français, de Mathématiques, et relatifs aux disciplines d’Eveil, soumis\\u000a aux élèves lors de l’enquête,

Jacques Aubret

1987-01-01

352

Aspects cliniques spécifiques des douleurs dans les méningites carcinomateuses des enfants porteurs de tumeurs solides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Lesméningites carcinomateuses de l’enfant sont en progression. Un diagnostic précoce et précis des différents types de douleurs permet une prise en charge antalgique\\u000a précoce et adaptée dans le but d’améliorer la qualité de vie. Le but était de définir les types et les spécificités des différentes\\u000a douleurs rencontrées au cours de cette affection. Tous les enfants suspects de présenter un

E. Pichard-Léandri; V. Schmitz

2000-01-01

353

Structures conceptuelles, représentation des objets et des relations entre les objets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article présente un panorama général de l'étude psychologique des concepts liés aux objets, l'insistance étant mise sur les conceptualisations les plus récentes et les derniers développements de la recherche dans ce domaine. Ces derniers développements portent essentiellement d'une part sur la notion de contexte et son rôle dans l'organisation des concepts, et d'autre part sur la notion de relations

Soulaimane Chemlal; Françoise Cordier

2006-01-01

354

Le modèle triadique des aspects neurobiologiques des comportements motivés à l’adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé\\u000a Prérequis  Le comportement de prise de risque est une cause majeure de morbidité et de mortalité à l’adolescence. Dans le contexte d’une\\u000a théorie de la décision et des comportements motivés (c’est-à-dire dirigé vers un but), la prise de risque reflète un motif\\u000a de prise de décision qui favorise la sélection du déroulement de l’action avec des conséquences incertaines et potentiellement

M. Ernst; D.-S. Pine; M. Hardin

2009-01-01

355

Le déclassement à l'embauche des jeunes: vers un changement de la valeur des diplômes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

De nombreuses recherches ont mis en évidence l’existence en France d’un déclassement massif des jeunes diplômés sur le marché du travail. La comparaison de deux enquêtes du Céreq sur les sortants du système éducatif en 1992 et 1998 met en évidence un résultat apparemment contradictoire si l’on prend en compte deux mesures du déclassement :des jeunes sortis en 1998, qui

Jean-François Giret; Philippe Lemistre

2004-01-01

356

Communication environnementale et coût des fonds propres : Le cas des entreprises du SBF120  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quel est l'impact sur le coût des fonds propres des divulgations volontaires d'informations environnementales ? C'est à cette question de recherche que nous tentons ici de répondre. L'étude empirique porte sur un échantillon de 119 entreprises cotées du SBF120. La majorité de ces entreprises consacre en 2006 un chapitre ou une partie au domaine environnemental dans leur rapport annuel tandis

Frédérique Dejean; Isabelle Martinez

2008-01-01

357

La planification pr?alable des soins pour les patients en p?diatrie  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

2008-01-01

358

Dorsal column stimulator applications  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians.

Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damian

2012-01-01

359

Therapeutic stimulation versus ablation.  

PubMed

The renaissance of functional stereotactic neurosurgery was pioneered in the mid 1980s by Laitinen's introduction of Leksell's posteroventral pallidotomy for Parkinson´s disease (PD). This ablative procedure experienced a worldwide spread in the 1990s, owing to its excellent effect on dyskinesias and other symptoms of post-l-dopa PD. Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS), pioneered by Benabid and Pollak in 1987 for the treatment of tremor, first became popular when it was applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the mid 1990s, where it demonstrated a striking effect on all cardinal symptoms of advanced PD, and permitted reduced dosages of medication. DBS, as a nondestructive, adaptable, and reversible procedure that is proving safe in bilateral surgery on basal ganglia, has great appeal to clinicians and patients alike, despite the fact that it is expensive, laborious, and relies on very strict patient selection criteria, especially for STN DBS. Psychiatric surgery has experienced the same phenomenon, with DBS supplanting completely stereotactic ablative procedures. This chapter discusses the pros and cons of ablation versus stimulation and investigates the reasons why DBS has overshadowed proven efficient ablative procedures such as pallidotomy for PD, and capsulotomy and cingulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression. PMID:24112885

Hariz, Marwan I; Hariz, Gun-Marie

2013-01-01

360

Central nervous system stimulants.  

PubMed

Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes marked behavioural change and sometimes psychosis. Major sports abusing amphetamine are cycling, American football, ice-hockey and baseball. Cocaine increases tolerance to intense exercise, yet most of its chronic effects on energy metabolism are negative. Its greatest effects seem to be as a central stimulant and the enhancement of short-term anaerobic exercise. It is highly addictive and can cause cerebral and cardiovascular fatalities. Caffeine enhances fatty acid metabolism leading to glucose conservation, which appears to benefit long-distance endurance events such as skiing. Caffeine is also addictive, and chronic abuse can lead to cardiac damage. Social abuse of each of the three drugs is often difficult to distinguish from their abuse in sport. PMID:10932812

George, A J

2000-03-01

361

Esquisses de répartition des revenus pour 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Esquisses de répartition des revenus pour 1985 par Edgard Andréani . Cet article fait suite à un autre, les « Esquisses de croissance pour 1985 », paru dans cette même revue en septembre 1970 (n° 15). Ces esquisses décrivaient cinq évolutions possibles de l'économie française d'ici 1985 mais elles ne chiffraient que les conditions physiques de l'équilibre. Le chiffrement

Edgard Andréani

1972-01-01

362

Analyse des mécanismes de détermination du chômage  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Depuis 1965, la France, comme les pays membres de l'OCDE, est confrontée à une progression du chômage. Cette montée plus ou moins lente et régulière comporte des accélérations conjoncturelles suivies de pauses, voire de replis. Parallèlement les créations d'emplois semblent moins à même que par le passé de résorber le chômage. Comprendre ce mouvement implique de prendre en considération

Robert Salais

1977-01-01

363

Maximalintensität und Breite der Hauptserienlinien des Natriums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Intensität und Breite der Hauptserienlinien des Natriums wurden in Absorption untersucht. Innerhalb der Serie nimmt der maximale Absorptionskoeffizient und die Halbwertsbreite der Linien mit wachsender Gliednummer rasch ab, die Halbwertsbreite ein wenig rascher als der Absorptionskoeffizient. Die Breite der Linien wird wesentlich durch die Natriumdampfkonzentration, in geringerem Maße durch den totalen Gasdruck, bestimmt, was durch die Lorentzsche Stoßdämpfung

B. Trumpy

1925-01-01

364

Abdeckung und Aktualität des Suchdienstes Google Scholar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Der Beitrag widmet sich dem neuen Google-Suchdienst Google Scholar. Die Suchmaschine, die ausschließlich wissenschaftliche Dokumente durchsuchen soll, wird mit ihren wichtigsten Funktionen beschrieben und anschließend einem empirischen Test unterzogen. Die durchgeführte Studie basiert auf drei Zeitschriftenlisten: Zeitschriften von Thomson Scientific, Open Access-Zeitschriften des Verzeichnisses DOAJ und in der Fachdatenbank SOLIS ausgewertete sozialwissenschaftliche Zeitschriften. Die Abdeckung dieser Zeitschriften durch Google Scholar

Philipp Mayr; Anne-Kathrin Walter

365

Rekonstruktion des vorderen Kreuzbandes bei Kindern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Operationsziel Rekonstruktion des vorderen Kreuzbandes bei Kindern ohne dauerhafte Schädigung der Wachstumsfugen an Tibia und Femur. Die distal gestielte Semitendinosussehne wird durch einen Bohrkanal in der medialen tibialen Epiphyse eingezogen, dann durch das Gelenk hinter den lateralen Femurkondylus geführt und an seiner Außenseite mit einer Krampe fixiert. Indikationen Symptomatische oder chronische Knieinstabilität als Folge einer vorderen Kreuzbandruptur. Eingeschränkte Kniegelenkfunktion.

R. Merv Letts; Darin Davidson; Ari Pressman

2000-01-01

366

Bestimmung des Methanolgehaltes im Sprit mit Chromotropsäure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Eignung der Bremanis-Methode für die Bestimmung des Methanolgehaltes im Sprit wurde geklärt. Besondere Beachtung wurde geschenkt der Äthanolkonzentration, der Erhitzungstemperatur und -dauer, der Schwefelsäure- und Chromotropsäure-Konzentration, dem Alter der Chromotropsäurelösung sowie der Oxydationszeit und der Stabilität der Farbe der Reaktionslösung zwecks Erreichung optimaler Bedingungen.

Lauri Uino; Tapio Salo

1960-01-01

367

Zur Behandlung der Glomustumoren des Mittelohres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Glomustumoren des Mittelohres werden in ihrer klinischen Erscheinungsform geschildert, wobei besonders die Frühsymptome Berücksichtigung finden; denn diese müssen Veranlassung geben, eine alsbaldige operative Behandlung vorzunehmen, damit der Eintritt von Nachbarschaftsbeteiligung wie Labyrintheinbruch und Hirnnervenbeteiligung verhütet wird. Die chirurgische Beseitigung der Glomustumoren auf transmeatalem Wege oder durch Radikaloperation ist deshalb erfolgversprechend, weil es sich um histologisch gutartige Wucherungen glomerulär

K. Handl; K. W. Hommerich

1958-01-01

368

Differential Cryptanalysis of DES-like Cryptosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is the best known and most widely used cryptosystem for civilian applications. It was developed at IBM and adopted by the National Bureau of Standards in the mid 1970s, and has successfully withstood all the attacks published so far in the open literature. In this paper we develop a new type of cryptanalytic attack which

Eli Biham; Adi Shamir

1991-01-01

369

Chronique des tendances de la société française  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Cette chronique porte sur des transformations au sein de la population active, sur la scolarisation régionale en France et la religion en Europe occidentale : • Naguère les pères de famille étaient « protégés » du chômage. Depuis cinq ans, ils ne le sont plus et il s'en suit une inquiétude qui pourrait avoir une influence sur le taux

Louis Chauvel; Jean-Pierre Jaslin; Laurent Mucchielli; Carole Rivière; Irène Fournier

1996-01-01

370

Stratégies de localisation résidentielle des ménages et mobilité domicile-travail  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROBLEMATIQUE - Ces dernières décennies ont été fortement marquées en France par le mouvement bien identifié de la périurbanisation. Cette expansion urbaine s'accompagne d'une reconfiguration des localisations des fonctions urbaines, entraînant une modification des déplacements qui leur sont liés. Largement confortée par le spectaculaire développement de la motorisation, elle pose des problèmes de maîtrise des flux dans la mesure où

Odile Andan; Pascal Pochet; Jean-Louis Routhier; Scheou Bernard

1999-01-01

371

Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et

Luis Fernando Gomez

2010-01-01

372

Methodes iteratives paralleles: Applications en neutronique et en mecanique des fluides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dans cette these, le calcul parallele est applique successivement a la neutronique et a la mecanique des fluides. Dans chacune de ces deux applications, des methodes iteratives sont utilisees pour resoudre le systeme d'equations algebriques resultant de la discretisation des equations du probleme physique. Dans le probleme de neutronique, le calcul des matrices des probabilites de collision (PC) ainsi qu'un

Abdessamad Qaddouri

1998-01-01

373

Calcul Matriciel Appliqué Aux Couches Minces élaboration des dérivées Partielles du Coefficient de Réflexion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faute de pouvoir déterminer des tolérances de fabrication convenables, la réalisation de filtres optiques se heurte au problème de leur reproductibilité. Il ne peut être résolu que par la connaissance, a priori, des fluctuations sur les caractéristiques des revêtements qui sont provoquées par des variations d'épaisseur ou d'indice dans les différentes couches déposées. La détermination des dérivées partielles par rapport

Jacques Mouchart

1980-01-01

374

Behemoth als Partner und Feind des Leviathan: zur politischen Ikonologie eines Monstrums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zu den mächtigsten Bildern des Alten Testamentes gehören die beiden Monstra des Leviathan und des Behemoth, die Gott vor dem aufbegehrenden Hiob erscheinen läßt, um seine Macht zu demonstrieren. Während das Symbol des Leviathan als hobbesches Urbild des modernen Staates immer wieder erforscht worden ist, trifft dies auf den Behemoth weniger zu. Ausgehend von William Blakes Darstellungen der beiden Monstra

Horst Bredekamp

2009-01-01

375

A linearized current stimulator for deep brain stimulation.  

PubMed

This paper develops the front end of the stimulator which is applied in the implantable deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the therapy of Parkinson's disease. This stimulator adopts the low power switched-capacitor DAC accompanying with voltage-to-current transconductance amplifiers to obtain the adjustable output currents. The proposed distortion cancellation technique improves the linearity of the current stimulator. Multiple transconductance amplifiers sharing a single DAC save the circuit area. The biphasic stimulation waveform is generated from the bridge switching technique and the programmable pulse. This stimulation circuit provides the 0 approximately 165 microA current for a typical loading of 10 k?, 8 approximately 120 micros pulse width, and 126 approximately 244 Hz frequencies with a 0.35 microm CMOS technology at 3.3 V supply voltage. PMID:21096724

Shen, Ding-Lan; Chu, Yu-Jung

2010-01-01

376

Liraglutide suppresses the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin independently of active glucagon-like Peptide-1 levels in mice.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic gastrointestinal peptide that is primarily produced by intestinal endocrine L-cells, stimulates satiety. Ghrelin, a hormone that is produced predominantly by the stomach stimulates hunger. There are two forms of ghrelin: active ghrelin and inactive des-acyl ghrelin. After depriving mice of food for 24?h, we demonstrated that the systemic administration of liraglutide (100? ? g/kg), a human GLP-1 analog that binds to the GLP-1 receptor, increased (1.4-fold) the plasma levels of active GLP-1 and suppressed the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin after 1?h. Despite the elevated plasma levels of active GLP-1 (11-fold), liraglutide had no effect on the plasma levels of active or des-acyl ghrelin after 12?h. These findings demonstrated that liraglutide suppresses the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin independently of active GLP-1 levels in fasted mice, suggesting a novel in vivo biological effect of liraglutide beyond regulating plasma GLP-1. PMID:23997963

Nonogaki, Katsunori; Suzuki, Marina

2013-08-13

377

Liraglutide Suppresses the Plasma Levels of Active and Des-Acyl Ghrelin Independently of Active Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels in Mice  

PubMed Central

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic gastrointestinal peptide that is primarily produced by intestinal endocrine L-cells, stimulates satiety. Ghrelin, a hormone that is produced predominantly by the stomach stimulates hunger. There are two forms of ghrelin: active ghrelin and inactive des-acyl ghrelin. After depriving mice of food for 24?h, we demonstrated that the systemic administration of liraglutide (100??g/kg), a human GLP-1 analog that binds to the GLP-1 receptor, increased (1.4-fold) the plasma levels of active GLP-1 and suppressed the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin after 1?h. Despite the elevated plasma levels of active GLP-1 (11-fold), liraglutide had no effect on the plasma levels of active or des-acyl ghrelin after 12?h. These findings demonstrated that liraglutide suppresses the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin independently of active GLP-1 levels in fasted mice, suggesting a novel in vivo biological effect of liraglutide beyond regulating plasma GLP-1.

Nonogaki, Katsunori; Suzuki, Marina

2013-01-01

378

Agent Server Architecture for the Ajanta Mobile-Agent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of Ajanta, aJava-based mobile-agent system, and focuses in particularon the architecture of the agent server --the process which hosts agents and enables them toaccess resources, communicate, migrate etc. Theagent server's main components include an agentexecution environment, an agent transfer protocol,a resource access protocol, and an agent monitoringservice. Security is a major concern in the designof

Neeran M. Karnik; Anand R. Tripathi

1998-01-01

379

Centrally acting antihypertensive agents: an update.  

PubMed

Centrally acting agents stimulate alpha(2) receptors and/or imadozoline receptors on adrenergic neurons situated within the rostral ventrolateral medulla and, in so doing, sympathetic outflow is reduced. Centrally acting agents also stimulate peripheral alpha(2) receptors, which, for the most part, is of marginal clinical significance. Central a agonists have had a lengthy history of use, starting with alpha-methyldopa, which has had a dramatic decline in use, in part, because of bothersome side effects. Patients who require multidrug therapy with otherwise resistant hypertension, such as diabetic and/or renal failure patients, are typically responsive to these drugs, as are patients with sympathetically driven forms of hypertension. Perioperative forms of hypertension respond well to clonidine, a circumstance where the additional anesthesia- and analgesia-sparing effects of this drug may offer additional clinical benefits. Clonidine can be used adjunctively with other more traditional therapies in heart failure, particularly when hypertension is present. Sustained-release moxonidine, however, is associated with early mortality and morbidity when used in patients with heart failure. Escalating doses of drugs in this class often give rise to salt and water retention, in which case diuretic therapy becomes a valuable adjunctive therapy. PMID:17485976

Sica, Domenic A

2007-05-01

380

Contribution a la comprehension de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'incorporation des ajouts cimentaires dans le beton est connue pour ses avantages technologiques et environnementaux. Pour assurer une plus grande utilisation des ajouts cimentaires, il faut accroitre la connaissance dans ce domaine surtout les facteurs relatifs a la durabilite des ouvrages construits avec les betons contenant des ajouts mineraux. Jusqu'a present, la plupart des etudes sur les betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier semble s'accorder sur leur moins bonne durabilite a l'ecaillage surtout lorsqu'on les compare au beton ordinaire. Les raisons de cette moins bonne performance ne sont pas toutes connues et cela limite bien des fois l'incorporation de la cendre volante et de laitier dans le beton pour des ouvrages fortement exposes aux cycles de gel-degel en presence de sels fondants. Cette these vise la comprehension des problematiques de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant des ajouts cimentaires tels la cendre volante et le laitier. Les objectifs sont de mieux comprendre la representativite et la severite relative des essais normalises ASTM C672 et NQ 2621-900 pour l'evaluation de la durabilite a l'ecaillage de ces betons, d'etudier l'influence de la methode de murissement sur la durabilite a l'ecaillage et d'etudier la relation entre la durabilite a l'ecaillage et la sorptivite des surfaces de beton ainsi que la particularite de la microstructure des betons contenant de la cendre volante. Cinq types de betons a air entraine contenant 25% et 35% de cendre volante et laitier ainsi que 1% et 2% de fumee de silice ont ete produits, muris selon differentes methodes et soumis a des essais acceleres selon les deux procedures normalisees ainsi qu'un essai de sorptivite. Les differentes methodes de murissement sont choisies de facon a mettre en evidence aussi bien l'influence des parametres des essais que celle de la methode de murissement elle-meme. La durabilite en laboratoire des betons testes a ete comparee avec celle de betons similaires apres 4 et 6 annees de service. La microstructure des betons en service a ete analysee au moyen du microscope a balayage electronique (MEB). Les resultats montrent que la qualite du murissement influence grandement la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et de laitier surtout lorsqu'ils sont soumis ' aux essais acceleres en laboratoire. La duree du pretraitement humide est un parametre cle de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons testes en laboratoire. Le pretraitement humide correspond a la duree totale du murissement humide (100% HR) et de la periode de presaturation. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. La periode de presaturation de 7 jours de la procedure NQ 2621-900 a un effet similaire a celui d'un murissement humide de meme longueur. Un murissement humide de 28 jours apparait optimal et conduit a une estimation plus realiste de la resistance a l'ecaillage reelle des betons. Pour une meme duree de pretraitement humide, les procedures NQ 2621-900 et ASTM C672 donnent des resultats equivalents. L'utilisation d'un moule a fond drainant n'a pas d'effet sur la resistance a l'ecaillage des betons de cette etude. Bien que le murissement dans l'eau saturee de chaux offre toute l'eau requise pour favoriser le developpement des proprietes du beton et l'amelioration de sa durabilite a l'ecaillage, elle lessive cependant les ions alcalins ce qui diminue defavorablement l'alcalinite et le pH de la solution interstitielle de la pate de ciment pres de la surface exposee. L'utilisation d'un agent de murissement protege mieux les betons contenant de la cendre volante et ameliore significativement leurs resistances a l'ecaillage mais elle a tendance a reduire la durabi

Houehanou, Ernesto C.

381

Nouvelle approche ? la prise en charge des condylomes  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Faire le résumé des anciens et des nouveaux moyens de traitement des verrues génitales ou condylomes et déterminer comment les utiliser de manière appropriée. Sources des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans les bases de données suivantes: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, base de données des synthèses systématiques et registre central des études contrôlées de la Collaboration Cochrane (en anglais), ACP Journal Club et Trip. Les bibliographies des articles extraits ont aussi été examinées. Les études cliniques, les articles de révision qualitative, les rapports consensuels et les guides de pratique clinique ont été retenus. Message principal Les verrues symptomatiques sont présentes chez au moins 1 % des personnes âgées entre 15 et 49 ans et on estime que jusqu’à 50 % des gens sont infectés par le virus du papillome humain à un moment donné de leur vie. L’imiquimod et la podophyllotoxine sont 2 nouveaux traitements pour les verrues génitales externes qui sont moins douloureux et peuvent être appliqués par les patients à la maison. De plus, il a été démontré que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le virus du papillome humain est efficace pour prévenir les condylomes et le cancer du col. Les plus anciennes méthodes thérapeutiques ont aussi leur place dans certaines situations, comme les verrues intravaginales, urétrales, anales ou récalcitrantes ou encore pour les patientes enceintes. Conclusion Les nouveaux traitements des verrues génitales externes peuvent réduire la douleur causée par la thérapie et le nombre de visites au cabinet. Les autres méthodes thérapeutiques demeurent utiles dans certaines situations.

Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

2013-01-01

382

Autonomous Behavior of Computational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an architecture for decision making of software agents that allows the agent to be-have autonomously. Our target area is computational agents — encapsulating various neural networks, genetic algorithms, and similar methods — that are expected to solve problems of different nature within an environment of a hybrid computational multi-agent system. The architecture is based on

Roman Vaculín; Roman Neruda

383

GOAL-BASED INTELLIGENT AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents are distinguished for their autonomous and goal oriented characters. To model the complex goals of agents, this paper proposes an agent goal model, namely, composite state goal model, based on Petri Net theory and Object-Oriented methodology. The proposed model not only enables the agent to manage the composite goals, sub goals but also provides the quantitative measurement of partial

Zhiqi Shen; Robert Gay; Xuehong Tao

384

Collective stimulated Brillouin scatter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a statistical theory of stimulated Brillouin backscatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally partially incoherent laser beam for laser fusion relevant plasma. We find a new collective regime of BSBS which has a much larger threshold than the classical threshold of a coherent beam in long-scale-length laser fusion plasma. We identify two contributions to BSBS convective instability increment. The first is collective with intensity threshold independent of the laser correlation time and controlled by diffraction. The second is independent of diffraction, it grows with increase of the correlation time and does not have an intensity threshold. The instability threshold is inside the typical parameter region of National Ignition Facility. We also find that the bandwidth of KrF-laser-based fusion systems would be large enough to allow additional suppression of BSBS.

Lushnikov, Pavel; Korotkevich, Alexander; Rose, Harvey

2011-11-01

385

Deep Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have identified an association between memory deficits and defects of the integrated neuronal cortical areas known collectively as the default mode network. It is conceivable that the amyloid deposition or other molecular abnormalities seen in patients with Alzheimer’s disease may interfere with this network and disrupt neuronal circuits beyond the localized brain areas. Therefore, Alzheimer’s disease may be both a degenerative disease and a broader system-level disorder affecting integrated neuronal pathways involved in memory. In this paper, we describe the rationale and provide some evidence to support the study of deep brain stimulation of the hippocampal fornix as a novel treatment to improve neuronal circuitry within these integrated networks and thereby sustain memory function in early Alzheimer’s disease.

Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Pendergrass, Jo Cara; Lozano, Andres M.

2012-01-01

386

Stimulated rotational Raman scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering (SRRS) processes on high energy laser directed energy weapon systems was studied. The program had 3 main objectives; achieving an accurate description of the physical processes involved in SRRS; developing a numerical algorithm to confidently evaluate SRRS-induced losses in the propagation of high energy laser beams in the uplink and downlink segments of the optical trains of various strategic defense system scenarios; and discovering possible methods to eliminate, or at least reduce, the deleterious effects of SRRS on the energy deposition on target. The following topics are discussed: the motivation for the accomplishments of the DOE program; the Semiclassical Theory of Non-Resonant SRRS for Diatomic Homonuclear Molecules; and then the following appendices; Calculation of the Dipole Transition Reduced Matrix Element, Guided Tour of Hughes SRRS Code, Running the Hughes SRRS Code, and Hughes SRRS Code Listing.

Parazzoli, C. G.; Rafanelli, G. L.; Capps, D. M.; Drutman, C.

1989-03-01

387

Activation of the p38 MAPK pathway by follicle-stimulating hormone regulates steroidogenesis in granulosa cells differentially  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we started out to test whether the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-activated p38 MAPK signaling cascade was involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis in granulosa cells (GCs). GCs were pre- pared from the ovaries of DES-treated immature rats and cultured in serum-free medium. Treatment of GCs with FSH (50 ng\\/ml) induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK rapidly with

Fu-Qing Yu; Chun-Sheng Han; Wei Yang; Xuan Jin; Zhao-Yuan Hu; Yi-Xun Liu

2005-01-01

388

Abondance et stratification verticale des elements dans l'atmosphere des etoiles mercure-manganese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les étoiles mercure-manganèse appartiennent à la famille des étoiles chimiquement particulières. Elles présentent d'importants excès de mercure et de manganèse par rapport au soleil. Ces anomalies d'abondance sont généralement expliquées par la théorie de la diffusion atomique, jouant possiblementun rôle important au sein de leurs atmosphères. Cette thèse a pour but, dans un premier temps, de déterminer les abondances d'un grand nombre d'éléments (C, O, Mg, Si, P, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr, Hg) peuplant l'atmosphère de quatre étoiles mercure-manganèse (HD 71066, HD 175640, HD 178065 et HD 221507). La seconde étape consiste à vérifier la présence d'une quelconque dépendance de l'abondance de ces éléments par rapport à la profondeur de formation des raies. Une variation de l'abondance par rapport à la profondeur, c'est-à-dire stratification, apporterait la preuve observationnelle de la présence de la diffusion atomique au sein de l'atmosphère de ces étoiles, ainsi que des contraintes servant à l'amélioration des modèles théoriques. Les spectres des étoiles étudiées sont obtenus à partir de l'archive de l'ESO- UVES. Les raies investiguées se situent à des longueurs d'onde plus grandes que celle du saut de Balmer oû le signal sur bruit, après normalisation, est supérieur à 300. Parmi les quatre étoiles investiguées, uniquement de la stratification du manganèse a été découverte dans l'atmosphère de l'étoile HD 178065. L'abondance du manganèse augmente significativement (environ 0.7 dex) sur l'intervalle t 5000 sondé entre -3.8 et -2.5. Ceci est la première détection de stratification du manganèse dans une étoile de type HgMn. Pour HD 175640, des indices de stratification du manganèse existent, mais l'étude d'autres spectres aiderait à confirmer ou non, la stratification de cet élément.

Thiam, Mouhamadou

389

The improvement of in vivo model (Balb/c mice) for cervical carcinogenesis using diethylstilbestrol (DES).  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and one of the major causes of female cancer-related death worldwide particularly in developing countries. Thus far, there are a few in vivo models have been developed in investigating this type of cancer. In this study, we induced cervical cancer in Balb/c mice by exploiting the carcinogenic property of diestylstilbestrol (DES). The Balb/c pregnant mice were given subcutaneous (SC) injection of 67?g/kg body weight of DES on GD 13, and the mice gave birth approximately at gestation day 19-22. Female offspring were reared and the body weight was recorded once weekly. The female offspring were sacrificed at age of 5 months. Upon termination, blood was collected in a plain tube via cardiac puncture and the reproductive tracts were collected and weighed. The reproductive tract sections were stained using H&E for observation of pathological changes. The progression of disease state was monitored by measuring the level of serum interleukin (IL-6) using the Mouse IL-6 ELISA Assay Kit (BD OptEIA™, USA). All parameters were compared with Not-induced group. The outcome of this study demonstrated a significant difference in body weight gain, reproductive organ weight, diameter of cervix and the level of serum IL-6 in the Induced group as compared to the Not-induced group (P<0.05). Histopathological findings revealed the presence of adenosis only in the Induced group. It shows that DES could be employed as an agent to induce cervical carcinogenesis in animal model. In addition to that, new potential anti-cancer agents from various sources could be further evaluated using this technique. PMID:23726752

Zulfahmi, Said; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Armania, Nurdin

2013-05-30

390

Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques et ceci en fonction de l'epaisseur de la couche magnetique de Co. Nous verrons que dans ces systemes les effets de l'irradiation ionique sont fortement influences par l'energie de surface ainsi que par l'enthalpie de formation, largement positive pour le systeme Co/Ag.

Veres, Teodor

391

E-Learning Agents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

Gregg, Dawn G.

2007-01-01

392

Embodied mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The move in many societies toward individuals having multiple networked computational devices - workstations, notebooks computers, mobile phones, PDAs - radically changes the ways in which people engage those devices. However, we lack interaction paradigms that enable a coherent experience across these technologies. One possible approach to this problem involves the use of embodied mobile agents (EMAs), that is, graphically

Bill Tomlinson; Man Lok Yau; Eric Baumer

2006-01-01

393

Space Travel Agent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are in charge of creating a travel brochure to a planet in our solar system. Travel Agent for the Solar System Introduction You are in charge of the new ?Travel the Solar System? account at Universe Travel Agency.

Williams, Ms.

2010-11-29

394

Dicarbamoylsulfonate Tanning Agent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a method of tanning hides and skins and also to a method of retanning hides and skins. More specifically it relates to the use of a certain dicarbamoylsulfonate as a novel tanning and retanning agent for hides and skins.

B. Milligan P. R. Buechler S. H. Feairheller

1983-01-01

395

Agent Amplified Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for informa- tion gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on expertise location within a large organization. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an or- ganization are used to \\

Henry A. Kautz; Bart Selman; Al Milewski

1996-01-01

396

Simulation with learning agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that learning agents (LAs) be incorporated into simulation environments in order to model the adaptive behavior of humans. These LAs adapt to specific circumstances and events during the simulation run. They would select tasks to be accomplished among a given set of tasks as the simulation progresses, or synthesize tasks for themselves based on their observations of the

Erol Gelenbe; Esin Seref; Zhiguang Xu

2001-01-01

397

Mobility control agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by means of steam drive, for heavier crudes, and COâ flooding, for lighter, mobilizes oil left behind by more conventional methods and displaces it to producing wells. In higher mobility, fingering, and flow of the drive or flood substance through low permeability paths, reduces the efficiency of EOR. Mobility control agents block these permeable paths. Five

E. C. Hammershaimb; V. A. KuugKraa

1983-01-01

398

Hydraulic fracturing propping agent  

SciTech Connect

A high strength propping agent for use in hydraulic fracturing of subterranean formations comprising solid, spherical particles having an alumina content of between 40 and 60%, a density of less than 3.0 gm/cc and an ambient temperature permeability of 100,000 or more millidarcies at 10,000 psi.

Lunghofer, E. P.

1985-06-11

399

Hydraulic fracturing propping agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high strength propping agent for use in hydraulic fracturing of subterranean formations comprising solid, spherical particles having an alumina content of between 40 and 60%, a density of less than 3.0 gm\\/cc and an ambient temperature permeability of 100,000 or more millidarcies at 10,000 psi.

Lunghofer

1985-01-01

400

Electrical stimulation: a societal perspective.  

PubMed

Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the future. Emphasis will be placed on perceived need, cost, and available resources and how these factors must be addressed to utilize functional electrical stimulation successfully in society. PMID:11067581

Gater, D R; McDowell, S M; Abbas, J J

2000-01-01

401

Nouvelles données sur la régulation de la sécrétion du glucagon par les cellules alpha des îlots pancréatiques et son importance dans le diabète  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le diabète est la principale cause de mortalité en Amérique du Nord et, au Canada uniquement, plus de 2 millions de personnes en sont atteints. L'hyperglycémie est le signe caractéristique du diabète et une cause prédominante de l'apparition de complications à long terme associées à la maladie. Dans des conditions normales, un taux accru de glucose stimule la sécrétion d'insuline

GILLIAN BOOTH; M D ALICE CHENG

402

Latent enhancers activated by stimulation in differentiated cells.  

PubMed

According to current models, once the cell has reached terminal differentiation, the enhancer repertoire is completely established and maintained by cooperatively acting lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs). TFs activated by extracellular stimuli operate within this predetermined repertoire, landing close to where master regulators are constitutively bound. Here, we describe latent enhancers, defined as regions of the genome that in terminally differentiated cells are unbound by TFs and lack the histone marks characteristic of enhancers but acquire these features in response to stimulation. Macrophage stimulation caused sequential binding of stimulus-activated and lineage-determining TFs to these regions, enabling deposition of enhancer marks. Once unveiled, many of these enhancers did not return to a latent state when stimulation ceased; instead, they persisted and mediated a faster and stronger response upon restimulation. We suggest that stimulus-specific expansion of the cis-regulatory repertoire provides an epigenomic memory of the exposure to environmental agents. PMID:23332752

Ostuni, Renato; Piccolo, Viviana; Barozzi, Iros; Polletti, Sara; Termanini, Alberto; Bonifacio, Silvia; Curina, Alessia; Prosperini, Elena; Ghisletti, Serena; Natoli, Gioacchino

2013-01-17

403

Verhalten von Metaboliten des Fettstoffwechsels im Serum adipöser und nichtadipöser Personen unter Grundumsatzbedingungen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Bei 60 nichtadipösen und 48 adipösen Personen ohne wesentliche Begleitkrankheiten wurden die Blutkonzentrationen der freien Fettsäuren, des freien Glycerins, des Acetacetats, der veresterten Fettsäuren und des Blutzuckers unter Grundumsatzbedingungen bestimmt.

K. Jahnke; F. A. Gries; H. Wallenfels; H. Schulte

1964-01-01

404

Improvisational Multi-Agent Organization: Using Director Agent to Coordinate Improvisational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coordination is an important characteristic in the development of agents organizations, allowing agents to understand the existent relationships among agents that compose an specific organization. This paper proposes an improvisational multi-agent organization which incorporate a new model of coordination, named improvised direction. The organization is based on the ideas of improvisational theatre, and improvised direction represents the kind of coordination

Márcia Cristina Moraes; Antônio Carlos Da Rocha Costa

2005-01-01

405

Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le m?decin communautaire  

PubMed Central

L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

2010-01-01

406

Der Einfluß von Antibiotika auf die UV-Stimulation des Pollenschlauchwachstums von Pinus silvestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the germination and pollen tube development there are at least three different growth periods, which control the tube growth successively. The first period cannot be suppressed by antibiotics.

L. Zelles

1973-01-01

407

Beta-adrenergic blocking agents as potent antagonists of mescaline-induced contractions in the rat uterus.  

PubMed

In the isolated rat uterus, mescaline induces contractions that are notably antagonized by catecholamines, by beta-adrenergic stimulants and certain beta-adrenergic blocking agents as well as by chlorpromazine, amitriptyline and methysergide. PMID:8329

Jaques, R

1976-08-15

408

Notes sur l'écologie et l'éthologie des espèces du genre Lasius (Hymenoptera Formicid?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé L'observation de l'emplacement et du mode de nidification des espèces du genreLasius dans leur milieu naturel a permis de mettre en évidence des exigences écologiques bien définies. De même, la complexité des techniques mises en ?uvre et le type de matérian employé lors de la construction des nids permettent de présenter un classement des mœurs des espèces du genreLasius.

Ch. Gaspar

1965-01-01

409

Les échanges touristiques des pays de l'Ocdé 1980-1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les échanges touristiques des pays de l'Ocdé 1960- 1985, . par François Coulomb, Philippe Domergue.. . Cette étude relative aux échanges internationaux de tourisme concerne l'ensemble des pays de l'Ocdé au cours des vingt-cinq dernières années. . . Un constat est dressé à partir de l'analyse des statistiques de balances des paiements. L'examen des performances de ces pays dans

Philippe Domergue; François Coulomb

1988-01-01

410

Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austénitiques au voisinage des soudures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Des fissures intergranulaires peuvent se développer au voisinage des soudures des aciers inoxydables austénitiques lorsqu'ils sont réchauffés dans le domaine de température compris entre 500^{circ}C et 700^{circ}C. A ces températures, les contraintes résiduelles post-soudage se relaxent par déformation viscoplastique. Il peut arriver que ces zones proches de la soudure soient tellement fragiles, qu'elles ne puissent accommoder cette faible déformation. Afin de préciser quelles peuvent être les modifications microstructurales qui conduisent à une telle fragilisation, on a examiné les microstructures de ces zones et révélé ainsi un écrouissage résiduel, responsable d'une forte élévation de la dureté. On a pu reproduire par hypertrempe puis laminage entre 400^{circ}C et 600^{circ}C une microstructure similaire. Des essais mécaniques (traction, fluage, relaxation, sur éprouvettes lisses et pré-fissurées) ont été réalisés à 550^{circ}C et à 600^{circ}C sur ces zones affectées simulées et sur un état de référence hypertrempé. Ils ont montré que l'écrouissage diminuait la ductilité dans le domaine de rupture intergranulaire, sans modifier qualitativement le mécanisme d'endommagement. Pendant la pré-déformation les incompatibilités de déformation entre grains conduiraient à l'existence de contraintes locales élevées qui favoriseraient la germination des cavités intergranulaires.

Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

2003-03-01

411

L'évaluation de la qualité des équipements éducatifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

En 2005, le Programme de l’OCDE pour la construction et l’équipement de l’éducation (PEB) a organisé deux réunions d’experts internationaux pour débattre des méthodes employées par les pays pour définir et évaluer la qualité des équipements éducatifs. En plus des enseignements tirés de ces deux réunions, cet article présente les recherches et les expériences de six experts : le directeur

Allen Abend; Sheila Walbe Ornstein; Emmanuel Baltas; Jaime de la Garza; Chris Watson; Kurt Lange; Hannah von Ahlefeld

2006-01-01

412

DIE GESCHLAGENEN UND AUSGELIEFERTEN IN DER KUNST DES HELLENISMUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dans l'Antiquité, le monde des dieux et celui des hommes ont une organisation qui se ressemble. Cette similitude est particulièrement sensible dans les rapports qu'entretiennent les dieux avec leurs fidèles et leurs adversaires, et les souverains avec leurs ennemis et les peuples assujettis. C'est avant tout à l'époque de l'hellénisme, avec ses états de forme monarchique, qu'apparaissent des liens étroits

TONIO HÖLSCHER

1985-01-01

413

« Perception des risques au Québec – Baromètre CIRANO 2012 »  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certaines décisions publiques, grands projets ou enjeux de société au Québec peuvent susciter des inquiétudes ou des craintes. Que l'on parle d'entreprendre la réfection de la centrale nucléaire de Gentilly-2, de développer l'industrie du gaz de schiste, de construire un nouveau pont, des revenus de retraite, de l'obésité, de l'accès aux services de santé, certains de ces projets ou enjeux

Nathalie de Marcellis-Warin; Ingrid Peignier

414

Evolution du marché et des structures de production porcine  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Depuis 1966 une enquête annuelle auprès des élevages de porc permet de suivre pas à pas l'évolution des structures de production dans le secteur « porc ». Sous l'impulsion du Plan de Rationalisation démarré en 1969, l'amélioration des structures de production s'accélère, elle est vraisemblablement aujourd'hui meilleure en France qu'en R.F.A. En outre, les régions Bretagne et Nord présentent

M. Linguenheld

1971-01-01

415

Le commerce en ligne des œuvres d'art  

Microsoft Academic Search

La vente en ligne d'œuvres d'art devient un moyen important d'échange et de commercialisation des œuvres. Nous étudions cette nouvelle façon de mettre en contact acheteur e t vendeur à travers de sites spécialisés. Ce chapitre d'ouvrage comprend des tableaux comparatifs des portails et maison de vente en ligne d'œuvre d'art et d'antiquités.

Victor Lebreton; Xavier Greffe

2008-01-01

416

Application de Conducteurs Optiques Aux Measures en Mécanique des Fluides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dans cette note on donne des indications sur les possibilités d'une nouvelle méthode de mesure que les auteurs ont commencé d'appliquer. On présente l'utilisation de fibres optiques dans un cas d'étude microscopique en hydrodynamique des milieux poreux. D'autres applications sont évoquées. Une amorce est faite dans la perspective d'un traitement numérique des informations que cette méthode permet d'acquérir.

R. Brodt; O. Scrivener; L. Zilliox

1974-01-01

417

Einfluss der Herzfrequenz auf die Höhe des Liquorflusses im Aquädukt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: In einer Voruntersuchung konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Höhe des Liquorflusses im Aquädukt (Stroke Volume per Cardiac Cycle, SVcc) linear von der interthalamischen Weite des dritten Ventrikel abhängt. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wurde geprüft, ob die Herzfrequenz (HF) das SVcc zusätzlich beeinflusst. Methode: Mittels retrospektiv kardial getriggerter 2-D-Phasenkontrast-MR-Bildgebung wurde der Liquorfluss auf dem Niveau des Aquäduktes von 95

Alexander Bock; Ralf Geske; Bernhard Schnackenburg

2001-01-01

418

Méthode pour calculer la valeur des rentes viagerès combinées  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pour calculer la valeur des rentes viagères combinées, du moins quand Ie nombre des rentes est séperieur à 2, on est réduit à se servir des méthodes plus ou moins approximatives. La méthode suivante, élaborée par l'auteur de cet article, est depuis quelque temps employée à l'Office suédois d'assurances. Elle se base sur un dévéloppement de la valeur dans une

Emil Liedstrand

1922-01-01

419

La Validité des Mesures de Frequence Cardiaque en Ergonomie  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Le choix du critére cardiaque en Ergonomie est justifié par l'ensemble des connaissances des variations de la fréquence cardiaque. Ces variations s'expliquent en général par des réflexes physiologiques simples. Les valeurs moyennes et les variations de la frequence cardiaque sont d'abord envisagées au repos, puis au cours de divers états d'activité partielle de l'organisme. Les effets respectifs du travail

Par H. MONOD

1967-01-01

420

Über die Einlagerung des Lignins in der Zellwand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Verteilung und die Art der Einlagerung des Lignins in der Zellwand der Fichte (Picea excelsa) wurden mit Hilfe von optischen Methoden untersucht. Die Bestimmung des Extinktionsmoduls von Fichtenlignin im ultravioletten\\u000a Licht ermglichte die Messung des Ligningehaltes von Holzschnitten. Dabei ergab sich, da das Lignin im Fichtenholz gleichmiger\\u000a ber Zellwnde und Mittelschicht verteilt ist, als bisher angenommen wurde.\\u000a \\u000a Im ultravioletten

Hans Peter Frey; Peter Frey

1959-01-01

421

Zur Verknuepfung des Sonnen- und Mondkalenders im Gregorianischen Kalender  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bekanntlich enthaelt der Greg.\\ Kalender sowohl einen Sonnen- wie auch einen Mondkalender. Daher kann jeder Tag in dem einen wie dem anderen Kalender datiert werden. Waehrend jedoch der Sonnenkalender im Gregorianischen Kalender allbekannt und weltweit in Gebrauch ist, blieb der Mondkalender so gut wie unbekannt. Lediglich seine Dokumentation in sowie seine praktische Wichtigkeit fuer der Berechnung des Osterdatums haben ihn vor dem voelligen Vergessenwerden bewahrt. Die mathematische Analyse des genialen, weil adaptierbar zyklischen Gesamtsystems des Gregorianischen Kalenders hat erst in neuester Zeit wieder Schwung bekommen. Die Verknuepfung der beiden Kalender kann ueber die Datierung der Neujahre im jeweils anderen Kalender mathematisch beschrieben werden. Das Monddatum des Beginns des solaren Kalenderjahrs X (1.\\ Januar X) berechnet sich wie folgt (INT(r) bedeutet dabei die groeßte ganze Zahl, die in der rationalen Zahl r enthalten ist; MOD(g,n) bedeutet den kleinsten nichtnegativen Rest, den die ganze Zahl g bei Teilung durch die natuerliche Zahl n zuruecklaeßt): K = INT(X/100), M = 8 -- INT((3K + 3)/4) + INT(8K + 13)/25), A = MOD(X,19), E = MOD(11A + M,30). Der 1.\\ Januar X faellt auf den (1 + E)ten Tebetu des Mondjahres X-1, falls E > 4 ist, ansonsten auf den (1 + E)ten Schabatu des Mondjahres X-1. Das Sonnendatum des Beginns des lunaren Kalenderjahrs Y (1. Nisanu Y) berechnet sich so: K = INT(Y/100), M = 15 + INT((3K + 3)/4) -- INT((8K + 13)/25), A = MOD(Y,19), D = MOD(19A + M,30), R = INT(D/29) + (INT(D/28) -- INT(D/29)) INT(A/11). Der 1.\\ Nisanu Y faellt auf den (8 + D)ten Maerz des Sonnenjahres Y, falls D < 24 ist, ansonsten auf den (D - 23 - R)ten April des Sonnenjahres Y. Die Struktur des wenig bekannten Mondkalenders im Greg.\\ Kalender wird erlaeutert werden.

Lichtenberg, Heiner

422

Monopole d'assurance informé et discrimination des risques  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Monopole d'assurance informé et discrimination des risques. . Nous modélisons une situation où le monopole d'assurance sait mieux estimer les risques que les assurés eux-mêmes. Nous donnons une caractérisation complète des équilibres de ce jeu de signaux multidimensionnels. Nous les comparons avec les prédictions des modèles classiques d'antisélection. Nous faisons une analyse de la valeur de l'information lorsque la

Bertrand Villeneuve

1998-01-01

423

Convention internationale pour la répression des actes de terrorisme nucléaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Convention pour la répression des actes de terrorisme nucléaire [la convention] adoptée le 15 avril 2005 par l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies après sept années de travaux préparatoires est ouverte à la signature depuis le 14 septembre 2005 au siège de l’Organisation des Nations Unies à New York. Conformément à l’article 25 de la convention elle entrera en vigueur

Odette Jankowitsch-Prevor

2005-01-01

424

Jean Baudrillard, un French theorist en sciences des organisations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il est curieux de souligner combien Jean Baudrillard est considéré par le monde académique anglo–américain et scandinave, avec d'autres auteurs tels que Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, etc., comme un des auteurs français majeurs en sciences des organisations, comme si les apports des collègues français de la discipline n'existaient pas ou, en tous les cas, bénéficiaient d'une ignorance internationale telle que

Yvon Pesqueux

2009-01-01

425

Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent mining, namely the interaction and integration of multi-agent and data mining, has emerged as a very promising research area. While many mutual issues exist in both multi-agent and data mining areas, most of them can be described in terms of or related to ubiquitous intelligence. It is certainly very important to define, specify, represent, analyze and utilize ubiquitous intelligence in agents, data mining, and agent mining. This paper presents a novel but preliminary investigation of ubiquitous intelligence in these areas. We specify five types of ubiquitous intelligence: data intelligence, human intelligence, domain intelligence, network and web intelligence, organizational intelligence, and social intelligence. We define and illustrate them, and discuss techniques for involving them into agents, data mining, and agent mining for complex problem-solving. Further investigation on involving and synthesizing ubiquitous intelligence into agents, data mining, and agent mining will lead to a disciplinary upgrade from methodological, technical and practical perspectives.

Cao, Longbing; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Chengqi

426

Modifications de l'expression des gènes GST-? et p53 dans des lignées tumorales cellulaires humaines O.R.L. après irradiation gamma : induction, études cellulaires et moléculaires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell sub-populations surviving to high radiation doses were selected. The KBm survival part was obtained by exposure to a mutagenic agent and irradiation, FaDum results of a progressive irradiation of FaDu. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant overexpression of GST-? and p53 genes for KBm and FaDum cell lines that remained stable for 18 months. The SF2, ?, ?, and MID parameters, determined by clonogenic assays, show no modifications of radiosensitivity. The variations of expression observed are not correlated to a radiosensitivity variation. The overexpression of GST-? and p53 does not seem to be a radiosensitivity marker. Nous avons isolé des sous-populations de 2 lignées cellulaires humaines (KB et FaDu) de carcinomes des voies aéro-digestives supérieures survivant à de fortes doses d'irradiation. La fraction survivante KBm a été obtenu après exposition à un agent mutagène et à une irradiation, FaDum résulte de l'irradiation progressive de FaDu. Une analyse par RT-PCR semi-quantitative nous a permis de mettre en évidence une surexpression significative des gènes GST-? et p53 pour les souches KBm et FaDum analysées après 18 mois de culture. Les paramètres, ?, ?, SF2, MID, déterminés par essais clonogéniques, n'indiquent pas de modification de la radiosensibilité. Les variations d'expression observées ne sont donc pas corrélées à une variation de radiosensibilité. La surexpression des gènes GST-? et p53 ne semble pas constituer un marqueur de radiosensibilité.

Dubessy, C.; Merlin, J. L.; Marchal, C.

1998-04-01

427

Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Experimental Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysregulation characterized by a sustained increase of sympathetic drive and by withdrawal of parasympathetic activity. Sympathetic overdrive and increased heart rate are predictors of poor long-term outcome in patients with HF. Considerable evidence exists that supports the use of pharmacologic agents that partially inhibit sympathetic activity as effective long-term therapy for patients with HF; the classic example is the wide use of selective and non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. In contrast, modulation of parasympathetic activation as potential therapy for HF has received only limited attention over the years given its complex cardiovascular effects. In this article, we review results of recent experimental animal studies that provide support for the possible use of electrical Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as a long-term therapy for the treatment of chronic HF. In addition to exploring the effects of chronic VNS on left ventricular (LV) function, the review will also address the effects of VNS on potential modifiers of the HF state that include cytokine production and nitric oxide elaboration. Finally, we will briefly review other nerve stimulation approaches also currently under investigation as potential therapeutic modalities for treating chronic HF.

Sabbah, Hani N.; Ilsar, Itamar; Zaretsky, Asaph; Rastogi, Sharad; Wang, Mengjun; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2013-01-01

428

Brain Stimulation in Poststroke Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain stimulation techniques provide a powerful means to modulate the function of specific neural structures, and show potential for future applications in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Recent studies have started to translate to the bedside the body of data gathered over the last few years on mechanisms underlying brain plasticity and stroke recovery. Both noninvasive and invasive brain stimulation

Miguel Alonso-Alonso; Felipe Fregni; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2007-01-01

429

Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing.…

Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

2007-01-01

430

Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

1990-01-01

431

Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

2007-01-01

432

Electro Foot-Reflexology Stimulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foot reflexology is the practice of stimulating points on the feet to improve health. An electrical foot reflexology stimulator has been developed on the basics of foot reflexology massage and electroacupuncture. The device consists of a battery and a boost converter, the control-electronic and n electrodes. It is developed for the application of a changing current flow through the human

Felix A. Himmelstoss; Gerald A. Haas; M. F. Strummer; H. L. Votzi

2007-01-01

433

Stimulation with inhibited acidizing fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and injection wells are stimulated with an inhibited acidizing microemulsion containing hydrocarbon (external phase), surfactant, and acid. The acid is inhibited from reacting with the reservoir rock until it has penetrated the rock face. About 5 to 500 gal of the microemulsion per vertical foot of formation are useful to stimulate the wells. Carbonate reservoirs are particulary suited for

C. T. Presley; R. E. Smith

1974-01-01

434

Theory of Stimulated Concentration Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the general formulation of the coupling of a laser wave and a scattered light wave with density, temperature, and concentration fluctuations in a binary fluid mixture, an expression for the gain gc of stimulated concentration scattering is derived. It is shown that this gain is usually much smaller than the gain for stimulated Brillouin scattering gB. However, in gaseous

N. Bloembergen; W. H. Lowdermilk; M. Matsuoka; C. S. Wang

1971-01-01

435

Multichannel Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcutaneous (surface) electrode arrays have been used to improve the selectivity of finger movements when stimulating the forearm flexors and extensors. Previous systems have been limited by the number of array elements that can be controlled. A new multi-channel system capable of selectively stimulating up to 256 electrode elements is reported. Activation regions can be dynamically created by switching individual

436

Konstante Proportionen von Enzymen des Embden-Meyerhof-Weges im menschlichen Myometrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An verschiedenen Muskeltypen einschließlich des Myometriums wurden die Aktivitäten von Enzymen des energieliefernden Stoffwechsels bestimmt und die Ergebnisse in Form von Aktivitätsmustern wiedergegeben.

Wilfried Luh; Eberhard Henkel

1964-01-01

437

Ultraschall zur Beurteilung des posterioren Ligamentkomplexes bei thorakolumbalen Wirbelsäulenfrakturen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung\\u000a Hintergrund  Thorakolumbale Distraktionsverletzungen (Typ B nach AO-Klassifikation, AO Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) mit Schädigung des posterioren Ligamentkomplexes (PLC) stellen eine Operationsindikation\\u000a dar. Mit alleiniger Hilfe der Röntgen- und CT-Diagnostik wird die Verletzung des PLC aber regelmäßig nicht erkannt. Ziel dieser\\u000a Studie war die Evaluation der Treffsicherheit des Ultraschalls zur Diagnostik des PLC-Status thorakolumbaler Frakturen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material und Methoden  In einer prospektiven Studie wurden die

F. von Scotti; R.-J. Schröder; F. Streitparth; F. Kandziora; R. Hoffmann; K. J. Schnake

2010-01-01

438

A stimulation technique using only nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen alone has demonstrated success as a fracturing fluid in reservoirs normally found sensitive to liquid systems. It has proved useful in shales of the Ohio Valley and West Virginia areas, and in similar lithology of the Fort Worth basin located in north central Texas. The fracture efficiency of nitrogen, as related to leakoff and flow capacity testing with no propping agent, has been investigated to analyze the effectiveness of nitrogen stimulation. Also, field data are presented that demonstrate successful results of the nitrogen technique in both oil and gas reservoirs. From the laboratory studies and field results, several conclusions were drawn concerning nitrogen stimulation. Of primary interest is that most of the width reduction in an unpropped fracture will occur in the early stage of production, which indicates a sharp decline of the well flow rate after a relatively short period. On the basis of field and laboratory results, we can draw several conclusions from this study: Nitrogen may be an effective stimulation fluid in some low-permeability, naturally fractured, water1524 m). Most of the width reduction in an unpropped fracture will occur in the early stage of production, which indicates a sharp decline of the well flow rate after a relatively short period (Fig. 12). The same initial fracture widths will yield fractureclosure rates that are minimal in natural fractures and maximal in saw-cut, smooth fractures. Hydraulically induced fractures will close at an intermediate rate. Wall-building effect is not a controlling factor in nitrogen leakoff. However, fluid loss is controlled by reservoir-fluid compressibility and relative-permeability effect.

Freeman, E.R.; Abel, J.C.; Heinrich, C.; Kim, C.M.

1983-12-01

439

Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.  

PubMed

Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1. PMID:24142550

Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

2013-12-01

440

Palladacycles as antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

This review article deals with the structure activity relationship (SAR) for a variety of palladacycles in biomedical applications. Moreover, the types of antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial and antiprotozoal (antiamoebic and antitrypanosomal) activities will vary considerably from one country to another. Therefore, all efforts will be required to face such a vast diversity of problems. This study gives an up to date overview of the antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial and antiprotozoal chemistry of the palladium group elements with an emphasis on the new strategies used in the development of new antibacterial agents. Methodologies for application of bulky aromatic or aliphatic nitrogen ligands, chiral organic moieties, chelates containing other donor atoms than nitrogen, and biologically active ligands in the design of agents analogous to palladacycles are presented. Therefore, the use of palladacycles in medicinal chemistry is interesting as potential application in the biological properties with less toxic drugs compounds.. PMID:22612708

Elgazwy, A-S S H; Ismail, N S M; Atta-Allah, S R; Sarg, M T; Soliman, D H S; Zaki, M Y; Elgamas, M A

2012-01-01

441

Distributed Agents for Autonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Distributed Agents for Autonomy (DAFA) Study has been performed for ESA by SciSys UK Ltd, Vega GmbH and Politecnico di Milano. An analysis of past, present and future space missions has been conducted, structured around a set of three pre-defined mission scenarios: Formation Flying, Earth Observation and Planetary Exploration. This analysis led to the definition of a framework of use cases where the application of distributed autonomy seems necessary or appropriate, and a set of metrics that may be used to assess such deployments. Agent technology and architectures were extensively surveyed and the results used to elaborate each of the mission scenarios to the point where a software prototype could be constructed. Such a prototype was developed for a scenario based on the ExoMars mission and this has been used to highlight the advantages of a DAFA approach to the mission architecture.

Blake, R.; Amigoni, F.; Brambilla, A.; de la Rosa Steinz, S.; Lavagna, M.; le Duc, I.; Page, J.; Page, O.; Steel, R.; Wijnands, Q.

2010-08-01

442

Oral hypoglycemic agent update.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of oral hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the oral agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The oral agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the oral agents have marked limitations and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available oral agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This limits the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the oral agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the oral agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the oral agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other conditions, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675

Krall, L P; Chabot, V A

1978-07-01

443

Aktivitätsperiodik des Wasserläufers Velia currens F  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Der Wasserläufer Velia currens F. ist nachtaktiv und zeigt abends ein Haupt-, morgens ein Nebenmaximum der Aktivität nach Art eines „Bigeminus“; ersteres erscheint immer zu Beginn einer Dunkelphase eines 24stündigen Hell-Dunkel-Wechsels. Larven des 2.–4. Stadiums verhalten sich ebenso; ihre Tagesaktivität ist jedoch höher.2.Erhöhung der Temperatur bis auf 25–30° C bewirkt in einem 15:9 Std-Kunsttag eine relative Aktivitätssteigerung vor allem um

Ludger Rensing

1961-01-01

444

Zur Historie und Soziologie des Markenwesens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Was heißt Markenwesen? Markenwesen ist eine leicht veraltete Bezeichnung für die Einheit von Theorie und Praxis der Markenbildung\\u000a und Markenführung. Heutzutage sprechen wir vorwiegend von Marken und meinen damit bestimmte Produkte, die eine allgemeine,\\u000a teilweise weltweite Bekanntheit und Verbreitung gefunden haben, wie Coca-Cola, McDonald’s, Nike oder Porsche, und die für\\u000a viele Menschen hochbedeutsam sind. Marken gehören demnach zum Gegenstandsbereich des

Kai-Uwe Hellmann

445

Studien über mitogenetische Strahlung des Blutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Bei Kaulquappen vonRana ridibunda wird im IIIb- und Vb-Stadium eine IntensitÄtssteigerung der mitogenetischen Ausstrahlung des Blutes beobachtet.2.Im IIIa- und IV. Stadium nimmt die AusstrahlungsintensitÄt ab, und zwar besonders im IIIb-Stadium, wo sie schwÄcher als im II. Stadium, d. h. vor dem Erscheinen von sichtbaren Merkmalen der Metamorphose, auftritt.3.Bei Axolotln, die einer kurzen Behandlung mit Thyreoidin ausgesetzt waren, beobachtet man

L. J. Blacher; L. D. Liosner

1933-01-01

446

Über die Regeneration des Hinterlappens der Hypophyse  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Die biologische Reaktion des Organismus auf Entfernung der Hypophyse ist eine stetige; das Ergebnis einer gelungenen Operation ist eine Entfärbung der dunklen Axolotl.2.Nach einiger Zeit pigmentieren sich die entfärbten Axolotl wieder mehr oder weniger. An der Hirnbasis solcher Axolotl sind Ansammlungen neuralen Drüsengewebes, das für den Hinterlappen der Hypophyse typisch ist.3.Falls die Axolotl einer Radiumbestrahlung unterzogen werden, tritt die Pigmentierung

I. A. Dubowik

1933-01-01

447

Differential Cryptanalysis of DES-like Cryptosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is the best known and most widely used cryptosystem for civilian applications. It was developed\\u000a at IBM and adopted by the National Buraeu of Standards in the mid 70’s, and has successfully withstood all the attacks published\\u000a so far in the open literature. In this paper we develop a new type of cryptanalytic attack which

Eli Biham; Adi Shamir

1990-01-01

448

Zur Isotopieverschiebung im Spektrum des Samariums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wurde die Hyperfeinstruktur einer Reihe von Samarium-Linien zwischen 4300 und 7200 Å mit einemFabry-Pérot-Interferometer photographiert und vor allem im Hinblick auf die Isotopieverschiebung der geraden Isotope untersucht. Für die ungeraden Isotope ließ sich nur entnehmen, daß der Kernspin des Sm 147 und Sm 149 ? 3\\/2 sein muß. Aus fünf photometrisch besonders genau analysierten Sm I-Linien wurden die

Peter Brix; Hans Kopfermann

1949-01-01

449

Funktionswandel des Unternehmertums. Eigentum, Risiko, Verantwortung  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bis zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts war der Familienunternehmer der dominante Unternehmertypus. Prominente Beispiele in Deutschland\\u000a sind Alfred Krupp, Werner Siemens und Carl Ferdinand Stumm; in den USA sind es Henry Ford, Pierpont Morgan und Andrew Carnegie.\\u000a Bereits vor dem 1. Weltkrieg wurden diese Unternehmer schrittweise durch eine Managerbürokratie ersetzt, in der die Unternehmensfunktionen\\u000a ausdifferenziert und professionalisiert wurden (scientific management).

Paul Windolf

450

Retraite et correction des aléas de carrière  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Retraite et correction des aléas de carrière . Un retraité ancien salarié du secteur privé perçoit deux pensions : une du régime général d'assurance-vieillesse de la Sécurité sociale et une autre d'un régime complémentaire. Alors que ces derniers fonctionnent « par points », et de ce fait assurent une quasi-proportionnalité entre les droits à la retraite et l'effort contributif

Laurent Caussat

1996-01-01

451

La taille et le poids des Français  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] D'après l'enquête «Santé et consommation médicale » de 1970, les hommes mesuraient alors en moyenne 1,70 m et pesaient 72 kg, les femmes 1,60 m et 60 kg. La stature dans les catégories sociales les plus aisées s'avère sensiblement plus élevée que dans les milieux modestes. Retraités et étudiants se placent aux deux extrémités de l'échelle des tailles mais

Alain Charraud; Hélène Valdelièvre

1981-01-01

452

Surface polymerization agents  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

1996-12-01

453

Agents for Traffic Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular traffic is a classical example of a multi-agent system in which autonomous drivers operate in a shared environment. The article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in microscopic traffic modeling and the implications for simulation techniques. We focus on the short-time dynamics of car-following models which describe continuous feedback control tasks (acceleration and braking) and models for discrete-choice tasks

Arne Kesting; Martin Treiber; Dirk Helbing

2008-01-01

454

Enhanced phosphatidylinositol labelling in rat parotid fragments exposed to ?-adrenergic stimulation  

PubMed Central

1. Adrenergic agonists provoke a marked increase in labelling of phosphatidylinositol in fragments of rat parotid gland. 2. Adrenaline and phenylephrine (an adrenergic ?-agonist) are effective stimulants, but isoprenaline (an adrenergic ?-agonist) is relatively ineffective. 3. The response evoked by phenylephrine or adrenaline is prevented by prior incubation of the tissue with phenoxybenzamine (an ?-receptor blocking agent), but not by prior incubation with pindolol (a ?-receptor blocking agent). 4. Adrenergic stimulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism in parotid gland is therefore mediated through ?-receptors, in common with the adrenaline-induced K+ efflux. It is not linked to enzyme secretion, which is triggered by stimulation of ?-receptors. 5. It is suggested that the stimulation of phospholipid metabolism that occurs in several other tissues in the presence of adrenaline or noradrenaline may also involve ?-receptors.

Michell, Robert H.; Jones, Lynne M.

1974-01-01

455

Enhanced phosphatidylinositol labelling in rat parotid fragments exposed to alpha-adrenergic stimulation.  

PubMed

1. Adrenergic agonists provoke a marked increase in labelling of phosphatidylinositol in fragments of rat parotid gland. 2. Adrenaline and phenylephrine (an adrenergic alpha-agonist) are effective stimulants, but isoprenaline (an adrenergic beta-agonist) is relatively ineffective. 3. The response evoked by phenylephrine or adrenaline is prevented by prior incubation of the tissue with phenoxybenzamine (an alpha-receptor blocking agent), but not by prior incubation with pindolol (a beta-receptor blocking agent). 4. Adrenergic stimulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism in parotid gland is therefore mediated through alpha-receptors, in common with the adrenaline-induced K(+) efflux. It is not linked to enzyme secretion, which is triggered by stimulation of beta-receptors. 5. It is suggested that the stimulation of phospholipid metabolism that occurs in several other tissues in the presence of adrenaline or noradrenaline may also involve alpha-receptors. PMID:4365258

Michell, R H; Jones, L M

1974-01-01

456

[Antimicrobial agents in eyedrops].  

PubMed

Microbial contamination of ophthalmic drops means a risk of serious injury to the eye. Ophthalmic drops must therefore comply with sterility requirements. Protection of multiple-dose drops against secondary contamination is ensured by an addition of an antimicrobial agent. Selection of a suitable antimicrobial agent is conditioned by many factors, such as the spectrum of effect, properties of the preparation, compatibility with the components of the preparation and the container, and the technology of manufacture. Although the added antimicrobial substance ensures the safety of the preparation, on the other hand it can produce a number of negative effects in the eye tissue. The present paper summarizes pharmacopoeial requirements for microbial quality of ophthalmic drops, outlining the properties and efficacy of antimicrobial substances commonly used in ophthalmic drops (benzalkonium chloride BAC, cetrimide CTM, phenyl mercuric salts PHg, thiomersal TM, chlorobutanol ChB, benzyl alcohol BA, phenyl ethyl alcohol PEA, chlorohexidin ChX, parabens PB), their typical concentrations and combinations, including the parameters of formulation and the interactions which affect their activity. It deals with the toxicity of these antimicrobial substances, side effects on the eye tissue, and alternatives to the use of antimicrobial agents. PMID:15218731

Sklubalová, Z

2004-05-01

457

Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

458

Analyse des comportements de substitutions énergétiques dans le secteur industriel des sept grands pays de l'OCDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Dans cet article, nous étudions les substitutions énergétiques intervenues dans le secteur industriel hors sidérurgie des sept grands pays de l'OCDE sur la période 1960-1993 par l'intermédiaire des formes fonctionnelles flexibles Box-Cox généralisée et Fourier. Ces fonctions ont permis de mettre en exergue une modification des comportements sur la période révélant l'asymétrie de la demande d'énergie à une variation

Patricia Renou-Maissant

2002-01-01

459

Destinations initiales et redistribution des principaux groupes d'immigrants au Canada : changements au cours des deux dernieres decennies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette etude examine les changements qui ont touche la concentration geographique des principaux groupes d'immigrants au Canada en ce qui a trait a leur destination initiale et redistribution subsequente au cours des deux dernieres decennies. En meme temps, elle porte sur le role des collectivites immigrantes deja etablies a l'egard du choix de leur lieu d'etablissement par les nouveaux immigrants.

Feng Hou

2005-01-01

460

La deterioration des gains des immigrants s'etend-elle aux immigrants qui travaillent de facon autonome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

De nombreuses etudes ont traite du succes relatif des hommes immigrants au sein de la main-d'oeuvre salariee. Meme s'ils representent environ le sixieme de la main-d'oeuvre immigrante, les travailleurs autonomes immigrants constituent un groupe relativement peu etudie. Les donnees de cette etude sont tirees des recensements de 1981, 1986, 1991 et 1996, afin d'evaluer le succes des hommes immigrants qui

Marc Frenette

2002-01-01

461

Le salaire minimum et les revenus de substitution comme outils de coordination des stratégies salariales des firmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette étude a pour objectif d'évaluer l'incidence du salaire minimum et des revenus de substitution, allocation-chômage et revenu minimum d'insertion, sur les inégalités de salaire, sur le chômage et plus généralement sur l'optimalité de l'équilibre du marché du travail. Nous proposons une maquette du marché du travail à temps complet sur le segment des moins qualifiés, tenant compte des interdépendances

Arnaud Chéron; Jean-Olivier Hairault; François Langot

2002-01-01

462

Potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of des-methyl, des-amino pateamine A, a synthetic analogue of marine natural product pateamine A.  

PubMed

We report here that des-methyl, des-amino pateamine A (DMDA-PatA), a structurally simplified analogue of the marine natural product pateamine A, has potent antiproliferative activity against a wide variety of human cancer cell lines while showing relatively low cytotoxicity against nonproliferating, quiescent human fibroblasts. DMDA-PatA retains almost full in vitro potency in P-glycoprotein-overexpressing MES-SA/Dx5-Rx1 human uterine sarcoma cells that are significantly resistant to paclitaxel, suggesting that DMDA-PatA is not a substrate for P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux. Treatment of proliferating cells with DMDA-PatA leads to rapid shutdown of DNA synthesis in the S phase of the cell cycle. Cell-free studies show that DMDA-PatA directly inhibits DNA polymerases ? and ? in vitro albeit at concentrations considerably higher than those that inhibit cell proliferation. DMDA-PatA shows potent anticancer activity in several human cancer xenograft models in nude mice, including significant regressions observed in the LOX and MDA-MB-435 melanoma models. DMDA-PatA thus represents a promising natural product-based anticancer agent that warrants further investigation. PMID:19417157

Kuznetsov, Galina; Xu, Qunli; Rudolph-Owen, Lori; Tendyke, Karen; Liu, Junke; Towle, Murray; Zhao, Nanding; Marsh, Joanne; Agoulnik, Sergei; Twine, Natalie; Parent, Lana; Chen, Zhihong; Shie, Jue-Lon; Jiang, Yimin; Zhang, Huiming; Du, Hong; Boivin, Roch; Wang, Yuan; Romo, Daniel; Littlefield, Bruce A

2009-05-05

463

Les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiantes et des etudiants en formation des ingenieurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les representants des secteurs industriels et les, milieux professionnels en Amerique du Nord reprochaient aux universites de former des ingenieurs avec peu d'experience pratique en resolution de problemes et en conception. Quelques programmes de genie ont alors mis en place le travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets. Beaucoup d'ecrits font valoir les benefices de l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiants. Or, ces benefices commencent a peine a faire l'objet de recherches visant a produire des donnees probantes a ce sujet. Les travaux sur la motivation en contexte d'apprentissage et les modeles theoriques developpes sont issus d'environnements d'apprentissage marques par l'enseignement magistral. Le modele de la valeur attendue de la tache (Eccles et Wigfield, 1995; Neuville, 2004) et le modele du systeme-groupe (St-Arnaud, 2008) ont ete retenus pour mesurer les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation. La recherche visait aussi a approfondir et a nuancer la comprehension de la motivation des etudiants universitaires apprenant en contexte innovant. Les sujets constituent des etudiants (n=100) travaillant sur des projets d'integration au cours des trois sessions initiales du programme de genie mecanique d'une universite canadienne. L'analyse de regression multiple revele que les construits de la motivation expliquent un tiers de la variance de l'engagement academique dans la realisation du projet d'integration. Les perceptions de l' "expectancy", de la valeur intrinseque et utilitaire sont les determinants principaux de l'engagement des etudiants. L'analyse de variance multivariee a mesures repetees indique que la motivation des etudiants pour le travail sur les projets d'integration a augmente au cours des trois sessions initiales du parcours de formation. Finalement, malgre l'absence d'interaction significative entre les variables de motivation et de l'equipe, les reponses des sujets indiquent une amelioration du travail en equipe au terme des trois sessions. Mots cle: 1. apprentissage par projet; 2. projets d'integration; 3. travail en equipe; 4. motivation; 5. valeur attendue de la tache; 6. expectancy; 7. valeur intrinseque; 8. valeur utilitaire; 9. formation d'ingenieurs; 10. analyse quantitative.

Fernandez, Nicolas

464

Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: Independent versus Cooperative Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent human agents exist in a cooperativesocial environment that facilitateslearning. They learn not only by trialand-error, but also through cooperation bysharing instantaneous information, episodicexperience, and learned knowledge. Thekey investigations of this paper are, "Giventhe same number of reinforcement learningagents, will cooperative agents outperformindependent agents who do not communicateduring learning?" and "What is the pricefor such cooperation?" Using...

Ming Tan

1993-01-01