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1

Standards, Options: Recommandations pour I’indication des agents stimulant l’érythropoïèse (ASE: époétine alpha, époétine bêta et darbépoétine) dans la prise en charge de l’anémie en cancérologie (mise à jour 2007), rapport abrégé  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé\\u000a Introduction  Dès 1998, un groupe de travail d’experts, mis en place par la Fédération nationale des centres de lutte contre le cancer (FNCLCC),\\u000a a publié puis a mis à jour régulièrement des recommandations pour l’indication de l’agent stimulant l’érythropoïèse (ASE)\\u000a en cancérologie. À l’issue d’un processus de veille réalisé en 2006, de nouvelles données, non concordantes avec la dernière\\u000a actualisation

I. Ray-Coquard; D. Kassab-Chahmi; N. Casadevall; P. Chastagner; C. Marchal; P. Marec-Bérard; J.-L. Misset

2008-01-01

2

Erythropoietin and erythropoiesis stimulating agents.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormonal regulator of red blood cell production. Recombinant EPO has become the leading drug for treatment of anaemia from a variety of causes; however, it is sometimes misused in sport with the aim of improving performance and endurance. This paper presents an introductory overview of EPO, its receptor, and a variety of recombinant human EPOs/erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) available on the market (e.g. epoetins and their long acting analogs--darbepoetin alfa and continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator). Recent efforts to improve on EPO's pharmaceutical properties and to develop novel replacement products are also presented. In most cases, these efforts have emphasized a reduction in frequency of injections or complete elimination of intravenous or subcutaneous injections of the hormone (biosimilars, EPO mimetic peptides, fusion proteins, endogenous EPO gene activators and gene doping). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) combined with double immunoblotting can detect the subtle differences in glycosylation/sialylation, enabling differentiation among endogenous and recombinant EPO analogues. This method, using the highly sensitive anti-EPO monoclonal antibody AE7A5, has been accepted internationally as one of the methods for detecting misuse of ESAs in sport. PMID:22508651

Debeljak, Nataša; Sytkowski, Arthur J

2012-11-01

3

Traitement de l’anémie par injection hebdomadaire chez les patients atteints de cancer: analyse comparative des agents stimulants l’érythropoïèse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé:  L’anémie est fréquente chez les patients atteints d’un cancer, mais son impact est souvent sous-estimé. L’anémie dégrade la\\u000a qualité de vie, et des données indiquent également qu’elle est associée à un mauvais résultat thérapeutique et à une réduction\\u000a de la survie. L’introduction de l’érythropoïétine recombinante humaine (epoetin) a autorisé un traitement efficace de l’anémie\\u000a sans les risques associés aux transfusions

E. Pujade-Lauraine; J.-F. Geay; C. Topham

2006-01-01

4

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents: approaches to modulate activity  

PubMed Central

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), such as the approved agents epoetin alfa and epoetin beta, has been used successfully for over 20 years to treat anemia in millions of patients. However, due to the relatively short half-life of the molecule (approximately 8 hours), frequent dosing may be required to achieve required hemoglobin levels. Therefore, a need was identified in some anemic patient populations for erythropoiesis stimulating agents with longer half-lives that required less frequent dosing. This need led to the development of second generation molecules which are modified versions of rHuEPO with improved pharma-cokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties such as darbepoetin alfa, a hyperglycosylated analog of rHuEPO, and pegzyrepoetin, a pegylated rHuEPO. Third generation molecules, such as peginesatide, which are peptide mimetics that have no sequence homology to rHuEPO have also recently been developed. The various molecular, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of these and other erythropoiesis stimulating agents will be discussed in this review.

Sinclair, Angus M

2013-01-01

5

Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave  

PubMed Central

Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques.

Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

2008-01-01

6

Bubble Jet agent release cartridge for chemical single cell stimulation.  

PubMed

We present a new method for the distinct specific chemical stimulation of single cells and small cell clusters within their natural environment. By single-drop release of chemical agents with droplets in size of typical cell diameters (d <30 ?m) on-demand micro gradients can be generated for the specific manipulation of single cells. A single channel and a double channel agent release cartridge with integrated fluidic structures and integrated agent reservoirs are shown, tested, and compared in this publication. The single channel setup features a fluidic structure fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon. To allow for simultaneous release of different agents even though maintaining the same device size, the second type comprises a double channel fluidic structure, fabricated by photolithographic patterning of TMMF. Dispensed droplet volumes are V?=?15 pl and V?=?10 pl for the silicon and the TMMF based setups, respectively. Utilizing the agent release cartridges, the application in biological assays was demonstrated by hormone-stimulated premature bud formation in Physcomitrella patens and the individual staining of one single L 929 cell within a confluent grown cell culture. PMID:22833153

Wangler, N; Welsche, M; Blazek, M; Blessing, M; Vervliet-Scheebaum, M; Reski, R; Müller, C; Reinecke, H; Steigert, J; Roth, G; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

2013-02-01

7

Detection of peptidic erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in sport.  

PubMed

Detection methods for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in sport can be classified into direct and indirect approaches. Direct methods comprise electrophoretic techniques (isoelectric focusing (IEF-), sodium-dodecylsulfate (SDS-), sarcosyl (SAR-) polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses (-PAGE)), ELISAs and mass spectrometric methods. The haematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport is currently the only applied indirect approach. Newer developments include a mass spectrometric test for peginesatide, sequential exoglycosidase digestion of ertythropoietin (EPO) combined with electrophoresis (SDS/SAR-PAGE), a dipstick method (MAIIA), and a study on the differences in sialic acid O-acetylation of tryptic EPO O-glycopeptides. The focus of this article is on direct detection methods. PMID:24677025

Reichel, Christian

2014-05-01

8

Traitement des douleurs trigéminales neuropathiques par stimulation corticale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurosurgical procedures currently available for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia can induce trigeminal neuropathic pain. Severe forms of trigeminal neuropathic pain correspond to the classical facial anesthesia dolorosa, whose treatment is known to be very difficult. Chronic stimulation of the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus was, in the past, the only neurosurgical therapy available to treat this

J.-P. Nguyen; J.-P. Lefaucheur; S. Raoul; V. Roualdes; Y. Péréon; Y. Keravel

2009-01-01

9

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and techniques: a challenge for doping analysts.  

PubMed

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) engineered in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures (Epoetin alfa and Epoetin beta) and its hyperglycosylated analogue Darbepoetin alfa are known to be misused by athletes. The drugs can be detected by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and immunoblotting of urine samples, because "EPO" is in reality a mixture of isoforms and the N-glycans of the recombinant products differ from those of the endogenous hormone. However, there is a plethora of novel erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Since the originator Epoetins alfa and beta are no longer protected by patent in the European Union, rHuEPO biosimilars have entered the market. In addition, several companies in Asia, Africa and Latin America produce copied rHuEPOs for clinical purposes. While the amino acid sequence of all Epoetins is identical, the structure of their glycans differs depending on the mode of production. Some products contain more acidic and others more basic EPO isoforms. Epoetin delta is special, as it was engineered by homologous recombination in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080), thus lacking N-glycolylneuraminic acid like native human EPO. ESAs under development include EPO fusion proteins, synthetic erythropoiesis stimulating protein (SEP) and peptidic (Hematide(), CNTO 528) as well as non-peptidic EPO mimetics. Furthermore, preclinical respectively clinical trials have been performed with small orally active drugs that stimulate endogenous EPO production by activating the EPO promoter ("GATA-inhibitors": diazepane derivatives) or enhancer ("HIF-stabilizers": 2-oxoglutarate analogues). The prohibited direct EPO gene transfer may become a problem in sports only in the future. PMID:19355882

Jelkmann, W

2009-01-01

10

Clinical use of erythropoietic stimulating agents in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous clonal diseases characterized by cytopenias resulting from ineffective hemopoiesis. Anemia affects the vast majority of patients with MDS and contributes substantially to their symptoms. For more than 20 years, recombinant human erythropoietin has been available for clinical use, and it has been employed in an attempt to relieve MDS-related anemia. Erythropoietin-alpha, erythropoietin-beta, and more recently darbepoetin have been found to increase hemoglobin levels and abolish transfusion dependence in 19%-68% of MDS cases. This wide range in clinical response depends on several biological and clinical variables that allow the selection of patients with the highest probability of successful treatment. These agents are a mainstay in MDS therapy, but many issues are still open in terms of the initiation of therapy, the optimal dosage of erythropoietic stimulating agents (ESAs), the most efficient type of ESA, and the duration and outcome of such treatments. In this review, the mechanisms of response and predictive factors as well as an analysis of the clinical activity of ESAs in MDS therapy are presented. PMID:21930833

Santini, Valeria

2011-01-01

11

Use of agents stimulating erythropoiesis in digestive diseases  

PubMed Central

Anemia is the most common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Control and inadequate treatment leads to a worse quality of life and increased morbidity and hospitalization. Blood loss, and to a lesser extent, malabsorption of iron are the main causes of iron deficiency in IBD. There is also a variable component of anemia related to chronic inflammation. The anemia of chronic renal failure has been treated for many years with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), which significantly improves quality of life and survival. Subsequently, rHuEPO has been used progressively in other conditions that occur with anemia of chronic processes such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis or IBD, and anemia associated with the treatment of hepatitis C virus. Erythropoietic agents complete the range of available therapeutic options for treatment of anemia associated with IBD, which begins by treating the basis of the inflammatory disease, along with intravenous iron therapy as first choice. In cases of resistance to treatment with iron, combined therapy with erythropoietic agents aims to achieve near-normal levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit (11-12 g/dL). New formulations of intravenous iron (iron carboxymaltose) and the new generation of erythropoietic agents (darbepoetin and continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) will allow better dosing with the same efficacy and safety.

Moreno Lopez, Rosario; Sicilia Aladren, Beatriz; Gomollon Garcia, Fernando

2009-01-01

12

Comparative behavioral effects of anticholinergic agents in cats: psychomotor stimulation and aggression.  

PubMed

The effect on behavior of eight anticholinergic agents: atropine, scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, homatropine, eucatropine, hexocyclium and propantheline, injected into the cerebral ventricle (ICV) of the cat was investigated and compared. The anticholinergic agents evoked: (1) psychomotor stimulation such as miaowing, loud calling, restlessness, impelling locomotion, jumping, vacant staring, apprehension and loss of interest of the surroundings; (2) aggression, hissing, threat, attack, defense, fighting with paws and flight; (3) autonomic responses including mydriasis, tachypnea, dyspnea, licking, vomiting, salivation, micturition and defection; and (4) motor phenomena comprising scratching, ataxia, rigidity, tremor, weakness with adynamia or myoclonic jerks. Convulsions appeared only after ICV injections of atropine and homatropine. The most characteristic behavioral effect of anticholinergic agents was psychomotor stimulation accompanied by mild aggressive responses. The only exception was propantheline which caused a muscular weakness and adynamia. Atropine and scopolamine alone induced a dose-dependent impelling locomotion as well as fighting behavior. Carbachol and eserine injected intracerebroventricularly reversed the locomotion autonomic and motor phenomena produced by anticholinergic agents administered similarly. It is suggested that anticholinergic agents acting as partial agonists, can produce their behavioral effects through central cholinoceptive sites. PMID:3703893

Beleslin, D B; Stefanovi?-Deni?, K; Samardzi?, R

1986-03-01

13

Ten Years of Meta-analyses on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background: Since erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were licensed in 1993, more than 70 randomized controlled trials\\u000a and more than 20 meta-analyses and systematic reviews on their effectiveness were conducted. Here, we present a systematic\\u000a review on the meta-analyses of trials evaluating ESAs in cancer patients. Methods: We included all published meta-analyses\\u000a of at least five randomized controlled trials that evaluated the

Thomy Tonia; Julia Bohlius

14

Differential Modulation of Angiogenesis by Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in a Mouse Model of Ischaemic Retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundErythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anaemia but concerns exist about their potential to promote pathological angiogenesis in some clinical scenarios. In the current study we have assessed the angiogenic potential of three ESAs; epoetin delta, darbepoetin alfa and epoetin beta using in vitro and in vivo models.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe epoetins induced angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells

Carmel M. McVicar; Liza M. Colhoun; Jodie L. Abrahams; Claire L. Kitson; Ross Hamilton; Reinhold J. Medina; Dash Durga; Tom A. Gardiner; Pauline M. Rudd; Alan W. Stitt; Neil A. Hotchin

2010-01-01

15

Hypogonadism in males with chronic kidney disease: another cause of resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents?  

PubMed

Anemia, inflammation, resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) and hypogonadism (testosterone deficiency) are highly prevalent conditions, which heralds poor prognosis, in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been speculated that testosterone stimulates erythropoiesis via production of hematopoietic growth factors and possibly improvement of iron bioavailability. Where as inflammation stimulates synthesis of the liver-derived iron regulatory protein hepcidin, a recent study suggests that testosterone inhibits hepcidin synthesis, thus offering a possible novel mechanism for testosterone-induced erythropoiesis. As any agent that lowers hepcidin may be an effective strategy to normalize iron homeostasis and overcome renal anemia, testosterone deficiency should be considered in this patient group. Indeed, a recent study in males with CKD showed that hypogonadism may be an additional cause of anemia and reduced ESA responsiveness. Thus, a randomized controlled trial is needed to test the possibility that restoration of testosterone levels in hypogonadal CKD males may translate into lower prevalence of anemia, better ESA responsiveness and better quality of life. PMID:22652713

Stenvinkel, Peter; Bárány, Peter

2012-01-01

16

Quantitative assessment of minimal effective concentration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents  

PubMed Central

Minimal effective concentration (MEC) was proposed to explain why subcutaneous (SC) administration of erythropoietin (EPO) induces a higher hemoglobin (HGB) increase than intravenous (IV) administration. It has been further used to explain the paradox that erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) with lower receptor binding affinity may have higher in vivo activity. We have developed a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with incorporation of the operational model of agonism to characterize the data from two clinical trials. By using model-based simulations, we demonstrate that SC route is more efficacious than IV route and explain the paradoxical behavior of ESAs. We determined that MEC can be quantified by C50, which represents the concentration of an ESA producing its half-maximal effect of stimulating the proliferation of erythroid precursor cells. The model used may allow joint PK/PD modeling of data from different ESAs, and provide a platform for dosing regimen optimizations and future clinical study designs.

Yan, X; Krzyzanski, W

2013-01-01

17

Anaesthetic agents inhibit gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release from rat stomach ECL cells  

PubMed Central

By mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin, the ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa play a key role in the control of the parietal cells and hence of gastric acid secretion. General anaesthesia suppresses basal and gastrin- and histamine-stimulated acid secretion. The present study examines if the effect of anaesthesia on basal and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion is associated with suppressed ECL-cell histamine secretion.A microdialysis probe was implanted in the submucosa of the ventral aspect of the acid-producing part of the stomach (32 rats). Three days later, ECL-cell histamine mobilization was monitored 2?h before and 4?h after the start of intravenous infusion of gastrin (5?nmol?kg?1?h?1). The rats were either conscious or anaesthetized. Four commonly used anaesthetic agents were given 1?h before the start of the experiments by intraperitoneal injection: chloral hydrate (300?mg?kg?1), pentobarbitone (40?mg?kg?1), urethane (1.5?g?kg?1) and a mixture of fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam (15/0.5/7.5?mg?kg?1).In a parallel series of experiments, basal- and gastrin-induced acid secretion was monitored in six conscious and 25 anaesthetized (see above) chronic gastric fistula rats. All anaesthetic agents lowered gastrin-stimulated acid secretion; also the basal acid output was reduced (fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam was an exception).Anaesthesia reduced gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release by 55–80%. The reduction in gastrin-induced acid response (70–95%) was strongly correlated to the reduction in gastrin-induced histamine mobilization. The correlation is in line with the view that the reduced acid response to gastrin reflects impaired histamine mobilization.Rat stomach ECL cells were purified by counter-flow elutriation. Gastrin-evoked histamine mobilization from the isolated ECL cells was determined in the absence or presence of anaesthetic agents in the medium. With the exception of urethane, they inhibited gastrin-evoked histamine secretion dose-dependently, indicating a direct effect on the ECL cells.Anaesthetized rats are widely used to study acid secretion and ECL-cell histamine release. The present results illustrate the short-comings of such an approach in that a number of anaesthetic agents were found to impair not only acid secretion but also the secretion of ECL-cell histamine – some acting in a direct manner.

Norlen, P; Kitano, M; Lindstrom, E; Hakanson, R

2000-01-01

18

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and anaemia of end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread health problem in the world and anaemia of renal origin is a common problem. Anaemia associated with CKD covers significant risk for faster progression of chronic renal failure, decreased quality of life, and clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. The mainstay of anaemia treatment secondary to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has become erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). More than 90 % of ESRD patients maintained on dialysis respond to traditional recombinant human erythropoietin (rHU EPO) or to EPO analogues, also called "biosimilars". Iron deficiency often co-exists in dialysis patients and must be evaluated and treated to reduce ESA requirements. Partial, but not complete correction of renal anaemia is associated with improved outcomes in patients with CKD. The use of ESAs does carry risks such as hypertension, pure red cell aplasia, or cancer, and these agents need to be used judiciously. PMID:20443766

Schmid, Holger; Schiffl, Helmut

2010-07-01

19

[Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease: which route of administration?].  

PubMed

In the last twenty years, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have improved the management of renal anemia, with significant amelioration of quality of life in patients on hemodialysis. ESAs can be administered both intravenously and subcutaneously. In predialysis chronic kidney disease and in peritoneal dialysis, the administration route is necessarily subcutaneous. In hemodialysis the intravenous route was initially preferred because of the presence of ready vascular access for drug administration. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that the subcutaneous route allowed the achievement of optimal levels of hemoglobin with a reduction of mean administered dose, number of injections, and costs. A few years ago, the finding of a higher risk of pure red cell aplasia associated with subcutaneous administration of epoetin reopened the debate about the route of administration. We here review the studies on the preferable route of administration of epoetin and darbepoetin- alpha, in terms of efficacy and safety, and take a look at future perspectives. PMID:19255962

Borrelli, S; Baldanza, D; Scigliano, R; Catapano, F; Grimaldi, M; Calabria, M; Zamboli, P; Minutolo, R; De Nicola, L; Conte, G

2009-01-01

20

Prognostic impact of the combination of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to cancer treatment: literature review.  

PubMed

Cancer patients commonly develop anaemia. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are frequently used in cancer treatment. Numerous controlled studies indicate that ESAs can raise haemoglobin levels, reduce transfusion requirements and improve quality of life in anaemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. They were previously used to enhance response to radiation therapy, via increasing tumour cell oxygenation. Since the 2002 guideline, there has been increasing attention to the safety of ESA treatment in patients with cancer. Two placebo-controlled phase III randomised clinical trials published in 2003 showed evidence of harmful effects of ESAs on survival and/or tumour outcomes. Subsequently, recent trials and several large meta-analyses have confirmed negative impact on survival and/or disease progression. To comprehensively examine whether ESA use affects safety outcomes in cancer patients in different settings (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies), we conducted a literature review of all clinical trials, small and large meta-analyses from 1990 to 2012. PMID:23775155

Boulaamane, L; Goncalves, A; Boutayeb, S; Viens, P; M'rabti, H; Bertucci, F; Errihani, H

2013-08-01

21

Confusion about the appropriate use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis.  

PubMed

The introduction of recombinant erythropoietin for clinical use in dialysis patients in 1989 was considered a major milestone for the long-term treatment of these vulnerable patients. It was assumed that increasing hemoglobin concentrations would not only improve patient-reported outcomes, as shown in early trials, but also reduce morbidity and mortality. Evidence that has accumulated over the ensuing two decades has repeatedly contradicted this assumption. The presence of powerful stake holders, strong competing incentives, strong prior beliefs, and scarce and confusing evidence have maintained uncertainty about the appropriate treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease who are anemic, including those requiring dialysis. This commentary recalls the decades-long scientific and regulatory journey and attempts to make the case for the urgent need for potentially paradigm-shifting evidence generation to identify the therapeutic sweet spot that would maximize net benefits of treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients undergoing dialysis. PMID:21069924

Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

2010-01-01

22

Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Releasers: Potential Treatment Agents for Stimulant Addiction  

PubMed Central

“Agonist therapy” for cocaine and methamphetamine addiction involves administration of stimulant-like medications (e.g., monoamine releasers) to reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. A significant problem with this strategy is that many candidate medications possess abuse liability because of activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons in the brain. One way to reduce DA-mediated abuse liability of candidate drugs is to add in serotonin (5-HT) releasing properties, since substantial evidence shows that 5-HT neurons provide an inhibitory influence over mesolimbic DA neurons. This article addresses several key issues related to the development of dual DA/5-HT releasers for the treatment of substance use disorders. First, the authors briefly summarize the evidence supporting a dual deficit in DA and 5-HT function during withdrawal from chronic cocaine or alcohol abuse. Second, the authors discuss data demonstrating that 5HT release can dampen DA-mediated stimulant effects, and the “antistimulant” role of 5-HT2C receptors is considered. Next, the mechanisms underlying potential adverse effects of 5-HT releasers are described. Finally, the authors discuss recently published data with PAL-287, a novel nonamphetamine DA/5-HT releasing agent that suppresses cocaine self-administration but lacks positive reinforcing properties. It is concluded that DA/5-HT releasers could be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of cocaine and alcohol addictions, as well as for obesity, attention-deficit disorder, and depression.

Rothman, Richard B.; Blough, Bruce E.; Baumann, Michael H.

2009-01-01

23

High resolution separation methods for the determination of intact human erythropoiesis stimulating agents. A review.  

PubMed

Human erythropoietin (hEPO), a hormone involved in the formation of red blood cells, is a 30 kDa glycoprotein with a high carbohydrate content. The production of recombinant hEPO has made possible its widespread therapeutic use and its banned use in competition sports. Methods to analyze EPO and other erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are necessary for the characterization and quality control of these biopharmaceuticals and also for doping control. In this paper, high resolution separation methods, namely high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with special attention to CE-coupled mass spectrometry, are reviewed. The usefulness of these techniques when applied in different modes to separate the glycoprotein isoforms, aggregates or excipients are detailed. In addition, sample preparation methods that have been applied to ESA samples for subsequent determination by HPLC or CE, as well as the potential compatibility of other preparation methods, are discussed. Applications of the HPLC and CE methods regarding regulatory considerations for biopharmaceuticals analysis, with emphasis on biosimilars, and doping control are also included. Finally, limitations of the present methods and their possible solutions are considered. PMID:22200302

Girard, Michel; Puerta, Angel; Diez-Masa, Jose Carlos; de Frutos, Mercedes

2012-02-01

24

Qualitative and quantitative assessment of marketed erythropoiesis-stimulating agents by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Formulated erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) containing erythropoietin (EPO)-alpha, EPO-beta or darbepoetin-alpha were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with a previously published method requiring no sample pre-treatment [1]. In this study, the method proved to be applicable to all formulations encountered, that is, in the presence of polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20 or human serum albumin as major excipients, thus extending the range of products that can be analyzed without pre-treatment. Method performance was evaluated and showed good linearity, range, precision and sensitivity. No significant matrix effects were observed for the various formulations. The ability of the method to resolve isoforms of each of the three active ingredients enabled comparison of the isoform distribution of finished products with that of the respective drug substance. In general, finished products and their corresponding drug substances showed similar isoform distribution and all were within manufacturer specifications. In addition, the content in active ingredient in the various dosage strengths was found to be in close agreement with the label claims with the exception of 2 out of 131 containers analyzed. Overall, this study demonstrated that the capillary zone electrophoresis method could be successfully applied to the analysis of most of the ESA products currently on the market in North America and Europe and that all products were found to have good batch-to-batch consistency. PMID:22954449

Boucher, Sylvie; Kane, Anita; Girard, Michel

2012-12-01

25

Responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease: does geography matter?  

PubMed

Management of renal anemia in the large and at-risk population of non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a critical issue. In particular, definition of the optimal hemoglobin (Hb) target for therapy is controversial but highly warranted by physicians and patients worldwide. Recently, international clinical practice guidelines have recommended delayed initiation of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) and lower Hb target levels during maintenance therapy. However, geographical differences in terms of ESA dose needed to achieve a given Hb value can be evidenced, with US patients showing higher prevalence of ESA resistance. On the other hand, non-US patients are often maintained in a higher Hb range by means of low ESA doses. This critical point has never been addressed. Nevertheless, outside of the US, translating the restrictive recommendations of new guidelines, which are essentially based on trials in US patients, can lead to negative effects, such as an increased need for a blood transfusion, and worsening of quality of life. In this article we provide a reappraisal of current recommendations on anemia management in non-dialysis CKD in light of the geographical differences in individual responsiveness to ESA. PMID:24442793

De Nicola, Luca; Locatelli, Francesco; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

2014-02-01

26

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent resistance and mortality in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) varies widely among dialysis patients. ESA resistance has been associated with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients data is limited. Therefore we assessed the relation between ESA resistance in both HD and PD patients. Methods NECOSAD is a Dutch multi-center prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients who started dialysis between January 1997 and January 2007. ESA resistance was defined as hemoglobin level?

2013-01-01

27

Differential Modulation of Angiogenesis by Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in a Mouse Model of Ischaemic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anaemia but concerns exist about their potential to promote pathological angiogenesis in some clinical scenarios. In the current study we have assessed the angiogenic potential of three ESAs; epoetin delta, darbepoetin alfa and epoetin beta using in vitro and in vivo models. Methodology/Principal Findings The epoetins induced angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells at high doses, although darbepoetin alfa was pro-angiogenic at low-doses (1–20 IU/ml). ESA-induced angiogenesis was VEGF-mediated. In a mouse model of ischaemia-induced retinopathy, all ESAs induced generation of reticulocytes but only epoetin beta exacerbated pathological (pre-retinal) neovascularisation in comparison to controls (p<0.05). Only epoetin delta induced a significant revascularisation response which enhanced normality of the vasculature (p<0.05). This was associated with mobilisation of haematopoietic stem cells and their localisation to the retinal vasculature. Darbepoetin alfa also increased the number of active microglia in the ischaemic retina relative to other ESAs (p<0.05). Darbepoetin alfa induced retinal TNF? and VEGF mRNA expression which were up to 4 fold higher than with epoetin delta (p<0.001). Conclusions This study has implications for treatment of patients as there are clear differences in the angiogenic potential of the different ESAs.

McVicar, Carmel M.; Colhoun, Liza M.; Abrahams, Jodie L.; Kitson, Claire L.; Hamilton, Ross; Medina, Reinhold J.; Durga, Dash; Gardiner, Tom A.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Stitt, Alan W.

2010-01-01

28

Resistance to Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents Is Associated with Arterial Microcalcification in Early Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between arterial microcalcification (AMiC) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) hyporesponsiveness in hemodialysis patients. The presence of AMiC was confirmed by pathologic examination of von Kossa-stained arterial specimens acquired during vascular access surgery. We assessed the ESA hyporesponsiveness index (EHRI), defined as the weekly ESA dose per kilogram body weight divided by the hemoglobin level. AMiC was detected in 33 (40.2%) of 82 patients. Patients with diabetes had a higher incidence of AMiC than patients without diabetes. The serum levels of albumin and cholesterol were higher in patients without AMiC than in patients with AMiC. The serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were lower in patients with AMiC than in patients without AMiC. The serum levels of phosphate and calcium-phosphorus product did not differ between the two groups. The mean EHRI value was higher in patients with AMiC than in patients without AMiC. In multivariate analyses, ESA hyporesponsiveness and diabetes showed a significant association with AMiC. In conclusion, ESA hyporesponsiveness may be a clinical relevant parameters related to AMiC in hemodialysis patients.

Won, Hye Sung; Choi, Su Jin; Yun, Yu Seon; Shin, Ok-Ran; Ko, Yoon Ho; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Sun Ae; Kim, Young Ok

2014-01-01

29

Influence of Calcium on the Inotropic Actions of Hyperosmotic Agents, Norepinephrine, Paired Electrical Stimulation, and Treppe  

PubMed Central

To analyze the interaction of calcium ion concentration with hypertonic agents and with other inotropic interventions, isolated right ventricular cat papillary muscles were studied under isometric conditions in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution. Extracellular calcium concentrations were varied between 2.5 and 11.0 mM. Maximal inotropic effects occurred between 5 and 8.0 mM calcium and further elevation to 11.0 mM was without additional influence. The effect of hyperosmotic sucrose and mannitol on papillary muscle performance was compared with that of 10-6 M norepinephrine at calcium concentrations of 2.5 and 10.0 mM and with paired electrical stimulation in 10.0 mM calcium. Both norepinephrine and the hyperosmotic agents produced significant increases in developed tension and in the maximal rate of tension rise (dT/dt) in Krebs-Ringer in 2.5 and 4.0 mM calcium. In 10 mM calcium norepinephrine increased developed tension and dT/dt, but sucrose and mannitol caused no change or small reductions in both. Paired electrical stimulation, like hyperosmolality, caused no increase in dT/dt in 10 mM calcium. The presence of a potent pharmacological inhibitor of systolic calcium transfer across the cell membrane (D600, 10-6 M) reduced developed tension and dT/dt by 76±2.7 and 74±2.0%, respectively, and prevented and in fact reversed the expected increase in dT/dt associated with an increase in rate of stimulation (treppe). However, hypertonic mannitol and paired pacing persisted in causing marked increases in developed tension and dT/dt even in the presence of D600, suggesting that their inotropic effects are not dependent on increased intracellular transfer of calcium during systole through cell membrane channels in which D600 acts as a competitive inhibitor. The results of these studies suggest that apparent functional saturation of intracellular calcium receptor sites eliminates any additional inotropic effect of hyperosmolality or paired pacing. The data are compatible with the hypothesis that the inotropic effects of hyperosmolality and of paired pacing result from an increase in calcium concentration at the myofilaments during contraction. The increase induced by hyperosmolality might occur because of an increase in the total amount of calcium released into the cytosol with each action potential and/or as a passive consequence of cellular dehydration. Norepinephrine has the capacity to increase contractility even when intracellular calcium receptor sites appear to be functionally saturated, suggesting that it may act at least in part by a mechanism that is independent of changes in net intracellular calcium concentration. Images

Willerson, James T.; Crie, J. Stanley; Adcock, Robert C.; Templeton, Gordon H.; Wildenthal, Kern

1974-01-01

30

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in the management of cancer patients with anemia: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used in the management of anemia in cancer patients. Despite their apparent effectiveness, recent studies have suggested that ESAs could result in serious adverse events and even higher mortality. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of ESAs in the management of cancer patients with anemia using a meta-analysis. Methods The initial literature search covered Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials, and identified 1,569 articles. The final meta-analysis included eight randomized controlled trials (n=2,387) in cancer patients with <11 g/dL hemoglobin (Hb) at the baseline and target Hb (for stopping ESA treatment) at no more than 13 g/dL. The assessment measures included Hb response, blood transfusion rate and adverse events that included venous thromboemblism (VTE), hypertension, and on-study mortality. The results are expressed as pooled odds ratio (OR). Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot analysis. Results ESAs significantly increased the Hb concentration [OR 7.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.85 to 10.53, P<0.001] and reduced the red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rate (OR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.65, P<0.001). ESAs did not increase the accumulated adverse events (OR 0.95, P=0.82), or the on-study mortality (OR 1.09, P=0.47). Conclusions ESAs are not associated with increased frequency of severe adverse events in anemic cancer patients when the target Hb value is no more than 13 g/dL.

Li, Xiaomei; Yan, Zhi; Kong, Dexiao; Zou, Wen; Wang, Jihua; Sun, Dianshui; Jiang, Yuhua

2014-01-01

31

Sickle trait in African-American hemodialysis patients and higher erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose.  

PubMed

African Americans require higher doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) during dialysis to manage anemia, but the influence of sickle cell trait and other hemoglobinopathy traits on anemia in dialysis patients has not been adequately evaluated. We performed a cross-sectional study of a large cohort of adult African-American hemodialysis patients in the United States to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy traits and quantify their influence on ESA dosing. Laboratory and clinical data were obtained over 6 months in 2011. Among 5319 African-American patients, 542 (10.2%) patients had sickle cell trait, and 129 (2.4%) patients had hemoglobin C trait; no other hemoglobinopathy traits were present. Sickle cell trait was more common in this cohort than the general African-American population (10.2% versus 6.5%-8.7%, respectively, P<0.05). Among 5002 patients (10.3% sickle cell trait and 2.4% hemoglobin C trait) receiving ESAs, demographic and clinical variables were similar across groups, with achieved hemoglobin levels being nearly identical. Patients with hemoglobinopathy traits received higher median doses of ESA than patients with normal hemoglobin (4737.4 versus 4364.1 units/treatment, respectively, P=0.02). In multivariable analyses, hemoglobinopathy traits associated with 13.2% more ESA per treatment (P=0.001). Within subgroups, sickle cell trait patients received 13.2% (P=0.003) higher dose and hemoglobin C trait patients exhibited a similar difference (12.9%, P=0.12). Sensitivity analyses using weight-based dosing definitions and separate logistic regression models showed comparable associations. Our findings suggest that the presence of sickle cell trait and hemoglobin C trait may explain, at least in part, prior observations of greater ESA doses administered to African-American dialysis patients relative to Caucasian patients. PMID:24459231

Derebail, Vimal K; Lacson, Eduardo K; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Key, Nigel S; Hogan, Susan L; Hakim, Raymond M; Mooney, Ann; Jani, Chinu M; Johnson, Curtis; Hu, Yichun; Falk, Ronald J; Lazarus, J Michael

2014-04-01

32

Current and upcoming erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, iron products, and other novel anemia medications.  

PubMed

Treatment for anemia has come a long way in the last 20 years since the first recombinant human erythropoietins were licensed for the management of anemia in chronic kidney disease. The first-generation epoetins were succeeded by the development and production of a longer-acting erythropoietin (EPO) analog, darbepoetin alpha, which allowed less frequent dosing, usually once weekly or once every 2 weeks. More recently, another EPO-related molecule has been manufactured called Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator with an even longer half-life, and although for patent reasons this is not available in the United States, it is licensed and is already being used in Europe. Other molecules are in development or are becoming licensed in Europe, including biosimilar epoetin products/follow-on biologics, and elsewhere in the world there are cheaper-production "copy" epoetins. Indeed, it is estimated that up to 80 such products may be sold in countries with less stringent regulatory control of pharmaceutical products. Two different biosimilar epoetins have already been licensed in Europe, one under 2 different brand names and one under 3 different brand names, and others may follow. Hematide is a synthetic peptide-based EPO receptor agonist that, interestingly, has no structural homology with EPO, and yet is still able to activate the EPO receptor and stimulate erythropoiesis. This agent is currently in phase III clinical trials. Research continues for orally active antianemic therapies, and several strategies are being investigated, although none is imminently available. Two new intravenous iron preparations have recently been developed, one in the United States (Ferumoxytol; AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA) and one recently licensed in Europe (ferric carboxymaltose [Ferinject; Vifor Pharma, Zurich, Switzerland]). In conclusion, the development of effective therapies for the treatment of anemia has been a highly active field, both scientifically and economically, over the last two decades. PMID:19233071

Macdougall, Iain C; Ashenden, Michael

2009-03-01

33

Ghrelin stimulates, whereas des-octanoyl ghrelin inhibits, glucose output by primary hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Ghrelin exerts various metabolic activities, including regulation of glucose levels in humans. To verify whether the glucose response to ghrelin reflects a modulation of an insulin-independent hepatic phenomenon, we studied glucose output by primary porcine hepatocytes in suspension culture, after incubation with acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG), and hexarelin (HEX). AG induced glucose output dose dependently after 20 min of incubation (P < 0.001), whereas HEX, a GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) agonist, had no effect. UAG inhibited glucose release also dose dependently and after 20 min (P < 0.001). Moreover, UAG completely reversed AG-induced glucose output (P < 0.01). Using real-time PCR, GHS-R1a gene expression was undetectable in all the hepatocyte preparations studied. The lack of efficacy of HEX, the efficacy of UAG, and the absence of GHS-R1a expression indicate the involvement of a yet uncharacterized ghrelin receptor type. In conclusion, glucose output by primary hepatocytes is time- and dose-dependently stimulated by AG and inhibited by UAG. Moreover, UAG counteracts the stimulatory effect of AG on glucose release. These actions might be mediated by a different receptor than GHS-R1a, and apparently, we must consider AG and UAG as separate hormones that can modify each other's actions on glucose handling, at least in the liver. PMID:15536157

Gauna, Carlotta; Delhanty, Patric J D; Hofland, Leo J; Janssen, Joop A M J L; Broglio, Fabio; Ross, Richard J M; Ghigo, Ezio; van der Lely, Aart Jan

2005-02-01

34

Development of an erythropoietin prescription simulator to improve abilities for the prescription of erythropoietin stimulating agents: Is it feasible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The increasing use of erythropoietins with long half-lives and the tendency to lengthen the administration interval to monthly\\u000a injections call for raising awareness on the pharmacokinetics and risks of new erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA). Their\\u000a pharmacodynamic complexity and individual variability limit the possibility of attaining comprehensive clinical experience.\\u000a In order to help physicians acquiring prescription abilities, we have built a

Luca Gabutti; Filippo Nobile; Valentina Forni; Fabio Rigamonti; Nadir Weibel; Michel Burnier

2011-01-01

35

Atorvastatin Increases Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agent Hyporesponsiveness in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Role of Anti-Inflammation Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness is aggravated by chronic inflammation in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Dyslipidemia is prevalent in MHD patients. Statin therapy has been demonstrated to not only be effective in lowering lipid levels, but also numerous pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and endothelial function improvement. Recently, a retrospective study has shown that statin therapy decreases ESA requirements in MHD

Chih-Kang Chiang; Shao-Yu Yang; Yu-Sen Peng; Shih-Ping Hsu; Mei-Fen Pai; Jen-Wen Huang; Kuan-Yu Hung; Kuan-Dun Wu

2009-01-01

36

Detection of Chemical\\/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of Chemical\\/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve

S. H. Harmon; K. J. Hart; A. A. Vass; M. B. Wise; D. A. Wolf

1999-01-01

37

Stimulant doping agents used in Brazil: prevalence, detectability, analytical implications, and challenges.  

PubMed

This article presents the prevalence of stimulant doping among Brazilian athletes, the analytical approaches used, as well as a general evolution of the detectability of the stimulants being used. Results from the Brazilian accredited doping control laboratory are compared with the global statistics disclosed by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The high prevalence of stimulant doping in Brazil can be attributed to several reasons, including "self-administration," a "body-shaping" culture, and the use of nutritional supplements. PMID:24766455

Pereira, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto; Sardela, Vinícius Figueiredo

2014-07-01

38

An evaluation of pretreatment agents for the stimulation of secondary biogenic coalbed natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed methane is considered to be an underexploited source of clean energy and, with the realization of its biogenic nature, it has attracted increasing interest in recent decades. Most of the published studies on biogenic coal bed natural gas (CBNG) have focused either on biostimulation (the addition of nutrients to stimulate the native microbial populations) or bioaugmentation (the addition of both nutrients and non-native microbial consortia of microorganisms). Although these approaches have shown promise, they are predicated on the assumption that the coal seam is nutrient-limited or that the existing microbial communities are not optimized to convert coal to natural gas. The premise of this research is that the organic matter present within the coal matrix is, for the most part, environmentally inert and not readily available to the microorganisms living within the coal seam. The goal of this research has been to focus on treatments that will increase the solubility, and hence the bioavailability, of coal to the indigenous microbial community. Initially, treatment agents representing acids, bases and oxidants were selected to evaluate the potential for the in situ solubilization and depolymerization of subbituminous coal. The bioavailability of the coal-derived constituents was then evaluated aerobically using biometer assays and anaerobic bioassays. The experiments have shown that the acid (nitric acid) and base (sodium hydroxide) treatments are more efficient than the oxidants (potassium permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) with respect to total organic carbon (TOC). The carbon contained in the solubilized/depolymerized product of nitric acid treatments accounted for approximately 14% of the carbon from the Powder River Basin (PRB) coal evaluated in the study; however, the biometer assays revealed that the bioavailability of the solubilized/depolymerized products was not directly correlated to the amount of dissolved organic carbon (TOC). The permanganate treated samples, which had a much lower TOC (5%), were more promising in terms of biological conversion potential. The biometer assay data indicated that up to 1.1% of the coal carbon was mineralized to carbon dioxide (CO2) within a period of two weeks. On this basis, permanganate treated samples were utilized in subsequent experiments to evaluate potential biogenic methane generation. For the permanganate treated samples, 5.4% of the coal carbon was solubilized/depolymerized, and 3.2% of the soluble carbon was converted to methane (CH4). The methane was rapidly generated and peaked at 40-days with a cumulative amount of 93.4 mumol/g coal (73.9 standard cubic feet (Scf)/ton coal equivalent using linear extrapolation). This compares very favorably to the 22-74 Scf/ton said to exist within the PBR coalbeds prior to resource exploitation. Our data also showed that a small fraction, 143 mumol/g coal, of the soluble carbon which was designated as the volatile fraction (i.e., the purgeable fraction removable by sparging with N2 gas) is essential to the generation of biogenic methane from coal derived constituents. Subsequent studies evaluating the influence of the chemical pretreatment agents (HNO3, NaOH, catalyzed H 2O2, KMnO4) on the subsequent enzymatic conversion of subbituminous coal using a fungal manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by the agaric white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta have shown that chemical pretreatments can also enhance the coal solubilization performance of MnP.

Huang, Zaixing

39

Impact of Anti-Inflammatory Agents on the Gene Expression Profile of Stimulated Human Neutrophils: Unraveling Endogenous Resolution Pathways  

PubMed Central

Adenosine, prostaglandin E2, or increased intracellular cyclic AMP concentration each elicit potent anti-inflammatory events in human neutrophils by inhibiting functions such as phagocytosis, superoxide production, adhesion and cytokine release. However, the endogenous molecular pathways mediating these actions are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined their impact on the gene expression profile of stimulated neutrophils. Purified blood neutrophils from healthy donors were stimulated with a cocktail of inflammatory agonists in the presence of at least one of the following anti-inflammatory agents: adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680, prostaglandin E2, cyclic-AMP-elevating compounds forskolin and RO 20-1724. Total RNA was analyzed using gene chips and real-time PCR. Genes encoding transcription factors, enzymes and regulatory proteins, as well as secreted cytokines/chemokines showed differential expression. We identified 15 genes for which the anti-inflammatory agents altered mRNA levels. The agents affected the expression profile in remarkably similar fashion, suggesting a central mechanism limiting cell activation. We have identified a set of genes that may be part of important resolution pathways that interfere with cell activation. Identification of these pathways will improve understanding of the capacity of tissues to terminate inflammatory responses and contribute to the development of therapeutic strategies based on endogenous resolution.

St-Onge, Mireille; Dumas, Aline; Michaud, Annick; Laflamme, Cynthia; Dussault, Andree-Anne; Pouliot, Marc

2009-01-01

40

Inflammatory responses in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) head kidney cells stimulated with an inflammasome-inducing agent, nigericin.  

PubMed

A cytosolic receptor complex called inflammasome is responsible for mounting inflammatory response by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. However, inflammatory cascades mediated by the inflammasome are unknown in a lower vertebrate like fish. Therefore, in an in vitro experiment, in order to obtain a preliminary information, we conducted transcriptomic analysis of 18 cytokines including pro-inflammatory cytokines in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) head kidney (HK) cells stimulated with an inflammasome-inducing agent, nigericin, and a combination of nigericin and LPS by a multiplex RT-PCR assay (GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System, GeXPS; Beckman Coulter Inc.). Furthermore, expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-18, nuclear factor (NF)-?B, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) and NOD-like receptor X1 (NLRX1) genes was examined in HK cells by a quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, to confirm functionality of activated inflammatory immunity, we also assessed phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production (NBT assay) and lysozyme activity in the nigericin-stimulated HK cells. An increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and IL-18), NF-?B and NOD2 was recorded in nigericin and combined nigericin+LPS- stimulated HK cells. Enhanced cellular (phagocytic activity and NBT assay) and humoral (lysozyme activity) immune parameters in the stimulated cells confirmed induction of inflammatory response. Results suggested probable activation of inflammasome components for processing of the inflammatory cytokines in the Japanese pufferfish. PMID:24768998

Bilen, Soner; Biswas, Gouranga; Otsuyama, Shohei; Kono, Tomoya; Sakai, Masahiro; Hikima, Jun-Ichi

2014-10-01

41

Method of Identifying Chemical Agents which Stimulate Odorant Receptors of Sensory Neurons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides methods for identifying agents which modulate mosquito odorant receptors. The methods disclosed herein use genetic material of mosquito odorant receptors to express those receptors in a foreign host system in which the endog...

L. J. Swiebel

2004-01-01

42

PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN LASERS AND CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Influence of a quenching agent on parameters of stimulated enthalpy scattering in iodine photodissociation lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is made of the influence of quenching of excited iodine on the parameters of stimulated enthalpy scattering in iodine photodissociation lasers. It is shown that the stability of the active mixtures of these lasers during evolution of stimulated scattering by thermal waves may be improved by selecting a suitable quenching agent and a suitable concentration.

Orlov, E. P.

1989-04-01

43

Erythropoietin-stimulating agents and clinical outcomes in metastatic breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia: a closed debate?  

PubMed

Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) are used in breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia to alleviate anemia and in turn, reduce fatigue. These drugs may also decrease overall survival and increase the incidence of serious adverse effects such as thrombovascular events (TVEs). This review evaluates the evidence to date on administering ESAs to breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. Our findings suggest a clear need for well-designed clinical trials that follow current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ESA label changes to guide clinical practice in an effort to reduce harm to these patients. PMID:24554413

Kelada, Olivia; Marignol, Laure

2014-06-01

44

Stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown in brain synaptoneurosomes by agents that activate sodium influx: antagonism by tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and cadmium.  

PubMed

Agents that increase intracellular concentrations of Na+ stimulate phosphoinositide breakdown in guinea pig cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes. When combined, these agents did not have additive effects on phosphoinositide breakdown but did have additive or greater than additive effects with carbamylcholine. Scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus) and pumiliotoxin B, which induce small increases in influx of 22Na+ in synaptoneurosomes, stimulate phosphoinositide breakdown by about 6- and 3-fold, respectively; both effects are inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Batrachotoxin (BTX) and veratridine, which cause a large increase in influx of 22Na+ through activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels, induce a 5- to 6-fold dose-dependent increase in phosphoinositide breakdown, which appears competitively inhibited by 5 microM TTX. BTX- and veratridine-elicited influx of 22Na+ into synaptoneurosomes is virtually completely blocked by 5 microM TTX. Agents that block voltage-dependent calcium channels, such as D-600, nifedipine, and Co2+, do not inhibit either influx of 22Na+ or stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown elicited by scorpion venom, pumiliotoxin B, or BTX. Cadmium ions (200 microM), which are known to block TTX-resistant sodium channels, block phosphoinositide breakdown induced by agents that activate sodium influx through sodium channels. Cadmium blocks BTX-induced phosphoinositide breakdown with an IC50 value of 48 microM, while blocking BTX-induced 22Na+ influx in synaptoneurosomes with a 13-fold lower potency (IC50, 610 microM). In the presence of 0.5 microM TTX, the IC50 for Cd2+ inhibition of BTX-induced 22Na+ influx is now 430 microM. Neither TTX nor Cd2+ antagonize neurotransmitter- or monensin-induced phosphoinositide breakdown. It appears that BTX-induced phosphoinositide breakdown in guinea pig synaptoneurosomes is dependent primarily on activation of TTX-resistant, Cd2+-sensitive sodium channels that account for only a small fraction of the total sodium influx induced by BTX in synaptoneurosomes. However, cadmium also may in some way inhibit phosphoinositide breakdown elicited by sodium channel agents at a point subsequent to sodium influx. PMID:2444871

Gusovsky, F; McNeal, E T; Daly, J W

1987-10-01

45

Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.  

PubMed

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

46

Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents  

PubMed Central

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation.

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

47

Neuroprotective Benefits of Central Adenosine Receptor Stimulation in a Soman Nerve Agent Rat Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of central adenosine receptor (AR) stimulation in neuroprotection by directly injecting (6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine agonist specific to the A1 receptor subtype (A1R), into the brai...

T. A. Shih, T. P. Thomas

2014-01-01

48

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances bone marrow stem cell damage caused by repeated administration of cytotoxic agents.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing use of cytokines to circumvent the acute dose-limiting myelotoxicity of cancer treatment, little is known about the combined effects of cytotoxic agents and cytokines on the primitive stem cells responsible for long-term hematopoiesis. In an experimental model, we administered cytotoxic agents that have variable effects on primitive stem cells in C57BL/6 (B6)-mice. Mice received six every-other-week doses of cyclophosphamide (CY, 84 mg/kg), VP-16 (24 mg/kg) + cisplatinum (2.4 mg/kg), carboplatinum (50 mg/kg), chlorambucil (12 mg/kg), BCNU (13.2 mg/kg), or TBI (80 cGy). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 250 microg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously twice daily on days 3 to 6 after each dose of the cytotoxic agent. Comparison with animals receiving the cytotoxic agent alone was made to investigate the effects of G-CSF on long-term hematopoiesis. Hematopoiesis was measured 20 weeks after the last dose of the cytotoxic agent by assessment of peripheral blood counts, marrow cellularity, progenitor cell content (colony-forming units-spleen; CFU-S), and primitive stem cell number (long-term repopulating ability and day 28 and day 35 cobblestone area-forming cell [CAFC] frequencies). Exposure to cytotoxic agents alone resulted in a significant decrease in primitive stem cells (as measured by repopulating units [RU] and day 28 and day 35 CAFC content) in animals given carboplatinum, chlorambucil, BCNU, and TBI, but not in animals treated with cyclophosphamide or VP-16 and cisplatinum. The addition of G-CSF resulted in a significant decrease in stem cell content when compared with no G-CSF administration in animals treated with chlorambucil, BCNU, or TBI. Thus, G-CSF administered after repeated exposure to cytotoxic agents, appeared to damage the primitive stem cell compartment when used in combination with agents known to damage primitive stem cells. These results, although obtained in an experimental model, should raise concerns for the indiscriminate use of G-CSF in the clinic. PMID:9731052

van Os, R; Robinson, S; Sheridan, T; Mislow, J M; Dawes, D; Mauch, P M

1998-09-15

49

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport.  

PubMed

Oxygen is essential for life, and the body has developed an exquisite method to collect oxygen in the lungs and transport it to the tissues. Hb contained within red blood cells (RBCs), is the key oxygen-carrying component in blood, and levels of RBCs are tightly controlled according to demand for oxygen. The availability of oxygen plays a critical role in athletic performance, and agents that enhance oxygen delivery to tissues increase aerobic power. Early methods to increase oxygen delivery included training at altitude, and later, transfusion of packed RBCs. A breakthrough in understanding how RBC formation is controlled included the discovery of erythropoietin (Epo) and cloning of the EPO gene. Cloning of the EPO gene was followed by commercial development of recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo). Legitimate use of this and other agents that affect oxygen delivery is important in the treatment of anaemia (low Hb levels) in patients with chronic kidney disease or in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anaemia. However, competitive sports was affected by illicit use of rHuEpo to enhance performance. Testing methods for these agents resulted in a cat-and-mouse game, with testing labs attempting to detect the use of a drug or blood product to improve athletic performance (doping) and certain athletes developing methods to use the agents without being detected. This article examines the current methods to enhance aerobic performance and the methods to detect illicit use. PMID:18362898

Elliott, S

2008-06-01

50

Detection of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in human anti-doping control: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Stimulation of erythropoiesis is one of the most efficient ways of doping. This type of doping is advantageous for aerobic physical exercise and of particular interest to endurance athletes. Erythropoiesis, which takes place in bone marrow, is under the control of EPO, a hormone secreted primarily by the kidneys when the arterial oxygen tension decreases. In certain pathological disorders, such as chronic renal failure, the production of EPO is insufficient and results in anemia. The pharmaceutical industry has, thus, been very interested in developing drugs that stimulate erythropoiesis. With this aim, various strategies have been, and continue to be, envisaged, giving rise to an expanding range of drugs that are good candidates for doping. Anti-doping control has had to deal with this situation by developing appropriate methods for their detection. This article presents an overview of both the drugs and the corresponding methods of detection, and thus follows a roughly chronological order. PMID:22831473

Leuenberger, Nicolas; Reichel, Christian; Lasne, Françoise

2012-07-01

51

Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas [2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study [3] has been expanded with additional bacteria and fungi. These spectra were acquired on a Finnigan Magnum ion trap using helium buffer gas. A new database of Cl spectra of microorganisms is planned using the CBMS Block II instrument and air as the buffer gas. Using the current database, the fatty acid composition of the organisms was compared using the percentage of the ion current attributable to fatty acids. The data presented suggest promising rules for discrimination of these organisms. Strain, growth media and vegetative state do contribute to some of the distributions observed in the data. However, the data distributions observed in the current study only reflect our experience to date and do not fully represent the variability that might be expected in practice: Acquisition of MS/ MS spectra has begun (using He and air buffer gas) of the protonated molecular ion of a variety of fatty acids and for a number of ions nominally assigned as fatty acids from microorganisms. These spectra will be used to help verify fatty acid .

Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

1999-06-14

52

Effect of adrenergic-blocking or -stimulating agents on plasma growth hormone, immunoreactive insulin, and blood free fatty acid levels in man  

PubMed Central

In order to determine whether an adrenergic mechanism is involved in the secretion of growth hormone and insulin, the effect of adrenergic-blocking or -stimulating agents on plasma human growth hormone (HGH), immunoreactive insulin, blood free fatty acids (FFA), and glucose levels was studied in normal human subjects. The intravenous infusion of propranolol, a beta adrenergic-blocking agent, caused a rise in plasma HGH, a transient decrease in blood FFA, and no significant change in plasma insulin. This increase in plasma HGH was inhibited either by the combined administration of isoproterenol, a beta adrenergic-stimulating agent, along with propranolol or by oral glucose loading immediately before the start of propranolol infusion. The concomitant administration of epinephrine and propranolol brought about a rise in plasma HGH comparable with that produced by propranolol alone, without any significant change in blood FFA. Alpha adrenergic blockade by the intravenous infusion of phenotolamine significantly suppressed plasma HGH responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and to arginine infusion, and enhanced plasma insulin response to arginine infusion. It also stimulated lipid mobilization significantly. The intravenous infusion of alpha adrenergic-stimulating agents, phenylephrine and methoxamine, caused an increase in plasma HGH, a slight decrease in blood FFA, and no significant change in plasma insulin. This increase in plasma HGH was significantly inhibited by the simultaneous administration of phentolamine along with methoxamine. On the contrary, a beta adrenergic stimulant, isoproterenol, raised plasma insulin and blood FFA, and abolished the plasma HGH response to propranolol. Another beta stimulator, isoxsuprine, raised blood FFA but not plasma insulin. It is concluded that either beta adrenergic blockade or alpha stimulation enhances HGH secretion and inhibits insulin secretion and fat mobilization, whereas either alpha blockade or beta stimulation stimulates insulin secretion and fat mobilization and inhibits HGH secretion.

Imura, Hiroo; Kato, Yuzuru; Ikeda, Masaki; Morimoto, Masachika; Yawata, Mikio

1971-01-01

53

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: comparisons from real-world clinical experience  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this paper is to report real-world data on the relative effectiveness of a biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; Binocrit®), and other available ESAs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from single centers in Spain (n=284) and Germany (n=145). Hemoglobin outcomes, transfusion requirements, and serious drug-related adverse events were assessed for each ESA. Results Hemoglobin outcomes and transfusion requirements were generally similar in the different ESA treatment groups assessed. No serious drug-related adverse events were recorded in any of the treatment groups. Conclusion These data confirm the real-world effectiveness and safety of a biosimilar ESA (Binocrit®) for the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia.

Rodriguez Garzotto, Analia; Heine, Oliver; Turner, Matthew; Rebollo Laserna, Francisco; Lorenz, Andreas

2014-01-01

54

The use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents versus supportive care in newborns with hereditary spherocytosis: a single centre's experience.  

PubMed

Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) is a common haemolytic anaemia in which 75% of cases are autosomal dominant. As most newborns with HS have a family history of disease, haematologists often see these infants before their physiologic haemoglobin nadir, which is exaggerated in comparison with healthy infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of implementation and cost of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (EPO) versus transfusion in infants with HS at a single paediatric programme. In the last decade, only 15% of infants with HS at our centre have been treated with EPO, which costs twice that of a single transfusion and EPO treated infants did not always avoid transfusion. Infrequent prescription of EPO therapy to infants with HS at our centre may be related to the incomplete data supporting its use. PMID:24660843

Morrison, Jacqueline F; Neufeld, Ellis J; Grace, Rachael F

2014-08-01

55

Mechanism of the stimulation of prostaglandin H synthase and prostacyclin synthase by the antithrombotic and antimetastatic agent, nafazatrom.  

PubMed

Nafazatrom, an antithrombotic and antimetastatic agent containing a pyrazolone functionality, is a reducing substrate for the peroxidase activity of prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase. Nafazatrom inhibits the hydroperoxide-dependent oxidation of phenylbutazone, stimulates the reduction of 15-hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid, and is oxidized by microsomal or purified enzyme preparations from ram seminal vesicles. Consonant with the effects of other peroxidase-reducing substrates, nafazatrom stimulates the oxygenation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin endoperoxides by the cyclooxygenase component of PGH synthase. In addition, nafazatrom causes an elevation in the levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, the non-enzymatic hydrolysis product of prostacyclin (PGI2) biosynthesized from arachidonic acid by ram seminal vesicle microsomes. Elevation of PGI2 biosynthetic capacity by nafazatrom occurs under conditions in which prostaglandin endoperoxide biosynthesis is maximal, suggesting that nafazatrom has a stimulatory effect on the conversion of prostaglandin endoperoxides to PGI2. Nafazatrom has no effect on the ability of ram seminal vesicle microsomes to convert PGH2 to PGI2 but protects microsomal PGI2 synthase from inactivation by 15-hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid. Nafazatrom stimulates PGI2 biosynthesis in ram seminal vesicle microsomes by acting as a substrate for the peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of hydroperoxy fatty acids that are irreversible inactivators of PGI2 synthase. Several other compounds, including dipyridamole and triiodothyronine, exert similar effects. This may contribute to the reported ability of nafazatrom and related compounds to elevate the levels of bioassayable PGI2 in vivo and to the antithrombotic and antimetastatic activities of nafazatrom. PMID:6434940

Marnett, L J; Siedlik, P H; Ochs, R C; Pagels, W R; Das, M; Honn, K V; Warnock, R H; Tainer, B E; Eling, T E

1984-09-01

56

Modulation of carbachol-stimulated AP-1 DNA binding activity by therapeutic agents for bipolar disorder in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.  

PubMed

Lithium, carbamazepine and sodium valproate are mood stabilizers used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, and although their mechanisms of action remain unknown, signal transduction systems and the associated modulation of gene expression may constitute significant actions. We examined if acute or chronic treatments with these agents modulated the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor or the increased intracellular calcium levels in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells caused by stimulation with carbachol. AP-1 activation stimulated by carbachol was reduced by pretreatment for 1 h, 24 h or 7 days with 1 mM lithium by 15%, 37%, and 60%, respectively, and with 0.05 mM carbamazepine by 3%, 21%, and 46%, respectively, but not by pretreatment with 0.5 mM sodium valproate. AP-1 DNA binding activity stimulated by carbachol or by phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro31-8220, but phorbol ester-stimulated AP-1 activation was unaltered by 7-day pretreatments with lithium or carbamazepine. Activation of AP-1 by carbachol was dependent on calcium, as it was inhibited by treatment with the extracellular calcium chelator EGTA, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and the calcium/calmodulin kinase II inhibitor KN62. Pretreatment for 7 days with lithium or carbamazepine had no significant effect on carbachol-stimulated increases in intracellular calcium levels, but reduced the stimulation of AP-1 by the calcium ionophore ionomycin by 30% to 40%. Thus, chronic treatment with the antibipolar agents lithium and carbamazepine attenuates carbachol-stimulated AP-1 DNA binding activity, and these agents preferentially inhibit signaling cascades activated by the calcium rather than the protein kinase C arm of the phosphoinositide signaling pathway. PMID:10529472

Pacheco, M A; Jope, R S

1999-10-01

57

Variant hemoglobin phenotypes may account for differential erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosing in African-American hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

African-American patients with end-stage renal disease have historically lower hemoglobin concentrations and higher requirements of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). While disparities in health-care access may partially explain these findings, the role of variant hemoglobin, such as sickle trait, has not been investigated. To clarify this, we evaluated 154 African-American patients receiving in-center hemodialysis with available hemoglobin phenotyping. The primary exposure was any abnormal hemoglobin variant and the primary outcome of higher-dose ESA was defined as a dose of 6500 or more units per treatment. Logistic regression assessed the association between variant hemoglobin and higher-dose ESA. Covariates included age, gender, diabetes, iron parameters, intravenous iron dose, parathyroid hormone, albumin, phosphorus, body mass index, vascular access type, hospitalization/missed treatments, smoking status, alcohol abuse, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Of 33 patients with variant hemoglobin, 24 had HbAS and 9 had HbAC. Univariate odds of higher-dose ESA among those with hemoglobin variants were twice that of those with the normal HbAA phenotype (odds ratio 2.05). In multivariate models, the likelihood of higher-dose ESA had an odds ratio of 3.31 and the nature of this relationship did not change in Poisson regression or sensitivity analyses. Hence, our findings may explain, in part, the difference in ESA dosing between Caucasians and African-Americans with end-stage renal disease but await further study. PMID:21849972

Derebail, Vimal K; Nachman, Patrick H; Key, Nigel S; Ansede, Heather; Falk, Ronald J; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V

2011-11-01

58

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in oncology: a study-level meta-analysis of survival and other safety outcomes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients often develop the potentially debilitating condition of anaemia. Numerous controlled studies indicate that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) can raise haemoglobin levels and reduce transfusion requirements in anaemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. To evaluate recent safety concerns regarding ESAs, we carried out a meta-analysis of controlled ESA oncology trials to examine whether ESA use affects survival, disease progression and risk of venous-thromboembolic events. METHODS: This meta-analysis included studies from the 2006 Cochrane meta-analysis, studies published/updated since the 2006 Cochrane report, and unpublished trial data from Amgen and Centocor Ortho Biotech. The 60 studies analysed (15?323 patients) were conducted in the settings of chemotherapy/radiochemotherapy, radiotherapy only treatment or anaemia of cancer. Data were summarised using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Results indicated that ESA use did not significantly affect mortality (60 studies: OR=1.06; 95% CI: 0.97–1.15) or disease progression (26 studies: OR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.90–1.14), but increased the risk for venous-thromoboembolic events (44 studies: OR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.28–1.72). CONCLUSION: Though this meta-analysis showed no significant effect of ESAs on survival or disease progression, prospectively designed, future randomised clinical trials will further examine the safety and efficacy of ESAs when used according to the revised labelling information.

Glaspy, J; Crawford, J; Vansteenkiste, J; Henry, D; Rao, S; Bowers, P; Berlin, J A; Tomita, D; Bridges, K; Ludwig, H

2010-01-01

59

Body composition affects the response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with chronic kidney disease in dialysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is variable. The body mass index (BMI) variations can modify the response to ESA. The objective was to assess the effect of body composition on the response to ESA in dialysis patients. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study. Prevalent hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were selected. In the same day, a single blood test, a body composition analysis using bioimpedance spectroscopy and anthropometric measurements were performed. We collected ESA doses. We analyzed erythropoietin resistance index (ERI). The ERI was calculated dividing the weekly weight-adjusted (kg) dose of ESA (IU) by the hemoglobin level (g/dL). Results: The study was comprised of 218 patients (58% men; age 65 (16) years old; 80% hemodialysis, 20% PD). There was an inverse correlation between ERI and BMI (p?=?0.01), fat tissue index (FTI) (p?=?0.01) and prealbumin (p?=?0.04). We found an independent association between higher ERI levels and lower FTI and prealbumin values. Conclusion: Response to ESA is influenced by body composition. Fat tissue favors the body's response to ESA. PMID:24846345

Vega, Almudena; Ruiz, Caridad; Abad, Soraya; Quiroga, Borja; Velázquez, Kyra; Yuste, Claudia; Aragoncillo, Inés; López Gómez, Juan Manuel

2014-08-01

60

Utilization Patterns of IV Iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Anemic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Multihospital Study.  

PubMed

Intravenous (IV) iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) are recommended for anemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed utilization patterns of IV iron and ESA in patients over 18 years of age admitted to University Health System Hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of CKD between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A clustered binomial logistic regression using the GEE methodology was used to identify predictors of IV iron utilization. Only 8% (n = 6678) of CKD patients on ESA therapy received IV iron supplementation in university hospitals. Those receiving iron used significantly less amounts of ESAs. Patient demographics (age, race, primary payer), patient clinical conditions (admission status, severity of illness, dialysis status), and physician specialty were identified as predictors of IV iron use in CKD patients. Use of IV iron with ESAs was low despite recommendations from consensus guidelines. The low treatment rate of IV iron represents a gap in treatment practices and signals an opportunity for healthcare improvement in CKD anemic patients. PMID:22577528

Joshi, Avani D; Holdford, David A; Brophy, Donald F; Harpe, Spencer E; Mays, Darcy; Gehr, Todd W B

2012-01-01

61

[Erythropoiesis stimulating agents].  

PubMed

Since the 90's, human erythropoietin is produced recombinantly and used clinically. There are various products from different suppliers, which differ primarily in their production but not in their half-life or effectiveness. 2001 genetically modified darbepoetin alpha was launched, which is characterized by an approximately three times longer half-life. A further extension of the half-life to 130 hours is achieved with the current continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA), which therefore must be applied only once or twice a month. The indication for epoetin therapy is primarily for the symptomatic renal anemia and chemotherapy-associated anemia. Corrections of low hemoglobin levels in asymptomatic patients are not allowed. The generally recommended hemoglobin target range is 10-12 g/dl. Hb values > 13 g/dl should be avoided because they are associated with significant adverse effects and do not improve patient survival. PMID:22045527

Hoffmann, Moritz; Schwenger, Vedat

2011-11-01

62

Healthcare Resource Utilization for Anemia Management: Current Practice with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and the Impact of Converting to Once-Monthly C.E.R.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background andMethods: A prospective, observational study in 12 German and UK dialysis centers which quantified personnel time for anemia treatment using erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Tasks directly observable were measured through the time-and-motion method; time for non-observable tasks was estimated by healthcare staff. Using activity-based costing methods, time was converted into monetary units. Modeling was used to estimate potential time and

Ulrich Saueressig; Jonathan T. C. Kwan; Erwin De Cock; Claudine Sapède

2008-01-01

63

Budget impact analysis on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents use for the management of chemotherapy-induced anaemia in Greece  

PubMed Central

Background Chemotherapy-induced anaemia is a common and significant complication of chemotherapy treatment. Blood transfusion and administration of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) either alone or in combination with iron are the most widely used therapeutic options. In Greece, ESAs are among the top ten therapeutic groups with the highest pharmaceutical expenditure, since they are fully reimbursed by social security funds. The objective of the study is to determine potential cost savings related with the use of biosimilar over originator ESAs for the management of the newly diagnosed chemotherapy-induced anemic patients. Methods A budget impact analysis has been carried through the elaboration of national epidemiological, clinical and economic data. Epidemiological data derived from WHO (GLOBOCAN) and the European Cancer Anaemia Survey. Clinical data reflect oncology patients’ disease management. ESAs consumption was based on data from the biggest social security fund (IKA). The administration of ESAs under different dosing schemes and time periods has been estimated by separating them in originators and biosimilars as well as by classifying anaemic patients in responders and non-responders. Cost analysis is based on newly diagnosed patients’ alternative treatment scenarios. Treatment costs and prices are used in 2012 values. The Social Security Funds’s perspective was undertaken. Results Based on the annual incidence rates, 2.551 newly diagnosed chemotherapy-induced anemic patients are expected to be treated with ESAs. Average cost of treatment on originators ESAs for responders is €2.887 for the 15-week ESAs treatment and €5.019 for non-responders, while on biosimilars €2.623 and €4.009 respectively. Treatment cost on biosimilars is 10.1% lower than originators for responders and 25.2% for non-responders. Budget impact estimates show that treating anemic patients with originator ESAs was estimated at €10.084.800 compared to €8.460.119 when biosimilar ESAs were used, leading to an overall 19,20% cost reduction favoring biosimilars. Conclusion In Greece, the treatment on biosimilar ESAs seems to be a cost saving option over originators for the newly diagnosed chemotherapy-induced anemic patients, since it corresponds to 5% of the annual overall consumption and expands patients’ access to ESAs treatment. Health care decision making should rely on evidence based treatments in order to achieve social funds’ sustainability in an era of economic recession.

2013-01-01

64

Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental method using simultaneously different ? emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs ? a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

Bureau, M. F.

1997-03-01

65

The effect of iron-chelating agents on Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1: stimulated growth and magnetosome production and improved magnetosome heating properties.  

PubMed

The introduction of various iron-chelating agents to the Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 bacterial growth medium stimulated the growth of M. magneticum strain AMB-1 magnetotactic bacteria and enhanced the production of magnetosomes. After 7 days of growth, the number of bacteria and the production of magnetosomes were increased in the presence of iron-chelating agents by factors of up to ?2 and ?6, respectively. The presence of iron-chelating agents also produced an increase in magnetosome size and chain length and yielded improved magnetosome heating properties. The specific absorption rate of suspensions of magnetosome chains isolated from M. magneticum strain AMB-1 magnetotactic bacteria, measured under the application of an alternating magnetic field of average field strength ?20 mT and frequency 198 kHz, increased from ?222 W/g(Fe) in the absence of iron-chelating agent up to ?444 W/g(Fe) in the presence of 4 ?M rhodamine B and to ?723 W/g(Fe) in the presence of 4 ?M EDTA. These observations were made at an iron concentration of 20 ?M and iron-chelating agent concentrations below 40 ?M. PMID:22707052

Alphandéry, Edouard; Amor, Matthieu; Guyot, François; Chebbi, Imène

2012-11-01

66

Impact of changes in reimbursement policies and institutional practice algorithm for utilization of erythropoietic-stimulating agents on treatment patterns and costs in anemic lymphoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a new evidence-based institutional practice algorithm on the patterns\\u000a and costs of treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) in lymphoma patients prescribed erythropoietic-stimulating agents\\u000a (ESAs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study design was retrospective, with a historical control group. Patient demographic data, clinical data (including chemotherapy\\u000a and hemoglobin values), and cost data were extracted

Lincy Subha Lal; Aditya Raju; Lesley-Ann Miller; Hua Chen; Rebecca Arbuckle; Sujit S. Sansgiry

2010-01-01

67

Stimulation of serotonin-1A receptors in mammals to alleviate motion sickness and emesis induced by chemical agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the alleviation of both motion sickness and chemically-induced emesis is provided which includes the administration of a nontoxic, therapeutically effective amount of a composition which stimulates serotonin-1A receptors in a mammal in need of such treatment. The preferred compounds for use are buspirone and 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT).

Lucot, James B. (Inventor); Crampton, George H. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

68

Xanomeline compared to other muscarinic agents on stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in vivo and other cholinomimetic effects.  

PubMed

Activation of muscarinic m1 receptors which are coupled to the phosphoinositide (PI) second messenger transduction system is the initial objective of cholinergic replacement therapy in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, we evaluated the ability of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist (SMRA) xanomeline to stimulate in vivo phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and compared it to a number of direct acting muscarinic agonists, two cholinesterase inhibitors and a putative m1 agonist/muscarinic m2 antagonist. Using a radiometric technique, it was determined that administration of xanomeline robustly stimulated in vivo PI hydrolysis and the effect was blocked by muscarinic antagonists, demonstrating mediation by muscarinic receptors. The non-selective muscarinic agonists pilocarpine, oxotremorine, RS-86, S-aceclidine, but not the less active isomer R-aceclidine, also effectively stimulated PI hydrolysis in mice. Amongst the putative m1 agonists, thiopilocarpine, hexylthio-TZTP as well as xanomeline effectively stimulated PI hydrolysis, but milameline, WAL 2014, SKB 202026 and PD 142505 did not significantly alter PI hydrolysis. Furthermore, WAL 2014 and SKB 202026 inhibited agonist-induced PI stimulation, suggesting that they act as antagonists at PI-coupled receptors in vivo. The cholinesterase inhibitors, tacrine and physostigmine, and the mixed muscarinic m1 agonist/m2 antagonist LU25-109 did not activate in vivo PI hydrolysis. Xanomeline, hexylthio-TZTP and thiopilocarpine were relatively free of cholinergic side effects, whereas milameline, WAL 2014 and SKB 202026 produced non-selective effects. Therefore, these data demonstrate that xanomeline selectively activates in vivo PI hydrolysis, consistent with activation of biochemical processes involved in memory and cognition and xanomeline's beneficial clinical effects on cognition in Alzheimers patients. PMID:9622623

Bymaster, F P; Carter, P A; Peters, S C; Zhang, W; Ward, J S; Mitch, C H; Calligaro, D O; Whitesitt, C A; DeLapp, N; Shannon, H E; Rimvall, K; Jeppesen, L; Sheardown, M J; Fink-Jensen, A; Sauerberg, P

1998-06-01

69

Repetitive Arg-Gly-Asp peptide as a cell-stimulating agent on electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) scaffold for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Electrospun scaffolds derived from poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL), a well known biodegradable material, have an architecture that is suitable for hosting cells. However, their biomedical applications are restricted because these scaffolds lack the bioactivity necessary to stimulate cell responses. In this work, a repetitive Arg-Gly-Asp (rRGD) peptide was produced as a cell-stimulating agent to provide the PCL scaffold with bioactivity. DNA encoding rRGD was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using overlap primers without a DNA template, and cloned into a protein expression vector to produce a His-tag fusion peptide. In an in vitro cell adhesion assay, the purified rRGD peptide, comprising 30 RGD repeats, promoted a 1.5-fold greater cell adhesion than the commercial tripeptide RGD. The rRGD peptide was immobilized onto an electrospun PCL scaffold that had been pretreated with argon plasma and graft-polymerized with acrylic acid. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that covalently linked rRGD peptide was present on the scaffold. The PCL scaffold with immobilized rRGD showed significantly changed hydrophilic properties and an enhanced adhesion and proliferation of mouse fibroblast cells by 2.3- and 2.9-fold, respectively, compared to the PCL scaffold alone. Through its ability to promote cell adhesion and proliferation, the rRGD peptide has great potential as a stimulant for improving the suboptimal cell-matrix interaction of polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24039086

Chaisri, Pacharaporn; Chingsungnoen, Artit; Siri, Sineenat

2013-11-01

70

Solcoseryl, a tissue respiration stimulating agent, significantly enhances the effect of capacitively coupled electric field on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants.  

PubMed

In the present study we examined the combined effect of application of a capacitively coupled electric field (CCEF) and the tissue respiration stimulating agent, Solcoseryl, on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants histologically and mechanically. After a dental implant was inserted into each femur of Japanese white rabbits, Solcoseryl (2 ml/kg) was administered intravenously in the ear vein and a CCEF was applied for 4 h per day for 14 days. The degree of bone formation on microscopic observation, bone contact ratio, bone surface area ratio, and the level of removal torque of the implant in the Solcoseryl- and CCEF-treated group were significantly higher than the respective value in the control group, which had not been treated with Solcoseryl nor CCEF. Thus, the combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl effectively promoted the formation of new bone. It is suggested that the clinical use of a combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl for dental implants promotes osseointegration. PMID:12755779

Ochi, Morio; Wang, Pao-Li; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Takashima, Shigenori; Kagami, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Yukito; Kaku, Tohru; Sakaguchi, Kunihiko

2003-06-01

71

a-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Inhibits the Nuclear Transcription Factor NF-kB Activation Induced by Various Inflammatory Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

a-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH) is a tridecapeptide found mainly in the brain, pituitary, and circulation. It inhibits most forms of inflammation by a mechanism that is not known. As most types of inflammation require activation of NF-kB, we investigated the effect of a-MSH on the activation of this transcription factor by a wide variety of inflammatory stimuli. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay

Sunil K. Manna; Bharat B. Aggarwal

72

Potentiation of responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation and vasoconstrictor agents by SK&F 103829 in the feline mesenteric circulation.  

PubMed Central

1. The amplification of vasoconstrictor effects of several agonists and sympathetic nerve stimulation, caused by 5-HT2 receptor activation, was studied in the autoperfused mesenteric circulation of anaesthetized cats. To produce long lasting and selective 5-HT2 receptor stimulation we used SK&F 103829 (2,3,4,5 tetrahydro-8[methyl-sulphonyl]-1H3-benzazepin-7-ol methensulphonate). We assessed that SK&F 103829 was a strong contractile partial agonist in isolated preparations of rat tail artery and calf pulmonary artery. 2. The intrinsic activity of SK&F 103829 with respect to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was 0.8 in rat tail artery and 0.6 in calf pulmonary artery. SK&F 103829-induced contractile responses were surmountably antagonized by ketanserin with a potency expected from its affinity for 5-HT2 receptors. SK&F 103829 surmountably antagonized the effects of 5-HT in rat tail artery with a pKp of 5.8. 3. Concentrations of SK&F 103829 causing greater than threshold constrictions enhanced vasoconstrictor responses of sympathetic nerve stimulation, noradrenaline, angiotensin II, methoxamine and alpha, beta-methylene ATP in the mesenteric arterial bed. Increases in mesenteric arterial pressure by noradrenaline, observed in the presence of prazosin, were also potentiated by SK&F 103829. 4. Ketanserin prevented both the constrictor effect of SK&F 103829 and the SK&F 103829-evoked potentiation of the responses to noradrenaline and angiotensin II in the mesenteric arterial bed. Ketanserin, however, failed to abolish (once established) the SK&F 103829-evoked potentiation of the constrictor effects caused by both noradrenaline and angiotensin II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Taylor, E. M.; Kaumann, A. J.

1994-01-01

73

Chimiothérapie des sarcomes des tissus mous métastatiques et localement avancés  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  À côté de la doxorubicine et de l’ifosfamide, aucun autre agent cytotoxique ou cytostatique a démontré une activité supérieure\\u000a à 15 %, en terme de réponse objective dans les études de phase II ayant comporté plus de 30 patients. Les années 2000 marquent\\u000a clairement un tournant dans la conception des essais thérapeutiques dans les sarcomes des tissus mous localement avancés

A. Le Cesne; A. Cioffi

2007-01-01

74

The anticancer agent YC-1 suppresses progestin-stimulated VEGF in breast cancer cells and arrests breast tumor development.  

PubMed

Recent epidemiological studies show that postmenopausal women taking estrogen-progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have a higher risk of breast cancer than women on an HRT regimen lacking progestins. This may be related to the observation that progestin-treated breast cancer cells express and secrete high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor that promotes breast tumor growth. Anti-progestins such as RU-486 block this effect, indicating that progesterone receptors (PR) are involved in promoting VEGF induction; however antiprogestins cross-react with other steroid receptors which limits their clinical use. Alternative strategies are, therefore, needed to arrest the growth of progestin-dependent tumors. 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1), a novel anticancer drug initially developed as an inhibitor of HIF-1?, is currently undergoing preclinical trials against various forms of cancer. Since HIF-1? has recently been implicated in PR-mediated VEGF synthesis, we undertook studies to determine whether YC-1 inhibits progestin-dependent VEGF induction and tumor progression. Surprisingly, we found that YC-1 downregulated PR in human breast cancer cells, both in vivo and in vitro, thereby blocking progestin-dependent induction of VEGF and tumor growth. YC-1 also inhibited progestin-accelerated DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats, properties which would likely render it effective against progestin-dependent tumors which frequently develop in post-menopausal women. We, therefore, propose that based on our observations, YC-1 warrants further investigation as a novel agent which could prove extremely useful as an anti-angiogenic chemotherapeutic drug. PMID:23123638

Carroll, Candace E; Liang, Yayun; Benakanakere, Indira; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Hyder, Salman M

2013-01-01

75

Facilitators and Mediators for Intelligent Agent Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project focuses on the development of and experimentation with a language and protocol intended to support interoperability among intelligent agents in a distributed application. Examples of applications envisioned include intelligent multi-agent des...

T. W. Finin

1995-01-01

76

Improvement in erythropoieis-stimulating agent-induced pure red-cell aplasia by introduction of darbepoetin-? when the anti-erythropoietin antibody titer declines spontaneously.  

PubMed

Anti-erythropoietin antibodies usually cross-react with all kinds of recombinant erythropoietins; therefore, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA)-induced pure red-cell aplasia (PRCA) is not rescued by different ESAs. Here, we present a case of ESA-induced PRCA in a 36-yr-old woman with chronic kidney disease, whose anemic condition improved following reintroduction of darbepoetin-?. The patient developed progressive, severe anemia after the use of erythropoietin-?. As the anemia did not improve after the administration of either other erythropoietin-? products or erythropoietin-?, all ESAs were discontinued. Oxymetholone therapy failed to improve the transfusion-dependent anemia and a rechallenge with ESAs continuously failed to obtain a sustained response. However, her anemia improved following reintroduction of darbepoetin-? at 3 yr after the initial diagnosis. Interestingly, anti-erythropoietin antibodies were still detectable, although their concentration was too low for titration. In conclusion, darbepoetin-? can improve ESA-induced PRCA when the anti-erythropoietin antibody titer declines and its neutralizing capacity is lost. PMID:21060762

Lee, Hajeong; Yang, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyosang; Kwon, Ju Won; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie; Han, Jin Suk; Kim, Suhnggwon

2010-11-01

77

Effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on survival and other outcomes in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies: a study-level meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are approved to treat anemia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. ESAs reduce transfusion rates, but some clinical studies suggest that ESAs may reduce survival or increase disease progression. This study-level meta-analysis examined the effects of darbepoetin alfa, epoetin alfa or epoetin beta on mortality, disease progression and transfusion incidence in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies, using randomized, controlled trials of patients receiving chemotherapy and ESAs or standard of care. The odds ratio (OR) for mortality was 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81–1.34, random-effects model, 10 studies); the risk difference was ? 0.01 (95% CI, ? 0.03–0.02). The OR for disease progression was 1.02 (95% CI 0.81–1.30, random-effects model, five studies). A lower proportion of ESA-treated patients than controls received transfusions (seven studies). In this meta-analysis, ESAs reduced transfusions with no clear effect on mortality or disease progression in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies receiving chemotherapy.

2012-01-01

78

Identification of des-(Gly-Ile)-endozepine as an effector of corticotropin-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis: stimulation of cholesterol delivery is mediated by the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed Central

Delivery of cholesterol to inner mitochondrial membranes is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in the zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex. A protein that stimulates this process was isolated to homogeneity from bovine adrenal tissue. This protein's primary structure has been determined in its entirety by a combination of automated Edman microsequencing, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The sequence was identical to that previously reported for bovine brain endozepine, except that it lacks the last two residues, -Gly-Ile, at the C terminus. To our knowledge, isolation of an endozepine-related protein from a tissue other than brain has not been reported previously. Endozepine competes with benzodiazepines for saturable binding sites in synaptosomes and in mitochondria of specific peripheral tissues. Previous reports have localized the adrenal benzodiazepine receptor to the outer mitochondrial membrane. In this report, we show that the prototypic benzodiazepine, diazepam, effects a stimulation of adrenal mitochondrial cholesterol delivery similar to that observed for endozepine. The effective diazepam concentration was consistent with that previously shown to displace a high-affinity ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor. The action of diazepam in adrenal mitochondria suggests that the mediation of corticotropin-induced steroidogenesis may be the physiological function of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor. These studies provide new insights into the previously unknown function of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and should allow new investigations into the stimulation of steroidogenesis by endozepines and benzodiazepines in the brain and in certain peripheral tissues.

Besman, M J; Yanagibashi, K; Lee, T D; Kawamura, M; Hall, P F; Shively, J E

1989-01-01

79

Effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on fatigue- and anaemia-related symptoms in cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analyses of published and unpublished data.  

PubMed

Background:Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) reduce the need for red blood cell transfusions; however, they increase the risk of thromboembolic events and mortality. The impact of ESAs on quality of life (QoL) is controversial and led to different recommendations of medical societies and authorities in the USA and Europe. We aimed to critically evaluate and quantify the effects of ESAs on QoL in cancer patients.Methods:We included data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of ESAs on QoL in cancer patients. Randomised controlled trials were identified by searching electronic data bases and other sources up to January 2011. To reduce publication and outcome reporting biases, we included unreported results from clinical study reports. We conducted meta-analyses on fatigue- and anaemia-related symptoms measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) and FACT-Anaemia (FACT-An) subscales (primary outcomes) or other validated instruments.Results:We identified 58 eligible RCTs. Clinical study reports were available for 27% (4 out of 15) of the investigator-initiated trials and 95% (41 out of 43) of the industry-initiated trials. We excluded 21 RTCs as we could not use their QoL data for meta-analyses, either because of incomplete reporting (17 RCTs) or because of premature closure of the trial (4 RCTs). We included 37 RCTs with 10?581 patients; 21 RCTs were placebo controlled. Chemotherapy was given in 27 of the 37 RCTs. The median baseline haemoglobin (Hb) level was 10.1?g?dl(-1); in 8 studies ESAs were stopped at Hb levels below 13?g?dl(-1) and in 27 above 13?g?dl(-1). For FACT-F, the mean difference (MD) was 2.41 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.39-3.43; P<0.0001; 23 studies, n=6108) in all cancer patients and 2.81 (95% CI 1.73-3.90; P<0.0001; 19 RCTs, n=4697) in patients receiving chemotherapy, which was below the threshold (?3) for a clinically important difference (CID). Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents had a positive effect on anaemia-related symptoms (MD 4.09; 95% CI 2.37-5.80; P=0.001; 14 studies, n=2765) in all cancer patients and 4.50 (95% CI 2.55-6.45; P<0.0001; 11 RCTs, n=2436) in patients receiving chemotherapy, which was above the threshold (?4) for a CID. Of note, this effect persisted when we restricted the analysis to placebo-controlled RCTs in patients receiving chemotherapy. There was some evidence that the MDs for FACT-F were above the threshold for a CID in RCTs including cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with Hb levels below 12?g?dl(-1) at baseline and in RCTs stopping ESAs at Hb levels above 13?g?dl(-1). However, these findings for FACT-F were not confirmed when we restricted the analysis to placebo-controlled RCTs in patients receiving chemotherapy.Conclusions:In cancer patients, particularly those receiving chemotherapy, we found that ESAs provide a small but clinically important improvement in anaemia-related symptoms (FACT-An). For fatigue-related symptoms (FACT-F), the overall effect did not reach the threshold for a CID. PMID:24743705

Bohlius, J; Tonia, T; Nüesch, E; Jüni, P; Fey, M F; Egger, M; Bernhard, J

2014-07-01

80

Low-Dose Treatment with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and Cardiovascular Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Darbepoetin-? More Effective than Expected?  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread invalidating condition, leading to erythropoietin deficiency and decreased cardiovascular performance. Darbepoetin-? and epoetin-? are extensively used to correct renal anemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiological outcomes in two groups of CKD patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA: 20 ?g darbepoetin-? weekly vs. 2,000 IU epoetin-? thrice weekly) with an unconventional 1:300 conversion ratio. METHODS: The study was designed as a single center, retrospective, observational study. One hundred stage IV CKD patients were selected. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, C-reactive protein, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and basal echocardiograms were monitored every 3 months. RESULTS: Darbepoetin-? was significantly more effective in increasing Hb levels after 3 (p < 0.0001), 6 (p < 0.0001), 9 (p < 0.01) and 12 months (p < 0.01) compared to epoetin-?. The optimal Hb target level (11 g/dl < Hb < 12 g/dl) was completely reached after 1 year of treatment with darbepoetin-? and in 70% of the patients treated with epoetin-? (p < 0.01). Cardiovascular performance (left ventricular end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction and pro-BNP) was significantly improved after darbepoetin-? treatment at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups compared to epoetin-?. Discussion: Despite the limitations of a retrospective observational study, these results encourage nephrologists to test the 1:300 darbepoetin/epoetin conversion ratio in 'easy' patients, and aggressive protocols for the treatment of anemia in CKD patients are avoided. Darbepoetin-? appeared effective in anemia correction, improving cardiovascular performance in a significantly higher proportion than epoetin. At low doses, on the other hand, it has to be borne in mind that a treatment regimen with only one submaximal administration per week may increase patient compliance and adherence to therapy, explaining in part the observed results. PMID:22493599

Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Granata, Antonio; Malaguti, Moreno

2012-02-01

81

Resistance to Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Patients Treated with Online Hemodiafiltration and Ultrapure Low-Flux Hemodialysis: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial (CONTRAST)  

PubMed Central

Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) is common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) treatment. ESA responsiveness might be improved by enhanced clearance of uremic toxins of middle molecular weight, as can be obtained by hemodiafiltration (HDF). In this analysis of the randomized controlled CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556), the effect of online HDF on ESA resistance and iron parameters was studied. This was a pre-specified secondary endpoint of the main trial. A 12 months' analysis of 714 patients randomized to either treatment with online post-dilution HDF or continuation of low-flux HD was performed. Both groups were treated with ultrapure dialysis fluids. ESA resistance, measured every three months, was expressed as the ESA index (weight adjusted weekly ESA dose in daily defined doses [DDD]/hematocrit). The mean ESA index during 12 months was not different between patients treated with HDF or HD (mean difference HDF versus HD over time 0.029 DDD/kg/Hct/week [?0.024 to 0.081]; P?=?0.29). Mean transferrin saturation ratio and ferritin levels during the study tended to be lower in patients treated with HDF (?2.52% [?4.72 to ?0.31]; P?=?0.02 and ?49 ng/mL [?103 to 4]; P?=?0.06 respectively), although there was a trend for those patients to receive slightly more iron supplementation (7.1 mg/week [?0.4 to 14.5]; P?=?0.06). In conclusion, compared to low-flux HD with ultrapure dialysis fluid, treatment with online HDF did not result in a decrease in ESA resistance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00205556

van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Den Hoedt, Claire H.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bots, Michiel L.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; Levesque, Renee; Mazairac, Albert H. A.; Nube, Menso J.; Penne, E. Lars; ter Wee, Pieter M.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.

2014-01-01

82

Anemia and iron deficiency in COPD patients: prevalence and the effects of correction of the anemia with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous iron  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The purposes of this study were: (i) To study the prevalence and treatment of anemia and ID in patients hospitalized with an exacerbation of COPD. (ii) to study the hematological responses and degree of dyspnea before and after correction of anemia with subcutaneous Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron therapy, in ambulatory anemic patients with both COPD and chronic kidney disease. Methods (i) We examined the hospital records of all patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) to assess the investigation, prevalence, and treatment of anemia and ID. (ii) We treated 12 anemic COPD outpatients with the combination of ESAs and IV-iron, given once weekly for 5 weeks. One week later we measured the hematological response and the severity of dyspnea by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results (i) Anemia and iron deficiency in hospitalized COPD patients: Of 107 consecutive patients hospitalized with an AECOPD, 47 (43.9%) were found to be anemic on admission. Two (3.3%) of the 60 non-anemic patients and 18 (38.3%) of the 47 anemic patients had serum iron, percent transferrin saturation (%Tsat) and serum ferritin measured. All 18 (100%) anemic patients had ID, yet none had oral or IV iron subscribed before or during hospitalization, or at discharge. (ii) Intervention outpatient study: ID was found in 11 (91.7%) of the 12 anemic ambulatory patients. Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct) and the VAS scale scores increased significantly with the ESAs and IV-iron treatment. There was a highly significant correlation between the ?Hb and ?VAS; rs?=?0.71 p?=?0.009 and between the ?Hct and ?VAS; rs?=?0.8 p?=?0.0014. Conclusions ID is common in COPD patients but is rarely looked for or treated. Yet correction of the ID in COPD patients with ESAs and IV iron can improve the anemia, the ID, and may improve the dyspnea.

2014-01-01

83

Stimulative effect of the fungal biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Striga on abundance of nitrifying prokaryotes in a maize rhizosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as total archaeal and bacterial communities. AOB only showed significant increases in the Machanga soil when organic residues were added. Furthermore, there were transient detectable significant increases in total archaea and AOA due to Striga inoculation which also varied with the soil. The variation in treatment effects in the two soils was highly linked to the differences in soil properties such as dissolved organic carbon and soil pH which showed significant (P

Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

2014-05-01

84

Effect of iodide on glucose oxidation and /sup 32/P incorporation into phospholipids stimulated by different agents in dog thyroid slices  

SciTech Connect

Since iodide (I-) inhibits TSH stimulation of cAMP formation, which mediates most of the effects of the hormone, it has been assumed that this accounts for the inhibitory action of iodide on the thyroid. However, TSH stimulation of 32P incorporation into phospholipids and stimulation of thyroid metabolism by other agonists, such as carbachol, phorbol esters, and ionophore A23187, is not cAMP mediated. The present studies examined the effect of iodide on stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by TSH and other agonists to determine if the inhibition of cAMP formation was responsible for the action of iodide. Preincubation of dog thyroid slices for 1 h with iodide (10(-4) M) inhibited TSH-, (Bu)2cAMP-, carbachol-, methylene blue-, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-, ionophore A23187-, prostaglandin E1-, and cholera toxin-stimulated glucose oxidation. I- also inhibited the stimulation by TSH, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, carbachol, and ionophore A23187 of 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The inhibition was similar whether iodide was added 2 h before or simultaneously with the agonist. I- itself sometimes stimulated basal glucose oxidation, but had no effect on basal 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The effects of iodide on basal and agonist-stimulated thyroid metabolism were blocked by methimazole (10(-3) M). When dog thyroid slices were preloaded with 32PO4 or (1-14C)glucose, the iodide inhibition of agonist stimulation disappeared, suggesting that the effect of iodide involves the transport process. In conclusion, I- inhibited stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by all agonists, indicating that the effect is independent of the cAMP system and that iodide autoregulation does not only involve this system. Oxidation and organification of iodide are necessary for the inhibition.

Tseng, F.Y.; Rani, C.S.; Field, J.B.

1989-03-01

85

Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

Gore, Deborah, Ed.

1988-01-01

86

Assurance chômage des emprunteurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

La securisation des prets pour accession a la propriete concerne les organismes de credit mais aussi la puissance publique, avec le developpement des prets a taux zero. L'assurance chomage privee des prets hypothecaires evite la budgetisation des prestations qu'entrainerait un assurance publiquepour des prets aides. L'article etudie les conditions d'assurabilite du risque chomage des emprunteurs, et en regard la theorie

Pierre-André Chiappori; Jean Pinquet

1999-01-01

87

Santé mentale et relations conjugales chez les travailleurs exposés à des substances neurotoxiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinquante-cinq (55) travailleurs et leur conjointe participent à une évaluation de l'effet de l'exposition à des agents neurotoxiques en milieu de travail sur la santé mentale et la vie conjugale. Des mesures standardisées évaluent le niveau d'exposition, les problèmes de santé mentale et les difficultés conjugales. Les résultats montrent que a) des degrés élevés d'exposition sont associés à des degrés

DANIELLE JULIEN; DONNA MERGLER; MARY BALDWIN; MARIE-PASCALE SASSINE; NATHALIE CORMIER; ÉLISE CHARTRAND; SUZANNE BÉLANGER

1998-01-01

88

Correlations entre les proprietes physico-mecaniques des roches et le comportement des granulats manufactures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aRsum  La revue des essais d'acceptation des granulats, quant leur qualit mcanique ou leur rsistance aux agents atmosphriques,\\u000a montre qu'il existe de trs nombreux essais empiriques en usage dans le monde mais pratiquement aucun n'est employ universellement.\\u000a Dans cette communication il est pass en revue les divers modes de sollicitation imposs au granulat depuis sa production\\u000a en carrire jusqu' son emploi,

Ballivy Gérard; Dayre Michel

1984-01-01

89

Anti-HIV Agent Trichosanthin Enhances the Capabilities of Chemokines to Stimulate Chemotaxis and G Protein Activation, and This Is Mediated through Interaction of Trichosanthin and Chemokine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Trichosanthin (TCS), an active protein component isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii, has been shown to inhibit HIV infection and has been applied in clinical treatment of AIDS. The recent development that chemokines and chemokine receptors play important roles in HIV infection led us to investigate the possible functional interaction of TCS with chemokines and their receptors. This study demonstrated that TCS greatly enhanced both RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted)– and stromal cell–derived factor (SDF)-1?–stimulated chemotaxis (EC50 ? 1 nM) in leukocytes (THP-1, Jurkat, and peripheral blood lymphocyte cells) and activation of pertussis toxin–sensitive G proteins (EC50 ? 20 nM). TCS also significantly augmented chemokine-stimulated activation of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as well as CCR1, CCR2B, CCR3, and CCR4 transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. A mutant TCS with 4,000-fold lower ribosome-inactivating activity showed similar augmentation activity as wild-type TCS. Moreover, flow cytometry demonstrated that the specific association of TCS to the cell membranes required the presence of chemokine receptors, and laser confocal microscopy reveals that TCS was colocalized with chemokine receptors on the membranes. The results from TCS-Sepharose pull-down and TCS and chemokine receptor coimmunoprecipitation and cross-linking experiments demonstrated association of TCS with CCR5. Thus, our data clearly demonstrated that TCS synergizes activities of chemokines to stimulate chemotaxis and G protein activation, and the effects of TCS are likely to be mediated through its interaction with chemokine receptors.

Zhao, Jian; Ben, Li-Hong; Wu, Ya-Lan; Hu, Wei; Ling, Kun; Xin, Shun-Mei; Nie, Hui-Ling; Ma, Lan; Pei, Gang

1999-01-01

90

Die Innervation des Dünndarmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Bei den mit Curare vergifteten Tieren wird durch die Reizung der Medulla oblongata die Peristaltik und der Tonus des Dünndarmes vermindert. Diese Sympathicuswirkung kann jedoch durch die Durchtrennung des Rückenmarkes unterhalb der Medulla oblongata oder durch die Nicotinisierung des Ganglion coeliacum ausgeschaltet werden. Reizt man die Medulla oblongata nach einem dieser Eingriffe, so kommt es zu einer Steigerung des

B. v. Issekutz

1934-01-01

91

Modulation des aides, renforcement du deuxième pilier et répartition des subventions et des revenus agricoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ce texte présente trois scénarios de modulation des aides du premier pilier en vue de renforcer le deuxième pilier. Compte tenu du poids des aides dans le revenu, une redistribution plus égalitaire des subventions ne correspond pas automatiquement à une nette baisse de l’inégalité des revenus. La répartition des revenus dépend aussi très largement de l’évolution des prix relatifs des

Jean-Pierre Butault; Jean-Marc Rousselle

2007-01-01

92

Inhibition of MAO-A and stimulation of behavioural activities in mice by the inactive prodrug form of the anti-influenza agent oseltamivir  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Oseltamivir is the most widely prescribed anti-influenza medication. However, in rare instances, it has been reported to stimulate behavioural activities in adolescents. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for these behavioural activities. Experimental Approach We performed an in vitro assay of MAO-A, the enzyme responsible for neurotransmitter degradation, using either the active form – oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or the inactive prodrug – oseltamivir ethyl ester (OEE). We also analysed the docking of MAO-A with OEE or OC?in silico. Mouse behaviours after OEE or OC administration were monitored using automated video and computer analysis. Key Results OEE, but not OC, competitively and selectively inhibited human MAO-A. The estimated Ki value was comparable with the Km values of native substrates of MAO-A. Docking simulations in silico based on the tertiary structure of MAO-A suggested that OEE could fit into the inner pocket of the enzyme. Behavioural monitoring using automated video analysis further revealed that OEE, not OC, significantly enhanced spontaneous behavioural activities in mice, such as jumping, rearing, sniffing, turning and walking. Conclusions and Implications Our multilevel analyses suggested OEE to be the cause of the side effects associated with oseltamivir and revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the stimulated behaviours induced by oseltamivir in some circumstances.

Hiasa, Miki; Isoda, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Saitoh, Kenta; Kimura, Yasuaki; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Hatakeyama, Dai; Kirino, Yutaka; Kuzuhara, Takashi

2013-01-01

93

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor impedes recovery from damage caused by cytotoxic agents through increased differentiation at the expense of self-renewal.  

PubMed

G-CSF is routinely used to hasten recovery from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. We have recently shown that G-CSF, when combined with stem cell-damaging cytotoxic agents, results in enhanced stem cell damage and loss of marrow reserve. To investigate the mechanisms of stem cell damage caused by G-CSF, we gave C57BL/6 (B6) mice repeated doses of cyclophosphamide ([CY] 84 mg/kg) or carmustine ([BCNU] 13.2 mg/kg) and G-CSF (250 microg/kg/day) for either four days or eight days. Two different regimens of G-CSF were chosen to study the influence of increased proliferation on hematopoiesis which was measured at the end of the first, third and sixth 14-day cycle of each cytotoxic agent and 7 and 20 weeks after completion of all cycles. A spectrum of hematopoietic indices was measured including WBC, bone marrow cellularity, granulocyte/macrophage-colony-forming cells (GM-CFC), colony-forming cells with high proliferative-potential (HPP-CFC), cobblestone area-forming cells ([CAFC]-day 7 and CAFC-day 28), and long-term marrow repopulating ability in vivo. Despite the absence of differences in peripheral blood cell counts or bone marrow cellularity 14 days after each dose, progenitor cell levels (HPP-CFC, GM-CFC, and CAFC-7) were increased up to 2.5-fold with cytotoxic agent and G-CSF administration compared with cytotoxic agent administration alone. Mice given G-CSF for eight days had the greatest number of progenitors suggesting a dose-response relationship for G-CSF administration. G-CSF resulted in a decrease in hematopoietic stem cell (CAFC-28) content when measured two weeks after each cycle of saline, CY, and BCNU. Twenty weeks after six cycles of BCNU, the reduction in stem cell levels persisted and was further decreased when G-CSF was added to BCNU for four or eight days. Data from this study suggest that the most likely explanation for the damaging effects of G-CSF is that G-CSF directly or indirectly induces stem cells to differentiate into more committed hematopoietic cells resulting in a loss of marrow reserve. This effect is enhanced in animals with an already compromised hematopoietic stem cell compartment as seen with repeated doses of BCNU. PMID:10742384

van Os, R; Robinson, S; Sheridan, T; Mauch, P M

2000-01-01

94

Binding of the bone-seeking agent 99mTc-1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid to cartilage and collagen in vitro and its stimulation by Er3+ and low pH.  

PubMed

The bone-seeking agent 99mTc-labeled 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) unexpectedly binds to particles of human articular cartilage as well as cortical bone in vitro. Collagen also sequesters this compound, suggesting that collagen contributes to the uptake of 99mTc-HEDP by cartilage and bone. Particles of the bone mineral calcium hydroxyapatite also bind 99mTc-HEDP in vitro. Pretreatment of particles with Er3+ stimulates binding in each case. Lowering the pH of incubation to pH 2 has this effect for bone, cartilage, and collagen, but not for calcium hydroxyapatite. Mechanisms additional to the simple ionic attraction between the phosphonate groups of HEDP and metal cations such as Ca2+ are responsible for the uptake of 99mTc-HEDP by body tissues. PMID:6773636

Evans, C H; Mears, D C

1980-01-01

95

Morphogenetic effects of follicle stimulating hormone: Effects on the synthesis of nuclear RNA's by chick embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé L'hormone de maturation folliculaire (FSH), qui possède des propriétés morphogénétiques nettes, produit des effets différentiels sur la synthèse des ARN nucléaires chez des embryons de poule dans les différentes étapes de leur développement. Les expériences indiquent que lors du traitement par l'hormone, celle-ci peut stimuler la synthèse de différentes classes d'ARN, selon l'étape du développement.

G. V. Sherbet; M. S. Lakshmi

1969-01-01

96

Therapeutic Efficacy of Human Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Used Alone and in Combination with Antifungal Agents, in Mice with Systemic Candida albicans Infection  

PubMed Central

We examined the in vivo activity of human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hM-CSF) against lethal Candida albicans infection in mice. In C. albicans-infected mice which had been immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide, treatment with hM-CSF at a daily dose of 8 × 105 units/kg of body weight or greater slightly but significantly prolonged survival. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of amphotericin B (AMPH-B) in infected mice was enhanced by its combined use with hM-CSF, while that of fluconazole (FLCZ) was not. The activities of peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils from mice administered hM-CSF plus AMPH-B in combination for inhibition of hyphal growth of C. albicans cells and intracellular phagocytosis and killing of the cells were greater than those of comparable phagocytic cells from control mice to which hM-CSF plus AMPH-B was not administered. These results suggest that intravenous administration of hM-CSF augments the efficacy of AMPH-B by enhancing the antifungal activities of macrophages and neutrophils. Therefore, it is expected that therapy with the combination AMPH-B and hM-CSF could improve the efficacy of AMPH-B and reduce the therapeutic dose of the antifungal drug that is required.

Kuhara, Tetsuya; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

2000-01-01

97

Effet des innovations organisationnelles et des technologies de l'information sur le rendement des entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dans ce document, on vise a determiner si les investissements dans les technologies de l'information et des communications, combines a des changements organisationnels et aux competences des travailleurs, contribuent a ameliorer le rendement des entreprises canadiennes.

Wulong Gera Surendra Gu

2004-01-01

98

Cyclic AMP-elevating agents down-regulate the oxidative burst induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in adherent neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

Human neutrophils, plated on fibronectin-precoated wells, were found to release large quantities of superoxide anion (O2-) in response to GM-CSF. O2- production was reduced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the phosphodiesterase type IV (PDE IV) inhibitor RO 20-1724. Both agents are known to increase intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels by inducing its production (PGE2) or blocking its catabolism (RO 20-1724). When added in combination, PGE2 and RO 20-1724 had a marked synergistic inhibitory effect, which was reproduced by replacing PGE2 with a direct activator of adenylate cyclase, i.e. forskolin (FK). Moreover, the neutrophil response to GM-CSF was inhibited by a membrane-permeable analogue of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. As GM-CSF and PGE2 are known to be generated at tissue sites of inflammation, the results suggest the existence of a PGE2-dependent regulatory pathway potentially capable of controlling the neutrophil response to GM-CSF, in turn limiting the risk of local oxidative tissue injury. Moreover, owing to its susceptibility to amplification by RO 20-1724, the PGE2-dependent pathway and in particular PDE-IV may represent a pharmacological target to reduce the generation of histotoxic oxidants by GM-CSF-responding neutrophils.

Ottonello, L; Morone, M P; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

1995-01-01

99

Diethyl pyrocarbonate, a histidine-modifying agent, directly stimulates activity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in pituitary GH(3) cells.  

PubMed

The ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels are composed of sulfonylurea receptor and inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (Kir6.2) subunit. These channels are regulated by intracellular ADP/ATP ratio and play a role in cellular metabolism. Diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), a histidine-specific alkylating reagent, is known to modify the histidine residues of the structure of proteins. The objective of this study was to determine whether DEPC modifies K(ATP)-channel activity in pituitary GH(3) cells. Steady-state fluctuation analyses of macroscopic K(+) current at -120 mV produced power spectra that could be fitted with a single Lorentzian curve in these cells. The time constants in the presence of DEPC were increased. Consistent with fluctuation analyses, the mean open time of K(ATP)-channels was significantly increased during exposure to DEPC. However, DEPC produced no change in single-channel conductance, despite the ability of this compound to enhance K(ATP)-channel activity in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC(50) value of 16 microM. DEPC-stimulated K(ATP)-channel activity was attenuated by pretreatment with glibenclamide. In current-clamp configuration, DEPC decreased the firing of action potentials in GH(3) cells. A further application of glibenclamide reversed DEPC-induced inhibition of spontaneous action potentials. Intracellullar Ca(2+) measurements revealed the ability of DEPC to decrease Ca(2+) oscillations in GH(3) cells. Simulation studies also demonstrated that the increased conductance of K(ATP)-channels used to mimic DEPC actions reduced the frequency of spontaneous action potentials and fluctuation of intracellular Ca(2+). The results indicate that chemical modification with DEPC enhances K(ATP)-channel activity and influences functional activities of pituitary GH(3) cells. PMID:16375866

Wu, Sheng-Nan; Chang, Han-Dong

2006-02-28

100

Standardisierte Formen des Familieninterviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Der Beitrag stellt standardisierte und strukturierte Formen des Familien-interviews vor. Neben den „klassischen“ Verfahren\\u000a des Structured Family Interviews (SFI) und des Camberwell Family Interviews (CFI) werden neuere, vorwiegend für Forschungszwecke\\u000a entwickelte Interviewmethoden beschrieben.

E. Nordmann; S. Kötter

101

Partage des coûts et tarification des infrastructures \\/ Partage des coûts et tarification des infrastructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Une véritable valorisation des infrastructures communes doit reposer sur une approche rigoureuse du partage de leurs coûts et de leur tarification implicites sinon explicites. D’où l’intérêt et la pertinence du présent ouvrage qui se veut à la fois un regroupement en un seul lieu et une mise àjour des travaux que nous avons réalisés sur ce sujet au cours des

Marcel Boyer; Michel Moreaux; Michel Truchon

102

Imagerie des prolapsus périnéaux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Deux principes doivent guider l’imagerie dynamique des prolapsus des quatre étages du pelvi-périnée pour répondre à l’approche\\u000a moderne d’une conception globale du plancher pelvien. C’est d’une part la prise en considération de la compétition des différents\\u000a prolapsus qui doit faire alterner la réplétion et la vidange des organes creux et le refoulement éventuel des organes pleins\\u000a dans un ordre précis.

J.-F. Lapray

2009-01-01

103

9 CFR 121.3 - VS select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...des petits ruminants virus; Rinderpest virus; Sheep pox virus; Swine vesicular disease virus; ...listed in paragraph (b) of this section that have been genetically modified. (d) VS select agents or toxins that meet...

2009-01-01

104

Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions  

PubMed Central

The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

2014-01-01

105

Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.  

PubMed

The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling. PMID:24818076

Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

2014-01-01

106

DES Supernova Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES SN) will discover approximately 3500 Type Ia supernovae with well-sampled multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.2 over its five year duration. The large field of view and high z-band sensitivity of the Dark Energy Camera, combined with the precision photometry of DES and an improved handling of systematic uncertainties will allow DES SN to provide the strongest constraints on supernova cosmology to date. One of the main challenges for DES SN will be accurate classification of such a large number of faint transients. I will describe the unique spectroscopic follow-up strategy that we are employing, with emphasis on the 100 night, survey-status program at AAT which began in September. I will present preliminary supernova results obtained from the DES Science Verification period and the beginning of DES Year 1.

D'Andrea, Christopher; Dark Energy Survey, The

2014-01-01

107

Zur Histophysiologie des Inselapparates  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Der Feinbau der Langerhansschen Inseln des neugeborenen und erwachsenen Hundes wird geschildert. Das Zahlenverhältnis der betazu den alpha-Zellen in den Inseln des normalen Hundes beträgt bei Zugrundelegung nach Gomori (Azan) gefärbter Präparate 7:1, von Gros-Schultze-Präparaten 8:1. Es wird eine Einteilung der nach Gros-Schultze im Pankreas des Hundes darstellbaren verschiedenartigen Silberzellen vorgenommen. Das Vorhandensein neuroinsulärer Komplexe (Simard, 1937) wird für das

W. Creutzfeldt

1949-01-01

108

Target haemoglobin to aim for with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: a position statement by ERBP following publication of the Trial to reduce cardiovascular events with Aranesp therapy (TREAT) study.  

PubMed

The European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), which are issued by ERA-EDTA, are suggestions for clinical practice in areas in which evidence is lacking or weak, together with position statements on recently published randomized controlled trials, or on existing guidelines and recommendations. In 2009, the Anaemia Working Group of ERBP published its first position statement about the haemoglobin target to aim for with erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) and on issues that were not covered by K-DOQI in 2006-07. This second position paper of the group follows the publication of the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) Study. This multi-centre, placebo-controlled trial compared cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 4038 patients with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease not on dialysis, and anaemia who were randomized to complete anaemia correction (haemoglobin target of 13 g/dL using darbepoetin alpha) or placebo (with a haemoglobin rescue value of 9 g/dL). Following the findings of the TREAT study, the Anaemia Working Group of ERBP maintains its view that 'Hb values of 11-12 g/dL should be generally sought in the CKD population without intentionally exceeding 13 g/dL' and that the doses of ESA therapy to achieve the target haemoglobin should also be considered. More caution is suggested when treating anaemia with ESA therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes not undergoing dialysis (and probably in diabetics at all CKD stages). In those with ischaemic heart disease or with a previous history of stroke, possible benefits should be weighed up against an increased risk of stroke recurrence, when deciding which Hb level to aim for. These recommendations are not intended to represent a new guideline as they are not the result of a systematic review of the evidence. PMID:20591813

Locatelli, Francesco; Aljama, Pedro; Canaud, Bernard; Covic, Adrian; De Francisco, Angel; Macdougall, Iain C; Wiecek, Andrzej; Vanholder, Raymond

2010-09-01

109

[Effects of Dose of Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents on Cardiovascular Outcomes, Quality of Life and Costs of Haemodialysis. The Clinical Evaluation of the DOSe of Erythropoietins (C.E. DOSE) Trial].  

PubMed

Background: Anaemia is a risk factor for death, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and poor quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents (ESA) are the most used treatment option. In observational studies, higher haemoglobin (Hb) levels (around 11-13 g/dL) are associated with improved survival and quality of life compared to Hb levels around 9-10 g/dL. Randomized studies found that targeting higher Hb levels with ESA causes an increased risk of death, mainly due to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. It is possible that this is mediated by ESA dose rather than haemoglobin concentration, although this hypothesis has never been formally tested. Methods: We present the protocol of the Clinical Evaluation of the Dose of Erythropoietins (C.E. DOSE) trial, which will assess the benefits and harms of a high versus a low ESA dose therapeutic strategy for the management of anaemia of end stage kidney disease (ESKD). This is a randomized, prospective open label blinded end-point (PROBE) design trial due to enroll 900 haemodialysis patients. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to 4000 UI/week i. v. versus 18000 UI/week i. v. of epoetin alfa, beta or any other epoetin in equivalent doses. The primary outcome of the trial is a composite of cardiovascular events. In addition, quality of life and costs of these two strategies will be assessed. The study has been approved and funded by the Italian Agency of Drugs (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (AIFA)) within the 2006 funding plan for independent research on drugs (registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00827021)). PMID:23832463

Saglimbene, V; D'Alonzo, D; Ruospo, M; Vecchio, M; Natale, P; Gargano, L; Nicolucci, A; Pellegrini, F; Craig, J C; Triolo, G; Procaccini, D A; Santoro, A; Di Giulio, S; La Rosa, S; Murgo, A; Di Toro Mammarella, R; Sambati, M; D'Ambrosio, N; Greco, V; Giannoccaro, G; Flammini, A; Boccia, E; Montalto, G; Pagano, S; Amarù, S; Fici, M; Lumaga, G Barone; Mancini, E; Veronesi, M; Patregnani, L; Querques, M; Schiavone, P; Chimienti, S; Palumbo, R; Di Franco, D; Della Volpe, M; Gori, E; Salomone, M; Iacono, A; Moscoloni, M; Treglia, A; Casu, D; Piras, A M; Di Silva, A; Mandreoli, M; Lopez, A; Quarello, F; Catizone, L; Russo, G; Forcellini, S; Maccarone, M; Catucci, G; Di Paolo, B; Stingone, A; D'Angelo, B; Guastoni, C; Pasquali, S; Minoretti, C; Bellasi, A; Boscutti, G; Martone, M; David, S; Schito, F; Urban, L; Di Iorio, B; Caruso, F; Mazzoni, A; Musacchio, R; Andreoli, D; Cossu, M; Li Cavoli, G; Cornacchiari, M; Granata, A; Clementi, A; Giordano, R; Guastoni, C; Barzaghi, W; Valentini, M; Hegbrant, J; Tognoni, G; Strippoli, G F M

2013-01-01

110

Structure des bilans et types de croissance des entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Structures des bilans et types de croissance des entreprises par Eric HURET. Une étude sur les structures de bilan des entreprises est réalisée à partir d'un échantillon de 522 firmes fourni par la centrale des bilans du Crédit national. On étudie d'abord de manière traditionnelle, les différences entre les moyennes sectorielles. Les conclusions économiques qui peuvent en être tirées

Eric Huret

1973-01-01

111

Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents

Thameur Mnif

1997-01-01

112

Elimination des noeuds dans le probleme newtonien des quatre corps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Nous appliquons la méthode des transformations canoniques à variables imposées à la réduction du problème newtonien des quatre corps. L'élimination du centre de gravité étant supposée faite, le problème est ramené à celui des trois corps fictifs. Alors nous menons à bien la réduction dûe aux intégrales des aires explicitement sous forme Hamiltonienne en tenant compte de l'aspect géométrique

Françoise Boigey; M. Curie

1982-01-01

113

La structure des verres étudiée par diffraction des neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La diffraction des neutrons est une méthode largement utilisée pour déterminer la structure des matériaux amorphes et en particulier des verres. L'utilisation de la méthode de substitution isotopique permet d'extraire les fonctions de distribution de paires partielles centrées autour d'un élément choisi. Nous présentons quelques exemples récents d'études par diffraction des neutrons sur des verres qui ont permis de mieux comprendre à la fois le réseau polymérique de la matrice vitreuse et l'environnement local et à moyenne distance autour des cations. Ces études ont révélées un ordre structural s'étendant au delà des premiers voisins, jusque vers de distances d'environ 10Å. Le couplage avec d'autres méthodes expérimentales (diffraction anormale des rayons X) et des techniques de simulations (dynamique moléculaire, Monte Carlo Inverse ou RMC) sont indispensables pour affiner nos connaissances de la structure des verres.

Cormier, L.

2003-09-01

114

DES Galaxy Cluster Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5 year, 5000 square degree photometric survey in 5 bands (grizY), with the primary goals of exploring the cause of cosmic acceleration and to trace the growth of structure. Probing the growth of structure via clusters of galaxies, the most massive bound structures in the Universe, is one of the key Dark Energy probes of DES as they provide one of the best ways to distinguish between a cosmological constant and deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales. From November 2012 through February 2013 DES performed a "science verification" observing campaign (SVA1), covering over 100 deg^2 in the southern sky to full DES depth. Here we describe early results from galaxy clusters from SVA1, including a new measurement of the red galaxy conditional luminosity function to 1. We also show how these results inform our catalog simulation work for better predictions of the DES performance after the full 5 year survey.

Rykoff, Eli S.; DES Cluster Working Group

2014-01-01

115

La structure des solutions aqueuses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En commençant par l'étude par diffraction neutronique de la structure des liquides moléculaires puis de l'hydratation des ions en solution, ce cours montrera comment les principes présentés lors des cours précédents peuvent être appliqués à des systèmes aqueux. Des exemples tirés de la littérature seront utilisés pour illustrer les considérations expérimentales propre à ce domaine et le genre d'informations que nous pouvons obtenir. Ce cours montrera également l'applicaton de la diffraction neutronique à des systèmes d'intérêt biologique et environnemental et se terminera par un examen de la complémentarité fournie par la diffraction des rayons X, l'EXAFS et la RMN.

Powell, D. H.

2003-09-01

116

?-Adrenergic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Two groups of substances which stimulate the adrenergic system are listed as prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Stimulants\\u000a are prohibited in-competition only and ?2-agonists are prohibited in- and out-of-competition. While ?2-agonists act directly on the target receptors, sympathomimetic amines can exert their action directly and indirectly. Due\\u000a to differences in pharmacology but mainly due to differences in administered dose,

Peter Van Eenoo; Frans T. Delbeke

117

Biological Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

118

Dopamine and noradrenaline receptor stimulation: Reversal of reserpine-induced suppression of motor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motor activity of reserpine treated mice was recorded after drug treatments causing stimulation of dopamine or noradrenaline receptors or both. The dopamine receptor stimulating agent apomorphine elicited an activation with stereotypies whereas the noradrenaline receptor stimulating agent clonidine was inefficient. Combined treatment with apomorphine and clonidine induced marked stimulation with jumping. Biochemically, clonidine did not significantly interfere with the

Nils-Erik Andén; Ulf Strömbom; Torgny H. Svensson

1973-01-01

119

Note des Éditeurs scientifiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d'équilibre, une séparation de l'énergie libre en énergie libre de volume et en énergie libre de surface devrait donner les mêmes résultats ; par contre les choses deviennent troublantes dès que l'on passe aux coefficients de transport, c'est-à-dire à l'aspect macroscopique de la dynamique moléculaire. Il y a là un écart notable avec les conceptions courantes, ce qui rend très surprenante la lecture de ces articles. On peut mentionner la liste des problèmes théoriques posés par la description phénoménologique qui est celle de cette série d'articles : la généralisation de lois d'échelle en dehors de zones critiques n'est pas absolument nouvelle, par contre la simplicité des lois reliant l'exposant v à la température pose problème ; le sens des temps de relaxation utilisés est sans doute également à préciser. Enfin les modes considérés semblent n'intervenir dans les propriétés thermodynamiques que par un facteur par mode, comme si seulement l'énergie potentielle devait intervenir, les termes cinétiques ne participant pas vraiment aux transitions de phase. Tout cela pose donc problème, et l'on peut se demander si un pareil modèle peut être compatible avec tout ce qui est connu par ailleurs en physique statistique. Mais s'il rend bien compte de beaucoup de résultats expérimentaux, ce sont ces derniers qui seraient en difficulté avec la mécanique statistique. Il a donc semblé préférable de publier le modèle, sa justification expérimentale et de poser quelques problèmes, tant aux théoriciens, qui pourraient expliquer pourquoi un tel modèle rend compte de résultats observés, qu'aux expérimentateurs, qui pourraient reprendre certaines mesures, et délimiter le caractère plus ou moins général du modèle.

Averbuch, P.

120

Pharmakologie des Vasomotorenzentrums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Untersuchungen an dezerebrierten Katzen mit durchschnittenen Nn. vagi und natürlicher Atmung haben gezeigt, daß die Erregbarkeit des Vasomotorenzentrums in der Medulla oblongata für den Kohlensäurereiz durch Chloroform, Äther, Chloralhydrat, Chloralose und Urethan herabgesetzt und aufgehoben werden kann.2.Bei genauen Untersuchungen über die Physiologie und Pharmakologie des Vasomotorenzentrums soll also die Verwendung von Narkoticis möglichst vermieden werden.3.Die Annahme von Itami, daß

L. W. van Esveld

1930-01-01

121

Instabilite des heures de travail au Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les auteurs de nombreuses etudes des heures de travail ont tire d'importantes conclusions des resultats des enquetes transversales. Par exemple, a tout moment donne, la part des personnes qui travaillent de longues heures est assez importante. En outre, elle semble avoir augmente au cours des deux dernieres decennies, faisant ressortir la necessite d'elaborer des politiques visant a reduire les divergences

Andrew Larochelle-Cote Sebastien Heisz

2006-01-01

122

Stimulating very long gross intervals  

SciTech Connect

Conventional acidizing and fracturing techniques are not applicable when very long gross intervals on the order of 1,000 to 3,000 feet are to be stimulated. Concepts such as fracture length and improved wellbore radius have little meaning in such cases since it is very difficult to predict or control the placement of stimulation fluids. Good diversion of fluids is the controlling factor for successful stimulation of very long gross intervals. The problem is compounded when long net intervals on the order of 500 to 1,000 feet are to be stimulated within these very long gross intervals. In such cases, the surface injection pressure required for conventional limited entry techniques can be prohibitive. These problems often can be solved by stimulating with high injection rates, buoyant ball sealers, and limited perforations. Amoco Sharjah Oil Company has encountered these problems in attempting to stimulate the Thamama in Sajaa Field. A brief history of Amoco's experience in Sajaa Field with mechanical isolation and various diverting agents is presented. To date, 6 wells have been stimulated by using high injection rates, buoyant ball sealers, and limited perforations. Some of these jobs have contained the largest fluid volumes ever injected in the Middle East and at the highest rates attempted. The results of this technique have been encouraging. The job design, equipment requirements, fluid formulations, and results of these stimulations will be presented.

Blinten, J.S.; Aziz, R.M.

1985-03-01

123

Software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

1994-01-01

124

Pyramide des âges et gestion des ressources humaines  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'utilisation de la pyramide des âges dans les discours des directeurs de ressources humaines s'est développée au cours des années 1980. Elle renvoie au choix d'un critère de sélection de salariés jugés en sureffectif. Derrière l'âge et ses représentations, c'est bien la question de la capacité des salariés à s'adapter au changement de l'entreprise qui est posée. En définitive, il

Eric Godelier

2007-01-01

125

Aspects épidémiologiques des fractures ostéoporotiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les fractures du col fémoral, des vertèbres et du poignet sont traditionnellement rapportées à l’ostéoporose, mais la plupart\\u000a des fractures qui surviennent chez les femmes de plus de 60 ans sont liées à une densité minérale osseuse (DMO) abaissée et\\u000a peuvent donc être considérées comme des fractures ostéoporotiques. En l’absence de mesures de prévention efficaces, des estimations\\u000a américaines indiquent que

P. Dargent-Molina

2009-01-01

126

Taille de pays et stratégie de concurrence fiscale des petits pays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dans cet article, nous tentons d'appréhender le choix des politiques économiques des pays à la une du critère de taille. En effet, selon le cas ou un pays est grand ou non, celui-ci aura incitations différentes quant au choix de sa stratégie de croissance. Ainsi théoriquement, un grand pays favorisera plus une politique qui stimule la demande alors qu'un petit

Nicolas Chatelais

2011-01-01

127

Development of a Low-Temperature Catalytic Oxidation System for Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is to develop a low-temperature microwave catalytic oxidation system that will effectively decontaminate air containing aerosolized or gaseous chemical agents (CWAs). To protect personnel in shelters catalytic oxidation systems should (1) des...

C. Y. Cha B. Braunberger J. Wander C. Y. Wu

2004-01-01

128

Vagal nerve stimulation: a case report.  

PubMed

Despite numerous medications designed to eliminate or decrease seizures, an estimated 20% of epileptic patients in the United States remain refractory to these agents. Vagal nerve stimulation can decrease the number of seizure episodes. In 1997, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first implantable stimulation device for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. This case report describes the anesthetic management of a patient for placement of a vagal nerve stimulator. A review is presented of the current literature regarding long-term antiepileptic drug therapy and its effect on anesthetic management, pathophysiology of epilepsy and seizure propagation, and the effects of commonly used anesthetic agents on the seizure threshold. Also discussed are the physiology of vagal nerve stimulation, benefits and potential complications that may occur with its implantation, and device mechanics as it relates to future surgical procedures. As the use of vagal nerve stimulators increases, knowledge of these processes is important to ensure safe and effective anesthetic management. PMID:20583461

Higgins, David; Dix, David; Gold, Michelle E

2010-04-01

129

La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

2003-02-01

130

DES Science Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last summer, the DES Collaboration installed DECam, a new 570 Megapixel CCD camera with a 3 square degree field of view, on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. A two month long commissioning period for the instrument and the new telescope control system was followed by three weeks of science verification. Science verification was a special observing program designed to verify that the camera and the telescope meet the requirements imposed by the DES science program. In a series of tests we evaluated both image quality and operational readiness. The 23 science verification nights were split between DES and a number of community observing programs selected by NOAO to explore the wide range of science opportunities made possible by the new instrument. In this presentation we will introduce the DECam science verification program, outlines the tests that were performed and present our initial results.

Honscheid, Klaus

2013-01-01

131

Toxicités des chimiothérapies orales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les effets secondaires toxiques sont indissociables de la chimiothérapie anticancéreuse. Mais aujourd’hui, nous nous trouvons\\u000a devant un phénomène nouveauqui est l’administration orale de ces médicaments anticancéreux. Des effets secondaires qui pouvaient\\u000a passer pour anodins lors de l’administration intraveineuse de ces produits, nausées-vomissements de grades 1 ou 2 par exemple,\\u000a donc non susceptibles d’arrêter le traitement, deviennent, avec la multiplication des

F. Lokiec

2007-01-01

132

Radioprotective Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lists 73 domestic and foreign references on radioprotective (anti-radiation) agents added to the CFSTI collection during the period February 1963 through April 1965. Includes reports on protective effects of natural foods and chemicals i. e. 2-mercaptoeth...

1965-01-01

133

[Antitubulin agents].  

PubMed

Microtubules are dynamic filamentous cytoskeletal proteins that are an important therapeutic target in patients with tumors. Microtubule binding agents have been part of the pharmacopoeia of cancer for decades, and until the advent of targeted therapy microtubules represented the only alternative to DNA as a therapeutic target in cancer. There are currently a variety of available vinca alkaloids and taxanes and other agents, such as ixabepilone and eribulin, have also been approved. Maytansinoids have been used for the production of immunoconjugates, monoclonal antibodies covalently bound to antimitotic molecules. The screening of a variety of botanical species and marine organisms continues to yield promising new antitubulin agents with novel properties. Enhanced tumor specificity, reduced neurotoxicity, and insensitivity to chemoresistance mechanisms are the three main objectives in the current search for novel microtubule binding agents. PMID:22023745

Dumontet, Charles

2011-11-01

134

Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

Kenneth J. Ewing; Jas Sanghera; Ishwar D. Aggarwal; Myron J. Block

2004-01-01

135

Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

2004-12-01

136

Response to Comment on “Movement Intention After Parietal Cortex Stimulation in Humans”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karnath et al. argue that the behavioral effects observed in our study after direct parietal and premotor electrical stimulation (DES) could reflect a decrease of local cortical activity. If so, intention and awareness would not reflect the activity of the stimulated area but the recruitment of remote regions. Although tenable, this view does not seem to be the most plausible.

Sirigu, Angela; Mottolese, Carmine; Desmurget, Michel

2010-03-01

137

Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

Mnif, Thameur

138

Une justification par les comptes de surplus des subventions à l'agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Face à revenus qui agriculteurs revendiquent réajustements en renâclant à passer pour des assistés. L'aide qu'ils sollicitent auprès de l'Etat ne représente en fait qu'une contre-partie d'un trop perçu par les agents implantés aussi bien en amont qu'en aval de la filière agroalimentaire. Les subventions accordées, loin d'être des largesses, ne sont qu'une restitution de gains grandement mérités par

Michel Bourdon

1982-01-01

139

Sunscreening Agents  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.

Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

2013-01-01

140

NF?B activation and stimulation of chemokine production in normal human macrophages by the gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agent Omniscan: possible role in the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveNephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a generalised fibrotic disorder occurring in certain individuals with renal insufficiency exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GdBCA) for MRI. Histopathological examination of affected tissues shows increased numbers of activated macrophages. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for macrophage activation, the effects of the GdBCA Omniscan on normal human macrophage global gene expression, chemokine production and nuclear

Francesco Del Galdo; Peter J Wermuth; Sankar Addya; Paolo Fortina; Sergio A Jimenez

2010-01-01

141

Selective rejection of a water-soluble nerve agent stimulant using a nanoporous lyotropic liquid crystal–butyl rubber vapor barrier material: Evidence for a molecular size-discrimination mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective vapor rejection performance of a “breathable”, cross-linked lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC)–butyl rubber (BR) composite membrane with a type I bicontinuous cubic (QI) morphology was studied for a water-soluble chemical nerve agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The thickness-normalized DMMP vapor flux of this nanoporous QI-phase LLC–BR membrane, which has a 3D interconnected water nanopore network, was found to be

Xiaoyun Lu; Vinh Nguyen; Xiaohui Zeng; Brian J. Elliott; Douglas L. Gin

2008-01-01

142

Zur Dampfstoßtheorie des Mondreliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Dampfstoßtheorie gründet sich auf Experimente, deren Ergebnis an Hand geologischer Erfahrungen und Anschauungen auf den Maßstab des Mondes übertragen gedacht werden kann. Das Experiment ist also keineswegs bloß ein Modellversuch.Das Mondrelief ist das letzte Bild endogener Vorgänge, die auch auf der Erde, dort aber unter anderen Bedingungen, stattfinden.Die von der Aufsturztheorie vertretene Annahme, daß Stoßwirkungen gegen die Mondoberfläche von

Georg Dahmer

1938-01-01

143

Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

144

Partage des coûts et tarification des infrastructures - Enjeux, problématique et pertinence du partage efficace des coûts  

Microsoft Academic Search

La plupart des organisations, sinon toutes, répartissent d'une manière ou d'une autre des coûts communs entre leurs diverses composantes ou encore entre leurs différents partenaires. Ces problèmes de partage de coûts communs se posent avec de plus en plus d'acuité car les règles de partage de coûts communs sont des facteurs importants de compétitivité et de performance. Bien que leur

Marcel Boyer; Michel Moreaux; Michel Truchon

2002-01-01

145

Une investigation empirique des attitudes, comportements et perceptions des produits et des formes de vente  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette recherche a pour objectif de proposer une typologie fondée sur les orientations d'achat mesurées à partir des attitudes des consommateurs envers les formes et points de vente mais aussi les produits et les marques. Puis, deux expériences sont conduites pour mettre en évidence des différences de perceptions par les consommateurs d'une offre commerciale en fonction de leurs orientations d'achat.

Blandine ANTEBLIAN-LAMBREY; Gérard FRANÇOIS

1998-01-01

146

Über den Feinbau des Nebennierenmarkes des Igels ( Erinaceus europaeus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Das Nebennierenmark des Igels (Erinaceus europaeus L.) wurde mit Durchlicht-, Phasenkontrast und Dunkelfeldmikroskopie untersucht. Elektronenmikroskopische Paralleluntersuchungen (Fixierung mit OsO4 und Acrolein-OsO4) sollten zunächst die Natur der sog. paranukleären Körper klären, darüber hinaus unsere Kenntnisse vom Feinbau des Markes der Nebenniere erweitern.

W. Bargmann; E. Lindner

1964-01-01

147

Agent Exoplanet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomers at Las Cumbres Observatory are investigating exoplanets - planets which orbit stars other than our Sun - and you can too. Joining Agent Exoplanet you will study known exoplanets using images taken by LCOGTâs telescopes. You'll measure the brightness of a star while a planet moves between it and our viewpoint. You can examine as many images, from as many exoplanet transit events, as you like and contribute to understanding the properties of each exoplanet.

Network, Las C.

148

Media agent  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Systems and methods for a media agent are described. In one aspect, user access of a media content source is detected. Responsive to this detection, a piece of media content and associated text is collected from the media content source. Semantic text features are extracted from the associated text and the piece of media content. The semantic text features are indexed into a media database.

2009-02-17

149

Deep brain stimulation  

MedlinePLUS

Globus pallidus deep brain stimulation; Subthalamic deep brain stimulation; Thalamic deep brain stimulation; DBS ... lead, or electrode that is placed into the brain The neurostimulator, similar to a heart pacemaker, which ...

150

Ageismus – Sprachliche Diskriminierung des Alters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daniel Sanders, einer der bedeutendsten Lexikografen des 19. Jahrhunderts, wertete für sein Wörterbuch Quellen seit der Lutherzeit aus und\\u000a vermerkt im Wörterbuchartikel zu alt eine „bald lobende, bald tadelnde“ Bedeutung des Adjektivs. Sein Zeit- und Berufsgenosse Jacob Grimm benennt in seiner Rede über das Alter die zeitgenössischen Synonyme zu alt und Alter: „aus einheimischen schriftstellern liesze sich eine lange reihe

Undine Kramer

151

Addressing Mobile Agent Security through Agent Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of agent paradigm in today's applications is hampered by the security concerns of agents and hosts alike. The agents require the presence of a secure and trusted execution environment; while hosts aim at preventing the execution of potentially malicious code. In general, hosts support the migration of agents through the provision of an agent server and managing the

Evens Jean; Yu Jiao; Ali-R. Hurson

2007-01-01

152

Problemes aux limites en theorie des distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Etude de la méthode des potentiels pour résoudre des problèmes aux limites relatifs à certains opérateurs différentiels. Résolution\\u000a et discussion des problèmes aux limites pour un système diffèrentiel elliptique lorsque les données sont des distributions\\u000a (le problème étant elliptique à droite ou à gauche).

Paul Krée

1969-01-01

153

Die „cortinähnliche“ Wirkung des g-Strophanthins  

Microsoft Academic Search

An normalen Kaninchen bewirkten höhere Dosen des Strophanthins eine Steigerung des Blutchlorid-, Natrium- und Zuckerspiegels und eine Erniedrigung der Plasmakaliumkonzentration. An normalen Hunden wird der Chlorid- und Natriumgehalt des Blutes auf Strophanthin erhöht, der Kaliumgehalt des Plasmas gesenkt. Die mit dem Harn ausgeschiedenen Natriummengen sanken nach Strophanthinbehandlung ab und gleichzeitig nahm die Kaliumausscheidung stark zu. Im Lichte dieser auf den

E. Varga; D. Bagdy; L. Kesztyüs

1949-01-01

154

KGB agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

Gaina, Alex

155

Des Moines Water Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

2001-01-01

156

[Antiplatelet agents].  

PubMed

Atherothrombosis is a major global public health problem. Chronic atherosclerotic disease is often clinically silent and coexists across multiple vascular beds but, when complicated by thrombosis, it can result in an acute coronary syndrome, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and critical limb ischemia. Platelets play a role in the development of chronic atherosclerotic disease and are a key mediator of clinical events in atherothrombosis. Numerous clinical trials have tested antiplatelet agents for primary and secondary prevention, and several new antiplatelet drugs are under development. There is evidence of clear benefit of single and, in some cases, dual antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of recurrent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy has emerged as the standard of care for acute coronary syndromes, with aspirin typically being used in combination with clopidogrel or one of the newer more potent ADP receptor antagonists (ticagrelor or prasugrel). Conversely, in chronic stable coronary disease, no benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy has yet been convincingly demonstrated Evidence supporting routine use of aspirin or any other antiplatelet agent for primary prevention is mixed, and this strategy should only be considered for individual high-risk patients in whom the thrombotic risk outweighs the risk of major bleeding complications. PMID:24919367

Steg, Gabriel

2014-02-01

157

La stimulation magn?tique transcr?nienne (SMT) dans la recherche fondamentale et clinique en neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Introduction Les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasives telles que la Stimulation Magnétique Transcrânienne (SMT) sont largement utilisées pour établir des inférences causales sur les relations entre cerveau et comportement. Des applications cliniques basées sur la SMT ont également été développées pour traiter des affections neurologiques ou psychiatriques comme la dépression, la dystonie, la douleur, les acouphènes ou les séquelles d’accident vasculaire cérébral. État des connaissances La SMT fonctionne en induisant de manière non invasive et de manière focale des courants électriques dans des régions corticales, modulant ainsi leur niveau d’activité de façon variable suivant la fréquence, le nombre d’impulsions, les intervalles et la durée de stimulation utilisés. S’agissant du cortex moteur, on sait par exemple que les patterns d’impulsions de SMT à basse fréquence ou ceux délivrées de manière continue tendent à déprimer l’activité locale, tandis que la SMT à haute fréquence et discontinus tend à la potentialiser. Outre ses effets locaux, la SMT peut aussi avoir des effets à distance sur les régions cérébrales, véhiculés par les connections anatomiques et qui dépendent de l’efficacité et du signe de ces connexions. Perspectives Dans le domaine de la recherche fondamentale et des applications thérapeutiques, l’utilisation efficace de la SMT requiert, cependant, la compréhension approfondie de ses principes opérationnels, de ses risques, de ses potentialités et de ses limites. Dans cet article, nous présentons les principes par lesquels opèrent les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasive, et en particulier la SMT. Conclusion À l’issue de sa lecture, le lecteur sera en mesure de discuter de façon critique les études scientifiques et cliniques utilisant la SMT, ainsi que de concevoir des applications SMT suivant une hypothèse a priori dans le domaine de la recherche en neuroscience fondamentale et/ou clinique.

Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Coubard, Olivier A.

2011-01-01

158

Arachidonate metabolism by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe or complement component C5a is independent of phospholipase activation.  

PubMed Central

Release of arachidonic acid by the membrane phospholipase and metabolism by the 5-lipoxygenase pathway was examined in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The 5-lipoxygenase pathway is activated when PMNs are given arachidonic acid in ethanol and there is extensive metabolism to 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). This activation event was shown to be altered by the ethanol because resting PMNs given arachidonic acid with bovine serum albumin fail to metabolize arachidonic acid. However, cells activated by the inflammatory agents N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) or complement component C5a recruit the 5-lipoxygenase to metabolize exogenous arachidonic acid to 5-HETE and LTB4. When PMNs were incubated with arachidonic acid-bovine serum albumin and challenged with fMLF or C5a (des-Arg-C5a) they produced 49-75 pmol of LTB4 and 310-440 pmol of 5-HETE per 10(7) cells. PMNs stimulated by fMLF or C5a (des-Arg-C5a) do not induce membrane phospholipases to mobilize endogenous arachidonic acid and neither 5-HETE nor LTB4 is formed. In contrast, PMN stimulation by the ionophore A23187 activates both the membrane phospholipase and the 5-lipoxygenase to produce 5-HETE and LTB4 from endogenous arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that the lipoxygenase pathway is inoperative in resting PMNs but can be recruited by chemotactic factors to act on arachidonate from extracellular sources. It was previously believed that formation of 5-HETE and LTB4 by the PMN depends solely on phospholipase to mobilize endogenous arachidonic acid. The results reported here refute this concept and indicate that the role of phospholipase activation in PMN may be overestimated. Therefore, subsequent involvement of lipoxygenase products in mediating stimulation of PMN by inflammatory factors (e.g., as in aggregation and chemotaxis) remains in question unless an exogenous source of arachidonate can be identified.

Clancy, R M; Dahinden, C A; Hugli, T E

1983-01-01

159

A propos des divergences en théorie des champs quantifiés [83  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comme nous le montrons ailleurs1), la causalité impose à la matrice S qui décrit l'évolution d'un système une structure bien déterminée : lorsqu'on développe celle-ci suivant les opérateurs de translation dans l'espace des quanta, les coefficients S^{(i)} left[ {tau ''; u''../tau '; u' \\cdot \\cdot } right] sont des intégrales multiples où n'apparaissent, à cOté des champs liés à un seul point de l'espace temps, que les functions*): D^c (x/y) = D^s (x/y) + _2^i D^1 (x/y) x ne y

160

Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances  

ScienceCinema

Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

None

2011-10-06

161

Stimulants and doping in sport.  

PubMed

Stimulants have been frequently detected in doping control samples and represent a structurally diverse class of compounds. Comprehensive sports drug-testing procedures have been developed using gas or liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection, and they have revealed various adverse analytical findings, as demonstrated with 2 examples, 4-methylhexan-2-amine and methoxyphenamine. Moreover, the necessity of controlling the use or misuse of stimulating agents is outlined by means of pseudoephedrine, a compound that was prohibited in sports until the end of 2003. Since the ban was lifted, monitoring programs proved a significant increase in pseudoephedrine applications as determined from urine samples collected in competition. As a consequence, a reimplementation of this drug in future doping controls was decided. PMID:20122452

Thevis, Mario; Sigmund, Gerd; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

2010-03-01

162

The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20): a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a chemically modified dextran - heparan sulfate mimicking regenerating agent (RGTA) on the healing of the rabbit cornea injured with alkali was examined. The eyes were injured with 0.15 N NaOH applied on the cornea or with 1.0 N NaOH using a 8 mm diameter filter paper disk. Then RGTA or placebo was applied on the cornea. In the last group of rabbits, corneas injured with the high alkali concentration were left without any treatment for four weeks; subsequently, the corneas were treated with RGTA or placebo. The central corneal thickness was measured using a pachymeter. The corneas were examined morphologically, immunohistochemically and for real time-PCR. Compared to control (unaffected) corneas, following the application of low alkali concentration the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase 9, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase was increased in the injured corneal epithelium of placebo-treated eyes, whereas the expression of antioxidant enzymes was reduced. Nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde stainings appeared in the corneal epithelium. RGTA application suppressed the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and reduced the expression of the above-mentioned immunohistochemical markers. The corneal thickness increased after alkali injury, decreased during corneal healing after RGTA treatment faster than after placebo application. Following the injury with the high alkali concentration, corneal inflammation and neovascularization were highly pronounced in placebo-treated corneas, whereas in RGTA-treated corneas they were significantly supressed. When RGTA or placebo application was started later after alkali injury and corneas were ulcerated, subsequent RGTA treatment healed the majority of them. In conclusion, RGTA facilitates the healing of injured corneas via a reduction of proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage. PMID:24105332

Cejkova, Jitka; Olmiere, Celine; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Holan, Vladimir

2014-04-01

163

Stimulation of Purinergic Receptors Modulates Chemokine Expression in Human Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP is abundantly released from stressed or damaged cells in response to mechanical stimulation, bacteria, or noxious agents. In this study, we have investigated the possible involvement of P2 receptors (receptor for extracellular nucleotides) in the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by human keratinocytes. Notably, extracellular ATP displayed a complex regulation of IFN-?-stimulated chemokine expression, with upregulation of CC

Saveria Pastore; Francesca Mascia; Sara Gulinelli; Sylvia Forchap; Cristina Dattilo; Elena Adinolfi; Giampiero Girolomoni; Francesco Di Virgilio; Davide Ferrari

2007-01-01

164

Non–stimulant medications in the treatment of ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Stimulants are the first–line medication in the psychopharmacological treatment of attention–deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, 10 to 30% of all children and adults with ADHD either do not respond to or do not tolerate treatment with stimulants. Objective To describe alternative treatment approaches with various non–stimulant agents, especially atomoxetine. Method General review of empirically based literature concerning efficacy and

T. Banaschewski; V. Roessner; R. W. Dittmann; P. Janardhanan Santosh; A. Rothenberger

2004-01-01

165

Epidemiologie des Schmerzes – Ergebnisse des Bundes-Gesundheitssurveys 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  \\u000a Schmerz hat als weit verbreitete Gesundheitsstörung nicht nur Konsequenzen für die Lebensqualität des einzelnen akut oder\\u000a chronisch Schmerzkranken, sondern stellt darüber hinaus Anforderungen an das Gesundheitssystem. Die Daten des Bundes-Gesundheitssurveys\\u000a ermöglichen erstmalig für die gesamte Bundesrepublik Deutschland repräsentative Aussagen zur Auftretenshäufigkeit von Schmerz,\\u000a dessen Lokalisation und Intensität. Zudem ermöglicht die Datenlage eine Differenzierung nach Alter, Geschlecht und Schichtzugehörigkeit.\\u000a Welch

B.-M. Bellach; U. Ellert; M. Radoschewski

2000-01-01

166

The Agent Pattern for Mobile Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Agent pattern, a design pa ttern u seful t o d evelop d ynamic and distributed app lications. The Agent pattern p rovides a clean and easy way to d evelop agent-based applications, mainly in open and large-scale distributed environments such as the Internet and application areas such as Electronic Commerce. The Agent pattern encapsulates a

Alberto Silva; José Delgado

1998-01-01

167

Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en R?publique D?mocratique du Congo: cons?cration d'un double standard dans l'acc?s aux soins  

PubMed Central

Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité.

Dunia, Gisele Mawazo Binti

2013-01-01

168

Die elektrischen Eigenschaften des Bakelits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Arbeit erstreckt sich auf die Untersuchung der elektrischen Eigenschaften insbesondere des Bakelitproduktes C bei verschiedenen Temperaturen. In einer zweiten Versuchsreihe wird ein Überblick über das elektrische Verhalten der einzelnen Kondensationsprodukte Bakelit A, B und C zu gewinnen versucht.

O. Mannel

1923-01-01

169

Detecting agents.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed.

Johnson, Susan C

2003-01-01

170

Myths and realities of continuous dopaminergic stimulation.  

PubMed

Motor fluctuations and dyskinesia in later stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic factors, intermittent dopaminergic stimulation being one of the most important. In the healthy brain, dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta fire tonically at a steady rate of about 4 cycles/second. In later stages of PD, steady firing is replaced by pulsatile stimulation which causes molecular and physiologic changes in the basal ganglia. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation has been shown to dramatically improve motor fluctuations and dyskinesia by modifications of oral treatment (dopamine agonists, smaller, more frequent levodopa doses, controlled-release formulation of levodopa, addition of agents that slow down the catabolism of dopamine, such as inhibitors of catechol-O-methyl transferase and monoamine oxidase), transdermal delivery (rotigotine), infusion therapies (intravenous levodopa, subcutaneous application of apomorphine and lisuride, duodenal infusion of levodopa) and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:21448103

Pirtošek, Zvezdan

2011-03-01

171

L'endettement des entreprises industrielles françaises et allemandes : des évolutions distinctes malgré des déterminants proches  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Entre 1987 et 1995, les taux d’endettement des entreprises industrielles françaises et allemandes présentent deux différences importantes. Au cours de cette période, ce taux connaît une forte baisse en France alors qu’il est relativement stable en Allemagne. Le taux d’endettement diffère peu selon la taille de l’entreprise en France, tandis que les écarts sont significatifs entre celui des petites

Élizabeth Kremp; Elmar Stöss

2001-01-01

172

Röntgenologische Untersuchungen zur Lageabhängigkeit der tiefen Hirnvenen, insbesondere des Angulus venosus von der Form des Schädels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Lageabhängigkeit der tiefen Hirnvenen, insbesondere des Angulus venosus, von der Form des Schädels wird durch zahlreiche Streckenverhältnisse (prozentuale Unterteilung von benachbarten Strecken durch senkrechte Projektion des Angulus venosus auf diese) und durch Winkel mit verschiedenen Scheitelpunkten (an der Schädelbasis, an der Schädelkalotte und intracraniell) geprüft. — Von den Streckenverhältnismaßen eignen sich zur Lokalisation des Angulus venosus die Relationen

Erich Fischer

1966-01-01

173

Modélisation des boucles d'immunisation magnétique des navires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the problem of the three-dimensional modeling of degaussing coils in ships with a finite elements method. We show that these current coils are so close to the ferromagnetic sheets of the ship that they require a local very fine mesh which would be unrealistic for the whole complex structure of a real ship. We propose an alternative to the expensive mesh refinement called "reduced scalar potential jump”. The idea is to previously solve the local problem by another method and to use the result in the whole FEM modelling. We present the method of implementation in the FEM software FLUX3D and comparative results on a simple geometry. Cet article présente le problème de la modélisation en trois dimensions des boucles d'immunisation des navires par la méthode des éléments finis. Nous montrons que ces boucles de courant sont si proches des tôles ferromagnétiques du navire que leur modélisation requiert un maillage localement très fin, ce qui est irréaliste pour la structure complexe d'un navire réel. Nous proposons une alternative à ce coûteux affinage du maillage, appelée "saut de potentiel réduit”. L'idée est de résoudre au préalable le problème local par une autre méthode que les éléments finis et d'utiliser le résultat dans la modélisation globale. Nous présentons la méthode utilisée pour l'implantation de cette technique dans le logiciel d'éléments finis FLUX3D, et des résultats comparatifs sur une géométrie simple.

Le Dorze, F.; Bongiraud, J. P.; Coulomb, J. L.; Meunier, G.; Brunotte, X.

1998-02-01

174

Mobile Agents White Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper.IntroductionNew productsNew applicationsNew networksAbout "Mobile Agents"Enabling mobile agentsMobile agent paradigmMobile agent conceptsMobile agent technologyProgramming mobile agentsProgramming a placeProgramming an agentUsing mobile agentsMonitoring changing conditionsDoing time-consuming legworkUsing services in combinationThe user experienceHow agents provide the experienceVariations on the themeAcknowledgmentsRelated workReferencesIntroduction

Jim White

1996-01-01

175

Mobile agent security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agent paradigm is currently attracting much research. A mobile agent is a particular type of agent with the ability to migrate from one host to another where it can resume its execution. In this article we consider security issues that need to be addressed before multi-agent systems in general, and mobile agents in particular, can be a viable solution

Niklas Borselius

2002-01-01

176

Les problèmes économiques des régions frontières européennes  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Le développement du Marché commun tend actuellement à faire reconnaître la nature spécifique de la région frontière (région naturelle coupée par une frontière politique) jusque-là niée par les nationalismes économiques et politiques. Les problèmes communs à ces régions (disparité des rythmes de crois­sance, émigration des frontaliers, incohérence des infrastructures et des localisations industrielles, etc.) sont envisagés d'abord sous l'angle

René Gendarme

1970-01-01

177

Description d'inclusions intranuclèaires dans les cellules des tiges fasciées des Forsythia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Dans les cellules des pousses fasciées duForsythia sp.; nous avons observé des inclusions intranucléaires présentant des arrangements périodique très réguliers. Nous n'avons pas décelé de semblables inclusions intranucléaires dans les cellules de pousses prélevées sur des plants normaux. Le problème est posé, des rapports éventuels de cause à effet entre la présence de ces inclusions et l'anomalie morphologique observée.

M. Codaccioni

1973-01-01

178

À la recherche des déterminants de l'investissement des entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les investissements des entreprises et la date de leur réalisation sont des éléments importants de la dynamique de court et de long terme des éco-nomies. La volatilité dans le temps des dépenses d'investissement est, en effet, la principale composante des cycles économiques de court terme de l'économie. Toutes les théories de la croissance, comme les travaux empiriques,placent par ailleurs

Anne Epaulard

2001-01-01

179

L'utilisation des équipements scolaires en dehors des heures de classe  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’expérience d’un certain nombre de pays de l’OCDE montre aujourd’hui comment l’utilisation des écoles en dehors des heures de classe peut améliorer les résultats des élèves en leur donnant davantage de temps pour étudier, enrichir le programme scolaire par des activités hors programme, donner aux adultes des possibilités de développement personnel ou de formation et offrir à la population en

1999-01-01

180

Le Pseudomonas: Experience du Centre des Brules D'Annaba et Revue de la Litterature  

PubMed Central

Summary Le Pseudomonasest un agent pathogène à l'origine d'infections nosocomiales graves dans les centres des brûlés. Son opportunisme et sa virulence en font une préoccupation majeure. Ce travail se propose d'évaluer la place de cette bactérie dans l'écologie bactérienne locale et d'en apprécier la sensibilité aux antibiotiques. Cette étude rétrospective préliminaire porte sur la période de juin 2003 à décembre 2005. Elle intéresse l'ensemble des prélèvements bactériologiques ayant pu être réalisés au centre des brûlés d'Annaba. L'effectif est de 633 micro-organismes isolés dont 128 Pseudomonas (20,2%): 127 aeruginosa (99,2%), 1 fluorescens (0,8%); distribution selon le site de prélèvement: écouvillon (87,5%), prélèvement trachéobronchique (4,6%), hémoculture (3,1%), cathéters (1,6%), urine (1,6%) et sonde urinaire (1,6%). Le pyocyanique se situe après le staphylocoque pour les prélèvements précoces et repasse en tête après un séjour supérieur à une semaine, où 89% des pyocyaniques sont identifiés. Il est en première position dans les pneumopathies sous ventilation assistée invasive. Il se classe troisième dans les hémocultures et les cultures de cathéters. Dans les infections urinaires il est devancé par Candida et la flore périnéale. Les 128 antibiogrammes regroupent 314 réponses sensibles. La sensibilité à plus de deux antibiotiques est de 68%, à deux antibiotiques 24% et à un antibiotique 8%. Seules quatre molécules restent actives: ciprofloxacine > péfloxacine > pipéracilline > ceftazidime. Une résistance absolue est retrouvée pour trois Pseudomonas (2,4%). Le pronostic sévère des infections nosocomiales à pyocyanique et les risques d'options thérapeutiques très limitées font toute leur gravité, d'où l'intérêt de respecter des règles strictes de prescription des antibiotiques et des mesures de prévention.

Chaibdraa, A.; Medjellekh, M.S.; Saouli, A.; Bentakouk, M.C.

2008-01-01

181

Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

Sedlacek, James R.

182

Chronique des tendances de la société française  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Cette chronique présente des résultats nouveaux issus d'enquêtes récentes et approfondit certaines tendances de la société française déjà évoquées dans des articles précédents. • En deux générations, les déterminants du choix du conjoint se sont modifiés. Les anciennes générations se mariaient préférentielle- ment en fonction des positions sociales de leurs parents ; les nouvelles privilégient le diplôme du conjoint.

Philippe Bonnin; Louis Chauvel; Jean-Pierre Jaslin; Michel Forsé

1993-01-01

183

Une théorie des années quatre-vingt  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les années quatre-vingt présentent, pour les analyses macroéconomiques habituelles, des énigmes majeures, dont, aux premiers rangs, la persistance d'un chômage élevé en Europe et la désynchronisation des conjonctures américaine et européennes pendant la première moitié de la décennie. Des «faits» nouveaux, qui distinguent la période considérée sont mal pris en compte par les modèles usuels. Cet article propose une

Jacques Le Cacheux; Jean-Paul Fitoussi

1989-01-01

184

Remote Agent Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

1999-01-01

185

Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.  

PubMed

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

2011-11-01

186

Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents  

PubMed Central

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents.

Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

2011-01-01

187

Stimulation with the Aureobasidium pullulans-produced ?-glucan effectively induces interferon stimulated genes in macrophage-like cell lines.  

PubMed

A ?-(1,3),(1,6)-D-glucan produced by A. pullulans (AP-PG) is known to be an immune stimulating agent. In this study, we demonstrate that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) in macrophage-like cell lines. The ISGs, Mx1, ISG15, and viperin mRNAs were significantly increased in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with AP-PG. The stimulation with AP-PG transiently induced IFN-? mRNA. However, the expression of viperin mRNA was also increased after stimulation with AP-PG even when new protein synthesis was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide. Further, in IFN-? receptor knockdown RAW264.7 cells, AP-PG stimulation more effectively induced viperin mRNA compared with that of IFN-? stimulation. The phosphorylation of Ser 727 in STAT1 involved in the enhancement of STAT1 activation was immediately increased after stimulation with AP-PG. In addition, viperin mRNA expression induced after stimulation with IFN-? was significantly increased by combined stimulation with AP-PG. These results suggest that stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the ISGs through the induction of IFN and the enhancement of STAT1-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:24759061

Muramatsu, Daisuke; Kawata, Koji; Aoki, Shiho; Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Atsushi

2014-01-01

188

Stimulation with the Aureobasidium pullulans-produced ?-glucan effectively induces interferon stimulated genes in macrophage-like cell lines  

PubMed Central

A ?-(1,3),(1,6)-D-glucan produced by A. pullulans (AP-PG) is known to be an immune stimulating agent. In this study, we demonstrate that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) in macrophage-like cell lines. The ISGs, Mx1, ISG15, and viperin mRNAs were significantly increased in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with AP-PG. The stimulation with AP-PG transiently induced IFN-? mRNA. However, the expression of viperin mRNA was also increased after stimulation with AP-PG even when new protein synthesis was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide. Further, in IFN-? receptor knockdown RAW264.7 cells, AP-PG stimulation more effectively induced viperin mRNA compared with that of IFN-? stimulation. The phosphorylation of Ser 727 in STAT1 involved in the enhancement of STAT1 activation was immediately increased after stimulation with AP-PG. In addition, viperin mRNA expression induced after stimulation with IFN-? was significantly increased by combined stimulation with AP-PG. These results suggest that stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the ISGs through the induction of IFN and the enhancement of STAT1-mediated transcriptional activation.

Muramatsu, Daisuke; Kawata, Koji; Aoki, Shiho; Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Atsushi

2014-01-01

189

Drug Safety Communication: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs)  

MedlinePLUS

... ESAs) to be prescribed and used under a risk management program, known as a risk evaluation and mitigation ... the manufacturer of these products, to develop a risk management program because studies show that ESAs can increase ...

190

The chemopreventive agent oltipraz stimulates repair of damaged DNA.  

PubMed

Carcinogens may damage DNA either through the production of radicals that cause base modification in situ or through the formation of bulky adducts at relatively nucleophilic sites. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that administration of the dithiolethione oltipraz protects laboratory animals from the development of tumors following subsequent exposure to a variety of carcinogens. This may occur through a mechanism involving the induction of detoxicating gene expression. In some models, oltipraz treatment following carcinogen exposure may also confer protection. To investigate a possible mechanism for this observation, we studied the effects of oltipraz on base excision repair and platinum-DNA damage formation and removal. No effect of oltipraz was observed on base excision repair as determined by an in vitro assay measuring the repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites by untreated and oltipraz-treated HT-29 whole-cell extracts. Treatment of HT-29 cells with cisplatin in the absence or presence of 30 and 100 microM oltipraz decreased the accumulation of platinum in DNA. A dose-dependent reduction in DNA platination was also observed in purified DNA treated concurrently with cisplatin and increasing concentrations of oltipraz. When DNA was first platinated and subsequently incubated with oltipraz, no decrease in platinum content in DNA was found. Preincubation of HT-29 cells with oltipraz enhanced the rate of removal of total platinum-DNA adducts and interstrand cross-links. These data support a novel mechanism through which dithiolethiones may protect carcinogen-exposed animals from tumor formation and may expand their potential role in the clinic. PMID:9067269

O'Dwyer, P J; Johnson, S W; Khater, C; Krueger, A; Matsumoto, Y; Hamilton, T C; Yao, K S

1997-03-15

191

Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

Beauchamp, Dominique

192

Die Mikrofossilien des jugoslawischen Perms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Mikrofauma-und-flora der verschiedenen Stufen und Fazies des jugoslawischen Perms wird für die einzelnen Horizonte und\\u000a einige besonders reiche Fundpunkte in Fossil-Listen dargestellt. Die Fund-Horizonte sind die unteren, mittleren und oberen\\u000a Rattendorfer Schichten, derPseudofusulina-vulgaris-Zone entsprechende mittelpermische Schichten, die Trogkofel-Schichten, Neoschwagerinen-Schichten und die Schichten der Žažar-Stufe.\\u000a \\u000a Die Morphologie und Phylogenese einiger interessanter Kalkalgen und Fusuliniden des jugoslawischen Perms wird kurz erörtert.

Vanda Kochansky-Devidé

1964-01-01

193

Acute stimulation of glucose transport by histamine in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present work was to study the acute regulation of glucose uptake in cultured cardiac endothelial cells (CEC). Two types of potential stimuli were considered: (1) agents that are known to acutely stimulate glucose transport (i.e., within minutes) in fat and muscle tissues and (2) agents that influence endothelial cell function. Among the former agents, neither insulin,

Julia Thomas; Marieke Linssen; Ger J. van der Vusse; Barbara Hirsch; Peter Rösen; Helmut Kammermeier; Yvan Fischer

1995-01-01

194

Change agents, double agents, secret agents: EEO in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper theorises how equal employment opportunities (EEO) practitioners (EPs) operate as change agents within organisations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – It takes a feminist and post-structuralist perspective, in which EPs are seen as agents of positive social change, contesting existing discourses, but are also themselves subject to being changed by their engagement in those same discursive formations. The key example

Deborah Jones

2007-01-01

195

Transport quantique dans des nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum transport in nanostructures This work is devoted to the design, fabrication and magnetotransport investigations of mesoscopic devices. The sample are obtain by e-beam lithography and the measurements are performed at low temperature in a dilution refrigerator in the presence of a magnetic field. We have used MBE grown AlGaAs/GaAs heterojonctions as starting material to fabricate a bipartite tiling of rhombus called mathcal{T}3 lattice. We observe for the first time large amplitude h/e oscillations in this network as compared to the one measured in square lattices of similar size. These oscillations are the signature of a recently predited localization phenomenon induced by Aharonov-Bohm interferences on this peculiar topology. For particular values of the magnetic field the propagation of the electron wave function is bounded in a small number of cells, called Aharonov-Bohm cages. More strikingly, at high magnetic field, h/2e oscillations appear whose amplitude can be much higher than the fundamental period. Their temperature dependence is similar to that of the h/e signal. These observations withdraw a simple interpretation in terms of harmonics generation. The origin of this phenomenon is still unclear and needs more investigations. The influence electrical width of the wire defining the network and so the rule of the number of channels can be studied using a gate deposited over the lattice. In particular we have measured the amplitude dependence of the h/e and h/2e signal versus the gate voltage. Ce travail est consacré à la réalisation d'échantillons mésoscopiques à partir de la lithographie électronique ainsi qu'à leur caractérisation à très basse température en magnétotransport. Nous avons pour cela exploité le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons situé à l'interface d'une hétérojonction AlGaAs/GaAs pour réaliser un réseau de boucle d'une géométrie particulière baptisée la géométrie mathcal{T}3. Nous avons observé sur cette structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

Naud, C.

2002-09-01

196

Characterization of haematological parameters with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone versus melphalan-prednisone in newly diagnosed myeloma, with evaluation of long-term outcomes and risk of thromboembolic events with use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: analysis of the VISTA trial.  

PubMed

Although haematological toxicities, such as anaemia, are common in multiple myeloma (MM), no clear consensus exists on the use and impact of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) on outcomes in MM. This analysis characterizes haematological toxicities and associated interventions in the phase III VISTA (Velcade(®) as Initial Standard Therapy in Multiple Myeloma: Assessment with Melphalan and Prednisone) study of bortezomib plus melphalan/prednisone (VMP, n?=?344) versus MP (n?=?338) in previously untreated MM patients ineligible for high-dose therapy, and evaluates the impact of ESA use or red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusions on outcomes and thromboembolic risk. Incidence of haematological toxicities was similar with VMP and MP; similar rates of interventions and associated complications (e.g. bleeding, febrile neutropenia) were observed. Two hundred thirty three patients received ESA; 204 had RBC transfusions. Frequency of thromboembolic events was low and not affected by ESA use. Median time-to progression (TTP) was similar between ESA/non-ESA [hazard ratio: 1·03 (95% confidence interval 0·76-1·39); P?=?0·8478] in both arms (VMP: 19·9/not reached; MP: 15·0/17·5?months). Three-year overall survival (OS) rates were similar between ESA/non-ESA in each arm. Patients receiving RBC transfusions had significantly shorter OS (P?

Richardson, Paul; Schlag, Rudolf; Khuageva, Nuriet; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Shpilberg, Ofer; Kropff, Martin; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Rossiev, Viktor; Hou, Jian; Robak, Tadeusz; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Anderson, Kenneth; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Cakana, Andrew; Liu, Kevin; Deraedt, William; van de Velde, Helgi; San Miguel, Jesús F

2011-04-01

197

Proprietes optiques et mecanismes de relaxation de l'energie des porteurs dans des boites quantiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objet de ce doctorat est l'etude des proprietes optiques, et en particulier de la relaxation de l'energie des porteurs dans des structures a boites quantiques d'InAs/GaAs. Le travail experimental a ete realise grace aux techniques de photoluminescence (PL) continue et de photoluminescence resolue dans le temps, sur des echantillons comprenant un tres grand nombre de boites. A l'aide des mesures experimentales effectuees sur une serie d'echantillons de boites quantiques interdiffusees a divers degres, et des calculs variationnels de leurs etats electroniques, nous avons demontre clairement que la largeur des raies d'emission de la PL, qui est due aux inhomogeneites dans l'ensemble de boites etudie, peut etre attribuee principalement a des fluctuations de la hauteur des boites. D'autre part, la determination des temps de montee et de decroissance des intensites de photoluminescence a montre l'importance de certains mecanismes de transport et de relaxation, en fonction des conditions experimentales. En effet, les temps caracteristiques de la capture, de la relaxation interniveaux et de la recombinaison des porteurs varient significativement, selon le mecanisme predominant, en fonction de la temperature, de la densite d'excitation et de la separation interniveaux quantiques. Ainsi, les principaux mecanismes mis en evidence sont: la localisation des porteurs dans les barrieres a basse temperature dans le cas des echantillons interdiffuses, les collisions de type Auger sous forte excitation, les processus multiphononiques et la re-emission thermique a haute temperature. Un modele de relaxation, base sur les equations d'evolution de la population de porteurs de chaque niveau quantique, a aussi ete developpe pour mieux identifier l'effet de chacun des principaux mecanismes de relaxation des porteurs considere separement. Ces simulations ont permis une analyse plus approfondie du role de ces mecanismes. Ainsi, nous avons mis en evidence l'importance de la localisation des porteurs dans la couche de mouillage, ainsi que l'importance des mecanismes de collisions Auger lors de la capture, la capture et la relaxation interniveaux des porteurs vers tous les niveaux d'energie inferieure simultanement. Finalement, les resultats experimentaux montrent que la relaxation de l'energie des porteurs est beaucoup plus rapide que cela avait ete predit initialement par la theorie du "phonon bottleneck". Nos resultats indiquent que l'intensite lumineuse emise par les boites est regie principalement par le taux de capture/relaxation interniveaux des porteurs dans les boites. Mais elle est limitee par la re-emission thermique des porteurs hors des boites, a haute temperature. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Perret, Nathalie Emmanuelle

198

Software agents: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent software is a rapidly developing area of research. However, the overuse of the word 'agent' has tended to mask the fact that, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of research being carried out under this banner. This overview paper presents a typology of agents. Next, it places agents in context, defines them and then goes on, inter

Hyacinth S. Nwana

1996-01-01

199

Sommaire de : Instabilite des heures de travail au Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le present article resume les conclusions de le document de recherche intitulee: Instabilite des heures de travail au Canada. Les auteurs de nombreuses etudes des heures de travail ont tire d'importantes conclusions des resultats des enquetes transversales. Par exemple, a tout moment donne, la part des personnes qui travaillent de longues heures est assez importante. En outre, elle semble avoir

Andrew Larochelle-Cote Sebastien Heisz

2006-01-01

200

Direct electrical stimulation of the optic radiation in patients with covered eyes.  

PubMed

Direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the optic radiation (OR) during an awake tumor resection has been repeatedly reported. In all cases, visual function monitoring was performed in patients with open eyes which were looking at a picture. We report a new modification of the standard method, OR stimulation in patient with closed and covered eyes. To the best of our knowledge, this method was not presented before. According to our first experience, this methodology may be in some cases a potentially more sensitive form of neuromonitoring than the OR stimulation in patients with open eyes, as the phosphenes elicited by DES may be more distinct in patients with covered eyes. The technique is discussed, and a literature review on intraoperative identification of the OR is presented as well. However, a future prospective study is needed to confirm the relevance of our finding. PMID:24578100

Ste?o, Andrej; Hollý, Vladimír; Fabian, Martin; Kuniak, Matúš; Timárová, Gabriela; Ste?o, Juraj

2014-07-01

201

Beitrag zum Nachweis des Kohlensulfoxyds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wurde gezeigt, daß Kohlensulfoxyd die Jod-Azid-Reaktion beschleunigt. Diese Tatsache kann zum Nachweis des Gases herangezogen werden. Beim Vorliegen kleiner Mengen führt man eine Anreicherung über Kaliumäthylmonothiocarbonat bzw. Palladium(II)-sulfid durch. Schwefelwasserstoff und Schwefelkohlenstoff geben die gleiche Reaktion und müssen daher entfernt werden bzw. sicher abwesend sein.

H. Gamsjäger

1960-01-01

202

La volatilité des prix sur les marchés agricoles - Etat des lieux, répercussions sur la sécurité alimentaire, réponse politiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les récentes périodes de forte volatilité des prix sur les marchés agricoles mondiaux présagent de l’accroissement et de la fréquence des menaces pour la sécurité alimentaire mondiale. Afin de réduire la vulnérabilité des pays, les politiques devraient améliorer le fonctionnement des marchés et préparer les pays à mieux faire face aux effets néfastes de la forte volatilité des prix.

2010-01-01

203

Stimulated petroleum biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulated biodegradation has been considered as a method for removal of petroleum pollutants. Various methods have been proposed for increasing rates of petroleum biodegradation, including physical or chemical modification of petroleum polutants, modification of environmental parameters around polluting oil, and modification of microbial populations around petroleum pollutants. Physical or chemical means for stimulating petroleum biodegradation include removal of particular petroleum

Ronald M. Atlas; Richard L. Raymond

1977-01-01

204

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents. PMID:20358695

Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

2010-01-01

205

Mobile Agents and Java Mobile Agents Toolkits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of what mobile agents are, what they should do, and how they can be implemented in Java. Why Java? The choice to concentrate on Java is evoked by many existing solutions in Java that handles architectural heterogeneity between communicating machines on the net. It seems to be the best available language for making mobile agents

Damir Horvat; Dragana Cvetkovic; Veljko M. Milutinovic; P. Kocovic; V. Kovacevic

2000-01-01

206

Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société  

ScienceCinema

Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d?autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

None

2011-10-06

207

Le stress vu par les dirigeants ou tenir compte des représentations des acteurs pour améliorer la santé des salariés  

Microsoft Academic Search

La question du mal-être au travail, que ce soit sous l'angle du stress ou des suicides au travail récemment médiatisés, a brutalement fait irruption dans l'agenda stratégique des dirigeants. Afin d'améliorer la santé des salariés et de promouvoir leur bien être, il est utile de s'appuyer sur les travaux existants en matière d'interventions de gestion du stress (notamment Brun et

Stéphan Pezé

2010-01-01

208

Propogation Des Singularites pour Des Operateurs dont La Matrice Foundament contient Des Valeurs propres non Purement Imaginaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'objectif de ce travail est de prouver un résultat de propagation des singularité pour certains opérateurs pseudo–différentiels dont les caractéristiques doubles sont symplectiques et tels que la seule valeur propre purement imaginaire de la matrice foundamentale soit zéro. Il s'agit du probl´me du croisement symplectique. Lorsque la condimension de la variét´ des caractéeristiques dubles est 2, l'opérateur admet des directions

B. Lascar; R. Lascar

1992-01-01

209

Nature et origine des phénocristaux de quartz des laves de Martinique, Petites Antilles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les laves de la Martiniques se répartissent en deux séries de roches volcaniques (Westercamp, 1972, 1973): la série des high-alumina basalts qui résulte d’un processus de cristallisation fractionnée et la série calc-alcaline\\u000a faiblement potassique qui résulte de la contamination du précédent magma par des roches riches en silice et alumine.\\u000a \\u000a L’étude des inclusions vitreuses et minérales des phénocristaux de quartz

R. Clocchiatti; D. Westercamp

1974-01-01

210

La croissance des PME par le biais des ressources et compétences : quelles voies ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les PME sont des organisations particulières, bien différentes par rapport à la grande entreprise. Les PME en croissance sont vues comme des vrais leviers pour la création d'emploi et de richesse dans une économie. La croissance des PME est alimentée soit par les nouvelles ressources générées dans l'entreprise pendant le processus de croissance, soit par l'apport externe des ressources (par

A. E Popa Postariu

2010-01-01

211

Partage des coûts et tarification des infrastructures : Enjeux, problématique et pertinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

La plupart des organisations, sinon toutes, répartissent d'une manière ou d'une autre des coûts communs entre leurs diverses composantes ou encore entre leurs différents partenaires. Ces problèmes de partage de coûts communs se posent avec de plus en plus d'acuité car les règles de partage des coûts communs sont des facteurs importants de compétitivité et de performance. Bien que leur

Marcel Boyer; Michel Moreaux; Michel Truchon

2002-01-01

212

Radiographic scanning agent  

SciTech Connect

A composition and method for the preparation of a technetium-99m -based scanning agent are disclosed. The scanning agent is prepared from /sup 99m/Tc, in a +3, +4 and/or +5 oxidation state, and a methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone-seeking agent which carries the radionuclide to bone mineral. The methanehydroxydiphosphonate agent provides scan sharpness equivalent or superior to commercial scanning agents, and is superior for detecting myocardial infarcts, as compared with commercial scanning agents such as ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and methanediphosphonate.

Bevan, J.A.

1981-01-27

213

Radiographic scanning agent  

SciTech Connect

A composition and method for the preparation of a technetium-99m-based scanning agent are disclosed. The scanning agent is prepared from /SUP 99m/ Tc, in a +3, +4 and/or +5 oxidation state, and a methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone-seeking agent which carries the radionuclide to bone mineral. The methanehydroxydiphosphonate agent provides scan sharpness equivalent or superior to commercial scanning agents, and is superior for detecting myocardial infarcts, as compared with commercial scanning agents such as ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and methanediphosphonate.

Bevan, J.A.

1984-02-21

214

Mutual additivity of hormonal and non-hormonal stimulation of gluconeogenesis.  

PubMed

Possible mutual additivity of the stimulating effects of fatty acids and alpha-adrenergic agents on gluconeogenesis was examined using isolated rat liver cells. Adrenaline or noradrenaline alone stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate by 34% both in the absence and presence of propranolol. Oleate or acetate alone stimulated gluconeogenesis by 76% and 45%, respectively; propranolol did not influence the effects. Simultaneous administration of alpha-adrenergic agents with oleate or acetate increased gluconeogenesis by 110% and 90-100%, respectively, thus documenting mutual additivity of hormonal and non-hormonal stimulation; propranolol did not affect the mutual additivity of the effects observed. PMID:3454644

Kümmel, L

1987-05-01

215

OzDES Spectroscopic Classification of DES transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report spectroscopic classification by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). Object classifications were performed with SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), details of which are reported in the table below.

Childress, M.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Uddin, S.; Kuehn, K.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Parkinson, D.; Fine, S.; Martini, P.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Foley, R. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.

2013-11-01

216

OzDES Spectroscopic Classification of DES Transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report spectroscopic classification by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). Object classifications were performed with SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), details of which are reported in the table below.

Yuan, F.; Childress, M.; Sharp, R.; Lagattuta, D. J.; Uddin, S.; Davis, T. M.; Lidman, C.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Foley, R. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.

2013-12-01

217

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

2008-09-01

218

Aktuelle Weiterentwicklungen auf dem Gebiet des UDK  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Abstrakt Der Umweltdatenkatalog (UDK) ist ein de-facto Standard für Metadaten im Umwelt- bereich. In diesem Artikel werden die neusten Entwicklungen des UDK beschrieben. Neben einer Reihe von Verbesserungen auf dem Gebiet der Recherche wurden seit der Version 4.2 alle internen und externen Schnittstellen sowohl des Windows- als auch des WWW-UDK auf XML umgestellt. Zu diesem Zweck wurde eine eigene

Fred Kruse

219

Environnement des Systèmes Binaires Jeunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La fréquence élevée des systèmes binaires, tant parmi les étoiles de la séquence principale que dans les régions de formation stellaire, a été largement mise en évidence au cours des dix dernières années. Cette constatation soulève naturellement la question de la nature du processus responsable de la formation préférentielle de ces systèmes multiples. Par ailleurs, les phénomènes d'interaction entre un compagnon et l'environnement complexe d'une étoile T Tauri sont encore trèsmal compris. C'est dans ce cadre que se place le travail conduit durant cette thèse, dont les principaux objectifs sont: i) la détermination de la fraction de binaires dans différentes populations pré-séquence principale, ii) l'étude quantitative du phénomène d'accrétion dans les systèmes binaires T Tauri, et iii) l'observation directe et la modélisation de disques circumstellaires et circumbinaires. Dans le cadre d'une recherche de binaires visuelles à l'aide du système d'optique adaptative du Télescope Canada-France-Hawaii, j'ai pris part à l'observation de plusieurs centaines d'objets situés dans différents amas stellaires jeunes. Je détaille ici l'analyse et les résultats concernant deux amas âgés de moins de deux millions d'années. Lorsqu'on considère l'ensemble des populations étudiées jusqu'à présent, on constate que la proportion de binaires visuelles parmi les étoiles de type solaire est la même dans les amas stellaires que sur la séquence principale. De plus, cette propriété ne dépend pas de l'âge de l'amas, ce qui implique que la fraction de binaires n'évolue pas après le premier million d'années dans ces amas. A l'opposé, les zones de formation peu denses, qui sont toutes très jeunes, possèdent une proportion de binaires sensiblement plus élevée. Les modèles les plus à même de reproduire ces observations sont ceux selon lesquels la fraction de binaires qui résulte de l'effondrement gravitationnel est proche de 100%. Dans les amas les plus denses, cette fraction peut ensuite être rapidement réduite du fait des nombreuses interactions gravitationnelles destructrices entre systèmes proches. D'autres interprétations restent toutefois envisageables. Je m'intéresse ensuite au phénomène d'accrétion dans les binaires T Tauri par la spectroscopie visible des composantes de ces systèmes. Cette approche révèle que le phénomène d'accrétion perdure aussi longtemps sur les deux composantes d'une même binaire. De plus, la comparaison des luminosités émises dans la raie H? montre que le primaire présente généralement le taux d'accrétion le plus élevé. Une interprétation possible de ces observations est que ces binaires possèdent des réservoirs circumbinaires de matière, probablement sous la forme d'une vaste enveloppe, qui alimentent simultanément les deux disques circumstellaires. Enfin, je présente des images à haute résolution angulaire des disques circumbinaires de GG Tau et UY Aur et des disques circumstellaires de HK Tau B et HV Tau C. Ces observations, obtenues dans le visible, le proche infrarouge et le domaine radio, permettent une description fine de l'environnement de ces binaires. Je détaille également l'analyse de cartes de polarisation des deux disques circumbinaires obtenues à 1 micron. Afin de déterminer les propriétés géométriques de ces disques et celles des grains de poussière qui s'y trouvent, j'ai entrepris une modélisation de la diffusion multiple de la lumière en utilisant une approche Monte-Carlo. Cette étude indique que l'anneau circumbinaire de GG Tau est géométriquement épais (avec un rapport d'aspect h/r~0.18), qu'il comporte des grains de poussière très petits (<1 micron) et que la masse totale de poussière dans l'anneau est au moins 10-3 masses solaires. L'environnement de UY Aur apparaît beaucoup plus complexe que celui de GG Tau: le disque circumbinaire, dont l'inclinaison est ré-évaluée à environ 60 degrés, coexiste avec un filament situé à proximité mais distinct, et plusieurs "branches&qu

Duchene, Gaspard

2000-07-01

220

Collaborative Interface Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interface agents are semi-intelligent systemswhich assist users with daily computer-basedtasks. Recently, various researchers have proposeda learning approach towards building suchagents and some working prototypes have beendemonstrated. Such agents learn by `watchingover the shoulder\\

Yezdi Lashkari; Max Metral; Pattie Maes

1994-01-01

221

Biological warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military\\u000a or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical\\u000a aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological\\u000a warfare agents and epidemiology of

Miroslav Pohanka; Kamil Ku?a

222

Agent-Based Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an introductory survey of agent-based computing. The article begins with an overview of micro-level issues in agent-based systems: issues related to the design and con- struction of individual intelligent agents. The article th en goes on to discuss some macro- level issues: issues related to the design and construction of agent societies. Finally, the key application areas

MICHAEL WOOLDRIDGE

223

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

224

Chronometric Electrical Stimulation of Right Inferior Frontal Cortex Increases Motor Braking  

PubMed Central

The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) is important for stopping responses. Recent research shows that it is also activated when response emission is slowed down when stopping is anticipated. This suggests that rIFC also functions as a goal-driven brake. Here, we investigated the causal role of rIFC in goal-driven braking by using computer-controlled, event-related (chronometric), direct electrical stimulation (DES). We compared the effects of rIFC stimulation on trials in which responses were made in the presence versus absence of a stopping-goal (“Maybe Stop” [MS] vs “No Stop” [NS]). We show that DES of rIFC slowed down responses (compared with control-site stimulation) and that rIFC stimulation induced more slowing when motor braking was required (MS) compared with when it was not (NS). Our results strongly support a causal role of a rIFC-based network in inhibitory motor control. Importantly, the results extend this causal role beyond externally driven stopping to goal-driven inhibitory control, which is a richer model of human self-control. These results also provide the first demonstration of double-blind chronometric DES of human prefrontal cortex, and suggest that—in the case of rIFC—this could lead to augmentation of motor braking.

Conner, Christopher R.; Aron, Adam R.; Tandon, Nitin

2013-01-01

225

Stimulated Brillouin Scattering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of the Stokes light and the hypersound generated by the stimulated Brillouin scattering of ruby laser light in various liquids and fused quartz at room temperature are studied in detail experimentally. In the case of nonfocusing liquid...

J. Walder

1968-01-01

226

Electron Stimulation of Biopolymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report represents the first attempt to compile and organize works relative to the discovery and studies of the nature of electron-stimulated states of the two principal classes of biopolymers: proteins and nucleinic acids. Particular attention is give...

S. V. Konev

1968-01-01

227

Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models and the conceptual framework necessary for an understanding of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are described. Examples of various OSL readout schemes are described, along with examples of the use of OSL in radiation dosimetry.

Stephen W. S. McKeever

2001-01-01

228

Geothermal Well Stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

1981-03-01

229

Stimulated Emission Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify a relation between the number of photon pairs generated by parametric fluorescence, through either spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) or spontaneous four-wave mixing, and the number generated by the corresponding stimulated process, respectively, either difference-frequency generation or stimulated four-wave mixing. On the basis of this very general result, we show that the characterization of SPDC sources of two-photon states in a given system can be performed solely by studying stimulated emission. We call this technique stimulated emission tomography (SET). We show that the number of photons detected in SET can be 9 orders of magnitude larger than the average number of coincidence counts in two-photon quantum state tomography. These results open the way to the study of sources of quantum-correlated photon pairs with unprecedented precision and unparalleled resolution.

Liscidini, M.; Sipe, J. E.

2013-11-01

230

Stimulated emission tomography.  

PubMed

We identify a relation between the number of photon pairs generated by parametric fluorescence, through either spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) or spontaneous four-wave mixing, and the number generated by the corresponding stimulated process, respectively, either difference-frequency generation or stimulated four-wave mixing. On the basis of this very general result, we show that the characterization of SPDC sources of two-photon states in a given system can be performed solely by studying stimulated emission. We call this technique stimulated emission tomography (SET). We show that the number of photons detected in SET can be 9 orders of magnitude larger than the average number of coincidence counts in two-photon quantum state tomography. These results open the way to the study of sources of quantum-correlated photon pairs with unprecedented precision and unparalleled resolution. PMID:24266472

Liscidini, M; Sipe, J E

2013-11-01

231

Pheromonfallen zur Bestimmung des Apfelwicklerfluges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Pheromonfallen zur Prognose von Wicklerflügen im Obstbau werden seit 1971 in Süddeutschland verwendet. Die Fallen- und Anwendungstechniken\\u000a sowie die Ergebnisse von dreijährigen Freilandversuchen mit Lockstoffen beim ApfelwicklerLaspeyresia pomonella L. im Vergleich zu Lichtfallen werden vorgestellt. Dabei sind synthetische Lockstoffe fängiger als lebende Weibchen. Die\\u000a Fangmethode hat sich im Apfelwicklerwarndienst zur Feststellung des örtlichen und zeitlichen Flugverlaufs bewährt und kann\\u000a nun

G. Neuffer

1974-01-01

232

Mobile Agent Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agents are a u seful paradigm - other than a useful t echnology - for the development of complex Internet applications. However, the effective development of mobile agent applications r equires s uitable models and infrastructures. This paper proposes an organizational approach to the high-level design o f mobile agent applications. The idea is to models the Internet as

Giacomo Cabri; Letizia Leonardi; Marco Mamei; Franco Zambonelli

2001-01-01

233

Mobile Agents Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

2001-01-01

234

Mobile Agent Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a program, in the form of a software agent, can suspend its execution on a host computer, transfer itself to another agent-enabled host on the network, and resume execution on the new host. ...

W. Jansen T. Karygiannis

1998-01-01

235

MOBILE AGENTS AND SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a software agent can suspend its execution on a host computer, transfer itself to another agent-enabled host on the network, and resume execution on the new host. The use of mobile code has a long history dating back to the use of remote job entry systems in the 1960's. Today's

W. A. Jansen

1999-01-01

236

Insurance agent contact system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An online insurance information system comprises an insurance quoting system, an agent contact system, agent systems, and customer systems. The agent contact system comprises a customer interfacing subsystem, a create contact engine, an agent interfacing subsystem, and a process contact engine. The customer interfacing subsystem is coupled to the quoting system and to a given one of the customer systems for receiving an online indication by a given customer of a desire to pursue a policy with a given agent. The given customer comprises a given contact. The create contact engine identifies the given agent system and saves in a database local to the agent contact system a personal insurance profile and contact information corresponding to the given customer. The agent interfacing subsystem coupled to the given agent system receives an online indication by the given agent of a desire to view, print, or modify the contact information. The process contact engine contacts the given agent system with information regarding the given contact, and accesses and modifies the contact information in accordance with online indications made by the agent.

2009-12-29

237

Intelligent Agents: A Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

1999-01-01

238

Robust Agent Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that intelligent information agents will represent their users interest in electronic marketplaces and other forums to trade, exchange, share, identify, and locate goods and services. Such informa- tion worlds will present unforeseen opportunities as well as challenges that can be best addressed by robust, self-sustaining agent communi- ties. An agent community is a stable, adaptive group of self-interested

Sandip Sen; Sabyasachi Saha; Stéphane Airiau; Teddy Candale; Dipyaman Banerjee; Doran Chakraborty; Partha Mukherjee; Anil Gursel

2007-01-01

239

Deep brain stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) include stimulators, infusion devices, and neuroprostheses. They all belong to functional neurosurgery. Deep brain stimulators (DBS) are widely used for therapy and are in need of innovative evolutions. Robotized exoskeletons require BCIs able to drive up to 26 degrees of freedom (DoF). We report the nanomicrotechnology development of prototypes for new 3D DBS and for motor neuroprostheses.

Alim Louis Benabid; Thomas Costecalde; Napoleon Torres; Cecile Moro; Tetiana Aksenova; Andrey Eliseyev; Guillaume Charvet; Fabien Sauter; David Ratel; Corinne Mestais; Pierre Pollak; Stephan Chabardes

2011-01-01

240

Parallelism in Mobile Agent Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with parallel mobile agents and related performance evaluation framework. A model called mobile agent network is proposed. It includes a multi-agent system consisting of co-operating and communicating mobile agents, a set of processing nodes in which the agents perform services and a network that connects processing nodes and allows agent mobility. Parallelism in mobile agent network is

Vjekoslav Sinkovic; Ignac Lovrek; Mario Kusek

241

Le gouvernement des universités françaises: transversalités des champs d'analyse et réflexion sur les compétences des managers universitaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le milieu de l'enseignement supérieur français se caractérise par une évolution rapide et une transformation profonde et ce depuis plusieurs décennies. Intégrées au service public de l'Etat, les universités françaises ont gagné leur autonomie institutionnelle mais le pilotage reste centralisé. Dans un contexte de modernisation des établissements universitaires, de leur autonomie et politiques de contractualisation, la question du gouvernement des

Ramzi Maamer

2006-01-01

242

Analyse des impacts financiers, organisationnels et marketing des normes IFRS dans le secteur des assurances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Au détour de conférences et selon les dires de la plupart des directeurs financiers de groupes d’assurances confrontés aux normes IFRS, leur implémentation est ou a été la relève d’un véritable défi. Outre le challenge lié à la compréhension et à l’application de ces normes, l’adoption du référentiel international a généré de nombreux coûts et a engendré divers changements organisationnels.

Frédéric Chandelle; Jacqueline Haverals

2006-01-01

243

Transmissible encephalopathy agents  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by infectious agents with stable virulence characteristics that are not encoded by the host. Agent-specific features of virulence include disease latency and tissue pathology in a given host, as well as the ability to spread to many species. Such cross-species infections contradict predictions based on the prion hypothesis. Recent transmissions of several human agents to normal mice, and to monotypic neural cells in culture, underscore the existence of unique agent clades that are prevalent in particular geographic regions. Examples include the epidemic UK bovine agent (BSE) and the New Guinea kuru agent. The virus-like biology of unique TSE agents, including epidemic spread, mutation and superinfection, can be used to systematically define features of virulence that distinguish common endemic from newly emerging strains.

2010-01-01

244

Sensitivity of environmental microorganisms to antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

The sensitivity of different microorganisms, considered as typical representatives of the microflora of soil and water, was established to evaluate the influence of the nonmedical use of antimicrobial agents on bacterial ecology. Only seven strains, six chemoorganotrophs and one chemolithotroph, could be considered as relatively sensitive to the 21 antimicrobial compounds tested. The other 29 microorganisms may be regarded as resistant to most antimicrobial agents. Streptomyces were sensitive to high concentrations of active substances. Broad-spectrum antibiotics showed an effect on environmental bacteria similar to that on human pathogens. Cephalothin stimulated the growth of a Chlorella sp. From these experiments, it appears that spilled antimicrobial agents have little chance of causing an alteration in the microbial ecology.

Van Dijck, P; van de Voorde, H

1976-01-01

245

Structure des qualifications et échanges extérieurs français  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Structure des qualifications et échanges extérieurs français . Selon la théorie du commerce international, les facteurs de production disponibles dans un pays déterminent la nature de ses échanges extérieurs. Dans ce cadre, et sous un certain nombre d'hypothèses, le lien entre la structure des emplois par qualifications et les échanges extérieurs est ici analysé pour la France en 1993.

Alain Gallais; Bernard Gautier

1994-01-01

246

Azelluläre Matrix zur funktionellen Rekonstruktion des Urogenitaltraktes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Der Organersatz und die Rekonstruktion des Urogenitalsystem stellt noch immer ein Problem auf der Suche nach geeigneten Ersatzmaterialien dar. In der Regel werden organfremde Strukturen für die Rekonstruktion des Urogenitalsystems (Darmanteile, Wangenschleimhaut) verwandt. Diese organfremden Strukturen bedingen Nebenwirkungen, die sich aus dem Ursprungsort und der dortigen Funktion ergeben. Verschiedene Arbeitsgruppen konnten zeigen, dass azelluläre Matrices im Bereich der Harnblase

N. Schlote; J. Wefer; K.-D. Sievert

2004-01-01

247

Neue Perspektiven zu den Anfängen des Aurignacien  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung: Zunächst werden verschiedene Modelle diskutiert, die sich mit der Ausbreitung anatomisch moderner Menschen in Europa sowie mit den Ursprüngen des Aurignacien befassen. Aus- gangspunkt für die im Anschluss daran präsentierte Sicht des Autors bilden seine technologischen Analysen frühjungpaläolithischer Steinartefaktinventare von vier wichtigen europäischen Fundplätzen: Bacho Kiro in Bulgarien, Willendorf II und Krems-Hundssteig in Österreich sowie Geißenklösterle in Deutschland. Der

Nicolas Teyssandier

2006-01-01

248

Die „cortinähnliche“ Wirkung des g-Strophanthins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Phosphatabnahme in Breien normaler Kaninchen- und Katzenmuskel blieb in Gegenwart des Strophanthins unverändert. Bei nebenniereninsuffizienten Katzen konnte die herabgesetzte Glykogenphosphorylierung durch Strophanthin nicht normalisiert werden. Das Strophanthin besitzt also das wichtigste Merkmal der Cortinwirkung nicht. Es ist also nicht berechtigt, über eine „cortinähnliche“ Wirkung des Strophanthins zu sprechen.

E. Varga; E. Füzes; L. Kesztyüs

1949-01-01

249

Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture  

SciTech Connect

Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

Stampfer, M.R.

1982-06-01

250

Innovation technologique, changements organisationnels et évolution des compétences  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Innovation technologique, changements organisationnels et évolution des compétences . Une étude empirique sur l'industrie manufacturière . Innovation technologique, changements dans l'organisation de la production et évolution des compétences sont fortement interdépendants. Pour dresser un état des lieux de ces différents types de changements et analyser leurs relations, cet article exploite une source originale, l'enquête Changement organisationnel, menée auprès des

Nathalie Greenan

1996-01-01

251

Magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of very strong pulsed magnetic fields to stimulate excitable tissue has been investigated. The advantage of this method as opposed to the conventional method, electrical stimulation, is that it is noninvasive and virtually painless. However, the drawbacks are that the site of stimulation is less well defined than for electrical stimulation and repetition rates for stimuli are often

C. Reuter; Joseph H. Battocletti; Joel Myklebust; Dennis Maiman

1988-01-01

252

Agent Architectures for Compliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

253

Muscle Stimulation Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a Goddard Space Flight Center contract, Electrologic of America was able to refine the process of densely packing circuitry on personal computer boards, providing significant contributions to the closed-loop systems for the Remote Manipulator System Simulator. The microcircuitry work was then applied to the StimMaster FES Ergometer, an exercise device used to stimulate muscles suffering from paralysis. The electrical stimulation equipment was developed exclusively for V-Care Health Systems, Inc. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

1997-01-01

254

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

The “Featured Agents” portion of the DCTD Website provides information for researchers involved in drug discovery and development. Any public preclinical and clinical data that DCTD has on a particular agent are presented here. New agents will be added periodically to the current list. DCTD Website visitors may subscribe to the Listserv on this page to be notified when additions to the list are made.

255

Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with ?-CD, IBA, a blend of ?-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane.

Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Liu, Yingjun; Barhate, R. S.; Lala, Neeta L.; Ramakrishna, S.

2006-06-01

256

La décorporation des éléments transuraniens selon leur forme chimique et le mode de contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have mesured the efficacy of a local DTPA treatment after intramuscular administration of Np(IV) and Np(V) into rats. A significant decorporation was only observed after contamination with Np(IV) when the chelator was administered within minutes after contamination. We have also performed a chronic DTPA treatment after exposition of rats to MOX aerosols. This treatment decreased the extrapulmonary retention of ? emitters by a factor of 3 5. These results point out the need of biokinetics studies concerning the chelators and the actinides to improve the efficacy of decorporation. L'efficacité, d'un traitement local par le DTPA a ,été, mesurée après administration par voie intra-musculaire de Np(IV) et de Np(V) chez le rat. Une décorporation significative n'a ,été, obtenue que pour le Np(IV) lorsque le traitement est réalisé, de façon précoce. Un traitement chronique par le DTPA a ,également ,été, effectué, après inhalation d'oxydes mixtes (U, Pu)O2. Une diminution d'un facteur de 3 à? 5 des rétentions extra-pulmonaires des ,émetteurs ?, a ,été, observée. Ces résultats soulignent l'importance de la connaissance de la biocinétique des actinides et des agents chélateurs pour améliorer l'efficacité, de la décorporation.

Ramounet, B.; Matton, S.; Verry, M.; Grillon, G.; Rateau, G.; Poncy, J. L.; Fritsch, P.

1998-04-01

257

Stimulated gracilis neosphincter operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The stimulated gracilis neosphincter is accepted as a viable option in select patients with fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to review the initial problems and complications. METHODS: A prospective analysis of all patients who underwent this procedure was undertaken. Stage I consisted of the distal vascular delay of the muscle and creation of a temporary stoma.

Steven D. Wexner; Alejandro Gonzalez-Padron; Josep Rius; Tiong-Ann Teoh; Denis M. Cheong; Juan J. Nogueras; V. Lee Billotti; Eric G. Weiss; Harry K. Moon

1996-01-01

258

Stimulated rotational Raman scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering (SRRS) processes on high energy laser directed energy weapon systems was studied. The program had 3 main objectives; achieving an accurate description of the physical processes involved in SRRS; developing a numerical algorithm to confidently evaluate SRRS-induced losses in the propagation of high energy laser beams in the uplink and downlink segments of

C. G. Parazzoli; G. L. Rafanelli; D. M. Capps; C. Drutman

1989-01-01

259

Practical agents help out [virtual agent system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial intelligence probes further into making machines more like humans. Researchers are using technology advances in speech recognition, conversational interactions, decision-making, natural language AI, enhanced data-mining techniques, and emotion to create virtual practical agents. These text, voice, and graphical avatars assist people with various tasks and difficult situations. They can help people better use services, make financial transactions, learn about

D. Voth

2005-01-01

260

Mobile Agents and Java Mobile Agents Toolkits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of what the mobile agents are, what they should do and how they can be implemented in Java. Why Java? The choice to concentrate on Java is evoked by many existing solutions in Java that handles architectural heterogeneity between communicating machines on the net. It seems to be the best available language for making mobile

Damir Horvat; Dragana Cvetkovi?; Veljko Milutinovi?; Petar Ko?ovi?; Vlada Kova?evi?

2001-01-01

261

Structure et dynamique des systèmes désordonnés  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Définis par leur “absence” d'ordre, les systèmes désordonnés ne forment pas à proprement parler une famille. La notion de désordre est elle-même assez difficile à définir. Aussi, dans ce type d'étude, le type de systèmes, les techniques et les concepts sont-ils particulièrement diversifiés. Après avoir énoncé quelques grandes généralités sur la définition du désordre et fait une tentative de classification des systèmes désordonnés, cette revue a été principalement orientée sur les moyens d'études de la structure et de la dynamique des fluides et des verres. Une insistance particulière est mise sur les moyens mis à disposition par la physique statistique aussi bien pour élaborer des modèles que pour analyser les résultats d'expériences spectroscopiques ou de diffraction. En effet, le nombre de configurations locales des atomes et molécules dans ces systèmes est tellement important que les résultats expérimentaux et les modèles ne décrivent en général que des moyennes d'ensemble qui n'apportent que des informations partielles sur la réalité microscopique.

Damay, P.

2003-09-01

262

Impact environnemental des cultures transgéniques II. L'impact des caractères recombinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

La publication d'un article scientifique sur les effets néfastes d'un hybride de maïs transgénique expri- mant une ? -endotoxine du Bacillus thuringiensis contre des larves du papillon monarque causait, il y a quelques années, une controverse sans précédent sur l'impact environnemental des caractères recom- binants introduits au bagage génétique des cultures agricoles. Le présent article de synthèse, complé- mentaire à

Dominique Michaud

263

Placements des ménages en Europe : le rôle des intermédiaires financiers se transforme en profondeur  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] L'adoption de bases comptables communes pour la présentation des statistiques financières des pays européens ouvre un large éventail de possibilités en matière d'études comparatives. Pour ce qui concerne l'épargne des ménages, on relève de profondes disparités dans les comportements, mais également un certain nombre d'évolutions communes. D'un point de vue structurel, l'affectation initiale du patrimoine financier entre les différentes

Nathalie Lévy; Auguste Mpacko Priso; Michel Boutillier; Stéphane Justeau; Christine Lagoutte; Bruno Séjourné; Valérie Oheix; Agnès Labye

2002-01-01

264

Mobile Agent Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mobile agent technology is a new research field. The purpose of this report is to take a closer look of this new field, identify its problems, and describe its current state. The theoretical section of this report defines the three properties of agents: m...

M. Persson

2000-01-01

265

Programming Satan's Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Mobile agent security is still a young discipline and most naturally, the focus up to the timeof writing was on inventing new cryptographic protocols for securing various aspects ofmobile agents. However, past experience shows that protocols can be flawed, and flawsin protocols can remain unnoticed for a long period of time. The game of breaking andfixing protocols is a

Volker Roth

2001-01-01

266

Evolutionary intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary intelligent agents (EIA) are intelligent agents provided with a genotype that controls their capabilities to carry out various tasks, i.e., their phenotype. EIA are a cognitive and genetically controlled version of ants and bees, with links to both artificial intelligence and neural networks. The evolution of the population is task dependent and favors the predominance of the individuals best

Paul CRISTEA; Aurel ARSENE; Bogdan NITULESCU

2000-01-01

267

Intelligent agent workbench  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An intelligent agent workbench is disclosed for developing a computer-based intelligent agent that can be inserted between a system and an individual performing a pre-defined function with the system and/or that can supplant such function performed by such individual. In the workbench, an agent author allows a workbench user to create and modify an intelligent agent in a graphical representation. The workbench also has an execution engine for executing a non-graphical representation of the agent both within the workbench and outside the workbench as a stand-alone agent, and an interpreter for automatically translating between the non-graphical and graphical representations. The agent has an instance structure representing a current problem instance, perception structures, task performance structures, and a priority structure. Each perception structure represents information perceived from the system, and includes sub-structures for obtaining information from the system and updating the instance structure therewith. Each task performance structure represents a task the agent can perform, and includes sub-structures for accessing the instance structure to obtain instance information, modifying instance information in the instance structure, and determining a priority for the task performance structure and notifying the instance structure of the determined priority.

2002-07-30

268

Mobile Agent Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agent technology is a new paradigm of distributed computing that can replace the conventional client-server model. However, it has not become popular due to some problems such as security. Threats to mobile agent security generally fall into three main classes: disclosure of information, denial of service, and corruption of information. Four threat categories are identified: threats stemming from an

Levent Ertaul; Jayalalitha Panda

2006-01-01

269

Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rM-CSF) stimulates pinocytosis in bone marrow-derived macrophages  

PubMed Central

Incubation of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) in medium containing recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rM-CSF) stimulated influx, efflux, and the net accumulation of the fluid-phase pinocytic marker, lucifer yellow (LY). Stimulation was dose dependent, occurred within 5 min of addition of the growth factor, and was sustained. Previous experiments had shown that BMM treated with PMA were stimulated to accumulate LY, but compared with rM-CSF-treated cells, the onset of stimulation in PMA-treated macrophages was slower. In further comparisons of rM-CSF- and PMA-stimulated LY accumulation, it was found that rM-CSF-stimulated pinocytosis could be abolished by pretreatment with 0.5 mg/ml trypsin, whereas neither unstimulated nor PMA-stimulated LY accumulation was affected by trypsin pretreatment. These findings indicate that the rM-CSF response was initiated at the cell surface, while the PMA response occurred via intracellular (or trypsin-resistant) receptors. However, once initiated, the pinocytic responses elicited by either agent were very similar. First, rM-CSF- treated cells, like PMA-treated cells, showed extensive ruffling and formation of large phase-bright pinosomes. Second, both rM-CSF- and PMA- stimulated LY accumulation could be inhibited by treatment of cells with the cytoskeleton destabilizing drugs nocodazole, colchicine, or cytochalasin D. Finally, rM-CSF, like PMA, was found to stimulate efflux of LY from cells preloaded with the dye. Thus, both rM-CSF and PMA stimulate the net rate of solute flow through the macrophage endocytic compartment.

1989-01-01

270

How do agents represent?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

Ryan, Alex

271

Pediatric Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary.

Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

2009-01-01

272

Specific biological agent taggants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preliminary data presented here suggests that direct coating of biological agent with DNA capture elements and organic semiconductor (DALM) with chelated rare earths such as scandium, europium or neodymium can be used to track the agent, even when the biological components have been subsequently destroyed. The use of these three taggant components in conjunction with each other affords the opportunity to determine the presence of the biological agent by several methods---laser induced plasma spectroscopy, thermochemiluminescence, mass spectroscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR; if the primers are left on the DCEs or the agent's own DNA is used as the source of the amplicon). The specific DCE-labeling or PCR allows for confirmation of physical measurement results as specific to the agent.

Kiel, Johnathan L.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Parker, Jill E.; Vivekananda, Jeeva; Franz, Veronica; Sloan, Mark A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.; DeLucia, Frank C., Jr.; Munson, Chase A.; Mattley, Yvette D.

2005-05-01

273

Moral actor, selfish agent.  

PubMed

People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24749822

Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

2014-05-01

274

Mobile Agent security using Proxy-agents and Trusted domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security archi- tecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent secu-

Nikola Mitrovic; Unai Arronategui Arribalzaga

2002-01-01

275

Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

Not Available

1980-08-01

276

L'impact des politiques de croissance externe : l'expérience des entreprises françaises au cours des années quatre-vingt  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les entreprises industrielles françaises ont considérablement accru leur effort de développement par croissance externe depuis le milieu des années quatre-vingt. Cette tendance, particulièrement nette entre 1986 et 1988, semble se confirmer en 1989 au vu des réalisations d'acquisition d'actifs financiers. . Les grandes entreprises développent des stratégies sur longue période afin d'atteindre une dimension à l'échelle des marchés internationaux.

François Bavay; Denis Beau

1990-01-01

277

Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

1993-01-01

278

Sacral nerve stimulation.  

PubMed

The current concept of recruiting residual function of an inadequate pelvic organ by electrostimulation involves stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves at the level of the sacral canal. The rationale for applying SNS to fecal incontinence was based on clinical observations of its effect on bowel habits and anorectal continence function in urologic patients (increased anorectal angulation and anal canal closure pressure) and on anatomic considerations: dissection demonstrated a dual peripheral nerve supply of the striated pelvic floor muscles that govern these functions. Because the sacral spinal nerve site is the most distal common location of this dual nerve supply, stimulating here can elicit both functions. Since the first application of SNS in fecal incontinence in 1994, this technique has been improved, the patient selection process modified, and the spectrum of indications expanded. At present SNS has been applied in more than 1300 patients with fecal incontinence limited. PMID:15771288

Matzel, K E; Stadelmaier, U; Besendörfer, M

2004-01-01

279

Biological warfare agents  

PubMed Central

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

280

Stimulated echo imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new form of NMR imaging is described using stimulated echoes. The technique, dubbed STEAM ( stimulated echo acquisition mode) imaging, turns out to become a versatile tool for multipurpose NMR imaging. Stimulated echoes can be excited by a sequence of at least three rf pulses, which in the basic experiment have flip angles of 90° or less. Thus no selective or nonselective 180° pulses are needed, which eliminates a variety of problems associated with such pulses in conventional spin-echo NMR imaging. Further advantages of STEAM imaging are concerned with the functional flexibility of an imaging sequence comprising three pulses and three intervals and the possibility of "storing" information prepared during the first interval into the form of longitudinal magnetization during the second interval. In general, the applied rf power is considerably reduced as compared to spin-echo-based imaging sequences. Here the general principles of the technique are outlined and first applications to multislice imaging of directly neighboring slices are demonstrated. Subsequent papers will be concerned with modifications of the basic STEAM sequence which, for example, allow multiple chemical-shift-selective (CHESS) imaging, complete imaging of the spin-lattice relaxation behavior, diffusion imaging, and single-shot real-time imaging.

Frahm, J.; Merboldt, K. D.; Hänicke, W.; Haase, A.

281

Human Tissue Stimulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

1982-01-01

282

Zur Physiologie des Labyrinthes der Tanzmaus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die Tanzmäuse reagiren auf keinerlei Schalleindrücke.2.Sie besitzen ein mangelhaftes Vermögen, das Körpergleichgewicht zu erhalten.3.Sie haben keinen Drehschwindel.4.Sie verhalten sich der galvanischen Durchströmung des Kopfes gegenüber wie normale Thiere.

G. Alexander; Alois Kreidl

1900-01-01

283

Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le quatrieme probleme porte sur le developpement d'une nouvelle methode de transmission exacte a 3 microphones applicable a des materiaux ou systemes symetriques ou non. Dans le cas symetrique, on montre que cette approche permet une nette amelioration de la caracterisation des proprietes dynamiques intrinseques d'un materiau. Mots cles. materiaux poreux, tube d'impedance, transmission sonore, absorption sonore, impedance acoustique, symetrie, porosite, matrice de transfert.

Salissou, Yacoubou

284

Contraception épididymaire: état des recherches et perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume  Le développement de nouvelles stratégies contraceptives est un enjeu économique important. L'épididyme, siège de la maturation\\u000a post-testiculaire des spermatozoïdes est depuis peu sous les feux de la recherche comme un organe cible pour le développement\\u000a de nouvelles approches contraceptives chez les mammifères. En effet, cet organe dans lequel transitent et sont stockés les\\u000a permatozoïdes (chez la plupart des mammifères) est,

Joël R. Drevet

2004-01-01

285

Sedimentologie des Lias der Berchtesgadener Kalkalpen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Ausgehend von der herrschenden Vorstellung einer Transgression roter Liaskalke zur Zeit des oberen Unterlias über ein subaerisch verkarstetes Dachsteinkallerelief, untersuchte ich die Liassedimente in den Berchtesgadener Alpen eingehender und unternahm vergleichende Begehungen im östlichen Hagengebirge, im Steinernen Meer und in den Steinbrüchen von Adnet.Die Sedimente des Lias liegen in einer Graukalk- und einer abwechslungsreicheren Rotkalk-Fazies (F.Fabricius 1962) vor. Ammoniten zeigten,

Hermann Jurgan

1968-01-01

286

Coalition Formation Among Autonomous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalitions of agents can work more effectively than individual agents in many multi-agent settings. Determining which coalitions should form (i.e., what agents should work together) is a difficult problem that is typically solved by some kind of centralised planner. As the number of agents grows, however, reliance on a central authority becomes increasingly impractical. This paper formalises the coalition formation

Steven P. Ketchpel

1993-01-01

287

Functional magnetic stimulation: theory and coil optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitable tissue can be stimulated non-invasively by means of externally applied changing magnetic fields. This paper considers theoretically magnetic stimulation to functionally stimulate the tissue. We optimize the stimulating coil to accomplish functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) with the minimum cost expressed in terms of driving energy needed to provoke excitation. Magnetic stimulation is less discomfortable than functional electrical stimulation (FES)

Jarmo Ruohonen; Paolo Ravazzani; Ferdinando Grandori

1998-01-01

288

Roulement des entreprises et croissance de la productivite dans le secteur canadien du commerce de detail  

Microsoft Academic Search

La presente etude se penche sur le roulement des entreprises et sur la croissance de la productivite dans le secteur canadien du commerce de detail. Le roulement des entreprises a lieu lorsque, en raison du processus concurrentiel, des entreprises sortantes et des entreprises existantes en declin voient diminuer leur part de marche au profit des nouvelles entreprises et des entreprises

John R. Gu Wulong Baldwin

2008-01-01

289

Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.

1998-04-01

290

Agent oriented programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

Shoham, Yoav

1994-01-01

291

Electronic Nerve Agent Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A personal field chemical warfare nerve agent detector has therein a transducer having two microchemical cantilever oscillators. One of the cantilever oscillators has deposited, as an end-mass, a chemically selective substance on the cantilever. The nerve...

E. S. Kolesar

1983-01-01

292

Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among t...

H. S. Byun

1993-01-01

293

Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des forces de 40% la gravite a la base de la zone convective. Ces forces radiatives sont assez grandes pour avoir un impact significatif sur les variations d'abondance de ces elements. Cet effet est neglige dans les modeles solaires publies. Nos modeles solaires montrent que les donnees du projet OPACITE pour le fer sont trop deficientes dans leur etat actuel pour pouvoir etre utilisees dans des calculs evolutifs. Nous confirmons que la diffusion doit etre prise en compte pour reproduire les donnes helioseismologiques. Nous discutons en detail de la manipulation des donnees monochromatiques. Il en ressort que les donnees d'OPAL sont superieures aux donnees tirees de OP. Les donnees de OP sont utiles pour les forces radiatives dans deux applications. Premierement pour determiner les corrections a apporter aux accelerations radiatives de OPAL pour tenir compte de la redistribution de l'impulsion lors de la photoionisation, puis parce que le sampling de OPAL perd de sa validite a basse temperature et pour les metaux tres peu abondants. Finalement nous avons calcule des modeles d'etoiles de population II de faible metallicite. Nous montrons dans un premier temps que la diffusion des metaux n'a pas d'effet significatif sur l'evolution de ces etoiles. Nous montrons egalement que l'incertitude sur l'age des amas globulaires associe a la diffusion est sous-estimee. Quoique la difference s'amenuise il existe toujours un desaccord avec l'age de l'Univers tel que determine a partir de la loi de Hubble.

Turcotte, Sylvain

294

Chemopreventive Agent Development  

Cancer.gov

This group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The focus is to identify and develop agents with the potential to help detect, block, reverse, or delay early stages of cancer. Preclinical studies evaluate potential new drugs and combinations in model systems using emergent knowledge of genetic and biochemical mechanisms, while early phase trials emphasize pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety.

295

Influence de la dépendance en température des propriétés optiques des matériaux sur la force de Casimir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous évaluons la force de Casimir entre deux surfaces planes métalliques constituées d'argent. Nous prenons, pour effectuer cette évaluation, des propriétés optiques de l'argent à différentes températures [1]. Nous montrons que cette dépendance en température modifie la force de Casimir (de 0.2%) y compris à des distances inférieures à la longueur d'onde thermique.

Joulain, K.; Henkel, C.; Greffet, J.-J.

2006-10-01

296

Equations de transport relatives à des champs de vecteurs non-lipschitziens et mécanique des fluides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le but de cet article est l'étude des équations de transport relatives à des champs de vecteurs non-lipschitziens, mais seulement logarithmiquement lipschitziens. Ces champs possèdent un flot dont la régularité hölderienne est exponentiellement décroissante. On exhibe une solution de l'équation d'Euler bidimensionnelle présentant effectivement ce phénomène.

H. Bahouri; J.-Y. Chemin

1994-01-01

297

Effects of pharmacological agents on gastrointestinal motility.  

PubMed

The control mechanisms of gastrointestinal motility are complex. Extrinsic neurohormonal effects modulate an intrinsic system, often called the "gut brain," composed of nervous and neuropeptide components. To exert pharmacologic influence on GI motility, use is made of agents that mimic the external control system. Agents that stimulate opioid receptors, block adrenoceptors, block or facilitate acetylcholine action, or antagonize the action of prostaglandins are used to effect changes in GI motility. The major indications for pharmacologic intervention are to increase motility in constipation, to reduce it in most cases of diarrhea, and to restore propulsive coordination in postoperative ileus. In cases of clinical colic the primary requirement is control of pain. Agents used for this purpose may adversely affect motility, and choice requires knowledge of their actions in this respect. In addition, drugs used for other purposes, anthelmintics for instance, may also influence gut motility. A synopsis of the actions of the agents commonly employed in GI motility control and some associated drugs are displayed in Table 3. Recent advances in the understanding of drug action on the gut should help in the selection of drugs for clinical use. PMID:2670108

Gerring, E L

1989-08-01

298

Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

Syed, Muhammad Ali

2014-01-15

299

Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des BSAP-I optimisés à travers une caractérisation complète des propriétés mécaniques et de la durabilité a été réalisée. A la suite de cette étude, les résultats obtenus nous permettent de conclure que : (1) L'utilisation d'un BSAP-I avec un gros granulat de 5 - 14 mm, des rapports E/L = 0,37 et S/G = 0,52 et une teneur en air de 6 à 9% a été possible en conférant un équilibre optimal fluidité / stabilité à l'état frais, ainsi qu'un niveau de thixotropie adéquate au chantier permettant d'optimiser la conception du coffrage des piliers de pont et de conférer des qualités de surfaces très acceptables de ces infrastructures. (2) La méthode adaptée pour l'essai L-Box contenant 2 barres et une vibration de 5 secondes a permis de bien caractériser la capacité de remplissage d'un BSAP-I. (3) L'utilisation d'un plan factoriel 23 a permis d'obtenir des modèles statistiques fiables, capables de prédire les propriétés rhéologiques à l'état frais et les résistances en compression des BSAP-I avec des dosages en liant entre 370 et 420 kg/m3, des rapports E/L entre 0,34 et 0,40 et S/G entre 0,47 et 0,53. (4) Des mesures de vitesse d'écoulement T40 d'un BSAP-I sont très semblables à celles d'un BAP. En plus, des valeurs T40 montrent une bonne corrélation linéaire avec celles de T400 mesurés dans la boîte L-Box. (5) À la frontière du BAP et du BCV, une bande rhéologique possédant un ?0 entre 30 et 320 Pa et un ? entre 10 et 140 Pa.s a été trouvée pour la conception optimale des BSAP-I. (6) Les BSAP-I optimisés ont également conféré une très bonne performance à l'état frais, en permettant maintenir un bon équilibre entre la rhéologie et la stabilité dans le temps, lorsqu'on utilise une énergie de vibration minimale pour amorcer son écoulement. (7) À l'état durci Les BSAP-I ont conféré une bonne performance présentant des résistances mécaniques élevées et des niveaux négligeables de pénétration aux ions chlores, de perte de masse par écaillage et des attaques par le gel/dégel. (8) L'utilisation des cim

Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

300

Liquid gun propellant stimulation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

To increase a yield of a hydrocarbon such as oil from a subsurface reserv, the reservoir is stimulated by pumping liquid gun propellant (LP) into the reservoir and igniting the LP. The LP is pumped into a packed-off region in a cased well; the depth of the packed-off region is selected to lie within the reservoir. The ignition of the LP causes a pressurization of the reservoir, thus fracturing the reservoir. The fracture increases a surface area through which the hydrocarbon can be extracted, and the heat from the ignition reduces the viscosity of the hydrocarbon.

2000-08-08

301

Photon Stimulated Desorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of the X-ray standing wave (XSW) technique and photon stimulated desorption (PSD) offers the possibility to investigate both the atomic structure as well as the mechanisms leading to the X-ray induced desorption of ions from the sample surface. Here, we present a review of surface systems studied by the XSW-PSD technique along with a brief description of the basic differences in XSW data evaluation when desorbing ions are used as secondary signal. We show how direct and indirect desorption processes can be identified and that even site-specific desorption cross-sections may be determined with this method.

Flege, Jan Ingo; Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens; Hille, Alexander; Materlik, Gerhard

2013-01-01

302

Geothermal well stimulation  

SciTech Connect

All available data on proppants and fluids were examined to determine areas in technology that need development for 300 to 500/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/ to 265/sup 0/C) hydrothermal wells. While fluid properties have been examined well into the 450/sup 0/F range, proppants have not been previously tested at elevated temperatures except in a few instances. The latest test data at geothermal temperatures is presented and some possible proppants and fluid systems that can be used are shown. Also discussed are alternative stimulation techniques for geothermal wells.

Sinclair, A.R.; Pittard, F.J.; Hanold, R.J.

1980-01-01

303

P&G Agent Distribution  

Cancer.gov

Pharmaceutical Management Branch Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, DCTD, NCI Policy and Guidelines for INVESTIGATIONAL AGENT DISTRIBUTION Policy: The Pharmaceutical Management Branch (PMB) provides investigational agents for use

304

Adipose-derived stem cells stimulate reendothelialization in stented rat abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

Background:?Although drug-eluting stents (DES) have been widely used for the treatment of coronary artery disease, they potentially increase the risk of late thrombosis. It is, therefore, desirable to establish a strategy to stimulate reendothelialization. Endothelial injury models have been widely used to analyze the mechanisms of coronary restenosis. However, animal models deployed with coronary stents in the blood vessels are necessary to accurately analyze the mechanisms of coronary restenosis and late thrombosis because persistent inflammation occurs around the coronary stents. Methods and Results:?Coronary stents were implanted into rat abdominal aorta and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) were administered from the adventitial side. Reendothelialization was then visualized by Evans blue staining, and neointimal formation was analyzed histologically. ASC significantly stimulated reendothelialization and inhibited neointimal formation in bare metal stents (BMS)-implanted aorta. In addition, ASC promoted reendothelialization in DES-implanted aorta; however, the effects were weaker than in BMS-implanted aorta. Among the cytokines that ASC produce, adrenomedullin (AM) significantly stimulated reendothelialization and inhibited neointimal formation in BMS-implanted aorta, when an adenovirus expressing AM was administered from the adventitial side. Conclusions:?These results suggest that ASC produce several cytokines that stimulate reendothelialization and inhibit neointimal formation in stent-deployed vessels, and that AM could mediate these effects.??(Circ J?2014; 78: 1762-1769). PMID:24758766

Sato, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Masao; Fujita, Daishi; Oba, Shigeyoshi; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Nagano, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Etsu

2014-06-25

305

La variabilité des canaux semi-circulaires osseux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Depuis le début du siècle les observations anatomiques ont révélé la variabilité de la disposition des canaux semi-circulaires osseux (canales semi-circulares ossei) et celle des appareils vestibulaires droit et gauche pris dans leur ensemble.

M. Caix; G. Outrequin

1979-01-01

306

Bedeutung des Debitorenratings für das Working Capital Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wie die folgende Darstellung veranschaulicht, versteht sich Debitorenrating als ein Baustein des Debitorenmanagements. Letzteres\\u000a ist wiederum eine der drei Komponenten des Working Capital Managements.

Bianca Heyke; Michael Stahl

307

Dorsal column stimulator applications  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians.

Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damian

2012-01-01

308

Therapeutic stimulation versus ablation.  

PubMed

The renaissance of functional stereotactic neurosurgery was pioneered in the mid 1980s by Laitinen's introduction of Leksell's posteroventral pallidotomy for Parkinson´s disease (PD). This ablative procedure experienced a worldwide spread in the 1990s, owing to its excellent effect on dyskinesias and other symptoms of post-l-dopa PD. Modern deep brain stimulation (DBS), pioneered by Benabid and Pollak in 1987 for the treatment of tremor, first became popular when it was applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the mid 1990s, where it demonstrated a striking effect on all cardinal symptoms of advanced PD, and permitted reduced dosages of medication. DBS, as a nondestructive, adaptable, and reversible procedure that is proving safe in bilateral surgery on basal ganglia, has great appeal to clinicians and patients alike, despite the fact that it is expensive, laborious, and relies on very strict patient selection criteria, especially for STN DBS. Psychiatric surgery has experienced the same phenomenon, with DBS supplanting completely stereotactic ablative procedures. This chapter discusses the pros and cons of ablation versus stimulation and investigates the reasons why DBS has overshadowed proven efficient ablative procedures such as pallidotomy for PD, and capsulotomy and cingulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression. PMID:24112885

Hariz, Marwan I; Hariz, Gun-Marie

2013-01-01

309

A linearized current stimulator for deep brain stimulation.  

PubMed

This paper develops the front end of the stimulator which is applied in the implantable deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the therapy of Parkinson's disease. This stimulator adopts the low power switched-capacitor DAC accompanying with voltage-to-current transconductance amplifiers to obtain the adjustable output currents. The proposed distortion cancellation technique improves the linearity of the current stimulator. Multiple transconductance amplifiers sharing a single DAC save the circuit area. The biphasic stimulation waveform is generated from the bridge switching technique and the programmable pulse. This stimulation circuit provides the 0 approximately 165 microA current for a typical loading of 10 k?, 8 approximately 120 micros pulse width, and 126 approximately 244 Hz frequencies with a 0.35 microm CMOS technology at 3.3 V supply voltage. PMID:21096724

Shen, Ding-Lan; Chu, Yu-Jung

2010-01-01

310

Politique des déchets : l'approche du Royaume-Uni  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Politique des déchets : l'approche du Royaume-Uni . L'évolution récente de la réglementation européenne en dématière de déchets risque d'entraîner des coûts importants pour les États membres. L'exemple britannique est d'autant plus intéressant pour la France que les deux pays présentent des similitudes : quantité presque identique de déchets ménagers (environ 20 millions de tonnes), faible capacité des incinérateurs

David Litvan

1995-01-01

311

La construction de réponses à des problèmes impossibles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé — Cet article se propose d'illustrer la dynamique de construction de réponses à des problèmes impossibles. En fonction du cadre conceptuel, situé à l'articulation de problématiques psychologiques et didactiques, un modèle d'analyse des différents plans de rationalité en jeu dans la fabrication des réponses des élèves est présenté et discuté. Le choix de problèmes impossibles de différentes complexités s'avère

Maria Luisa Schubauer-Leoni; Ladislas Ntamakiliro

1994-01-01

312

Théâtre et entreprise, état des lieux et une approche globale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voilà quinze ans environ, démarraient les premières expériences du théâtre dit d'entreprise (Michel Fustier, 1996). Deux grandes orientations se sont développées, le théâtre au service des hommes de l'entreprise et le théâtre au service de l'organisation d'entreprise. Au service des hommes, la pratique des techniques théâtrales contribuent au développement personnel, au travers des formations à la prise de parole en

Laurent Lesavre

2003-01-01

313

Strat?gie de traitement : R?le de l'enfuvirtide dans la prise en charge des effets secondaires limitant le traitement  

PubMed Central

Les effets secondaires peuvent limiter les options s’offrant aux médecins dans le traitement de l’infection par le VIH. La prise en charge de ces effets secondaires est essentielle afin d’éviter l’arrêt du traitement. L’enfuvirtide, un inhibiteur de la fusion du VIH, peut être utile en tant qu’un des trois agents actifs du traitement antirétroviral. Ce peut être une façon de réduire les effets secondaires limitant le traitement et d’avoir un agent efficace pour le contrôle viral. Dans le cas présent, le patient avait des antécédents de traitements longs et problématiques, avec de nombreuses affections concomitantes. Son dernier schéma thérapeutique en date, qui comprend un agent d’une nouvelle classe thérapeutique, l’enfuvirtide, a maintenu la suppression du VIH tout en minimisant la toxicité.

Tsoukas, Christos

2007-01-01

314

Zur Kanülierung des Ductus thoracicus beim Pfortaderhochdruck der Lebercirrhose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Bei 24 Patienten wurde der Ductus thoracicus im Bereich des Angulus veno-lymphaticus freigelegt. Vier Patienten hatten davon eine intakte Leber. Kaliber und Lymphfluß des Ductus thoracicus entsprachen hier den schon bekannten Normalwerten. Bei den 20 Patienten mit Lebercirrhose war der Lymphfluß in 18 Fällen erhöht, eine Erweiterung des Ductus thoracicus fand sich aber nur in der Hälfte der Fälle.

A. Fritsch; K. Mach

1968-01-01

315

Financement, investissement et performances des entreprises industrielles françaises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les interrogations nombreuses au sujet des PME en restent généralement à un constat d' insuffisance de fonds propre, confondant ainsi problème de financement et nature de celui-ci. En outre elles trouvent leur origine dans une comparaison abusive avec les grandes entreprises, ignorant des traits distinctifs déterminants liés à l' effort d' accumulation et à la nature des contraintes selon la

Bernard Paranque

1995-01-01

316

Fair diagnosability in PN-based DES models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure diagnosability has been widely studied for discrete event system (DES) models because of modeling simplicity and computational efficiency due to abstraction. Frameworks based on FSMs, process algebra, Petri nets (PN) etc. have been used for modeling and diagnosability analysis of DES. DES failure diagnosability algorithms work successfully for systems where fairness is not a part of the model. They

A. Khan; K. Misra; S. Biswas; J. Deka; H. Kapoor

2010-01-01

317

Die Verhütung von Erschöpfungszuständen des Herzens durch Digitalissubstanzen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Durch erschöpfendes Schwimmen bzw. Lauftraining wird bei Ratten eine Herzund Nebennierenhypertrophie erzeugt. Durch Injektion von g-Strophanthin bzw. k-Strophanthin jeweils vor Beginn des Trainings ist es möglich, die Hypertrophie des Herzens und der Nebennieren zu vermindern. Daraus ist zu schließen, daß Strophanthin die Leistung des Herzens so verbessert, daß einer Erschöpfung, d. h. relativen Insuffizienz vorgebeugt wird.

Gustav Kuschinsky

1947-01-01

318

Agent Server Architecture for the Ajanta Mobile-Agent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of Ajanta, aJava-based mobile-agent system, and focuses in particularon the architecture of the agent server --the process which hosts agents and enables them toaccess resources, communicate, migrate etc. Theagent server's main components include an agentexecution environment, an agent transfer protocol,a resource access protocol, and an agent monitoringservice. Security is a major concern in the designof

Neeran M. Karnik; Anand R. Tripathi

1998-01-01

319

Prise en charge des mucites après radiothérapie des cancers des voies aérodigestives supérieures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Duringthepast3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. Atthe present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents

M. Lapeyre; C. Charra-Brunaud; M. C. Kaminsky; L. Geoffrois; G. Dolivet; B. Toussaint; F. Maire; N. Pourel; M. Simon; C. Marchal; P. Bey

2001-01-01

320

Étude expérimentale des micro-mécanismes d'endommagement et de rupture des zircaloy hydrurés  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Afin de mieux comprendre les mécanismes d'endommagement et de rupture des Zircaloy, des essais de traction sur anneaux ont été réalisés in-situ sous MEB sur des éprouvettes de tube de gainage de combustible, contenant environ 150ppm d'hydrogène et avec différentes orientations d'hydrures: de circonférentielle à radiale. Ces essais ont mis en évidence deux modes de rupture selon l'orientation des hydrures. Les éprouvettes avec hydrures radiaux (perpendiculaires à la sollicitation) rompent brutalement par propagation d'une fissure suivant un chemin d'hydrures radiaux alignés. Les niveaux de déformation au voisinage de la fissure, estimés par des techniques de micro-électrolithographie associées à celle d'analyse par corrélation d'images, sont très faibles, de l'ordre du %. En revanche, dans celles avec hydrures circonférentiels (suivant l'axe de sollicitation), les effets de structure prédominent: des bandes de cisaillement macroscopique apparaissent, dans lesquelles la déformation se localise. En dehors de ces zones de localisation intense, la déformation reste inférieure à 10% et très peu d'endommagement par germination de cavités ou fissuration d'hydrures a été observé. Les hétérogénéités du champ local de déformation, corrélées à la présence des hydrures, semblent établir l'influence de ceux-ci sur le mode de déformation local, mais ces observations nécessitent d'être confirmées.

Racine, A.; Bornert, M.; Sainte Catherine, C.; Caldemaison, D.

2003-03-01

321

Profil epidemiologique des brulures d'enfants admis au Centre National des Brules, Maroc  

PubMed Central

Summary Ce travail rétrospectif analyse les particularités épidémiologiques de 543 cas de brûlures d'enfants, représentant 45,7% des admissions de notre centre, en vue de déterminer les éléments pouvant contribuer à renforcer la prévention, qui reste le traitement de choix de cette pathologie. La moyenne d'âge est de 4,25 ans avec une prédilection pour la tranche d'âge d'un à cinq ans, avec 42,5% des cas. Une atteinte masculine est retrouvée dans 63,5% des cas. La brûlure survient à domicile dans 85,1% et accidentellement dans 95% des cas. Les brûlures thermiques représentent 96,5% des causes dominées par les liquides dans 69,3% des cas. La surface cutanée brûlée est ? 20% dans 52,3%. La brûlure intéresse essentiellement les membres supérieurs (79,1%). 56,8% des enfants sont transférés par d'autres hôpitaux et le délai de prise en charge hospitalière est supérieur à 6 heures dans 65,5%. Le taux de mortalité a été de 13,2%.

Zahid, A.; Atannaz, J.; Alaoui, M.; Rafik, A.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Chlihi, A.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

2011-01-01

322

Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.  

PubMed

A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

Bolskar, Robert D

2008-04-01

323

Triglyceride-lowering agents.  

PubMed

This review is the first attempt at systematization of the literature data on the structures and activities of triglyceride-lowering agents which used in medical practice or are in development. The effects and mechanisms of action of statins, squalene synthase inhibitors, fibrates, PPAR? and PPAR?/? agonists, nicotinic acid, omega-3 fatty acids and some other molecular targets were considered. Unfortunately, to date, harmless and effective triglyceride-lowering drug still does not exist and there is still need for development of better triglyceride-lowering agents. PMID:24894768

Salakhutdinov, Nariman F; Laev, Sergey S

2014-07-15

324

Coordination infrastructures for mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile agent technology is gaining more and more interest in the distributed systems community. In this context, suitable coordination models are needed to handle the coordination, both among mobile agents and between agents and Internet resources. This paper presents two coordination infrastructures that follow two different coordination models: Aglets, based on the message-passing coordination model, and Mobile Agent Reactive

Giacomo Cabri; Letizia Leonardi; Franco Zambonelli

2001-01-01

325

Sensor networks with mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architecture for large scale low power sensor network is proposed. Referred to as sensor networks with mobile agents (SENMA), SENMA exploit node redundancies by introducing mobile agents that communicate opportunistically with a large field of sensors. The addition of mobile agents shifts computationally intensive tasks away from primitive sensors to more powerful mobile agents, which enables energy efficient operations under

Lang Tong; Qing Zhao; Srihari Adireddy

2003-01-01

326

Stimulated coherent transition radiation  

SciTech Connect

Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

Hung-chi Lihn

1996-03-01

327

Novel therapeutic agents in clinical development for systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Conventional immunosuppressive therapies have radically transformed patient survival in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but their use is associated with considerable toxicity and a substantial proportion of patients remain refractory to treatment. A more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of SLE immunopathogenesis has evolved over the past decade and has led to the testing of several biologic agents in clinical trials. There is a clear need for new therapeutic agents that overcome these issues, and biologic agents offer exciting prospects as future SLE therapies. An array of promising new therapies are currently emerging or are under development including B-cell depletion therapies, agents targeting B-cell survival factors, blockade of T-cell co-stimulation and anti-cytokine therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies against interleukin-6 and interferon-?.

2013-01-01

328

Hepatobiliary MR Imaging with Gadolinium Based Contrast Agents  

PubMed Central

The advent of gadolinium-based “hepatobiliary” contrast agents offers new opportunities for diagnostic MRI and has triggered a great interest for innovative imaging approaches to the liver and bile ducts. In this review article we will discuss the imaging properties of the two gadolinium-based hepatobiliary contrast agents currently available in the USA, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid, as well as important pharmacokinetic differences that affect their diagnostic performance. We will review potential applications, protocol optimization strategies, as well as diagnostic pitfalls. A variety of illustrative case examples will be used to demonstrate the role of these agents in detection and characterization of liver lesions as well as for imaging the biliary system. Changes in MR protocols geared towards optimizing workflow and imaging quality will also be discussed. It is our aim that the information provided in this article will facilitate the optimal utilization of these agents, and will stimulate the reader‘s pursuit of new applications for future benefit.

Frydrychowicz, Alex; Lubner, Meghan G.; Brown, Jeffrey J.; Merkle, Elmar M.; Nagle, Scott K.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Reeder, Scott B.

2011-01-01

329

De l'hypothèse de revenu permanent en politique de distribution des profits des sociétés : une polémique  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La transposition, en politique de distribution des profits des sociétés, de l'hypothèse de revenu permanent met en évidence certaines implications financières intéressantes de cette politique de ventilation. Toutefois, les comportements différents du consommateur et de la firme appellent certaines réserves quant à la transposition directe. Aussi une approche alternative fut envisagée, consistant à examiner la réceptivité des formulations traditionnelles

Jean-Pierre Chateau

1972-01-01

330

La structure des systèmes désordonnés et sa mesure par diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert de moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

Barnes, A. C.; Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.

2003-09-01

331

Intolerability of cobalt salt as erythropoietic agent.  

PubMed

Unfair athletes seek ways to stimulate erythropoiesis, because the mass of haemoglobin is a critical factor in aerobic sports. Here, the potential misuse of cobalt deserves special attention. Cobalt ions (Co(2+) ) stabilize the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that increase the expression of the erythropoietin (Epo) gene. Co(2+) is orally active, easy to obtain, and inexpensive. However, its intake can bear risks to health. To elaborate this issue, a review of the pertinent literature was retrieved by a search with the keywords 'anaemia', 'cobalt', 'cobalt chloride', 'erythropoiesis', 'erythropoietin', 'Epo', 'side-effects' and 'treatment', amongst others. In earlier years, cobalt chloride was administered at daily doses of 25 to 300?mg for use as an anti-anaemic agent. Co(2+) therapy proved effective in stimulating erythropoiesis in both non-renal and renal anaemia, yet there were also serious medical adverse effects. The intake of inorganic cobalt can cause severe organ damage, concerning primarily the gastrointestinal tract, the thyroid, the heart and the sensory systems. These insights should keep athletes off taking Co(2+) to stimulate erythropoiesis. PMID:24039233

Ebert, Bastian; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

2014-03-01

332

ABETA42 Lowering Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method of preventing, delaying, or reversing the progression of Alzheimer's disease by administering an Abeta(sub 42) lowering agent to a mammal under conditions in which levels of Abeta(sub 42) are selectively reduced, levels of ...

2005-01-01

333

Agents, games and HLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in utilising intelligent agents in computer games and virtual environments. At the same time, computer game research and development has increasingly drawn on technologies and techniques originally developed in the large scale distributed simulation community, such as the HLA IEEE standard for simulator interoperability. In this paper, we address a

Michael Lees; Brian Logan; Georgios K. Theodoropoulos

2006-01-01

334

Aziridinyl Quinone Antitumor Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of aziridinyl quinones as antitumor agents is disclosed. A compound which has been found to be particularly effective is the compound 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis (carboethoxyamino)-1,4-benzoquinone. Treatment is described in connection with various f...

J. S. Driscoll A. H. Khan F. Chou

1979-01-01

335

Aziridinyl Quinone Antitumor Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of aziridinyl quinones as antitumor agents is disclosed. A compound which has been found to be particularly effective is the compound 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis (carboethoxyamino)-1,4-benzoquinone. Treatment is described in connection with various f...

J. S. Driscoll A. H. Khan F. Chow

1978-01-01

336

Aziridinyl Quinone Antitumor Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of aziridinyl quinones as antitumor agents is disclosed. A compound which has been found to be particularly effective is the compound 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis (carboethoxyamino)-1,4-benzoquinone. Treatment is described in connection with various f...

J. S. Driscoll

1977-01-01

337

Agents in Electronic Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive connectivity of the Internet and the powerful architecture of World Wide Web are changing many market conventions and creating a tremendous opportunity for conducting business on Internet. Intelligent agents will play a crucial role in electronic commerce where dynamic and heterogeneous interactions between tens of thousands of organizations and tens of millions of individuals are involved. So far,

Yiming Ye; Jiming Liu; Alexandros Moukas

2001-01-01

338

Agents of Infection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collaborative lesson design by Lori Kern and Dawn Barone. This lesson focuses on infectious agents (fungus, bacteria, virus and parasites). Students will be able experience a hands-on activity to reinforce the concepts addressed in this benchmark.

Ferro, Michelle

2012-06-15

339

Embodied mobile agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The move in many societies toward individuals having multiple networked computational devices - workstations, notebooks computers, mobile phones, PDAs - radically changes the ways in which people engage those devices. However, we lack interaction paradigms that enable a coherent experience across these technologies. One possible approach to this problem involves the use of embodied mobile agents (EMAs), that is, graphically

Bill Tomlinson; Man Lok Yau; Eric Baumer

2006-01-01

340

Remote Agent Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

341

Mobility control agent  

SciTech Connect

Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

1983-05-17

342

Agent Amplified Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for informa- tion gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on expertise location within a large organization. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an or- ganization are used to \\

Henry A. Kautz; Bart Selman; Al Milewski

1996-01-01

343

Plasmids Encoding Therapeutic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal ...

W. K. Keener

2004-01-01

344

HOST-COUNTRY TAXATION, INTERNAL FINANCE AND REINVESTMENT BY MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS \\/ IMPOSITION DES INVESTISSEMENTS ETRANGERS, FINANCEMENT AUTONOME ET REINVESTISSEMENT DES PROFITS PAR LES SOCIETES MULTINATIONALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'article porte sur la répartition des profits bruts des filiales étrangères entre les impôts prélevés par le pays hôte, les dividendes et les profits retenus. Cette question est d'une importance considérable pour l'evaluation des avantages des investissements étrangers pour le pays hôte ainsi que pour la distribution des avantages. L'un des objectifs principaux de l'analyse est de comparer les fonctions

Donald J. Brean

1983-01-01

345

CONTRIBUTION OF SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS TO THE FORMATION OF SECURITY MARKETS \\/ LE RÔLE DES INSTITUTIONS D'ÉPARGNE DANS LA FORMATION DES MARCHÉS MOBILIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'article analyse le rôle des instituts d'épargne dans l'évolution des marchés mobiliers par rapport aux exigences des pays en voie de développement sur la base de l'expérience des pays développés. Les instituts d'épargne contribuent au développement des marchés mobiliers du fait qu'ils engendrent une demande de titres différents d'après leurs besoins de portefeuille. L'offre de titres, d'autre part, depend des

Anand G. Chandavarkar

1982-01-01

346

Signaling mechanisms of inhibition of phospholipase D activation by CHS111 in formyl peptide-stimulated neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective phospholipase D (PLD) inhibitor 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI) inhibited the O2? generation and cell migration but not degranulation in formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated rat neutrophils. A novel benzyl indazole compound 2-benzyl-3-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)indazole (CHS-111), which inhibited O2? generation and cell migration, also reduced the fMLP- but not phorbol ester-stimulated PLD activity (IC50 3.9±1.2?M). CHS-111 inhibited the interaction of PLD1 with ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)

Ling-Chu Chang; Tai-Hung Huang; Chi-Sen Chang; Ya-Ru Tsai; Ruey-Hseng Lin; Pin-Wen Lee; Mei-Feng Hsu; Li-Jiau Huang; Jih-Pyang Wang

2011-01-01

347

An E-education Framework Based on Semantic Web Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The booming web technology stimulates computer-based e-education which is considered to be an appropriate lifelong education approach in this era due to the spatial and temporal convenience. In this paper we propose a service-oriented agent e-education framework based on the next generation web, viz. semantic web. Compared with the framework on which the e-education performs now, this new framework has many advanced properties due to the use of intelligent agents and is expected to perform an automated style for the future education.

Dong, Ming; Rong, Rong

348

Validating the Autonomous Science Agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the validation process for the Autonomous Science Agent, a software agent that will fly onboard the EO-1 spacecraft from 2003-2004. This agent will recognize science events, retarget the spacecraft to respond to the science events, and reduce data downlink to only the highest value science data. The autonomous science agent has been designed using a layered architectural approach with specific redundant safeguards to reduce the risk of an agent malfunction to the EO-1 spacecraft. This 'safe' design is also in the process of being thoroughly validated by informal validation methods and extensive testing. This paper describes the analysis used to define agent safety, elements of the design that increase the safety of the agent, and the process being used to validate agent safety prior to the agent software controlling the spacecraft.

Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Schaffer, Steve; Tran, Danny; Rabideau, Gregg; Sherwood, Rob; Bote, Robert; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu; Shulman, Seth; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Boyer, Darrell

2003-01-01

349

Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent mining, namely the interaction and integration of multi-agent and data mining, has emerged as a very promising research area. While many mutual issues exist in both multi-agent and data mining areas, most of them can be described in terms of or related to ubiquitous intelligence. It is certainly very important to define, specify, represent, analyze and utilize ubiquitous intelligence in agents, data mining, and agent mining. This paper presents a novel but preliminary investigation of ubiquitous intelligence in these areas. We specify five types of ubiquitous intelligence: data intelligence, human intelligence, domain intelligence, network and web intelligence, organizational intelligence, and social intelligence. We define and illustrate them, and discuss techniques for involving them into agents, data mining, and agent mining for complex problem-solving. Further investigation on involving and synthesizing ubiquitous intelligence into agents, data mining, and agent mining will lead to a disciplinary upgrade from methodological, technical and practical perspectives.

Cao, Longbing; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Chengqi

350

Brain Stimulation in Poststroke Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain stimulation techniques provide a powerful means to modulate the function of specific neural structures, and show potential for future applications in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Recent studies have started to translate to the bedside the body of data gathered over the last few years on mechanisms underlying brain plasticity and stroke recovery. Both noninvasive and invasive brain stimulation

Miguel Alonso-Alonso; Felipe Fregni; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2007-01-01

351

Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"?  

PubMed Central

Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research.

Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

2013-01-01

352

Rôle des hyrates dans la formation de Titan et des satellites réguliers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these est dediee a l'etude de l'origine de Titan et de son atmosphere. Dans l'hypothese ou la subnebuleuse de Saturne etait geometriquement mince, le modele de disque turbulent utilise, derive des travaux de Dubrulle (1993), est moins dense que le modele de Prinn et Fegley (1981). De ce fait, les conversions de Co en CH4 et de N2 en NH3 ont ete inhibees dans la subnebuleuse, contrairement a ce qui est couramment admis pour interpreter la presence du methane dans l'atmosphere de Titan. C'est pourquoi nous avons developpe un nouveau scenario de la formation de titan, qui tient compte simultanement des contraintes resultant de la chimie de la subnebuleuse et des abondances de CH4, N2 et CH3D mesurees dans l'atmosphere du satellite. Nous faisons l'hypothese que ces gaz proviennent initialement de la vaporisation du nuage presolaire, qui s'effondra et forma le Soleil et son disque environnant. Lors du refroidissement de la nebuleuse, les volatils auraient ete pieges sous formes de clathrates d'hydrates dans les grains, puis dans les planetesimaux qu'ils formerent. Les planetesimaux hydrates a l'origine de la formation de Titan seraient alors des rescapes de l'effondrement hydsrodynamique de la feeding zone de Saturne. Ce scenario a ete applique aux subnebuleuses de Jupiter et d'Uranus, et a apporte un certain nombre de contraintes sur la formation des satellites reguliers de ces planetes. Le temps et la zone de formation des grains cometaires ont egalement ete estimes dans la nebuleuse solaire. Enfin, l'etude experimentale de la temperature de fusion du dihydrate d'ammoniac dans la gamme des hautes pressions a apporte des nouvelles donnees thermodynamiques qui permettront d'ameliorer les modeles de l'interieur de Titan.

Mousis, O.

2001-12-01

353

Régimes transitoires des photopiles: durée de vie des porteurs et vitesse de recombinaison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of a new experimental practice of the open circuit voltage decay method and of the short circuit current decay method for determining the base minority carrier lifetime and the back surface recombination velocity in solar cells has been performed. The measurements have been made by using the monitoring of a single transient of an operating cell at any level of injection; no power supply is required and a constant illumination level imposes the carrier injection level for normal operating conditions. The theory considers the complete continuity equation including generation and recombination rates of carriers. Precision and sensitivity of the method have been compared. The necessity of a precise knowledge of cell structural parameters have been shown to impose a limitation of the practical use of short-circuit current decay method, to low illumination levels. Cette étude développe une nouvelle méthode expérimentale pour mesurer la durée de vie des porteurs minoritaires dans la base d'une photopile ainsi que la vitesse de recombinaison à son interface arrière. Au cours de la mesure, la photopile est maintenue sous un éclairement constant qui impose le niveau d'injection souhaité. Cette méthode permet d'éliminer les effets néfastes à la mesure, provenant des impédances, propres au composant. Un régime transitoire, provoqué par une variation d'impédance, est étudié au cours de fonctionnements dans des conditions de court-circuit ou de circuit ouvert. L'étude théorique souligne la prise en compte de l'ensemble des phénomènes de recombinaison. L'obtention d'une bonne précision des mesures nécessite, avec une expérimentation rigoureuse, une connaissance précise des paramètres de structure de la photopile étudié. Pour la mesure de la durée de vie des porteurs, la plus grande sensibilité de la méthode en régime transitoire de court-circuit, comparée au régime de circuit ouvert, impose des mesures sous faible illumination.

Mialhe, P.; Sissoko, G.; Pelanchon, F.; Salagnon, J. M.

1992-12-01

354

Die Beurteilung des Schlaf-Wachzustands aus dem EEG und dem photisch evozierten Rindenpotential des Kaninchens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Beim Kaninchen ist im Gegensatz zu Katze und Ratte der deep sleep (sommeil rapide) nicht nachweisbar. Das Schlaf-EEG des Kaninchens ist gegenüber dem Wach-EEG nicht durch Frequenzsenkung, sondern durch Erhöhung der Frequenzaktivität im ganzen EEG-Frequenzbereich charakterisiert. Der spontane Wechsel des Schlaf-Wachzustands wird durch die Änderung der EEG-Frequenzaktivität etwa ebenso gut wiedergegeben wie durch die Änderung der Spindelaktivität.2.Die photisch evozierte Rindenantwort

Otto Vatter

1964-01-01

355

Auditory stimulation brain map.  

PubMed

The topography of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) was studied in 12 neurologically normal, adult, right-handed subjects of either sex. The AEPs were recorded with seventeen active electrodes in response to 500 Hz tone bursts with a level of 75 dB HL presented either to the left or the right ear. AEP brain maps were obtained with the BRAIN ATLAS III system. A region of maximum negativity was obtained corresponding to N1 at vertex and defined as focus of N1 (FN1). The reproducibility within and between sessions of FN1 was studied and found to be good for most of the subjects. The interindividual variability was moderate and the centre of FN1 on the map was localized 7 mm in front of the vertex electrode and 8.4 and 8.0 mm to the contralateral side of the vertex electrode upon stimulation of the left and the right ear, respectively. The approximate position of the skull surface is obtained by multiplication by a factor of 3. It was concluded that a standardized test session including six single maps based on 50 stimuli each gives an average map with identifiable and reproducible focus. The basis seems to be fulfilled to use the brain map in further analysis on clinical material. PMID:2749173

Tonnquist-Uhlén, I; Borg, E; Spens, K E

1989-01-01

356

De la légitimité d'une géographie des réseaux sociaux : la géographie des réseaux sociaux au service d'une géographie des conflits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé.— Les réseaux sociaux en géographie structurent les territoires, influencent les actions d'aménagement et de gestion de l'espace, et participent au dynamisme des systèmes spatiaux. Au cœur de la géographie sociale, les réseaux sociaux aident notamment à la compréhension des processus conflictuels des espaces en mutation. Une étude de cas qualitative, relative au conflit lié à l'urbanisme sauvage sur le

Anne Cadoret

357

Noninvasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Stroke is the major cause of long-term disability worldwide, with impaired manual dexterity being a common feature. In the past few years, noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been investigated as adjuvant strategies to neurorehabilitative interventions. These NIBS techniques can be used to modulate cortical excitability during and for several minutes after the end of the stimulation period. Depending on the stimulation parameters, cortical excitability can be reduced (inhibition) or enhanced (facilitation). Differential modulation of cortical excitability in the affected and unaffected hemisphere of patients with stroke may induce plastic changes within neural networks active during functional recovery. The aims of this chapter are to describe results from these proof-of-principle trials and discuss possible putative mechanisms underlying such effects. Neurophysiological and neuroimaging changes induced by application of NIBS are reviewed briefly. PMID:24112919

Sandrini, Marco; Cohen, Leonardo G

2013-01-01

358

Simulation et détermination par rayons X des contraintes dans des micro-composants modèles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dans les composants de la microélectronique, du fait de l'existence de singularités géométriques, de très fortes contraintes sont générées. Des micro-composants modèles, formés de lignes régulières déposées sur un substrat mono-cristallin sont utilisés pour mettre au point une méthode générique de détermination des contraintes mécaniques locales dans la ligne et dans le substrat. Pour cela, des mesures par diffraction des rayons X et des simulations sont mises au point. Le dispositif expérimental est décrit. Les simulations sont réalisées à l'aide de deux types d'approche: le modèle de Hu, analytique, et la méthode des éléments finis. Ces deux approches sont comparées entre elles, et une courbe universelle est établie, donnant la contrainte moyenne dans une ligne en fonction d'un paramètre incluant sa forme et les propriétés élastiques du substrat et de la ligne. Enfin, le couplage entre les mesures par diffraction de rayons X à haute résolution (HRXRD) et les simulations par éléments finis ouvrent une voie pour la détermination de contraintes locales.

Loubens, A.; Fillit, R. Y.; Fortunier, R.; Thomas, O.

2004-11-01

359

Apport des neutrons à l'analyse structurale des composés partiellement désordonnés  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La cristallographie est un outil extrêmement puissant qui pourrait être utilisé par de nombreux scientifiques dont les sujets de recherche sont en fait très éloignés. L'évolution des techniques ces dernières années a relégué par exemple la cristallographie des rayons X des petites molécules à un rôle mineur, un rôle de service. Certains ont même le sentiment semble-t-il que toutes les connaissances sont contenues dans de multiples logiciels capables par eux-mêmes de conduire une analyse structurale à un résultat correct unique. Il est souhaitable que chacun soit capable de réaliser l'étude structurale du composé qui l'intéresse et bien entendu nécessaire de comprendre ce que l'on fait, la qualité des résultats et leur analyse en dépend. L'objet de cette présentation est de montrer l'apport spécifique de la diffraction de neutrons sur monocristaux à l'étude du désordre, en particulier des atomes d'hydrogène, et ses conséquences sur la compréhension des propriétés physiques, à partir de développements et d'exemples récents.

Cousson, A.

2003-02-01

360

Vents stellaires chauds et nébuleuses éjectées des étoiles chaudes: nécessaire inclusion des phénomènes radiatifs dans les simulations hydrodynamiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous décrivons, à l'instar de la formation et de l'évolution des nébuleuses planétaires, comment l'histoire des vents stellaires issus d'une même étoile chaude (massive ou non) détermine la morphologie des nébuleuses éjectées. Ensuite, nous présentons sommairement la structure et la dynamique des vents accélérés radiativement au sein des étoiles massives (O, Wolf-Rayet) et des étoiles centrales de nébuleuses planétaires de type [WC]. Enfin, nous tâchong d'illustrer en quoi la prise en compte des phénomènes radiatifs est nécessaire pour effectuer toute simulation hydrodynamique sensée reproduire les observations dans les deux contextes, i.e. les vents stellaires chauds eux-mêmes, la persistance de surdensités en leur sein, et les nébuleuses éjectées qui en résultent.

Grosdidier, Y.; Garcia-Segura, G.; Acker, A.; Moffat, A. F. J.

361

Rigid bifunctional chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

1998-07-21

362

New antiretroviral agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in HIV treatment and the availability of 22 approved antiretroviral drugs, newer compounds are needed that\\u000a are better tolerated, less toxic, more convenient, or have improved activity against drug-resistant viruses. In addition to\\u000a newer agents in development in traditional antiretroviral classes (reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors),\\u000a a number of compounds in newer mechanistic classes also are under development,

Lawrence Siegel; Roy M. Gulick

2007-01-01

363

Surface polymerization agents  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

1996-12-01

364

Rigid bifunctional chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

1998-07-21

365

Rigid bifunctional chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

2000-02-08

366

Stimulation of fatty acid synthesis by 4?-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate in isolated rat hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor-promoting agent 4?-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) is shown to be a potent stimulator of fatty acid synthesis\\u000a in isolated rat hepatocytes. The maximal effect of TPA is seen at 10?6 M, and the concentration for half-maximal effect is ca. 10?8 M. Stimulation of fatty acid synthesis by TPA is shown not to require the presence of extracellular Ca++. TPA produces a

Takahide Nomura; Masakatsu Tachibana; Hiroko Nomura; Yasumichi Hagino

1986-01-01

367

Rho-stimulated contractility drives the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated rhoA, a ras-related GTP-binding protein, stimulates the appearance of stress fibers, focal adhesions, and tyrosine phosphorylation in quiescent cells (Ridley, A.J., and A. Hall, 1992. Cell. 70:389-399). The pathway by which rho triggers these events has not been elucidated. Many of the agents that activate rho (e.g., vasopressin, endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid) stimulate the contractility of smooth muscle and other

Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka; Keith Burridge

1996-01-01

368

Contribution a la comprehension de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'incorporation des ajouts cimentaires dans le beton est connue pour ses avantages technologiques et environnementaux. Pour assurer une plus grande utilisation des ajouts cimentaires, il faut accroitre la connaissance dans ce domaine surtout les facteurs relatifs a la durabilite des ouvrages construits avec les betons contenant des ajouts mineraux. Jusqu'a present, la plupart des etudes sur les betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier semble s'accorder sur leur moins bonne durabilite a l'ecaillage surtout lorsqu'on les compare au beton ordinaire. Les raisons de cette moins bonne performance ne sont pas toutes connues et cela limite bien des fois l'incorporation de la cendre volante et de laitier dans le beton pour des ouvrages fortement exposes aux cycles de gel-degel en presence de sels fondants. Cette these vise la comprehension des problematiques de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant des ajouts cimentaires tels la cendre volante et le laitier. Les objectifs sont de mieux comprendre la representativite et la severite relative des essais normalises ASTM C672 et NQ 2621-900 pour l'evaluation de la durabilite a l'ecaillage de ces betons, d'etudier l'influence de la methode de murissement sur la durabilite a l'ecaillage et d'etudier la relation entre la durabilite a l'ecaillage et la sorptivite des surfaces de beton ainsi que la particularite de la microstructure des betons contenant de la cendre volante. Cinq types de betons a air entraine contenant 25% et 35% de cendre volante et laitier ainsi que 1% et 2% de fumee de silice ont ete produits, muris selon differentes methodes et soumis a des essais acceleres selon les deux procedures normalisees ainsi qu'un essai de sorptivite. Les differentes methodes de murissement sont choisies de facon a mettre en evidence aussi bien l'influence des parametres des essais que celle de la methode de murissement elle-meme. La durabilite en laboratoire des betons testes a ete comparee avec celle de betons similaires apres 4 et 6 annees de service. La microstructure des betons en service a ete analysee au moyen du microscope a balayage electronique (MEB). Les resultats montrent que la qualite du murissement influence grandement la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et de laitier surtout lorsqu'ils sont soumis ' aux essais acceleres en laboratoire. La duree du pretraitement humide est un parametre cle de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons testes en laboratoire. Le pretraitement humide correspond a la duree totale du murissement humide (100% HR) et de la periode de presaturation. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. La periode de presaturation de 7 jours de la procedure NQ 2621-900 a un effet similaire a celui d'un murissement humide de meme longueur. Un murissement humide de 28 jours apparait optimal et conduit a une estimation plus realiste de la resistance a l'ecaillage reelle des betons. Pour une meme duree de pretraitement humide, les procedures NQ 2621-900 et ASTM C672 donnent des resultats equivalents. L'utilisation d'un moule a fond drainant n'a pas d'effet sur la resistance a l'ecaillage des betons de cette etude. Bien que le murissement dans l'eau saturee de chaux offre toute l'eau requise pour favoriser le developpement des proprietes du beton et l'amelioration de sa durabilite a l'ecaillage, elle lessive cependant les ions alcalins ce qui diminue defavorablement l'alcalinite et le pH de la solution interstitielle de la pate de ciment pres de la surface exposee. L'utilisation d'un agent de murissement protege mieux les betons contenant de la cendre volante et ameliore significativement leurs resistances a l'ecaillage mais elle a tendance a reduire la durabi

Houehanou, Ernesto C.

369

Modélisation macroscopique des milieux stratifiés conducteurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many laminated structures are recognised in Electrotechnics : magnetic cores, flat conductors windings, slotted surfaces... These structures exhibit macroscopic properties, as magnetic than electric ones. This paper shows how these characteristics can be obtained by homogenisation. It deals with linear materials but taking into account the effect of eddy currents, as well on the macroscopic magnetic permeability as on the macroscopic electric conductivity, which become then complex numbers. An example of use of the macroscopic properties is provided. On peut identifier en électrotechnique de nombreuses structures stratifiées: noyaux magnétiques, bobinages formés de conducteurs plats, surfaces encochées... Ces structures présentent des propriétés macroscopiques tant magnétiques qu'électriques. Cet article montre comment ces caractéristiques peuvent être obtenues par homogénéisation. Il se limite au cas de matériaux linéaires mais en prenant en compte l'effet des courants de Foucault aussi bien sur la perméabilité magnétique macroscopique que sur la conductivité électrique macroscopique, grandeurs qui deviennent alors des nombres complexes. Un exemple d'utilisation des caractéristiques macroscopiques est fourni.

Matagne, E.; Conard, J. Ph.

1997-11-01

370

The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

Kuhn, Gerard

2004-01-01

371

More About Spurious Numerical Solutions Of DEs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paper discusses reliability of time-dependent approach to numerical solution of nonlinear differential equations (DEs) that describe steady-state behaviors of physical systems. Time-dependent approach followed in related study described in "Spurious Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations" (ARC-13209).

Yee, H. C.; Sweby, P. K.

1995-01-01

372

Zur Organisation des Zellkerns von Bacillus megaterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vergleichende Untersuchungen an Dünnschnitten durch Bacillus megaterium und den Dinoflagellaten Amphidinium elegans ließen folgende Aussagen über die Struktur des Kernmaterials der Bakterien zu:1.Bac. megaterium enthält zwischen zwei Kernteilungen in der vom Cytoplasma umgebenen Kerngrundsubstanz je ein einziges vollständig spiralisiertes Chromosom mit anscheinend zwei oder entsprechend mehr Chromatiden, wobei die Chromosomenschraubeselbstwiederum einen offenbar schraubigen Aufbau in makromolekularer Größenordnung aufweist.2.Bei der Teilung

P. Giesbrecht; G. Piekarski

1958-01-01

373

GESTION DES RISQUES ET PROCESSUS STRATEGIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

La conduite du changement dans un environnement incertain est un thème à l'ordre du jour. Il amène de nombreuses entreprises à investir dans leur système de pilotage et la gestion des risques est une composante majeure de ce pilotage. Dans cette communication nous tenterons de montrer que, pour gérer les risques, il convient de travailler sur le système d'action de

René Demeestère; Philippe Lorino

2000-01-01

374

Chronique des tendances de la société française  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La présente chronique porte sur trois groupes sociaux en transformation : les étudiants, les militaires et les retraités. Elle se termine sur l'évolution du moral des Français en 1993. • Les étudiants ont à nouveau manifesté leur mécontentement en octobre 1993, une enquête sur trois universités explique pourquoi ces manifestations n'ont pas été aussi massives et violentes qu'on aurait

Louis Chauvel; Henri Mendras; Pascal Vennesson

1994-01-01

375

From agent theory to agent construction: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing body of work that concentrates on theoretical aspects of agents and multi-agent systems, and a complementary body of work concerned with building practical systems. However, the two have typically been unrelated. This gap between the theory and practice of intelligent agents has only relatively recently begun to be addressed. In this paper we describe the construction

Michael Luck; Nathan Griffiths; Mark d'Inverno

376

Mobile Agent Security Through Multi-Agent Cryptographic Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of keeping sensitive data and algorithms contained in a mobile agent from discovery and exploitation by a malicious host. The fo- cus in this paper is on rigorous techniques based on cryp- tographic protocols. Algesheimer, Cachin, Camenisch, and Karjoth (IEEE Security and Privacy, 2001) devised a secure agent protocol in such a setting, where agents and

Stephen R. Tate; Ke Xu

2003-01-01

377

A PLATFORM FOR AGENT BEHAVIOUR DESIGN AND MULTI AGENT ORCHESTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents show considerable promise as a new paradigm for software development. However for wider adoption and deployment of agent technology, powerful de- sign and development tools are needed. Such tools should empower software developers to cater agent solutions more efficiently and at a lower cost for their customers with rapidly changing requirements and differing application specifi- cations. In this thesis,

Gokce Banu

378

The Information Agent: an infrastructure agent supporting collaborative enterprise architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the Information Agent as a component of the information infrastructure supporting collaborative computing environments. We discuss the functions of the Information Agent, describe an architecture based on an agent program and a knowledge management system and present out choices for these components. We show how the architecture can be designed and implemented using description logic representation systems and

Mihai Barbuceanu; Mark S. Fox

1994-01-01

379

Agents in Living Color: Towards Emic Agent-Based Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between agent-based models and social research is a foundational concern of this journal. In this article, the anthropological concept of 'emic' or 'insider's view' is used to foreground the value of learning what differences make a difference to actual human agents before building a model of those agents and their world. The author's Netlogo model of the epidemiology

Michael Agar

2004-01-01

380

Plan Diagnosis and Agent Diagnosis in Multi-agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses a distributed approach for monitoring and diag- nosing the execution of a plan where concurrent actions are performed by a team of cooperating agents. The paper extends the notion of plan diagnosis, introduced by Roos et al for the execution of a multi agent plan, with the notion of agent diagnosis. While plan diagnosis is able to

Roberto Micalizio; Pietro Torasso

2007-01-01

381

On designing economic agents that behave like human agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the idea of constructing theoretical economic agents that behave like actual human agents and using them in neoclassical economic models. It does this in a repeated-choice setting by postulating artificial agents who use a learning algorithm calibrated against human learning data from psychological experiments. The resulting calibrated algorithm appears to replicate human learning behavior to a high

W. Brian Arthur

1993-01-01

382

What agents can do in workflow management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workflow management systems are an emerging category of information systems, currently under dynamic evolution. On the other\\u000a hand software agents are a distinct research area as well as an emerging paradigm for information systems design and development.\\u000a This paper tries to examine the integration of these two fields; reveal the stimulation and the advantages of such a mixing.\\u000a Popular standards

Pavlos Delias; Anastasios D. Doulamis; Nikolaos F. Matsatsinis

2011-01-01

383

The role of adjuvant agents in treating fungal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality despite the recent introduction of\\u000a new antifungal medications. In this review, the available data on the use of adjuvant agents for the treatment of IFIs are\\u000a discussed. Cytokines such as interferon-?, colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte transfusions, and the monoclonal antibody\\u000a efungumab may have in a role in the management

Shellee A. Grim; Nina M. Clark

2009-01-01

384

Modes d'élevage alternatifs des porcs : (1) Effets sur les performances de croissance, les qualités des carcasses et des viandes et l'aptitude à la transformation en jambons cuits et secs  

Microsoft Academic Search

des viandes, la composition chimique des muscles et l'aptitude à la transformation en jambons cuits et secs. En été, les performances de croissance (vitesse de croissance, indice de consommation) sont similaires. En hiver, la vites- se de croissance des animaux plein air et courette est réduite, et l'indice de consommation augmenté dans les trois sys- tèmes alternatifs. La composition des

Patrick CHEVILLON; Antoine VAUTIER; Anne-Sophie GUILLARD; Edwige GILBERT; Bénédicte LEBRET; Claudia TERLOUW

2005-01-01

385

Comparison of the ActiDes-Blue and CARELA HYDRO-DES technology for the sanitation of contaminated cooling water systems in dental units  

PubMed Central

Background: The hygienic-microbiological control of 6 dental units being in use for the past 16 years revealed a significantly increased microbial contamination of their cooling water system. In order to comply with the requirements of the drinking water directive (“Trinkwasserverordnung”), the commercially available production system ActiDes, producing on-site ActiDes-Blue which is based on hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and generated by anodic oxidation, was investigated. Method: Water samples from the 6 contaminated dental units were examined for the total number of colony forming units (cfu), contamination with molds, L. pneumophila and P. aeruginosa. The control period for the total colony count was 4 weeks (8 samples/unit). The subsequent application phase of the ActiDes-Blue procedure was 6 months (31 samples/unit). Additionally, the redox potential and the pH value were measured. Futhermore, the decontamination agent CARELA HYDRO-DES, a two component agent based on H2O2 with the addition of a mixture of sodium hydrogen sulphate and sulphuric acid in an aqueous solution effective at 0.1% and higher, was applied in a unit that had been put out of service for a month before. Before application, the system was first filled with a 5% solution of the alkaline pre-cleaning agent CARELA Solvent for bacterial slime; the system was left with this solution for 1 h. The pre-cleaning agent was then completely displaced from the system with tap water and a decontaminating solution of 5% CARELA HYDRO-DES and left in place for 1 h. Results: Drinking water quality level was reached only twice during the control phase. The average values of the dental units ranged between 3,633 CFU/ml and 29,417 c/ml. During the application phase, drinking water level could be achieved in 11 water samples. In another 6 water samples a total colony count of <150 cfu/ml was reached. The average values for the dental units' total colony count ranged between 529 cfu/ml and 87,450 cfu/ml. No significant differences between the control phase and the action phase could be demonstrated. During the control phase, contamination of the water samples with a mold was noticed so that examinations for molds were carried out beyond the scope of the drinking water directive. For this parameter as well, no significant differences between the phases of the study could be shown. The Legionella load of the dental units was low. L. pneumophila were yielded in only 4 out of 130 water samples. During the control phase, twice colony counts at 50 cfu/1,000 ml and 110 cfu/1,000 ml were measured. During the action phase, counts with Legionella spp. could be measured at 5 cfu/1,000 ml for one unit only. Also, with 1–10 cfu/100 ml, the P. aeruginosa contamination was low. During the application phase, it ranged between 0–7 cfu/100 ml. Redox potential and pH value showed a slight decrease during the application phase. Before treatment with CARELA Solvent and CARELA HYDRO-DES, the initial contamination of the total count of bacterial colonies was 1,432 cfu/ml at 22°C and 846 cfu/ml at 36°C as well as >1,000 cfu/100 ml for molds. 1 h after the decontamination, no bacteria and molds could be detected in 1,000 ml of tap water. Despite the fact that the unit was not used any longer, after 7 d the bacterial colony count was 3 cfu/ml at 22°C and 2 cfu/ml at 36°C while molds could not be detected. Even after a rest time of 14 d only 167 cfu/ml or 42 cfu/ml could be yielded. Molds were further not cultivable. A material damage could not be observed. Discussion: Pertaining to the ActiDes technology’s effectiveness, it has to be pointed out that the dental units investigated were those used for dental students' teaching and therefore were clearly less frequently used than clinically used units in a dental practice. This resulted in distinctly longer stagnation periods which favored formation of biofilms. Conclusions: In summary, the ActiDes technology and ActiDes-Blue showed not to be sufficiently effective for the sanitation of conta

Kramer, Axel; Lemanski, Sandra; Demond, Kathleen; Assadian, Ojan

2012-01-01

386

Countermeasures for Mobile Agent Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Security is an important issue for the widespread deployment of applications based on software agent technology. It is generally agreed that without the proper countermeasures in place, use of agent-base applications will be severely impeded. However, not...

W. A. Jansen

1998-01-01

387

Agent-Based Systems Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project combines robust and proven concepts from traditional mathematical systems engineering with the technology of web-based agent systems, leading to new modeling paradigms and technical results for agent-based computing. The main goal of this pro...

G. Cybenko D. Rus

2005-01-01

388

Une approche numérique des périmètres de protection des captages des eaux souterraines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We established isochrones, considered as an intermediate protection perimeters, from travel time, using advanced hydrogeological and numerical models of catchment sites. This consists of the resolution of flow and transport equations using a finite volume elements scheme. Our simulations have shown that the real dimensions of the intermediate protection perimeter depend on the parameters of dispersion. Finally, the application of this method to the Ahmed At-Taleb site in northwest Morocco illustrates the urgent need for an adequate protection of catchments from very dangerous pollutant agents.

Mansouri, Bouâbid El; Loukili, Youssef; Esselaoui, Driss

1999-05-01

389

Late DES thrombosis: a lot of smoke, very little fire?  

PubMed

Recent studies and editorials have stirred controversy and generated tremendous publicity in the lay press related to the safety of drug-eluting stents (DES) for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Questions have been raised regarding the risks of late, or very late stent thrombosis with DES. The purpose of this editorial and review of stent thrombosis is to illuminate some counterpoints to some of the attention surrounding the issues of late DES thrombosis. The risks of DES stent thrombosis versus BMS may have been overstated by flawed studies. Late stent thrombosis does occur with both BMS and DES, and may or may not be modestly higher with DES. The time course of very late "DES thrombosis," suggests that persistent plaque ruptures and disease progression in the target vessel may cause some, or many of these events. There is still much to be learned about the biology of DES. Although there is a small risk of late thrombosis with DES, there is little question that this technology provides benefit to the vast majority of patients compared with prior revascularization strategies, using balloon angioplasty, BMS, or bypass surgery. Substantial resources should be devoted to creating more biocompatible DES systems, and to minimizing the risks of both early and late stent thrombosis. PMID:17323356

Fischell, Tim A; Holmes, David R

2007-03-01

390

Matériaux pour la dépollution des gaz d'échappement automobile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les premières législations antipollution ont été mises en place suite à la détection, aux Etats Unis plus particulièrement en Californie, du smog photochimique et des pluies acides, néfastes pour la faune et la flore. Les estimations de la contribution de l'automobile aux émissions de composés, considérés comme précurseurs de ces phénomènes, ont été suffisantes pour provoquer la mise en place de normes draconiennes en matière d'émissions automobiles. Les matériaux catalytiques ont été évalués en tant que solution possible pour réduire les émissions à l'échappement. En Europe, l'utilisation des catalyseurs trois voies a été généralisée sur les véhicules essence fonctionnant à richesse stoechiométrique à partir de 1993. Une nouvelle génération de catalyseurs appelée piège à oxydes d'azote (NOx) est maintenant nécessaire pour le post-traitement des gaz d'échappement des motorisations à essence fonctionnant en mélange pauvre (combustion en présence d'un excès d'oxygène) pour diminuer la consommation et par conséquent réduire les émissions du CO2 connu pour son impact sur l'effet de serre. La dépollution des moteurs diesel via un catalyseur d'oxydation a été généralisée en Europe depuis 1996. La sévérisation des normes européennes impose pour les moteurs diesel le recours à des matériaux spécifiques pour le traitement des oxydes d'azotes et des particules par l'intermédiaire de filtres à particules dont l'efficacité de filtration est supérieure à 95%, mais doivent subir des régénérations périodiques.

Mouaddib-Moral, N.; Gauthier, C.

2002-04-01

391

Induction de préséances entre bourgeons cotylédonaires par des stimulations mécaniques chez Bidens pilosus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Pricking one of the cotyledons of aBidens pilosus L. (var.radiatus) seedling decapitated just above the cotyledons four times in succession induces after one minute the dominance of buds on\\u000a the unaffected side.

Marie Odile Desbiez

1971-01-01

392

Inactivation studies on BSE agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible degenerative encephalopathy agents are relatively resistant to standard decontamination procedures. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent was inactivated by sodium hypochlorite but not sodium dichloroisocyanurate; 1M or 2M sodium hydroxide was unreliable for BSE and scrapie agents. BSE infectivity survived a two-year exposure to formol saline. Porous-load autoclaving at 134-138°C was ineffective with BSE and scrapie agents, and resistance to

David M. Taylor

1996-01-01

393

Electrical stimulation in exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve muscle strength for over a century. Bigelow reported in 1894, for example, the use of electrical stimulation on a young man for the purpose of increasing muscle strength. Employing a rapidly alternating sinusoidal induced current and a dynamometer for strength testing, Bigelow reported that the total lifting capacity of a patient increased from 4328 pounds to 4639 pounds after only 25 minutes of stimulation. In 1965, Massey et al. reported on the use of an Isotron electrical stimulator that emitted a high frequency current. Interestingly enough, the frequencies used by Massey et al. and the frequencies used by Bigelow in 1894 were in the same range of frequencies reported by Kots as being the most effective in strength development. It would seem the Russian secret of high frequency electrical stimulation for strength development, then, is not a modern development at all.

Kroll, Walter

1994-01-01

394

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOEpatents

A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

395

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOEpatents

A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-05-09

396

Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue. Dans la partie theorique, un modele traitant les aspects thermique, hydrodynamique et massique a ete elabore. Sur la base de ce modele a ete ecrit un programme informatique en langage FORTRAN 6.6. Il est base sur la discretisation du serpentin en volumes de controle, est entierement automatise et peut traiter des echangeurs de chaleur avec des circuits de refrigerant complexes pouvant avoir des entrees et sorties multiples ainsi que des bifurcations. La presence simultanee des trois phases thermodynamiques du refrigerant (liquide sous refroidi, fluide sature, vapeur surchauffee) dans le serpentin est aussi prise en charge. Le modele a ete valide pour un fonctionnement avec et sans formation de givre en utilisant des donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature et celles obtenues sur le banc d'essai de CanmetENERGIE. Celui-ci a ete mis a jour pour les besoins de la presente recherche et pour cela, un systeme de surchauffe et d'injection de la vapeur d'eau dans une enceinte a tres basse temperature a ete dimensionne, fabrique et installe. Un dispositif de visualisation de la formation de givre, ainsi qu'un equipement de mesure de la temperature, de la pression et de l'humidite relative de l'air ont aussi ete ajoutes. Une fois le modele valide, des simulations numeriques sur le serpentin avec et sans formation de givre ont ete effectuees. Un premier cas de base a servi comme reference pour d'autres cas pour lesquels une etude parametrique sur la geometrie et le fonctionnement a ete menee. Il a ete montre par rapport au cas de base que : 1. la diminution de la densite des ailettes sur des rangees specifiques du serpentin donne une surface minimale (Amin) plus grande, retardant ainsi l'obstruction totale du serpentin par le givre et permet donc un temps de fonctionnement plus grand et une frequence de degivrage plus faible. 2. une bonne configuration de circuit de refrigerant augmente le temps de fonctionnement du serpentin de 200 % et delivre une puissance frigorifique moyenne superieures de 20 % par rapport a celle du cas de base. 3. la diminution d

Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

397

Determination des Parametres Atmospheriques des Etoiles Naines Blanches de Type DB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les etoiles naines blanches dont les spectres visibles sont domines par des raies fortes d'helium neutre sont subdivisees en trois classes, DB (raies d'helium neutre seulement), DBA (raies d'helium neutre et d'hydrogene) et DBZ (raies d'helium neutre et d'elements lourds). Nous analysons trois echantillons de spectres observes de ces types de naines blanches. Les echantillons consistent, respectivement, de 48 spectres dans le domaine du visible (3700-5100 A). 24 dans l'ultraviolet (1200-3100 A) et quatre dans la partie rouge du visible (5100-6900) A). Parmi les objets de l'echantillon visible, nous identifions quatre nouvelles DBA, ainsi que deux nouvelles DBZ, auparavant classees DB. L'analyse nous permet de determiner spectroscopiquement les parametres atmospheriques, soit la temperature effective, la gravite de surface, ainsi que l'abondance relative de l'hydrogene, N(H)/N(He), dans le cas des DBA. Pour les objets plus chauds que ~15,000 K, la gravite de surface determinee est fiable, et nous obtenons les masses stellaires avec une relation masse -rayon theorique. Les exigences propres a l'analyse de ces objets ont requis d'importantes ameliorations dans la modelisation de leurs atmospheres et distributions de flux de radiation emis par ces derniers. Nous avons inclus dans les modeles d'atmospheres, pour la premiere fois a notre connaissance, les effets dus a la molecule He_sp{2 }{+}, ainsi que l'equation d'etat de Hummer et Mihalas (1988), qui tient compte des perturbations entre particules dans le calcul des populations des differents niveaux atomiques. Nous traitons la convection dans le cadre de la theorie de la longueur de melange. Trois grilles de modeles d'atmospheres a l'ETL (equilibre thermodynamique local) ont ete produites, pour un ensemble de temperatures effectives, gravites de surface et abondances d'hydrogene couvrant les proprietes des etoiles de nos echantillons; elles sont caracterisees par differentes parametrisations appelees, respectivement, ML1, ML2 et ML3, de la theorie de longueur de melange. Nous avons calcule une grille de spectres synthetiques avec les memes parametrisations que la grille de modeles d'atmospheres. Notre traitement de l'elargissement des raies de l'helium neutre a ete ameliore de facon significative par rapport aux etudes precedentes. D'une part, nous tenons compte de l'elargissement des raies produit par les interactions entre l'emetteur et les particules neutres (elargissements par resonance et de van der Waals) en plus de celui par les particules chargees (elargissement Stark). D'autre part, nous avons calcule nous-memes les profils Stark avec les meilleures theories d'elargissement disponibles pour la majorite des raies observees; ces profils depassent en qualite ce qui a ete publie jusqu'a ce jour. Nous avons calcule la distribution de masse des etoiles DB plus chaudes que 15,000 K. La distribution de masse des DB est tres etroite, avec environ les trois quarts des etoiles incluses dans l'intervalle 0.55-0.65 Modot. La masse moyenne des etoiles DB est de 0.58 M_? avec sigma = 0.07. La difference principale entre les distributions de masse des DB et DA est la faible proportion de DB dans les ailes de la distribution, ce qui implique que les DA moins massives que ~0.4 M odot et plus massives que ~0.8 M_? ne se convertissent pas en DB. Les objets les plus massifs de notre echantillon sont de type DBA, ce qui suggere que la masse elevee favorise la visibilite de l'hydrogene. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Beauchamp, Alain

1995-01-01

398

Implantable stimulation system dedicated for neural selective stimulation.  

PubMed

A functional electrical stimulation system is presented, which is dedicated for the selective neural stimulation of the bladder. The proposed system is composed of an internal stimulator (implant) and an external controller. The system is used to produce low-pressure voiding of the bladder in spinal cord injured patients. The implant is powered and operated by the external controller via radio-frequency electromagnetic coupling. All stimulation parameters are chosen externally using the controller and are sent to the implant, which produces the desired stimuli. These stimuli are applied directly to the S2 nerve which is linked to the sphincter and bladder muscles. A high-frequency signal is used to inhibit the contraction of the sphincter muscle, and low-frequency pulses stimulate the bladder muscle (the detrusor). Dedicated computer software is used by the physician to select the optimal parameters for each patient and to activate the implant through a parallel port interface with built-in transmitter. The parameters are then transferred to a hand-held controller which is used by the technical staff and by the patients themselves. Acute studies have been performed to validate the selective stimulation strategy, and chronic experimentation is currently underway in dogs. PMID:10198535

Robin, S; Sawan, M; Abdel-Gawad, M; Abdel-Baky, T M; Elhilali, M M

1998-07-01

399

Federal Open Agent System Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open Agent System platform based on High Level Architecture is firstly proposed to support the application involving heterogeneous agents. The basic idea is to develop different wrappers for different agent systems, which are wrapped as federates to join a federation. The platform is based on High Level Architecture and the advantages for this open standard are naturally inherited, such as

Hong-Bing Wang; Zhi-Hua Fan; Chun-Dong She

2006-01-01

400

Security Issues in Mobile Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agents offer a new paradigm for distributed computation, but their potential benefits must be weighted against the very security threats they pose. These threats originate not just in malicious agents but malicious hosts as well. Thus security is a very crucial issue in dealing with mobile agent systems without which their implementation in real life applications will be rendered

Kedar Mohare

401

Countermeasures for mobile agent security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security is an important issue for the widespread deployment of applications based on software agent technology. It is generally agreed that without the proper countermeasures in place, use of agent-based applications will be severely impeded. However, not all applications require the same set of countermeasures, nor can they depend entirely on the agent system to provide them. Instead, countermeasures are

Wayne A. Jansen

2000-01-01

402

Mobile Agents for Mobile Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agents are programs that can move through a network under their own control, migratingfrom host to host and interacting with other agents and resources on each. We argue thatthese mobile, autonomous agents have the potential to provide a convenient, efficient and robustprogramming paradigm for distributed applications, particularly when partially connected computersare involved. Partially connected computers include mobile computers such

Daniela Rus; David Kotz; George Cybenko; Robert Gray; Saurab Nog

1996-01-01

403

Monitoring Agents Using Declarative Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an agent monitoring approach, which aims at refuting from (possibly incomplete) information at hand that a multi-agent system (MAS) is implemented properly. In this approach, agent collaboration is abstractly de- scribed in an action theory. Action sequences reaching the collaboration goal are determined by a planner, whose compliance with the actual MAS behavior allows to detect possible collaboration

Jürgen Dix; Thomas Eiter; Michael Fink; Axel Polleres; Yingqian Zhang

2003-01-01

404

A Mobile Agent Security Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the proliferation of Internet, mobile agent related technologies are examined for possible growth and evaluation. In information retrieval, network and distributed system management, and electronic commerce, a mobile agent is more flexible than the traditional communication paradigm. Despite the performance benefits, a mobile agent is not used widely in the market because it is very vulnerable to a variety

Eung-gu You; Keum-suk Lee

2004-01-01

405

Software Agent Technology: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of the rapidly evolving area of software agents and presents the basic aspects of applying the agent technology to virtual enterprises (VE). As the field of software agents can appear chaotic, this chapter briefly introduces the key issues rather than present an in-depth analysis and critique of the field. In addition to, this chapter investigates

Chrysanthi E. Georgakarakou; Anastasios A. Economides

406

Waterproofing Agents for Silica Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waterproofing agent methyltrimethoxysilane applied to silica thermal insulation tiles in simple vapor-deposition process. Other waterproofing agents in same series include methylsiloxane and hexamethyldisilazane. Originally developed for insulating tiles for spacecraft, agents also find uses in roofing tiles, insulation for buildings or solar-energy systems, or solar reflectors.

Nakano, H. N.; Izu, Y. D.; Yoshioka, E. N.

1985-01-01

407

Corporate Memory Management through Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CoMMA project (Corporate Memory Management through Agents) aims at developing an open, agent-based platform for the management of a corporate memory by using the most advanced results on the technical, the content, and the user interaction level. We focus here on methodologies for the set-up of multi-agent systems, requirement engineering and knowledge acquisition approaches.

Philippe PEREZ; Rose DIENG; Olivier CORBY; Fabien GANDON INRIA; Joel QUINQUETON LIRMM; Agostino POGGI; Giovanni RIMASSA; Claudio FIETTA CSELT; Juergen MUELLER; Joachim HACKSTEIN T-Nova

2000-01-01

408

Contests with Many Heterogeneous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study tournaments with many ex-ante asymmetric contestants. The asymmetry is either with respect to the agents' distribution of valuations for the prize or with respect their risk-aversion (CARA) parameter. We characterize equilibria in monotone strategies and show that tournaments with many asymmetric agents are qualita- tively distinct. First, in tournaments with two asymmetric (or many symmetric) participants, an agent

Sergio O. Parreiras; Anna Rubinchik

409

Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques et ceci en fonction de l'epaisseur de la couche magnetique de Co. Nous verrons que dans ces systemes les effets de l'irradiation ionique sont fortement influences par l'energie de surface ainsi que par l'enthalpie de formation, largement positive pour le systeme Co/Ag.

Veres, Teodor

410

Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Deep Brain ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease? Deep brain stimulation (DBS) ...

411

Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

The following are included: review of available data from previous fracturing stimulation operations, stimulation process variables, fracturing fluid design, hydraulic fracture design, stimulation case histories, and selected bibliography. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01

412

Visuo-Ocular Performance During Vestibular Stimulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the reporting period, significant information has been obtained regarding the interaction between otolithic stimulation, semicircular canal stimulation, and visual stimulation. Results, published in a peer-reviewed journal have indicated that where...

J. M. Furman J. A. Carl

1996-01-01

413

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

414

A precision mechanical nerve stimulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electromechanical device, used to apply and monitor stimulating pulses to a mammalian motor nerve, has been successfully developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Two existing force transducers, a flight skin friction balance and a miniature skin friction balance which were designed for making aerodynamic drag measurements, were modified and incorporated to form this precision instrument. The nerve stimulator is a type one servomechanism capable of applying and monitoring stimulating pulses of 0 to 10 grams with a precision of better than +/- 0.05 grams. Additionally, the device can be independently used to apply stimulating pulses by displacing the nerve from 0 to 0.25 mm with a precision of better than +/- 0.001 mm while measuring the level of the load applied.

Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

1988-01-01

415

Stimulated scattering and nonlinear optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinearities in the radiation field relevant to laser fusion are addressed. To describe the radiation field the photon transport theory is used because of its mathematical simplicity, natural separation of microscopic versus macroscopic nonlinearities and treatment of matter dynamics to any desired level of approximation. Since the only concern here is in microscopic nonlinearities, matter (plasma or neutral media) is described as in thermal equilibrium. Stimulated scattering by plasmas (stimulated Brillouin scattering, stimulated Raman scattering) as well as neutral media (stimulated Brillouin scattering) is investigated. The nonlinear inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas and some other nonlinearities relevant to high power laser amplifiers (nonlinear index of refraction, nonlinear absorption, nonlinear gain) are also discussed. An unnoted mechanism for nonlinear gain saturation (especially in CO2 laser amplifiers) intensity broadening of the upper laser level is briefly discussed.

Hammouda, B.

1980-03-01

416

Neural Stimulation for Increased Persistence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is a method of improving the persistence of electrical neural stimulation, and specifically a method of improving the persistence of an image supplied to a retina, or visual cortex, through a visual prosthesis. A continuously stimula...

A. Roy M. Humayan R. Greenberg

2005-01-01

417

DOE Geothermal Well Stimulation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effective stimulation treatment requires the interaction of four separate items: frac fluids, proppants, equipment, and planned and properly engineered schedules. While there are good fluid systems and proppants, only judicious combinations and a well ...

R. J. Hanold D. A. Campbell A. R. Sinclair

1980-01-01

418

Charge-Metered Biomedical Stimulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disclosed are biomedical stimulators and systems that deliver stimulus power efficiently to electrodes and tissues, provide reliable control of stimulus efficacy over a wide dynamic range of available power and voltage, avoid damaging net direct current f...

G. E. Loeb J. D. Wills

2005-01-01

419

Unilateral electrical stimulation of rat locus coeruleus elicits bilateral response of norepinephrine neurons and sustained activation of medial prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

The brain stem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to modulate cortical excitability by norepinephrine (NE) release in LC forebrain targets. The effects of LC burst discharge, typically evoked by a strong excitatory input, on cortical ongoing activity are poorly understood. To address this question, we combined direct electrical stimulation of LC (LC-DES) with extracellular recording in LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an important cortical target of LC. LC-DES consisting of single pulses (0.1-0.5 ms, 0.01-0.05 mA) or pulse trains (20-50 Hz, 50-200 ms) evoked short-latency excitatory and inhibitory LC responses bilaterally as well as a delayed rebound excitation occurring ?100 ms after stimulation offset. The pulse trains, but not single pulses, reliably elicited mPFC activity change, which was proportional to the stimulation strength. The firing rate of ?50% of mPFC units was significantly modulated by the strongest LC-DES. Responses of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons included fast (?100 ms), transient (?100-200 ms) inhibition (10% of units) or excitation (13%) and delayed (?500 ms), sustained (?1 s) excitation (26%). The sustained spiking resembled NE-dependent mPFC activity during the delay period of working memory tasks. Concurrently, the low-frequency (0.1-8 Hz) power of the local field potential (LFP) decreased and high-frequency (>20 Hz) power increased. Overall, the DES-induced LC firing pattern resembled the naturalistic biphasic response of LC-NE neurons to alerting stimuli and was associated with a shift in cortical state that may optimize processing of behaviorally relevant events. PMID:24671530

Marzo, Aude; Totah, Nelson K; Neves, Ricardo M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Eschenko, Oxana

2014-06-15

420

Modifications de l'expression des gènes GST-? et p53 dans des lignées tumorales cellulaires humaines O.R.L. après irradiation gamma : induction, études cellulaires et moléculaires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell sub-populations surviving to high radiation doses were selected. The KBm survival part was obtained by exposure to a mutagenic agent and irradiation, FaDum results of a progressive irradiation of FaDu. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant overexpression of GST-? and p53 genes for KBm and FaDum cell lines that remained stable for 18 months. The SF2, ?, ?, and MID parameters, determined by clonogenic assays, show no modifications of radiosensitivity. The variations of expression observed are not correlated to a radiosensitivity variation. The overexpression of GST-? and p53 does not seem to be a radiosensitivity marker. Nous avons isolé des sous-populations de 2 lignées cellulaires humaines (KB et FaDu) de carcinomes des voies aéro-digestives supérieures survivant à de fortes doses d'irradiation. La fraction survivante KBm a été obtenu après exposition à un agent mutagène et à une irradiation, FaDum résulte de l'irradiation progressive de FaDu. Une analyse par RT-PCR semi-quantitative nous a permis de mettre en évidence une surexpression significative des gènes GST-? et p53 pour les souches KBm et FaDum analysées après 18 mois de culture. Les paramètres, ?, ?, SF2, MID, déterminés par essais clonogéniques, n'indiquent pas de modification de la radiosensibilité. Les variations d'expression observées ne sont donc pas corrélées à une variation de radiosensibilité. La surexpression des gènes GST-? et p53 ne semble pas constituer un marqueur de radiosensibilité.

Dubessy, C.; Merlin, J. L.; Marchal, C.

1998-04-01

421

Rôle des termites sur le spectre poral des sols forestiers tropicaux. Cas de Thoracotermes macrothorax Sjöstedt (Termitinae) et de Macrotermes mülleri (Sjöstedt) (Macrotermitinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé A partir de mesures physiques réalisées sur des échantillons de sols de différentes tailles portés a une contrainte hydrique de 0,1 MPa on obtient des informations sur la porosite et l'évolution de la taille des pores des échantillons.

E. Garnier-Sillam; E. Braudeau; D. Tessier

1991-01-01

422

Theoretical investigation on the pumping effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering on stimulated Raman scattering in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pumping effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering on stimulated Raman scattering is investigated theoretically through the coupled wave equations of stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering. The numerical simulations are in agreement with the experimental results. They indicate that the backward stimulated Raman scattering is excited and amplified collectively by both pump laser and stimulated Brillouin scattering.

Shi, J.; Chen, X.; Ouyang, M.; Gong, W.; Su, Y.; Liu, D.

2012-02-01

423

Hrp mutant bacteria as biocontrol agents  

PubMed Central

Sustainable agriculture necessitates development of environmentally safe methods to protect plants against pathogens. Among these methods, application of biocontrol agents has been efficiently used to minimize disease development. Here we review current understanding of mechanisms involved in biocontrol of the main Gram-phytopathogenic bacteria-induced diseases by plant inoculation with strains mutated in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes. These mutants are able to penetrate plant tissues and to stimulate basal resistance of plants. Novel protection mechanisms involving the phytohormone abscisic acid appear to play key roles in the biocontrol of wilt disease induced by Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis thaliana. Fully understanding these mechanisms and extending the studies to other pathosystems are still required to evaluate their importance in disease protection.

Hanemian, Mathieu; Zhou, Binbin; Deslandes, Laurent; Marco, Yves; Tremousaygue, Dominique

2013-01-01

424

Notes sur l'écologie et l'éthologie des espèces du genre Lasius (Hymenoptera Formicid?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé L'observation de l'emplacement et du mode de nidification des espèces du genreLasius dans leur milieu naturel a permis de mettre en évidence des exigences écologiques bien définies. De même, la complexité des techniques mises en ?uvre et le type de matérian employé lors de la construction des nids permettent de présenter un classement des mœurs des espèces du genreLasius.

Ch. Gaspar

1965-01-01

425

La comptabilisation des subventions dans les associations : conséquences sur leur capacité de financement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le financement des associations de coopération internationales passe par la recherche de bailleurs de fonds institutionnels. Ces bailleurs ont pour principal préoccupation l'affectation des ressources confiées. Dans ce cadre, le suivi budgétaire des projets de coopération internationale et le contrôle de l'emploi des subventions octroyées par les investisseurs deviennent des points cruciaux. L'une des conséquences inhérentes de cette pratique comptable

Agnes Nabet

2004-01-01

426

LE NIVEAU DE DEVELOPPEMENT DES INDICATEURS DE RESPONSABILITE SOCIALE DANS LES OUTILS DE PILOTAGE DE CONTROLE DE GESTION: UNE ANALYSE DES PRATIQUES DES ENTREPRISES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partir des résultats d'une enquête réalisée auprès de 79 entreprises, la recherche montre que les indicateurs de performance relatifs à la RSE sont peu répandus dans les outils de pilotage des entreprises. Ils sont également faiblement reliés aux objectifs stratégiques lorsqu'ils sont présents. Audelà de ce constat global, il apparaît néanmoins que ce sont les entreprises cotées en Bourse

Christophe Germain; Stephen Gates

2007-01-01

427

Agents that act luminally to treat diarrhoea and constipation.  

PubMed

Diarrhoea and constipation are common clinical complaints that negatively affect quality of life, reduce work productivity and lead to considerable health-care expenditure. A variety of therapies have been used to treat these conditions. Unlike drugs that require systemic absorption to exert their effects, luminally acting agents improve diarrhoea and constipation by altering intestinal and/or colonic motility, as well as mucosal absorption and secretion, through a variety of mechanisms. Examples of luminally acting agents for diarrhoea include peripherally acting opiate analogues, enkephalinase inhibitors, bile-acid binding agents, nonabsorbed antibiotics, probiotics, bismuth-containing compounds, berberine and agents with possible effects on intestinal secretion or permeability. Luminally acting drugs for constipation include bulking agents, surfactants, osmotics, stimulants, chloride-channel activators, probiotics, drugs that increase delivery of bile acids to the colon and natural therapies such as prunes and hemp seed extract. As the physiological effects of luminally acting drugs are largely confined to the gastrointestinal tract, these agents are unlikely to cause adverse effects outside of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22945441

Menees, Stacy; Saad, Richard; Chey, William D

2012-11-01

428

Neuroprotection trek--the next generation: neuromodulation I. Techniques--deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neuromodulation denotes controlled electrical stimulation of the central or peripheral nervous system. The three forms of neuromodulation described in this paper-deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation-were chosen primarily for their demonstrated or potential clinical usefulness. Deep brain stimulation is a completely implanted technique for improving movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, by very focal electrical stimulation of the brain-a technique that employs well-established hardware (electrode and pulse generator/battery). Vagus nerve stimulation is similar to deep brain stimulation in being well-established (for the treatment of refractory epilepsy), completely implanted, and having hardware that can be considered standard at the present time. Vagus nerve stimulation differs from deep brain stimulation, however, in that afferent stimulation of the vagus nerve results in diffuse effects on many regions throughout the brain. Although use of deep brain stimulation for applications beyond movement disorders will no doubt involve placing the stimulating electrode(s) in regions other than the thalamus, subthalamus, or globus pallidus, the use of vagus nerve stimulation for applications beyond epilepsy-for example, depression and eating disorders-is unlikely to require altering the hardware significantly (although stimulation protocols may differ). Transcranial magnetic stimulation is an example of an external or non-implanted, intermittent (at least given the current state of the hardware) stimulation technique, the clinical value of which for neuromodulation and neuroprotection remains to be determined.

Andrews, Russell J.

2003-01-01

429

Flexible, secure agent development framework  

DOEpatents

While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

Goldsmith; Steven Y. (Rochester, MN)

2009-04-07

430

Lipid-lowering agents.  

PubMed

The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented. PMID:23811423

Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

2013-09-01

431

Holograms as Teaching Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

Walker, Robin A.

2013-02-01

432

Gastric Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for the treatment of chronic, symptomatic refractory gastroparesis and morbid obesity. Background Gastroparesis - Epidemiology Gastroparesis (GP) broadly refers to impaired gastric emptying in the absence of obstruction. Clinically, this can range from the incidental detection of delayed gastric emptying in an asymptomatic person to patients with severe nausea, vomiting and malnutrition. Symptoms of GP are nonspecific and may mimic structural disorders such as ulcer disease, partial gastric or small bowel obstruction, gastric cancer, and pancreaticobiliary disorders. Gastroparesis may occur in association with diabetes, gastric surgery (consequence of peptic ulcer surgery and vagotomy) or for unknown reasons (idiopathic gastroparesis). Symptoms include early satiety, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and weight loss. The majority of patients with GP are women. The relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the rate of gastric emptying is considered to be weak. Some patients with markedly delayed gastric emptying are asymptomatic and sometimes, severe symptoms may remit spontaneously. Idiopathic GP may represent the most common form of GP. In one tertiary referral retrospective series, the etiologies in 146 GP patients were 36% idiopathic, 29% diabetic, 13% postgastric surgery, 7.5% Parkinson’s disease, 4.8% collagen vascular disorders, 4.1% intestinal pseudoobstruction and 6% miscellaneous causes. The true prevalence of digestive symptoms in patients with diabetes and the relationship of these symptoms to delayed gastric emptying are unknown. Delayed gastric emptying is present in 27% to 58% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 30% with type 2 diabetes. However, highly variable rates of gastric emptying have been reported in type 1 and 2 diabetes, suggesting that development of GP in patients with diabetes is neither universal nor inevitable. In a review of studies examining gastric emptying in patients with diabetes compared to control patients, investigators noted that in many cases the magnitude of the delay in gastric emptying is modest. GP may occur as a complication of a number of different surgical procedures. For example, vagal nerve injury may occur in 4% to 40% of patients who undergo laparoscopic fundoplication1 for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The prevalence of severe, refractory GP is scantily reported in the literature. Using data from a past study, it has been estimated that the prevalence of severe, symptomatic and refractory GP in the United States population is 0.017%. Assuming an Ontario population of 13 million, this would correspond to approximately 2,000 people in Ontario having severe, symptomatic, refractory GP. The incidence of severe refractory GP estimated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is approximately 4,000 per year in the United States. This corresponds to about 150 patients in Ontario. Using expert opinion and FDA data, the incidence of severe refractory GP in Ontario is estimated to be about 20 to 150 per year. Treatment for Gastroparesis To date, there have been no long-term studies confirming the beneficial effects of maintaining euglycemia on GP symptoms. However, it has been suggested that consistent findings of physiologic studies in healthy volunteers and diabetes patients provides an argument to strive for near-normal blood glucose levels in affected diabetes patients. Dietary measures (e.g., low fibre, low fat food), prokinetic drugs (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide and erythromycin) and antiemetic or antinausea drugs (e.g, phenothiazines, diphenhydramine) are generally effective for symptomatic relief in the majority of patients with GP. For patients with chronic, symptomatic GP who are refractory to drug treatment, surgical options may include jejunostomy tube for feeding, gastrotomy tube for stomach decompression and pyloroplasty for gastric emptying. Few small studies

2006-01-01

433

Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de penetration. Ces deux elements constituent l'aspect original de cette these et permettent d'eclaircir deux importants phenomenes de degradation des revetements cathodiques en situation d'electrolyse.

Brisson, Pierre-Yves

434

Total organic carbon disappearance kinetics for supercritical water oxidation of dimethyl methylphospate used as a chemical agent simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) has been proven to be a powerful technology to treat a wide range of wastes, but there\\u000a are few references in the literature about the application of SCWO to chemical weapon agents. In this work, SCWO has been\\u000a tested to treat a chemical agent stimulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), which is similar to the nerve agent VX

Byoung Min Lee; Bambang Veriansyah; Sung-Hyun Kim; Jae-Duck Kim; Youn-Woo Lee

2005-01-01

435

Étude structurale des composés YCo4-xNixB par diffraction anomale des rayons X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Une étude structurale par diffraction des rayons X des composés YCo{4.x}NixB est présentée. Elle met en valeur l'apparition d'une surstructure cristallographique dès lors que la teneur en nickel est non nulle. Les mesures effectuées avant et après recuit indiquent que le traitement thermique joue un rôle essentiel sur la microstructure ainsi que la stabilisation de la surstructure. Grâce à la sélectivité spatiale et chimique de la diffraction anomale, nous avons montré que les surstructures précédemment proposées ne peuvent pas expliquer les diagrammes de diffraction des rayons X mesurés. En particulier, une structure consistant en un triplement des axes a et b ne permet de tenir compte de la surstructure selon l'axe c. Nos mesures effectuées aux seuils K du nickel et du cobalt montrent la présence de pics de Bragg caractéristiques d'une surstructure selon c liée à la présence d'atomes de bore dans des sites cristallographiques occupés uniquement par le cobalt dans YCo{4}B.

Chacon, C.; Isnard, O.; Bérar, J.-F.

2004-11-01

436

Valeurs et prix de production. Le cas des productions jointes  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les systèmes de prix de production fondés sur le formalisme des productions jointes posent encore aux économistes de nombreux problèmes. On sait que, dans ces hypothèses, les prix et les valeurs auxquels conduit la résolution des équations, ne sont pas nécessairement positifs. Dans certains cas, l'existence de prix de pro­production positifs s'associe à celle des valeurs négatives. Ces résultats

Dominique Levy; Gérard Dumenil

1982-01-01

437

Analyse comparée des politiques agraires dans les pays socialistes  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] En dépit des entraves qui s'opposent à une analyse comparative, une tentative semble valable. L'analyse inter- systémique (entre sociétés capitalistes et socialistes) des politiques agraires bute sur l'absence d'indicateurs et de méthodes. Une analyse intrasystémique (entre pays socialistes) exigerait davantage de données, nationales mais surtout régionales. . Pour une meilleure approche des problèmes étudiés ici, l'histoire agraire d'après la

Théodore Bergmann

1976-01-01

438

Utilisation des technologies de pointe dans les etablissements de fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le present document analyse les caracteristiques des usines canadiennes de fabrication qui sont associees a l'utilisation des technologies de pointe. Les donnees employees sont tirees de l'Enquete sur les technologies de la fabrication de 1989 et sont liees aux donnees administratives du Recensement des manufactures. Par definition, l'utilisation de la technologie renvoie d'une part, a la frequence (le fait d'utiliser

John R. Diverty Brent Baldwin

1995-01-01

439

Subkutane Ruptur der Sehne des Extensor hallucis longus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Es wird ber eine Spontanruptur der Sehne des langen Grozehenstreckers bei einem sonst gesunden, 30 Jahre alten Skilufer\\u000a berichtet. Als Ursache wird auf Grund des Operationsbefundes und durch Vergleich mit der Literatur ber den subkutanen Ri\\u000a des langen Daumenstreckers angenommen. da es zu einer lokalen Diffusionsstrung innerhalb der Sehne gekommen war. Diese Theorie\\u000a wird Gegenstand experimenteller Prfung sein.

J. Poigenfürst

1973-01-01

440

Des contraintes financières plus lourdes pour les petites entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La caractéristique la plus frappante des comportements d’investissement des entreprises est leur forte hétérogénéité. Une des explications le plus souvent avancée tient compte de l’interaction forte entre la décision d’investissement d’une entreprise et les conditions auxquelles elle peut se financer, conditions qui dépendent énormément de ses caractéristiques propres. En particulier, en s’inspirant de la littérature sur le canal du

Fabienne Rosenwald; Bruno Crépon

2001-01-01

441

Simultaneous enantiomeric determination of a gastroprokinetic agent mosapride citrate and its metabolite in plasma using ? 1-acid glycoprotein HPLC column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosapride citrate, a novel benzamide-type gastroprokinetic agent, is clinically prescribed as a racemate and is metabolized to its des-4-fluorobenzyl structure (M-1). In order to analyze simultaneously the enantiomers of mosapride and M-1 in plasma, a simple and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed. The enantiomeric separation and determination were successfully achieved using an ?1-acid glycoprotein column and

Isao Yokoyama; Yasuyuki Mizuki; Toshikazu Yamaguchi; Toshihiko Fujii

1997-01-01

442

18. Ninth Street looking west towards the Des Plaines River ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Ninth Street looking west towards the Des Plaines River highway bridge. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL