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1

[Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents].  

PubMed

Anemia is fairly common in lung neoplasms and adequate management can influence both the prognosis and the quality of life of patients. Anemia can stem from diverse mechanisms, and its management must include the search for correctable causes (iron deficiency, inflammation, disease- or treatment-related), and their subsequent treatment. Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, namely recombinant erythropoietin, results in hemoglobin increase, fewer blood transfusions, and better quality of life. However, there is also a significant increase in thromboembolic risk associated with this treatment, and their effect on overall survival is still debated. Thus, their use must be restricted to patients treated with palliative intent, receiving chemotherapy but no radiotherapy, with a baseline hemoglobin level under 100 g/L, and target hemoglobin level must not exceed 120 g/L. PMID:24602683

Lapierre, A; Souquet, P-J

2014-02-01

2

Erythropoietin and erythropoiesis stimulating agents.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormonal regulator of red blood cell production. Recombinant EPO has become the leading drug for treatment of anaemia from a variety of causes; however, it is sometimes misused in sport with the aim of improving performance and endurance. This paper presents an introductory overview of EPO, its receptor, and a variety of recombinant human EPOs/erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) available on the market (e.g. epoetins and their long acting analogs--darbepoetin alfa and continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator). Recent efforts to improve on EPO's pharmaceutical properties and to develop novel replacement products are also presented. In most cases, these efforts have emphasized a reduction in frequency of injections or complete elimination of intravenous or subcutaneous injections of the hormone (biosimilars, EPO mimetic peptides, fusion proteins, endogenous EPO gene activators and gene doping). Isoelectric focusing (IEF) combined with double immunoblotting can detect the subtle differences in glycosylation/sialylation, enabling differentiation among endogenous and recombinant EPO analogues. This method, using the highly sensitive anti-EPO monoclonal antibody AE7A5, has been accepted internationally as one of the methods for detecting misuse of ESAs in sport. PMID:22508651

Debeljak, Nataša; Sytkowski, Arthur J

2012-11-01

3

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents: approaches to modulate activity  

PubMed Central

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), such as the approved agents epoetin alfa and epoetin beta, has been used successfully for over 20 years to treat anemia in millions of patients. However, due to the relatively short half-life of the molecule (approximately 8 hours), frequent dosing may be required to achieve required hemoglobin levels. Therefore, a need was identified in some anemic patient populations for erythropoiesis stimulating agents with longer half-lives that required less frequent dosing. This need led to the development of second generation molecules which are modified versions of rHuEPO with improved pharma-cokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties such as darbepoetin alfa, a hyperglycosylated analog of rHuEPO, and pegzyrepoetin, a pegylated rHuEPO. Third generation molecules, such as peginesatide, which are peptide mimetics that have no sequence homology to rHuEPO have also recently been developed. The various molecular, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of these and other erythropoiesis stimulating agents will be discussed in this review. PMID:23847411

Sinclair, Angus M

2013-01-01

4

USING ARTIFICIAL AGENTS TO STIMULATE PARTICIPATION IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES  

E-print Network

, for stimulating participation. KEYWORDS Social cognition, cognitive agents, participation, virtual communities, this approach relies on using cognitive agents informed of social cognition theories that are able (1) to inferUSING ARTIFICIAL AGENTS TO STIMULATE PARTICIPATION IN VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES Thierry Nabeth, Albert A

Corran, Ruth

5

Pharmacovigilance in practice: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents  

PubMed Central

Pharmacovigilance (PV) is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or other problems related to medical products after they have been licensed for marketing. The purpose of PV is to advance the safe use of marketed medical products. Regulatory agencies and license holders collaborate to collect data reported by health care providers, patients, and the public as well as data from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and individual clinical and nonclinical studies. They validate and analyze the data to determine whether safety signals exist, and if warranted, develop an action plan to mitigate the identified risk. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) provide an example of how PV is applied in reality. Among other approved indications, ESAs may be used to treat anemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. ESAs increase hemoglobin levels and reduce the need for transfusions; they are also associated with a known increased risk of thromboembolic events. Starting in 2003, emerging data suggested that ESAs might reduce survival. As a result of PV activities by regulatory agencies and license holders, labeling for ESAs addresses these risks. Meta-analyses and individual clinical studies have confirmed that ESAs increase the risk of thromboembolic events, but when used as indicated, ESAs have not been shown to have a significant effect on survival or disease progression. Ongoing safety studies will provide additional data in the coming years to further clarify the risks and benefits of ESAs. PMID:24890561

Hedenus, Michael; Ludwig, Heinz; Henry, David H; Gasal, Eduard

2014-01-01

6

Systmes multi-agents et rseaux autonomes Des approches multi-agents pour le contrle  

E-print Network

Manuscrit auteur, publié dans "Atelier de travail "Futurama: le Futur des Agents et des Multi-Agents" Plateforme AFIA, 2011, Chambery : France (2011)" #12;Futurama 2011 vise à réduire les coûts de maintenance et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

New Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and New Iron Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), together with iron supplementation, are the main tool for anemia correction in chronic kidney disease patients. Over the past decades, a number of attempts have been made to modify the erythropoietin molecule in order to improve its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. More recently, small peptides, which are unrelated to erythropoietin but bind to the same receptor,

Francesco Locatelli; Lucia Del Vecchio

2011-01-01

8

New erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and new iron formulations.  

PubMed

Today, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), together with iron supplementation, are the main tool for anemia correction in chronic kidney disease patients. Over the past decades, a number of attempts have been made to modify the erythropoietin molecule in order to improve its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. More recently, small peptides, which are unrelated to erythropoietin but bind to the same receptor, have been developed. In addition to this, other strategies to stimulate erythropoiesis have been followed, such as activin inhibition or stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors. Interestingly, the latter have the advantage of being administered orally. New iron molecules, such as ferumoxytol, ferric carboxymaltose and iron isomaltoside 1000, have recently been marketed. These new agents can administered at high doses while releasing minimal free iron. Their safety profile is good, but long- term post- marketing data are still needed to evaluate the occurrence of rare adverse events. PMID:21625121

Locatelli, Francesco; Del Vecchio, Lucia

2011-01-01

9

Detection of peptidic erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in sport.  

PubMed

Detection methods for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in sport can be classified into direct and indirect approaches. Direct methods comprise electrophoretic techniques (isoelectric focusing (IEF-), sodium-dodecylsulfate (SDS-), sarcosyl (SAR-) polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses (-PAGE)), ELISAs and mass spectrometric methods. The haematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport is currently the only applied indirect approach. Newer developments include a mass spectrometric test for peginesatide, sequential exoglycosidase digestion of ertythropoietin (EPO) combined with electrophoresis (SDS/SAR-PAGE), a dipstick method (MAIIA), and a study on the differences in sialic acid O-acetylation of tryptic EPO O-glycopeptides. The focus of this article is on direct detection methods. PMID:24677025

Reichel, Christian

2014-05-01

10

The approval process for biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.  

PubMed

A biosimilar drug or follow-on biologic drug is defined by the Public Health Service Act as a product that is "highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically active components and there are no clinically meaningful differences between the biologic product and the reference product in terms of the safety, purity and potency of the product." The advantage of biosimilar drugs is that they are significantly less expensive than the reference products, allowing for increased accessibility and cost savings. Recognizing these advantages, the US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act in 2009 as part of health care reform. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act allows sponsors of biosimilar agents to seek approval by showing structural and functional similarity to the reference agent, with the extent of required clinical studies to be determined on the basis of the degree of biosimilarity with the reference product. The goal is to bring biosimilar agents to the market more efficiently while still protecting the safety of the public. The European Union has had such a process in place for a number of years. Two biosimilar epoetin agents have been approved in the European Union since 2007, and their companies are conducting trials to seek approval in the United States, because Amgen's patent protection for epoetin alfa expires in 2014. Trials completed for European Union approval of both agents showed similar efficacy and safety to the reference epoetin alfa. As with all biologics, immunogenicity concerns may persist because of the fragility of the manufacturing process and the worldwide experience with pure red cell aplasia as a result of epoetin therapy. The uptake of biosimilar epoetins after approval in the United States will depend on the balance of cost advantage against safety concerns. Competition in the marketplace will likely decrease the cost of the reference agent as well. PMID:24970875

Wish, Jay B

2014-09-01

11

Use of agents stimulating erythropoiesis in digestive diseases.  

PubMed

Anemia is the most common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Control and inadequate treatment leads to a worse quality of life and increased morbidity and hospitalization. Blood loss, and to a lesser extent, malabsorption of iron are the main causes of iron deficiency in IBD. There is also a variable component of anemia related to chronic inflammation. The anemia of chronic renal failure has been treated for many years with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), which significantly improves quality of life and survival. Subsequently, rHuEPO has been used progressively in other conditions that occur with anemia of chronic processes such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis or IBD, and anemia associated with the treatment of hepatitis C virus. Erythropoietic agents complete the range of available therapeutic options for treatment of anemia associated with IBD, which begins by treating the basis of the inflammatory disease, along with intravenous iron therapy as first choice. In cases of resistance to treatment with iron, combined therapy with erythropoietic agents aims to achieve near-normal levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit (11-12 g/dL). New formulations of intravenous iron (iron carboxymaltose) and the new generation of erythropoietic agents (darbepoetin and continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) will allow better dosing with the same efficacy and safety. PMID:19787831

Moreno López, Rosario; Sicilia Aladrén, Beatriz; Gomollón García, Fernando

2009-10-01

12

Use of agents stimulating erythropoiesis in digestive diseases  

PubMed Central

Anemia is the most common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Control and inadequate treatment leads to a worse quality of life and increased morbidity and hospitalization. Blood loss, and to a lesser extent, malabsorption of iron are the main causes of iron deficiency in IBD. There is also a variable component of anemia related to chronic inflammation. The anemia of chronic renal failure has been treated for many years with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), which significantly improves quality of life and survival. Subsequently, rHuEPO has been used progressively in other conditions that occur with anemia of chronic processes such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis or IBD, and anemia associated with the treatment of hepatitis C virus. Erythropoietic agents complete the range of available therapeutic options for treatment of anemia associated with IBD, which begins by treating the basis of the inflammatory disease, along with intravenous iron therapy as first choice. In cases of resistance to treatment with iron, combined therapy with erythropoietic agents aims to achieve near-normal levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit (11-12 g/dL). New formulations of intravenous iron (iron carboxymaltose) and the new generation of erythropoietic agents (darbepoetin and continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) will allow better dosing with the same efficacy and safety. PMID:19787831

Moreno López, Rosario; Sicilia Aladrén, Beatriz; Gomollón García, Fernando

2009-01-01

13

La mobilité des agents titulaires de l'État  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] La movilidad de los agentes titulares del Estado . . La movilidad de los agentes titulares del Estado se estudia según tres enfoques: movilidad geográfica (definida por un cambio de zona de estudio y de ordenación del territorio (Zeat) o de departamento de función dentro de una misma Zeat), movilidad categorial (cambio de categoría socioprofesional) y movilidad estructural (cambio

Aline Pauron

2003-01-01

14

Management of anemia with erythropoietic-stimulating agents in children with chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Anemia management is an important component of the care provided to children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and influences both morbidity and mortality risk. The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin to the treatment regimen three decades ago revolutionized the therapy and significantly decreased the need for repeated blood transfusions and exposure to associated risks. Recent data on the efficacy and complications associated with erythropoietic-stimulating agent (ESA) usage has, however, prompted a reassessment of treatment-related recommendations. This review will address these recommendations, in addition to describing pediatric outcomes associated with current ESAs and presenting information on alternative ESAs, many of which will likely soon be incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:24005791

Warady, Bradley A; Silverstein, Douglas M

2014-09-01

15

Treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Treatment of anemia remains an important component in the care of patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) remains a key anemia treatment strategy in this patient population. However, anemia management in this group can become more complicated by prior or current history of malignancy. There has been a great deal of work both scientifically and in clinical trials in oncology that have revealed certain concerns and risks of ESA use in patients with cancer. In this review, we will bring together knowledge from nephrology and oncology literature to help nephrologists understand the implications for ESA treatment when CKD/ESRD is complicated by cancer. We also suggest an approach to the management of anemia in this patient group with active or previous malignancy. PMID:24402094

Hazzan, Azzour D; Shah, Hitesh H; Hong, Susana; Sakhiya, Vipulbhai; Wanchoo, Rimda; Fishbane, Steven

2014-07-01

16

Adenosine-5'-triphosphate-adenosine-glutathione cross-linked hemoglobin as erythropoiesis-stimulating agent.  

PubMed

An effective hemoglobin (Hb)-based blood substitute that acts as a physiological oxygen carrier and volume expander ought to stimulate erythropoiesis. A speedy replacement of blood loss with endogenous red blood cells should be an essential feature of any blood substitute product because of its relatively short circulatory retention time and high autoxidation rate. Erythropoiesis is a complex process controlled by oxygen and redox-regulated transcription factors and their target genes that can be affected by Hb physicochemical properties. Using an in vitro cellular model, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of erythropoietic action of unmodified tetrameric Hb (UHb) and Hb cross-linked with adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine, and reduced glutathione (GSH). These effects were studied under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Results indicate that these Hb solutions have different effects on stabilization and nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha, induction of the erythropoietin (EPO) gene, activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B, and expression of the anti-erythropoietic agents-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta 1. UHb suppresses erythropoiesis by increasing the cytoplasmic degradation of HIF-1 alpha and decreasing binding to the EPO gene while inducing NF-kappa B-dependent anti-erythropoietic genes. Cross-linked Hb accelerates erythropoiesis by downregulating NF-kappa B, stabilizing and facilitating HIF-1 alpha binding to the EPO gene, under both oxygen conditions. ATP and adenosine contribute to normoxic stabilization of HIF-1 and, with GSH, inhibit the NF-kappa B pathway that is involved in the suppression of erythroid-specific genes. Proper chemical/pharmacological modification is required to consider acellular Hb as an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. PMID:22339724

Simoni, Jan; Simoni, Grace; Moeller, John F; Feola, Mario; Griswold, John A; Wesson, Donald E

2012-02-01

17

Long-Term Prognostic Impact of the Use of Erythropoietic-Stimulating Agents in Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase Treated With Imatinib  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Anemia is a frequent side effect of imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Erythropoietic-stimulating agents have been used for treatment of imatinib-induced anemia. There are no data on long-term safety of erythropoietic-stimulating agents in CML patients. METHODS The records of chronic phase CML patients who received treatment with imatinib were reviewed for use of erythropoietic-stimulating agents and occurrence of thrombotic events. Data on cytogenetic response and survival were analyzed by use of erythropoietic-stimulating agent. RESULTS A total of 608 patients were included, and 217 patients received erythropoietic-stimulating agents. There were 30 thrombotic episodes. Patients who received erythropoietic-stimulating agents had a higher rate of thrombosis (8.5% vs 2.6%, P = .0025). There was no difference in cytogenetic response rate and survival by use of erythropoietic-stimulating agent. Development of grade 3–4 anemia occurred in 62 (10%) patients and was associated with significantly worse response and survival in patients in late chronic phase. By multivariate analysis, use of erythropoietic-stimulating agents was not a risk factor for event-free survival. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort of chronic phase CML patients, use of erythropoietic-stimulating agents did not impact survival or cytogenetic response rate, but was associated with a higher thrombosis rate. Severe anemia is associated with worse survival and response. PMID:20960502

Santos, Fabio P. S.; Alvarado, Yesid; Kantarjian, Hagop; Verma, Dushyant; O’Brien, Susan; Mattiuzzi, Gloria; Ravandi, Farhad; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge

2015-01-01

18

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in oncology: a study-level meta-analysis of survival and other safety outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients often develop the potentially debilitating condition of anaemia. Numerous controlled studies indicate that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) can raise haemoglobin levels and reduce transfusion requirements in anaemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. To evaluate recent safety concerns regarding ESAs, we carried out a meta-analysis of controlled ESA oncology trials to examine whether ESA use affects survival, disease progression and

J Glaspy; J Crawford; J Vansteenkiste; D Henry; S Rao; P Bowers; J A Berlin; D Tomita; K Bridges; H Ludwig

2010-01-01

19

Responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease: does geography matter?  

PubMed

Management of renal anemia in the large and at-risk population of non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a critical issue. In particular, definition of the optimal hemoglobin (Hb) target for therapy is controversial but highly warranted by physicians and patients worldwide. Recently, international clinical practice guidelines have recommended delayed initiation of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) and lower Hb target levels during maintenance therapy. However, geographical differences in terms of ESA dose needed to achieve a given Hb value can be evidenced, with US patients showing higher prevalence of ESA resistance. On the other hand, non-US patients are often maintained in a higher Hb range by means of low ESA doses. This critical point has never been addressed. Nevertheless, outside of the US, translating the restrictive recommendations of new guidelines, which are essentially based on trials in US patients, can lead to negative effects, such as an increased need for a blood transfusion, and worsening of quality of life. In this article we provide a reappraisal of current recommendations on anemia management in non-dialysis CKD in light of the geographical differences in individual responsiveness to ESA. PMID:24442793

De Nicola, Luca; Locatelli, Francesco; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

2014-02-01

20

Resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents is associated with arterial microcalcification in early hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between arterial microcalcification (AMiC) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) hyporesponsiveness in hemodialysis patients. The presence of AMiC was confirmed by pathologic examination of von Kossa-stained arterial specimens acquired during vascular access surgery. We assessed the ESA hyporesponsiveness index (EHRI), defined as the weekly ESA dose per kilogram body weight divided by the hemoglobin level. AMiC was detected in 33 (40.2%) of 82 patients. Patients with diabetes had a higher incidence of AMiC than patients without diabetes. The serum levels of albumin and cholesterol were higher in patients without AMiC than in patients with AMiC. The serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were lower in patients with AMiC than in patients without AMiC. The serum levels of phosphate and calcium-phosphorus product did not differ between the two groups. The mean EHRI value was higher in patients with AMiC than in patients without AMiC. In multivariate analyses, ESA hyporesponsiveness and diabetes showed a significant association with AMiC. In conclusion, ESA hyporesponsiveness may be a clinical relevant parameters related to AMiC in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24772434

Won, Hye Sung; Choi, Su Jin; Yun, Yu Seon; Shin, Ok-Ran; Ko, Yoon Ho; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Sun Ae; Kim, Young Ok

2014-01-01

21

High resolution separation methods for the determination of intact human erythropoiesis stimulating agents. A review.  

PubMed

Human erythropoietin (hEPO), a hormone involved in the formation of red blood cells, is a 30 kDa glycoprotein with a high carbohydrate content. The production of recombinant hEPO has made possible its widespread therapeutic use and its banned use in competition sports. Methods to analyze EPO and other erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are necessary for the characterization and quality control of these biopharmaceuticals and also for doping control. In this paper, high resolution separation methods, namely high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with special attention to CE-coupled mass spectrometry, are reviewed. The usefulness of these techniques when applied in different modes to separate the glycoprotein isoforms, aggregates or excipients are detailed. In addition, sample preparation methods that have been applied to ESA samples for subsequent determination by HPLC or CE, as well as the potential compatibility of other preparation methods, are discussed. Applications of the HPLC and CE methods regarding regulatory considerations for biopharmaceuticals analysis, with emphasis on biosimilars, and doping control are also included. Finally, limitations of the present methods and their possible solutions are considered. PMID:22200302

Girard, Michel; Puerta, Angel; Diez-Masa, Jose Carlos; de Frutos, Mercedes

2012-02-01

22

The Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Patients with Therapy-Refractory Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Many patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) do not respond to standard therapy and/or may develop severe complications which can be of fatal outcome. There is some evidence that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may be helpful in the management of such patients. Methods We describe the effect of ESAs in 12 new patients with therapy-refractory AIHA (7 of warm type and 5 of cold type) and review 5 previously reported cases. Serological testing was performed using standard methods. Results All patients responded well to treatment with ESAs. At least 5 of the 17 patients demonstrated complete recovery, and none of the patients developed significant adverse reactions due to treatment with ESAs. Conclusion The mechanism by which ESAs improves hemolysis in AIHA is not completely clear. In addition to increased production and prolonged RBC survival, it may inhibit eryptosis (programmed cell death). ESAs represent a new option in the treatment of decompensated and/or refractory AIHA of warm and cold type. However, more information is required to assess which patients can be treated with ESAs.

Salama, Abdulgabar; Hartnack, Dirk; Lindemann, Hans-Walter; Lange, Hans-Joachim; Rummel, Mathias; Loew, Andreas

2014-01-01

23

The role of erythropoietin stimulating agents in anemic patients with heart failure: solved and unresolved questions  

PubMed Central

Anemia is a common finding in congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. Several conditions can cause depression of erythroid progenitor cells: reduction of iron absorption and reuptake, decreased bone marrow activity, reduced endogenous erythropoietin production, and chronic inflammatory state. Anemia’s etiology in CHF is complex and partially understood; it involves several systems including impaired hemodynamic condition, reduced kidney and bone perfusion, increased inflammatory activity, and neurohormonal overdrive. The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin and its derivatives is recently debated; the last interventional trial seems to demonstrate a neutral or negative effect in the active arm with darbepoetin treatment. The current data is opposite to many single blind studies and previous meta-analysis showing an improvement in quality of life, New York Heart Association class, and exercise tolerance using ESA therapy. These contrasting data raise several concerns regarding the target of hemoglobin levels needing intervention, the exact anemia classification and categorization, and the standardization of hematocrit cutoffs. Some cardiac and systemic conditions (ie, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, prothrombotic status) may predispose to adverse events, and ESA administration should be avoided. To prevent the negative effects, high-dosage and chronic administration should be avoided. Clarification of these items could probably identify patients that may benefit from additional iron or ESA treatment. In this review, we discuss the interventional trials made in anemic heart failure patients, the underlying mechanism of anemia in CHF, and the potential role of ESA in this setting. PMID:25143739

Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ruocco, Gaetano; Pellegrini, Marco; De Gori, Carmelo; Del Castillo, Gabriele; Giordano, Nicola; Nuti, Ranuccio

2014-01-01

24

Resistance to Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents Is Associated with Arterial Microcalcification in Early Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between arterial microcalcification (AMiC) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) hyporesponsiveness in hemodialysis patients. The presence of AMiC was confirmed by pathologic examination of von Kossa-stained arterial specimens acquired during vascular access surgery. We assessed the ESA hyporesponsiveness index (EHRI), defined as the weekly ESA dose per kilogram body weight divided by the hemoglobin level. AMiC was detected in 33 (40.2%) of 82 patients. Patients with diabetes had a higher incidence of AMiC than patients without diabetes. The serum levels of albumin and cholesterol were higher in patients without AMiC than in patients with AMiC. The serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were lower in patients with AMiC than in patients without AMiC. The serum levels of phosphate and calcium-phosphorus product did not differ between the two groups. The mean EHRI value was higher in patients with AMiC than in patients without AMiC. In multivariate analyses, ESA hyporesponsiveness and diabetes showed a significant association with AMiC. In conclusion, ESA hyporesponsiveness may be a clinical relevant parameters related to AMiC in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24772434

Won, Hye Sung; Choi, Su Jin; Yun, Yu Seon; Shin, Ok-Ran; Ko, Yoon Ho; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Sun Ae; Kim, Young Ok

2014-01-01

25

Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of peginesatide, a novel erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, in rats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics (PK) (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) of peginesatide, a synthetic, PEGylated, investigational, peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), was evaluated in rats. The PK profile was evaluated at 0.1-5 mg·kg(-1) IV using unlabeled or [(14)C]-labeled peginesatide. Mass balance, tissue distribution and metabolism were evaluated following IV administration of 5 mg·kg(-1) [(14)C]-peginesatide, with tissue distribution also evaluated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) following an IV dose of 17 mg·kg(-1) [(14)C]-peginesatide. Plasma clearance was slow and elimination was biphasic with unchanged peginesatide representing >90% of the total radioactivity of the total radioactive exposure. Slow uptake of the radiolabeled compound from the vascular compartment into the tissues was observed. Biodistribution to bone marrow and extramedullary hematopoietic sites, and to highly vascularized lymphatic and excretory tissues occurred. A predominant degradation event to occur in vivo was the loss of one PEG chain from the branched PEG moiety to generate mono-PEG. Renal excretion was the primary mechanism (41%) of elimination, with parent molecule (67%) the major moiety excreted. In conclusion, elimination of [(14)C]-peginesatide-derived radioactivity was extended, retention preferentially occurred at sites of erythropoiesis (bone marrow), and urinary excretion was the primary elimination route. PMID:22188389

Woodburn, Kathryn W; Holmes, Christopher P; Wilson, Susan D; Fong, Kei-Lai; Press, Randall J; Moriya, Yuu; Tagawa, Yoshihiko

2012-07-01

26

Hepcidin as a predictive factor and therapeutic target in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent treatment for anemia of chronic disease in rats.  

PubMed

Anemia of chronic disease is a multifactorial disorder, resulting mainly from inflammation-driven reticuloendothelial iron retention, impaired erythropoiesis, and reduced biological activity of erythropoietin. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have been used for the treatment of anemia of chronic disease, although with varying response rates and potential adverse effects. Serum concentrations of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis, are increased in patients with anemia of chronic disease and linked to the pathogenesis of this disease, because hepcidin blocks cellular iron egress, thus limiting availability of iron for erythropoiesis. We tested whether serum hepcidin levels can predict and affect the therapeutic efficacy of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent treatment using a well-established rat model of anemia of chronic disease. We found that high pre-treatment hepcidin levels correlated with an impaired hematologic response to an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in rats with anemia of chronic disease. Combined treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and an inhibitor of hepcidin expression, LDN-193189, significantly reduced serum hepcidin levels, mobilized iron from tissue stores, increased serum iron levels and improved hemoglobin levels more effectively than did the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent or LDN-193189 monotherapy. In parallel, both the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent/LDN-193189 combined reduced the expression of cytokines known to inhibit erythropoiesis. We conclude that serum hepcidin levels can predict the hematologic responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy in anemia of chronic disease. Pharmacological inhibition of hepcidin formation improves the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent's therapeutic efficacy, which may favor a reduction of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosages, costs and side effects. PMID:24895335

Theurl, Milan; Nairz, Manfred; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Asshoff, Malte; Haschka, David; Seifert, Markus; Willenbacher, Wolfgang; Wilflingseder, Doris; Posch, Wilfried; Murphy, Anthony T; Witcher, Derrick R; Theurl, Igor; Weiss, Günter

2014-09-01

27

Stimulation of central A1 adenosine receptors suppresses seizure and neuropathology in a soman nerve agent seizure rat model.  

PubMed

The current regimen for treating nerve agent poisoning does not sufficiently suppress the excitotoxic activity that causes severe brain damage, especially in cases where treatment is delayed and nerve agent-induced status epilepticus develops. New therapeutic targets are required to improve survivability and minimize neuropathology after irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivation. Earlier studies have shown that systemic delivery of adenosine agonists decreases nerve agent lethality; however, the mechanism of protection remains to be understood. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of central adenosine receptor (AR) stimulation in neuroprotection by directly injecting (6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine agonist specific to the A1 receptor subtype (A1R), into the brain intracerebroventricularly (ICV) in a soman seizure rat model. In addition to general A1R stimulation, we hypothesized that bilateral micro-injection of CPA into the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) could also suppress excitotoxic activity. The results from these studies demonstrated that centrally administered adenosine agonists are anti-seizure and neuroprotective. CPA-delivered ICV prevented seizure and convulsion in 100% of the animals. Moreover, neuropathological evaluation indicated that adenosine treatments reduced brain damage from severe to minimal. Inhibition of the BF via CPA had varied results. Some animals were protected by treatment; however, others displayed similar pathology to the control. Overall, these data suggest that stimulating central ARs could be an effective target for the next generation countermeasures for nerve agent intoxication. PMID:24785252

Thomas, Thaddeus P; Shih, Tsung-Ming

2014-09-01

28

Current and upcoming erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, iron products, and other novel anemia medications.  

PubMed

Treatment for anemia has come a long way in the last 20 years since the first recombinant human erythropoietins were licensed for the management of anemia in chronic kidney disease. The first-generation epoetins were succeeded by the development and production of a longer-acting erythropoietin (EPO) analog, darbepoetin alpha, which allowed less frequent dosing, usually once weekly or once every 2 weeks. More recently, another EPO-related molecule has been manufactured called Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator with an even longer half-life, and although for patent reasons this is not available in the United States, it is licensed and is already being used in Europe. Other molecules are in development or are becoming licensed in Europe, including biosimilar epoetin products/follow-on biologics, and elsewhere in the world there are cheaper-production "copy" epoetins. Indeed, it is estimated that up to 80 such products may be sold in countries with less stringent regulatory control of pharmaceutical products. Two different biosimilar epoetins have already been licensed in Europe, one under 2 different brand names and one under 3 different brand names, and others may follow. Hematide is a synthetic peptide-based EPO receptor agonist that, interestingly, has no structural homology with EPO, and yet is still able to activate the EPO receptor and stimulate erythropoiesis. This agent is currently in phase III clinical trials. Research continues for orally active antianemic therapies, and several strategies are being investigated, although none is imminently available. Two new intravenous iron preparations have recently been developed, one in the United States (Ferumoxytol; AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cambridge, MA) and one recently licensed in Europe (ferric carboxymaltose [Ferinject; Vifor Pharma, Zurich, Switzerland]). In conclusion, the development of effective therapies for the treatment of anemia has been a highly active field, both scientifically and economically, over the last two decades. PMID:19233071

Macdougall, Iain C; Ashenden, Michael

2009-03-01

29

Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialysis Hb is proposed. During 18?months follow-up, CVE, hospitalizations and mortality were collected. Results After dialysis, Hb cocentration rise by 6.1?±?5.6%. Using postdialysis Hb, the weight-adjusted ESA dosage would be lower respect to the prescription using predialysis Hb: 104?±?120 vs 128?±?124 U/kg/week (P?

2012-01-01

30

Atorvastatin Increases Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agent Hyporesponsiveness in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Role of Anti-Inflammation Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness is aggravated by chronic inflammation in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Dyslipidemia is prevalent in MHD patients. Statin therapy has been demonstrated to not only be effective in lowering lipid levels, but also numerous pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and endothelial function improvement. Recently, a retrospective study has shown that statin therapy decreases ESA requirements in MHD

Chih-Kang Chiang; Shao-Yu Yang; Yu-Sen Peng; Shih-Ping Hsu; Mei-Fen Pai; Jen-Wen Huang; Kuan-Yu Hung; Kuan-Dun Wu

2009-01-01

31

Detection of Chemical\\/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of Chemical\\/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve

S. H. Harmon; K. J. Hart; A. A. Vass; M. B. Wise; D. A. Wolf

1999-01-01

32

An evaluation of pretreatment agents for the stimulation of secondary biogenic coalbed natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed methane is considered to be an underexploited source of clean energy and, with the realization of its biogenic nature, it has attracted increasing interest in recent decades. Most of the published studies on biogenic coal bed natural gas (CBNG) have focused either on biostimulation (the addition of nutrients to stimulate the native microbial populations) or bioaugmentation (the addition of both nutrients and non-native microbial consortia of microorganisms). Although these approaches have shown promise, they are predicated on the assumption that the coal seam is nutrient-limited or that the existing microbial communities are not optimized to convert coal to natural gas. The premise of this research is that the organic matter present within the coal matrix is, for the most part, environmentally inert and not readily available to the microorganisms living within the coal seam. The goal of this research has been to focus on treatments that will increase the solubility, and hence the bioavailability, of coal to the indigenous microbial community. Initially, treatment agents representing acids, bases and oxidants were selected to evaluate the potential for the in situ solubilization and depolymerization of subbituminous coal. The bioavailability of the coal-derived constituents was then evaluated aerobically using biometer assays and anaerobic bioassays. The experiments have shown that the acid (nitric acid) and base (sodium hydroxide) treatments are more efficient than the oxidants (potassium permanganate and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide) with respect to total organic carbon (TOC). The carbon contained in the solubilized/depolymerized product of nitric acid treatments accounted for approximately 14% of the carbon from the Powder River Basin (PRB) coal evaluated in the study; however, the biometer assays revealed that the bioavailability of the solubilized/depolymerized products was not directly correlated to the amount of dissolved organic carbon (TOC). The permanganate treated samples, which had a much lower TOC (5%), were more promising in terms of biological conversion potential. The biometer assay data indicated that up to 1.1% of the coal carbon was mineralized to carbon dioxide (CO2) within a period of two weeks. On this basis, permanganate treated samples were utilized in subsequent experiments to evaluate potential biogenic methane generation. For the permanganate treated samples, 5.4% of the coal carbon was solubilized/depolymerized, and 3.2% of the soluble carbon was converted to methane (CH4). The methane was rapidly generated and peaked at 40-days with a cumulative amount of 93.4 mumol/g coal (73.9 standard cubic feet (Scf)/ton coal equivalent using linear extrapolation). This compares very favorably to the 22-74 Scf/ton said to exist within the PBR coalbeds prior to resource exploitation. Our data also showed that a small fraction, 143 mumol/g coal, of the soluble carbon which was designated as the volatile fraction (i.e., the purgeable fraction removable by sparging with N2 gas) is essential to the generation of biogenic methane from coal derived constituents. Subsequent studies evaluating the influence of the chemical pretreatment agents (HNO3, NaOH, catalyzed H 2O2, KMnO4) on the subsequent enzymatic conversion of subbituminous coal using a fungal manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by the agaric white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta have shown that chemical pretreatments can also enhance the coal solubilization performance of MnP.

Huang, Zaixing

33

Numerical simulation to study the feasibility of using CO2 as a stimulation agent for enhanced geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

A major concern in the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is achieving and maintaining adequate injectivity, while avoiding the development of preferential short-circuiting flow paths such as those caused by thermally-induced stress cracking. Past researches have tended to focus primarily on thermal and hydraulic stimulation. Recent studies suggest that chemical stimulation may improve the performance of EGS reservoirs. Geothermal injection wells are often drilled into formations containing reactive minerals such as calcite. Injecting aqueous chemical agents such as mineral acids, could be effective for mineral dissolution and porosity enhancement at distances of several meters around a well. An alternative to treatment with strong acids is the use of supercritical (SC) CO{sub 2} as stimulation agent for an aqueous-based EGS. Reactive transport modeling is used to investigate the effectiveness of this method. We used the thermal condition and mineralogical composition from a well of Desert Peak EGS site, to examine ways in which mixtures of water and CO{sub 2} can be injected to enhance porosity.

Xu, T.; Zhang, W.; Pruess, K.

2009-11-15

34

Photo-stimulated electro-optic response of liquid-crystalline system with trans-cis photo-isomerizable agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rather strong photo-stimulated enhancement of photo-induced bend flexoelectric effect based on trans-cis photoisomerization of azo bond was found in a guest-host system formed from the nematic liquid crystal (LC) N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA) as a host, and the azobenzene LC 4-hexyloxybenzoloxy-4'-cyanoazobenzene, as a guest photoactive agent at 1 wt.% concentration. Upon application of electric field, thin homeotropic layers of thickness 100 pm containing this photo-sensitized LC mixture were investigated as subjected to a relatively weak illumination with UV light (? = 375 nm, from narrow-band light-emitting diode, LED). The stimulation of the photoactive electro-optic response of azobenzene-doped MBBA (owing to enhanced photo-induced bend flexoelectric effect driven by the photo-isomerizable dopants) was achieved by pre-resonant excitation of the photoactive agent. The degree of the effect measured is of potential interest for thin-film photoactive electro-optic applications. The UV light-induced effect in azobenzene-doped MBBA was reversible; the back (relaxation) process was stimulated by light in the blue from a LED with broadband spectrum centered at 455 nm.

Hadjichristov, G. B.; Marinov, Y. G.; Yelamaggad, C. V.

2014-12-01

35

Erythropoietin-stimulating agents and clinical outcomes in metastatic breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia: a closed debate?  

PubMed

Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) are used in breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia to alleviate anemia and in turn, reduce fatigue. These drugs may also decrease overall survival and increase the incidence of serious adverse effects such as thrombovascular events (TVEs). This review evaluates the evidence to date on administering ESAs to breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. Our findings suggest a clear need for well-designed clinical trials that follow current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ESA label changes to guide clinical practice in an effort to reduce harm to these patients. PMID:24554413

Kelada, Olivia; Marignol, Laure

2014-06-01

36

Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.  

PubMed

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

37

Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents  

PubMed Central

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

38

Estimation du seuil de vitamine D qui peut induire une stimulation de la scrtion de la parathormone chez des femmes africaines vivant en rgion parisienne  

E-print Network

Estimation du seuil de vitamine D qui peut induire une stimulation de la sécrétion de la parathormone chez des femmes africaines vivant en région parisienne Estimation of vitamin D threshold which may- vitamine D au-dessous d'un certain seuil peut induire un état d'hyperparathyroidisme secondaire. Notre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Use of DES-treated rats as an animal model for assessment of pituitary adenoma imaging agents.  

PubMed

Prolactin (PRL) secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas would be of considerable clinical value for both initial detection and also for monitoring the effects of dopamine agonist therapy. Tritiated spiroperidol (3HSp) was selected for initial evaluation as a possible imaging agent based on: demonstrated localization in the pituitary and demonstrated binding to human PRL-secreting tumor tissue. DES was implanted in Fischer F344 rats and induced prolactinoma formation was evidenced by increased pituitary weight, elevated serum PRL levels and by an increase in the proportion of PRL-secreting cells in the pituitary. 3HSp concentrations in pituitary and other tissues of DES-treated rats were assessed in female rats and correlation studies showed that a 5-fold increase in serum PRL was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ accumulation of 3HSp. The number of pituitary D2 receptors per mg of protein in tissue homogenates was similar in both normal and DES-treated females. A blocking study with (+)-butaclamol demonstrated a D2 receptor-mediated component to 3HSp localization. In summary, an animal model for prolactinoma was characterized. An assessment of 3HSp accumulation indicates that radiolabelled spiroperidol shows excellent potential for detecting PRL-secreting tumors of the pituitary. PMID:3818319

Otto, C A; Marshall, J C; Lloyd, R V; Sherman, P S; Fisher, S J; Valoppi, V L; Rogers, W L; Wieland, D M

1986-01-01

40

Detection of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in human anti-doping control: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Stimulation of erythropoiesis is one of the most efficient ways of doping. This type of doping is advantageous for aerobic physical exercise and of particular interest to endurance athletes. Erythropoiesis, which takes place in bone marrow, is under the control of EPO, a hormone secreted primarily by the kidneys when the arterial oxygen tension decreases. In certain pathological disorders, such as chronic renal failure, the production of EPO is insufficient and results in anemia. The pharmaceutical industry has, thus, been very interested in developing drugs that stimulate erythropoiesis. With this aim, various strategies have been, and continue to be, envisaged, giving rise to an expanding range of drugs that are good candidates for doping. Anti-doping control has had to deal with this situation by developing appropriate methods for their detection. This article presents an overview of both the drugs and the corresponding methods of detection, and thus follows a roughly chronological order. PMID:22831473

Leuenberger, Nicolas; Reichel, Christian; Lasne, Françoise

2012-07-01

41

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport  

PubMed Central

Oxygen is essential for life, and the body has developed an exquisite method to collect oxygen in the lungs and transport it to the tissues. Hb contained within red blood cells (RBCs), is the key oxygen-carrying component in blood, and levels of RBCs are tightly controlled according to demand for oxygen. The availability of oxygen plays a critical role in athletic performance, and agents that enhance oxygen delivery to tissues increase aerobic power. Early methods to increase oxygen delivery included training at altitude, and later, transfusion of packed RBCs. A breakthrough in understanding how RBC formation is controlled included the discovery of erythropoietin (Epo) and cloning of the EPO gene. Cloning of the EPO gene was followed by commercial development of recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo). Legitimate use of this and other agents that affect oxygen delivery is important in the treatment of anaemia (low Hb levels) in patients with chronic kidney disease or in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anaemia. However, competitive sports was affected by illicit use of rHuEpo to enhance performance. Testing methods for these agents resulted in a cat-and-mouse game, with testing labs attempting to detect the use of a drug or blood product to improve athletic performance (doping) and certain athletes developing methods to use the agents without being detected. This article examines the current methods to enhance aerobic performance and the methods to detect illicit use. PMID:18362898

Elliott, S

2008-01-01

42

Blood utilization and hemoglobin levels in cancer patients after label and coverage changes for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.  

PubMed

A comprehensive literature search was performed to examine the influence of changes in erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) label and reimbursement policies on utilization of red blood cell transfusions and patient hemoglobin levels in US cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or anemia management. Studies conducted in ESA-treated patients showed an increase in transfusion rates when comparing the post-intervention period with pre-intervention period (range of relative change: 15-125%). Results from studies conducted in patients receiving chemotherapy irrespective of anemia treatment were variable; single-institution-based studies tended to show a decrease in transfusion rates (range of relative change: -3.2 to -24.1%), while multiple-institution-based studies suggested an increase in transfusion rates (range of relative change: 12-182%). Studies showed decreases in hemoglobin levels during chemotherapy or at ESA initiation, and decreased ESA utilization. PMID:25081548

Xu, Hairong; Kaye, James A; Saltus, Catherine W; Crawford, Jeffrey; Gasal, Eduard; Goodnough, Lawrence T

2014-10-01

43

Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets [I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas [2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study [3] has been expanded with additional bacteria and fungi. These spectra were acquired on a Finnigan Magnum ion trap using helium buffer gas. A new database of Cl spectra of microorganisms is planned using the CBMS Block II instrument and air as the buffer gas. Using the current database, the fatty acid composition of the organisms was compared using the percentage of the ion current attributable to fatty acids. The data presented suggest promising rules for discrimination of these organisms. Strain, growth media and vegetative state do contribute to some of the distributions observed in the data. However, the data distributions observed in the current study only reflect our experience to date and do not fully represent the variability that might be expected in practice: Acquisition of MS/ MS spectra has begun (using He and air buffer gas) of the protonated molecular ion of a variety of fatty acids and for a number of ions nominally assigned as fatty acids from microorganisms. These spectra will be used to help verify fatty acid .

Harmon, S.H.; Hart, K.J.; Vass, A.A.; Wise, M.B.; Wolf, D.A.

1999-06-14

44

On modeling of chemical stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system using a high pH solution with chelating agent  

SciTech Connect

Dissolution of silica and calcite in the presence of a chelating agent (NTA) at a high pH was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments using a high-temperature flow reactor. (Note that the term 'silica' used here includes amorphous silica, quartz, and silicate glass bead). The mineral dissolution and associated porosity enhancement in the experiments were reproduced by reactive transport modeling using TOUGHREACT. The chemical stimulation method was applied by numerical modeling to a field geothermal injection well system to investigate its effectiveness. Parameters applicable to the quartz monzodiorite unit at the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) site at Desert Peak (Nevada) were used. Results indicate that the injection of a high pH chelating solution results in dissolution of both calcite and plagioclase, while avoiding precipitation of calcite at high temperature conditions. Consequently reservoir porosity and permeability can be enhanced especially near the injection well. Injection at a lower temperature of 120 C (over 160 C in the base-case) results in a porosity increase that is smaller close to the injection point, but extends to a larger radial distance. A slower kinetic rate results in less aggressive mineral dissolution close to the injection point and larger extent along the flow path, which is favorable for chemical stimulation.

Xu, T.; Rose, P.; Fayer, S.; Pruess, K.

2009-05-01

45

Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.  

PubMed

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed. PMID:23212430

Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

2012-12-01

46

Combination treatment with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent and intravenous iron alleviates anaemia in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) suffer from recurrent epistaxis and bleeding from gastrointestinal telangiectasias that occur despite otherwise normal haemostasis and result in iron deficiency anaemia with increasing severity. In advanced disease, anaemia may be severe, be irresponsive to iron supplementation, and may lead to red blood cell transfusion dependency. Methods We conducted a retrospective study at our Centre for Osler’s Disease to evaluate the effectiveness of adding an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) to intravenous iron supplementation in the management of anaemic HHT patients. Blood values and treatment parameters were collected for nine months before combination therapy (iron supplementation only) and 12 months during combination therapy (iron supplementation plus ESA). Results Four patients received intravenous iron and an ESA with mean weekly doses of 126 mg and 17,300 units (U), respectively. Mean haemoglobin improved significantly during combination therapy, from 106 g/L to 119 g/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Conclusion. Anaemia can be alleviated in patients with HHT who are irresponsive to intravenous iron supplementation, by addition of an ESA. The proposed mechanism behind the iron irresponsiveness is that the anaemia is caused by a combination of recurrent haemorrhage and anaemia of chronic disease. PMID:25188751

Cherif, Honar

2014-01-01

47

Perihospitalization patterns of hemoglobin levels and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent doses in US hemodialysis patients, 1998-2009.  

PubMed

Anemia management in hemodialysis patients is of primary importance for clinicians and dialysis providers. Through a retrospective claims analysis, we studied prevalent US hemodialysis patients 1998-2009, and examined patterns of hemoglobin levels and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA, epoetin [EPO], and darbepoetin [DPO]?) doses surrounding hospitalization events. Medicare outpatient claims were used to determine monthly ESA doses and associated hemoglobin levels. ESA dose trajectories were defined with repeated measures models incorporating an autoregressive covariance matrix that compared subsequent measurements with the index month of hospitalization, with variance component covariance matrices chosen for pair-wise comparisons. Regarding prehospitalization hemoglobin levels, a biphasic pattern occurred in both the EPO (1998-2009, n?=?161,242) and DPO (2004-2009, n?=?4391) populations; levels rose from 1998 to 2004, fell thereafter in the EPO population, and fell after 2006 or 2007 in the DPO population. In the EPO population, the proportions of patients with hemoglobin less than 10?g/dL were 30.1% in 1998, 14.5% in 2004, and 28.3% in 2009; corresponding values for the DPO population were 21.0% in 2004 and 31.6% in 2009. While some degree of year-to-year variability occurred, EPO dose trends were less pronounced, with an apparent peak in 2004 followed by a modest decline; trends were similar for DPO. Trends in EPO dose trajectories did not completely parallel those for hemoglobin level; while EPO doses increased yearly up to 2004, doses stabilized, but did not materially decrease after 2004. No definite annual trends for DPO dose trajectories were apparent. PMID:24131588

Foley, Robert N; Solid, Craig A; Lamb, Kenneth

2014-01-01

48

Association of malnutrition–inflammation complex and responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in long-term hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Protein-energy wasting, inflammation and refractory anemia are common in long-term hemodialysis patients. A decreased responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) is often the cause of the refractory anemia. We hypothesized that the malnutrition–inflammation complex is an independent predictor of decreased responsiveness to ESAs in hemodialysis patients. Methods This cohort study of 754 hemodialysis patients was examined for an association between inflammatory and nutritional markers, including the malnutrition–inflammation score (MIS) and responsiveness to ESA. Cubic spline models were fitted to verify found associations. Results The mean (±SD) age of patients was 54 ± 15 years, 53% were diabetic and 32% blacks. MIS was worse in the highest quartile of ESAs responsiveness index (ERI, ESA dose divided by hemoglobin) when compared with 1st quartile (6.5 ± 4.5 versus 4.4 ± 3.4; P < 0.001). Both C-reactive protein (log CRP) (? = 0.19) and interleukin-6 (log IL-6) (? = 0.32) were strong and independent predictors of ERI using multivariate linear regression. Serum albumin (? = ?0.30) and prealbumin levels (? = ?0.14) were inversely associated with ERI. Each 1 SD higher MIS, higher CRP and lower albumin were associated with 86, 44 and 97% higher likelihood of having highest versus three lowest ERI quartiles in fully adjusted models [odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of 1.86 (1.31–2.85), 1.44 (1.08–1.92) and 1.97 (1.41–2.78)], respectively. Cubic splines confirmed the continuous and incremental nature of these associations. Conclusions Malnutrition–inflammation complex is an incremental predictor of poor responsiveness to ESAs in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to assess whether modulating inflammatory or nutritional processes can improve anemia management. PMID:23045431

Rattanasompattikul, Manoch; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Zaritsky, Joshua J.; Hatamizadeh, Parta; Jing, Jennie; Norris, Keith C.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2013-01-01

49

Reduced use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron with ferric citrate: a managed care cost-offset model  

PubMed Central

Background Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder in development for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In clinical trials, FC improved patient serum phosphorus levels and increased serum ferritin and percent transferrin saturation. Because nephrologists respond to increases in these iron measures by reducing intravenous (IV) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) doses, the decreased use of iron and ESA associated with FC may reduce costs. Objectives To develop a cost-offset model from a managed care perspective estimating the cost savings associated with FC use. Methods We created a cost-offset model from the managed care payer perspective that compared the treatment costs of ESRD for patients given FC. The model considered the number of dialysis sessions per month; number of ESRD patients enrolled in the health plan; cost of ESAs, iron, and dialysis sessions; and the proportion of patients on phosphate binder therapy. The model assumed equivalent efficacy and cost neutrality between FC and other phosphate binders. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted by varying model inputs. Results When FC was compared to other phosphate binders, the monthly cost of ESA and IV iron per 500 patients with ESRD (85% treated with phosphate binders) was reduced by 8.15% and 33.2%, respectively. When incorporated into the total cost of dialysis for patients with ESRD (dialysis, ESA, and IV iron), the decrease in the monthly cost of dialysis care was US$80,214 per 500 ESRD patients. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that a plan serving 500 dialysis patients could save between US$626,000 and US$1,106,000 annually with the use of FC. Conclusion The use of FC in ESRD patients with hyperphosphatemia may help reduce treatment costs. PMID:23662073

Mutell, Richard; Rubin, Jaime L; Bond, T Christopher; Mayne, Tracy

2013-01-01

50

Effects of Iron Supplementation on Erythropoietic Response in Patients with Cancer-Associated Anemia Treated by Means of Erythropoietic Stimulating Agents  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, intravenous iron supplementation to ESA (erythropoiesis-stimulating agent) therapy has emerged as an option to augment hemoglobin response in anemic cancer patients. In this paper, the results of seven published randomized clinical trials assessing the role of iron supplementation to ESA therapy in the hematology/oncology setting will be discussed. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind functional iron deficiency, a major reason for ESA hyporesponsiveness in cancer, will also be described. PMID:22111015

Karlsson, Torbjörn

2011-01-01

51

Stimulation of serotonin-1A receptors in mammals to alleviate motion sickness and emesis induced by chemical agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the alleviation of both motion sickness and chemically-induced emesis is provided which includes the administration of a nontoxic, therapeutically effective amount of a composition which stimulates serotonin-1A receptors in a mammal in need of such treatment. The preferred compounds for use are buspirone and 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT).

Lucot, James B. (Inventor); Crampton, George H. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

52

Subchronic safety evaluation of EPO-018B, a pegylated peptidic erythropoiesis stimulating agent, after 5-week subcutaneous injection in Cynomolgus monkeys and Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

EPO-018B, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA), is coupled to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and designed to specifically bind and activate the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor to result in production of red blood cells. This study was designed to evaluate the potential subchronic toxicity of EPO-018B for Cynomolgus monkeys and Sprague-Dawley rats both at 0, 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg every week for 5 weeks, followed by 6-week recovery for rats and 12-week recovery for monkeys. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for rats and monkeys were both considered to be at least 0.5 mg/kg/day, the minimum toxic dose to be 5.0 mg/kg/day and the severe toxic dose to be more than 50.0 mg/kg/day. The toxicological effects included the exaggerated pharmacology and secondary sequelae that resulted from an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent treatment to healthy animals. Most treatment induced effects were reversible or showed ongoing recovery upon discontinuation of treatment. The anticipated patient population for EPO-018B treatment is targeted to be the anemia patients caused by chronic renal failure or chemotherapy against to cancer and is expected to have an ideal clinical application prospect. PMID:23911802

Gong, Xue-Lian; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Li, Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Zong, Ying; Lu, Guo-Cai; Yuan, Bo-Jun

2013-10-01

53

Solcoseryl, a tissue respiration stimulating agent, significantly enhances the effect of capacitively coupled electric field on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants.  

PubMed

In the present study we examined the combined effect of application of a capacitively coupled electric field (CCEF) and the tissue respiration stimulating agent, Solcoseryl, on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants histologically and mechanically. After a dental implant was inserted into each femur of Japanese white rabbits, Solcoseryl (2 ml/kg) was administered intravenously in the ear vein and a CCEF was applied for 4 h per day for 14 days. The degree of bone formation on microscopic observation, bone contact ratio, bone surface area ratio, and the level of removal torque of the implant in the Solcoseryl- and CCEF-treated group were significantly higher than the respective value in the control group, which had not been treated with Solcoseryl nor CCEF. Thus, the combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl effectively promoted the formation of new bone. It is suggested that the clinical use of a combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl for dental implants promotes osseointegration. PMID:12755779

Ochi, Morio; Wang, Pao-Li; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Takashima, Shigenori; Kagami, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Yukito; Kaku, Tohru; Sakaguchi, Kunihiko

2003-06-01

54

Comparative capacity of four antifungal agents to stimulate murine macrophages to produce tumour necrosis factor alpha: an effect that is attenuated by pentoxifylline, liposomal vesicles, and dexamethasone.  

PubMed

The efficacy and toxicity of certain antifungal agents may be related to their ability to induce the production of cytokines by mononuclear phagocytes. The capacity of incremental concentrations of fluconazole, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), amphotericin B (AmB), and liposomal AmB (LAB) to stimulate murine peritoneal and RAW 264.7 macrophages to secrete tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) after 3, 6 and 24 h incubation was assessed by L929 cytotoxic bioassay. Fluconazole (2.5-40 mg/L) and 5-FC (25-100 mg/L) did not have a stimulatory effect. However, AmB (0.25-10 mg/L) elicited TNF alpha production by macrophages. This response was concentration-dependent, and peak TNF alpha levels were detected between 3 and 6 h. This effect was attenuated by incorporation of AmB into liposomal vesicles and by pretreating macrophages with pentoxifylline or dexamethasone. AmB I mg/L in combination with 1 x 10(6) cfu of Candida albicans stimulated peritoneal macrophages to produce similar quantities of TNF alpha as AmB alone, and two- to four-fold more TNF alpha than C. albicans alone. Thus, this study suggests that: (1) the immunomodulatory activity and toxicities of AmB, in part, may be attributed to the capacity of this drug to stimulate macrophages to secrete TNF alpha, (2) the TNF alpha that is produced by macrophages in response to AmB may have clinical relevance even in the face of C. albicans infection, and (3) the failure of fluconazole, 5-FC, and LAB to elicit a TNF alpha response may explain their improved side-effect profiles. PMID:7730240

Louie, A; Baltch, A L; Franke, M A; Smith, R P; Gordon, M A

1994-12-01

55

The mechanism of aggrecan release from cartilage differs with tissue origin and the agent used to stimulate catabolism.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of aggrecan degradation in adult human articular, adult bovine nasal and fetal bovine epiphyseal cartilage in response to either interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or retinoic acid were compared using an explant culture system. Bovine nasal cartilage cultured with either IL-1beta or retinoic acid exhibited significant release of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). For both factors, aggrecan proteolysis occurred predominantly at the 'aggrecanase' site, with no evidence for the action of matrix metalloproteinases, and resulted in the appearance of the corresponding G1 fragment in tissue extracts and in culture media. In human cartilage, little effect of IL-1beta was seen, but abundant release of GAG occurred in the presence of retinoic acid, with evidence of aggrecanase action. Treatment of fetal epiphyseal cartilage with retinoic acid resulted in significant GAG release, whereas treatment with IL-1beta did not. In the retinoic acid-treated tissue, however, no evidence for the cleavage of aggrecan in the interglobular region was apparent. Thus, in the fetal system, agents in addition to aggrecanase and matrix metalloproteinases appear to be active. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the pathways utilized for aggrecan catabolism may vary between different cartilages for a given stimulatory agent, and that, for a given tissue, different factors may elicit aggrecan release via different pathways. PMID:11853556

Sztrolovics, Robert; White, Robert J; Roughley, Peter J; Mort, John S

2002-01-01

56

Comparison of five derivatizing agents for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in human urine by extractive acylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Five acylation reagents have been compared for use as derivatizing agents for the analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The evaluated reagents were heptafluorobutyric anhydride, pentafluoropropionic anhydride, trifluoroacetic anhydride, acetic anhydride (AA) and N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide). The ATS included amphetamine, methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). A mixture of the ATS was added to urine (1 mL) followed by KOH solution and saturated NaHCO(3) solution. The sample was then extracted with dichloromethane and the derivatizing agent and 2 µL were injected into the GC-MS instrument. The derivatizing agents were compared with reference to the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, peak area values, relative standard deviations (RSDs), linearities, limits of detection (LODs) and selectivities. The acetic anhydride proved to be the best according to the S/N ratio and peak area results for amphetamine, MA, MDMA and MDEA. The best RSD values of peak areas and of S/N ratios at 3 µg/mL were also given by AA in cases of MDA, MDMA and MDEA. At 20 µg/mL, the lowest RSD values of peak areas for MDA and the lowest RSD values of S/N ratios for MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA were again given by AA. Additionally, the highest correlation coefficients for MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA and the lowest LOD results for MA, MDMA and MDEA were produced by AA. PMID:22582269

Dobos, Adrienn; Hidvégi, Elod; Somogyi, Gábor Pál

2012-06-01

57

The insulinomimetic agents H2O2 and vanadate stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of potential target proteins for the insulin receptor kinase in intact cells.  

PubMed Central

H2O2 and vanadate are known insulinomimetic agents. Together they induce insulin's bioeffects with a potency which exceeds that seen with insulin, vanadate or H2O2 alone. We have previously shown that a combination of H2O2 and vanadate, when added to intact cells, rapidly stimulates protein tyrosine phosphorylation, owing to the inhibitory effects of these agents on intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). Employing Western blotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, we have now identified in Chinese-hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with a wild-type insulin-receptor gene (CHO.T cells) several proteins (e.g. pp180, 125, 100, 60 and 52) whose phosphotyrosine content is rapidly increased upon treatment of the cells with a combination of insulin and 3 mM-H2O2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of these and additional proteins was further potentiated when 100 microM-sodium orthovanadate was added together with H2O2. The effects of insulin, insulin/H2O2, and H2O2/vanadate on tyrosine phosphorylation were markedly decreased in CHO cells transfected with an insulin-receptor gene where the twin tyrosines 1162 and 1163 were replaced with phenylalanine (CHO.YF-3 cells). Similarly, most of these proteins failed to undergo enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation in parental CHO cells incubated in the presence of insulin or the insulinomimetic agents. Our findings suggest that inhibition of PTPase activity by H2O2/vanadate augments the autophosphorylation of tyrosines 1162 and 1163 of the insulin receptor kinase, leading to its activation in an insulin-independent manner. As a result, tyrosine phosphorylation of potential targets for this enzyme takes place. Failure of H2O2/vanadate to induce phosphorylation of these proteins in receptor mutants lacking these twin tyrosine residues supports this hypothesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:1281409

Heffetz, D; Rutter, W J; Zick, Y

1992-01-01

58

Quels agents incriminés dans les mycoses du pied ? Enquête auprès des diabétiques consultant au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech  

PubMed Central

Les infections mycosiques du pied constituent un motif fréquent de consultation chez les diabétiques, le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant les lésions cutanéomuqueuses. L'objectif de ce travail était d'identifier la flore mycologique locale responsable des lésions du pied chez le diabétique et déterminer les facteurs favorisant la survenue de mycoses. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale intéressant des diabétiques suivis en consultation; un prélèvement mycologique, avec examen direct et culture, a été réalisé devant toute suspicion clinique de lésion mycosique. Quatre-vingt-deux patients ont été inclus. L'hémoglobine glycosylée moyenne a été de9,2% ± 2,23. Un intertrigo inter orteil a été noté dans 90,2% des cas; l'examen mycologique était positif dans 64,8% des cas, avec 18 cas de Trichophyton rubrum et 11 cas de Candida albicans. Une atteinte unguéale a été suspectée chez 65,9% patients; la culture a mis en évidence un Trichosporon pathogène chez sept patients, un Candida albicansdans six cas, un Trichophyton rubrum dans quatre cas, avec trois cas de Trichophyton mentagrophytes et deux cas de Scytalidium dimidiatum. L’étude analytique, après confirmation mycologique, en fonction des principales caractéristiques des patients a montré que l'atteinte mycosique du pied est significativement corrélée au déséquilibre glycémique. Ce travail a montré la prédominance du Trichophyton rubrum dans les lésions d'intertrigo inter orteil et du Trichosporon dans les onychomycoses, avec une prédominance globale plus globale plus élevée du TR. PMID:25170372

Chegour, Hakima; El Ansari, Nawal; El Mghari, Ghizlane; Tali, Abdelali; Zoughaghi, Laila; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

2014-01-01

59

Microtubule-depolymerizing agents used in antibody-drug conjugates induce antitumor immunity by stimulation of dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are emerging as powerful treatment strategies with outstanding target-specificity and high therapeutic activity in patients with cancer. Brentuximab vedotin represents a first-in-class ADC directed against CD30(+) malignancies. We hypothesized that its sustained clinical responses could be related to the stimulation of an anticancer immune response. In this study, we demonstrate that the dolastatin family of microtubule inhibitors, from which the cytotoxic component of brentuximab vedotin is derived, comprises potent inducers of phenotypic and functional dendritic cell (DC) maturation. In addition to the direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells, dolastatins efficiently promoted antigen uptake and migration of tumor-resident DCs to the tumor-draining lymph nodes. Exposure of murine and human DCs to dolastatins significantly increased their capacity to prime T cells. Underlining the requirement of an intact host immune system for the full therapeutic benefit of dolastatins, the antitumor effect was far less pronounced in immunocompromised mice. We observed substantial therapeutic synergies when combining dolastatins with tumor antigen-specific vaccination or blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1 and CTLA-4 coinhibitory pathways. Ultimately, treatment with ADCs using dolastatins induces DC homing and activates cellular antitumor immune responses in patients. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of action for dolastatins and provide a strong rationale for clinical treatment regimens combining dolastatin-based therapies, such as brentuximab vedotin, with immune-based therapies. PMID:24916470

Müller, Philipp; Martin, Kea; Theurich, Sebastian; Schreiner, Jens; Savic, Spasenija; Terszowski, Grzegorz; Lardinois, Didier; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A; Schlaak, Max; Kvasnicka, Hans-Michael; Spagnoli, Giulio; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Speiser, Daniel E; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Zippelius, Alfred

2014-08-01

60

Polymersomes conjugated with des-octanoyl ghrelin for the delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents into brain tissues.  

PubMed

The effective protection of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from tight junctions and efflux transport systems ultimately results in the limited entry of 95% of drug/gene candidates, which are potentially beneficial for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In order to enhance the brain-specific delivery, in this study we developed a targeting carrier system, which consists of poly(carboxyl ethylene glycol-g-glutamate)-co-poly(distearin-g-glutamate) (CPEGGM-PDSGM) polymersomes with the conjugation of des-octanoyl ghrelin. Des-octanoyl ghrelin across the BBB was reported to be unidirectional (blood-to-brain direction). However, there is no report about the conjugation of des-octanoyl ghrelin to a drug carrier system to confer the BBB targeting property through des-octanoyl ghrelin binding sites mediated endocytosis. To qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this carrier's properties, coumarin 6, Cy5.5 and met-enkephalin were individually encapsulated in these polymersomes. The experimental results showed that the cellular uptake was significantly higher for des-octanoyl ghrelin-conjugated polymersomes (GPs) than unconjugated polymersomes when co-incubated with the BBB cells. In addition, an enhanced accumulation in brain together with a reduced accumulation in liver and spleen was observed in animal study, indicating better brain selectivity for the GPs. In a hot-plate test, a significant inhibition of nociceptive response could be achieved for an intravenous injection of GPs encapsulated with met-enkephalin. The overall results demonstrated that GPs own a great potential for targeting delivery of drug across the BBB to treat CNS diseases. PMID:24315575

Chen, Yung-Chu; Chiang, Chi-Feng; Chen, Li-Fang; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Win-Li

2014-02-01

61

Effects of pharmacological agents, sleep deprivation, hypoxia and transcranial magnetic stimulation on electroencephalographic rhythms in rodents: towards translational challenge models for drug discovery in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Different kinds of challenge can alter spontaneous ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in animal models, thus providing paradigms to evaluate treatment effects in drug discovery. The effects of challenges represented by pharmacological agents, hypoxia, sleep deprivation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on EEG rhythms are here reviewed to build a knowledge platform for innovative translational models for drug discovery in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been reported that antagonists of cholinergic neurotransmission cause synchronisation of spontaneous ongoing EEG rhythms in terms of enhanced power of EEG low frequencies and decreased power of EEG high frequencies. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and serotonergic drugs may restore a normal pattern of EEG desynchronisation. Sleep deprivation and hypoxia challenges have also been reported to elicit abnormal synchronisation of spontaneous ongoing EEG rhythms in rodents. The feasibility and reproducibility of TMS have been demonstrated in rodents but information on a consistent modulation of EEG after TMS manipulation is very limited. Transgenic mice over-expressing human amyloid precursor protein complementary DNAs (cDNAs) harbouring the 'Swedish' mutation and PS-1 cDNAs harbouring the A264E mutation, which recapitulate some of the pathological features of AD, exhibit alterations of spontaneous ongoing EEG rhythms at several low and high frequencies. This does not appear, however, to be a consequence of beta-amyloid deposition in the brain. The present review provides a critical evaluation of changes of spontaneous ongoing EEG rhythms due to the experimental manipulations described above, in order to stimulate the promote more adherent models fitting dynamics in humans. PMID:23040292

Babiloni, Claudio; Infarinato, Francesco; Aujard, Fabienne; Bastlund, Jesper Frank; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bertini, Giuseppe; Del Percio, Claudio; Fabene, Paolo Francesco; Forloni, Gianluigi; Herrero Ezquerro, Maria Trinidad; Noè, Francesco Mattia; Pifferi, Fabien; Ros-Bernal, Francisco; Christensen, Ditte Zerlang; Dix, Sophie; Richardson, Jill C; Lamberty, Yves; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Rossini, Paolo Maria

2013-03-01

62

Between subjects variability in haemoglobin and dose are not associated with the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent used to treat anaemia in dialysis: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Aims We aimed to compare mean and between subject variability in haemoglobin (Hb) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) dose across the ESA compounds used to treat anaemia in dialysis patients. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluating ESA in adult patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis (target Hb 9–13.5 g dl?1), and compared mean Hb and its standard deviation (SD), and ESA dose and its coefficient of variation (CV) between the different agents [rHuEPO alfa or beta, darbepoetin alfa, pegylated-epoetin beta (PEG-EPO) or other epoetins]. The effect of route and frequency of administration, frequency of dose adjustments, study blinding and type, baseline value, Hb target and sampling frequency were also assessed. Results Among 4983 patients from 16 studies, pooled Hb mean and SD during the evaluation phase were 11.5 g dl?1 (95% CI 11.3, 11.7) and 0.99 g dl?1 (0.88, 1.09), respectively. The Hb mean and SD were not significantly influenced by the covariates tested. Only Hb SD was significantly lower in maintenance studies relative to correction studies. No differences in mean ESA dose and CV were found across the covariates, except that PEG-EPO monthly dose was 42% higher than the every 2 weeks dose and the rHuEPO i.v. dose was 32% higher than the s.c. dose. Conclusions Between subject variability in haemoglobin and ESA dose in dialysis patients is not associated with the type of ESA, nor with the dosing interval or route of administration, except for higher dose requirements in PEG-EPO monthly administration relative to every 2 weeks or rHuEPO i.v. relative to s.c. PMID:22803621

Pérez-Ruixo, Juan José; Cucala-Ramos, Mercedes; García-Gonzalo, Ester; Del Val Romero, Beatriz; Valveny, Neus

2013-01-01

63

Long-term outcome of anemic lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes without 5q deletion refractory to or relapsing after erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.  

PubMed

A large proportion of lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) respond to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), but most responses are transient. We updated a previously reported cohort of lower-risk MDS patients treated with ESA and analyzed outcomes after ESA failure. In 120 patients with primary resistance and 66 patients with relapse after an initial response to ESA, the 5-year cumulative incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after failure was 18.9% and 11.6%, respectively (P=0.20). Median overall survival (OS) after failure was 40.1 and 44.9 months (P=0.35), respectively. We further categorized patients as 'early failures' (including resistance and relapse after <6 months of response), or 'later failures' (that is, relapse after ?6 months). The 5-year cumulative incidence of AML and median OS after failure in early and later failure were 21.6% and 9% (P=0.02) and 36.7 and 54.3 months (P=0.02), respectively. Early failure to ESA and a baseline diagnosis of refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-1 were independent prognostic factors for AML progression and, along with trisomy 8, for shorter OS. Median OS from treatment onset was 40, 90.7 and 65.8 months in early failure, later failure and no relapse, respectively (P=0.001). Lower-risk MDS with early failure to ESA have a relatively unfavorable outcome, and should be offered alternative treatments. PMID:23370672

Kelaidi, C; Park, S; Sapena, R; Beyne-Rauzy, O; Coiteux, V; Vey, N; Stamatoullas, A; Choufi, B; Delaunay, J; Gourin, M-P; Cheze, S; Ravoet, C; Ferrant, A; Escoffre-Barbe, M; Aljassem, L; Raffoux, E; Itzykson, R; Adès, L; Dreyfus, F; Fenaux, P

2013-06-01

64

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-Stimulated Hormonal Toxicity is Mediated by ER? Alteration of Target Gene Methylation Patterns and Epigenetic Modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the Mouse Seminal Vesicle  

PubMed Central

Background: Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen associated with adverse effects on reproductive organs. DES-induced toxicity of the mouse seminal vesicle (SV) is mediated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?), which alters expression of seminal vesicle secretory protein IV (Svs4) and lactoferrin (Ltf) genes. Objectives: We examined a role for nuclear receptor activity in association with DNA methylation and altered gene expression. Methods: We used the neonatal DES exposure mouse model to examine DNA methylation patterns via bisulfite conversion sequencing in SVs of wild-type (WT) and ER?-knockout (?ERKO) mice. Results: The DNA methylation status at four specific CpGs (–160, –237, –306, and –367) in the Svs4 gene promoter changed during mouse development from methylated to unmethylated, and DES prevented this change at 10 weeks of age in WT SV. At two specific CpGs (–449 and –459) of the Ltf gene promoter, DES altered the methylation status from methylated to unmethylated. Alterations in DNA methylation of Svs4 and Ltf were not observed in ?ERKO SVs, suggesting that changes of methylation status at these CpGs are ER? dependent. The methylation status was associated with the level of gene expression. In addition, gene expression of three epigenetic modifiers—DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2—increased in the SV of DES-exposed WT mice. Conclusion: DES-induced hormonal toxicity resulted from altered gene expression of Svs4 and Ltf associated with changes in DNA methylation that were mediated by ER?. Alterations in gene expression of DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2 in DES-exposed male mice may be involved in mediating the changes in methylation status in the SV. Citation: Li Y, Hamilton KJ, Lai AY, Burns KA, Li L, Wade PA, Korach KS. 2014. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-stimulated hormonal toxicity is mediated by ER? alteration of target gene methylation patterns and epigenetic modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the mouse seminal vesicle. Environ Health Perspect 122:262–268;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307351 PMID:24316720

Li, Yin; Hamilton, Katherine J.; Lai, Anne Y.; Burns, Katherine A.; Li, Leping; Wade, Paul A.

2013-01-01

65

Resistance to Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Patients Treated with Online Hemodiafiltration and Ultrapure Low-Flux Hemodialysis: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial (CONTRAST)  

PubMed Central

Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) is common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) treatment. ESA responsiveness might be improved by enhanced clearance of uremic toxins of middle molecular weight, as can be obtained by hemodiafiltration (HDF). In this analysis of the randomized controlled CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556), the effect of online HDF on ESA resistance and iron parameters was studied. This was a pre-specified secondary endpoint of the main trial. A 12 months' analysis of 714 patients randomized to either treatment with online post-dilution HDF or continuation of low-flux HD was performed. Both groups were treated with ultrapure dialysis fluids. ESA resistance, measured every three months, was expressed as the ESA index (weight adjusted weekly ESA dose in daily defined doses [DDD]/hematocrit). The mean ESA index during 12 months was not different between patients treated with HDF or HD (mean difference HDF versus HD over time 0.029 DDD/kg/Hct/week [?0.024 to 0.081]; P?=?0.29). Mean transferrin saturation ratio and ferritin levels during the study tended to be lower in patients treated with HDF (?2.52% [?4.72 to ?0.31]; P?=?0.02 and ?49 ng/mL [?103 to 4]; P?=?0.06 respectively), although there was a trend for those patients to receive slightly more iron supplementation (7.1 mg/week [?0.4 to 14.5]; P?=?0.06). In conclusion, compared to low-flux HD with ultrapure dialysis fluid, treatment with online HDF did not result in a decrease in ESA resistance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00205556 PMID:24743493

van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Den Hoedt, Claire H.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bots, Michiel L.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; Lévesque, Renée; Mazairac, Albert H. A.; Nubé, Menso J.; Penne, E. Lars; ter Wee, Pieter M.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.

2014-01-01

66

Stimulative effect of the fungal biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Striga on abundance of nitrifying prokaryotes in a maize rhizosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as total archaeal and bacterial communities. AOB only showed significant increases in the Machanga soil when organic residues were added. Furthermore, there were transient detectable significant increases in total archaea and AOA due to Striga inoculation which also varied with the soil. The variation in treatment effects in the two soils was highly linked to the differences in soil properties such as dissolved organic carbon and soil pH which showed significant (P

Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

2014-05-01

67

Anemia and iron deficiency in COPD patients: prevalence and the effects of correction of the anemia with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous iron  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The purposes of this study were: (i) To study the prevalence and treatment of anemia and ID in patients hospitalized with an exacerbation of COPD. (ii) to study the hematological responses and degree of dyspnea before and after correction of anemia with subcutaneous Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron therapy, in ambulatory anemic patients with both COPD and chronic kidney disease. Methods (i) We examined the hospital records of all patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) to assess the investigation, prevalence, and treatment of anemia and ID. (ii) We treated 12 anemic COPD outpatients with the combination of ESAs and IV-iron, given once weekly for 5 weeks. One week later we measured the hematological response and the severity of dyspnea by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results (i) Anemia and iron deficiency in hospitalized COPD patients: Of 107 consecutive patients hospitalized with an AECOPD, 47 (43.9%) were found to be anemic on admission. Two (3.3%) of the 60 non-anemic patients and 18 (38.3%) of the 47 anemic patients had serum iron, percent transferrin saturation (%Tsat) and serum ferritin measured. All 18 (100%) anemic patients had ID, yet none had oral or IV iron subscribed before or during hospitalization, or at discharge. (ii) Intervention outpatient study: ID was found in 11 (91.7%) of the 12 anemic ambulatory patients. Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct) and the VAS scale scores increased significantly with the ESAs and IV-iron treatment. There was a highly significant correlation between the ?Hb and ?VAS; rs?=?0.71 p?=?0.009 and between the ?Hct and ?VAS; rs?=?0.8 p?=?0.0014. Conclusions ID is common in COPD patients but is rarely looked for or treated. Yet correction of the ID in COPD patients with ESAs and IV iron can improve the anemia, the ID, and may improve the dyspnea. PMID:24564844

2014-01-01

68

Effect of iodide on glucose oxidation and /sup 32/P incorporation into phospholipids stimulated by different agents in dog thyroid slices  

SciTech Connect

Since iodide (I-) inhibits TSH stimulation of cAMP formation, which mediates most of the effects of the hormone, it has been assumed that this accounts for the inhibitory action of iodide on the thyroid. However, TSH stimulation of 32P incorporation into phospholipids and stimulation of thyroid metabolism by other agonists, such as carbachol, phorbol esters, and ionophore A23187, is not cAMP mediated. The present studies examined the effect of iodide on stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by TSH and other agonists to determine if the inhibition of cAMP formation was responsible for the action of iodide. Preincubation of dog thyroid slices for 1 h with iodide (10(-4) M) inhibited TSH-, (Bu)2cAMP-, carbachol-, methylene blue-, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-, ionophore A23187-, prostaglandin E1-, and cholera toxin-stimulated glucose oxidation. I- also inhibited the stimulation by TSH, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, carbachol, and ionophore A23187 of 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The inhibition was similar whether iodide was added 2 h before or simultaneously with the agonist. I- itself sometimes stimulated basal glucose oxidation, but had no effect on basal 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The effects of iodide on basal and agonist-stimulated thyroid metabolism were blocked by methimazole (10(-3) M). When dog thyroid slices were preloaded with 32PO4 or (1-14C)glucose, the iodide inhibition of agonist stimulation disappeared, suggesting that the effect of iodide involves the transport process. In conclusion, I- inhibited stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by all agonists, indicating that the effect is independent of the cAMP system and that iodide autoregulation does not only involve this system. Oxidation and organification of iodide are necessary for the inhibition.

Tseng, F.Y.; Rani, C.S.; Field, J.B.

1989-03-01

69

Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental method using simultaneously different ? emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs ? a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

Bureau, M. F.

1997-03-01

70

Stimulation a l'emergence de la Lecture en Milieu Familial Chez des Enfants Presentant Une Deficience Intellectuelle (Stimulation of the Emergence of Literacy among Families with Children Presenting an Intellectual Deficiency).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared family stimulation related to literacy provided to five- to seven-year-olds with intellectual deficits and without intellectual deficits. Found that, compared to children without intellectual deficits, children with intellectual deficits had fewer books available, parents began reading to them later in life, and read to them less…

Saint-Laurent, Lise; Leclerc, Mario

1998-01-01

71

Brain Stimulation for Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ignited by the efficacy and commercial success of cardiac devices, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and biomedical engineers are collaborating to develop implantable brain devices to arrest, contain, and preempt seizures before they cause clinical symptoms. New devices in development deliver electrical stimulation or pharmacologic agents locally to the epileptic focus or deep nuclei to modulate seizure activity. \\

Brian Litt; Gordon Baltuch

2001-01-01

72

Inhibition of Muscarinic-Stimulated Polyphosphoinositide Hydrolysis and Ca 2+ Mobilization in Cat Iris Sphincter Smooth Muscle Cells By cAMP-Elevating Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of carbachol (CCh) on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mobilization, and their regulation by cAMP-elevating agents were investigated in SV-40 transformed cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (SV-CISM-2) cells. CCh produced time- and dose-dependent increases in IP3 production; the t1\\/2 and EC50 values were 68 s and 0.5 ?M, respectively. The muscarinic agonist provoked a transient

Ke-Hong Ding; Shahid Husain; Rashid A Akhtar; Carlos M Isales; Ata A Abdel-Latif

1997-01-01

73

K+ current stimulation by Cl- in the midgut epithelium of tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). I. Kinetics and effect of Cl(-)-site-specific agents.  

PubMed

Goblet cells in the midgut epithelium of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta larva, 5th instar) actively secrete K+. This can be measured as short-circuit current (Isc) when the tissue is mounted in an Ussing chamber and bathed in K(+)-rich standard saline containing 32 mmol K+.l-1. Isc depends strictly on basolateral (i.e. haemolymph side) K+ and is therefore termed K+ current, IK. Basolateral, but not apical, chloride, bromide and iodide stimulate IK when compared to the baseline current recorded with gluconate-, nitrate- or thiocyanate-containing salines. So-called "Cl(-)-specific" transport inhibitors (frusemide, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid, diphenylamine carboxylic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyana-to-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) reduce IK when added to the basolateral bath, whether Cl- or gluconate is the principal ambient anion. Cl- stimulates IK according to saturation kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten-type, K+ concentration-dependent, saturation of IK is altered in a highly specific manner when gluconate is replaced by Cl-: maximal K+ current, as well as the apparent Michaelis constant, are increased by a factor of 4. Since IK develops in these conditions exclusively via basolateral, Ba(2+)-blockable K+ channels, these results can be understood if it is assumed that haemolymph Cl- interferes with the K+ channel by simultaneously lowering the binding affinity for K+ ions and increasing their subsequent transfer rate across the basolateral goblet cell membrane. PMID:1324259

Zeiske, W; Schröder, H; Alpert, G

1992-01-01

74

Differential influence of inositol hexaphosphate on the expression of genes encoding TGF-? isoforms and their receptors in intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with proinflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is a multifunctional cytokine recognized as an important regulator of inflammatory responses. The effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a naturally occurring phytochemical, on the mRNA expression of TGF- ?1, TGF-?2, TGF-?3 and T?RI, T?RII, and T?RIII receptors stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and IL-1? in intestinal cells Caco-2 for 3 and 12 h was investigated. Real-time qRT-PCR was used to validate mRNAs level of examined genes. Bacterial endotoxin promoted differential expression of TGF-?s and their receptors in a time-dependent manner. IL-1? upregulated mRNA levels of all TGF-?s and receptors at both 3 h and 12 h. IP6 elicited the opposed to LPS effect by increasing downregulated transcription of the examined genes and suppressing the expression of TGF- ?1 at 12 h. IP6 counteracted the stimulatory effect of IL-1? on TGF-?1 and receptors expression by decreasing their mRNA levels. IP6 enhanced LPS- and IL-1?-stimulated mRNA expression of TGF-?2 and -?3. Based on these studies it may be concluded that IP6 present in the intestinal milieu may exert immunoregulatory effects and chemopreventive activity on colonic epithelium under inflammatory conditions or during microbe-induced infection/inflammation by modulating the expression of genes encoding TGF-?s and their receptors at transcriptional level. PMID:24459329

Kapral, Ma?gorzata; Wawszczyk, Joanna; So?nicki, Stanis?aw; W?glarz, Ludmi?a

2013-01-01

75

Inhibition of MAO-A and stimulation of behavioural activities in mice by the inactive prodrug form of the anti-influenza agent oseltamivir  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Oseltamivir is the most widely prescribed anti-influenza medication. However, in rare instances, it has been reported to stimulate behavioural activities in adolescents. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for these behavioural activities. Experimental Approach We performed an in vitro assay of MAO-A, the enzyme responsible for neurotransmitter degradation, using either the active form – oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or the inactive prodrug – oseltamivir ethyl ester (OEE). We also analysed the docking of MAO-A with OEE or OC?in silico. Mouse behaviours after OEE or OC administration were monitored using automated video and computer analysis. Key Results OEE, but not OC, competitively and selectively inhibited human MAO-A. The estimated Ki value was comparable with the Km values of native substrates of MAO-A. Docking simulations in silico based on the tertiary structure of MAO-A suggested that OEE could fit into the inner pocket of the enzyme. Behavioural monitoring using automated video analysis further revealed that OEE, not OC, significantly enhanced spontaneous behavioural activities in mice, such as jumping, rearing, sniffing, turning and walking. Conclusions and Implications Our multilevel analyses suggested OEE to be the cause of the side effects associated with oseltamivir and revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the stimulated behaviours induced by oseltamivir in some circumstances. PMID:23320399

Hiasa, Miki; Isoda, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Saitoh, Kenta; Kimura, Yasuaki; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Hatakeyama, Dai; Kirino, Yutaka; Kuzuhara, Takashi

2013-01-01

76

Immunomodulatory agents lenalidomide and pomalidomide co-stimulate T cells by inducing degradation of T cell repressors Ikaros and Aiolos via modulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4CRBN  

PubMed Central

Summary Cereblon (CRBN), the molecular target of lenalidomide and pomalidomide, is a substrate receptor of the cullin ring E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, CRL4CRBN. T cell co-stimulation by lenalidomide or pomalidomide is cereblon dependent: however, the CRL4CRBN substrates responsible for T cell co-stimulation have yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that interaction of the transcription factors Ikaros (IKZF1, encoded by the IKZF1 gene) and Aiolos (IKZF3, encoded by the IKZF3 gene) with CRL4CRBN is induced by lenalidomide or pomalidomide. Each agent promotes Aiolos and Ikaros binding to CRL4CRBN with enhanced ubiquitination leading to cereblon-dependent proteosomal degradation in T lymphocytes. We confirm that Aiolos and Ikaros are transcriptional repressors of interleukin-2 expression. The findings link lenalidomide- or pomalidomide-induced degradation of these transcriptional suppressors to well documented T cell activation. Importantly, Aiolos could serve as a proximal pharmacodynamic marker for lenalidomide and pomalidomide, as healthy human subjects administered lenalidomide demonstrated Aiolos degradation in their peripheral T cells. In conclusion, we present a molecular model in which drug binding to cereblon results in the interaction of Ikaros and Aiolos to CRL4CRBN, leading to their ubiquitination, subsequent proteasomal degradation and T cell activation. PMID:24328678

Gandhi, Anita K; Kang, Jian; Havens, Courtney G; Conklin, Thomas; Ning, Yuhong; Wu, Lei; Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Waldman, Michelle F; Thakurta, Anjan; Klippel, Anke; Handa, Hiroshi; Daniel, Thomas O; Schafer, Peter H; Chopra, Rajesh

2014-01-01

77

Agents, AgentsAgents, Agents Everywhere...Everywhere...  

E-print Network

AgentsArtificial Life Agents An "individualist view of the social world" (O'Sullivan andAn "individualistAgents, AgentsAgents, Agents Everywhere...Everywhere... RajaRaja SenguptaSengupta and Renand of Science SearchAn ISI Web of Science Search (Topic = Intelligent Agent* OR Software Agent* OR Multi Agent

Sengupta, Raja

78

Stimulation and inhibition of 5 ALA induced PplX fluorescence in the diagnosis of fibrosarcoma cultivated on the CAM using glucose versus ethanol as modulating agents.  

PubMed

The fluorescence properties of biological tissues have been considered as intrinsic parameters to discriminate diseased from normal conditions. In vivo fluorescence diagnosis of cancer is based on special fluorescent dyes and their properties of tumour selective retention. The experimental in vivo model of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryos was used for cultivating a murine tumourous system consisting of the SSK II fibrosarcoma. Proto porphyrine (PplX) synthesis in CAM inoculated tissues as well as in native CAM was induced by 5-ALA. The modulation effects of several biochemicals on the 5-ALA induced PplX production were tested. The fibrosarcoma cells have not revealed autofluorescence with distinctively higher signal intensities than the substrate tissue. Fibrosarcoma cells are clearly distinguished by higher xenofluorescence intensities compared to the CAM tissue in the background. 5-ALA induced xenofluorescence intensity in fibrosarcoma was significantly enhanced by glucose and inhibited by ethanol. It can be concluded that some chemical agents can modulate the intensity of 5-ALA induced xenofluorescence through their modulation the enzymatic cell activity and these can be used for improvement by varying both the diagnostic and the therapeutic effectiveness of the photosensitizers in its application in the photo therapy process. PMID:20084772

Ismail, M Samy

2008-07-01

79

Standard-dose imatinib plus low-dose homoharringtonine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is an effective induction therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in myeloid blast crisis who have failed prior single-agent therapy with imatinib.  

PubMed

We investigated the efficacy of the induction therapy involving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and low-dose homoharringtonine as well as standard-dose imatinib, which we called the G-CSF?+?homoharringtonine?+?imatinib (GHI) regimen, in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in blast crisis who have failed prior single-agent therapy with imatinib. Twelve patients were enrolled. The GHI regimen consisted in a unique induction course where imatinib was administered at 400 mg day(-1) until remission, together with homoharringtonine (1 mg/m(2)?s.c. twice daily for 14 days every 28 days), and G-CSF, which was administered 1 day before chemotherapy (5 µg/kg s.c. daily). Patients who failed to obtain at least a partial hematologic response (PHR) after three courses were taken off study. Patients who responded to induction treatment and who had a matched donor received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The results demonstrates that the GHI regimen re-induce hematologic responses or improve the cytogenetic responses in all evaluable patients. Furthermore, eligible patients have benefited from allo-HSCT after response to this induction treatment. We conclude that the GHI regimen may overcome disease-poor response to conventional doses of imatinib and this approach deserves further evaluation as frontline therapy for newly diagnosed CML. PMID:20499235

Fang, Baijun; Li, Ning; Song, Yongping; Han, Qin; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

2010-11-01

80

Concomitant changes in formaldehyde-induced fluorescence of dopamine interneurones and in slow inhibitory post-synaptic potentials of the rabbit superior cervical ganglion, induced by stimulation of the preganglionic nerve or by a muscarinic agent  

PubMed Central

1. Dopamine was identified by formaldehyde histochemistry and cytospectrofluorometry in the rabbit's superior cervical ganglion. Dopamine was localized to the intraganglionic `small intensely fluorescent' cells, and also to the characteristically beaded fibres forming a network in close contact with virtually all ganglion cell bodies. The extensive beaded fibres are therefore presumed to be processes of the small intensely fluorescent cells. 2. Changes in the dopamine content of these interneurones were studied by recording alterations in their relative fluorescence intensity in conjunction with changes in the slow inhibitory post-synaptic potential (s.-i.p.s.p.) response of the ganglion to orthodromic nerve input. 3. Dopamine content was lower after several hours in vitro even without special stimulation; this was in accord with a regularly observed spontaneous reduction of the s.-i.p.s.p. response. 4. After a period of conditioning stimulation of the preganglionic nerve, in the presence of an anticholinesterase agent (eserine) and an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis (?-methyl-p-tyrosine), the s.-i.p.s.p. was selectively and markedly reduced. The dopamine fluorescence in the small intensely fluorescent cell interneurones was also significantly reduced, to a mean value of about 55 or 60% of the fluorescence in the dopamine interneurones of the paired but unstimulated control ganglion. A significant reduction in dopamine fluorescence was always accompanied by a marked loss of s.-i.p.s.p. response; the reverse was not always true. 5. Treatment with the muscarinic agent bethanechol for 30 min, with no ?-methyl-p-tyrosine or eserine present, similarly resulted in reductions in the s.-i.p.s.p. response of the ganglia and in the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence of the dopamine interneurones. 6. A functional uptake of extrinsic dopamine by the dopamine interneurones was also demonstrated: temporary exposure to dopamine restored a large fraction of both the s.-i.p.s.p. response and the dopamine fluorescence of the small intensely fluorescent cells, in ganglia already subjected either to the conditioning stimulation of the preganglionic nerve or to the action of bethanechol. 7. It is concluded that (a) preganglionic impulses, by a cholinergic muscarinic synaptic action, can induce a release of dopamine from dopamine interneurones (small intensely fluorescent cells) in the superior cervical ganglion, (b) the ability of the ganglion to respond with a s.-i.p.s.p. to orthodromic input may be viewed as being dependent on the supply of functionally releasable dopamine in these interneurones, (c) the functionally releasable transmitter in vitro appears to comprise roughly 50% of the total dopamine content of the interneurones, and (d) the results fulfil some of the requirements of the hypothesis that a dopamine interneurone is activated muscarinically by preganglionic nerve impulses and mediates the production of s.-i.p.s.p. in sympathetic ganglion cells. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:4825476

Libet, B.; Owman, Ch.

1974-01-01

81

Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions  

PubMed Central

The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling. PMID:24818076

Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

2014-01-01

82

Biological Agents  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

83

Software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

1994-01-01

84

Prise en compte de l'incidence des activits du castor (C. fiber L.) sur la reconstitution des dynamiques d'volution du couvert vgtal et des processus de turbification  

E-print Network

nombreuses analyses de l'impact du castor sur les paysages pour l'espèce nord-américaine Castor canadensis KPrise en compte de l'incidence des activités du castor (C. fiber L.) sur la reconstitution des France sur le castor en tant qu'agent influençant l'évolution de la morphologie des zones humides, des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with beta-CD, IBA, a blend of beta-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets

Ramakrishnan Ramaseshan; Subramanian Sundarrajan; Yingjun Liu; R. S. Barhate; Neeta L. Lala; S. Ramakrishna

2006-01-01

86

[Biogenic stimulants of metabolism in articular cartilage].  

PubMed

The review considers issues of pharmacodynamics and clinical applications of drugs with the metabolic type of action, which stimulate regeneration and provide the protective action on articular cartilage in cases of osteoarthritis. Published data of the experimental and clinical trials of the main chondroprotective agents are analyzed. PMID:21678657

Novikov, V E; Novikova, A V

2011-01-01

87

[Antitubulin agents].  

PubMed

Microtubules are dynamic filamentous cytoskeletal proteins that are an important therapeutic target in patients with tumors. Microtubule binding agents have been part of the pharmacopoeia of cancer for decades, and until the advent of targeted therapy microtubules represented the only alternative to DNA as a therapeutic target in cancer. There are currently a variety of available vinca alkaloids and taxanes and other agents, such as ixabepilone and eribulin, have also been approved. Maytansinoids have been used for the production of immunoconjugates, monoclonal antibodies covalently bound to antimitotic molecules. The screening of a variety of botanical species and marine organisms continues to yield promising new antitubulin agents with novel properties. Enhanced tumor specificity, reduced neurotoxicity, and insensitivity to chemoresistance mechanisms are the three main objectives in the current search for novel microtubule binding agents. PMID:22023745

Dumontet, Charles

2011-11-01

88

Sunscreening Agents  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

2013-01-01

89

Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

Gore, Deborah, Ed.

1988-01-01

90

5-azacytidine Stimulates Fetal Hemoglobin Synthesis in Anemic Baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to stimulate Hb F synthesis in baboons by means other than erythropoietic stress, we considered the possibility that an agent that inhibits methylation of CpG sequences in DNA may be effective. 5-Azacytidine, a cytosine analogue that cannot be methylated, is such an agent. Animals whose packed red cell volume was maintained at approximately 20% by bleeding were

Joseph Desimone; Paul Heller; Lemuel Hall; David Zwiers

1982-01-01

91

Inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 by the inhibitor of janus kinases stimulates dormant human leukemia CD34+ /CD38- cells and sensitizes them to antileukemia agents.  

PubMed

To verify molecular mechanisms by which leukemia stem cells (LSCs) maintain a dormant state, we explored the activity of the major prosurvival signal pathways in CD34(+) /CD38(-) compartment, supposed to contain LSCs, and CD34(+) /CD38(+) counterparts from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 11) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells expressed a greater amount of p-janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and p-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) than CD34(+) /CD38(+) counterparts in all patients except for one case. In addition, we found that CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells were relatively resistant to cytarabine- and the inhibitor of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mediated growth inhibition, as measured by the clonogenic assay. Interestingly, blockade of JAK2/STAT5 signaling by the specific JAK2 inhibitor AZ960 stimulated cell cycling in CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells in conjunction with downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(waf1) and sensitized these cells to the growth inhibition mediated by cytarabine and the FLT3 kinase inhibitor. Moreover, exposure of CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells to AZ960 potently induced apoptosis in parallel with downregulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, as measured by Western blot analysis. Taken together, JAK2/STAT5 signaling may be a promising molecular target to eradicate CD34(+) /CD38(-) leukemia cells in individuals with AML. PMID:21128225

Ikezoe, Takayuki; Yang, Jing; Nishioka, Chie; Kojima, Shinsuke; Takeuchi, Asako; Phillip Koeffler, H; Yokoyama, Akihito

2011-05-15

92

Paralllisation d'un simulateur d'agents situs M. BOUZID 1 , V. CHEVRIER 1 , F. CHARPILLET 1 et S. VIALLE 2  

E-print Network

importante comparée à celle des mailles. Les problèmes de synchronisation des accès aux cases frontières se de temps dans la synchronisation des processus pour gérer les con#29;its entre les agents. 2 maille et des agents s'y trouvant à un processeur, ne résout pas ces problèmes de synchronisation. Les

Vialle, Stéphane

93

Agent Exoplanet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomers at Las Cumbres Observatory are investigating exoplanets - planets which orbit stars other than our Sun - and you can too. Joining Agent Exoplanet you will study known exoplanets using images taken by LCOGTâs telescopes. You'll measure the brightness of a star while a planet moves between it and our viewpoint. You can examine as many images, from as many exoplanet transit events, as you like and contribute to understanding the properties of each exoplanet.

Network, Las C.

94

Implantable Electrical Vesical Stimulator  

PubMed Central

Considerable interest has been shown recently in electrical stimulation of the incompetent urinary bladder. Two types of bladder stimulation have been attempted in dogs and in humans: (a) stimulation of nervi erigentes and (b) direct stimulation of the detrusor urinae muscle. After several years of animal experimentation, a vesical stimulator, built on a new electronic principle, was implanted successfully in a paraplegic patient who has a complete post-traumatic lower motor neuron lesion. The stimulator has been working satisfactorily since November 1965. This stimulator could eventually also be used in purely sensory sacral lesions, in well-selected incomplete lower motor neuron lesions, and in flaccid detrusors of the myogenic type. A review of the literature up to the time of this report shows only a few encouraging but incomplete results in humans. The techniques and the complexities involved in this problem are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:5923472

Susset, J. G.; Boctor, Z. N.; Rosario, F.; Rabinovitch, H.; Nagler, B.; MacKinnon, K. J.

1966-01-01

95

Antifungal agents.  

PubMed

The four main classes of antifungal drugs are the polyenes, azoles, allylamines and echinocandins. Clinically useful "older" agents include topical azole formulations (for superficial yeast and dermatophyte infections), first-generation triazoles (fluconazole and itraconazole, for a range of superficial and invasive fungal infections), amphotericin B formulations (for a broad range of invasive fungal infections) and terbinafine (for dermatophyte infections). Clinically important "newer" agents include members of the echinocandin class (eg, caspofungin) and second-generation triazoles (eg, voriconazole and posaconazole). Voriconazole and posaconazole have broad-spectrum activity against yeasts and moulds, including Aspergillus species. Posaconazole is the only azole drug with activity against zygomycete fungi. Caspofungin and the other echinocandins are effective in treating Candida and Aspergillus infections. The azoles are relatively safe, but clinicians should be aware of drug-drug interactions and adverse effects, including visual disturbances (with voriconazole), elevations in liver transaminase levels, and skin rashes. Caspofungin has minimal adverse effects. Combination antifungal therapy may be appropriate in selected patients with invasive fungal infections, but is empiric and driven by individual physician practice. PMID:17908006

Chen, Sharon C A; Sorrell, Tania C

2007-10-01

96

Microfluidic temporal cell stimulation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a novel microfluidic platform for investigating cellular signaling networks, combining a programmable system for generating arbitrarily complex temporal input stimulant concentration profiles with ...

Craig, David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

97

La stimulation magnétique transcrânienne (SMT) dans la recherche fondamentale et clinique en neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Introduction Les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasives telles que la Stimulation Magnétique Transcrânienne (SMT) sont largement utilisées pour établir des inférences causales sur les relations entre cerveau et comportement. Des applications cliniques basées sur la SMT ont également été développées pour traiter des affections neurologiques ou psychiatriques comme la dépression, la dystonie, la douleur, les acouphènes ou les séquelles d’accident vasculaire cérébral. État des connaissances La SMT fonctionne en induisant de manière non invasive et de manière focale des courants électriques dans des régions corticales, modulant ainsi leur niveau d’activité de façon variable suivant la fréquence, le nombre d’impulsions, les intervalles et la durée de stimulation utilisés. S’agissant du cortex moteur, on sait par exemple que les patterns d’impulsions de SMT à basse fréquence ou ceux délivrées de manière continue tendent à déprimer l’activité locale, tandis que la SMT à haute fréquence et discontinus tend à la potentialiser. Outre ses effets locaux, la SMT peut aussi avoir des effets à distance sur les régions cérébrales, véhiculés par les connections anatomiques et qui dépendent de l’efficacité et du signe de ces connexions. Perspectives Dans le domaine de la recherche fondamentale et des applications thérapeutiques, l’utilisation efficace de la SMT requiert, cependant, la compréhension approfondie de ses principes opérationnels, de ses risques, de ses potentialités et de ses limites. Dans cet article, nous présentons les principes par lesquels opèrent les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasive, et en particulier la SMT. Conclusion À l’issue de sa lecture, le lecteur sera en mesure de discuter de façon critique les études scientifiques et cliniques utilisant la SMT, ainsi que de concevoir des applications SMT suivant une hypothèse a priori dans le domaine de la recherche en neuroscience fondamentale et/ou clinique. PMID:21420698

Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Coubard, Olivier A.

2011-01-01

98

UMBC AgentWeb: Intelligent Software Agents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, sponsored and maintained by the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Laboratory for Advanced Information Technology (LAIT), focuses on intelligent agents, known alternatively as software agents, knowbots, infobots or intentional agents. The site is divided into several parts, some of which are annotated and some of which contain only links to resources. Annotated resources include a bibliography titled Introduction to Agents (under Introductory Material), a list of research projects involving agent technology, and abstracts of and links to articles on a variety of topics such as Agents and Security and Agents in Manufacturing.

99

Stimulated petroleum biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulated biodegradation has been considered as a method for removal of petroleum pollutants. Various methods have been proposed for increasing rates of petroleum biodegradation, including physical or chemical modification of petroleum polutants, modification of environmental parameters around polluting oil, and modification of microbial populations around petroleum pollutants. Physical or chemical means for stimulating petroleum biodegradation include removal of particular petroleum

Ronald M. Atlas; Richard L. Raymond

1977-01-01

100

Sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants.  

PubMed

Drugs of relevance to equine practice that modify the central nervous system (CNS) can be broadly classified as depressants or stimulants. The pharmacologic mechanisms of action, uses, and side effects of selected CNS depressant and stimulant drugs in horses are reviewed. Knowledge of the way these CNS-modifying drugs may affect performance is limited. PMID:7905359

Dyke, T M

1993-12-01

101

Norepinephrine and Stimulant Addiction  

PubMed Central

No pharmacotherapies are approved for stimulant use disorders, which are an important public health problem. Stimulants increase synaptic levels of the monoamines dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE). Stimulant reward is attributable mostly to increased DA in the reward circuitry, although DA stimulation alone cannot explain the rewarding effects of stimulants. The noradrenergic system, which uses NE as the main chemical messenger, serves multiple brain functions including arousal, attention, mood, learning, memory, and stress response. In preclinical models of addiction, NE is critically involved in mediating stimulant effects including sensitization, drug discrimination, and reinstatement of drug seeking. In clinical studies, adrenergic blockers have shown promise as treatments for cocaine abuse and dependence, especially in patients experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms. Disulfiram, which blocks NE synthesis, increased the number of cocaine-negative urines in five randomized clinical trials. Lofexidine, an ?2-adrenergic agonist, reduces the craving induced by stress and drug cues in drug users. In addition, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor atomoxetine attenuates some of d-amphetamine’s subjective and physiological effects in humans. These findings warrant further studies evaluating noradrenergic medications as treatments for stimulant addiction. PMID:18811678

Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sewell, R. Andrew

2008-01-01

102

Geothermal well stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

The stimulation of geothermal production wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 275 to 550/sup 0/F range can be expected and the behavior of fracturing fluids and fracture proppants at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated in laboratory tests. To avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, the high-temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the fracturing fluids, fluid loss additives, and proppants must be verified. In geothermal wells, the necessary stimulation techniques are required to be capable of initiating and maintaining the flow of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional oil field stimulation. The objective of well stimulation is to initiate and maintain additional fluid production from existing wells at a lower cost than either drilling new replacement wells or multiply redrilling existing wells. The economics of well stimulation will be vastly enhanced when proven stimulation techniques can be implemented as part of the well completion (while the drilling rig is still over the hole) on all new wells exhibiting some form of flow impairment. Results from 7 stimulation tests are presented and planned tests are described.

Hanold, R.J.

1982-01-01

103

Drug Safety Communication: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs)  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Metastatic breast cancer (n=939) 12-14g/dL 12.9 g/dL 12.2, 13.3 g/dL 12 month overall survival Decreased 12-month survival ... 2 Lymphoid malignancy (n=344) 13-15 g/dL (M) 13-14 g/dL (F) 11.0 ...

104

Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents  

PubMed Central

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

2011-01-01

105

Structure des ADN complmentaires des lactoprotines : application la recherche des gnes et leur localisation chromosomique  

E-print Network

Structure des ADN complémentaires des lactoprotéines : application à la recherche des gènes et à entrepris. 1) Construction de banques ovine et bovine d ADN complémentaires !ADNcJ. Sélection et identification des clones recombinants contenant les ADN complé- mentaires des ARNm des 6 principales

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma 2013  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE D

Cerf, Nicolas

107

EFFETS RAMAN STIMULS DANS LA CALCITE Par G. BISSON et G. MAYER.  

E-print Network

97. EFFETS RAMAN STIMUL�S DANS LA CALCITE Par G. BISSON et G. MAYER. Département de Recherches Nous décrivons des expériences conçues pour vérifier dans la calcite la théorie des effets Raman been designed to check in calcite the theory of first order stimulated Raman effects. For the Stokes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

276 SUPPLMENT TECHNIQUE Action inhibitrice des streptocoques producteurs de nisine sur le  

E-print Network

STABILISANT DES PEINTURES AU LATEX par G. G�NIN Ingénieur E. P. C. Nous avons déjà étudié, dans cette rubrique, l'utilisation de la caséine dans la préparation de stabilisants pour peintures au latex [1]. L des agents stabilisants dans les peintures au latex Les agents stabilisants additionnés au latex ont

Boyer, Edmond

109

Relational Agents Page 1 Relational Agents for  

E-print Network

Relational Agents Page 1 Relational Agents for Antipsychotic Medication Adherence Timothy Bickmore, and medication adherence to antipsychotic treatments within this population is typically around 50%, leading system developed to promote antipsychotic medication adherence for patients with Schizophrenia

Bickmore, Timothy

110

Stimulated emission tomography.  

PubMed

We identify a relation between the number of photon pairs generated by parametric fluorescence, through either spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) or spontaneous four-wave mixing, and the number generated by the corresponding stimulated process, respectively, either difference-frequency generation or stimulated four-wave mixing. On the basis of this very general result, we show that the characterization of SPDC sources of two-photon states in a given system can be performed solely by studying stimulated emission. We call this technique stimulated emission tomography (SET). We show that the number of photons detected in SET can be 9 orders of magnitude larger than the average number of coincidence counts in two-photon quantum state tomography. These results open the way to the study of sources of quantum-correlated photon pairs with unprecedented precision and unparalleled resolution. PMID:24266472

Liscidini, M; Sipe, J E

2013-11-01

111

Stimulated Emission Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify a relation between the number of photon pairs generated by parametric fluorescence, through either spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) or spontaneous four-wave mixing, and the number generated by the corresponding stimulated process, respectively, either difference-frequency generation or stimulated four-wave mixing. On the basis of this very general result, we show that the characterization of SPDC sources of two-photon states in a given system can be performed solely by studying stimulated emission. We call this technique stimulated emission tomography (SET). We show that the number of photons detected in SET can be 9 orders of magnitude larger than the average number of coincidence counts in two-photon quantum state tomography. These results open the way to the study of sources of quantum-correlated photon pairs with unprecedented precision and unparalleled resolution.

Liscidini, M.; Sipe, J. E.

2013-11-01

112

Geothermal Well Stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

1981-03-01

113

Oil well stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Emphasizes quantitative aspects of stimulation, including chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of reservoir materials; formation damage; perforating techniques; hydraulic fracturing; matrix acidizing; and sand control methods. Provides models engineers can use with hand-held calculators.

Schechter, R.S.

1992-01-01

114

Virtual auditing agents: the EDGAR Agent challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent agents can be used as agents of organizational change. This potential exists in the domain of accounting audit, where much of what is currently done manually in batch mode could be done continuously and on-line. We discuss the use of intelligent Internet agents as a way of changing and expanding audit practices in the virtual world. A quality\\/service framework

Kay M. Nelson; Alexander Kogan; Rajendra P. Srivastava; Miklos A. Vasarhelyi; Hai Lu

2000-01-01

115

Virtual Auditing Agents: The Edgar Agent Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the use of intelligent Internet agents as a way of expanding audit practices in the virtual world. A quality\\/service framework is presented that suggests ways that accounting firms can evolve in this era of online opportunities. The Edgar Agent is presented as an example of an intelligent Internet agent that gathers financial information. This information can be

Kay M. Nelson; Alexander Kogan; Rajendra P. Srivastava; Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

1998-01-01

116

Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

Sedlacek, James R.

117

Remote Agent Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

1999-01-01

118

Stimulation of Cell Division by Croton Oil in Blue-Green Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The potent tumor-promoting agent croton oil, which has been shown previously to be strongly mitogenic in mammalian cells, stimulates cell division in snake mutants of the blue-green bacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum. Images PMID:4196260

Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Fisher, W. D.

1973-01-01

119

Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.  

PubMed

Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ?-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization. PMID:25051278

Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

2014-09-01

120

Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture  

SciTech Connect

Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

Stampfer, M.R.

1982-06-01

121

Neural stimulation with optical radiation  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the existing research on infrared neural stimulation, a means of artificially stimulating neurons that has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is defined as the direct induction of an evoked potential in response to a transient targeted deposition of optical energy. The foremost advantage of using optical radiation for neural stimulation is its spatial resolution. Exogenously applied or trans-genetically synthesized fluorophores are not used to achieve stimulation. Here, current work on INS is presented for motor nerves, sensory nerves, central nervous system, and in vitro preparations. A discussion follows addressing the mechanism of INS and its potential use in neuroprostheses. A brief review of neural depolarization involving other optical methods is also presented. Topics covered include optical stimulation concurrent with electrical stimulation, optical stimulation using exogenous fluorophores, and optical stimulation by transgenic induction of light-gated ion channels. PMID:23082105

Richter, Claus-Peter; Matic, Agnella Izzo; Wells, Jonathon D.; Jansen, E. Duco; Walsh, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

122

Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with ?-CD, IBA, a blend of ?-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane.

Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Liu, Yingjun; Barhate, R. S.; Lala, Neeta L.; Ramakrishna, S.

2006-06-01

123

Biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents. PMID:20358696

Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

2010-01-01

124

Spacecraft sanitation agent development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

1972-01-01

125

Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des frquences harmoniques.  

E-print Network

L-55 Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des de distorsion centrifuge des molécules XY6 en fonc- tion des fréquences harmoniques ; l for the centrifugal distortion constants as a function of harmonic frequencies ; application is made to SF6 and UF6. 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

MISE EN VIDENCE ET TUDE DES AFFECTIONS RESPIRATOIRES  

E-print Network

MISE EN �VIDENCE ET �TUDE DES AFFECTIONS RESPIRATOIRES A RHINOVIRUS DU CHEVAL EN FRANCE (1) Anne la rhinopneumonie, - les rhinovirus types i et 2, agents du rhume du Cheval. (1) Travail subventionné) a essayé d'attirer l'attention sur les affections à rhinovirus trop rarement suspectées ou trop souvent

Boyer, Edmond

127

Containing agents : contexts, projections, and agents.  

SciTech Connect

Agent-based models have historically maintained a tight coupling between individuals, their behaviors, and the space in which they interact. As a result, many models have been designed in a way that limits their ability to express behaviors and interactions. In this paper, we propose a new approach toward designing simulations that builds upon the experiences of developing and working with several agent-based toolkits. This approach encourages flexibility and reusability of components and models. A preliminary implementation is the core structure of the upcoming Repast Simphony agent-based modeling and simulation toolkit. By creating a 'proto-space' called a Context, we provide model designers with a container that can maintain a localized state for agents. A Context's state can maintain multiple interaction spaces called Projections, as well as more typical state information. Projections are designed such that they can be used to represent a wide range of abstract spaces, from graphs to grids to realistic geographic spaces. Importantly, projections and agents or individuals are independent of one another. Agents can be agnostic toward the type of projection in which they are interacting, and projections can be agnostic toward the type of agents whose relationships they maintain. Finally, the context provides a logical location to maintain agent behaviors that are dependent on localized agent interactions and environment.

Howe, T. R.; Collier, N. T.; North, M. J.; Parker, M. T.; Vos, J. R. (Decision and Information Sciences); (PantaRei Corp.); (Univ. of Chicago); (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana)

2006-01-01

128

Vagus Nerve Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a safe and reliable treatment adjunct for patients with medically intractable epilepsy. It is both a preventive and an abortive form of therapy, potentially effective against both partial and generalized seizures in adults and children. VNS also has a number of serendipitous effects on mood, memory, and attention and has been approved for the treatment

Arun Paul Amar; Michael L. Levy; Charles Y. Liu; Michael L. J. Apuzzo

2008-01-01

129

Isolated Stimulator OPERATORS MANUAL  

E-print Network

started with the Devices Ltd model 2530, then through Mk II, Mk III and Mk IV to the 2533 - all of which of approximately 3pF. The self-contained batteries, without a DC-DC converter, ensure that the stimulator is ultra

Kleinfeld, David

130

Central nervous system stimulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes

Alan J. George

2000-01-01

131

Women's Studies Intellectually stimulating,  

E-print Network

of disciplines such as Women's Studies, Psychology and Sociology · Correctional services · Women's sheltersWomen's Studies Intellectually stimulating, personally fulfilling, and more practical than you might think. The breadth and depth of Women's Studies will amaze you. Our goal is to help you "find your

132

Visual Stimulation Using Microcomputers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper argues that microcomputers can be useful in providing visual stimulation to young visually handicapped children. Monitors can present materials in a "back-lit" manner, and input devices such as the touch sensitive screen allow children to interact directly with the images on the screen. (Author/DB)

Spencer, Simon; Ross, Malcolm

1988-01-01

133

Transcranial stimulation and cognition.  

PubMed

Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a unique method for studying cognitive function. For the study of cognition, NIBS has gained popularity as a complementary method to functional neuroimaging. By bypassing the correlative approaches of standard imaging techniques, it is possible to establish a putative relationship between brain cognition. In fact, functional neuroimaging data cannot demonstrate the actual role of a particular cortical activation in a specific function because an activated area may simply be correlated with task performance, rather than being responsible for it. NIBS can induce a temporary modification of performance only if the stimulated area is causally engaged in the task. In analogy with lesion studies, NIBS can provide information about where and when a particular process occurs. Based on this assumption, NIBS has been used in many different cognitive domains. However, one of the most interesting questions in neuroscience may not be where and when, but how cognitive activity occurs. Beyond localization approaches, NIBS can be employed to study brain mechanisms. NIBS techniques have the potential to influence behavior transiently by altering neuronal activity, which may have facilitatory or inhibitory behavioral effects. NIBS techniques include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). TMS has been shown transiently to modulate neural excitability in a manner that is dependent mainly on the timing and frequency of stimulation (high versus low). The mechanism underlying tES is a change in neuronal membrane potentials that appears to be dependent mainly on the direction of current flow (anodal versus cathodal). Nevertheless, the final effects induced by TMS or tES depend on many technical parameters used during stimulation, such as the intensity of stimulation, coil orientation, site of the reference electrode, and time of application. Moreover, an important factor is the possible interactions between these factors and the physiological and cognitive state of the subject. To use NIBS in cognition, it is important to understand not only how NIBS functions but also the brain mechanisms being studied and the features of the area of interest. To describe better the advanced knowledge provided by NIBS in cognition, we will treat each NIBS technique separately and underline the related hypotheses beyond applications. PMID:24112935

Miniussi, Carlo; Ruzzoli, Manuela

2013-01-01

134

DES Supernova Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES SN) will discover approximately 3500 Type Ia supernovae with well-sampled multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.2 over its five year duration. The large field of view and high z-band sensitivity of the Dark Energy Camera, combined with the precision photometry of DES and an improved handling of systematic uncertainties will allow DES SN to provide the strongest constraints on supernova cosmology to date. One of the main challenges for DES SN will be accurate classification of such a large number of faint transients. I will describe the unique spectroscopic follow-up strategy that we are employing, with emphasis on the 100 night, survey-status program at AAT which began in September. I will present preliminary supernova results obtained from the DES Science Verification period and the beginning of DES Year 1.

D'Andrea, Christopher; Dark Energy Survey, The

2014-01-01

135

Médecine des voyages  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

2014-01-01

136

EVALUATION DE LA DETECTION DES EMOTIONS, OPINONS OU SENTIMENTS Evaluation de la dtection des motions, des opinions ou des sentiments  

E-print Network

EVALUATION DE LA DETECTION DES EMOTIONS, OPINONS OU SENTIMENTS Evaluation de la détection des émotions, des opinions ou des sentiments : dictature de la majorité ou respect de la diversité d'opinion et analyse des sentiments sont généralement évalués par comparaison des réponses du système concerné

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Amputation des quatre membres  

PubMed Central

Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

2014-01-01

138

Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

Not Available

1980-08-01

139

Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package  

E-print Network

G54DIA: Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package Brian Logan School of Computer package(s) · agent toolkits · uk.ac.nott.cs.g54dia Java agent packages ­library package ­demo package © Brian Logan 2013 G54DIA Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package 2 #12;Implementing your agent · many agent

Logan, Brian

140

International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society  

MedlinePLUS

... the IFESS UK & Ireland Chapter: Sheffield, 2015 Stimulating Technology for the Future 5 th Conference of the ... website: www.ifessuki2015.co.uk Attachment Size Stimulating Technology for the Future - IFESS UK&I 2015.pdf ...

141

Stimulation techniques, options are varied  

SciTech Connect

Well stimulation is a major aspect of well completion, with acidization/perforation cleanup, and fracture stimulation the most important operations. They are covered in this second of two installments that reviews modern well completion practices.

Cramer, D.D.

1988-09-05

142

Devonian production needs stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The diverse elements of water, oil, alcohol, liquefied petroleum gas, foam, and dynamite have been used at one time or another to fracture of stimulate production from a well, and have had varying degrees of success. E.I.Dupont de Nemours and Co., Inc., has a product which surpasses all of the aforementioned. Dupont has developed a water-gel explosive called EL836 which has increased initial flow rates to twice that of wells stimulated with conventional dynamite. Dupont recently conducted tests on wells in Putnam County, W.Va., in cooperation with Cabot Oil and Gas Corp. and the Department of Energy, to gage the effectiveness of El836. The advantages and disadvantages of EL836 are discussed.

Conkel, D.

1982-02-01

143

Occipital nerve stimulation.  

PubMed

Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a form of neuromodulation therapy aimed at treating intractable headache and craniofacial pain. The therapy utilizes neurostimulating electrodes placed subcutaneously in the occipital region and connected to a permanently implanted programmable pulse generator identical to those used for dorsal column/spinal cord stimulation. The presumed mechanisms of action involve modulation of the trigeminocervical complex, as well as closure of the physiologic pain gate. ONS is a reversible, nondestructive therapy, which can be tailored to a patient's individual needs. Typically, candidates for successful ONS include those patients with migraines, Chiari malformation, or occipital neuralgia. However, recent MRSA infections, unrealistic expectations, and psychiatric comorbidities are generally contraindications. As with any invasive procedure, complications may occur including lead migration, infection, wound erosion, device failure, muscle spasms, and pain. The success of this therapy is dependent on careful patient selection, a preimplantation trial, meticulous implantation technique, programming strategies, and complication avoidance. PMID:25411143

Mammis, Antonios; Agarwal, Nitin; Mogilner, Alon Y

2015-01-01

144

New York Canyon Stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "����No Go"��� decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

Raemy, B. Principal Investigator, TGP Development Company, LLC

2012-06-21

145

Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging.  

PubMed

Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Zhang, Hao F; Noojin, Gary D; Denton, Michael L; Thomas, Robert J; Scully, Marlan O

2010-11-23

146

Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

1993-01-01

147

Pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)  

PubMed Central

This review examines the pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Stimulants that increase alertness/reduce fatigue or activate the cardiovascular system can include drugs like ephedrine available in many over-the-counter medicines. Others such as amphetamines, cocaine and hallucinogenic drugs, available on prescription or illegally, can modify mood. A total of 62 stimulants (61 chemical entities) are listed in the WADA List, prohibited in competition. Athletes may have stimulants in their body for one of three main reasons: inadvertent consumption in a propriety medicine; deliberate consumption for misuse as a recreational drug and deliberate consumption to enhance performance. The majority of stimulants on the list act on the monoaminergic systems: adrenergic (sympathetic, transmitter noradrenaline), dopaminergic (transmitter dopamine) and serotonergic (transmitter serotonin, 5-HT). Sympathomimetic describes agents, which mimic sympathetic responses, and dopaminomimetic and serotoninomimetic can be used to describe actions on the dopamine and serotonin systems. However, many agents act to mimic more than one of these monoamines, so that a collective term of monoaminomimetic may be useful. Monoaminomimietic actions of stimulants can include blockade of re-uptake of neurotransmitter, indirect release of neurotransmitter, direct activation of monoaminergic receptors. Many of the stimulants are amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives, including agents with abuse potential as recreational drugs. A number of agents are metabolized to amphetamine or metamphetamine. In addition to the monoaminomimetic agents, a small number of agents with different modes of action are on the list. A number of commonly used stimulants are not considered as Prohibited Substances. PMID:18500382

Docherty, J R

2008-01-01

148

Human Tissue Stimulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

1982-01-01

149

Physical Agent Modalities in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation of Small Animals.  

PubMed

Physical agent modalities can be effective components of the overall rehabilitation of small animals. This article reviews the effects, indications, contraindications, and precautions of cold, superficial heat, therapeutic ultrasound, and electrical stimulation. PMID:25432680

Hanks, June; Levine, David; Bockstahler, Barbara

2015-01-01

150

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

151

Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de communication  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de communication Plans de cours cadre Cours des programmes de premier cycle en sciences de la communication Comité des études de premier cycle Adopté par l..................................................................................................................................3 COM 1150 Rédaction en communication 1

Parrott, Lael

152

Rpertoire des emplois en janvier 2011 des diplms de Master  

E-print Network

Répertoire des emplois en janvier 2011 des diplômés de Master Promotion 2008 Le répertoire des (CTU / UFR SLHS) - Education et promotion sanitaires et sociales, prévention des risques (CTU normes (UFR SLHS) - Sports et sociétés (UPFR sports) OFVE, 2011 - Page 2 #12;- Domaine Sciences, Santé

Jeanjean, Louis

153

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

familiarisé avec les structures et les types d'organisation des Protistes, des Mycètes, des Algues et des eucaryotes Stramenopila (algues brunes, diatomées et oomycètes) 13 mai 3 Les protozoaires 14 mai 4 Les champignons, Les Lichens et Mycorhizes 20 mai 5 Myxomycota, Dyctiosteliomycota, Algues rouges et vertes 21 mai

Parrott, Lael

154

Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives  

E-print Network

Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Préparation : Division de la gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Révision : Bureau du secrétaire général Entrée en vigueur : 15 février 2012 Approbation : (CA-2012-6) Cadre juridique : Loi sur les archives (L

155

Des cartographies de connaissances pour un pilotage des ressources humaines  

E-print Network

Des cartographies de connaissances pour un pilotage des ressources humaines et des processus RH'apport de la prospective : Mélanges en l'honneur de Luc Boyer (2010) xx-xxi" #12;Des cartographies de'organisation. Les cartographies de connaissances, parce qu'elles permettent l'identification et la représentation de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents  

SciTech Connect

Chelating agents are disclosed having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

Raymond, K.N.; Scarrow, R.C.; White, D.L.

1987-10-06

157

Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Scarrow, Robert C. (Minneapolis, MN); White, David L. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01

158

CARACTRISTIQUES SPECTROSCOPIQUES DES TTRABENZOYLACTONATES-SODIUM D'EUROPIUM ET DE TERBIUM  

E-print Network

415 CARACT�RISTIQUES SPECTROSCOPIQUES DES T�TRABENZOYLAC�TONATES-SODIUM D'EUROPIUM ET DE TERBIUM des ions d'europium, terbium ou lanthane. On étudie les différentes transitions moléculaires et. On discute la possibilité d'obtenir l'émission stimulée avec le chélate de terbium en se basant sur les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Agents on the Web Agent Societies  

E-print Network

of machine guns will make sure the appropriate boxes of ammunition get on the same truck going to the right agents to decide which products a customer is most likely to want and to make sure that buy- ing

Huhns, Michael N.

160

Agents modeling agents in information economies  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to design and build agents that act intelligently when placed in an agent-based information economy, where agents buy and sell services (e.g. thesaurus, search, task planning services, etc.). The economy we are working in is the University of Michigan Digital Library (UMDL), a large scale multidisciplinary effort to build an infrastructure for the delivery of library services. In contrast with a typical economy, an information economy deals in goods and services that are often derived from unique sources (authors, analysts, etc.), so that many goods and services are not interchangeable. Also, the cost of replicating and transporting goods is usually negligible, and the quality of goods and services is difficult to measure objectively: even two sources with essentially the same information might appeal to different audiences. Thus, each agent has its own assessment of the quality of goods and services delivered.

Vidal, J.M.; Durfee, E.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

161

Eléments de comparaison internationale des patrimoines des ménages  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] A partir des bribes d'information existant sur les patrimoines de divers pays européens et des USA, une comparaison de la structure des patrimoines des inégalités de répartition et de leur évolution est tentée. Actifs financiers et actifs réels figurent de façon variable dans les patrimoines des différents pays. La Grande-Bretagne, avec une forte part d'actifs financiers, notamment de valeurs

Dominique Strauss-Kahn

1979-01-01

162

Heavy Metals Stimulate Human LINE-1 Retrotransposition  

PubMed Central

L1 and Alu elements are among the most active retroposons (mobile elements) in the human genome. Several human diseases, including certain forms of breast cancer and leukemia, are associated with L1 and Alu insertions in functionally important areas of the genome. We present data demonstrating that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, can stimulate L1 retrotransposition in a tissue culture system using two different types of assays. The response to these agents was equivalent when using a cell line with a stably integrated L1 vector (genomic) or a by introducing the L1 vector by transient transfection (episomal) of the cell. Reproducible results showed that mercury (HgS), cadmium (CdS), and nickel (NiO) increase the activity of L1 by an average of three (3) fold p<0.001. This observation is the first to link several carcinogenic agents with the increased retrotransposition activity of L1 as an alternate mechanism of generating genomic instability contributing to the process of carcinogenesis. Our results demonstrate that mobile element activation must be considered as one of the mechanisms when evaluating genomic damage/instability in response to environmental agents. PMID:16705797

Kale, Shubha P.; Moore, Lakisha; Deininger, Prescott L.; Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

2005-01-01

163

Imiquimod as an antiangiogenic agent.  

PubMed

Imiquimod (imidazoquinoline 5%) is a topical immune response modifier agent that inhibits angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels. In addition to its stimulation of cell-mediated immunity, imiquimod's antiangiogenic activity contributes to its clinical efficacy by interfering with pathological neovascularization that promotes disease progression. The antiangiogenic mechanisms of imiquimod are due to its: 1) induction of cytokines that themselves inhibit angiogenesis (interferons, IL-10, IL-12); 2) local up-regulation of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors (TIMP, TSP-1); 3) local down-regulation of pro-angiogenic factors (bFGF, MMP-9); and 4) promotion of endothelial cell apoptosis. This report discusses these mechanisms and the rationale for imiquimod's use as an antiangiogenic agent. Key principles of antiangiogenic therapy are presented to describe how imiquimod may be applied in a well-tolerated fashion to treat a broad range of angiogenesis-dependent dermatological conditions, including actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), lentigo maligna, hemangiomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, pyogenic granuloma, and external genital warts. PMID:16302556

Li, Vincent W; Li, William W; Talcott, Katherine E; Zhai, Amy W

2005-01-01

164

Antibacterials as anti-inflammatory agents: Dual action agents for oral health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Inflammatory processes with a range of specialized cells and biochemical mediators form a complex network of inter-related\\u000a signal transducing pathways that relay information to preserve normal functions. Advances in molecular analyses of the information\\u000a relay pathways for their constituents and principal ligands along with mechanisms utilized by the host for microbial recognition\\u000a have stimulated interest in therapeutic agents with

Prem K. Sreenivasan; Abdul Gaffar

2008-01-01

165

The novel anti-migraine agent rizatriptan inhibits neurogenic dural vasodilation and extravasation  

Microsoft Academic Search

These studies in anaesthetised rats showed, using intravital microscopy, that the novel anti-migraine agent, rizatriptan, significantly reduced electrically stimulated dural vasodilation but had no effect on increases in dural vessel diameter produced by exogenous substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Rizatriptan also significantly inhibited dural plasma protein extravasation produced by high intensity electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. We

David J. Williamson; Sara L. Shepheard; Raymond G. Hill; Richard J. Hargreaves

1997-01-01

166

Stimulated parametric emission microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel microscopy technique based on the four-wave mixing (FWM) process that is enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance induced by a pump pulse along with stimulated emission induced by a dump pulse. A Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator are used as light sources for the pump and dump pulses, respectively. We demonstrate that our proposed FWM technique can be used to obtain a one-dimensional image of ethanol-thinned Coumarin 120 solution sandwiched between a hole-slide glass and a cover slip, and a two-dimensional image of a leaf of Camellia sinensis.

Isobe, Keisuke; Kataoka, Shogo; Murase, Rena; Watanabe, Wataru; Higashi, Tsunehito; Kawakami, Shigeki; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Fukui, Kiichi; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

2006-01-01

167

Geothermal well stimulation  

SciTech Connect

All available data on proppants and fluids were examined to determine areas in technology that need development for 300 to 500/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/ to 265/sup 0/C) hydrothermal wells. While fluid properties have been examined well into the 450/sup 0/F range, proppants have not been previously tested at elevated temperatures except in a few instances. The latest test data at geothermal temperatures is presented and some possible proppants and fluid systems that can be used are shown. Also discussed are alternative stimulation techniques for geothermal wells.

Sinclair, A.R.; Pittard, F.J.; Hanold, R.J.

1980-01-01

168

Archives participatives Au milieu des ralisations remarquables de mdiation numrique des bibliothques et des  

E-print Network

Archives participatives Au milieu des réalisations remarquables de médiation numérique des bibliothèques et des musées sur les médias sociaux, les services d'archives ont un positionnement relativement en revanche des projets ambitieux de crowdsourcing, d'« archives participatives » (voir encart

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents!  

E-print Network

IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents! Individuals who do not have a full team a "Free Agent". Within the UNLV Intramural Sports program there are multiple ways to improve a Free Agent will not force any team to accept a Free Agent participant. History and research has shown that Free Agents

Hemmers, Oliver

170

Brain stimulation for intractable epilepsy: Anterior thalamus and responsive stimulation  

PubMed Central

Despite medications, resective surgery, and vagal nerve stimulation, some patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. In these patients, other approaches are urgently needed. The biological basis of stimulation of anterior thalamic nucleus and epileptogenic focus is presented. Results from two large randomized controlled trials Stimulation of Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTE) and Neuropace pivotal trial are discussed. Neuromodulation provides effective treatment for a select group of refractory epilepsy patients. Future investigations into the mechanism underlying ‘response’ to brain stimulation are desired. PMID:24791096

Krishna, Vibhor; Lozano, Andres M.

2014-01-01

171

The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

2011-01-01

172

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

The “Featured Agents” portion of the DCTD Website provides information for researchers involved in drug discovery and development. Any public preclinical and clinical data that DCTD has on a particular agent are presented here. New agents will be added periodically to the current list. DCTD Website visitors may subscribe to the Listserv on this page to be notified when additions to the list are made.

173

Deals Among Rational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formal framework is presented that models commu­ nication and promises in multi-agent interactions. This framework generalizes previous work on cooperation with­ out communication, and shows the ability of communi­ cation to resolve conflicts among agents having disparate goals. Using a deal-making mechanism, agents are able to coordinate and cooperate more easily than in the commu­ nication-free model. In addition,

Jeffrey S. Rosenschein; Michael R. Genesereth

1985-01-01

174

Electrical stimulation of beef carcasses  

E-print Network

produced rib steaks which had lower mean shear force values ti an those from control sides at ooth voltages and periods of stimulation. Kith one exception, color of lean was brighter in ES sides than it was in control sides. Electrical stimulation...- spread use of the process by industry, exact parameters regarding voltage, impulse duration and site in the slaugh- ter-dressing procedure for electrical stimulation must be identified. CHAPTER III GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE A three-part study...

McKeith, Floyd Kenneth

2012-06-07

175

un cristal, des rseaux  

E-print Network

décrypter les matériaux du patrimoine. Le jaune chrome/plomb des tournesols de Van Gogh Certaines parties du tableau de van Gogh, « Fleurs dans un vase bleu » peint en 1887, ont changé de couleur au cours du temps/Université d'Anvers - Musée Van Gogh un cristal, des réseaux à l'upmc Voir l'article en ligne Site du

Arleo, Angelo

176

Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

2014-02-18

177

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma juin 2013 1 / 16  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma juin 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma juin 2013 2 / 16 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE

Cerf, Nicolas

178

PROCDURE DE DCLARATION DES ACCIDENTS, DES INCIDENTS ET DES SITUATIONS DANGEREUSES EN MILIEU DE TRAVAIL Novembre 2013  

E-print Network

PROC�DURE DE D�CLARATION DES ACCIDENTS, DES INCIDENTS ET DES SITUATIONS DANGEREUSES EN MILIEU DE de déclaration des accidents, des incidents et des situations dangereuses en milieu de travail. Ce, tout accident ou incident doit faire l'objet d'une déclaration officielle auprès de l'employeur. Selon

Meunier, Michel

179

Stimulated coherent transition radiation  

SciTech Connect

Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

Hung-chi Lihn

1996-03-01

180

ADMINISTRATIVE DANS LES ENTREPRISES 29 Il nous a paru suffisant, tout en distribuant des vrits pre-  

E-print Network

cet égard! S1JPPL�~IENT TECHNIQUE L'EMPLOI DE LA, CAS�INE MODIFI�E POUR LA STABILISATION DES PEINTURES suspension de la dispersion des pigments. ' Si, dans une peinture au latex, tous les constituants ont un rôle prépondérante sur les propriétés que nous venons d'énoncer. Pour constituer un bon agent stabilisant, une

Boyer, Edmond

181

Chronometric electrical stimulation of right inferior frontal cortex increases motor braking.  

PubMed

The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) is important for stopping responses. Recent research shows that it is also activated when response emission is slowed down when stopping is anticipated. This suggests that rIFC also functions as a goal-driven brake. Here, we investigated the causal role of rIFC in goal-driven braking by using computer-controlled, event-related (chronometric), direct electrical stimulation (DES). We compared the effects of rIFC stimulation on trials in which responses were made in the presence versus absence of a stopping-goal ("Maybe Stop" [MS] vs "No Stop" [NS]). We show that DES of rIFC slowed down responses (compared with control-site stimulation) and that rIFC stimulation induced more slowing when motor braking was required (MS) compared with when it was not (NS). Our results strongly support a causal role of a rIFC-based network in inhibitory motor control. Importantly, the results extend this causal role beyond externally driven stopping to goal-driven inhibitory control, which is a richer model of human self-control. These results also provide the first demonstration of double-blind chronometric DES of human prefrontal cortex, and suggest that--in the case of rIFC--this could lead to augmentation of motor braking. PMID:24336725

Wessel, Jan R; Conner, Christopher R; Aron, Adam R; Tandon, Nitin

2013-12-11

182

Chronometric Electrical Stimulation of Right Inferior Frontal Cortex Increases Motor Braking  

PubMed Central

The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) is important for stopping responses. Recent research shows that it is also activated when response emission is slowed down when stopping is anticipated. This suggests that rIFC also functions as a goal-driven brake. Here, we investigated the causal role of rIFC in goal-driven braking by using computer-controlled, event-related (chronometric), direct electrical stimulation (DES). We compared the effects of rIFC stimulation on trials in which responses were made in the presence versus absence of a stopping-goal (“Maybe Stop” [MS] vs “No Stop” [NS]). We show that DES of rIFC slowed down responses (compared with control-site stimulation) and that rIFC stimulation induced more slowing when motor braking was required (MS) compared with when it was not (NS). Our results strongly support a causal role of a rIFC-based network in inhibitory motor control. Importantly, the results extend this causal role beyond externally driven stopping to goal-driven inhibitory control, which is a richer model of human self-control. These results also provide the first demonstration of double-blind chronometric DES of human prefrontal cortex, and suggest that—in the case of rIFC—this could lead to augmentation of motor braking. PMID:24336725

Conner, Christopher R.; Aron, Adam R.; Tandon, Nitin

2013-01-01

183

Change Agent Survival Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

Dunbar, Folwell L.

2011-01-01

184

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Featured Agents Agents NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) Program Drug Development Primer FDA-Approved Cancer Drugs DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis Program Cancer

185

Safety of Ultrasonographic Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbubble contrast agents for ultrasound have gained increasing interest in recent years (\\u000a Quaia 2007). It is generally considered that ultrasound contrast agents approved for clinical use are well tolerated and serious\\u000a adverse reactions are rarely observed. In this chapter, the evidence supporting this impression is reviewed.

Raymond Oyen

186

Chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increased risk that civilian populations will be targets of domestic terrorism. Release of chemical warfare agents in these populations can cause a large number of casualties, with children being disproportionately affected. Chemical agents pose a significant risk to unprepared medical providers. Emergency medical personnel must be able to diagnose and manage victims of toxic exposures. This article

Rohit Shenoi

2002-01-01

187

Travel Agent Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

188

Case Report Atomoxetine and Stimulants in Combination for Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Four Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomoxetine and stimulants have both been demonstrated effective as single agents for treat- ment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults. How- ever, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in some patients do not respond adequately to single-agent treatment with these medications, each of which is presumed to impact dopaminergic and noradrenergic networks by alternative mechanisms in different

Thomas E. Brown

189

Pediatric Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

2009-01-01

190

Electrical stimulation for propelling endoscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Methods are needed for propulsion of endoscopes and wireless video capsules along the small intestine. This work aims to test the hypothesis that electrical stimulation could propel an endoscope by stimulating muscular contraction. Methods: Prototype acrylic ovoid-shaped devices were constructed with 2 stainless steel electrodes mounted on the tapered section. Five devices 15 to 23 mm diameter with a

C. Alexander Mosse; Timothy N. Mills; Mark N. Appleyard; Srinathan S. Kadirkamanathan; C. Paul Swain

2001-01-01

191

Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

1990-01-01

192

Subliminal Stimulation: Hoax or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subliminal stimulation is defined as that which is perceived by an individual below the threshold of awareness or cognizance. This article traces the history of research in subliminal stimulation to illustrate that under certain circumstances and conditions, this behavioral phenomenon does occur. Although subliminal stimuli do affect human…

Trank, Douglas M.

193

Are Prescription Stimulants “Smart Pills”?  

PubMed Central

Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

2013-01-01

194

Moral actor, selfish agent.  

PubMed

People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature. PMID:24749822

Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

2014-05-01

195

Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER  

E-print Network

Qualité des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et déchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le développement important de la méthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'être avec des digestats ou non. Les quantités de compost produit ne cessent d

Boyer, Edmond

196

Sodium pump stimulation by oxytocin and cyclic AMP in the isolated epithelium of the frog skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Activity of the Na pump was judged by Na extrusion in epithelial cells loaded with Na by a previous incubation in K-free solutions\\u000a in the cold. Oxytocin significantly stimulated Na extrusion either at normal (3.5 mM) or low (0.25 mM) K in the medium. It\\u000a was stimulated as well by cyclic AMP. Maximal concentrations of either agent caused about the

Jorge Aceves

1977-01-01

197

Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

Syed, Muhammad Ali

2014-01-15

198

Elevated membrane cholesterol concentrations inhibit glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase.  

PubMed Central

A method was devised which increases the cholesterol concentration of rat liver plasma membranes by exchange from cholesterol-rich liposomes at low temperature (4 degrees C). When the cholesterol concentration of liver plasma membranes is increased, there is an increase in lipid order as detected by a decrease in mobility of an incorporated fatty acid spin probe. This is accompanied by an inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. The various ligand-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities exhibit different sensitivities to inhibition by cholesterol, with inhibition of glucagon-stimulated greater than fluoride-stimulated greater than basal activity. The bilayer-fluidizing agent benzyl alcohol is able to reverse the inhibitory effect of cholesterol on adenylate cyclase activity in full. The thermostability of fluoride-stimulated cyclase is increased in the cholesterol-rich membranes. Elevated cholesterol concentrations abolish the lipid-phase separation occurring at 28 degrees C in native membranes as detected by an incorporated fatty acid spin probe. This causes Arrhenius plots of glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity to become linear, rather than exhibiting a break at 28 degrees C. It is suggested that the cholesterol contents of both halves of the bilayer are increased by the method used and that inhibition of adenylate cyclase ensues, owing to the increase in lipid order and promotion of protein-protein and specific cholesterol-phospholipid interactions. PMID:6305341

Whetton, A D; Gordon, L M; Houslay, M D

1983-01-01

199

La biogenèse des mélanosomes  

PubMed Central

Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

2012-01-01

200

Biological warfare agents.  

PubMed

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-07-01

201

Biological warfare agents  

PubMed Central

The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

202

Septembre 2012 Paludisme : des moustiques  

E-print Network

pulvérisations intra domiciliaires d'autres insecticides, les carbamates. Ces derniers agissent différemment au aux pyré- thrinoïdes et pulvérisé des carbamates à l'intérieur des habitations, les scientifiques ont

203

NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA  

E-print Network

NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA PAR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE M. CATSARAS J. ANANI Laboratoire Salmonella, 366 prélèvements, dans 125 boucheries, pour lesquels nous avons comparé les techniques d, dus à des coliformes. Ses avantages et ses inconvénients pour la recherche des Salmonella sont

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefäße, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drüsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhöht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

H. Kreitmair

1927-01-01

205

Behandlung der Pseudarthrosen des Beckens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudarthrosen des Beckenringes sind selten. Leitsymptom ist der chronische belastungsabhängige Schmerz des Beckenrings. Es muss überprüft werden, ob der Symptomenkomplex durch eine Pseudarthrose, durch eine posttraumatische Fehlstellung oder durch die Kombination von beiden verursacht ist. Diagnostisch wichtig sind die körperliche Untersuchung des ausgezogenen Patienten, Provokationstests, Röntgen (Beckenübersichts-, Inlet-, Outlet-, Ala- und Obturatoraufnahme) sowie die für die Analyse von Fehlstellungen, Instabilitäten

I. Marintschev; T. Mückley; F. Mendler; G. O. Hofmann

2005-01-01

206

Optimal distributed and cooperative supervisory estimation of multi-agent systems subject to unreliable information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a novel framework for optimal cooperative supervisory estimation of multi-agent linear time- invariant (LTI) systems is proposed which is applicable to a large class of multi-agent systems. This framework was recently developed by the authors based on the notion of sub-observers and a discrete-event system (DES) supervisory control. Each sub-observer estimates certain states that are conditioned on

M. M. Tousi; S. M. Azizi; K. Khorasani

2011-01-01

207

Coût clinique des retards dans le changement de traitement  

PubMed Central

La prise en charge des patients séropositifs pour le VIH ayant déjà reçu un traitement continue de s’améliorer et d’évoluer. Les nouvelles lignes directrices semblent indiquer que l’objectif du traitement devrait être une suppression virologique maximale. La meilleure façon d’y parvenir consiste à utiliser une combinaison d’agents auxquels le virus sera le plus vraisemblablement sensible et, si possible, des agents appartenant à une nouvelle classe thérapeutique. Les cas discutés démontrent comment l’utilisation d’un schéma thérapeutique puissant à titre de traitement de sauvetage peut avoir de bons résultats virologiques, immunologiques et cliniques. Toutefois, si le traitement de sauvetage retenu n’est pas assez puissant pour atteindre ces objectifs, la durabilité de la réponse est limitée. Ce qu’il faut retenir ici, c’est que ces stratégies devraient reposer sur la puissance du schéma thérapeutique et qu’il ne faut pas retarder l’instauration des agents en cas d’échec d’une stratégie.

Walmsley, Sharon

2007-01-01

208

Échantillonnage des gisements kimberlitiques à partir des microdiamants : Application à l'estimation des ressources récupérables.  

E-print Network

??La prédiction des ressources récupérables d'un gisement kimberlitique passe par l'estimation de la loi en taille des diamants commercialisables qu'il contient. Cette estimation repose traditionnellement… (more)

Ferreira, Johannes

2013-01-01

209

Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences �cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information COMMUNIQU� POUR DIFFUSION IMM�DIATE Aïda Chebbi, nouvelle docteure en sciences de l'information Montréal, le 26 février 2013 - L'�cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l

Parrott, Lael

210

Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences �cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information POURQ. Montréal, le 17 octobre 2014 -- L'�cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l aux missions de BAnQ. Madame Majela Guzmán Gómez réalise actuellement son doctorat en sciences de l'information

Parrott, Lael

211

Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences �cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information POUR l'information à l'EBSI Montréal, le 18 février 2014 -- L'�cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences première �cole d'été internationale de la Francophonie en sciences de l'information, du 2 au 11 juillet

Leclercq, Remi

212

Electrical stimulation in exercise training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve muscle strength for over a century. Bigelow reported in 1894, for example, the use of electrical stimulation on a young man for the purpose of increasing muscle strength. Employing a rapidly alternating sinusoidal induced current and a dynamometer for strength testing, Bigelow reported that the total lifting capacity of a patient increased from 4328 pounds to 4639 pounds after only 25 minutes of stimulation. In 1965, Massey et al. reported on the use of an Isotron electrical stimulator that emitted a high frequency current. Interestingly enough, the frequencies used by Massey et al. and the frequencies used by Bigelow in 1894 were in the same range of frequencies reported by Kots as being the most effective in strength development. It would seem the Russian secret of high frequency electrical stimulation for strength development, then, is not a modern development at all.

Kroll, Walter

1994-01-01

213

Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins  

PubMed Central

Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti

2013-01-01

214

Experience reveals better Bakken stimulation techniques  

SciTech Connect

In the Bakken formation, stimulation treatments are used sparingly in horizontal well completions. but in vertical wells, stimulation is used extensively and successfully. This article shows the stimulation designs that are effective in the Bakken formation.

Cramer, D.D. (BJ Services Co., Denver, CO (US))

1991-04-29

215

Computing with strategic agents  

E-print Network

This dissertation studies mechanism design for various combinatorial problems in the presence of strategic agents. A mechanism is an algorithm for allocating a resource among a group of participants, each of which has a ...

Immorlica, Nicole, 1978-

2005-01-01

216

Agent and environment  

E-print Network

This paper is about how agents learn. There is a picture of learning that is very influential in epistemology; I call it 'the Classical Picture'. As influential as it is, it is a flawed picture of learning, and epistemology ...

Rochford, Damien (Damien Joseph)

2013-01-01

217

Healthcare Agents: Being One  

MedlinePLUS

... Preparing Your Advance Directives Storing Your Advance Directives Healthcare Agents: Being One Advocating for your loved one ... will be to communicate with your loved ones healthcare providers to ensure your loved ones wishes are ...

218

MAGE: multi-agent environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent agent technology has been raised as the primary technology in the intelligent Internet and mobile computing. In this paper, MAGE (multi-agent environment) is introduced which is an environment for rapidly developing distributed, heterogeneous multi-agent systems. Agent model, agent architecture, MAGE platforms, comparison between MAGE and other multi-agent framework is presented in the paper. This paper illustrates two application systems,

Zhongzhi Shi; Haijun Zhang; Mingkai Dong; Zhikung Zhao; Qiujian Sheng; Yuncheng Jiang; Yong Cheng

2003-01-01

219

Radiographic imaging agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composition useful in the preparation of technetium-99m-based imaging agents is described comprising: (a) a metal selected from the groups consisting of tin and tin-containing alloys, the metal being employed in an amount effective to reduce the technetium to be added to form an imaging agent; and (b) a stabilizing amount of stabilizer selected from the group consisting of gentisate,

J. E. Bugaj; T. W. Grogg

1987-01-01

220

Agent amplified communication  

SciTech Connect

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1996-12-31

221

Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

2014-03-06

222

FRACTURE STIMULATION IN ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL  

E-print Network

FRACTURE STIMULATION IN ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (Principal Advisor) #12;#12;v Abstract Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are geothermal reservoirs formed, mass and energy transport, elastostatics (including the Displacement Discontinuity method), Coulomb

Stanford University

223

Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation  

DOEpatents

A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

2012-10-09

224

Control of Target Spot of Tomato with Fungicides, Systemic Acquired Resistance Activators, and a Biocontrol Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

PERNEZNY K., STOFFELLA P., COLLINS, J., CARROLL A., BEANEY A. (2003): Control of target spot of tomato with fungici- des, systemic acquired resistance activators, and a biocontrol agent. Plant Protect. Sci., 38: 81-88. Control of target spot of tomato, caused by the fungus Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & Curt.) Wei., was studied in three seasons in southern Florida, USA. The strobilurin

KEN PERNEZNY; PETER STOFFELLA; JANICE COLLINS; AMANDA CARROLL; AUDREY BEANEY

225

Intolerability of cobalt salt as erythropoietic agent.  

PubMed

Unfair athletes seek ways to stimulate erythropoiesis, because the mass of haemoglobin is a critical factor in aerobic sports. Here, the potential misuse of cobalt deserves special attention. Cobalt ions (Co(2+) ) stabilize the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that increase the expression of the erythropoietin (Epo) gene. Co(2+) is orally active, easy to obtain, and inexpensive. However, its intake can bear risks to health. To elaborate this issue, a review of the pertinent literature was retrieved by a search with the keywords 'anaemia', 'cobalt', 'cobalt chloride', 'erythropoiesis', 'erythropoietin', 'Epo', 'side-effects' and 'treatment', amongst others. In earlier years, cobalt chloride was administered at daily doses of 25 to 300?mg for use as an anti-anaemic agent. Co(2+) therapy proved effective in stimulating erythropoiesis in both non-renal and renal anaemia, yet there were also serious medical adverse effects. The intake of inorganic cobalt can cause severe organ damage, concerning primarily the gastrointestinal tract, the thyroid, the heart and the sensory systems. These insights should keep athletes off taking Co(2+) to stimulate erythropoiesis. PMID:24039233

Ebert, Bastian; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

2014-03-01

226

Radiolabelled spiroperidol: Possible pituitary adenoma imaging agent  

SciTech Connect

Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. Detection currently depends on physical symptoms, elevated serum prolactin levels and CT scans. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas based on some functional characteristic of the tumor would be of considerable clinical value not only for early detection but also for monitoring of therapy. Tritiated spiroperidol (/sup 3/H-Sp) was selected for evaluation based on 1) the presence of D-2 receptors in normal anterior pituitary and adenoma tissue and 2) the high affinity of spiroperidol for D-2 receptors. Recent data have established that implantation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in Fischer F344 rats induced prolactin-secreting tumors in the pituitary. /sup 3/HSp was evaluated in pituitary tissue of both control and DES-treated rats. /sup 3/HSp concentration in normal female anterior pituitary tissue was found to be about 0.27% kg dose/g from 5 min to 4hrs. This value was about 10 times levels in cortex, cerebellum and striatum. In DES-treated rats the % kg dose/g values remained approximately the same. A 5-fold increase in serum prolactin was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ. The data suggests that although total pituitary weight has increased due to tumor growth (reflected in increased values for % dose/organ), the relative number of receptors per g of tissue has remained constant. This result is in agreement with observations of others on D-2 receptor concentration in prolactinomas.

Otto, C.A.; Marshall, J.C.; Lloyd, R.V.; Sherman, P.S.; Wieland, D.M.

1984-01-01

227

des ateliers artistiques  

E-print Network

trompe-l'oeil... Des peaux brûlées en mal d'amour et de repères dans un monde ordinaire, étouffant'est-ce pas la même chose dans une histoire d'amour ? du 10 au 21 juin exposition de l'Atelier photo paris 6

228

Quelques propriétés des théories de Jonsson  

Microsoft Academic Search

On étudie les propriétés des théories de Jonsson et des conditions nécessaires afin que des théories soient de Jonsson ; on caractérise les théories de Jonsson cosémantiques c’est-à-dire ayant un modèle homogène universel commun ainsi que certaines théories complètes contenant des théories de Jonsson. On donne des exemples de certaines situations.

Yerulan Mustafin

2002-01-01

229

fevrier 2012 Journes Francophones des Langages Applicatifs JFLA12 Separation des couleurs dans un -calcul bichrome  

E-print Network

AlligatorEggs3 cherche `a expliquer le -calcul `a des enfants. Pour cela il utilise la couleur pour relier des alligators affam´es et des oeufs afin de constituer des familles. La couleur sert `a expliciter les liaisons des variables dans les termes, des oeufs naissent de nouveaux alligators ou familles lors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

An Implantable Neural Stimulator for Intraspinal MicroStimulation  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on a wireless stimulator device for use in animal experiments as part of an ongoing investigation into intraspinal stimulation (ISMS) for restoration of walking in humans with spinal cord injury. The principle behind using ISMS is the activation of residual motor-control neural networks within the spinal cord ventral horn below the level of lesion following a spinal cord injury. The attractiveness to this technique is that a small number of electrodes can be used to induce bilateral walking patterns in the lower limbs. In combination with advanced feedback algorithms, ISMS has the potential to restore walking for distances that exceed that produced by other types of functional electrical stimulation. Recent acute animal experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of using ISMS to produce the coordinated walking patterns. Here we described a wireless implantable stimulation system to be used in chronic animal experiments and for providing the basis for a system suitable for use in humans. Electrical operation of the wireless system is described, including a demonstration of reverse telemetry for monitoring the stimulating electrode voltages. PMID:23366038

Troyk, Philip R.; Mushahwar, Vivian K.; Stein, Richard B.; Suh, Sungjae; Everaert, Dirk; Holinski, Brad; Hu, Zhe; DeMichele, Glenn; Kerns, Douglas; Kayvani, Kevin

2013-01-01

231

[Functional changes in human peripheral neutrophils in workers with different exposure to noxious agents].  

PubMed

Free radicals have a role in interaction between occupational exposure to multiple agents and biological systems; peripheral neutrophils (PMNs) are a source of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. PMN's activity was evaluated by chemiluminescence assays referring to different noxious agents exposure levels. Two office workers groups were recruited: first one was exposed to several agents, control group was composed by lower exposure workers. Intra and extracellular chemiluminescence evaluation was performed to obtain radical species information. Stimulated PMNs from exposed subjects respond to the stimuli less than unexposed, and can be suggested as chronic exposure markers to noxious agents. PMID:23405744

Garzillo, E M; Feola, D; Pedata, P; Lamberti, M; Sannolo, N; D'Ancicco, F; Miraglia, N

2012-01-01

232

Agent independent task planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

Davis, William S.

1990-01-01

233

Evaluation of thrombolytic agents.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of currently available thrombolytic agents, such as streptokinase, urokinase, alteplase (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator; rt-PA) and anistreplase (anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex; APSAC), involves conversion of inactive plasminogen to plasmin, a potent fibrinolytic. However, the relatively weak substrate specificity of first generation agents (streptokinase and urokinase) can result in a state of systemic fibrinolysis and associated bleeding complications. The second generation drugs such as alteplase were developed in an attempt to enhance fibrin specificity, so that only enzymatic conversion of fibrin-complexed plasminogen would take place, thus avoiding systemic fibrinolysis. Results from large clinical trials have failed to consistently show any significant differences between first and second generation thrombolytic agents in the incidence of bleeding. In the clinical setting, thrombolytic agents have been evaluated primarily in patients with acute myocardial infarction and have been shown to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality compared with conservative treatment. The focus of current and future research is to investigate these agents in patients with other vaso-occlusive or ischaemic conditions (e.g. stroke), and also to evaluate different drug administration regimens and the use of adjunctive therapies such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and heparin. PMID:9360848

Bell, W R

1997-01-01

234

Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

235

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2011-01-01

236

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

237

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2011-01-01

238

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

239

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2010-01-01

240

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration...Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration...to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service...

2011-01-01

241

Optimal Agents Nicholas James Hay  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.1 Possible futures, and the expected utility of an agent given a fixed history 41 8.2 Identities of the expected utility of an agent given a fixed history . . . . . 42 8.3 Expectimax agents are optimal agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3 #12;9 Appendix: Odds and Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 9

Goodman, James R.

242

Radiographic imaging agents  

SciTech Connect

A composition useful in the preparation of technetium-99m-based imaging agents is described comprising: (a) a metal selected from the groups consisting of tin and tin-containing alloys, the metal being employed in an amount effective to reduce the technetium to be added to form an imaging agent; and (b) a stabilizing amount of stabilizer selected from the group consisting of gentisate, ascorbate, and reductate compounds, and mixtures thereof. A composition useful in the preparation of technetium-99m-based imaging agents is described comprising: (a) a stabilizer selected from the group consisting of gentisate, ascorbate and reductate compounds, and mixtures thereof; dissolved in (b) an oxidized pertechnetate solution; and (c) a metal selected from the group consisting of tin and tin-containing alloys.

Bugaj, J.E.; Grogg, T.W.

1987-11-17

243

Novel antiplatelet agents in acute coronary syndrome.  

PubMed

For more than 10 years, dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel has remained the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The novel oral P2Y purinoceptor 12 (P2Y12)-receptor inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor were approved by the FDA for clinical use in 2009 and 2011, respectively. These agents have a faster-acting, more-potent, and more-predictable antiplatelet effect than clopidogrel, which translates into improved clinical outcomes in patients with ACS, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of bleeding. However, some patients continue to experience adverse ischaemic events despite treatment with aspirin and a P2Y12-receptor antagonist, because platelets can remain activated via pathways not inhibited by these agents, such as the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 platelet activation pathway stimulated by thrombin. Emerging antiplatelet therapies that might address these limitations include intravenous P2Y12 antagonists, oral PAR-1 antagonists, and thromboxane-receptor inhibitors. In this Review, we provide an overview of these novel antiplatelet drugs, including newly approved agents and emerging compounds currently under clinical development, and also discuss evolving concepts and unmet needs related to antiplatelet therapy for the treatment of ACS. PMID:25286881

Franchi, Francesco; Angiolillo, Dominick J

2015-01-01

244

Annales de la Faculte des Sciences de Toulouse Vol. XI, n 4, 2002 pp. 563573  

E-print Network

history of contingency tables () Stephen Stigler (1) R´ESUM´E. -- L'apparente absence d'une histoire des`evement not´ee. ABSTRACT. -- The apparent lack of a history of contingency tables before 1900 is explored of contingency tables is like a background check on a well-prepared secret agent: As one moves backwards in time

Fienberg, Stephen E.

245

PROPOSITION DE SUJET DE THESE Nom du laboratoire : Laboratoire de Physique des Solides  

E-print Network

: bourse des ED Ecole doctorale : ED107 Connectivity in biofilms Bacteria would represent more than 40 % of the total biomass. Most often bacteria socially self-organize by secreting polymers able to glue the cells or disinfection agents). First described in 1970-1980, such biofilms are now well known to colonize solid surface

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

246

Electrical stimulation as therapy for neurological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the basics of implantable neurological stimulators (INSs) and electrodes. Mechanisms of neural stimulation relevant to the clinician are reviewed, including the activating function, strength-duration relationship, and strength-distance relationship as well as safety considerations including safe charge and charge density levels. Clinical examples are taken from spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for pain and deep brain stimulation (DBS) for

ROY L. TESTERMAN; MARK T. RISE; PAUL H. STYPULKOWSKI

2006-01-01

247

Cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims:Although brain registration of subliminal somatic stimulations such as masked visual stimuli and their influence on electrical and hemodynamic measures of cerebral activity have been reported previously, there have been no reports on cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation. Because studies evaluating the consequences of subliminal somatic stimulation have shown that subliminal stimulation can effect behavior, it

Mark K. Kern; Reza Shaker

2002-01-01

248

The Electrical Stimulation Modifies the Cerebral Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical stimulation has been used for therapeuthic purposes. In this review, we present the clinical and scientific bases for using electrical stimulation as a treatment for pharmacological refractory epilepsy. We also describe results in receptors of inhibitory neurotransmitters obtained in rat brain with or without epilepsy, undergoing brain stimulation. Brain electrical stimulation may improve our understanding of brain function and neuroplasticity.

Rocha, Luisa Lilia; López-Meraz, María Leonor; Cuéllar-Herrera, Manola; Neri-Bazán., Leticia

2002-08-01

249

Deep brain stimulation: new techniques.  

PubMed

The technology of the hardware used in deep brain stimulation (DBS), and the mode of delivering the stimulation have not significantly evolved since the start of the modern era of DBS 25 years ago. However, new technology is now being developed along several avenues. New features of the implantable pulse generator (IPG) allow fractionation of the electric current into variable proportions between different contacts of the multi-polar lead. Another design consists in leads that allow selective current steering from directionally placed electrode contacts that would deliver the stimulation in a specific direction or even create a directional shaped electric field that would conform to the anatomy of the brain target aimed at, avoiding adjacent structures, and thus avoiding side effects. Closed loop adaptive stimulation technologies are being developed, allowing a tracking of the pathological local field potential of the brain target, and delivering automatically the stimulation to suppress the pathological activity as soon as it is detected and for as long as needed. This feature may contribute to a DBS therapy "on demand", instead of continuously. Finally, advances in imaging technology are providing "new" brain targets, and increasingly allowing DBS to be performed accurately while avoiding the risks of microelectrode recording. PMID:24262179

Hariz, Marwan

2014-01-01

250

Laser stimulation for pain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pain is a serious medical problem; it inflicts huge economic loss and personal suffering. Pain signals are conducted via small, non- and partially myelinated A-delta and C nerve fibers and lasers are particularly well suited to stimulating these fibers. Large myelinated fibers convey touch and vibration information and these fibers are also discharged when contact thermodes and other touch pain stimuli are used and this would give a more muddled signal for functional imaging experiments. The advantages of lasers over conventional methods of pain stimulation are good temporal resolution, no variable parameters are involved such as contact area and they give very reproducible results. Accurate inter-stimulus changes can be achieved by computer control of the laser pulse duration, pulse height and repetition rate and this flexibility enables complex stimulation paradigms to be realized. We present a flexible carbon dioxide laser system designed to generate these stimuli for the study of human cerebral pain responses. We discuss the advantages within research of this system over other methods of pain stimulation such as thermal, electrical and magnetic. The stimulator is used in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and electrophysiological methods of imaging the brain's activity. This combination is a powerful tool for the study of pain-induced activity in different areas of the brain. An accurate understanding of the brain's response to pain will help in research into the areas of rheumatoid arthritis and chronic back pain.

Clark, Stuart; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.; Jones, Anthony; Chen, Andrew; Derbyshire, Stuart; Townsend, D. W.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Mintun, M. A.; Nichols, T.

1996-01-01

251

The role of adjuvant agents in treating fungal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality despite the recent introduction of\\u000a new antifungal medications. In this review, the available data on the use of adjuvant agents for the treatment of IFIs are\\u000a discussed. Cytokines such as interferon-?, colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte transfusions, and the monoclonal antibody\\u000a efungumab may have in a role in the management

Shellee A. Grim; Nina M. Clark

2009-01-01

252

The role of aromatase inhibitors in ameliorating deleterious effects of ovarian stimulation on outcome of infertility treatment  

PubMed Central

Clinical utilization of ovulation stimulation to facilitate the ability of a couple to conceive has not only provided a valuable therapeutic approach, but has also yielded extensive information on the physiology of ovarian follicular recruitment, endometrial receptivity and early embryo competency. One of the consequences of the use of fertility enhancing agents for ovarian stimulation has been the creation of a hyperestrogenic state, which may influence each of these parameters. Use of aromatase inhibitors reduces hyperestrogenism inevitably attained during ovarian stimulation. In addition, the adjunct use of aromatase inhibitors during ovarian stimulation reduces amount of gonadotropins required for optimum stimulation. The unique approach of reducing hyperestrogenism, as well as lowering amount of gonadotropins without affecting the number of mature ovarian follicles is an exciting strategy that could result in improvement in the treatment outcome by ameliorating the deleterious effects of the ovarian stimulation on follicular development, endometrial receptivity, as well as oocyte and embryo quality. PMID:16202169

Mitwally, Mohamed FM; Casper, Robert F; Diamond, Michael P

2005-01-01

253

Agent Amplified Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for informa- tion gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on expertise location within a large organization. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an or- ganization are used to \\

Henry A. Kautz; Bart Selman; Al Milewski

1996-01-01

254

Remote Agent Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

255

Beyond bevacizumab: antiangiogenic agents.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is a rational target for the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the E4599 trial, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted antibody bevacizumab combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel improved both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy alone. However responses to bevacizumab are usually transient and resistance inevitably develops. Thus other targets should be considered for future antiangiogenic strategies. A number of antiangiogenic agents with a variety of targets are in clinical development for NSCLC. Several multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as sorafenib, cediranib, and BIBF 1120, with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and other proangiogenic pathways (eg, fibroblast growth factor [FGF] and platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF] pathways) are in clinical development for NSCLC. Many of these TKIs have shown clinical activity in early trials, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Other promising agents in development include inhibitors of the angiopoietin/TIE2 pathway, integrin-targeted agents, vascular disrupting agents, and delta-like ligand-4/Notch pathway inhibitors. PMID:22297207

Rogosin, Shane; Sandler, Alan B

2012-09-01

256

Space Travel Agent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are in charge of creating a travel brochure to a planet in our solar system. Travel Agent for the Solar System Introduction You are in charge of the new ?Travel the Solar System? account at Universe Travel Agency.

Ms. Williams

2010-11-29

257

Mobility control agent  

SciTech Connect

Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

1983-05-17

258

Agents of Infection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collaborative lesson design by Lori Kern and Dawn Barone. This lesson focuses on infectious agents (fungus, bacteria, virus and parasites). Students will be able experience a hands-on activity to reinforce the concepts addressed in this benchmark.

Michelle Ferro

2012-06-15

259

Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception. Researchers have used single-pulse and repetitive TMS to stimulate the lip representation in the motor cortex. The excitability of the lip motor representation can be investigated by applying single TMS pulses over this cortical area and recording TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) via electrodes attached to the lip muscles (electromyography; EMG). Larger MEPs reflect increased cortical excitability. Studies have shown that excitability increases during listening to speech as well as during viewing speech-related movements. TMS can be used also to disrupt the lip motor representation. A 15-min train of low-frequency sub-threshold repetitive stimulation has been shown to suppress motor excitability for a further 15-20 min. This TMS-induced disruption of the motor lip representation impairs subsequent performance in demanding speech perception tasks and modulates auditory-cortex responses to speech sounds. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that the motor cortex contributes to speech perception. This article describes how to localize the lip representation in the motor cortex and how to define the appropriate stimulation intensity for carrying out both single-pulse and repetitive TMS experiments. PMID:24962266

Möttönen, Riikka; Rogers, Jack; Watkins, Kate E.

2014-01-01

260

Geschichte des Widerstandes in Film und Fernsehen.  

E-print Network

??In der Diplomarbeit „Geschichte des Widerstandes in Film und Fernsehen“ wird die unterschiedliche Darstellungsweise des Stauffenberg-Attentats auf den „Führer“ Adolf Hitler vom 20. Juli 1944… (more)

Bauer, Marlies

2010-01-01

261

TIC et commerce lectronique : laboratoires de la libralisation des changes et des volutions des rgles  

E-print Network

1 TIC et commerce électronique : laboratoires de la libéralisation des échanges et des évolutions/Département Sciences Economiques et Sociales Les échanges internationaux de produits TIC et le commerce électroniques à terme à l'abolition des droits de douane pour les produits de la filière TIC et les échanges

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Localisation des salles UFR SLHS : Facult des Lettres  

E-print Network

Promotion Formation Recherche des Sports 31 rue de l'épitaphe, 25000 Besançon IUT: Institut Universitaire de'Observatoire 25000 Besançon UFR ST : Faculté des Sciences 16 route de Gray, 25000 Besançon UPFR Sports : Unité de

Jeanjean, Louis

263

UNIVERSIT DE NANTES FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

épineux des DSSC. J'associe aussi à ces remerciements Yann Pellegrin et Errol Blart, qui ont été des personnes très sympathiques à rencontrer et qui ont rendus les réunions "DSSC" plus agréables, entre autre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Stimulated Raman microscopy without ultrafast lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is a powerful tool for chemically-sensitive non-invasive optical imaging. However, the short-pulse laser sources, which are currently being employed for this imaging technique, are still expensive and require substantial maintenance to provide temporal and spectral overlap. SRS imaging, which utilizes cw laser sources, has a major advantage over pulsed lasers, as it eliminates the possibility of cell damage due to exposure to high-intensity light radiation, while substantially reducing the cost and complexity of the set-up and keeping a sub-cellular spatial resolution. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate microscopic imaging of dimethyl sulfoxide using two independent, commonly used and inexpensive lasers: a diode-pumped, intracavity doubled 532 nm laser and a He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm. In our proof-of-principle experience, dimethyl sulfoxide acts as a contrast agent providing Raman scattering signal. The 532 nm and 633 nm lasers act as excitation and probe sources, respectively [1].

Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

2013-02-01

265

Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences �cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information -- L'�cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l'Université de Montréal est destinée aux étudiants de doctorat ou de maîtrise en sciences de l'information qui démontrent un intérêt

Parrott, Lael

266

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities

Marshall F Gilula

2007-01-01

267

ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) at pilot scale. The pilot unit consisted of a conventional baghouse in parallel with an ESFF baghouse, allowing direct comparison. Reported results are for pulse-cl...

268

Stimulating Instruction in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To promote content literacy, students have to be actively involved. This article focuses on strategies that stimulate student interest by involving them with the content during pre-reading, during-reading and post-reading activities. These processes provide students with optimal opportunities for comprehension. The authors recommend the use of a…

Key, La Vonne; Bradley, Jack A.; Bradley, Karen Sue

2010-01-01

269

Activities to Stimulate Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes sample vocational activities that stimulate critical thinking: (1) setting up an accounting system (business education); (2) developing a marketing plan (marketing education); (3) developing a fertilizer application plan (agricultural education); (4) making the best purchase (home economics); (5) planning a repair/remodeling project…

Haynes, Thomas B.; Schroeder, Connie

1989-01-01

270

Agent design patterns: elements of agent application design  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT Agent technology is an emerging field and agent-based application design is still a pi o- neering discipline. We are all pioneers, i n- venting and re-inventing sometimes smart but perhaps more not-so-smart solutions to recur- rent problems. It is here that agent design pat- terns can help by capturing good solutions to common problems in agent design. No

Yariv Aridor; Danny B. Lange

1998-01-01

271

Stimulation tests for the bone marrow neutrophil pool in malignancies.  

PubMed

It has been known for decades that blood neutrophilia occurs after the administration of etiocholanolone, adrenocortical steroids, and endotoxins. Neutrophil leukocytosis in general may be due to several mechanisms such as increased stimulation of the myelopoiesis, increased release from the marrow, a shift from the marginated to the circulating pool (demargination), prolongation in the peripheral half-life, and decreased migration of neutrophils from the blood to the tissue. However, the principal cause of the neutrocytosis for each of the above mentioned agents is increased release of neutrophils from the bone marrow reserves. Since a sufficient reserve capacity is a prerequisite for optimal defenses against infections, the marrow response has been used to estimate the dose of chemotherapy expected to be tolerated without life-threatening neutropenia. However, none of the above "test substances" have gained widespread use due to adverse reactions or undesirable effects on neutrophil function. Recent progress in biotechnology has developed recombinant human (rh) hematopoietic growth factors ready for clinical use. Marrow myelopoiesis is stimulated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (rhGM-CSF). The immediate effect, however, is mobilization of mature neutrophil granulocytes to the blood. Bone marrow cellularity seems to influence the neutrophil number mobilized during 24 hours by one subcutaneous injection of either rhG-CSF or rhGM-CSF. A recent pilot study has suggested such a "24 hour stimulation test" to predict severe neutropenia following cyclic chemotherapy. This concept is illustrated by two case reports. The "stimulation test" suggests that we may devise strategies to define patient subsets which may benefit from prophylactic growth factor administration during cyclic chemotherapy. PMID:7719232

Hansen, P B; Knudsen, L M; Johnsen, H E; Hansen, N E

1995-01-01

272

Distributed Agents for Autonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Distributed Agents for Autonomy (DAFA) Study has been performed for ESA by SciSys UK Ltd, Vega GmbH and Politecnico di Milano. An analysis of past, present and future space missions has been conducted, structured around a set of three pre-defined mission scenarios: Formation Flying, Earth Observation and Planetary Exploration. This analysis led to the definition of a framework of use cases where the application of distributed autonomy seems necessary or appropriate, and a set of metrics that may be used to assess such deployments. Agent technology and architectures were extensively surveyed and the results used to elaborate each of the mission scenarios to the point where a software prototype could be constructed. Such a prototype was developed for a scenario based on the ExoMars mission and this has been used to highlight the advantages of a DAFA approach to the mission architecture.

Blake, R.; Amigoni, F.; Brambilla, A.; de la Rosa Steinz, S.; Lavagna, M.; le Duc, I.; Page, J.; Page, O.; Steel, R.; Wijnands, Q.

2010-08-01

273

Hrp mutant bacteria as biocontrol agents  

PubMed Central

Sustainable agriculture necessitates development of environmentally safe methods to protect plants against pathogens. Among these methods, application of biocontrol agents has been efficiently used to minimize disease development. Here we review current understanding of mechanisms involved in biocontrol of the main Gram-phytopathogenic bacteria-induced diseases by plant inoculation with strains mutated in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes. These mutants are able to penetrate plant tissues and to stimulate basal resistance of plants. Novel protection mechanisms involving the phytohormone abscisic acid appear to play key roles in the biocontrol of wilt disease induced by Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis thaliana. Fully understanding these mechanisms and extending the studies to other pathosystems are still required to evaluate their importance in disease protection. PMID:23887499

Hanemian, Mathieu; Zhou, Binbin; Deslandes, Laurent; Marco, Yves; Trémousaygue, Dominique

2013-01-01

274

Rigid bifunctional chelating agents  

DOEpatents

Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

2000-02-08

275

Ageismus – Sprachliche Diskriminierung des Alters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daniel Sanders, einer der bedeutendsten Lexikografen des 19. Jahrhunderts, wertete für sein Wörterbuch Quellen seit der Lutherzeit aus und\\u000a vermerkt im Wörterbuchartikel zu alt eine „bald lobende, bald tadelnde“ Bedeutung des Adjektivs. Sein Zeit- und Berufsgenosse Jacob Grimm benennt in seiner Rede über das Alter die zeitgenössischen Synonyme zu alt und Alter: „aus einheimischen schriftstellern liesze sich eine lange reihe

Undine Kramer

276

Inactivation studies on BSE agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible degenerative encephalopathy agents are relatively resistant to standard decontamination procedures. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent was inactivated by sodium hypochlorite but not sodium dichloroisocyanurate; 1M or 2M sodium hydroxide was unreliable for BSE and scrapie agents. BSE infectivity survived a two-year exposure to formol saline. Porous-load autoclaving at 134-138°C was ineffective with BSE and scrapie agents, and resistance to

David M. Taylor

1996-01-01

277

Magnetic-motor-root stimulation: review.  

PubMed

Magnetic stimulation can activate the human central and peripheral nervous systems non-invasively and virtually painlessly. Magnetic stimulation over the spinal enlargements can activate spinal nerves at the neuroforamina (magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation). This stimulation method provides us with information related to the latency of compound-muscle action potential (CMAP), which is usually interpreted as peripheral motor-conduction time (PMCT). However, this stimulation method has faced several problems in clinical applications. One is that supramaximal CMAPs were unobtainable. Another is that magnetic stimulation did not usually activate the spinal nerves in the spinal canal, i.e., the cauda equina, which prevented an evaluation of its conduction. For these reasons, magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation was rarely used to evaluate the conduction of peripheral nerves. It was mainly used to evaluate the conduction of the corticospinal tract using the parameter of central motor-conduction time (CMCT), which was calculated by subtracting PMCT from the latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex. Recently, supramaximal stimulation has been achieved in magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation, and this has contributed to the measurement of both CMAP size and latency. The achievement of supramaximal stimulation is ascribed to the increase in magnetic-stimulator output and a novel coil, the magnetic augmented translumbosacral stimulation (MATS) coil. The most proximal part of the cauda equina can be reliably activated using the MATS coil (magnetic-conus stimulation), thus contributing to the measurement of cauda equina conduction time (CECT) and cortico-conus motor-conduction time (CCCT). These recent developments in magnetic-motor-root stimulation enable us to more precisely evaluate the conduction of the proximal part of peripheral nerves and that of the corticospinal tract for lower-limb muscles. In this review article, we summarise the basic mechanisms, recent topics, clinical applications, comparison to electrical stimulation, pitfalls, safety and additional issues in magnetic-motor-root stimulation. PMID:23485367

Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

2013-06-01

278

Intention Reconciliation by Collaborative Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on resource-bounded agents has established that rational agents need to be able to revise their commitments in the light of new opportunities. In the context of collabo- rative activities, rational agents must be able to reconcile their intentions to do team-related actions with other, con- flicting intentions. The SPIRE experimental system allows the process of intention reconciliation in team

David G. Sullivan; Barbara J. Grosz; Sarit Kraus

2000-01-01

279

Trends in Agent Communication Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent technology is an exciting and important new way to create complex software systems. Agents blend many of the traditional properties of AI programs - knowledge-level reasoning, flexibil- ity, pro-activeness, goal-directedness, and so forth - with insights gained from distributed software engineering, machine learning, negotiation and teamwork theory, and the social sciences. An im- portant part of the agent approach

Brahim Chaib-draa; Frank Dignum

2002-01-01

280

Des Moines Water Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

2001-01-01

281

The acute treatment of nerve agent exposure.  

PubMed

Nerve agents (NA) are simple and cheap to produce but can produce casualties on a massive scale. They have already been employed by terrorist organizations and rogue states on civilians and armed forces alike. By inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholine esterase, NAs prevent the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This results in over-stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the autonomic and central nervous systems and at the neuromuscular junction. Increased parasympathetic stimulation produces miosis, sialorrhea, bronchospasm and bronchorrhea. Effects at the neuromuscular junction cause weakness, fasciculations, and eventually paralysis. Central effects include altered behavior and mental status, loss of consciousness, seizures, or apnea. Most deaths are due to respiratory failure. Treatment with atropine competitively blocks the parasympathetic effects. Oximes like pralidoxime salvage acetylcholine esterase by "prying off" NA, provided the attachment has not "aged" to an irreversible bond. This reverses weakness. Benzodiazepines like diazepam are effective against NA induced seizures. Mortality has been surprisingly low. If victims can survive the first 15 to 20 min of a vapor attack, they will likely live. The low mortality rate to date underscores that attacks are survivable and research reveals even simple barriers such as clothing offer substantial protection. This article reviews the properties of NAs and how to recognize the clinical features of NA intoxication, employ the needed drugs properly, and screen out anxious patients who mistakenly believe they have been exposed. PMID:16945386

Cannard, Kevin

2006-11-01

282

Gntique formelle des pigmentations humaines variations continues  

E-print Network

Génétique formelle des pigmentations humaines à variations continues : beaucoup d'hypothèses, peu et de mesures sont actuellement disponibles concer- nant la biochimie des pigments humains, leur génétique physiologique, les répartitions mondiales des pigmentations de la peau et des cheveux. La

Boyer, Edmond

283

Les revenus primaires des ménages en 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Tous les 5 ans environ, l'INSEE procède à une enquête sur les revenus des ménages en utilisant les déclarations fiscales de la Direction générale des impôts. Les premiers résultats de 1975 sont à présent disponibles. Malgré la diversité des critères d'inégalité (revenu par ménage, par tête ou par unité de consommation), une réduction progressive des écarts se fait jour,

André Villeneuve

1978-01-01

284

Patrimoine des ménages : déterminants et disparités  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Patrimoine des ménages : déterminants et disparités . En 1992, le patrimoine brut des ménages est, en moyenne, de 900 000 francs. Mais la dispersion et la concentration sont fortes : le pécule des 10 % de ménages les moins fortunés ne dépasse pas 24 600 francs, alors que l'avoir des 10 % les plus riches excède 1 830

Daniel Verger; Stéfan Lollivier

1996-01-01

285

CARTOGRAPHIE DES ACCIDENTS GOLOGIQUES PAR IMAGERIE  

E-print Network

119 CARTOGRAPHIE DES ACCIDENTS G�OLOGIQUES PAR IMAGERIE SATELLITAIRE LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ET ANALYSE DES cartographier les réseaux de fractures dans les roches cristallines et métamorphiques à l'aide des images les images brutes, permettant une meilleure cartographie des accidents géologiques. La carte

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

DTERMINATION QUANTITATIVE DES DENSITS LEVES DES DISLOCATIONS DANS DES MONOCRISTAUX DE GERMANIUM  

E-print Network

GERMANIUM PAR DIFFUSION D'ATOMES MARQU�S Par MAREK BRAFMAN, OLGA KRUSZEWSKA, WALDEMAR WRONSKI et KAROL'exemple des monocristaux de germanium et comparaison des résultats obtenus avec les mêmes déterminations measurement of the density of the autoradio- grams. The method is illustrated by example of germanium

Boyer, Edmond

287

Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function  

PubMed Central

Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle. PMID:22737049

Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

2012-01-01

288

Multisensory Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, and various kinds of music therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation has showed promising preliminary results in aphasia and neglect. Patient heterogeneity and the interaction of age, gender, genes, and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post-stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation. It is proposed that we should pay more attention to age, gender, and laterality in clinical studies. PMID:22509159

Johansson, Barbro Birgitta

2012-01-01

289

Deep Brain Stimulation for Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Summary Many patients suffer from medically refractory epilepsy and are not candidates for resective brain surgery. Success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in relieving a significant amount of symptoms of various movement disorders paved the way for investigations into this modality for epilepsy. Open-label and small blinded-trials have provided promising evidence for the use of DBS in refractory seizures. However, the first randomized control trial of DBS of the anterior thalamic nucleus is currently underway. Furthermore, there are multiple potential targets as many neural regions have been implicated in seizure propagation. Thus, it is difficult at this time to make any definitive judgments about the efficacy of DBS for seizure control. Future study is necessary to identify a patient population for whom this technique would be indicated, the most efficacious target, and optimal stimulation parameters. PMID:18164484

Halpern, Casey H.; Samadani, Uzma; Litt, Brian; Jaggi, Jurg L.; Baltuch, Gordon H.

2010-01-01

290

Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling  

SciTech Connect

Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2011-08-12

291

Cell growth-stimulating effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we demonstrated that aloesin, a chromone derivative, is the ingredient responsible for the cell growth stimulating effect\\u000a of aloe vera, which has been used for several thousand years as a folk medicine for wound healing and skin regeneration. Moreover,\\u000a the cell-growth stimulatory effect of aloesin and its derivative is associated with the inductions of cyclin E-dependent kinase\\u000a components and

Seung Lee

292

Hydraulic redistribution may stimulate decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots influence root litter decomposition through multiple belowground processes. Hydraulic lift or redistribution (HR) by\\u000a plants is one such process that creates diel drying–rewetting cycles in soil. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon influences\\u000a decomposition. Since decomposition in deserts is constrained by low soil moisture and is stimulated when dry soils are rewetted,\\u000a we hypothesized that diel drying–rewetting, via

Zachary T. Aanderud; James H. Richards

2009-01-01

293

Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances  

ScienceCinema

Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

None

2011-10-06

294

A propos des divergences en théorie des champs quantifiés [83  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comme nous le montrons ailleurs1), la causalité impose à la matrice S qui décrit l'évolution d'un système une structure bien déterminée : lorsqu'on développe celle-ci suivant les opérateurs de translation dans l'espace des quanta, les coefficients S^{(i)} left[ {tau ''; u''../tau '; u' \\cdot \\cdot } right] sont des intégrales multiples où n'apparaissent, à cOté des champs liés à un seul point de l'espace temps, que les functions*): D^c (x/y) = D^s (x/y) + _2^i D^1 (x/y) x ne y

295

Pacs des villes et pas des champs ? Emmanuel Jaurand  

E-print Network

). Après le pic de 2000, le total annuel de signatures de pacs entre personnes du même sexe a oscillé entre désormais être affinée en fonction du sexe des pacsés. La répartition des pacs entre personnes du même sexe'organiser juridiquement une vie de couple quel que soit le sexe des partenaires, le pacs a d'abord été une innovation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

Lymphokine stimulation of collagen accumulation.  

PubMed Central

Lymphokine-rich supernates from normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated by the mitogen phytohemagglutinin, have been shown to cause enhanced collagen accumulation by human embryonic lung fibroblasts (WI-38), as measured by hydroxyproline content of fibroblast monolayers, [14C] proline incorporation into soluble collagen and collagenase release of radioactivity in supernates and monolayers of cultures incubated with [14C] proline. This fibroblast-stimulating activity, demonstrable by suitable dilutions of the supernates, coexisted with a number of other lymphokine activities such as lymphotoxin, proliferation inhibitory factor, and cloning inhibitory factor, which tend to reduce the numbers of function of fibroblasts. The increased content of collagen appeared to be the product of selected surviving and responding fibroblasts. The factor causing this increased collagen accumulation was nondialyzable and stable at -70 degrees C. It represents the first described lymphoid cell-derived activity capable of enhancing collagen accumulation. Fibroblast-stimulating activity may be implicated in the abnormal fibrosis seen in association with chronic inflammation in a variety of disease states. It may have special relevance to progressive systemic sclerosis. PMID:932208

Johnson, R L; Ziff, M

1976-01-01

297

[Instruments for spinal cord stimulation].  

PubMed

Development of instruments for spinal cord stimulation is remarkable. We can implant two cylinder-type stimulation electrodes in parallel into the spinal epidural space. We call this method for dual-lead SCS. Dual lead-SCS is useful to induce paresthesia over the painful area, and the success rate of pain reduction induced by dual-lead SCS is increasing. For dual-lead stimulation, the RestoreSensor, the EonMini, and the Precision Plus are suitable and useful for the treatment of intractable pain. Based on the results of a drug-challenge test with ketamine, we applied dual-SCS for the treatment of various kinds of neuropathic pain. Comparing with the results of single-lead SCS, dual-lead SCS has obvious advantages to evoke paresthesia over the painful area, and showed a remarkable effects for pain reduction. Dual-lead SCS combined with low-dose ketamine drip infusion method is useful for the treatment of various kinds of neuropathic pain. Even if the direct effect of ketamine is transient, effects that provide release from central sensitization and the wind-up phenomenon may be important to increase the effects of dual-lead SCS. Based on the development of dual-lead SCS, SCS therapy has become an important and powerful method for the treatment of intractable pain. PMID:25098136

Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Chikashi; Yoshino, Atsuo

2014-07-01

298

Stimulation of Fibroblast Proliferation by Insoluble Gadolinium Salts  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess insoluble salts containing gadolinium (Gd3+) for effects on human dermal fibroblasts. Responses to insoluble Gd3+ salts were compared to responses seen with Gd3+ solubilized with organic chelators, as in the Gd3+-based contrast agents (GBCAs) used for magnetic resonance imaging. Insoluble particles of either Gd3+-phosphate or Gd3+-carbonate rapidly attached to the fibroblast cell surface and stimulated proliferation. Growth was observed at Gd3+ concentrations between 12.5 and 125 ?M, with toxicity at higher concentrations. Such a narrow window did not characterize GBCA stimulation. Proliferation induced by insoluble Gd3+ salts was inhibited in the presence of antagonists of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways (similar to chelated Gd3+) but was not blocked by an antibody to the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (different from chelated-Gd3+). Finally, high concentrations of the insoluble Gd3+ salts failed to prevent fibroblast lysis under low-Ca2+ conditions while similar concentrations of chelated-Gd3+ were effective. In conclusion, while insoluble Gd3+ salts are capable of stimulating fibroblast proliferation, one should be cautious in assuming that GBCA dechelation must occur in vivo to produce the profibrotic changes seen in association with GBCA exposure in the subset of renal failure patients that develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:21882070

Bleavins, Katherine; Perone, Patricia; Naik, Madhav; Rehman, Muneeb; Aslam, Muhammad N.; Dame, Michael K.; Meshinchi, Sasha; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James

2011-01-01

299

Vomiting Center reanalyzed: An electrical stimulation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical stimulation of the brainstem of 15 decerebrate cats produced stimulus-bound vomiting in only 4 animals. Vomiting was reproducible in only one cat. Effective stimulating sites were located in the solitary tract and reticular formation. Restricted localization of a vomiting center, stimulation of which evoked readily reproducible results, could not be obtained.

Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

1982-01-01

300

Transcranial magnetic stimulation: the method and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive method for stimulation of brain that is based on the ability of magnetic field to penetrate skull and brain meninges, subsequently inducing electric current in the brain tissues that produces neuronal depolarization and generation of action potentials. Moreover, transcranial magnetic stimulation has effects on neurochemical and synaptic processes in neurons. Due to its

Jacqueline Höppner; Osvaldas Rukš?nas

2006-01-01

301

Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to study if electrical stimulation of the retinal surface can elicit visual sensation in individuals blind from end-stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Under local anesthesia, different stimulating electrodes were inserted through the eyewall and positioned over the surface of the retina. Subjects' psychophysical responses to electrical stimulation were recorded. Subjects perceived simple forms

Mark S. Humayun; De Juan E; James D. Weiland; Gislin Dagnelie; Steve Katona; Robert Greenberg; Satoshi Suzuki; Maumenee Bldg

1999-01-01

302

Unconscious processes, subliminal stimulation, and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since Poetzl’s studies, subliminal stimulation has been used as a paradigm to explore the connection between unconscious processes and psychopathology. Inspired by the psychodynamic tradition, folk psychology attributes a dramatic power to subliminal stimulation. In contrast, most modern researchers argue that effects of subliminal stimulation are rather limited. Does that mean that the unconscious is irrelevant to psychopathology? Not

Birgit Mayer; Harald Merckelbach

1999-01-01

303

Learning models of intelligent agents  

SciTech Connect

Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Computer Science Dept., Haifa (Israel)

1996-12-31

304

Flexible, secure agent development framework  

DOEpatents

While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

Goldsmith; Steven Y. (Rochester, MN)

2009-04-07

305

DCTD — Featured Agents  

Cancer.gov

Tandutinib (MLN518), previously known as CT53518, is a small-molecule inhibitor of the type III receptor tyrosine kinases, including the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Tandutinib is relatively selective, having no appreciable activity against EGFR, FGFR, KDR, or several non-receptor kinases. FLT3, c-Kit, and ßPDGFR are equally inhibited by tandutinib, while the agent is much less active against CSF-1R (in vitro IC50 of 3.4 µM).

306

Chemical warfare agents  

PubMed Central

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

2010-01-01

307

Chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2010-07-01

308

Sophorolipids as antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs), glycolipids produced by yeasts, have been reported to have immunomodulating activity and to reduce the mortality rate in animal models of sepsis. In the present study, the antibacterial activities of SLs and several derivatives were tested against a selection of standard bacterial isolates using the broth microdilution method. The SL derivatives tested did not show any significant antibacterial activity in vitro when tested at clinically relevant concentrations. Most likely the reported decrease of mortality rate in the rat septic shock model was not secondary to antibacterial activity of SLs. The SLs may be used as anti-inflammatory agents or immunomodulators without affecting the host's bacterial flora. PMID:19201743

Sleiman, Joseph N; Kohlhoff, Stephan A; Roblin, Patricia M; Wallner, Sabine; Gross, Richard; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Zenilman, Michael E; Bluth, Martin H

2009-01-01

309

Programmed Six-Channel Electrical Stimulator for Complex Stimulation of Leg Muscles During Walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in the field of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of stroke patients are presented together with a short history of the development of the field. The methodical steps which led towards the construction of a six-channel electrical stimulator are given. The criteria for detennining the number of stimulation channels are highlighted and FES problems of stance phase active stimulation

P. Strojnik; A. Kralj; I. Ursic

1979-01-01

310

Die Rolle des Publikums fokussiert auf die Optionen der Mitgestaltung im öffentlich-rechtlichen Fernsehangebot des ORF in Österreich.  

E-print Network

??Untersuchungsgegenstand: Im Zentrum steht die Option und Ausführung des „Mitspracherechts“ des Publikums an fernsehpublizistischen Inhalten des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunks ORF in Österreich, sowie das Angebot der… (more)

Scherzinger, Ronja-Svenja

2012-01-01

311

Transcutaneous functional electrical stimulator "Compex Motion".  

PubMed

Research groups in the field of functional electrical stimulation (FES) are often confronted with the fact that existing and commercially available FES stimulators do not provide sufficient flexibility and cannot be used to perform different FES tasks. The lack of flexibility of the commercial systems until now forced various FES research teams to develop their own stimulators. This paper presents a newly developed firmware and graphical programming software for the commercial Compex 2 stimulator which enhances the versatility and capabilities of the stimulator from a medical and therapeutic device to a neuroprosthesis and research tool. The new stimulator, called Compex Motion, can now be used to develop various custom-made neuroprostheses, neurological assessment devices, muscle exercise systems, and experimental setups for physiological studies. It can be programmed to generate any arbitrary stimulation sequence that can be controlled or regulated by various external sensors, sensory systems, or laboratory equipment. By interconnecting two or more Compex Motion stimulators, the number of stimulation channels can be increased to multiples of four channels, 8, 12, 16, 20, and so forth. The stimulation sequences and the control strategies are programmed and stored on exchangeable credit card-sized memory chip cards. The stimulator has four biphasic current-regulated stimulation channels and two general purpose analog input channels that can be configured to measure the output voltage of a variety of sensors such as goniometers, inclinometers, gyroscopes, or electromyographic (EMG) sensors. For real-time EMG control of the stimulation patterns, an EMG processing algorithm with software stimulation artifact blanking was implemented. The Compex Motion stimulator is manufactured by the Swiss company Compex SA and is currently undergoing clinical trials. PMID:11940017

Keller, Thierry; Popovic, Milos R; Pappas, Ion P I; Müller, Pierre-Yves

2002-03-01

312

Activation of the p38 MAPK pathway by follicle-stimulating hormone regulates steroidogenesis in granulosa cells differentially  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we started out to test whether the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-activated p38 MAPK signaling cascade was involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis in granulosa cells (GCs). GCs were pre- pared from the ovaries of DES-treated immature rats and cultured in serum-free medium. Treatment of GCs with FSH (50 ng\\/ml) induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK rapidly with

Fu-Qing Yu; Chun-Sheng Han; Wei Yang; Xuan Jin; Zhao-Yuan Hu; Yi-Xun Liu

2005-01-01

313

Pharmacological agents and bone healing  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is the most common alteration of bone metabolism. It derives from an increase in bone resorption with respect to bone formation and is characterized by microarchitectural alterations, decreased bone mass and increased risk of fracture. The coupling between bone formation and resorption is a fundamental concept in skeletal metabolism, and it explains how a certain amount of removed tissue can be replaced by the same amount of new bone. Various substances used to treat osteoporosis may also be used for orthopaedic conditions such as fracture healing, implant fixation, bone grafts and osteonecrosis. Fracture healing consists in the replacement of the lost bone by a tissue that has the same biomechanical properties as those preceding the fracture. The repair process is triggered by the local response to the tissue injury that damaged the continuity of bone. The duration of each phase of the healing process can vary significantly, depending on the site and characteristics of the fracture, on patient related factors and on the treatment choice. While most of the fractures heal with conventional treatment, they can also cause permanent damage and complications, especially in a certain kind of patients. Osteoporosis and old age may contribute in delaying or impairing the reparative process. In animal models the healing process is slower in older and/or ovariectomized animals. Biomechanical tests have also shown that bone strength is compromised in human osteoporotic cadaver bone. The same problems were highlighted in the surgical treatment of fractures in osteoporotic patients. Mainly in the treatment of hip fractures there is an increased risk of cut-out, re-fractures and implant failure in patients with osteoporosis. Preclinical studies have shown that certain pharmacological agents (bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, teriparatide) may enhance osseointegration and stimulate reparative processes. They may be administered systemically and/or used locally at the fracture site on the implant surface. The aim of fracture treatment is to restore bone biomechanical properties and to allow restoring normal function at the affected site. If the new pharmacological approaches could be translated into clinical benefit and offered to patients with osteoporosis or other factors that put at risk the process of healing (subjects with severe loss of substance or fractures at high risk of complications), they could represent a valuable aid in the treatment of fractures. PMID:22461164

Tarantino, Umberto; Cerocchi, Irene; Celi, Monica; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Saturnino, Luca; Gasbarra, Elena

2009-01-01

314

Holograms as Teaching Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

Walker, Robin A.

2013-02-01

315

Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of EMS, DES and gamma-rays in rice.  

PubMed

Data on chlorophyll mutation frequency after treatment with EMS, DES and gamma-rays and sequential administration of gamma-rays and the two alkylating agents in three varieties of rice have been used to work out quantitatively the effectiveness and efficiency of each mutagen and combination treatment. For effectiveness, the order is EMS > DES and for efficiency it is EMS > DES > gamma-rays. In some sequential treatments (Gamma-rays + DES in 'IR8' and 'Basmati'; DES + gamma-rays in 'IR8' and 'Jhona'; Gamma-rays + EMS in 'IR8' and 'Basmati'; and EMS + gamma-rays in 'IR8', 'Jhona' and 'Basmati') mutation frequency is more than additive (synergistic) but these treatments are decisively less efficient because of their relatively high injurious effects in the M1. generation. EMS induces more albinas than gamma-rays do. The mutational spectrum patterns induced by gamma-rays and DES are alike. In general, combination treatments tend to increase the frequency of albinas over other types of chlorophyll mutants. PMID:24407841

Kaul, M L; Bhan, A K

1977-09-01

316

AN AGENT-BASED SIMULATION OF IN-STORE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCES Dr. Peer-Olaf Siebers  

E-print Network

Resource (HR) management practices on customer satisfaction and the performance of service-oriented retail practices on customer satisfaction in a more realistic way we need to consider the factors that stimulateAN AGENT-BASED SIMULATION OF IN-STORE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCES Dr. Peer-Olaf Siebers Prof. Uwe Aickelin

Aickelin, Uwe

317

Increasing platelets without transfusion: is it time to introduce novel thrombopoietic agents in neonatal care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food and Drug Administration recently approved two novel thrombopoiesis-stimulating agents, Romiplostim (AMG-531, Nplate) and Eltrombopag (Promacta), for the treatment of adults with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. For physicians taking care of critically ill neonates, this offers the opportunity of decreasing platelet transfusions and potentially improving the outcomes of neonates with severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia. However, several developmental factors need to

H Sallmon; R K Gutti; F Ferrer-Marin; Z-J Liu; M C Sola-Visner

2010-01-01

318

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

types d'organisation des monères, protistes, mycètes, algues et plantes. #12;SYLLABUS G�N�RAL Date Cours et de systématique. 16 septembre 2 Origine et évolution des Eucaryotes. Straménopiles (Algues Brunes (lichens et mycorhizes) et Myxomycètes. 7 octobre 5 Algues de la Lignée Verte (Glaucophytes, Rhodophytes

Parrott, Lael

319

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

des êtres vivants ; · structures et types d'organisation des monères, protistes, mycètes, algues et. Straménopiles (Algues Brunes, Diatomées et Oomycètes). 22 septembre 3 Protozoaires. 29 septembre 4 Mycètes, Associations fongiques (lichens et mycorhizes) et Myxomycètes. 6 octobre 5 Algues de la Lignée Verte

Parrott, Lael

320

UNIVERSIT DE NANTES FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

'ophiolite d'Oman et au programme d'étude des nouvelles AOC des Muscadet de la région nantaise ______ TH�SE DE............................................................. 51 2.2 Contexte géologique de l'ophiolite d'Oman ..................................................................................................................................... 54 2.2.2 Formation de l'ophiolite et unités lithologiques affleurant dans les montagnes d'Oman

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

Fingerprinting malathion vapor: a simulant for VX nerve agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being motivated by the possibility of fingerprinting and detecting VX nerve agent, we have investigated its stimulant, i.e. malathion vapor, which is less toxic and commercially available, in the far-infrared/THz transition region and THz frequency range. Such a spectroscopic study was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Our intention is to obtain a specific spectroscopic signature of VX nerve agent as a chemical warfare agent. Following our experimental result, we have successfully observed eleven new absorption peaks from malathion vapor in the spectral ranges from 15 cm -1 to 68 cm -1 and from 75 cm -1 to 640 cm -1. Specifically, in the far-infrared/THz transition region, we have observed eight peaks and whereas in the THz region we have identified three relatively weak transition peaks. In addition, we have investigated the dependence of the absorption spectra on temperature in the range from room temperature to 60°C. In both of the frequency ranges, we have found that absorption coefficients significantly increase with increasing temperature. By comparing the transition peaks in the two frequency ranges, we have concluded that the frequency range of 400-640cm -1 is an optimal range for fingerprinting this chemical specie. We have designated two peaks for effectively and accurately identifying the VX nerve agents and one peak for differentiating between malathion and VX nerve agent.

Song, Renbo; Ding, Yujie J.; Zotova, Ioulia B.

2008-04-01

322

Sildenafil stimulates aqueous humor turnover in rabbits.  

PubMed

Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ?2 h of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ?45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90-120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 ?L/min to 3.14 ?L/min (P < 0.001, as two-tailed paired data, n = 20 eyes). This observation indicates that sildenafil citrate, which is a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor currently marketed as a vasodilator (e.g., Viagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

Alvarez, Lawrence J; Zamudio, Aldo C; Candia, Oscar A

2013-06-01

323

Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ? 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ? 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 ?L/min to 3.14 ?L/min (P< 0.001, as two-tailed paired data, n= 20 eyes). This observation indicates that sildenafil citrate, which is a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor currently marketed as a vasodilator (e.g., Viagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

2013-01-01

324

Designing Social Agents with Empathic Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the design of an agent model for a social agent capable of understanding other agents in an empathic way. The model describes how the empathic agent deals with another agent's mental states and the associated feelings, thus not only understanding the other agent's mental state but at the same time feeling the accompanying emotion of the other

Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur

2009-01-01

325

AREA OVERVIEW----Agent & Data Mining Interaction  

E-print Network

AREA OVERVIEW---- Agent & Data Mining Interaction (ADMI) Longbing Cao Faculty of Information in a Multiple Agent Environment", EWSL91, 1991 Agent-based data mining & knowledge discovery by Davies, W., 1994 Research topics Agent driven data mining Data mining driven agents & multi- agent systems Mutual issues

Cao, Longbing

326

Social Automata Agent-based models  

E-print Network

Social Automata · Agent-based models ­ Contrast to global descriptive models ­ Local interactions by agents · Assumptions ­ Agents are autonomous: bottom-up control of system ­ Agents are interdependent ­ Agents follow simple rules ­ Agents adapt, but are not optimal #12;Schelling's Segregation Model · Mild

Indiana University

327

Musee des Horreurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is this Musee des Horreurs? Visitors will find out soon enough: it is a remarkable collection of 52 hand-colored lithograph caricatures of individuals involved in the Dreyfus Affair in France. These lithographs were originally produced from 1899 to 1900 by an artist who used the pseudonym V. Lenepveu and they document the anti-Semitic upsurge brought about by this well-known event. Those represented in the caricatures include prominent members of the Jewish community, Dreyfus supporters, and Republican statesmen placed on grotesque animal bodies. Visitors with an interest in the subject may wish to use the images in a class on graphic design, illustration, European history, or cultural affairs.

328

Deep brain stimulation for dystonia.  

PubMed

The few reported controlled studies show that bilateral stimulation of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is a safe and effective long-term treatment for hyperkinetic disorders. However, the recently published data on deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to different targets or patients (especially those with secondary dystonia) are mainly uncontrolled case reports, precluding a clear determination of its efficacy, and providing little guidance as to the choice of a "good" target in a "good" patient. This chapter reviews the literature on DBS in primary dystonia, paying particular attention to the risk:benefit ratio in focal and segmental dystonias (cervical dystonia, cranial dystonia) and to the predictive factors for a good outcome. The chapter also highlights recent data on the marked benefits of the technique in myoclonus dystonia (in which pallidal, as opposed to thalamic, stimulation is more effective) and in tardive dystonia-dyskinesia. Although, the decision to treat appears relatively straightforward in patients with primary dystonia, myoclonus-dystonia, and tardive dystonia who have a normal findings on magnetic resonance imaging and normal cognitive function, there are still no reliable tools to help predict the timescale of postoperative benefit. This chapter provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of the treatment in various types of secondary dystonia, with little to moderate benefit in most cases, based on single cases or small series. Beyond the reduction in the severity of dystonia, the global motor and functional outcome is difficult to determine owing to the paucity of adequate evaluation tools. Because of the large interpatient variability, different targets may be effective depending on the symptoms in each individual. PMID:24112893

Vidailhet, Marie; Jutras, Marie-France; Roze, Emmanuel; Grabli, David

2013-01-01

329

Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

R. Ammon

1934-01-01

330

Neonate Intestinal Immune Response to CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Background The development of mucosal vaccines is crucial to efficiently control infectious agents for which mucosae are the primary site of entry. Major drawbacks of these protective strategies are the lack of effective mucosal adjuvant. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides that contain several unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG-ODN) motifs are now recognized as promising adjuvants displaying mucosal adjuvant activity through direct activation of TLR9-expressing cells. However, little is known about the efficacy of these molecules in stimulating the intestinal immune system in neonates. Methodology/Principal Findings First, newborn mice received CpG-ODN orally, and the intestinal cytokine and chemokine response was measured. We observed that oral administration of CpG-ODN induces CXC and CC chemokine responses and a cellular infiltration in the intestine of neonates as detected by immunohistochemistry. We next compared the efficiency of the oral route to intraperitoneal administration in stimulating the intestinal immune responses of both adults and neonates. Neonates were more responsive to TLR9-stimulation than adults whatever the CpG-ODN administration route. Their intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) indirectly responded to TLR9 stimulation and contributed to the CXC chemokine response, whereas other TLR9-bearing cells of the lamina-propria produced CC chemokines and Th1-type cytokines. Moreover, we showed that the intestine of adult exhibited a significantly higher level of IL10 at homeostasis than neonates, which might be responsible for the unresponsiveness to TLR9-stimulation, as confirmed by our findings in IL10-deficient mice. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report that deciphers the role played by CpG-ODN in the intestine of neonates. This work clearly demonstrates that an intraperitoneal administration of CpG-ODN is more efficient in neonates than in adults to stimulate an intestinal chemokine response due to their lower IL-10 intestinal level. In addition we report the efficiency of the oral route at inducing intestinal chemokine responses in neonate that might be taken into consideration for further vaccine development against neonatal diseases. PMID:20011519

Lacroix-Lamandé, Sonia; Rochereau, Nicolas; Mancassola, Roselyne; Barrier, Mathieu; Clauzon, Amandine; Laurent, Fabrice

2009-01-01

331

Tissue stimulator enclosure welding fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was demonstrated that the thickness of the stimulator titanium enclosure is directly related to the battery recharge time cycle. Reduction of the titanium enclosure thickness from approximately 0.37 mm (0.015 inch) to 0.05 mm (0.002 inch) significantly reduced the recharge time cycle and thereby patient inconvenience. However, fabrication of titanium enclosures from the thinner material introduced problems in forming, holding, and welding that required improvement in state of the art shop practices. The procedures that were utilized to resolve these fabrication problems are described.

Mcclure, S. R.

1977-01-01

332

Deep brain stimulation for dystonia  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for medication-refractory movement disorders, and has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of dystonia. The success of DBS in the treatment of dystonia depends on our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of this disorder and close collaboration between neurosurgeons, neurologists, clinical neurophysiologists, neuroradiologists and neuropsychologists. Currently, pallidal DBS is an established treatment option for medically refractive dystonia. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive review of the use of DBS for dystonia, focusing mainly on the surgical aspects, clinical outcome, MRI findings and side effects of DBS. PMID:24444300

2014-01-01

333

Agent-based enterprise integration  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

1999-05-01

334

Agent-based enterprise integration  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

1998-12-01

335

Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

Berenji, Hamid R.

1997-01-01

336

Thorie des ensembles 1. Motivation  

E-print Network

, comme Georg Cantor (1845-1918), Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932), Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) et autres. Nous de la démonstration (2). Figure I.1. Georg Cantor, Giuseppe Peano et Bertrand Russell La plupart des chasser du paradis que Cantor nous a bâti» (1). Plus tard, en parlant au Congrès des Mathématiciens à

Dolecki, Szymon

337

Peptide Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

2006-01-01

338

Chemosensitization as a Means to Augment Commercial Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

Antimycotic chemosensitization and its mode of action are of growing interest. Currently, use of antifungal agents in agriculture and medicine has a number of obstacles. Foremost of these is development of resistance or cross-resistance to one or more antifungal agents. The generally high expense and negative impact, or side effects, associated with antifungal agents are two further issues of concern. Collectively, these problems are exacerbated by efforts to control resistant strains, which can evolve into a treadmill of higher dosages for longer periods. This cycle in turn, inflates cost of treatment, dramatically. A further problem is stagnation in development of new and effective antifungal agents, especially for treatment of human mycoses. Efforts to overcome some of these issues have involved using combinations of available antimycotics (e.g., combination therapy for invasive mycoses). However, this approach has had inconsistent success and is often associated with a marked increase in negative side effects. Chemosensitization by natural compounds to increase effectiveness of commercial antimycotics is a somewhat new approach to dealing with the aforementioned problems. The potential for safe natural products to improve antifungal activity has been observed for over three decades. Chemosensitizing agents possess antifungal activity, but at insufficient levels to serve as antimycotics, alone. Their main function is to disrupt fungal stress response, destabilize the structural integrity of cellular and vacuolar membranes or stimulate production of reactive oxygen species, augmenting oxidative stress and apoptosis. Use of safe chemosensitizing agents has potential benefit to both agriculture and medicine. When co-applied with a commercial antifungal agent, an additive or synergistic interaction may occur, augmenting antifungal efficacy. This augmentation, in turn, lowers effective dosages, costs, negative side effects and, in some cases, countermands resistance. PMID:22393330

Campbell, Bruce C.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Kim, Jong H.

2012-01-01

339

Agent Factory: Towards Social Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present the Social Robot Architecture, which integrates the key elements of agent-hood and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. This architecture seamlessly integrates, real world robots, multi-agent development tools, and VRML visualisation tools into a coherent whole. Using these elements, we deliver a

Gregory M. P. O'hare; Brian R. Duffy; Rem W. Collier; Colm Rooney; R. P. S. O'donoghue

1999-01-01

340

[Unconventional antidiabetic agents].  

PubMed

The current pharmacological therapy of type 2 diabetes reduces the risk of diabetic complications, but is not able to achieve a long-lasting normalization of the metabolic disorder. Thus diabetic patients in increasing numbers are taking dietary supplements and herbs from which they expect additional health benefits. These unconventional antidiabetic agents consist mainly in trace metals like chromium, vanadium and zinc and a heterogeneous group of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs (e. g. Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre, Trigonella foenum-graecum) often derived from the ayurvedic medicine. In this overview the current evidence for the antidiabetic effect is presented. The trace elements chromium and vanadium have a number of potentially antidiabetic actions in vitro, however, the results obtained with diabetic patients are not convincing so far. Similarly, the available data on the therapeutic use of herbs suggest that in principle a number of them possess a blood glucose-lowering effect, but at present no firm conclusions as to their efficacy and safety can be made. To set up reliable dose-effect relationships requires the identification of the relevant antidiabetic molecules as was apparently achieved by isolating 4-hydroxyisoleucine from the seeds of T. foenum-graecum. This requirement is also valid in the case of the antidiabetic action of cinnamon. Coffee and a moderate alcohol consumption were found to be surprisingly effective in lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes manifestation, their effect being roughly equal to that of conventional drugs used in diabetes prevention trials. Diabetic patients should inform their physician about the use of unconventional agents and should be warned against uncontrolled starting or stopping their use. PMID:17484443

Rustenbeck, Ingo

2007-04-01

341

Prevalence of Rhabdomyolysis in Sympathomimetic Toxicity: a Comparison of Stimulants.  

PubMed

Synthetic cathinones have emerged as popular drugs of abuse and produce sympathomimetic toxicity. It is unknown if rhabdomyolysis occurs more frequently following the use of synthetic cathinones compared to other stimulants. This retrospective study sought to determine the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis in patients with sympathomimetic toxicity and compare rates among patients using specific agents. Patients greater than 14 years of age with sympathomimetic toxicity and detection of a stimulant agent in urine via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were included. Patients were excluded if clinical sympathomimetic toxicity was not present, a serum creatine kinase (CK) was not measured, or urine GC-MS was not performed. Rhabdomyolysis and severe rhabdomyolysis were defined as CK?>?1000 and 10,000 IU/L, respectively. Prevalence of rhabdomyolysis and severe rhabdomyolysis were reported. Logistic regression was performed to determine the relative effect in single-agent exposures of a synthetic cathinone compared to other sympathomimetics on rhabdomyolysis. A secondary outcome, a composite endpoint defined as need for mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, development of compartment syndrome, or death, was also analyzed. One hundred two subjects met inclusion criteria; median age (IQR) was 32 (25-42)?years with a range of 14-65 years; 74 % were male. Rhabdomyolysis occurred in 42 % (43/102) of subjects. Patients whose sympathomimetic toxicity could be ascribed to a single agent were considered for further statistical analysis and placed into four groups: methamphetamine (n?=?55), synthetic cathinone (n?=?19), cocaine (n?=?9), and other sympathomimetic (n?=?6). In 89 subjects with single stimulant exposure, the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis was as follows: synthetic cathinone, 12/19 (63 %); methamphetamine, 22/55 (40 %); cocaine, 3/9 (33 %); and other single agent, 0/6 (0 %). The occurrence of severe rhabdomyolysis (CK?>?10,000 IU/L) for each of the four groups was synthetic cathinone with 5/19 (26 %), methamphetamine with 2/55 (3.6 %), cocaine with 1/9 (11 %), and other with 0/6 (0 %). Median maximal CK (range) by groups was as follows: synthetic cathinone, 2638 (62-350,000+)?IU/L; methamphetamine, 665 (61-50,233)?IU/L; cocaine, 276 (87-25,614)?IU/L; and other, 142 (51-816)?IU/L. A statistically significant difference (p?=?0.004) was found when comparing maximal CK among the four groups. Exposure to a synthetic cathinone compared with other sympathomimetics was associated with increased risk of developing rhabdomyolysis and severe rhabdomyolysis with odds ratios of 3.09 and 7.98, respectively. In this cohort of patients with sympathomimetic toxicity, 42 % developed rhabdomyolysis. Synthetic cathinones were associated with an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis and severe rhabdomyolysis compared with other stimulants. PMID:25468315

O'Connor, Ayrn D; Padilla-Jones, Angie; Gerkin, Richard D; Levine, Michael

2014-12-01

342

Rho-stimulated contractility drives the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions  

PubMed Central

Activated rhoA, a ras-related GTP-binding protein, stimulates the appearance of stress fibers, focal adhesions, and tyrosine phosphorylation in quiescent cells (Ridley, A.J., and A. Hall, 1992. Cell. 70:389-399). The pathway by which rho triggers these events has not been elucidated. Many of the agents that activate rho (e.g., vasopressin, endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid) stimulate the contractility of smooth muscle and other cells. We have investigated whether rho's induction of stress fibers, focal adhesions, and tyrosine phosphorylation is the result of its stimulation of contractility. We demonstrate that stimulation of fibroblasts with lysophosphatidic acid, which activates rho, induces myosin light chain phosphorylation. This precedes the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions and is accompanied by increased contractility. Inhibition of contractility by several different mechanisms leads to inhibition of rho-induced stress fibers, focal adhesions, and tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, when contractility is inhibited, integrins disperse from focal adhesions as stress fibers and focal adhesions disassemble. Conversely, upon stimulation of contractility, diffusely distributed integrins are aggregated into focal adhesions. These results suggest that activated rho stimulates contractility, driving the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions and elevating tyrosine phosphorylation. A model is proposed to account for how contractility could promote these events. PMID:8682874

1996-01-01

343

METABOLIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS ON LEUKOCYTES  

PubMed Central

Morphological and metabolic observations have been made on the effects of endotoxin, deoxycholate, and digitonin (at less than 50 µg/ml) on polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The agents stimulate the respiration and glucose oxidation of these cells in a manner similar to that seen during phagocytosis. Electron microscopy revealed no morphological changes with the first two agents, but dramatic membrane changes were seen in the case of digitonin. Here tubular projections of characteristic size and shape formed on and split off the membrane. All the agents stimulated uptake of inulin, but efforts to demonstrate increased pinocytosis by electron microscopy have not so far succeeded, probably due to limitations in present experimental techniques. PMID:6034482

Graham, R. C.; Karnovsky, M. J.; Shafer, A. W.; Glass, E. A.; Karnovsky, Manfred L.

1967-01-01

344

Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway  

PubMed Central

Auditory prostheses can partially restore speech comprehension when hearing fails. Sound coding with current prostheses is based on electrical stimulation of auditory neurons and has limited frequency resolution due to broad current spread within the cochlea. In contrast, optical stimulation can be spatially confined, which may improve frequency resolution. Here, we used animal models to characterize optogenetic stimulation, which is the optical stimulation of neurons genetically engineered to express the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. Approximation of the spatial spread of cochlear excitation by recording local field potentials (LFPs) in the inferior colliculus in response to suprathreshold optical, acoustic, and electrical stimuli indicated that optogenetic stimulation achieves better frequency resolution than monopolar electrical stimulation. Virus-mediated expression of a ChR2 variant with greater light sensitivity in SGNs reduced the amount of light required for responses and allowed neuronal spiking following stimulation up to 60 Hz. Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics. PMID:24509078

Hernandez, Victor H.; Gehrt, Anna; Reuter, Kirsten; Jing, Zhizi; Jeschke, Marcus; Mendoza Schulz, Alejandro; Hoch, Gerhard; Bartels, Matthias; Vogt, Gerhard; Garnham, Carolyn W.; Yawo, Hiromu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Augustine, George J.; Bamberg, Ernst; Kügler, Sebastian; Salditt, Tim; de Hoz, Livia; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

2014-01-01

345

VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION REGULATES HEMOSTASIS IN SWINE  

PubMed Central

The central nervous system regulates peripheral immune responses via the vagus nerve, the primary neural component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine release in response to endotoxin, I/R injury, and hypovolemic shock and protects against lethal hypotension. To determine the effect of vagus nerve stimulation on coagulation pathways, anesthetized pigs were subjected to partial ear resection before and after electrical vagus nerve stimulation. We observed that electrical vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased bleeding time (pre–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 1033 ± 210 s versus post–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 585 ± 111 s; P < 0.05) and total blood loss (pre–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 48.4 ± 6.8 mL versus post–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 26.3 ± 6.7 mL; P < 0.05). Reduced bleeding time after vagus nerve stimulation was independent of changes in heart rate or blood pressure and correlated with increased thrombin/antithrombin III complex generation in shed blood. These data indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve attenuates peripheral hemorrhage in a porcine model of soft tissue injury and that this protective effect is associated with increased coagulation factor activity. PMID:19953009

Czura, Christopher J.; Schultz, Arthur; Kaipel, Martin; Khadem, Anna; Huston, Jared M.; Pavlov, Valentin A.; Redl, Heinz; Tracey, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

346

Braille line using electrical stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.

2007-11-01

347

Securiosides A and B, novel acylated triterpene bisdesmosides with selective cytotoxic activity against M-CSF-stimulated macrophages.  

PubMed

We report the discovery of securiosides A (1) and B (2), novel acylated triterpene bisdesmosides, isolated from the roots of Securidaca inappendiculata. Securiosides A and B showed potent selective cytotoxic activity against M-CSF-stimulated macrophages and were suggested to have potential as new agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as RA and atherosclerosis. PMID:11212113

Kuroda, M; Mimaki, Y; Sashida, Y; Kitahara, M; Yamazaki, M; Yui, S

2001-02-12

348

Agent Tcl: A flexible and secure mobile-agent system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile agent is an autonomous program that can migrate under its own control from machine to machine in a heterogeneous network. In other words, the program can suspend its execution at an arbitrary point, transport itself to another machine, and then resume execution from the point of suspension. Mobile agents have the potential to provide a single, general framework

Robert S. Gray

1997-01-01

349

Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

350

Angiotensin II stimulates hyperplasia but not hypertrophy in immature ovine cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

Rat and sheep cardiac myocytes become binucleate as they complete the ‘terminal differentiation’ process soon after birth and are not able to divide thereafter. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to stimulate hypertrophic changes in rodent cardiomyocytes under both in vivo and in vitro conditions via the AT1 receptor and intracellular extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signalling cascade. We sought to develop culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes in order to test the hypothesis that Ang II is a hypertrophic agent in the immature myocardium of the sheep. We isolated fetal sheep cardiomyocytes and cultured them for 96 h, added Ang II and phenylephrine (PE) for 48 h, and measured footprint area and proliferation (5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake) separately in mono- vs. binucleate myocytes. We found that neither Ang II nor PE changed the footprint area of mononucleated cells. PE stimulated an increase in footprint area of binucleate cells but Ang II did not. Ang II increased myocyte BrdU uptake compared to serum free conditions, but PE did not affect BrdU uptake. The MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor UO126 prevented BrdU uptake in Ang II-stimulated cells and prevented cell hypertrophy in PE-stimulated cells. This paper establishes culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes and reports that: (1) Ang II is not a hypertrophic agent; (2) Ang II stimulates hyperplastic growth among mononucleate myocytes; (3) PE is a hypertrophic agent in binucleate myocytes; and (4) the ERK cascade is required for the proliferation effect of Ang II and the hypertrophic effect of PE. PMID:12626668

Sundgren, N C; Giraud, G D; Stork, P J S; Maylie, J G; Thornburg, K L

2003-01-01

351

Characterisation of VP-16-induced DNA cleavage in oestrogen-stimulated human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cycling cells are recognised to be more susceptible than quiescent cells to the cytotoxic action of many commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic agents. We have found that oestrogen stimulation of T-47D human breast cancer cells is accompanied by a two-fold increase in VP-16-induced DNA cleavage as measured by alkaline DNA unwinding, and that this increase in DNA cleavage is accompanied by

RJ Epstein; PJ Smith; JV Watson; NM Bleehen

1988-01-01

352

Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein for managing the anemia of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction, recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has become the standard of care for renal anemia. Because of its relatively short half-life, however, it generally is administered two to three times per week. Darbepoetin alfa (novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein [NESP]) is a longer acting erythropoietic agent that allows less frequent dosing to treat anemia. Decreased dosing frequency should result in

Allen R. Nissenson

2001-01-01

353

The role of spinal cord stimulation in the management of patients with brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High grade gliomas (HGG) have decreased blood flow resulting in hypoxia, limited access by chemotherapeutic agents, and reduced\\u000a radiation-sensitivity. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used successfully in the treatment of pain and ischemic syndromes.\\u000a The present article summarizes our investigations into the effects of SCS in patients with HGG. Before their scheduled radio-chemotherapy,\\u000a 23 patients with HGG were assessed

Francisco Robaina; B. Clavo

354

Evaluation of gait with multichannel electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

Short, intensive multichannel electrical stimulation therapy was evaluated in 14 hemiplegics after stroke or head injury. The stimulation of the peroneal nerve, soleus, quadriceps, hamstring, gluteus maximus, and triceps brachii muscles with individually preprogrammed sequences was applied by surface electrodes at the beginning of gait rehabilitation. The patients started walking with the support of a therapist, gradually increased the walking distance and all reached independent ambulation with a crutch after an average of 14 stimulation sessions. A portable microprocessor six-channel stimulator/stride analyzer enabled the collection of gait parameters and recording of statistical mean values of stride time, gait symmetry, right and left stance times, and their standard deviations. Without additional equipment, several hundred stimulated strides were measured during each stimulation session. PMID:3495792

Malezic, M; Bogataj, U; Gros, N; Kelih, B; Kljajic, M; A?imovi?-Janezic, R

1987-05-01

355

Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

2011-02-01

356

Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis.  

PubMed

The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO) in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG). A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep. PMID:23459152

Reato, Davide; Gasca, Fernando; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Marshall, Lisa; Parra, Lucas C

2013-01-01

357

Vascular growth in ischemic limbs: a review of mechanisms and possible therapeutic stimulation.  

PubMed

Stimulation of vascular growth to treat limb ischemia is promising, and early results obtained from uncontrolled clinical trials using angiogenic agents, e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, led to high expectations. However, negative results from recent placebo-controlled trials warrant further research. Here, current insights into mechanisms of vascular growth in the adult, in particular the role of angiogenic factors, the immune system, and bone marrow, were reviewed, together with modes of its therapeutic stimulation and results from recent clinical trials. Three concepts of vascular growth have been described to date-angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and arteriogenesis (collateral artery growth)-which represent different aspects of an integrated process. Stimulation of arteriogenesis seems clinically most relevant and has most recently been attempted using autologous bone marrow transplantation with some beneficial results, although the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Better understanding of the highly complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular growth may yet lead to meaningful clinical applications. PMID:18504100

van Weel, V; van Tongeren, R B; van Hinsbergh, V W M; van Bockel, J H; Quax, P H A

2008-01-01

358

Agents Capable of Dynamic Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Support for negotiation is one of the more important research issues when developing agent systems utilized in e-commerce. While, depending on the type of the transaction, different negotiation procedures need to be utilized, only very few proposed frameworks are generic and flexible enough to handle multiple scenarios. This note presents negotiating agents, which can change their negotiation strategy depending on

Garima Parakh; Sandhya Rani; Marcin Paprzycki; Ajith Abraham; Johnson Thomas

359

Cooperating Air Traffic Control Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key aim of cooperating air traffic control agents (CAT CA) was to comparatively analyze and evaluate the success of a multiagent system (MAS) and a single agent system (SAS) at addressing a given set of goals in a problem domain amenable to the utilization of either a MAS or SAS. The problem domain selected was air traffic control (AT

Geoff Nitschke

2001-01-01

360

Safety of ultrasound contrast agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ultrasound contrast agents has increased over recent years. The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) decided to review the safety of ultrasound contrast agents in humans and to draw up guidelines. A comprehensive literature search and review was carried out. The resulting report was discussed by the CMSC of ESUR

Jarl Å. Jakobsen; Raymond Oyen; Henrik S. Thomsen; Sameh K. Morcos

2005-01-01

361

The Optimal Agent Application & Evaluation  

E-print Network

Agent Application & Evaluation What We Want Choosing Agents Explicit Form What We Want Toy example Toy example: utility function for a pet finding robot. e U(e) P(e|a1) P(e|a2) Turtle 10 0.60 0 Cat 5 0 0

Goodman, James R.

362

Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as

Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

1995-01-01

363

Language Support for Mobile Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile agents are code-containing objects that may be transmitted between communicatingparticipants in a distributed system. As opposed to systems that onlyallow the exchange of nonexecutable data, systems incorporating mobile agentscan achieve significant gains in performance and functionality.A programming language for mobile agents must be able to express theirconstruction, transmission, receipt, and subsequent execution. Its implementationmust handle architectural heterogeneity...

Frederick Colville Knabe

1995-01-01

364

SOCIALLY INTELLIGENT AGENTS Creating Relationships  

E-print Network

SOCIALLY INTELLIGENT AGENTS Creating Relationships with Computers and Robots Edited by KERSTIN DAUTENHAHN University of Hertfordshire ALAN H. BOND California Institute of Technology LOLA CAÃ?AMERO Boston/Dordrecht/London #12;Contents Contributing Authors ix 1 Socially Intelligent Agents: Creating

Cañamero, Lola

365

EXPLORING THE SOCIALLY ADEPT AGENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine an agent who is charged with seeking information from around the globe. It is the task of this agent to visit different sites, to search for information, and to report back to its 'superior' (which may or may not be human). In the course of this search, it will interact with others, human or otherwise. It will make decisions

Stephen Marsh

1995-01-01

366

Gelled Anti-icing Agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pectin added to antifreeze/water mixture. Formulations include water with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as deicer and pectin as gel former. Without gelling agent, deicer runs off vertical surfaces. Without pectin solution will completely evaporate in far less time. Agents developed have wide potential for ice prevention on runways, highways, bridges and sidewalks.

Markles, O. F.; Sperber, H. H.

1983-01-01

367

Research Report Understanding Animate Agents  

E-print Network

Research Report Understanding Animate Agents Distinct Roles for the Social Network and Mirror Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland ABSTRACT--How people understand the actions of animate agents is achieved via action simulation, and the social-network hypothesis proposes that such understanding

Baker, Chris I.

368

Optimal quantum cloning via stimulated emission  

E-print Network

We show that optimal universal quantum cloning can be realized via stimulated emission. Universality of the cloning procedure is achieved by choosing systems that have appropriate symmetries. We first discuss a scheme based on stimulated emission in certain three-level-systems, e.g. atoms in a cavity. Then we present a way of realizing optimal universal cloning based on stimulated parametric down-conversion. This scheme also implements the optimal universal NOT operation.

Simon, C; Zeilinger, Anton; Simon, Christoph; Weihs, Gregor; Zeilinger, Anton

2000-01-01

369

Optimal quantum cloning via stimulated emission  

PubMed

We show that optimal universal quantum cloning can be realized via stimulated emission. Universality of the cloning procedure is achieved by choosing systems that have appropriate symmetries. We first discuss a scheme based on stimulated emission in certain three-level systems, e.g., atoms in a cavity. Then we present a way of realizing optimal universal cloning based on stimulated parametric down-conversion. This scheme also implements the optimal universal NOT operation. PMID:11018994

Simon; Weihs; Zeilinger

2000-03-27

370

Optimal Quantum Cloning via Stimulated Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that optimal universal quantum cloning can be realized via stimulated emission. Universality of the cloning procedure is achieved by choosing systems that have appropriate symmetries. We first discuss a scheme based on stimulated emission in certain three-level systems, e.g., atoms in a cavity. Then we present a way of realizing optimal universal cloning based on stimulated parametric down-conversion.

Christoph Simon; Gregor Weihs; Anton Zeilinger

2000-01-01

371

Optimal Quantum Cloning via Stimulated Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that optimal universal quantum cloning can be realized via stimulated emission. Universality of the cloning procedure is achieved by choosing systems that have appropriate symmetries. We first discuss a scheme based on stimulated emission in certain three-level systems, e.g., atoms in a cavity. Then we present a way of realizing optimal universal cloning based on stimulated parametric down-conversion. This scheme also implements the optimal universal NOT operation.

Simon, Christoph; Weihs, Gregor; Zeilinger, Anton

2000-03-01

372

Optimal Quantum Cloning via Stimulated Emission  

E-print Network

We show that optimal universal quantum cloning can be realized via stimulated emission. Universality of the cloning procedure is achieved by choosing systems that have appropriate symmetries. We first discuss a scheme based on stimulated emission in certain three-level-systems, e.g. atoms in a cavity. Then we present a way of realizing optimal universal cloning based on stimulated parametric down-conversion. This scheme also implements the optimal universal NOT operation.

Christoph Simon; Gregor Weihs; Anton Zeilinger

1999-10-12

373

Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

374

Les limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Les limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des conchyliculteurs en limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des conchyliculteurs en France Véronique Le in defining risks in aquaculture and we propose a classification that takes the specificities into account. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Le got des ignames de Madagascar 1 valuation sensorielle de la perception des ignames de Madagascar,  

E-print Network

Le goût des ignames de Madagascar 1 �valuation sensorielle de la perception des ignames de Madagascar, dans le contexte des connaissances actuelles en psychophysiologie de la gustation par Claude endémiques de Madagascar, nous avons entrepris des tests d'évaluation sensorielle qui nous sont apparus comme

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

L'évolution des rythmes de travail entre 1995 et 2001 : quel impact des 35 heures ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] L’évolution des rythmes de travail entre 1995 et 2001: quel impact des 35 heures? . . Le «passage aux 35 heures» ne s’est pas limité à la baisse de la durée légale du travail. La négociation au sein des branches ou des entreprises a, en effet, porté simultanément sur la durée du travail, son organisation, les conditions de travail

Cédric Afsa; Pierre Biscourp

2004-01-01

377

Composition en acides amins des aliments et des rsidus de fermentation in vitro  

E-print Network

Composition en acides aminés des aliments et des résidus de fermentation in vitro M. ANTONGIOVANNI in vitro fermentation with rumen inoculum, and of the faeces relative to an in vivo digestibility trial run fermentation in vitro comme l'ont fait Dennison et Philips (1983) et des fèces. Pour des raisons de place, nous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Osthole Stimulates Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation by Activation of ?-Catenin–BMP Signaling  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is defined as reduced bone mineral density with a high risk of fragile fracture. Current available treatment regimens include antiresorptive drugs such as estrogen receptor analogues and bisphosphates and anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, neither option is completely satisfactory because of adverse effects. It is thus highly desirable to identify novel anabolic agents to improve future osteoporosis treatment. Osthole, a coumarin-like derivative extracted from Chinese herbs, has been shown to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, but its effect on bone formation in vivo and underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we found that local injection of Osthole significantly increased new bone formation on the surface of mouse calvaria. Ovariectomy caused evident bone loss in rats, whereas Osthole largely prevented such loss, as shown by improved bone microarchitecture, histomorphometric parameters, and biomechanical properties. In vitro studies demonstrated that Osthole activated Wnt/?-catenin signaling, increased Bmp2 expression, and stimulated osteoblast differentiation. Targeted deletion of the ?-catenin and Bmp2 genes abolished the stimulatory effect of Osthole on osteoblast differentiation. Since deletion of the Bmp2 gene did not affect Osthole-induced ?-catenin expression and the deletion of the ?-catenin gene inhibited Osthole-regulated Bmp2 expression in osteoblasts, we propose that Osthole acts through ?-catenin–BMP signaling to promote osteoblast differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that Osthole could be a potential anabolic agent to stimulate bone formation and prevent estrogen deficiency–induced bone loss. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20200936

Tang, De-Zhi; Hou, Wei; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Minjie; Holz, Jonathan; Sheu, Tzong-Jen; Li, Tian-Fang; Cheng, Shao-Dan; Shi, Qi; Harris, Stephen E; Chen, Di; Wang, Yong-Jun

2010-01-01

379

Impact of hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning  

PubMed Central

Murry et al in 1986 discovered the intrinsic mechanism of profound protection called ischemic preconditioning. The complex cellular signaling cascades underlying this phenomenon remain controversial and are only partially understood. However, evidence suggests that adenosine, released during the initial ischemic insult, activates a variety of G protein-coupled agonists, such as opioids, bradykinin, and catecholamines, resulting in the activation of protein kinases, especially protein kinase C (PKC). This leads to the translocation of PKC from the cytoplasm to the sarcolemma, where it stimulates the opening of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, which confers resistance to ischemia. It is known that a range of different hypoglycemic agents that activate the same signaling cascades at various cellular levels can interfere with protection from ischemic preconditioning. This review examines the effects of several hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning in animal studies and clinical trials. PMID:24936247

Rahmi Garcia, Rosa Maria; Rezende, Paulo Cury; Hueb, Whady

2014-01-01

380

Impact of hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning.  

PubMed

Murry et al in 1986 discovered the intrinsic mechanism of profound protection called ischemic preconditioning. The complex cellular signaling cascades underlying this phenomenon remain controversial and are only partially understood. However, evidence suggests that adenosine, released during the initial ischemic insult, activates a variety of G protein-coupled agonists, such as opioids, bradykinin, and catecholamines, resulting in the activation of protein kinases, especially protein kinase C (PKC). This leads to the translocation of PKC from the cytoplasm to the sarcolemma, where it stimulates the opening of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel, which confers resistance to ischemia. It is known that a range of different hypoglycemic agents that activate the same signaling cascades at various cellular levels can interfere with protection from ischemic preconditioning. This review examines the effects of several hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning in animal studies and clinical trials. PMID:24936247

Rahmi Garcia, Rosa Maria; Rezende, Paulo Cury; Hueb, Whady

2014-06-15

381

Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

2008-01-01

382

Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

383

Directions for Agent Model Checking*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we provide a perspective on current and future work in the area of agent model-checking. In particular, we describe our approach, which was the first to provide comprehensive verification of practical agent programming languages. It provides a library of general agent concepts that has been formally defined and implemented in Java, upon which interpreters for various agent programming languages can be succinctly programmed. The Java library has been prepared so that it can be efficiently used with an existing Java model checker, thus facilitating the verification of (heterogeneous) multi-agent programs. Besides giving an overview of our approach, in this chapter we identify its current shortfalls and discuss where we aim to target future development.

Bordini, R. H.; Dennis, L. A.; Farwer, B.; Fisher, M.

384

Adaptive networks of trading agents  

E-print Network

Multi-agent models have been used in many contexts to study generic collective behavior. Similarly, complex networks have become very popular because of the diversity of growth rules giving rise to scale-free behavior. Here we study adaptive networks where the agents trade ``wealth'' when they are linked together while links can appear and disappear according to the wealth of the corresponding agents; thus the agents influence the network dynamics and vice-versa. Our framework generalizes a multi-agent model of Bouchand and Mezard, and leads to a steady state with fluctuating connectivities. The system spontaneously self-organizes into a critical state where the wealth distribution has a fat tail and the network is scale-free; in addition, network heterogeneities lead to enhanced wealth condensation.

Burda, Z; Martin, O C

2008-01-01

385

Optical stimulation of peripheral nerves in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation documents the emergence and validation of a new clinical tool that bridges the fields of biomedical optics and neuroscience. The research herein describes an innovative method for direct neurostimulation with pulsed infrared laser light. Safety and effectiveness of this technique are first demonstrated through functional stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve in vivo. The Holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2.12 mum) is shown to operate at an optimal wavelength for peripheral nerve stimulation with advantages over standard electrical neural stimulation; including contact-free stimulation, high spatial selectivity, and lack of a stimulation artifact. The underlying biophysical mechanism responsible for transient optical nerve stimulation appears to be a small, absorption driven thermal gradient sustained at the axonal layer of nerve. Results explicitly prove that low frequency optical stimulation can reliably stimulate without resulting in tissue thermal damage. Based on the positive results from animal studies, these optimal laser parameters were utilized to move this research into the clinic with a combined safety and efficacy study in human subjects undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. The clinical Holmium:YAG laser was used to effectively stimulate human dorsal spinal roots and elicit functional muscle responses recorded during surgery without evidence of nerve damage. Overall these results predict that this technology can be a valuable clinical tool in various neurosurgical applications.

Wells, Jonathon D.

386

Research Stimulation for Tenured 2011 Recipients  

E-print Network

, Physiology Dept. Chair: David Lawson Robert Arking, Biological Sciences Dept. Chair: James Tucker Paul WalkerResearch Stimulation for Tenured Faculty 2011 Recipients David Evans, Biochemistry and Molecular

Berdichevsky, Victor

387

CAMPAGNE DE RECRUTEMENT DES ENSEIGNANTS-CHERCHEURS -SESSION SYNCHRONISEE 2014 -LISTE des MEMBRES des CDS POSTES DE MAITRES DE CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

Mathématiques, bâtiment Fermat département de Mathématiques et applications Ecole Normale Supérieure InriaCAMPAGNE DE RECRUTEMENT DES ENSEIGNANTS-CHERCHEURS - SESSION SYNCHRONISEE 2014 - LISTE des MEMBRES des CDS POSTES DE MAITRES DE CONFERENCE Numéro Poste Nature Concours Section(s) CNU Profil Labo d

Arleo, Angelo

388

Stretch-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is regulated by Rac1.  

PubMed

Alternatives to the canonical insulin signaling pathway for glucose transport are muscle contraction/exercise. Mechanical stress is an integrated part of the muscle contraction/relaxation cycle and passive stretch has been shown to increase muscle glucose transport. However, the signaling mechanism regulating stretch-stimulated glucose transport is not well understood. We recently reported that the actin cytoskeleton regulating GTPase, Rac1 was activated in mouse muscle in response to stretching. Rac1 is a regulator of contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose transport but its role in stretch-stimulated glucose transport and signaling is unknown. We therefore investigated whether stretch-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle required Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton. We used muscle specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice as well as pharmacological inhibitors of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in isolated soleus and EDL muscles. In addition, Rac1's role in contraction-stimulated glucose transport during conditions without mechanical load on the muscles was evaluated in loosely hanging muscles and muscles in which crossbridge formation was blocked by the myosin ATPase inhibitors BTS and Blebbistatin. Knockout as well as pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 reduced stretch-stimulated glucose transport by 30-50% in soleus and EDL muscle. The actin depolymerizing agent, Latrunculin B similarly decreased glucose transport in response to stretching by 40-50%. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose transport by 30-40% in tension developing muscle, but did not affect contraction-stimulated glucose transport in muscles in which force development was prevented. Our findings suggest that Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton regulate stretch-stimulated glucose transport and that Rac1 is a required part of the mechanical stress-component of the contraction-stimulus to glucose transport in skeletal muscle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25416624

Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth L V; Kleinert, Maximilian; Richter, Erik A; Jensen, Thomas E

2014-11-21

389

Electrode array for neural stimulation  

DOEpatents

An electrode array for neural stimulation is disclosed which has particular applications for use in a retinal prosthesis. The electrode array can be formed as a hermetically-sealed two-part ceramic package which includes an electronic circuit such as a demultiplexer circuit encapsulated therein. A relatively large number (up to 1000 or more) of individually-addressable electrodes are provided on a curved surface of a ceramic base portion the electrode array, while a much smaller number of electrical connections are provided on a ceramic lid of the electrode array. The base and lid can be attached using a metal-to-metal seal formed by laser brazing. Electrical connections to the electrode array can be provided by a flexible ribbon cable which can also be used to secure the electrode array in place.

Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Stein, David J. (Albuquerque, NM); Yang, Pin (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-08-16

390

FACULT DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES -SORBONNE  

E-print Network

FACULT� DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES - SORBONNE LICENCE EN SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES ANN�E UNIVERSITAIRE 2013-2014 MENTION SCIENCES DE L'�DUCATION L3 Faculté des Sciences humaines et sociales

Pellier, Damien

391

FACULT DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES -SORBONNE  

E-print Network

FACULT� DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES - SORBONNE LICENCE EN SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES ANN�E UNIVERSITAIRE 2013-2014 MENTION SCIENCES DU Vaillant 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt L3, M1 et M2 Faculté des Sciences

Pellier, Damien

392

NANCY LANGSTON REGULATINGDIETHYLSTILBESTROL (DES), ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS,  

E-print Network

NANCY LANGSTON REGULATINGDIETHYLSTILBESTROL (DES), ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS, the retreat from precaution: Nancy Langston, "The Retreat from Precaution: Regulating Diethylstilbestrol (DES), Endocrine is played by endocrine disruptors--industrial pollutants that mimic hormones and alter sexual development

Langston, Nancy

393

SECRETARIAT GENERAL Direction des ressources humaines  

E-print Network

DE SUIVI DES TRAVAUX DU PLAN TRIENNAL DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'EMPLOI ET DE L'INSERTION DES PERSONNES de poste sur le site Web du CNRS. Cela permettrait aux professionnels de disposer d'un contact direct

Canet, Léonie

394

Transcranial magnetic stimulation during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in pregnant patients with depression. Thirty depressed pregnant patients received rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex for 6 days in a week, from Monday to Saturday for 3 weeks. The rTMS intensity was set at 100% of the motor threshold. A 25-Hz stimulation with a duration of 2 s was delivered 20 times with 30-s intervals. A session comprised 1,000 magnetic pulses. Depression was rated using the 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) before and after treatment. Response was defined as a 50% reduction of the HAMD score. Patients with HAMD scores less than 8 were considered to be in remission. The mean HAMD score for the study group decreased from 26.77?±?5.58 to 13.03?±?6.93 (p?

H?zl? Sayar, Gökben; Ozten, Eylem; Tufan, Evren; Cerit, Cem; Ka?an, Gaye; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Tarhan, Nevzat

2014-08-01

395

Regulation of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 in PTTH-stimulated prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A complex signaling network appears to be involved in prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in insect prothoracic glands (PGs). In the present study, we investigated the localization of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in PTTH-stimulated PGs in Bombyx mori. The nuclear effect of PTTH was further studied by examining phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10. Results showed that in PTTH-stimulated PGs, higher phosphorylated ERK was detected in nuclear fraction compared to that in cytosolic fraction. PTTH treatment in vitro appears to rapidly enhance the transcriptional activation-associated histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10. PTTH stimulated histone H3 phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Injection of PTTH into day-6 last instar larvae greatly increased histone H3 phosphorylation, verifying the in vitro effect. The stimulation of histone H3 phosphorylation by PTTH appears to be developmentally regulated. PTTH-stimulated histone H3 phosphorylation was greatly reduced in Ca(2+)-free saline or by pretreatment with a potent and specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC), U73122. When PGs were treated with agents that directly elevate the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (either A23187 or thapsigargin), a greatly increase in histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 was observed, indicating Ca(2+)-dependency of histone H3 phosphorylation stimulated by PTTH. In addition, PTTH-stimulated histone H3 phosphorylation was partially reduced by U0126, a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, indicating the involvement of ERK. However, pretreatment with LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, did not inhibit PTTH-stimulated histone H3 phosphorylation, implying that PI3K signaling is not related to PTTH-stimulated histone H3 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PTTH-stimulated histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 is mediated by Ca(2+)/ERK signaling in B. mori PGs. PMID:25524297

Gu, Shi-Hong; Hsieh, Yun-Chin

2015-02-01

396

Stratégie de traitement : Rôle de l’enfuvirtide dans la prise en charge des effets secondaires limitant le traitement  

PubMed Central

Les effets secondaires peuvent limiter les options s’offrant aux médecins dans le traitement de l’infection par le VIH. La prise en charge de ces effets secondaires est essentielle afin d’éviter l’arrêt du traitement. L’enfuvirtide, un inhibiteur de la fusion du VIH, peut être utile en tant qu’un des trois agents actifs du traitement antirétroviral. Ce peut être une façon de réduire les effets secondaires limitant le traitement et d’avoir un agent efficace pour le contrôle viral. Dans le cas présent, le patient avait des antécédents de traitements longs et problématiques, avec de nombreuses affections concomitantes. Son dernier schéma thérapeutique en date, qui comprend un agent d’une nouvelle classe thérapeutique, l’enfuvirtide, a maintenu la suppression du VIH tout en minimisant la toxicité.

Tsoukas, Christos

2007-01-01

397

Knowledge focus via software agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be able to communicate to receive and disseminate information and provide the decision-maker with assistance via focused knowledge. THe agent must also be able to monitor the state of its own environment and make decisions necessary to carry out its delegated tasks. Agents bring three elements to the C2 domain that offer to improve decision-making. First, they provide higher-quality feedback and provide it more often. In doing so, the feedback loop becomes nearly continuous, reducing or eliminating delays in situation updates to decision-makers. Working with the most current information possible improves the control process, thus enabling effects based operations. Second, the agents accept delegation of actions and perform those actions following an established process. Agents' consistent actions reduce the variability of human input and stabilize the control process. Third, through the delegation of actions, agents ensure 100 percent consideration of plan details.

Henager, Donald E.

2001-09-01

398

Minimisation des inductances propres des condensateurs à film métallisé  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we examine the different factors responsible for the equivalent series inductance in metallized capacitors and we propose structures for capacitors that reduce this inductance. After recalling the structure of metallized capacitors we compare, by experimental measurements, the inductance due to the winding and that one added by the connections. The latter can become preponderant. In order to explain the experimental evolution of the winding impedance vs. frequency, we describe an analytical model which gives the current density in the winding and its impedance. This model enables us to determine the self resonant frequency for different types of capacitors. From where, we can infer the influence of the height of capacitors and their internal and external radius upon performances, It appears that to reduce the equivalent series inductance, it is better to use flat windings and annular windings. Dans cet article nous examinons les différents facteurs responsables de l'inductance équivalente série dans les condensateurs à film métallisé et proposons des géométries de condensateurs qui réduisent cette inductance. Après avoir rappelé la structure des condensateurs à film métallisé, nous comparons, par des mesures expérimentales, l'inductance due au bobinage et l'inductance ajoutée par les connexions. Cette dernière peut devenir prépondérante. Afin d'expliquer l'évolution de l'impédance du bobinage en fonction de la fréquence, nous décrivons un modèle analytique qui donne la densité du courant dans le bobinage et l'impédance de ce dernier. En outre, ce modèle permet de déterminer la fréquence de résonance série de divers types de condensateurs ce qui permet de déduire l'influence de la hauteur des condensateurs et de leurs rayons interne et externe sur les performances. Il apparaît ainsi que, pour diminuer l'inductance équivalente série, il vaut mieux employer des bobinages plats et des bobinages annulaires.

Joubert, Ch.; Rojat, G.; Béroual, A.

1995-07-01

399

Etude des modes Raman de dformation angulaire des CH2 dans le polythylne  

E-print Network

. Abenoza Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman I, Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 34060597 Etude des modes Raman de déformation angulaire des CH2 dans le polyéthylène Luu Dang Vinh, M spectres Raman d'échantillons de polyéthylène semi-cristallins ayant des cristallinités et des taux d

Boyer, Edmond

400

Emergent Behavior and Mobile Agents Bernard Pagurek  

E-print Network

in the communications domain. Keywords: mobile agents, agent coordination, agent collaboration, swarm intelligence 1 of such mobile agents are found at all levels of evolutionary complexity, from bacteria to ants and beyond communication is local; no single agent has a global view of the world. Communication is also achieved using

White, Tony

401

User focus management in agent worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Emerging distributed agent systems, smart buildings, grid computing and many other architectures leave the user lost between a big heap of agents. The popular 'yellow-pages' solution to agent discovery will brake down when multiple highly-specialized agents are needed for even the simplest actions. On the other hand, a personal agent knowing exactly what the user wants and negotiating with

W. Pasman

2003-01-01

402

Article original Hydratation des micelles de casine  

E-print Network

15 septembre 1999) Abstract -- Casein micelle solvation and fractal structure of milk aggregatesArticle original Hydratation des micelles de caséine et structure fractale des agrégats et des gels the fractal theory. A relationship is observed between the hydration of casein particles, the structure

Boyer, Edmond

403

LA VITESSE DE REMONTE DES SPERMATOZODES  

E-print Network

cas les spermatozoïdes atteignent le pavillon en moins de 20 minutes. STARKE (1949) approuve les spermatozoïdes par unité de longueur. En effet, en maintenant un fragment des trompes de Fallope (2 mm) par une

Boyer, Edmond

404

Bioinformatique BTVStockage des donnees Bioinformatique BTV  

E-print Network

Bioinformatique BTVStockage des donn´ees Bioinformatique BTV Stockage des donn´ees Jean #12;Bioinformatique BTVStockage des donn´ees Plan Plan 1 Introduction 2 Format de stockage texte 3´ees Format de stockage texte Stockage au format texte Stockage au format texte 8 / 64 #12;Bioinformatique

Richer, Jean-Michel

405

Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?  

PubMed Central

Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce “killed but metabolically active” microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat biological warfare in the future. PMID:24067444

Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-01-01

406

Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?  

PubMed

Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce "killed but metabolically active" microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat biological warfare in the future. PMID:24067444

Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-11-15

407

TRPV1 antagonists as potential antitussive agents.  

PubMed

Cough is an important defensive pulmonary reflex that removes irritants, fluids, or foreign materials from the airways. However, when cough is exceptionally intense or when it is chronic and/or nonproductive it may require pharmacologic suppression. For many patients, antitussive therapies consist of OTC products with inconsequential efficacies. On the other hand, the prescription antitussive market is dominated by older opioid drugs such as codeine. Unfortunately, "codeine-like" drugs suppress cough at equivalent doses that also often produce significant ancillary liabilities such as GI constipation, sedation, and respiratory depression. Thus, the discovery of a novel and effective antitussive drug with an improved side effect profile relative to codeine would fulfill an unmet clinical need in the treatment of cough. Afferent pulmonary nerves are endowed with a multitude of potential receptor targets, including TRPV1, that could act to attenuate cough. The evidence linking TRPV1 to cough is convincing. TRPV1 receptors are found on sensory respiratory nerves that are important in the generation of the cough reflex. Isolated pulmonary vagal afferent nerves are responsive to TRPV1 stimulation. In vivo, TRPV1 agonists such as capsaicin elicit cough when aerosolized and delivered to the lungs. Pertinent to the debate on the potential use of TRPV1 antagonist as antitussive agents are the observations that airway afferent nerves become hypersensitive in diseased and inflamed lungs. For example, the sensitivity of capsaicin-induced cough responses following upper respiratory tract infection and in airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma and COPD is increased relative to that of control responses. Indeed, we have demonstrated that TRPV1 antagonism can attenuate antigen-induced cough in the allergic guinea pig. However, it remains to be determined if the emerging pharmacologic profile of TRPV1 antagonists will translate into a novel human antitussive drug. Current efforts in clinical validation of TRPV1 antagonists revolve around various pain indications; therefore, clinical evaluation of TRPV1 antagonists as antitussive agents will have to await those outcomes. PMID:17926096

McLeod, Robbie L; Correll, Craig C; Jia, Yanlin; Anthes, John C

2008-01-01

408

Complex social waves of giant honeybees provoked by a dummy wasp support the special-agent hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The social waves in giant honeybees termed as shimmering are more complex than mexican waves. it has been demonstrated1 that shimmering is triggered by special agents at the nest surface. in this paper, we have used a nest that originated by amalgamation of two previously separated nests and stimulated waves by a dummy wasp moved on a miniature cable car. we illustrate the plausibility of the special-agent hypothesis1 also for complex shimmering processes. PMID:20585516

Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

2010-01-01

409

Novel agents in indolent lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (iNHLs) include follicular lymphomas (FL), marginal-zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. First-line standard therapy in advanced, symptomatic iNHL consists of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. The recent rediscovery of the ‘old’ chemotherapeutic agent bendamustine, an alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action, has added a new effective and well-tolerated option to the therapeutic armamentarium in iNHL, increasing response rates and duration. However, patients invariably relapse and subsequent active and well-tolerated agents are needed. In recent years a large number of new targeted agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical experimentation in FL and indolent nonfollicular lymphoma (iNFL), including the new monoclonal antibodies binding CD20 or other surface antigens, immunoconjugates and bispecific antibodies. Moreover novel agents directed against intracellular processes such as proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and agents that target the tumour microenvironment, notably the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, are under active clinical investigation. The development of these new drugs may change in the near future the approach to iNHL patients, leading to better tolerated and effective therapy regimens. PMID:23610620

Merli, Michele; Ferrario, Andrea; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Appio, Lorena; Arcaini, Luca

2013-01-01

410

Novel agents in indolent lymphomas.  

PubMed

Indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (iNHLs) include follicular lymphomas (FL), marginal-zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. First-line standard therapy in advanced, symptomatic iNHL consists of rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. The recent rediscovery of the 'old' chemotherapeutic agent bendamustine, an alkylating agent with a peculiar mechanism of action, has added a new effective and well-tolerated option to the therapeutic armamentarium in iNHL, increasing response rates and duration. However, patients invariably relapse and subsequent active and well-tolerated agents are needed. In recent years a large number of new targeted agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical experimentation in FL and indolent nonfollicular lymphoma (iNFL), including the new monoclonal antibodies binding CD20 or other surface antigens, immunoconjugates and bispecific antibodies. Moreover novel agents directed against intracellular processes such as proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and agents that target the tumour microenvironment, notably the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, are under active clinical investigation. The development of these new drugs may change in the near future the approach to iNHL patients, leading to better tolerated and effective therapy regimens. PMID:23610620

Merli, Michele; Ferrario, Andrea; Basilico, Claudia; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Appio, Lorena; Arcaini, Luca; Passamonti, Francesco

2013-04-01

411

Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects  

SciTech Connect

There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

1999-06-10

412

A Fully Implanted Programmable Stimulator based on Wireless Communication for Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical research indicates that the epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) has shown potential in promoting locomotor recovery in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI). This paper presents the development of a fully implantable voltage-regulated stimulator with bi-directional wireless communication for investigating underlying neural mechanisms of ESCS facilitating motor function improvement. The stimulation system consists of a computer, an external

Hui Zhou; Qi Xu; Jiping He; Hangkong Ren; Houlun Zhou; Kejia Zheng

413

Consenting Agents: Negotiation Mechanisms for MultiAgent Systems  

E-print Network

partially supported by the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology (Grant 032­8284). (PDAs of intelligent databases relies on sophisticated interactions among autonomous software agents. A user's request

Rosenschein, Jeff

414

JACK Intelligent Agents - Components for Intelligent Agents in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is organised as follows.Section 2 introduces JACK IntelligentAgents, presenting the approach taken byAOS to its design and outlining its majorengineering characteristics. The BDImodel is discussed briefly in Section 3.Section 4 gives an outline of how to buildan application with JACK IntelligentAgents. Finally, in Section 5 we discusshow the use of this framework can bebeneficial to both engineers and

Paolo Busetta; Ralph Rönnquist; Andrew Hodgson; Andrew Lucas

1999-01-01

415

Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

416

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

1997-12-30

417

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

Smith, Paul H. (Los Alamos, NM); Brainard, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

418

Vagal Nerve Stimulation for Status epilepticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus in a 13-year-old boy was halted by left vagal nerve stimulation. Over the next 1.5 years, seizures have continued at a rate and severity which is significantly better than it had been in the year before insertion of the stimulator.

Ken R. Winston; Paul Levisohn; Bradford R. Miller; Jane Freeman

2001-01-01

419

[Electric brain stimulation for epilepsy therapy].  

PubMed

Attempts to control epileptic seizures by electrical brain stimulation have been performed for 50 years. Many different stimulation targets and methods have been investigated. Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is now approved for the treatment of refractory epilepsies by several governmental authorities in Europe and North America. However, it is mainly used as a palliative method when patients do not respond to medical treatment and epilepsy surgery is not possible. Numerous studies of the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on epileptic seizures have been performed and almost invariably report remarkable success. However, a limited number of controlled studies failed to show a significant effect. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) also was effective in open studies, and controlled studies are now being carried out. In addition, several uncontrolled reports describe successful treatment of refractory status epilepticus with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In summary, with the targets and stimulation parameters investigated so far, the effects of electrical brain stimulation on seizure frequency have been moderate at best. In the animal laboratory, we are now testing high-intensity, low-frequency stimulation of white matter tracts directly connected to the epileptogenic zone (e.g., fornix, corpus callosum) as a new methodology to increase the efficacy of DBS ("overdrive method"). PMID:12904868

Kellinghaus, C; Loddenkemper, T; Möddel, G; Tergau, F; Lüders, J; Lüdemann, P; Nair, D R; Lüders, H O

2003-08-01

420

Deep brain stimulation for movement disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep brain stimulation is now considered a routine treatment option for selected patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, primary segmental and generalised dystonia, and essential tremor. The neurosurgeon is responsi ble for the accurate and safe placement of the electrodes and the neurologist for the careful selection of patients and titration of medication against the effects of stimulation. A multidisciplinary team

Wesley Thevathasan; Ralph Gregory

2010-01-01

421

Deep Brain Stimulation for Advanced Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising technique for the treatment of movement disorders. Medically intractable Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common indications for DBS. There are three possible subcortical targets for PD, depending on the symptomatology (ie, the motor subdivision of the thalamus, the globus pallidus internus, the subthalamic nucleus [STN]). Thalamic stimulation has

Debra L. Byrd; William J. Marks; Philip A. Starr

2000-01-01

422

Theory of Stimulated Raman Effect. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of stimulated Raman scattering using the coupled-wave approach is extended to include the case of polar media, with and without inversion center. Mixed effects of parametric down-conversion and Raman emission may occur. The threshold of the stimulated Raman effect in these media should not be much higher than that in a nonpolar system. The mixed effects of parametric

Y. R. Shen

1965-01-01

423

Central sleep apnea detection and stimulation.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a system to detect and intervene in instances of central sleep apnea. The system is composed of a detection module and a stimulation module, which provides sensory stimulation to the patient when an apnea event has occurred. The system is currently in prototype and has not yet undergone patient trials. PMID:22256104

Kinio, Steven; Islam, Mohammed; Qasim, Taimur

2011-01-01

424

IMPROVING SANDSTONE MATRIX STIMULATION OF OIL  

E-print Network

IMPROVING SANDSTONE MATRIX STIMULATION OF OIL WELLS BY GAS PRECONDITIONING M. A. Aggour, M. Al, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia ABSTRACT Experience has shown that for sandstone formations, oil wells respond wells. It is, therefore, expected that stimulation of oil wells in sandstone formations could

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

425

Wirelessly powering miniature implants for optogenetic stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional methods for in vivo optogenetic stimulation require optical fibers or mounted prosthesis. We present an approach for wirelessly powering implantable stimulators using electromagnetic midfield. By exploiting the properties of the midfield, we demonstrate the ability to generate high intensity light pulses in a freely moving animal.

Yeh, Alexander J.; Ho, John S.; Tanabe, Yuji; Neofytou, Evgenios; Beygui, Ramin E.; Poon, Ada S. Y.

2013-10-01

426

Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic migraine.  

PubMed

Occipital nerve stimulation may be effective in treating chronic migraine. Six studies, including three double-blind studies, were performed, with five showing evidence of benefit. However, of the three randomized, controlled trials, none has met a primary endpoint successfully. A separate study suggested a benefit for combined supraorbital and greater occipital nerve stimulation. PMID:24474153

Young, William B

2014-02-01

427

Femtosecond stimulated emission pumping: Characterization ground state  

E-print Network

­1 vibrational fre- quency, resonance impulsive stimulated Raman scattering RISRS was used to create ground stateFemtosecond stimulated emission pumping: Characterization of the I2 � ground state Martin T. Zanni to characterize the potential energy function of the I2 (X~ 2 u ) ground state up to vibrational energies within 2

Neumark, Daniel M.

428

76 FR 2617 - User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents; Hearing Cancellation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1545-BJ65 User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan Agents; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue...the imposition of user fees for enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents. DATES: The public hearing, originally...

2011-01-14

429

Response of mammalian ADP-ribosyl transferase to lymphocyte stimulation, mutagen treatment and cell cycling.  

PubMed

The inhibitors of the nuclear enzyme ADP-ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) had been shown to block the stimulation of quiescent lymphocytes with mitogens suggesting the involvement of the enzyme in the control of gene expression and cell differentiation. By means of the activity-gel assay we have analysed the intensity and the molecular mass of the catalytic bands of the enzyme at early and late times after stimulation of human lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. We observed that the increase in the activity of ADPRT is concurrent with the onset of DNA synthesis and is maintained for up to 10 days after lymphocyte stimulation, when DNA replication is over but the capacity to perform repair synthesis is still elevated. The analysis of ADPRT in stimulated lymphocytes by Western blots indicated that the increase in enzyme activity is due to the de novo synthesis of enzyme protein. The response of ADPRT to the treatment of human lymphocytes with DNA-damaging agents was studied at various dose-ranges, using the activity-gel technique. The results obtained indicate that dimethyl sulfate is 10 times as active as methyl methane sulfonate in stimulating ADPRT activity and that, at very high doses, the activity band of the enzyme tends to disappear. Very similar observations were obtained when Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with the same agents, although the concentrations of the mutagens eliciting maximal ADPRT activation were 10 times higher than in human lymphocytes. When analysed by Western blots, no significant difference of the protein band of the enzyme was observed in comparing control and treated cells. This suggests that the activity-gel system can detect two different phenomena: the increase in enzyme protein, as in the case of stimulated lymphocytes, and the enzyme-activating effect of DNA-damaging agents, which occurs without changing the number of enzyme molecules. Of particular interest is the observation that mitomycin C is capable of activating ADPRT in human lymphocytes, thus suggesting that cross-linking agents are involved in promoting ADP-ribosylation reactions. We have also analysed the variations of the enzyme throughout the cell cycle in HeLa cells synchronized in S phase or in mitosis. No significant changes in the levels of the enzyme activity were revealed by the activity-gel assay during the progression of the cycle, although an overall increase of active polypeptides of larger size in concomitance with the S period was observed. PMID:3113754

Scovassi, A I; Stefanini, M; Lagomarsini, P; Izzo, R; Bertazzoni, U

1987-09-01

430

Thilly/Stengel/Boini/Villar/Couchoud/Frimat Evaluation and determinants of underprescription of erythropoiesis stimulating agents  

E-print Network

­ dialysis - end-stage renal disease ­ registry - underprescription Abstract Background: Inadequate anaemia with diabetic or polycystic kidney disease and more likely in those with malignancy, unplanned haemodialysis/Stengel/Boini/Villar/Couchoud/Frimat 3 Introduction Anaemia is a major complication appearing early in the course of chronic kidney

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

431

Association of anemia and erythropoiesis stimulating agents with inflammatory biomarkers in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory cytokines are important predictors of cardiovascular mortality especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. Here we explored the relationship of anemia and epoetin treatment to inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with chronic kidney disease. One hundred non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease over 18 years of age were evenly split into anemic and non-anemic cohorts. Of the 50 anemic

Sai Ram Keithi-Reddy; Francesco Addabbo; Tejas V Patel; Bharati V Mittal; Michael S Goligorsky; Ajay K Singh

2008-01-01

432

Detection of nerve agent stimulants based on photoluminescent porous silicon interferometer  

PubMed Central

Porous silicon (PSi) exhibiting dual optical properties, both Fabry-Pérot fringe and photolumincence, was developed and used as chemical sensors. PSi samples were prepared by an electrochemical etch of p-type silicon under the illumination of 300-W tungsten lamp during the etch process. The surface of PSi was characterized by cold field-emission scanning electron microscope. PSi samples exhibited a strong visible orange photoluminescence at 610?nm with an excitation wavelength of 460?nm as well as Fabry-Pérot fringe with a tungsten light source. Both reflectivity and photoluminescence were simultaneously measured under the exposure of organophosphate vapors. An increase of optical thickness and quenching photoluminescences under the exposure of various organophosphate vapors were observed. PMID:23009146

2012-01-01

433

The role of erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous (IV) iron in the cardio renal anemia syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is common in Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and is associated with an increased mortality, morbidity and progressive\\u000a renal failure. The most common causes of the anemia in CHF are (1) the associated Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), which causes\\u000a depression of erythropoietin (EPO) production in the kidney, and (2) excessive cytokine production in CHF, which can cause\\u000a both depression of

Donald S. Silverberg

2011-01-01

434

Detection of nerve agent stimulants based on photoluminescent porous silicon interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous silicon (PSi) exhibiting dual optical properties, both Fabry-Pérot fringe and photolumincence, was developed and used as chemical sensors. PSi samples were prepared by an electrochemical etch of p-type silicon under the illumination of 300-W tungsten lamp during the etch process. The surface of PSi was characterized by cold field-emission scanning electron microscope. PSi samples exhibited a strong visible orange photoluminescence at 610 nm with an excitation wavelength of 460 nm as well as Fabry-Pérot fringe with a tungsten light source. Both reflectivity and photoluminescence were simultaneously measured under the exposure of organophosphate vapors. An increase of optical thickness and quenching photoluminescences under the exposure of various organophosphate vapors were observed.

Kim, Seongwoong; Cho, Bomin; Sohn, Honglae

2012-09-01

435

Detection of nerve agent stimulants based on photoluminescent porous silicon interferometer.  

PubMed

Porous silicon (PSi) exhibiting dual optical properties, both Fabry-Pérot fringe and photolumincence, was developed and used as chemical sensors. PSi samples were prepared by an electrochemical etch of p-type silicon under the illumination of 300-W tungsten lamp during the etch process. The surface of PSi was characterized by cold field-emission scanning electron microscope. PSi samples exhibited a strong visible orange photoluminescence at 610?nm with an excitation wavelength of 460?nm as well as Fabry-Pérot fringe with a tungsten light source. Both reflectivity and photoluminescence were simultaneously measured under the exposure of organophosphate vapors. An increase of optical thickness and quenching photoluminescences under the exposure of various organophosphate vapors were observed. PMID:23009146

Kim, Seongwoong; Cho, Bomin; Sohn, Honglae

2012-01-01

436

association des naturalistes de la  

E-print Network

influencées par les invasions marines de l'Eocène moyen/supérieur. Les Argiles Plastiques de Provins chenal/argilessables dépôts marins dépôts continentaux Marnes à Pholadomia ludensis Le caractère majeur de ces dépôts est leur constituées de débris de plantes transportés ; (2) des matériaux plus fins liés aux bordures des chenaux et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Optical nerve stimulation for a vestibular prosthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared Nerve Stimulation (INS) offers several advantages over electrical stimulation, including more precise spatial selectivity and improved surgical access. In this study, INS and electrical stimulation were compared in their ability to activate the vestibular branch of the VIIIth nerve, as a potential way to treat balance disorders. The superior and lateral canals of the vestibular system of Guinea pigs were identified and approached with the aid of precise 3-D reconstructions. A monopolar platinum stimulating electrode was positioned near the ampullae of the canals, and biphasic current pulses were used to stimulate vestibular evoked potentials and eye movements. Thresholds and input/output functions were measured for various stimulus conditions. A short pulsed diode laser (Capella, Lockheed Martin-Aculight, Inc., Bothell WA) was placed in the same anatomical position and various stimulus conditions were evaluated in their ability to evoke similar potentials and eye movements.

Harris, David M.; Bierer, Steven M.; Wells, Jonathon D.; Phillips, James O.

2009-02-01

438

Visual mental imagery during caloric vestibular stimulation  

PubMed Central

We investigated high-resolution mental imagery and mental rotation, while the participants received caloric vestibular stimulation. High-resolution visual mental imagery tasks have been shown to activate early visual cortex, which is deactivated by vestibular input. Thus, we predicted that vestibular stimulation would disrupt high-resolution mental imagery; this prediction was confirmed. In addition, mental rotation tasks have been shown to activate posterior parietal cortex, which is also engaged in the processing of vestibular stimulation. As predicted, we also found that mental rotation is impaired during vestibular stimulation. In contrast, such stimulation did not affect performance of a low-imagery control task. These data document previously unsuspected interactions between the vestibular system and the high-level visual system. PMID:15896815

Mast, Fred W.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2006-01-01

439

Optimal agent cooperation with local information  

E-print Network

Multi-agent systems are in general believed to be more efficient, robust, and versatile than their single-agent equivalents. However, it is not an easy task to design strategies that fully exploit the multi-agent benefits, ...

De Mot, Jan

2005-01-01

440

Designing Culturally Authentic Pedagogical Agents Yolanda Rankin  

E-print Network

Designing Culturally Authentic Pedagogical Agents Yolanda Rankin Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA Ethnicity has been defined primarily by the physical appearance of pedagogical agents of pedagogical agents are the most authentic representations. As designers of educational technology, pedagogical

Cassell, Justine

441

Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission d’un article et seulement la moitié des journaux avait donné une définition de la qualité d’auteur. La publication scientifique de travaux sur les pratiques pharmaceutiques n’est pas à l’abri des manques de transparence liés à la publication. L’utilisation d’une grille décrivant la contribution de chaque auteur et la publication en ligne des travaux peuvent contribuer à limiter ces risques. PMID:24970938

Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

2014-01-01

442

Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de psychologie  

E-print Network

Formulaire d'inscription D.Psy (Option neuropsychologie clinique) V.00 3-220-1-4 Identification de l - Neurosciences des systèmes 3 PSY7413 - �valuation neuropsy. enfant/adolescent. 3 PSY7414 - �valuation neuropsy. adulte/aîné 3 PSY7416 - Neuropsychologie méthodes d'intervention 3 PSY7425 - Syndromes

Parrott, Lael

443

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

'organisation des Protistes libres et parasites (Algues, Protozoaires). On soulignera les relations évolutives entre. 1966. Les algues d'Eau douce 1: Les Algues vertes 1968. " " " " 2: Les algues jaunes et brunes 1970. " " " " 3: Les algues bleues et rouges De Puytorac, P. et al. 1987. Précis de protistologie. Boubée

Parrott, Lael

444

Amlioration des plantes Evolution des caractristiques de la graine  

E-print Network

'évolution de l'humidité du capitule et des graines de 25 variétés de tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.), de la of 25 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) varieties were followed from flowering to maturity, the oil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

445

Myoclonus and transcranial magnetic stimulation.  

PubMed

The neural dysfunction at the origin of myoclonus may locate at various anatomical levels within the central nervous system, including the motor cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to assess the balance between inhibitory and excitatory processes involved in the regulation of motor cortex activity and thereby, may be of value to determine the pathophysiological mechanisms of myoclonus. Using paired-pulse paradigms with various interstimulus intervals, TMS studies showed that intracortical inhibition (ICI) was reduced in progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME). In contrast, ICI was decreased only for short interstimulus intervals in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Transcallosal inhibition and sensorimotor integration were also both altered in PME but not in JME. Actually, the loss of inhibitory regulation within the central nervous system might represent an intrinsic mechanism of myoclonus, whether of epileptic origin or not. Finally, the other TMS parameters of excitability (motor threshold, silent period, intracortical facilitation) were found normal in most cases of myoclonus. According to these observations, it was quite conceivable that the application of repetitive trains of TMS (rTMS) at inhibitory low-frequency (around 1 Hz) might be able to relieve myoclonus by restoring ICI. A few reported cases illustrate the efficacy of low-frequency rTMS to alleviate myoclonic symptoms. Therapeutic-like perspectives are opened for rTMS in these forms of myoclonus that are related to motor cortical hyperexcitability secondary to the loss of ICI. PMID:17336773

Lefaucheur, J-P

2006-01-01

446

Gastric electrical stimulation for obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide with a major impact on health and healthcare expenditures. Medical therapy in the form of diet and pharmacotherapy has limited effect on weight. Standard bariatric surgery is effective but is associated with morbidity and mortality, creating an unmet need for alternative therapies. One such therapy, the application of electrical stimulation to the stomach, has been studied extensively for the last two decades. Though pulse parameters differ between the various techniques used, the rationale behind this assumes that application of electrical current can interfere with gastric motor function or modulate afferent signaling to the brain or both. Initial studies led by industry failed to show an effect on body weight. However, more recently, there has been a renewed interest in this therapeutic modality with a number of concepts being evaluated in large human trials. If successful, this minimally invasive and low-risk intervention would be an important addition to the existing menu of therapies for obesity. PMID:25613177

Chiu, Jenny D; Soffer, Edy

2015-01-01

447

Bacterial Inhibition by Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Significance: Much evidence shows that electrical stimulation (ES) promotes the wound healing process. The inhibitory effect of ES on bacterial growth has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the useful effects of ES on wound healing. Bacterial burden has been associated with chronic wounds. The extensive use of antibiotics can lead to the spread of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Whether biophysical energies, such as ES, can be used as a treatment modality against pathogenic microorganisms remains an open question. Recent Advances: The research literature provides evidence for useful effects of ES in terms of inhibition of bacterial growth. The type of ES, its polarity, and the intensity of the current play a major role in establishment of antibacterial effects. Both direct current (DC) and high voltage pulse current are more effective at inhibiting bacterial growth than are other types of ES. The exact mechanism underlying the antibacterial effects of ES is not clear. Critical Issues: Available evidence indicates that microampere DC (?ADC) is better than other ES types for inhibition of bacterial growth. The results of most studies also support the application of cathodal current for bacterial growth inhibition. The current intensity of ES would appear to be tolerable by humans if used clinically for treatment of infected wounds. Future Directions: The cathodal ?ADC appears to be more effective for inhibition of microorganism growth. Further research, especially in vivo, is necessary to clarify the inhibitory effects of ES on wound bacterial infections. PMID:24761349

Asadi, Mohammad Reza; Torkaman, Giti

2014-01-01

448

Agent-based forward analysis  

SciTech Connect

We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Lusk, Rick M [ORNL

2008-01-01

449

Diamine curing agents for polyurethanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three aromatic diamines have properties that make them promising candidates as curing agents for converting isocyanates to polyurethanes with higher adhesive strengths, higher softening temperatures, better toughness, and improved abrasion resistance.

Bell, V. L.; St. Clair, T. L.

1975-01-01

450

Tissue penetration of antifungal agents.  

PubMed

Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F; Hope, William W

2014-01-01

451

Tissue Penetration of Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F.

2014-01-01

452

Learning in multi-agent systems  

SciTech Connect

Learning agents acting in a multi agent environment can improve their performance. These agents might decide upon their course of action by learning about other agents with whom they interact. The learning agents can learn about the others information and rules of behavior. The agents will not need to plan their actions beforehand, each time they are asked to solve the same problem they have already solved or when dealing with similar problems.

Goldman, C.V. [The Hebrew Univ., Givat Ram, Jerusalem (Israel)

1996-12-31

453

Automated Verification of Multi-Agent Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show that the flexible model- checking of multi-agent systems, implemented using agent- oriented programming languages, is viable thus paving the way for the construction of verifiably correct applications of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Model checking experiments were carried out on AJPF (Agent JPF), our ex- tension of Java PathFinder that incorporates the Agent Infras- tructure

Rafael H. Bordini; Louise A. Dennis; Berndt Farwer; Michael Fisher

2008-01-01

454

Animated Pedagogical Agents in Multimedia Educational Environments: Effects of Agent Properties, Picture Features, and Redundancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments explored the integration of animated agents into multimedia environments in the context of R. E. Mayer’s (2001) cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Experiment 1 was a 3 (agent properties: agent only, agent with gesture, no agent) × 3 (picture features: static picture, sudden onset, animation) design. Agent properties produced no significant effects. Both sudden onset and animation conditions

Scotty D. Craig; Barry Gholson; David M. Driscoll

2002-01-01

455

Design of Agent Service System to Manage Services among Heterogeneous Multi-agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agent systems can register, deregister and search the information of agent and services. Amount of the agent systems and the information according to agent and service are existed. The differences of the information specification make not easy to the relevancy about them. Thus, we propose the agent service system (ASS) to find the relevancy among the agents information and

Yoe-Jin Yoon; Geon-Ha Lee; Kee-Hyun Choi; Dong-Ryeol Shin

2008-01-01

456

Logic-Based Hybrid Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid agents integrate different styles of reactive, deliberative, and cooperative problem solving in a modular fashion.\\u000a They are the prime device of (Distributed) Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science for realising a broad spectrum of\\u000a simultaneous functionalities in application domains such as Artificial Life, (Tele-)Robotics, Flexible Manufacturing, and\\u000a Automated Transportation. This article presents a design methodology for hybrid agents which combines

Christoph G. Jung; Klaus Fischer

2002-01-01

457

Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hybrid systems have grown tremendously in the past few years due to their abilities to offset the demerits of one technique\\u000a by the merits of another. This chapter presents a number of computational intelligence techniques which are useful in the\\u000a implementation of hybrid multi-agent systems. A brief review of the applications of the hybrid multi-agent systems is presented.

D. Srinivasan; M. Choy

458

Novel agents in Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a B-cell disorder characterized by the infiltration of the bone marrow (BM) with lymphoplasmacytic cells, as well as detection of an IgM monoclonal gammopathy in the serum. WM is considered an incurable disease, with an overall median survival of only 5-6 years. The success of targeted therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) has led to the development and investigation of more than 30 new compounds in this disease and in other plasma cell dyscrasias WM, both in the preclinical settings and as part of clinical trials. Among therapeutical options, first-line therapies have been based on single-agent or combination regimens with alkylator agents, nucleoside analogues, and the monoclonal antibody anti-CD20. Based on the understanding of the complex interaction between tumor cells and bone marrow microenvironment and the signaling pathways that are deregulated in WM pathogenesis, a number of novel therapeutic agents are now available; and demonstrated significant efficacy in WM. The range of the ORR to these novel agents is between 25-80%. Ongoing and planned future clinical trials include those using PKC inhibitors such as enzastaurin, new proteasome inhibitors such as carfilzomib, histone deacetylase inhibitors such as LBH589, humanized CD20 antibodies such as Ofatumumab, and additional alkylating agents such as bendamustine. These agents, when compared to traditional chemotherapeutic agents, may lead in the future to higher responses, longer remissions and better quality of life for patients with WM. This review will mainly focus on those novel agent that entered clinical trial for the treatment of WM. PMID:22844582

Sacco, Antonio; Leleu, Xavier; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Roccaro, Aldo M.

2011-01-01

459

The role of electron-stimulated desorption in focused electron beam induced deposition.  

PubMed

We present the results of our study about the deposition rate of focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) as a function of the substrate temperature with the substrate being an electron-transparent amorphous carbon membrane. When W(CO)6 is used as a precursor it is observed that the growth rate is lower at higher substrate temperatures. From Arrhenius plots we calculated the activation energy for desorption, E des, of W(CO)6. We found an average value for E des of 20.3 kJ or 0.21 eV, which is 2.5-3.0 times lower than literature values. This difference between estimates for E des from FEBIP experiments compared to literature values is consistent with earlier findings by other authors. The discrepancy is attributed to electron-stimulated desorption, which is known to occur during electron irradiation. The data suggest that, of the W(CO)6 molecules that are affected by the electron irradiation, the majority desorbs from the surface rather than dissociates to contribute to the deposit. It is important to take this into account during FEBIP experiments, for instance when determining fundamental process parameters such as the activation energy for desorption. PMID:24062973

van Dorp, Willem F; Hansen, Thomas W; Wagner, Jakob B; De Hosson, Jeff T M

2013-01-01

460

The role of electron-stimulated desorption in focused electron beam induced deposition  

PubMed Central

Summary We present the results of our study about the deposition rate of focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) as a function of the substrate temperature with the substrate being an electron-transparent amorphous carbon membrane. When W(CO)6 is used as a precursor it is observed that the growth rate is lower at higher substrate temperatures. From Arrhenius plots we calculated the activation energy for desorption, E des, of W(CO)6. We found an average value for E des of 20.3 kJ or 0.21 eV, which is 2.5–3.0 times lower than literature values. This difference between estimates for E des from FEBIP experiments compared to literature values is consistent with earlier findings by other authors. The discrepancy is attributed to electron-stimulated desorption, which is known to occur during electron irradiation. The data suggest that, of the W(CO)6 molecules that are affected by the electron irradiation, the majority desorbs from the surface rather than dissociates to contribute to the deposit. It is important to take this into account during FEBIP experiments, for instance when determining fundamental process parameters such as the activation energy for desorption. PMID:24062973

Hansen, Thomas W; Wagner, Jakob B; De Hosson, Jeff T M

2013-01-01

461

Les caracteristiques des immigrants, l'effondrement de la TI et leur effet sur les gains initiaux des immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

En fondant notre recherche sur des donnees administratives, nous nous demandons 1) si l'evolution des caracteristiques des immigrants, notamment l'augmentation de la proportion d'immigrants ayant un niveau de scolarite universitaire et de celle des immigrants dans la categorie des < travailleurs qualifies de l'immigration economique >, ont contribue favorablement a l'augmentation des gains initiaux des immigrants dans les annees 1990

Garnett Hou Feng Picot

2009-01-01

462

Magnetic stimulation of mammalian peripheral nerves in vivo: An alternative to functional electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

Functional electrical stimulation is the current gold standard for stimulating neuronal interfaces for functional neuromuscular and cortical applications, but it is not without its drawbacks. One such fault is the need to have direct electrical contact with the nerve tissue, and any side effects this causes. Functional magnetic stimulation, which works though electromagnetic induction, does not require electrical contact and may be a viable alternative to functional electrical stimulation. We are investigating the capabilities of magnetic stimulation with centimeter scale (<; 2.5 cm) coils in feline and rodent sciatic nerves in vivo. We have shown that magnetic stimulation can consistently produce the same levels of neuromuscular activation as electrical stimulation. Additionally, the position of the coil relative to the nerve influences neuromuscular activation, suggesting the possibility of selective muscle activation. PMID:25570516

Kagan, Zachary B; RamRakhyani, Anil Kumar; Khan, Faisal; Lazzi, Gianluca; Normann, Richard A; Warren, David J

2014-08-01

463

Asian lineage of peste des petits ruminants virus, Africa.  

PubMed

Interest in peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has been stimulated by recent changes in its host and geographic distribution. For this study, biological specimens were collected from camels, sheep, and goats clinically suspected of having PPRV infection in Sudan during 2000-2009 and from sheep soon after the first reported outbreaks in Morocco in 2008. Reverse transcription PCR analysis confirmed the wide distribution of PPRV throughout Sudan and spread of the virus in Morocco. Molecular typing of 32 samples positive for PPRV provided strong evidence of the introduction and broad spread of Asian lineage IV. This lineage was defined further by 2 subclusters; one consisted of camel and goat isolates and some of the sheep isolates, while the other contained only sheep isolates, a finding with suggests a genetic bias according to the host. This study provides evidence of the recent spread of PPRV lineage IV in Africa. PMID:21762576

Kwiatek, Olivier; Ali, Yahia Hassan; Saeed, Intisar Kamil; Khalafalla, Abdelmelik Ibrahim; Mohamed, Osama Ishag; Obeida, Ali Abu; Abdelrahman, Magdi Badawi; Osman, Halima Mohamed; Taha, Khalid Mohamed; Abbas, Zakia; El Harrak, Mehdi; Lhor, Youssef; Diallo, Adama; Lancelot, Renaud; Albina, Emmanuel; Libeau, Genevieve

2011-07-01

464

Generating Super Stimulated-Echoes in MRI and their Application to Hyperpolarized C-13 Diffusion Metabolic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Stimulated-echoes in MR can be used to provide high sensitivity to motion and flow, creating diffusion and perfusion weighting as well as T1 contrast, but conventional approaches inherently suffer from a 50% signal loss. The super stimulated-echo, which uses a specialized radiofrequency (RF) pulse train, has been proposed in order to improve the signal while preserving motion and T1 sensitivity. This paper presents a novel and straightforward method for designing the super stimulated-echo pulse train using inversion pulse design techniques. This method can also create adiabatic designs with an improved response to RF transmit field variations. The scheme was validated in phantom experiments and shown in vivo to improve SNR. We have applied a super stimulated-echo to metabolic MRI with hyperpolarized 13C-labeled molecules. For spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized agents, several repetition times are required but only a single stimulated-echo encoding is feasible, which can lead to unwanted motion blurring. To address this, a super stimulated-echo preparation scheme was used in which the diffusion weighting is terminated prior to the acquisition, and we observed a SNR increases of 60% in phantoms and 49% in vivo over a conventional stimulated-echo. Experiments following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate in murine transgenic cancer models have shown improved delineation for tumors since signals from metabolites within tumor tissues are retained while those from the vasculature are suppressed by the diffusion preparation scheme. PMID:22027366

Larson, Peder E. Z.; Kerr, Adam B.; Reed, Galen D.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kurhanewicz, John; Pauly, John M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

2011-01-01

465

Distinguishing splanchnic nerve and chromaffin cell stimulation in mouse adrenal slices with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry  

PubMed Central

Electrical stimulation is an indispensible tool in studying electrically excitable tissues in neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. In this work, the consequences of high-intensity electrical stimulation on the release of catecholamines from adrenal gland slices were examined with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon fiber microelectrodes. A biphasic signal, consisting of a fast and slow phase, was observed when electrical stimulations typically used in tissue slices (10 Hz, 350 ?A biphasic, 2.0 ms/phase pulse width) were applied to bipolar tungsten-stimulating electrodes. This signal was found to be stimulation dependent, and the slow phase of the signal was abolished when smaller (?250 ?A) and shorter (1 ms/phase) stimulations were used. The slow phase of the biphasic signal was found to be tetrodotoxin and hexamethonium independent, while the fast phase was greatly reduced using these pharmacological agents. Two different types of calcium responses were observed, where the fast phase was abolished by perfusion with a low-calcium buffer while both the fast and slow phases could be modulated when Ca2+ was completely excluded from the solution using EGTA. Perfusion with nifedipine resulted in the reduction of the slow catecholamine release to 29% of the original signal, while the fast phase was only decreased to 74% of predrug values. From these results, it was determined that high-intensity stimulations of the adrenal medulla result in depolarizing not only the splanchnic nerves, but also the chromaffin cells themselves resulting in a biphasic catecholamine release. PMID:21048165

Walsh, Paul L.; Petrovic, Jelena

2011-01-01

466

Forskolin inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport in rat adipose cells by a direct interaction with the glucose transporter.  

PubMed

The mechanism of the inhibitory action of forskolin, a plant-derived stimulator of adenylate cyclase, on glucose transport in rat adipose cells was studied. Lipolysis (glycerol release) and glucose transport activity (initial 3-O-methylglucose uptake rate) were measured after treatment of intact cells. In isolated plasma membranes, D-glucose transport and glucose-inhibitable binding of cytochalasin B, a specific labeling agent for the glucose transporter, were assayed. Forskolin inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport in intact cells at low concentrations which failed to stimulate lipolysis. Furthermore, the adenylate cyclase inhibitor prostaglandin E2 reduced forskolin-stimulated lipolysis but failed to reverse the transport inhibition. Therefore, the effects of the agent on lipolysis appeared to be dissociable from those on glucose transport. In plasma membrane vesicles, forskolin inhibited D-glucose transport in a competitive manner by an increase in the apparent transport Km without any detectable change in Vmax. In parallel to the transport inhibition, the agent inhibited the specific binding of cytochalasin B in both plasma membranes and low density microsomes, which contain the intracellular pool of glucose transporters in insulin-sensitive cells. The Kl of this inhibition (205 nM) was very similar to that of the inhibition of glucose transport in the membrane vesicles (203 nM). It is concluded that forskolin inhibits glucose transport by a direct interaction with the transporter (or a closely related protein) rather than through activation of adenylate cyclase. PMID:3470598

Joost, H G; Steinfelder, H J

1987-03-01

467

Latina Voices of Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the lives of Hispanic women living in Des Moines and includes their views of problems and opportunities involved in living in that city. Interviews were conducted with 24 Latino women over the age of 17 who had been in the area for over 2 years. Findings indicate that learning to speak English was the single most…

Taylor, P. Dawn

468

PERFORMANCE DES ORGANISATIONS TRANSVERSALES HOSPITALIERES  

E-print Network

organizations, the Mobile Geriatrics Teams (MGTs). The findings draw on action research involving the 14 MGTs, Intangible Capital, Mobile Geriatrics Teams. Au cours des années 2000, le législateur a affirmé sa volonté d

Boyer, Edmond

469

Computational modeling of epidural cortical stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) is a developing therapy to treat neurological disorders. However, it is not clear how the cortical anatomy or the polarity and position of the electrode affects current flow and neural activation in the cortex. We developed a 3D computational model simulating ECS over the precentral gyrus. With the electrode placed directly above the gyrus, about half of the stimulus current flowed through the crown of the gyrus while current density was low along the banks deep in the sulci. Beneath the electrode, neurons oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface were depolarized by anodic stimulation, and neurons oriented parallel to the boundary were depolarized by cathodic stimulation. Activation was localized to the crown of the gyrus, and neurons on the banks deep in the sulci were not polarized. During regulated voltage stimulation, the magnitude of the activating function was inversely proportional to the thickness of the CSF and dura. During regulated current stimulation, the activating function was not sensitive to the thickness of the dura but was slightly more sensitive than during regulated voltage stimulation to the thickness of the CSF. Varying the width of the gyrus and the position of the electrode altered the distribution of the activating function due to changes in the orientation of the neurons beneath the electrode. Bipolar stimulation, although often used in clinical practice, reduced spatial selectivity as well as selectivity for neuron orientation.

Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M.

2008-12-01

470

Injectable electronic identification, monitoring, and stimulation systems.  

PubMed

Historically, electronic devices such as pacemakers and neuromuscular stimulators have been surgically implanted into animals and humans. A new class of implants made possible by advances in monolithic electronic design and implant packaging is small enough to be implanted by percutaneous injection through large-gauge hypodermic needles and does not require surgical implantation. Among these, commercially available implants, known as radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, are used for livestock, pet, laboratory animal, and endangered-species identification. The RFID tag is a subminiature glass capsule containing a solenoidal coil and an integrated circuit. Acting as the implanted half of a transcutaneous magnetic link, the RFID tag is powered by and communicates with an extracorporeal magnetic reader. The tag transmits a unique identification code that serves the function of identifying the animal. Millions of RFID tags have been sold since the early 1980s. Based on the success of the RFID tags, research laboratories have developed injectable medical implants, known as micromodules. One type of micromodule, the microstimulator, is designed for use in functional-neuromuscular stimulation. Each microstimulator is uniquely addressable and could comprise one channel of a multichannel functional-neuromuscular stimulation system. Using bidirectional telemetry and commands, from a single extracorporeal transmitter, as many as 256 microstimulators could form the hardware basis for a complex functional-neuromuscular stimulation feedback-control system. Uses include stimulation of paralyzed muscle, therapeutic functional-neuromuscular stimulation, and neuromodulatory functions such as laryngeal stimulation and sleep apnea. PMID:11701487

Troyk, P R

1999-01-01

471

La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

2008-01-01

472

Computational Voting Theory: Of the Agents, By the Agents, For the Agents  

E-print Network

; the outcome is then decided by a social choice function. The field of Multi-<