Sample records for des agents stimulant

  1. Thrombopoiesis-stimulating agents and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Charlotte K; Steensma, David P

    2015-05-01

    Thrombocytopenia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is a frequent cause of haemorrhage-related morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased risk of leukaemic transformation and reduced overall survival. In addition, thrombocytopenia in MDS limits the tolerability and therapeutic efficacy of disease-modifying therapies, such as azacitidine or lenalidomide. The recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, epoetin and darbepoetin, are an established component of anaemia management in lower-risk MDS. Their success has, in turn, driven the development of haematopoietic growth factors targeting thrombocytopenia. While recombinant thrombopoietin (THPO) proved too immunogenic for clinical use, novel thrombopoiesis-stimulating agents (TSAs) have the potential to reduce bleeding events, decrease dependency on platelet transfusions and extend exposure to disease-modifying therapies. Two TSAs, eltrombopag and romiplostim, have demonstrated benefit in chronic immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and safety and efficacy data for use of these agents in MDS is growing. However, important safety concerns remain, such as the potential for stimulation of neoplastic myeloid clones by THPO agonists. In this narrative review, we discuss the rationale and biological mechanism for TSAs in MDS, describe the agents currently available and their mechanism of action, and present current clinical data relating to TSA safety and efficacy in the context of MDS. PMID:25659186

  2. Pharmacovigilance in practice: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents

    PubMed Central

    Hedenus, Michael; Ludwig, Heinz; Henry, David H; Gasal, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or other problems related to medical products after they have been licensed for marketing. The purpose of PV is to advance the safe use of marketed medical products. Regulatory agencies and license holders collaborate to collect data reported by health care providers, patients, and the public as well as data from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and individual clinical and nonclinical studies. They validate and analyze the data to determine whether safety signals exist, and if warranted, develop an action plan to mitigate the identified risk. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) provide an example of how PV is applied in reality. Among other approved indications, ESAs may be used to treat anemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. ESAs increase hemoglobin levels and reduce the need for transfusions; they are also associated with a known increased risk of thromboembolic events. Starting in 2003, emerging data suggested that ESAs might reduce survival. As a result of PV activities by regulatory agencies and license holders, labeling for ESAs addresses these risks. Meta-analyses and individual clinical studies have confirmed that ESAs increase the risk of thromboembolic events, but when used as indicated, ESAs have not been shown to have a significant effect on survival or disease progression. Ongoing safety studies will provide additional data in the coming years to further clarify the risks and benefits of ESAs. PMID:24890561

  3. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Deventer; K. Roels; F. T. Delbeke; P. Van Eenoo

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among\\u000a the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected\\u000a and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one\\u000a of the top three

  4. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included. PMID:21479548

  5. Detection of peptidic erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in sport.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Detection methods for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in sport can be classified into direct and indirect approaches. Direct methods comprise electrophoretic techniques (isoelectric focusing (IEF-), sodium-dodecylsulfate (SDS-), sarcosyl (SAR-) polyacrylamide gel-electrophoreses (-PAGE)), ELISAs and mass spectrometric methods. The haematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport is currently the only applied indirect approach. Newer developments include a mass spectrometric test for peginesatide, sequential exoglycosidase digestion of ertythropoietin (EPO) combined with electrophoresis (SDS/SAR-PAGE), a dipstick method (MAIIA), and a study on the differences in sialic acid O-acetylation of tryptic EPO O-glycopeptides. The focus of this article is on direct detection methods. PMID:24677025

  6. Effect of erythropoietin-stimulating agent on uremic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of the present study was to explore the effect of medications that are commonly prescribed for CKD patients on uremic state. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. From January 2006 to October 2009, 1,623 patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) commenced hemodialysis (HD) at the 9 participating hospitals. The criteria for exclusion from the database were 1) serum C-reactive protein (CRP)?>?3?mg/dL, 2) WBC count?>?9,000/mm3 or <4,000/mm3, and 3) patients with cancer, immune complex disease, or vasculitis. A total of 900 patients were entered into the final database. We explored the association of serum CRP just before the first HD session with clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and medications for CKD in the predialysis period. Results On univariate analysis, age, CTR, eGFR, and WBC were significantly correlated with CRP. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum albumin, LDL-C, HDL-C, Hb, Cr, and Ca were inversely associated with CRP. Use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) using (r?=??0.111, p?=?0.0015), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (r?=??0.083, p?=?0.0154), and calcium channel blockers (r?=??0.1, p?=?0.0039) was also negatively correlated with CRP. However, only use of ESA showed a significant negative correlation with CRP that was independent of other clinical factors and CKD medications on multiple regression analysis. Conclusion ESA may strongly reduce uremic inflammation in addition to improving anemia. To confirm this potential effect, a large-scale longitudinal study would be required. PMID:22583484

  7. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  8. Intgration oriente service des modles Grid et Multi-Agents

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    se concentrent sur des comportements flexibles et autonomes et la résolution de problème dans des'intégration de ces deux domaines permet de favo- riser ce que l'on appelle la génération dynamique de service (un

  9. Quantitative assessment of minimal effective concentration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents

    PubMed Central

    Yan, X; Krzyzanski, W

    2013-01-01

    Minimal effective concentration (MEC) was proposed to explain why subcutaneous (SC) administration of erythropoietin (EPO) induces a higher hemoglobin (HGB) increase than intravenous (IV) administration. It has been further used to explain the paradox that erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) with lower receptor binding affinity may have higher in vivo activity. We have developed a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with incorporation of the operational model of agonism to characterize the data from two clinical trials. By using model-based simulations, we demonstrate that SC route is more efficacious than IV route and explain the paradoxical behavior of ESAs. We determined that MEC can be quantified by C50, which represents the concentration of an ESA producing its half-maximal effect of stimulating the proliferation of erythroid precursor cells. The model used may allow joint PK/PD modeling of data from different ESAs, and provide a platform for dosing regimen optimizations and future clinical study designs. PMID:23924820

  10. Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

  11. Resistance to erythropoietin-stimulating agents: etiology, evaluation, and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin

    2012-02-01

    Routine clinical and laboratory assessments facilitate diagnosis of erythropoietin (EPO) resistant anemia by allowing early identification of patients with non-adherence. Any new event that impairs response to EPO (e.g., catheter sepsis) must be promptly controlled. Because of the confounding interaction of its risk factors, initial evaluation should include nutrition, dialysis adequacy, hemorrhage, bone mineral metabolism, and inflammation. Prevention of EPO resistance is more cost effective and should include adequate dialysis and nutritional supplements. Blood loss during hemodialysis (HD) procedures should be minimized. If there is laboratory proof of iron deficit intravenous repletion is most effective. Oxidative stress may be attenuated by vitamins E and C, while optimal control of hyperparathyroidism will enhance EPO stimulation. Contaminated dialysates should be suspected if there is EPO-stimulating agents (ESA) resistance at the same time among most members of a dialysis program. Heavy metal toxicity should be suspected in high-risk patients. The impact of co-morbidities such as hemoglobinopathy, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and connective tissue diseases must be excluded in an appropriate setting. In conclusion, given the multiple risk factors of EPO resistance promotion of the overall health status will most likely yield an enduring benefit. Finally, there are experimental trials of gene-based (therapy) to stimulate endogenous EPO synthesis with the goal of avoiding the off-target effect of excessive dosing. PMID:21424525

  12. Management of anemia with erythropoietic-stimulating agents in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Warady, Bradley A; Silverstein, Douglas M

    2014-09-01

    Anemia management is an important component of the care provided to children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and influences both morbidity and mortality risk. The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin to the treatment regimen three decades ago revolutionized the therapy and significantly decreased the need for repeated blood transfusions and exposure to associated risks. Recent data on the efficacy and complications associated with erythropoietic-stimulating agent (ESA) usage has, however, prompted a reassessment of treatment-related recommendations. This review will address these recommendations, in addition to describing pediatric outcomes associated with current ESAs and presenting information on alternative ESAs, many of which will likely soon be incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:24005791

  13. Treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hazzan, Azzour D; Shah, Hitesh H; Hong, Susana; Sakhiya, Vipulbhai; Wanchoo, Rimda; Fishbane, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Treatment of anemia remains an important component in the care of patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) remains a key anemia treatment strategy in this patient population. However, anemia management in this group can become more complicated by prior or current history of malignancy. There has been a great deal of work both scientifically and in clinical trials in oncology that have revealed certain concerns and risks of ESA use in patients with cancer. In this review, we will bring together knowledge from nephrology and oncology literature to help nephrologists understand the implications for ESA treatment when CKD/ESRD is complicated by cancer. We also suggest an approach to the management of anemia in this patient group with active or previous malignancy. PMID:24402094

  14. Characterization and quantitation of the active polynucleotide fraction (PDRN) from human placenta, a tissue repair stimulating agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Tonello; Marcello Daglio; Nadia Zaccarelli; Enzo Sottofattori; Mauro Mazzei; Alessandro Balbi

    1996-01-01

    The polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) fraction is an extract which forms the active component in a new formulation of the drug Placentex (a tissue repair stimulating agent), obtained from human placenta through an original proprietory extraction method. From a comparison of the UV, NMR and IR spectra of this fraction (before and after nuclease treatment) with that of a similar standard (Sigma

  15. The Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Patients with Therapy-Refractory Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Abdulgabar; Hartnack, Dirk; Lindemann, Hans-Walter; Lange, Hans-Joachim; Rummel, Mathias; Loew, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Many patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) do not respond to standard therapy and/or may develop severe complications which can be of fatal outcome. There is some evidence that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may be helpful in the management of such patients. Methods We describe the effect of ESAs in 12 new patients with therapy-refractory AIHA (7 of warm type and 5 of cold type) and review 5 previously reported cases. Serological testing was performed using standard methods. Results All patients responded well to treatment with ESAs. At least 5 of the 17 patients demonstrated complete recovery, and none of the patients developed significant adverse reactions due to treatment with ESAs. Conclusion The mechanism by which ESAs improves hemolysis in AIHA is not completely clear. In addition to increased production and prolonged RBC survival, it may inhibit eryptosis (programmed cell death). ESAs represent a new option in the treatment of decompensated and/or refractory AIHA of warm and cold type. However, more information is required to assess which patients can be treated with ESAs. PMID:25670934

  16. Differential Modulation of Angiogenesis by Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in a Mouse Model of Ischaemic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    McVicar, Carmel M.; Colhoun, Liza M.; Abrahams, Jodie L.; Kitson, Claire L.; Hamilton, Ross; Medina, Reinhold J.; Durga, Dash; Gardiner, Tom A.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Stitt, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anaemia but concerns exist about their potential to promote pathological angiogenesis in some clinical scenarios. In the current study we have assessed the angiogenic potential of three ESAs; epoetin delta, darbepoetin alfa and epoetin beta using in vitro and in vivo models. Methodology/Principal Findings The epoetins induced angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells at high doses, although darbepoetin alfa was pro-angiogenic at low-doses (1–20 IU/ml). ESA-induced angiogenesis was VEGF-mediated. In a mouse model of ischaemia-induced retinopathy, all ESAs induced generation of reticulocytes but only epoetin beta exacerbated pathological (pre-retinal) neovascularisation in comparison to controls (p<0.05). Only epoetin delta induced a significant revascularisation response which enhanced normality of the vasculature (p<0.05). This was associated with mobilisation of haematopoietic stem cells and their localisation to the retinal vasculature. Darbepoetin alfa also increased the number of active microglia in the ischaemic retina relative to other ESAs (p<0.05). Darbepoetin alfa induced retinal TNF? and VEGF mRNA expression which were up to 4 fold higher than with epoetin delta (p<0.001). Conclusions This study has implications for treatment of patients as there are clear differences in the angiogenic potential of the different ESAs. PMID:20686695

  17. Dosing of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents Can Be Reduced by a New Administration Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Stefánsson, Bergur V.; Haraldsson, Börje; Nilsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims At our hemodialysis (HD) unit, we noted a drop in the treatment dose of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) when the frequency of dose adjustment was reduced from weekly, where doses were withheld if hemoglobin was >130 g/l, to monthly, where doses were not withheld. The aim of this study was to find an explanation for this reduction in ESA requirement. Methods This is a retrospective study on 18 stable HD patients. Comparable follow-up periods of 6 months with the two different ESA adjustment regimens were established and data on ESA dose, hemoglobin and known predictors of ESA response were collected. Results With the new ESA administration regimen, a 22.5% drop in the total ESA dose was noted. The corresponding fall in the erythropoietin resistance index was 20.0%. Simultaneously, the dialysis dose and transferrin saturation increased significantly. However, in a multivariate linear regression model, changes in these factors did not significantly predict changes in ESA requirement. No relevant changes were noted in other erythropoiesis-modulating factors. Conclusion Frequent dose adjustments and the current ESA administration practice of withholding ESA doses does not seem to reduce ESA demand. On the contrary, such practice is likely to increase ESA requirement over time. PMID:22470378

  18. The role of erythropoietin stimulating agents in anemic patients with heart failure: solved and unresolved questions

    PubMed Central

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ruocco, Gaetano; Pellegrini, Marco; De Gori, Carmelo; Del Castillo, Gabriele; Giordano, Nicola; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is a common finding in congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. Several conditions can cause depression of erythroid progenitor cells: reduction of iron absorption and reuptake, decreased bone marrow activity, reduced endogenous erythropoietin production, and chronic inflammatory state. Anemia’s etiology in CHF is complex and partially understood; it involves several systems including impaired hemodynamic condition, reduced kidney and bone perfusion, increased inflammatory activity, and neurohormonal overdrive. The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin and its derivatives is recently debated; the last interventional trial seems to demonstrate a neutral or negative effect in the active arm with darbepoetin treatment. The current data is opposite to many single blind studies and previous meta-analysis showing an improvement in quality of life, New York Heart Association class, and exercise tolerance using ESA therapy. These contrasting data raise several concerns regarding the target of hemoglobin levels needing intervention, the exact anemia classification and categorization, and the standardization of hematocrit cutoffs. Some cardiac and systemic conditions (ie, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, prothrombotic status) may predispose to adverse events, and ESA administration should be avoided. To prevent the negative effects, high-dosage and chronic administration should be avoided. Clarification of these items could probably identify patients that may benefit from additional iron or ESA treatment. In this review, we discuss the interventional trials made in anemic heart failure patients, the underlying mechanism of anemia in CHF, and the potential role of ESA in this setting. PMID:25143739

  19. Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Policy Decisions on Off-Label Use in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Franklin; Davidoff, Amy J.; Zeidan, Amer M.; Gore, Steven D.; Baer, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anemia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as an off-label indication. In early 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released safety alerts and mandated label changes, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a National Coverage Determination (NCD) in August 2007, dramatically restricting ESA coverage based on specific clinical parameters in non-MDS patients. We sought to determine the effect on ESA use in MDS, examining both treatment initiation and concordance with guidelines designed to target patients most likely to benefit from therapy. Methods We determined receipt of ESA within 6 months of diagnosis. For ESA recipients, we operationalized three National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines: serum erythropoietin determination before ESA initiation, transfusion-independent at ESA initiation, and initial ESA treatment episode of >= 8 weeks. Logistic regression models tested the effect of time (half-year increments pre-post the August ‘07 CMS NCD implementation), controlling for demographics and health status. Results 17,491 (61.1%) of 28,627 beneficiaries with MDS received ESAs. ESA use increased prior to the reference period (Jan.–July 2007), but declined beginning in August 2007, the date of NCD implementation (marginal probability =–0.05, p-value<0.01). Concordance with treatment guidelines changed during the observation period, with increased rates of serum erythropoietin levels, but declined in the other two guidelines. Conclusion These results suggest a mixed pattern of change in the face of the FDA safety warnings and CMS NCD in MDS and highlight the importance of monitoring for unintended consequences of policy changes. PMID:25485173

  20. The use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with non-myeloid hematological malignancies: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine Shehata; Irwin Walker; Ralph Meyer; Adam E Haynes; Kevin Imrie

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) for the treatment of anemia in patients with non-myeloid hematological\\u000a malignancies needs to be assessed as the response to their administration is not uniform and their cost is high. We conducted\\u000a a systematic review (SR) of the literature to identify reports of the effect of ESAs on survival, quality of life (QOL), transfusion\\u000a requirements,

  1. The action of ?-adrenergic blocking and stimulating agents on insulin secretion. Characterization of the type of ? receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Loubatières; M. M. Mariani; G. Sorel; L. Savi

    1971-01-01

    Summary  As a result of our experiments designed to studyin vivo in the anaesthetized dog, the role of the beta-adrenergic receptors involved in insulin secretion, we have found: 1. that isoprenaline (global stimulator of the beta-adrenergic receptors) provoked a considerable increase in the secretion of insulin. — 2. that propranolol (blocking agent of the beta-adrenergic receptors) partially and temporarily inhibited the

  2. Twist and Shout: One Decade of Meta-Analyses of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Bohlius; Thomy Tonia; Guido Schwarzer

    2011-01-01

    Anemia associated with cancer and cancer therapy is a common and important issue in the treatment of patients with malignant disease. Conventionally, blood transfusions are used to treat severe cancer-related anemia. Short- and long-acting preparations of recombinant human erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) offer an alternative treatment option. Multiple studies and subsequent meta-analyses have demonstrated that ESA treatment increases hemoglobin levels and

  3. Stimulant doping agents used in Brazil: prevalence, detectability, analytical implications, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto; Sardela, Vinícius Figueiredo

    2014-07-01

    This article presents the prevalence of stimulant doping among Brazilian athletes, the analytical approaches used, as well as a general evolution of the detectability of the stimulants being used. Results from the Brazilian accredited doping control laboratory are compared with the global statistics disclosed by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The high prevalence of stimulant doping in Brazil can be attributed to several reasons, including "self-administration," a "body-shaping" culture, and the use of nutritional supplements. PMID:24766455

  4. Modulation of Cellular Mg2+ Content in Cardiac Cells by ?1-Adrenoceptor Stimulation and Anti-Arrhythmic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Andrea M.P

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) is used pharmacologically to sedate specific forms of arrhythmias. Administration of pharmacological doses of catecholamine or adrenergic receptor agonists often results in arrhythmias onset. Results from the present study indicate that stimulation of cardiac adrenergic receptors elicits an extrusion of cellular Mg2+ into the extracellular space. This effect occurs in both perfused hearts and isolated cells within 5-6 min following either ?- or ?1-adrenergic receptor stimulation, and is prevented by specific adrenergic receptors antagonists. Sequential stimulation of the two classes of adrenergic receptor results in a larger mobilization of cellular Mg2+ provided that the two agonists are administered together or within 1-2 min from each other. A longer delay in administering the second stimulus results in the abolishment of Mg2+ extrusion. Hence, these data suggest that the stimulation of ?- and ?1-adrenergic receptors mobilizes Mg2+ from two distinct cellular pools, and that Mg2+ loss from either pool triggers a Mg2+ redistribution within the cardiac myocyte. At the sarcolemmal level, Mg2+ extrusion occurs through a Na+/Mg2+ exchange mechanism phosphorylated by cAMP. Administration of quinidine, a patent anti-arrhythmic agent, blocks Na+ transport in a non-specific manner and prevents Mg2+ extrusion. Taken together, these data indicate that catecholamine administration induces dynamic changes in total and compartmentalized Mg2+ pools within the cardiac myocytes, and suggest that prevention of Mg2+ extrusion and redistribution may be an integral component of the effectiveness of quinidine and possibly other cardiac anti-arrhythmic agents. Confirmation of this possibility by future experimental and clinical studies might result in new patents of these compounds as Mg2+ preserving agents. PMID:23092432

  5. Dispositif de mesure des dfauts de surfaces par mission exo-lectronique photo-stimule

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    .V. and cartograms of the evolution of a fatigue crack. Revue Phys. Appl. 16 (1981) 259-265 MAI 1981, Classification déformations ou à des cycles de fatigue est issue de zones de surface endommagées (dislocations, glissements une surface préalablement déchargée, cartographie d'une fissure de fatigue. Abstract. 2014 This paper

  6. Photo-stimulated electro-optic response of liquid-crystalline system with trans-cis photo-isomerizable agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristov, G. B.; Marinov, Y. G.; Yelamaggad, C. V.

    2014-12-01

    A rather strong photo-stimulated enhancement of photo-induced bend flexoelectric effect based on trans-cis photoisomerization of azo bond was found in a guest-host system formed from the nematic liquid crystal (LC) N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA) as a host, and the azobenzene LC 4-hexyloxybenzoloxy-4'-cyanoazobenzene, as a guest photoactive agent at 1 wt.% concentration. Upon application of electric field, thin homeotropic layers of thickness 100 pm containing this photo-sensitized LC mixture were investigated as subjected to a relatively weak illumination with UV light (? = 375 nm, from narrow-band light-emitting diode, LED). The stimulation of the photoactive electro-optic response of azobenzene-doped MBBA (owing to enhanced photo-induced bend flexoelectric effect driven by the photo-isomerizable dopants) was achieved by pre-resonant excitation of the photoactive agent. The degree of the effect measured is of potential interest for thin-film photoactive electro-optic applications. The UV light-induced effect in azobenzene-doped MBBA was reversible; the back (relaxation) process was stimulated by light in the blue from a LED with broadband spectrum centered at 455 nm.

  7. Numerical simulation to study the feasibility of using CO2 as a stimulation agent for enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Zhang, W.; Pruess, K.

    2009-11-15

    A major concern in the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is achieving and maintaining adequate injectivity, while avoiding the development of preferential short-circuiting flow paths such as those caused by thermally-induced stress cracking. Past researches have tended to focus primarily on thermal and hydraulic stimulation. Recent studies suggest that chemical stimulation may improve the performance of EGS reservoirs. Geothermal injection wells are often drilled into formations containing reactive minerals such as calcite. Injecting aqueous chemical agents such as mineral acids, could be effective for mineral dissolution and porosity enhancement at distances of several meters around a well. An alternative to treatment with strong acids is the use of supercritical (SC) CO{sub 2} as stimulation agent for an aqueous-based EGS. Reactive transport modeling is used to investigate the effectiveness of this method. We used the thermal condition and mineralogical composition from a well of Desert Peak EGS site, to examine ways in which mixtures of water and CO{sub 2} can be injected to enhance porosity.

  8. Inflammatory responses in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) head kidney cells stimulated with an inflammasome-inducing agent, nigericin.

    PubMed

    Bilen, Soner; Biswas, Gouranga; Otsuyama, Shohei; Kono, Tomoya; Sakai, Masahiro; Hikima, Jun-ichi

    2014-10-01

    A cytosolic receptor complex called inflammasome is responsible for mounting inflammatory response by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. However, inflammatory cascades mediated by the inflammasome are unknown in a lower vertebrate like fish. Therefore, in an in vitro experiment, in order to obtain a preliminary information, we conducted transcriptomic analysis of 18 cytokines including pro-inflammatory cytokines in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) head kidney (HK) cells stimulated with an inflammasome-inducing agent, nigericin, and a combination of nigericin and LPS by a multiplex RT-PCR assay (GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System, GeXPS; Beckman Coulter Inc.). Furthermore, expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-18, nuclear factor (NF)-?B, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) and NOD-like receptor X1 (NLRX1) genes was examined in HK cells by a quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, to confirm functionality of activated inflammatory immunity, we also assessed phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production (NBT assay) and lysozyme activity in the nigericin-stimulated HK cells. An increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and IL-18), NF-?B and NOD2 was recorded in nigericin and combined nigericin+LPS- stimulated HK cells. Enhanced cellular (phagocytic activity and NBT assay) and humoral (lysozyme activity) immune parameters in the stimulated cells confirmed induction of inflammatory response. Results suggested probable activation of inflammasome components for processing of the inflammatory cytokines in the Japanese pufferfish. PMID:24768998

  9. Progressive transfusion and growth factor independence with adjuvant sertraline in low risk myelodysplastic syndrome treated with an erythropoiesis stimulating agent and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Kirtan; Li, Rui; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Thiagarajan, Perumal; Mims, Martha; Rivero, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Refractoriness to growth factor therapy is commonly associated with inferior outcome in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (LR-MDS) who require treatment for cytopenias. However, the mechanisms leading to refractoriness are unknown. Here we describe a clinically depressed 74-year-old male with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) and documented growth factor refractory anemia after erythropoeisis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy, who attained transfusion and growth factor independence after the addition of sertraline to his medication regimen. Our case demonstrates hematological improvement-erythroid (HI-E) in growth factor refractory, low risk MDS and highlights a potential mechanistic link between common inflammatory diseases and LR-MDS. PMID:25709889

  10. Progressive transfusion and growth factor independence with adjuvant sertraline in low risk myelodysplastic syndrome treated with an erythropoiesis stimulating agent and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Kirtan; Li, Rui; Yellapragada, Sarvari; Thiagarajan, Perumal; Mims, Martha; Rivero, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Refractoriness to growth factor therapy is commonly associated with inferior outcome in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (LR-MDS) who require treatment for cytopenias. However, the mechanisms leading to refractoriness are unknown. Here we describe a clinically depressed 74-year-old male with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) and documented growth factor refractory anemia after erythropoeisis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy, who attained transfusion and growth factor independence after the addition of sertraline to his medication regimen. Our case demonstrates hematological improvement-erythroid (HI-E) in growth factor refractory, low risk MDS and highlights a potential mechanistic link between common inflammatory diseases and LR-MDS. PMID:25709889

  11. Randomized Controlled Open-Label Trial of Vitamin E-Bonded Polysulfone Dialyzer and Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Response

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Takahiro; Kinugasa, Eriko; Kusano, Eiji; Ohwada, Shigeru; Kuno, Tsutomu; Kojima, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Shuzo; Satoh, Minoru; Shimada, Noriaki; Nakao, Kazushi; Nakazawa, Ryoichi; Nishimura, Hideki; Noiri, Eisei; Shigematsu, Takashi; Tomo, Tadashi; Maeda, Teiryo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives A 1-year multicenter prospective randomized controlled study was conducted on the effects of vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzers on erythropoiesis-stimulating agent response in hemodialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Major inclusion criteria were use of high-flux polysulfone dialyzers with 50–70 ml/min ?2-microglobulin clearance over 3 months, transferrin saturation over 20%, same erythropoiesis-stimulating agent for over 3 months, and hemoglobin at 10–12 g/dl. Hemodialysis patients were placed in four interventional groups: two hemoglobin ranges (10.0–10.9 or 11.0–11.9 g/dl) and two dialyzers. Patients were randomly assigned by central registration to a vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzers or polysulfone control group. Primary end point was relative erythropoiesis resistance index at baseline between groups at 12 months. Erythropoiesis resistance index was defined as total weekly erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose divided by hemoglobin. Results There were no statistically significant differences in age or sex. There was no significant difference in relative erythropoiesis resistance index between vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzers and control groups at 12 months (vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzers: 1.1, control: 1.3). The vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzers group showed better relative erythropoiesis resistance index than the control group at 11.0–11.9 g/dl hemoglobin (vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzers: 1.0, control: 1.4 at 12 months, significant difference) but no difference at 10.0–10.9 g/dl hemoglobin. Conclusions The overall relative erythropoiesis resistance index showed no difference between the vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzers and control groups, although the change in relative erythropoiesis resistance index differed according to hemoglobin level. PMID:23599410

  12. Patterns of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use among Medicare beneficiaries with myelodysplastic syndromes and consistency with clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, Amy J.; Weiss, Sheila R.; Baer, Maria R.; Ke, Xuehua; Hendrick, Franklin; Zeidan, Amer; Gore, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are used commonly to reduce symptomatic anemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).We assessed population-based patterns of ESA use relative to treatment guidelines using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries, with linked Medicare claims providing detailed treatment data from 2001 through 2005. The study found widespread use (62%) of ESA in Medicare beneficiaries with MDS. Similar ESA use rates regardless of risk status, low frequency (45%) of serum erythropoietin determination prior to ESA initiation, and high prevalence (60.4%) of short-duration ESA episodes suggest clinically important discrepancies between actual practice and guideline-recommended therapy. PMID:23523473

  13. Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.

    PubMed

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

  14. Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

  15. Agent-Organized Networks for Multi-Agent Production and Exchange Matthew E. Gaston and Marie desJardins

    E-print Network

    Gaston, Matthew E.

    , mariedj}@cs.umbc.edu Abstract As multi-agent systems grow in size and complexity, social networks. 2003). Researchers have recently emphasized the necessity of decentralized, bottom-up supply chain requires automated support for supply chain formation, the pro- cess of bottom-up assembly of complex

  16. INCREASE IN OSMIOPHILIA OF AXONAL MEMBRANES OF CRAYFISH AS A RESULT OF ELECTRICAL STIMULATION, ASPHYXIA, OR TREATMENT WITH REDUCING AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Peracchia, Camillo; Robertson, J. David

    1971-01-01

    Certain axonal membranes of crayfish abdominal nerve cord display ultrastructural changes if the axons are fixed, during electrical stimulation, by aldehydes followed by osmium. Such changes are characterized by an increase in electron opacity and thickness of the unit membranes' dense strata in the axon surface, endoplasmic reticulum, and outer mitochondrial membranes. The electron opacity completely disappears if the sections are treated with hydrogen peroxide solutions. This suggests that the changes represent an increase in the membranes' reactivity for osmium. An unmasking of SH groups could explain such increased osmiophilia, since SH groups are very reactive with osmium, while disulfide bonds are considerably less reactive. This hypothesis was tested by treating control, glutaraldehydefixed nerve cords with disulfide reducing agents. In these preparations an increase in electron opacity and thickness was observed to be localized in the same axonal membranes which reacted as a result of electrical stimulation. The phenomenon did not appear if the SH groups were blocked by maleimide or N-ethylmaleimide before treatment with osmium. These findings seem to suggest that certain axonal membranes of crayfish contain proteins rich in sulfur whose SH groups are unmasked as a result of electrical stimulation. In preliminary experiments an increase in osmiophilia localized in the same membranes with the same characteristics and distribution was observed also in axons from nerve cords asphyxiated either in vitro or in the living animal. PMID:5111876

  17. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen is essential for life, and the body has developed an exquisite method to collect oxygen in the lungs and transport it to the tissues. Hb contained within red blood cells (RBCs), is the key oxygen-carrying component in blood, and levels of RBCs are tightly controlled according to demand for oxygen. The availability of oxygen plays a critical role in athletic performance, and agents that enhance oxygen delivery to tissues increase aerobic power. Early methods to increase oxygen delivery included training at altitude, and later, transfusion of packed RBCs. A breakthrough in understanding how RBC formation is controlled included the discovery of erythropoietin (Epo) and cloning of the EPO gene. Cloning of the EPO gene was followed by commercial development of recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo). Legitimate use of this and other agents that affect oxygen delivery is important in the treatment of anaemia (low Hb levels) in patients with chronic kidney disease or in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anaemia. However, competitive sports was affected by illicit use of rHuEpo to enhance performance. Testing methods for these agents resulted in a cat-and-mouse game, with testing labs attempting to detect the use of a drug or blood product to improve athletic performance (doping) and certain athletes developing methods to use the agents without being detected. This article examines the current methods to enhance aerobic performance and the methods to detect illicit use. PMID:18362898

  18. Beta-adrenergic agents stimulate tissue plasminogen activator activity and messenger ribonucleic acid levels in cultured rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, M; Hsueh, A J

    1989-11-01

    Expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) gene is stimulated by gonadotropins in granulosa cells. Because adrenergic agents interact with specific granulosa cell receptors to increase progesterone biosynthesis, the effects of these pounds on tPA activity and mRNA levels were also investigated. Cells obtained from immature estrogen-treated rats were initially cultured with FSH or medium alone for 2 days. They were then reincubated with various adrenergic agents before measurement of medium tPA activity using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by a fibrin overlay technique. In addition, cellular RNA was extracted, and tPA mRNA levels were analyzed using a specific rat cRNA probe. Isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, stimulated the secretion of tPA activity in a dose-dependent manner, with FSH-pretreated cells secreting higher levels of the enzyme than cells without FSH priming. Northern blot hybridization of total RNA showed the accumulation of a 22S species tPA message in cells treated with isoproterenol, suggesting increased expression of the tPA gene. Furthermore, slot blot hybridization of RNA from these cells indicated a time-dependent increase in tPA mRNA, with maximal induction between 1-3 h of incubation. A selective beta 2-adrenergic agonist, terbutaline, but not the beta 1-agonist dobutamine, stimulated tPA activity. Also, the stimulatory effect of isoproterenol was blocked by a beta 2-antagonist (ICI-118,551) but not by a beta 1-antagonist (practolol), suggesting the involvement of a beta 2-receptor. Like FSH and LH, isoproterenol increased extra- and intracellular cAMP levels. Cotreatment of a saturating dose of isoproterenol with FSH or LH did not further stimulate tPA activity. Similar to that in cells treated with FSH, inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide resulted in the superinduction of tPA mRNA in isoproterenol-treated cells. Thus, activation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in granulosa cells induces tPA mRNA and activity, presumably through the protein kinase-A pathway shared by gonadotropins. Adrenergic neurotransmitters may be potential intraovarian regulators of this important protease. PMID:2477232

  19. Quel degré de rationalité favorise la coordination des agents ?. Un exemple

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Alain Taillard

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the consequences of the psychological grounded assumption that people?s judgements are biased under uncertainty on the behaviors of agents in an economy represented by a coordination game under incomplete information. I focus particularly on two biases: the avaibility heuristic and optimism. The avaibility heuristic means that when processing information agents give more

  20. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: comparisons from real-world clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Garzotto, Analia; Heine, Oliver; Turner, Matthew; Rebollo Laserna, Francisco; Lorenz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to report real-world data on the relative effectiveness of a biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; Binocrit®), and other available ESAs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from single centers in Spain (n=284) and Germany (n=145). Hemoglobin outcomes, transfusion requirements, and serious drug-related adverse events were assessed for each ESA. Results Hemoglobin outcomes and transfusion requirements were generally similar in the different ESA treatment groups assessed. No serious drug-related adverse events were recorded in any of the treatment groups. Conclusion These data confirm the real-world effectiveness and safety of a biosimilar ESA (Binocrit®) for the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. PMID:24855398

  1. On modeling of chemical stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system using a high pH solution with chelating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Rose, P.; Fayer, S.; Pruess, K.

    2009-05-01

    Dissolution of silica and calcite in the presence of a chelating agent (NTA) at a high pH was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments using a high-temperature flow reactor. (Note that the term 'silica' used here includes amorphous silica, quartz, and silicate glass bead). The mineral dissolution and associated porosity enhancement in the experiments were reproduced by reactive transport modeling using TOUGHREACT. The chemical stimulation method was applied by numerical modeling to a field geothermal injection well system to investigate its effectiveness. Parameters applicable to the quartz monzodiorite unit at the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) site at Desert Peak (Nevada) were used. Results indicate that the injection of a high pH chelating solution results in dissolution of both calcite and plagioclase, while avoiding precipitation of calcite at high temperature conditions. Consequently reservoir porosity and permeability can be enhanced especially near the injection well. Injection at a lower temperature of 120 C (over 160 C in the base-case) results in a porosity increase that is smaller close to the injection point, but extends to a larger radial distance. A slower kinetic rate results in less aggressive mineral dissolution close to the injection point and larger extent along the flow path, which is favorable for chemical stimulation.

  2. DNA-damaging agents stimulate gene expression at specific loci in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, C.J.; Walker, G.C.

    1988-05-01

    Operon fusions in Escherichia coli were obtained that showed increased beta-galactosidase expression in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C. These fusions were generated by using the Mud(ApR, lac) vector to insert the lactose structural genes randomly into the bacterial chromosome. Induction of beta-galactosidase in these strains, which carried fusions of lac to these din (damage-inducible) loci, was (i) triggered by UV light as well as by mitomycin C and (ii) abolished by either a recA- or a lexA- mutation. Similar characteristics of induction were observed when the lactose genes were fused to a prophage lambda promoter by using Mud(ApR, lac). These results indicate that E. coli contains a set of genes that, like prophage lambda genes, are expressed in response to DNA-damaging agents and regulated by the recA and lexA gene products. These din genes map at five bacterial loci. One din::Mud(ApR, lac) insertion results in a UV-sensitive phenotype and may be within the uvrA transcriptional unit.

  3. Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.

    PubMed

    Prozialeck, Walter C; Jivan, Jateen K; Andurkar, Shridhar V

    2012-12-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed. PMID:23212430

  4. Polygonum cuspidatum extracts as bioactive antioxidaion, anti-tyrosinase, immune stimulation and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Wei-Ting; Liu, Yung-Chuan; David Wang, Hui-Min

    2015-04-01

    In our study, it was applied for the technology of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction to achieve biological constitutes from a Taiwan native plant, Polygonum cuspidatum. We developed bioactive effects of P. cuspidatum extracts via multiple examinations that established bio-purposes at a range of dosage ranges. The research of P. cuspidatum extracts indicated that they possessed anti-oxidative properties on radical-scavenging abilities, reducing activities and metal chelating powers in dose-dependant manners. The extracts also had minor in vitro mushroom tyrosinase suppression and decreased cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin production in B16-F10 cells. Immunologically, P. cuspidatum extracts enhanced the release of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) induced by THP-1 macrophage cell line. In addition, the cell proliferation showed anti-proliferation in dose-dependent manner on human skin melanoma cells, A375 and A375.S2, of the extracts suggesting biological constitutes employed the anti-cancer possessions. This is the first statement presenting bioactivities on P. cuspidatum extracts including anti-oxidation, immune stimulation, anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanoma as far as we know. PMID:25311751

  5. Low-Dose Treatment with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and Cardiovascular Geometry in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Darbepoetin-? More Effective than Expected?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Di Lullo; Fulvio Floccari; Antonio Granata; Moreno Malaguti

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread invalidating condition, leading to erythropoietin deficiency and decreased cardiovascular performance. Darbepoetin-? and epoetin-? are extensively used to correct renal anemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiological outcomes in two groups of CKD patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA: 20 ?g darbepoetin-? weekly vs. 2,000 IU epoetin-? thrice weekly) with

  6. Effects of insulin on vascular responses to spinal cord stimulation and vasoactive agents in pithed rats

    PubMed Central

    Takatori, Shingo; Mizote, Masako; Zamami, Yoshito; Kurosaki, Yuji; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Effects of insulin (2–600 pmol kg?1 min?1, i.v.) on vascular responses to spinal cord (lower thoracic vertebra, Th 9–12) stimulation (SCS) and to i.v. injection of noradrenaline (NA, 125–500 ng kg?1), angiotensin II (Ang II, 40–200 pmol kg?1), acetylcholine (ACh, 1 nmol kg?1), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, 0.1 nmol kg?1) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 5 ?g kg?1) were examined in pithed rats. In euglycemic pithed rats, low and medium doses of insulin dose-dependently potentiated vasopressor responses to SCS (2–8 Hz), NA, while higher doses of insulin had little effect on SCS- and NA-induced pressor responses. All doses of insulin significantly augmented pressor responses to Ang II. In pithed rats with artificially increased blood pressure, SCS (2 and 4 Hz) induced a frequency-dependent depressor response, which was blocked by infusion of CGRP(8–37) (CGRP receptor antagonist, 60 nmol kg?1 min?1). In euglycemic pithed rats, low-doses of insulin significantly attenuated depressor responses to SCS and CGRP, but medium and high doses of insulin remained unaffected. All doses of insulin significantly inhibited depressor response to ACh, while SNP-induced depressor response was not significantly affected by any doses of insulin. These results suggest that insulin at low and medium concentrations increases adrenergic vasoconstriction, which is partly associated with inhibition of CGRPergic nerve function and endothelium function. It is also suggested that lack of insulin effect at higher concentrations may result from acute desensitization of insulin action, possibly via insulin receptors. PMID:14581176

  7. Utilization Patterns of IV Iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Anemic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Multihospital Study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Avani D.; Holdford, David A.; Brophy, Donald F.; Harpe, Spencer E.; Mays, Darcy; Gehr, Todd W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) are recommended for anemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This retrospective cohort study analyzed utilization patterns of IV iron and ESA in patients over 18 years of age admitted to University Health System Hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of CKD between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A clustered binomial logistic regression using the GEE methodology was used to identify predictors of IV iron utilization. Only 8% (n = 6678) of CKD patients on ESA therapy received IV iron supplementation in university hospitals. Those receiving iron used significantly less amounts of ESAs. Patient demographics (age, race, primary payer), patient clinical conditions (admission status, severity of illness, dialysis status), and physician specialty were identified as predictors of IV iron use in CKD patients. Use of IV iron with ESAs was low despite recommendations from consensus guidelines. The low treatment rate of IV iron represents a gap in treatment practices and signals an opportunity for healthcare improvement in CKD anemic patients. PMID:22577528

  8. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Elliott

    \\u000a Erythropoiesis is the process whereby erythroid progenitor cells differentiate and divide, resulting in increased numbers\\u000a of red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs contain hemoglobin, the main oxygen carrying component in blood. The large number of RBCs\\u000a found in blood is required to support the prodigious consumption of oxygen by tissues as they undergo oxygen-dependent processes.\\u000a Erythropoietin is a hormone that when

  9. Hepcidin-25 in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients Is Related to Residual Kidney Function and Not to Treatment with Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents

    PubMed Central

    van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Bots, Michiel L.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; den Hoedt, Claire H.; Mazairac, Albert H. A.; Nubé, Menso J.; Penne, E. Lars; Gaillard, Carlo A.; Wetzels, Jack F. M.; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; ter Wee, Piet M.

    2012-01-01

    Hepcidin-25, the bioactive form of hepcidin, is a key regulator of iron homeostasis as it induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes. Hepcidin levels are increased in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, but as of yet, limited information on factors associated with hepcidin-25 in these patients is available. In the current cross-sectional study, potential patient-, laboratory- and treatment-related determinants of serum hepcidin-20 and -25, were assessed in a large cohort of stable, prevalent HD patients. Baseline data from 405 patients (62% male; age 63.7±13.9 [mean SD]) enrolled in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556) were studied. Predialysis hepcidin concentrations were measured centrally with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Patient-, laboratory- and treatment related characteristics were entered in a backward multivariable linear regression model. Hepcidin-25 levels were independently and positively associated with ferritin (p<0.001), hsCRP (p<0.001) and the presence of diabetes (p?=?0.02) and inversely with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (p?=?0.01), absolute reticulocyte count (p?=?0.02) and soluble transferrin receptor (p<0.001). Men had lower hepcidin-25 levels as compared to women (p?=?0.03). Hepcidin-25 was not associated with the maintenance dose of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or iron therapy. In conclusion, in the currently studied cohort of chronic HD patients, hepcidin-25 was a marker for iron stores and erythropoiesis and was associated with inflammation. Furthermore, hepcidin-25 levels were influenced by residual kidney function. Hepcidin-25 did not reflect ESA or iron dose in chronic stable HD patients on maintenance therapy. These results suggest that hepcidin is involved in the pathophysiological pathway of renal anemia and iron availability in these patients, but challenges its function as a clinical parameter for ESA resistance. PMID:22808058

  10. Effects of Iron Supplementation on Erythropoietic Response in Patients with Cancer-Associated Anemia Treated by Means of Erythropoietic Stimulating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Torbjörn

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, intravenous iron supplementation to ESA (erythropoiesis-stimulating agent) therapy has emerged as an option to augment hemoglobin response in anemic cancer patients. In this paper, the results of seven published randomized clinical trials assessing the role of iron supplementation to ESA therapy in the hematology/oncology setting will be discussed. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind functional iron deficiency, a major reason for ESA hyporesponsiveness in cancer, will also be described. PMID:22111015

  11. Intelligence artificielle Agents intelligents

    E-print Network

    Bonzon, Elise

    Intelligence artificielle Agents intelligents Elise Bonzon http://web.mi.parisdescartes.fr/ bonzon´e Paris Descartes 1 / 21 Intelligence artificielle #12;Agents intelligents Agents intelligents Agents et environnement Rationalit´e PEAS Types d'environnement Structure des agents Conclusion 2 / 21 Intelligence

  12. Discovery and basic pharmacology of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), including the hyperglycosylated ESA, darbepoetin alfa: an update of the rationale and clinical impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoltán Kiss; Steven Elliott; Kinga Jedynasty; Vladimír Tesar; János Szegedi

    2010-01-01

    Cloning of the human erythropoietin (EPO) gene and development of the first recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) drug were truly breakthroughs. This allowed\\u000a a deeper understanding of the structure and pharmacology of rHuEpo, which in turn inspired the discovery and development of\\u000a additional erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). In vivo specific activity and serum half-life of rHuEPO are influenced\\u000a by the amount and

  13. Stimulation of serotonin-1A receptors in mammals to alleviate motion sickness and emesis induced by chemical agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B. (Inventor); Crampton, George H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method for the alleviation of both motion sickness and chemically-induced emesis is provided which includes the administration of a nontoxic, therapeutically effective amount of a composition which stimulates serotonin-1A receptors in a mammal in need of such treatment. The preferred compounds for use are buspirone and 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT).

  14. Quels agents incriminés dans les mycoses du pied ? Enquête auprès des diabétiques consultant au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Chegour, Hakima; El Ansari, Nawal; El Mghari, Ghizlane; Tali, Abdelali; Zoughaghi, Laila; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Les infections mycosiques du pied constituent un motif fréquent de consultation chez les diabétiques, le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant les lésions cutanéomuqueuses. L'objectif de ce travail était d'identifier la flore mycologique locale responsable des lésions du pied chez le diabétique et déterminer les facteurs favorisant la survenue de mycoses. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale intéressant des diabétiques suivis en consultation; un prélèvement mycologique, avec examen direct et culture, a été réalisé devant toute suspicion clinique de lésion mycosique. Quatre-vingt-deux patients ont été inclus. L'hémoglobine glycosylée moyenne a été de9,2% ± 2,23. Un intertrigo inter orteil a été noté dans 90,2% des cas; l'examen mycologique était positif dans 64,8% des cas, avec 18 cas de Trichophyton rubrum et 11 cas de Candida albicans. Une atteinte unguéale a été suspectée chez 65,9% patients; la culture a mis en évidence un Trichosporon pathogène chez sept patients, un Candida albicansdans six cas, un Trichophyton rubrum dans quatre cas, avec trois cas de Trichophyton mentagrophytes et deux cas de Scytalidium dimidiatum. L’étude analytique, après confirmation mycologique, en fonction des principales caractéristiques des patients a montré que l'atteinte mycosique du pied est significativement corrélée au déséquilibre glycémique. Ce travail a montré la prédominance du Trichophyton rubrum dans les lésions d'intertrigo inter orteil et du Trichosporon dans les onychomycoses, avec une prédominance globale plus globale plus élevée du TR. PMID:25170372

  15. Comparison of five derivatizing agents for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in human urine by extractive acylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dobos, Adrienn; Hidvégi, Elod; Somogyi, Gábor Pál

    2012-06-01

    Five acylation reagents have been compared for use as derivatizing agents for the analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The evaluated reagents were heptafluorobutyric anhydride, pentafluoropropionic anhydride, trifluoroacetic anhydride, acetic anhydride (AA) and N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide). The ATS included amphetamine, methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). A mixture of the ATS was added to urine (1 mL) followed by KOH solution and saturated NaHCO(3) solution. The sample was then extracted with dichloromethane and the derivatizing agent and 2 µL were injected into the GC-MS instrument. The derivatizing agents were compared with reference to the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, peak area values, relative standard deviations (RSDs), linearities, limits of detection (LODs) and selectivities. The acetic anhydride proved to be the best according to the S/N ratio and peak area results for amphetamine, MA, MDMA and MDEA. The best RSD values of peak areas and of S/N ratios at 3 µg/mL were also given by AA in cases of MDA, MDMA and MDEA. At 20 µg/mL, the lowest RSD values of peak areas for MDA and the lowest RSD values of S/N ratios for MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA were again given by AA. Additionally, the highest correlation coefficients for MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA and the lowest LOD results for MA, MDMA and MDEA were produced by AA. PMID:22582269

  16. Adherence to guidelines for use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia: Results of a retrospective study of an electronic medical-records database in the United States, 2002–2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weixiu Luo; Beth L. Nordstrom; Kathy Fraeman; Robert Nordyke; Gayatri Ranganathan; Heather E. Linz; Anna Winterkorn; Michael Stokes; Susan D. Ross; Kevin Knopf

    2008-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) commonly occurs in cancer patients receiving conventional myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Two national guidelines regarding the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in CIA were released in 2002. Because of poorer disease outcomes and increased risk of adverse events associated with ESAs in recent studies, the use of ESAs has been increasingly restricted in practice guidelines in the years

  17. Freeze-fracture study of rat liver peroxisomes: evidence for an induction of intramembrane particles by agents stimulating peroxisomal proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kryvi, H; Kvannes, J; Flatmark, T

    1990-12-01

    The membrane ultrastructure of isolated rat liver peroxisomes has been observed by rapid freezing and freeze-fracture techniques. Unidirectional and rotary shadowing allows a clear visualization of the intramembrane particles (IMPs) on both the protoplasmic fracture (PF) leaflet and the endoplasmic fracture (EF) leaflet and reveals an asymmetric distribution of IMPs. Both fracture faces were uniformly studded by IMPs, and the frequency was about seven times higher on the P face (2322 per 1.0 micron2) than on the E face (322 per 1.0 micron2). Administration of the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate (ethyl-p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate) induced a marked increase in the frequency of IMPs on both the P face (2.2-fold) and the E face (1.7-fold). The average size decreased (P less than 0.001) from 45.7 +/- 16.5 nm2 to 35.2 +/- 10.8 nm2 on the P face. A similar increase in the frequency of IMPs was observed on the P face (1.8-fold) and the E face (1.8-fold) of peroxisomes from rats fed a semisynthetic diet containing 20% (w/w) of partially hydrogenated fish oil. The average size increased (P less than 0.001) from 36.6 +/- 19.7 to 50.0 +/- 23.5 nm2 on the E face. This study demonstrates alterations both in frequency and size distribution of IMPs in liver peroxisomal membranes on exposure of rats to agents known to induce peroxisomal proliferation. The increase in frequency of IMPs was as expected from the observed increase in one of the major integral membrane polypeptides, with apparent molecular mass of 69 (or 70) kDa, in proliferating rat liver peroxisomes. PMID:2081541

  18. Centrally acting hypotensive agents with affinity for 5-HT1A binding sites inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in calf hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Schoeffter, P.; Hoyer, D.

    1988-01-01

    1. A number of centrally acting hypotensive agents and other ligands with high affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) recognition sites have been tested on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in calf hippocampus, a functional model for 5-HT1A-receptors. 2. Concentration-dependent inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was elicited by the reference 5-HT1-receptor agonists (mean EC50 value, nM): 5-HT (22), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 3.2), 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 8.6), N,N-dipropyl-5-carboxamidotryptamine (DP-5-CT, 2.3), 1-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (PAPP or LY 165163, 20), 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H indole (RU 24969, 20), buspirone (65) and ipsapirone (56). Emax amounted to 18-20% inhibition for all but the latter two agonists (14%). 3. The following hypotensive agents with high affinity for 5-HT1A sites were potent agonists in this system (mean EC50 value, nM): flesinoxan (24), indorenate (99), erythro-1-(1-[2-(1,4-benzodioxan-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-piperidyl )- 2-benzimidazolinone (R 28935, 2.5), urapidil (390) and 5-methyl-urapidil (3.5). The first two agents were full agonists, whereas the latter three acted as partial agonists with 60-80% efficacy. 4. Metergoline and methysergide behaved as full agonists and cyanopindolol as a partial agonist with low efficacy. Spiroxatrine and 2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)aminomethyl- 1,4-benzodioxane (WB 4101) which bind to 5-HT1A sites with nanomolar affinity, were agonists and inhibited potently forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in calf hippocampus, showing mean EC50 values of 23 and 15 nM, respectively. Spiroxatrine and WB 4101 yielded 90% and 50% efficacy, respectively. 5. Spiperone and methiothepin (each 1 microM) caused rightward shifts of the concentration-effect curve to 8-OH-DPAT, without loss of the maximal effect, as did the partial agonist cyanopindolol (0.1 microM) and the (-)- and (+)-enantiomers of pindolol (1 microM and 0.1 mM, respectively). 6. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.90, P = 0.0001) between the pEC50 values (ranging from 6.4 to 8.7) of the 19 agonists tested at adenylate cyclase and their pKD for 5-HT1A recognition sites. Apparent pKB values of antagonists at adenylate cyclase and their pKD values for 5-HT1A binding sites were also significantly correlated. 7. This study further indicates that the 5-HT1A recognition site and the 5-HT receptor mediating inhibition of adenylate cyclase in hippocampus are the same.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3207999

  19. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-Stimulated Hormonal Toxicity is Mediated by ER? Alteration of Target Gene Methylation Patterns and Epigenetic Modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the Mouse Seminal Vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yin; Hamilton, Katherine J.; Lai, Anne Y.; Burns, Katherine A.; Li, Leping; Wade, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen associated with adverse effects on reproductive organs. DES-induced toxicity of the mouse seminal vesicle (SV) is mediated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?), which alters expression of seminal vesicle secretory protein IV (Svs4) and lactoferrin (Ltf) genes. Objectives: We examined a role for nuclear receptor activity in association with DNA methylation and altered gene expression. Methods: We used the neonatal DES exposure mouse model to examine DNA methylation patterns via bisulfite conversion sequencing in SVs of wild-type (WT) and ER?-knockout (?ERKO) mice. Results: The DNA methylation status at four specific CpGs (–160, –237, –306, and –367) in the Svs4 gene promoter changed during mouse development from methylated to unmethylated, and DES prevented this change at 10 weeks of age in WT SV. At two specific CpGs (–449 and –459) of the Ltf gene promoter, DES altered the methylation status from methylated to unmethylated. Alterations in DNA methylation of Svs4 and Ltf were not observed in ?ERKO SVs, suggesting that changes of methylation status at these CpGs are ER? dependent. The methylation status was associated with the level of gene expression. In addition, gene expression of three epigenetic modifiers—DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2—increased in the SV of DES-exposed WT mice. Conclusion: DES-induced hormonal toxicity resulted from altered gene expression of Svs4 and Ltf associated with changes in DNA methylation that were mediated by ER?. Alterations in gene expression of DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2 in DES-exposed male mice may be involved in mediating the changes in methylation status in the SV. Citation: Li Y, Hamilton KJ, Lai AY, Burns KA, Li L, Wade PA, Korach KS. 2014. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-stimulated hormonal toxicity is mediated by ER? alteration of target gene methylation patterns and epigenetic modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the mouse seminal vesicle. Environ Health Perspect 122:262–268;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307351 PMID:24316720

  20. Transferrin-polycation-mediated introduction of DNA into human leukemic cells: Stimulation by agents that affect the survival of transfected DNA or modulate transferrin receptor levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, M.; Laengle-Rouault, F.; Kirlappos, H.; Wagner, E.; Mechtler, K.; Zenke, M.; Beug, H.; Birnstiel, M.L. (Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna (Austria))

    1990-06-01

    The authors have subverted a receptor-mediated endocytosis event to transport genes into human leukemic cells. By coupling the natural iron-delivery protein transferrin to the DNA-binding polycations polylysine or protamine, they have created protein conjugates that bind nucleic acids and carry them into the cell during the normal transferrin cycle. They demonstrate here that this procedure is useful for a human leukemic cell line. They enhanced the rate of gene delivery by (i) increasing the transferrin receptor density through treatment of the cells with the cell permeable iron chelator desferrioxamine, (ii) interfering with the synthesis of heme with succinyl acetone treatment, or (iii) stimulating the degradation of heme with cobalt chloride treatment. Consistent with gene delivery as an endocytosis event, they show that the subsequent expression in K-562 cells of a gene included in the transported DNA depends upon the cellular presence of the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. By contrast, monensin blocks transferrinfection, as does incubation of the cells at 18{degree}C.

  1. Lysophosphatidic acid and microtubule-destabilizing agents stimulate fibronectin matrix assembly through Rho-dependent actin stress fiber formation and cell contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Magnusson, M K; Mosher, D F

    1997-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) matrix assembly is a cell-dependent process mediated by cell surface-binding sites for the 70-kDa amino-terminal region of FN. We have shown recently that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a stimulator of FN matrix assembly. Disruption of microtubules has been shown to mimic some of the intracellular effects of LPA including the formation of actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation. We compared the effects of microtubule disruption and LPA on FN binding and actin cytoskeleton organization. The disruption of microtubules by nocodazole or vinblastine increased FN binding to adherent cells. The modulation of binding sites was rapid, dynamic, and reversible. Enhanced binding was due to increases in both the number and affinity of binding sites. These effects are similar to the effects of LPA on FN binding. Binding induced by nocodazole was inhibited by the microtubule-stabilizing agent Taxol but not by pretreatment with a concentration of phospholipase B that totally abolished the stimulatory effect of LPA. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a close correlation among actin stress fiber formation, cell contraction, and FN binding. Blockage of the small GTP binding protein Rho or actin-myosin interactions inhibited the effects of both nocodazole and LPA on FN binding. These observations demonstrate that Rho-dependent actin stress fiber formation and cell contraction induce increased FN binding and represent a rapid labile way that cells can modulate FN matrix assembly. Images PMID:9285815

  2. Stimulation de l'activit transcriptionnelle et modifications de la structure de la chromatine dans les cellules des villosits et des cryptes de l'intestin de rat aprs ingestion de sac-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    les cellules des villosités et des cryptes de l'intestin de rat après ingestion de sac- charose, par F'activité et sur la structure de la chromatine ont été étudiés dans deux fractions de cellules épithéliales'une de ces fractions est constituée par les cellules différenciées du sommet de la villosité et l

  3. Treatment of anemia with erythropoietin-stimulating agents in kidney transplant recipients and chronic kidney disease-another drawback of immunosuppression?

    PubMed

    Malyszko, J; Glowinska, I; Mysliwiec, M

    2012-12-01

    Anemia is more prevalent in allograft recipients compared with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) matched patients with chronic kidney diseases. There is a paucity of data concerning the correction of anemia in the posttransplant period with erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA). The aim of this study was to compare the iron status, kidney function, inflammatory state, use of drugs affecting erythropoiesis (immunosuppressants ACEi/ARB) and correction of anemia using ESA in a chronic kidney disease (CKD) population versus kidney transplant recipients. We included 67 patients treated with ESA including 17 after kidney transplantation. CKD Patients with native kidneys were significantly older than allograft recipients (mean age 69 versus 51 years; P < .001, and despite similar serum creatinine and iron parameters showed an estimated lower GFR (19 mL/min versus 23 mL/min; P < .05). Median time of ESA therapy was similar among patients with native kidney CKD versus kidney recipients, but they achieved a significantly higher hemoglobin (11.04 versus 10.36 g/dL; P < .05). There was no difference between patients administered or not a mammalian target of rapamycin antagonist. None of the patients with native kidney CKD received immunosuppressive therapy, but they were prescribed ACEi more often than kidney recipients. The higher degree of anemia in kidney allograft recipient is the most probably attributed to the use of immunosuppressive drugs, despite their better kidney function and comparable iron status. This study suggested that higher doses of ESA should be employed to anemia in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:23195016

  4. Effect of intravenous iron sucrose in peritoneal dialysis patients who receive erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anemia: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harmeet; Reed, John; Noble, Sylvia; Cangiano, Jose L; Van Wyck, David B

    2006-05-01

    Although iron therapy is essential to optimize use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), randomized, controlled trials have heretofore been unavailable to evaluate reliably the efficacy of intravenous iron as an adjuvant to ESA treatment in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In a multicenter trial, patients who had anemia, PD-dependent chronic kidney disease, stable ESA therapy, and a broad range of iron status (ferritin < or = 500 ng/ml, transferrin saturation < or = 25%) were randomly assigned to receive either 1 g of iron sucrose intravenously in three divided doses (300 mg over 1.5 h on days 1 and 15, 400 mg over 2.5 h on day 29) or no supplemental iron. No serious adverse drug events occurred after intravenous iron administration. The primary end point, peak hemoglobin increase, was higher (1.3 +/- 1.1 versus 0.7 +/- 1.1, mean +/- SD; P = 0.0028), and anemia intervention (transfusion, increase in ESA dose, or intravenous iron therapy not called for in protocol) occurred later (P = 0.0137) and less often in intravenous iron-treated patients compared with untreated control subjects (one of 66 [1.3%] versus five of 30 [16.7%]). Among patients who did not require intervention, iron-treated patients showed a calculated net ESA dose decrease compared with untreated control subjects. Baseline iron status did not predict responsiveness to intravenous iron therapy. Intravenous iron sucrose is an effective adjunct to ESA therapy in anemic patients with PD-dependent chronic kidney disease and is administered safely as 300 mg over 1.5 h or 400 mg over 2.5 h. Evidence of iron deficiency at baseline is not required to demonstrate intravenous iron efficacy. PMID:17699248

  5. Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, M. F.

    1997-03-01

    An experimental method using simultaneously different ? emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs ? a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

  6. Anemia and iron deficiency in COPD patients: prevalence and the effects of correction of the anemia with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous iron

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about iron deficiency (ID) and anemia in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The purposes of this study were: (i) To study the prevalence and treatment of anemia and ID in patients hospitalized with an exacerbation of COPD. (ii) to study the hematological responses and degree of dyspnea before and after correction of anemia with subcutaneous Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron therapy, in ambulatory anemic patients with both COPD and chronic kidney disease. Methods (i) We examined the hospital records of all patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) to assess the investigation, prevalence, and treatment of anemia and ID. (ii) We treated 12 anemic COPD outpatients with the combination of ESAs and IV-iron, given once weekly for 5 weeks. One week later we measured the hematological response and the severity of dyspnea by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results (i) Anemia and iron deficiency in hospitalized COPD patients: Of 107 consecutive patients hospitalized with an AECOPD, 47 (43.9%) were found to be anemic on admission. Two (3.3%) of the 60 non-anemic patients and 18 (38.3%) of the 47 anemic patients had serum iron, percent transferrin saturation (%Tsat) and serum ferritin measured. All 18 (100%) anemic patients had ID, yet none had oral or IV iron subscribed before or during hospitalization, or at discharge. (ii) Intervention outpatient study: ID was found in 11 (91.7%) of the 12 anemic ambulatory patients. Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct) and the VAS scale scores increased significantly with the ESAs and IV-iron treatment. There was a highly significant correlation between the ?Hb and ?VAS; rs?=?0.71 p?=?0.009 and between the ?Hct and ?VAS; rs?=?0.8 p?=?0.0014. Conclusions ID is common in COPD patients but is rarely looked for or treated. Yet correction of the ID in COPD patients with ESAs and IV iron can improve the anemia, the ID, and may improve the dyspnea. PMID:24564844

  7. Stimulative effect of the fungal biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Striga on abundance of nitrifying prokaryotes in a maize rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as total archaeal and bacterial communities. AOB only showed significant increases in the Machanga soil when organic residues were added. Furthermore, there were transient detectable significant increases in total archaea and AOA due to Striga inoculation which also varied with the soil. The variation in treatment effects in the two soils was highly linked to the differences in soil properties such as dissolved organic carbon and soil pH which showed significant (P

  8. 1/2 le 3 septembre 2009 Afin de stimuler le dveloppement des petites et moyennes entreprises rgionales par l'innovation et

    E-print Network

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    régionales par l'innovation et faciliter l'insertion professionnelle des jeunes diplômés, la Région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur a mis en place un dispositif d'aide aux stages de longue durée dans les PME. I/ Le Contrat « Stage Longue Durée en PME » : Le contrat « Stage Longue Durée en PME » est passé entre l

  9. Identification of des-(Gly-Ile)-endozepine as an effector of corticotropin-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis: stimulation of cholesterol delivery is mediated by the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Besman, M J; Yanagibashi, K; Lee, T D; Kawamura, M; Hall, P F; Shively, J E

    1989-01-01

    Delivery of cholesterol to inner mitochondrial membranes is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in the zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex. A protein that stimulates this process was isolated to homogeneity from bovine adrenal tissue. This protein's primary structure has been determined in its entirety by a combination of automated Edman microsequencing, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The sequence was identical to that previously reported for bovine brain endozepine, except that it lacks the last two residues, -Gly-Ile, at the C terminus. To our knowledge, isolation of an endozepine-related protein from a tissue other than brain has not been reported previously. Endozepine competes with benzodiazepines for saturable binding sites in synaptosomes and in mitochondria of specific peripheral tissues. Previous reports have localized the adrenal benzodiazepine receptor to the outer mitochondrial membrane. In this report, we show that the prototypic benzodiazepine, diazepam, effects a stimulation of adrenal mitochondrial cholesterol delivery similar to that observed for endozepine. The effective diazepam concentration was consistent with that previously shown to displace a high-affinity ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor. The action of diazepam in adrenal mitochondria suggests that the mediation of corticotropin-induced steroidogenesis may be the physiological function of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor. These studies provide new insights into the previously unknown function of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and should allow new investigations into the stimulation of steroidogenesis by endozepines and benzodiazepines in the brain and in certain peripheral tissues. PMID:2544879

  10. AVIS DE POSTE VACANT DIRECTION DES RESSOURCES HUMAINES

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    recherche 3 postes à pourvoir Secteur de travail : Faculté des Sciences Infirmières (FSI) Institut de : Réf. : FSX140817 Agent de recherche - FSI Direction des ressources humaines #12;2 Titre du fichier

  11. Sarcophine-Diol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent, Inhibits Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Mouse Melanoma B16F10 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Pawel T.; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham

    2011-01-01

    Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B16F10 cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3) and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP). SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B16F10 tumor cells. PMID:22363217

  12. Inhibition of MAO-A and stimulation of behavioural activities in mice by the inactive prodrug form of the anti-influenza agent oseltamivir

    PubMed Central

    Hiasa, Miki; Isoda, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Saitoh, Kenta; Kimura, Yasuaki; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Hatakeyama, Dai; Kirino, Yutaka; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Oseltamivir is the most widely prescribed anti-influenza medication. However, in rare instances, it has been reported to stimulate behavioural activities in adolescents. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for these behavioural activities. Experimental Approach We performed an in vitro assay of MAO-A, the enzyme responsible for neurotransmitter degradation, using either the active form – oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or the inactive prodrug – oseltamivir ethyl ester (OEE). We also analysed the docking of MAO-A with OEE or OC?in silico. Mouse behaviours after OEE or OC administration were monitored using automated video and computer analysis. Key Results OEE, but not OC, competitively and selectively inhibited human MAO-A. The estimated Ki value was comparable with the Km values of native substrates of MAO-A. Docking simulations in silico based on the tertiary structure of MAO-A suggested that OEE could fit into the inner pocket of the enzyme. Behavioural monitoring using automated video analysis further revealed that OEE, not OC, significantly enhanced spontaneous behavioural activities in mice, such as jumping, rearing, sniffing, turning and walking. Conclusions and Implications Our multilevel analyses suggested OEE to be the cause of the side effects associated with oseltamivir and revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the stimulated behaviours induced by oseltamivir in some circumstances. PMID:23320399

  13. ELECTRICAL STIMULATION RESEARCH TECHNIQUES Intracellular Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Byrne, John H.

    ELECTRICAL STIMULATION RESEARCH TECHNIQUES Chapter 2 Intracellular Stimulation John H. Byrne Introduction . . . . . . . . . 37 II. Intracellular Stimulation and Recording with Separate Electrodes 38 Ill. A Simple Circuit for Intracellular Stimulation with Two Electrodes 42 IV. Intracellular Stimulation

  14. Dopamine and noradrenaline receptor stimulation: Reversal of reserpine-induced suppression of motor activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils-Erik Andén; Ulf Strömbom; Torgny H. Svensson

    1973-01-01

    The motor activity of reserpine treated mice was recorded after drug treatments causing stimulation of dopamine or noradrenaline receptors or both. The dopamine receptor stimulating agent apomorphine elicited an activation with stereotypies whereas the noradrenaline receptor stimulating agent clonidine was inefficient. Combined treatment with apomorphine and clonidine induced marked stimulation with jumping. Biochemically, clonidine did not significantly interfere with the

  15. Nonhematopoietic effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Jelkmann; Reinhard Depping; Eric Metzen

    Erythropoietin (EPO) was originally considered a hormone with action restricted to erythrocytic progenitors. The colony-forming\\u000a units-erythroid (CFU-E) possess abundant EPO receptor (EPOR) molecules, and EPO is essential for their survival, proliferation,\\u000a and differentiation. The mature functional human erythropoietic EPOR is a homodimer of two 484 amino acids transmembrane glycoproteins\\u000a of approximately 60kDa. On binding of 1 EPO molecule, the EPOR

  16. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rates among US chronic dialysis patients during changes to Medicare end-stage renal disease (ESRD) reimbursement systems and erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) labels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several major ESRD-related regulatory and reimbursement changes were introduced in the United States in 2011. In several large, national datasets, these changes have been associated with decreases in erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) utilization and hemoglobin concentrations in the ESRD population, as well as an increase in the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in this population. Our objective was to examine the use of RBC transfusion before and after the regulatory and reimbursement changes implemented in 2011 in a prevalent population of chronic dialysis patients in a large national claims database. Methods Patients in the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Databases with evidence of chronic dialysis were selected for the study. The proportion of chronic dialysis patients who received any RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates per 100 patient-months were calculated in each month from January 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012. The results were analyzed overall and stratified by primary health insurance payer (commercial payer or Medicare). Results Overall, the percent of chronic dialysis patients with RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates per 100 patient-months increased between January 2007 and March 2012. When stratified by primary health insurance payer, it appears that the increase was driven by the primary Medicare insurance population. While the percent of patients with RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates did not increase in the commercially insured population between 2007 and 2012 they did increase in the primary Medicare insurance population; the majority of the increase occurred in 2011 during the same time frame as the ESRD-related regulatory and reimbursement changes. Conclusions The regulatory and reimbursement changes implemented in 2011 may have contributed to an increase in the use of RBC transfusions in chronic dialysis patients in the MarketScan dataset who were covered by Medicare plus Medicare supplemental insurance. PMID:25015348

  17. ?-Adrenergic Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Van Eenoo; Frans T. Delbeke

    \\u000a Two groups of substances which stimulate the adrenergic system are listed as prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Stimulants\\u000a are prohibited in-competition only and ?2-agonists are prohibited in- and out-of-competition. While ?2-agonists act directly on the target receptors, sympathomimetic amines can exert their action directly and indirectly. Due\\u000a to differences in pharmacology but mainly due to differences in administered dose,

  18. InCA: a Cognitive Multi-Agents Architecture for Designing Intelligent & Adaptive Learning Systems

    E-print Network

    Corran, Ruth

    of expert cognitive agents (such as story telling agents, assessment agents, stimulation agents or helpUDC 004.2 InCA: a Cognitive Multi-Agents Architecture for Designing Intelligent & Adaptive Learning. This paper presents a cognitive multi-agents architecture called Intelligent Cognitive Agents (In

  19. Agents et mobiles de 3me Badr Benmammar

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chapitre Agents et mobiles de 3ème et 4ème génération Badr Benmammar Laboratoire Bordelais de réseaux mobiles de la prochaine génération, la technologie agent est attendue pour fournir des services'application des agents dans les WLAN ainsi que les réseaux mobiles de la 4ème génération. 10.2. La technologie

  20. Résorption des déséquilibres de l'économie française : une exploration à l'horizon 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dubois; Sandrine Duchêne; Alain Jacquot; Xavier Bonnet; Annabelle Mourougane

    1996-01-01

    [fre] Résorption des déséquilibres de l'économie française : une exploration à l'horizon 2001 . L'élaboration de scénarios à moyen terme permet traditionnellement d'identifier les voies de résolution, ou les risques d'aggravation, des déséquilibres d'une économie. L'interprétation des évolutions récentes de l'économie française montre à quel point les comportements de demande des agents privés semblent avoir subi des modifications substantielles depuis

  1. Extraction de comportements partir des in teractions locales

    E-print Network

    Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    'exécution des agents pourrait conduire à une organisation dans un SMA. KEYWORDS: Behavior Extraction, Dynamic. In this paper, we propose a reasoning model for extracting social behaviors in Multi­ Agent Systems (MAS) from in a single autonomous agent's behavior, thus defining a local behavior. We then propose to extend this model

  2. Extraction de comportements partir des in-teractions locales

    E-print Network

    Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    'exécution des agents pourrait conduire à une organisation dans un SMA. KEYWORDS: Behavior Extraction, Dynamic. In this paper, we propose a reasoning model for extracting social behaviors in Multi- Agent Systems (MAS) from in a single autonomous agent's behavior, thus defining a local behavior. We then propose to extend this model

  3. Direction des Ressources Humaines Gestion Prvisionnelle des

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    et des plantes transgéniques (OGM). Contraintes / sujétions particulières du poste : Déplacements à l produits toxiques, des produits contaminants et des plantes transgéniques (OGM) CONNAISSANCES REQUISES #12

  4. FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DE GNIE GESTION DES TUDES En date du 8 mai 2014 Numro de tlphone : 418 656 2131

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    Nadir Belkhiter Vice-doyen aux études VCH-1033 2303 5902 Véronique Lagacé Agente de secrétariat VCH-1033 3178 5902 Marie-Claire Verreault Conseillère à la gestion des études - sciences VCH-1033 12419 5902 Laroche Agente de gestion des études VCH-1033 3934 5902 BBIIOOCCHHIIMMIIEE,, MMIICCRROOBBIIOOLLOOGGIIEE

  5. Prise en compte de l'incidence des activits du castor (C. fiber L.) sur la reconstitution des dynamiques d'volution du couvert vgtal et des processus de turbification

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nombreuses analyses de l'impact du castor sur les paysages pour l'espèce nord-américaine Castor canadensis KPrise en compte de l'incidence des activités du castor (C. fiber L.) sur la reconstitution des France sur le castor en tant qu'agent influençant l'évolution de la morphologie des zones humides, des

  6. Biological Agents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  7. Agent Orange

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Agent Orange American Heart Month Exposed to herbicides during service ... U.S. military sprayed millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during ...

  8. Software agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Genesereth; Steven P. Ketchpel

    1994-01-01

    this paper, we discuss these questions and describe someemerging technologies that provide answers. In the final section, we mention some additionalissues and summarize the key points of the paper. (For more information onagent-based software engineering, see [Genesereth 1989] and [Genesereth 1992]. See also[Shoham 1993] for a description of a variation of agent-based software engineering knownas "agent-oriented programming".)2. Agent Communication Language

  9. In vitro and in vivo evidence for stimulation of bone resorption by an EP4 receptor agonist and basic fibroblast growth factor: Implications for their efficacy as bone anabolic agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Downey; L. S. Holliday; J. I. Aguirre; T. J. Wronski

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 4 agonists (EP4A) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) stimulate bone formation, but their effects on bone resorption are controversial. To provide additional insight into the skeletal effects of EP4A and FGF2, their regulation of expression of genes associated with bone formation and resorption in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats and in cultured mouse bone marrow cells

  10. Neuromodulation des racines sacrées : revue de littérature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Even-Schneider; A. Schnitzler; E. Chartier-Kastler; P. Denys

    2010-01-01

    Résumé  La neuromodulation des racines sacrées est une technique mini-invasive, qui consiste en l’implantation d’une électrode au\\u000a contact de la troisième racine sacrée, permettant une stimulation électrique continue. Elle peut être proposée comme traitement\\u000a de deuxième ligne, après échec des traitements médicamenteux et de la rééducation, en cas d’hyperactivité vésicale (pollakiurie\\u000a et\\/ou urgenturie) avec ou sans incontinence, de rétention urinaire sans

  11. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramakrishnan Ramaseshan; Subramanian Sundarrajan; Yingjun Liu; R. S. Barhate; Neeta L. Lala; S. Ramakrishna

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with beta-CD, IBA, a blend of beta-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets

  12. Sensitive, rapid and validated gas chromatography\\/negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry assay including derivatisation with a novel chiral agent for the enantioselective quantification of amphetamine-type stimulants in hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliane Ferreira Martins; Michel Yegles; Heesun Chung; Robert Wennig

    2006-01-01

    A novel chiral derivatisation agent, (2S,4R)-N-heptafluorobutyryl-4-heptafluorobutoyloxy-prolyl chloride, was used for the indirect resolution of amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) enantiomers using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry operating in the negative-ion chemical ionization mode (GC\\/MS-NICI). This new chiral derivatisation reagent was readily obtained in optically pure form after a simple two-step synthesis. Optimal derivatisation

  13. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  14. A comparative study of peste des petits ruminants and Kata in West African dwarf goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Rowland; G. R. Scott; S. Ramachandran; D. H. Hill

    1971-01-01

    Experimental infections of West African Dwarf goats with Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Kata were indistinguishable clinically and pathologically. Goats convalescent from Kata resisted infection with rinderpest virus. Heterologous stimulation of secondary antibody response was observed.

  15. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer-free interval or mortality rates in these women. PMID:25729417

  16. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer-free interval or mortality rates in these women. PMID:25729417

  17. Response to Comment on “Movement Intention After Parietal Cortex Stimulation in Humans”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirigu, Angela; Mottolese, Carmine; Desmurget, Michel

    2010-03-01

    Karnath et al. argue that the behavioral effects observed in our study after direct parietal and premotor electrical stimulation (DES) could reflect a decrease of local cortical activity. If so, intention and awareness would not reflect the activity of the stimulated area but the recruitment of remote regions. Although tenable, this view does not seem to be the most plausible.

  18. 5-azacytidine Stimulates Fetal Hemoglobin Synthesis in Anemic Baboons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Desimone; Paul Heller; Lemuel Hall; David Zwiers

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to stimulate Hb F synthesis in baboons by means other than erythropoietic stress, we considered the possibility that an agent that inhibits methylation of CpG sequences in DNA may be effective. 5-Azacytidine, a cytosine analogue that cannot be methylated, is such an agent. Animals whose packed red cell volume was maintained at approximately 20% by bleeding were

  19. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  20. Effet des innovations organisationnelles et des technologies de l'information sur le rendement des entreprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wulong Gera Surendra Gu

    2004-01-01

    Dans ce document, on vise a determiner si les investissements dans les technologies de l'information et des communications, combines a des changements organisationnels et aux competences des travailleurs, contribuent a ameliorer le rendement des entreprises canadiennes.

  1. L’évaluation du risque cardiaque avant l’utilisation de stimulants chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, SA; Warren, AE; Hamilton, RM; Gray, C; Gow, RM; Sanatani, S; Côté, J-M; Lougheed, J; LeBlanc, J; Martin, S; Miles, B; Mitchell, C; Gorman, DA; Weiss, M; Schachar, R

    2009-01-01

    Les décisions en matière de réglementation et les documents scientifiques au sujet de la prise en charge du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) soulèvent des questions quant à l’innocuité des médicaments et à l’évaluation convenable à effectuer avant le traitement afin de déterminer la pertinence d’une pharmacothérapie. Ce constat est particulièrement vrai en présence de cardiopathies structurelles ou fonctionnelles. Le présent article contient l’analyse des données disponibles, y compris les publications révisées par des pairs, des données tirées du site Web de la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis au sujet des réactions indésirables déclarées chez des enfants qui prennent des stimulants, ainsi que des données de Santé Canada sur le même problème. Des lignes directrices consensuelles sur l’évaluation pertinente sont proposées d’après l’apport des membres de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, de la Société canadienne de cardiologie et de l’Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, qui possèdent notamment des compétences et des connaissances précises tant dans le secteur du TDAH que de la cardiologie pédiatrique. Le présent document de principes prône une anamnèse et un examen physique détaillés avant la prescription de stimulants et s’attarde sur le dépistage des facteurs de risque de mort subite, mais il ne contient pas de recommandations systématiques de dépistage électrocardiographique ou de consultations avec un spécialiste en cardiologie, à moins que les antécédents ou que l’examen physique ne le justifient. Le document contient un questionnaire pour repérer les enfants potentiellement vulnérables à une mort subite (quel que soit le type de TDAH ou les médicaments utilisés pour le traiter). Même si les recommandations dépendent des meilleures données probantes disponibles, le comité s’entend pour affirmer que d’autres recherches s’imposent pour optimiser l’approche de ce scénario clinique courant.

  2. Universit de Lausanne, Institut des sciences sociales des religions contemporaines cole Pratique des Hautes tudes, Section des sciences religieuses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Université de Lausanne, Institut des sciences sociales des religions sciences des religions de l'Université de Lausanne (Suisse) pour l'obtention du Doctorat en Sciences des contemporaines �cole Pratique des Hautes �tudes, Section des sciences religieuses

  3. ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test

    MedlinePLUS

    The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). ACTH is a ... produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release a hormone called cortisol. The man- ...

  4. Agent Exoplanet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-14

    Astronomers at Las Cumbres Observatory are investigating exoplanets - planets which orbit stars other than our Sun - and you can too. Joining Agent Exoplanet you will study known exoplanets using images taken by LCOGT’s telescopes. You'll measure the brightness of a star while a planet moves between it and our viewpoint. You can examine as many images, from as many exoplanet transit events, as you like and contribute to understanding the properties of each exoplanet.

  5. Rheologie des Polymeres Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepez, Olivier

    Une etude des proprietes rheologiques en ecoulement oscillatoire et en ecoulement transitoire a ete realisee sur des suspensions de particules spheriques dans des solutions de polymere d'une part et dans des polymeres a l'etat fondu d'autre part. Une attention particuliere a ete portee sur l'influence des parametres suivants sur les proprietes en ecoulement de ces fluides complexes: nature du fluide suspendant, fraction volumique en particule, temperature. Apres analyse des resultats, de nouveaux modeles empiriques ont ete proposes afin de predire l'allure des courbes d'ecoulement de ces suspensions en cisaillement oscillatoire. Enfin, certaines analogies entre les proprietes visqueuses et viscoelastiques des suspensions dans les deux milieux mentionnes precedemment ont ete discutees.

  6. Stimulation with the Aureobasidium pullulans-produced ?-glucan effectively induces interferon stimulated genes in macrophage-like cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Daisuke; Kawata, Koji; Aoki, Shiho; Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki; Kida, Hiroshi; Iwai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    A ?-(1,3),(1,6)-D-glucan produced by A. pullulans (AP-PG) is known to be an immune stimulating agent. In this study, we demonstrate that the stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) in macrophage-like cell lines. The ISGs, Mx1, ISG15, and viperin mRNAs were significantly increased in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with AP-PG. The stimulation with AP-PG transiently induced IFN-? mRNA. However, the expression of viperin mRNA was also increased after stimulation with AP-PG even when new protein synthesis was completely blocked by treatment with cycloheximide. Further, in IFN-? receptor knockdown RAW264.7 cells, AP-PG stimulation more effectively induced viperin mRNA compared with that of IFN-? stimulation. The phosphorylation of Ser 727 in STAT1 involved in the enhancement of STAT1 activation was immediately increased after stimulation with AP-PG. In addition, viperin mRNA expression induced after stimulation with IFN-? was significantly increased by combined stimulation with AP-PG. These results suggest that stimulation with AP-PG effectively induces the ISGs through the induction of IFN and the enhancement of STAT1-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:24759061

  7. Implantable Electrical Vesical Stimulator

    PubMed Central

    Susset, J. G.; Boctor, Z. N.; Rosario, F.; Rabinovitch, H.; Nagler, B.; MacKinnon, K. J.

    1966-01-01

    Considerable interest has been shown recently in electrical stimulation of the incompetent urinary bladder. Two types of bladder stimulation have been attempted in dogs and in humans: (a) stimulation of nervi erigentes and (b) direct stimulation of the detrusor urinae muscle. After several years of animal experimentation, a vesical stimulator, built on a new electronic principle, was implanted successfully in a paraplegic patient who has a complete post-traumatic lower motor neuron lesion. The stimulator has been working satisfactorily since November 1965. This stimulator could eventually also be used in purely sensory sacral lesions, in well-selected incomplete lower motor neuron lesions, and in flaccid detrusors of the myogenic type. A review of the literature up to the time of this report shows only a few encouraging but incomplete results in humans. The techniques and the complexities involved in this problem are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 5 PMID:5923472

  8. La stimulation magnétique transcrânienne (SMT) dans la recherche fondamentale et clinique en neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasives telles que la Stimulation Magnétique Transcrânienne (SMT) sont largement utilisées pour établir des inférences causales sur les relations entre cerveau et comportement. Des applications cliniques basées sur la SMT ont également été développées pour traiter des affections neurologiques ou psychiatriques comme la dépression, la dystonie, la douleur, les acouphènes ou les séquelles d’accident vasculaire cérébral. État des connaissances La SMT fonctionne en induisant de manière non invasive et de manière focale des courants électriques dans des régions corticales, modulant ainsi leur niveau d’activité de façon variable suivant la fréquence, le nombre d’impulsions, les intervalles et la durée de stimulation utilisés. S’agissant du cortex moteur, on sait par exemple que les patterns d’impulsions de SMT à basse fréquence ou ceux délivrées de manière continue tendent à déprimer l’activité locale, tandis que la SMT à haute fréquence et discontinus tend à la potentialiser. Outre ses effets locaux, la SMT peut aussi avoir des effets à distance sur les régions cérébrales, véhiculés par les connections anatomiques et qui dépendent de l’efficacité et du signe de ces connexions. Perspectives Dans le domaine de la recherche fondamentale et des applications thérapeutiques, l’utilisation efficace de la SMT requiert, cependant, la compréhension approfondie de ses principes opérationnels, de ses risques, de ses potentialités et de ses limites. Dans cet article, nous présentons les principes par lesquels opèrent les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasive, et en particulier la SMT. Conclusion À l’issue de sa lecture, le lecteur sera en mesure de discuter de façon critique les études scientifiques et cliniques utilisant la SMT, ainsi que de concevoir des applications SMT suivant une hypothèse a priori dans le domaine de la recherche en neuroscience fondamentale et/ou clinique. PMID:21420698

  9. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  10. DTERMINISME DE LA CONSTRUCTION DES CELLULES DE MALES ET DES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DÉTERMINISME DE LA CONSTRUCTION DES CELLULES DE MALES ET DES CELLULES D'OUVRIÈRES CHEZ APIS-sur-Yvette Faculté des Sciences Rennes I,e problème du déterminisme de construction des cellules mâles et des cellules d'ouvrières chez APis Mellifica n'a pas été étudié jusqu'à présent par beaucoup d'auteurs. 1,e

  11. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  12. Heated acid for improved stimulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.L.; Fredrickson, S.E.; Norman, L.R.

    1984-09-01

    This paper presents a simple and practical process developed to heat hydrochloric acid to improve its performance as an oil well stimulating agent. Heated acid is used in cold formations, such as cold dolomites, to increase the rate at which the formation is dissolved, thus improving flow capacities. The new technique heats the acid by causing an exothermic chemical reaction that uses a portion of the HC1 as one of the reactants.

  13. The Rights of Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christen Krogh

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Many agents are conceived to achieve certain goals on behalf of their owners by interacting with other agents In order to make these agents behave so as not to violate other agent's rights (or, more uncontroversially: the rights of the owners of other agents), we have to build into agents an attitude about such rights To do this, we

  14. Open Multi-Agent Systems: Agent

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    that facilitate the communication process in a multi-agent system. These agents, referred to with terms like facilitators, routers, mediators, bro- kers and so on (cf. [8]) act as intermediaries between communicatingOpen Multi-Agent Systems: Agent Communication and Integration Rogier M. van Eijk, Frank S. de Boer

  15. Agents on the Web Making Agents

    E-print Network

    Huhns, Michael N.

    around for ages. In the 16th century, for instance, Venetian mer- chants used poison and bribery to gain itself to the JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) agent platform in Italy, killing all of the agents it found there. Although not as serious as it might appear -- because the agents in Italy were

  16. Agents on the Web Making Agents

    E-print Network

    Farkas, Csilla

    for ages. In the 16th century, for instance, Venetian merchants used poison and bribery to gain market itself to the JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) agent platform in Italy, killing all of the agents it found there. Although not as serious as it might appear -- because the agents in Italy were

  17. Triangle des vitesses Failles transformantes

    E-print Network

    Grigné, Cécile

    Triangle des vitesses ab Failles transformantes A B A B TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses ab A B Dorsales A B TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses ab B A B A Subduction TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses B A A B C C TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses B

  18. UMBC AgentWeb: Intelligent Software Agents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, sponsored and maintained by the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Laboratory for Advanced Information Technology (LAIT), focuses on intelligent agents, known alternatively as software agents, knowbots, infobots or intentional agents. The site is divided into several parts, some of which are annotated and some of which contain only links to resources. Annotated resources include a bibliography titled Introduction to Agents (under Introductory Material), a list of research projects involving agent technology, and abstracts of and links to articles on a variety of topics such as Agents and Security and Agents in Manufacturing.

  19. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and...1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and...time to time, may prescribe. (3) Central Registration Agent. Pursuant...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and...1620 Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and...time to time, may prescribe. (3) Central Registration Agent. Pursuant...

  1. UN DES ROLES DES CHAINES D'ABEILLES : LA TORSION DES RAYONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UN DES ROLES DES CHAINES D'ABEILLES : LA TORSION DES RAYONS POUR LES RENDRE PARALLÈLES ENTRE EUX R régissant le parallé- lisme des rayons et décrit la technique des Abeilles qui l'établissent. Ces insectes utilisent en particulier deux méthodes pour rendre parallèle un rayon placé anormalement : W Ils allongent

  2. Stimulated petroleum biodegradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Atlas; Richard L. Raymond

    1977-01-01

    Stimulated biodegradation has been considered as a method for removal of petroleum pollutants. Various methods have been proposed for increasing rates of petroleum biodegradation, including physical or chemical modification of petroleum polutants, modification of environmental parameters around polluting oil, and modification of microbial populations around petroleum pollutants. Physical or chemical means for stimulating petroleum biodegradation include removal of particular petroleum

  3. Clearinghouse: stimulants and HIV.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    A bibliography of recent articles on stimulant usage and its impact of sexual behavior is provided. The references include articles on the increased frequency of unprotected sex, social issues related to people who trade sex for drugs, and the use of condoms among injecting drug users. Contact information is given for two specialists in the area of stimulant abuse. PMID:11365171

  4. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  5. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  6. Diplomanden-und Doktorandenseminar des Instituts fr Informatik

    E-print Network

    Zachmann, Gabriel

    application domains and platforms. Thus, a gap between design and code remains. The Bochica frameworkDiplomanden- und Doktorandenseminar des Instituts für Informatik The Bochica Framework for Model-driven-based systems is a complex endeavour. An ideal domain specific agent modeling language would be tailored

  7. Mobile Agents White Paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim White

    1996-01-01

    this paper.IntroductionNew productsNew applicationsNew networksAbout "Mobile Agents"Enabling mobile agentsMobile agent paradigmMobile agent conceptsMobile agent technologyProgramming mobile agentsProgramming a placeProgramming an agentUsing mobile agentsMonitoring changing conditionsDoing time-consuming legworkUsing services in combinationThe user experienceHow agents provide the experienceVariations on the themeAcknowledgmentsRelated workReferencesIntroduction

  8. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  9. Drug Safety Communication: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dL Relapse-free and overall survival Decreased 3 yr. relapse-free and overall survival Cancer Study 4 ... and overall survival and locoregional control Decreased 3 yr. progression-free and overall survival and locoregional control ...

  10. EVOLUTION DES OUTILS DE CONTRLE ET DES CRITERES DE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EVOLUTION DES OUTILS DE CONTRÔLE ET DES CRITERES DE PERFORMANCE, FACE AUX DEFIS DE CHANGEMENT communication étudie tout d'abord le nouveau contexte stratégique et organisationnel des entreprises contexte stratégique et organisationnel des entreprises en mutation interpelle les outils de contrôle de

  11. Elimination des noeuds dans le probleme newtonien des quatre corps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Boigey; M. Curie

    1982-01-01

    Résumé Nous appliquons la méthode des transformations canoniques à variables imposées à la réduction du problème newtonien des quatre corps. L'élimination du centre de gravité étant supposée faite, le problème est ramené à celui des trois corps fictifs. Alors nous menons à bien la réduction dûe aux intégrales des aires explicitement sous forme Hamiltonienne en tenant compte de l'aspect géométrique

  12. Modelisation des interactions lors de la migration des cellules tumorales

    E-print Network

    Aubert, Marine

    Mod´elisation des interactions lors de la migration des cellules tumorales Marine AUBERT IMNC% des tumeurs du syst`eme nerveux central. Elles d´erivent des cellules gliales (astrocytes par exemple. En effet, lorsque cette tumeur est diagnostiqu´ee, les cellules tumorales ont d´ej`a envahit une

  13. Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives

    E-print Network

    Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Préparation : Division de la gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Révision : Bureau du secrétaire général Entrée en vigueur : 15 février 2012 Approbation : (CA-2012-6) Cadre juridique : Loi sur les archives (L

  14. Agent-user etiquette

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Schiaffino; A. Amandi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the agent-user etiquette. The areas of personal agents and human-computer interaction are the two main contributions. First, it increases understanding of personalization in user-agent interaction. Second, our approach enhances a personal agent's capabilities since it enables developers to build personal agents that will certainly gain higher acceptance among users than traditional personal agents because they take into

  15. Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ?-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization. PMID:25051278

  16. Spinal cord stimulation

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses a mild electric current to block nerve impulses ... stretched into the space on top of your spinal cord. These wires will be connected to a small ...

  17. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  18. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. S. McKeever

    2001-01-01

    Models and the conceptual framework necessary for an understanding of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are described. Examples of various OSL readout schemes are described, along with examples of the use of OSL in radiation dosimetry.

  19. Duodenal nutrient exclusion improves metabolic syndrome and stimulates villus hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Habegger, Kirk M; Al-Massadi, Omar; Heppner, Kristy M; Myronovych, Andriy; Holland, Jenna; Berger, Jose; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanging; Lehti, Maarit; Ottaway, Nickki; Amburgy, Sarah; Raver, Christine; Müller, Timo D; Pfluger, Paul T; Kohli, Rohit; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Seeley, Randy J; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Surgical interventions that prevent nutrient exposure to the duodenum are among the most successful treatments for obesity and diabetes. However, these interventions are highly invasive, irreversible and often carry significant risk. The duodenal-endoluminal sleeve (DES) is a flexible tube that acts as a barrier to nutrient-tissue interaction along the duodenum. We implanted this device in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats to gain greater understanding of duodenal nutrient exclusion on glucose homeostasis. Design ZDF rats were randomised to four groups: Naive, sham ad libitum, sham pair-fed, and DES implanted. Food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition were measured for 28 days postoperatively. Glucose, lipid and bile acid metabolism were evaluated, as well as histological assessment of the upper intestine. Results DES implantation induced a sustained decrease in BW throughout the study that was matched by pair-fed sham animals. Decreased BW resulted from loss of fat, but not lean mass. DES rats were also found to be more glucose tolerant than either ad libitum-fed or pair-fed sham controls, suggesting fat mass independent metabolic benefits. DES also reduced circulating triglyceride and glycerol levels while increasing circulating bile acids. Interestingly, DES stimulated a considerable increase in villus length throughout the upper intestine, which may contribute to metabolic improvements. Conclusions Our preclinical results validate DES as a promising therapeutic approach to diabetes and obesity, which offers reversibility, low risk, low invasiveness and triple benefits including fat mass loss, glucose and lipid metabolism improvement which mechanistically may involve increased villus growth in the upper gut. PMID:24107591

  20. MOUVEMENTS DES TROMPES ET PROGRESSION DES ŒUFS CHEZ LA BREBIS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOUVEMENTS DES TROMPES ET PROGRESSION DES ŒUFS CHEZ LA BREBIS S. WINTENBERGER, Jouy-en-Josas. SOMMAIRE Nous avons étudié la motilité des trompes utérines, et leur rôle dans la trompe étudiée soit des ovocytes colorés, soit des particules de matière plastique noire de même taille

  1. Osmose électrique des tissues et des cellules sur le vivant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Girard

    1932-01-01

    Sommaire I.Sur des tissus vivants, en place sur l'animal, et normalement irrigués, on peut réaliser soit à travers les interstices cellulaires soit sur la cellule elle même à travers les interstices des micelles protoplasmiques des endosmoses et des exosmoses électriques.II.Sur l'oeil du lapin ou du chat c'est à travers des interstices que les cellules de la cornée laissent entre-elles que

  2. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les caractéristiques principales des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO), soit le dabigatran, le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban, et répondre aux questions qui font surface lors de la comparaison de ces agents. Qualité des données Une recherche dans PubMed a été effectuée afin de relever les études cliniques récentes (de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire (FA) et pour le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Message principal Selon 3 essais d’envergure, tous les NACO sont au moins aussi efficaces que la warfarine dans la prévention des AVC chez les patients atteints d’une FA non valvulaire, et au moins aussi sûrs pour ce qui est du risque de saignement. Des méta-analyses de ces essais ont montré que, comparativement au traitement par la warfarine, les NACO avaient réduit la mortalité totale, la mortalité d’origine cardiovasculaire et les saignements intracrâniens, et était aussi ressortie une tendance vers la réduction des saignements généraux. Du côté pratique, les avantages des NACO par rapport à la warfarine sont : posologie orale fixe uniquotidienne ou biquotidienne sans devoir surveiller la coagulation et peu d’interactions connues ou définies avec d’autres médicaments ou des aliments. Les désavantages potentiels des NACO sont notamment un risque de saignement qui serait accru chez les patients de plus de 75 ans, une hausse des saignements gastro-intestinaux majeurs avec des doses élevées de dabigatran, une hausse des cas de dyspepsie avec le dabigatran, l’absence d’un test de laboratoire de routine visant à mesurer de façon fiable l’effet anticoagulant et l’absence d’antidote pour renverser l’effet anticoagulant. Aucun essai randomisé contrôlé n’a effectué de comparaison directe des NACO, et le choix d’un NACO est influencé par les caractéristiques individuelles des patients, y compris le risque d’AVC ou de thromboembolie veineuse, le risque de saignement et les comorbidités (p. ex. dysfonctionnement rénal). Conclusion Les NACO sont des solutions de rechange importantes dans la prise en charge des patients atteints de FA et de thromboembolie veineuse, surtout chez les patients pour qui la surveillance régulière de la coagulation est problématique. La 2e partie de cet article traite des différentes éventualités pouvant survenir durant le suivi clinique et la prise en charge prolongés des patients prenant des NACO.

  3. Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Electrical Stimulation of the Scalp

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    Sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Electrical Stimulation of the Scalp M Mennemeier, PhD1 of electrical stimulation necessary to match 1-Hz rTMS was developed in one sample of normal subjects. The sham of stimulation was active or sham or which was electrical or magnetic. Naïve subjects incorrectly picked sham

  4. CARACTRISTIQUES SPECTROSCOPIQUES DES TTRABENZOYLACTONATES-SODIUM D'EUROPIUM ET DE TERBIUM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    415 CARACT�RISTIQUES SPECTROSCOPIQUES DES T�TRABENZOYLAC�TONATES-SODIUM D'EUROPIUM ET DE TERBIUM des ions d'europium, terbium ou lanthane. On étudie les différentes transitions moléculaires et. On discute la possibilité d'obtenir l'émission stimulée avec le chélate de terbium en se basant sur les

  5. Archives participatives Au milieu des ralisations remarquables de mdiation numrique des bibliothques et des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives participatives Au milieu des réalisations remarquables de médiation numérique des bibliothèques et des musées sur les médias sociaux, les services d'archives ont un positionnement relativement en revanche des projets ambitieux de crowdsourcing, d'« archives participatives » (voir encart

  6. On Programming KARO Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John-jules Ch. Meyer; Frank S. De Boer; Rogier M. Van Eijk; Koen V. Hindriks; Wiebe Van Der Hoek

    2001-01-01

    After having dened the KARO logic for specifying intelligent agents (an amalgam of various modal logics to reason about both informational and motivational attitudes of agents) in earlier work we now turn to the question how to realise agents specied in the KARO framework. To this end we look at agent programming languages that we have dened, and investigate how

  7. Software agents: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyacinth S. Nwana

    1996-01-01

    Agent software is a rapidly developing area of research. However, the overuse of the word 'agent' has tended to mask the fact that, in reality, there is a truly heterogeneous body of research being carried out under this banner. This overview paper presents a typology of agents. Next, it places agents in context, defines them and then goes on, inter

  8. Aromatase inhibitors in stimulated IVF cycles.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Evangelos G; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Humaidan, Peter; Pados, George; Bosch, Ernesto; Tournaye, Herman; Tarlatzis, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have been introduced as a new treatment modality that could challenge clomiphene citrate as an ovulation induction regiment in patients with PCOS. Although several randomized trials have been conducted regarding their use as ovulation induction agents, only few trials are available regarding their efficacy in IVF stimulated cycles. Current available evidence support that letrozole may have a promising role in stimulated IVF cycles, either when administered during the follicular phase for ovarian stimulation. Especially for women with poor ovarian response, letrozole appears to have the potential to increase clinical pregnancy rates when combined with gonadotropins, whereas at the same time reduces the total gonadotropin dose required for ovarian stimulation. However, given that in all of the trials letrozole has been administered in GnRH antagonist cycles, it is intriguing to test in the future how it may perform when used in GnRH agonist cycles. Finally administration of letrozole during luteal phase in IVF cycles offers another treatment modality for patients at high risk for OHSS taking into account that it drastically reduces estradiol levels. PMID:21693033

  9. In Vitro Activities of DX619 and Four Comparator Agents against 376 Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Molitoris; M.-L. Vaisanen; M. Bolanos; S. M. Finegold

    2006-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents has been observed in many if not most clinically significant pathogenic bacteria and is increasing in prevalence. New classes of antimicrobial agents and modifications of existing agents, as well as of methods of blocking bacterial resistance mechanisms, are essential for im- proving activity against these resistant organisms. DX-619 is a newly developed des-F(6)-quinolone (Fig. 1) that

  10. Influence des tanins hydrolysables de chtaignier sur le mtabolisme azot des ovins et des caprins

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence des tanins hydrolysables de châtaignier sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et des caprins Les tanins ont la propriété de se complexer aux protéines. Ceci peut conduire à l'insolubilisation de effets de l'ingestion de tanins sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et caprins. Des tanins hydrolysables

  11. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  12. Securing Agent Based Architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Maxim; Ashish Venugopal

    2002-01-01

    Agent based architectures provide significant flexibility and extensibility to software systems that attempt to model complex\\u000a real world interactions between human users and functional agents. Such systems allow agents to be seamlessly published into\\u000a the system providing services to human agent consumers. Securing agent based architectures in permissions based environments\\u000a while still maintaining extensibility involves establishing a pathway of trust

  13. Neural stimulation with optical radiation

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Matic, Agnella Izzo; Wells, Jonathon D.; Jansen, E. Duco; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing research on infrared neural stimulation, a means of artificially stimulating neurons that has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is defined as the direct induction of an evoked potential in response to a transient targeted deposition of optical energy. The foremost advantage of using optical radiation for neural stimulation is its spatial resolution. Exogenously applied or trans-genetically synthesized fluorophores are not used to achieve stimulation. Here, current work on INS is presented for motor nerves, sensory nerves, central nervous system, and in vitro preparations. A discussion follows addressing the mechanism of INS and its potential use in neuroprostheses. A brief review of neural depolarization involving other optical methods is also presented. Topics covered include optical stimulation concurrent with electrical stimulation, optical stimulation using exogenous fluorophores, and optical stimulation by transgenic induction of light-gated ion channels. PMID:23082105

  14. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-06-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  15. Stimulation of neutrophil FC-receptor-mediated ingestion

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, H.; Blackburn, W.; Clement, L.; Volanakis, J.

    1986-03-05

    Neutrophils (PMN) treated with amphotericin B (AmB), chemotactic peptide (FMLP), phorbol ester (PMA), a low molecular weight (< 10,000 M/sub r/), heat-labile cytokine (CK), or media were incubated with sheep erythrocytes coated with IgG (EIgG) and ingestion assessed as a phagocytic index (PI=number of EIgG ingested/100 PMN). PMN incubated with media bound but did not ingest EIgG (PI=35) as efficiently as PMN stimulated with the following reagents: 4..mu..M AmB (PI=150), 10/sup -9/M FMLP (PI=135), 5ng/ml PMA (PI=310), and CK (PI=350). PMN treated with .25% butanol bound but did not ingest EIgG even after stimulation by the above agents. Monoclonal anti-PMN Fc receptor (3G8) treatment of non-stimulated and stimulated PMN inhibited both attachment and ingestion of EIgG. 1C2, a monoclonal antibody which precipitates a 54,000 M/sub r/ protein from PMN, had no effect on EIgG attachment or ingestion by non-stimulated PMN, yet inhibited EIgG ingestion but not attachment by PMN stimulated with CK (PI=40), AmB (PI=35), and FMLP (PI=60), but not PMA (PI=280). These data indicate that phagocytosis mediated by 3G8-positive Fc receptors may be inhibited by agents which decrease membrane fluidity (e.g. butanol) and may be enhanced by agents which require the molecule recognized by 1C2 (AmB, FMLP, and CK) and an agent which does not (PMA).

  16. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Liu, Yingjun; Barhate, R. S.; Lala, Neeta L.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2006-06-01

    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with ?-CD, IBA, a blend of ?-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane.

  17. INTERACTIONS DES MATHMATIQUES

    E-print Network

    Pouyanne, Nicolas

    - tégral sont venus s'adjoindre de nombreux autres concepts et techniques mathématiques- Maïs les échanges plusieurs phases : étude de leur cohérence, existence de so- lutions, comportement des solutions, résolution

  18. Slectionner Des peuplements endmiques

    E-print Network

    milieu naturel, comme pour la bêche de mer. Peuplement naturel d'Araucaria columnaris sélectionné. plantation expérimentale d'Araucaria columnaris, une des principales espèces destinées à la forêt cultivée

  19. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Oster, Danielle R; Marraccini, Marisa E; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; Munro, Bailey A; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez; Kuhar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and characteristics such as sex, race, use of illicit drugs, and academic performance are associated with misuse of stimulant medications. Results also indicate that individuals both with and without ADHD are more likely to misuse short-acting agents than long-acting agents. These findings have implications for intervention, prevention, and future research. PMID:25228824

  20. Muscle Stimulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Goddard Space Flight Center contract, Electrologic of America was able to refine the process of densely packing circuitry on personal computer boards, providing significant contributions to the closed-loop systems for the Remote Manipulator System Simulator. The microcircuitry work was then applied to the StimMaster FES Ergometer, an exercise device used to stimulate muscles suffering from paralysis. The electrical stimulation equipment was developed exclusively for V-Care Health Systems, Inc. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

  1. Cramiques des vivants, cramiques des morts et des sites cultuels l'ge du Bronze en France.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , European Societies in the Bronze Age, Cambridge, 2000, p. 308. « [ ...] des lieux de culte, [...] desCéramiques des vivants, céramiques des morts et des sites cultuels à l'âge du Bronze en France disparues, ou de vaisselle pour leur consommation. Les céramiques des sépultures de l'âge du Bronze halshs

  2. Soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Evgenov, Oleg V

    2013-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a key enzyme in the nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathway. On binding of NO to its prosthetic haem group, sGC catalyses the synthesis of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which promotes vasodilation and inhibits smooth muscle proliferation, leukocyte recruitment, platelet aggregation and vascular remodelling through a number of downstream mechanisms. The central role of the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway in regulating pulmonary vascular tone is demonstrated by the dysregulation of NO production, sGC activity and cGMP degradation in pulmonary hypertension (PH). The sGC stimulators are novel pharmacological agents that directly stimulate sGC, both independently of NO and in synergy with NO. Optimisation of the first sGC stimulator, YC-1, led to the development of the more potent and more specific sGC stimulators, BAY 41-2272, BAY 41-8543 and riociguat (BAY 63-2521). Other sGC stimulators include CFM-1571, BAY 60-4552, vericiguat (BAY 1021189), the acrylamide analogue A-350619 and the aminopyrimidine analogues. BAY 41-2272, BAY 41-8543 and riociguat induced marked dose-dependent reductions in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance with a concomitant increase in cardiac output, and they also reversed vascular remodelling and right heart hypertrophy in several experimental models of PH. Riociguat is the first sGC stimulator that has entered clinical development. Clinical trials have shown that it significantly improves pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and increases exercise ability in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chronic thromboembolic PH and PH associated with interstitial lung disease. Furthermore, riociguat reduces mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with PH associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and improves cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with PH associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. These promising results suggest that sGC stimulators may constitute a valuable new therapy for PH. Other trials of riociguat are in progress, including a study of the haemodynamic effects and safety of riociguat in patients with PH associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and long-term extensions of the phase 3 trials investigating the efficacy and safety of riociguat in patients with PAH and chronic thromboembolic PH. Finally, sGC stimulators may also have potential therapeutic applications in other diseases, including heart failure, lung fibrosis, scleroderma and sickle cell disease. PMID:24092345

  3. Agents Recognizing Emergence

    E-print Network

    Agents that recognize self organizing systems and their emergent properties have a competitive advantage. In this paper we introduce a classication of self-organizing systems based on phase transitions, macroscopic dynamic structures, evolution, self-regulation, and ultra-stability. Sometimes the agent can recognize the type of self-organizing system by observing its internal mechanisms such as feedback mechanisms or essential variables, but in general he has to interpret the system's behavior and in particular its relation with the environment. The agent therefore uses besides theories of self-organization also theories of cybernetics. 1 Introduction Autonomous agents and multi agent systems are active research areas in arti- cial intelligence. We are interested in cognitive agents that use models of their environment, including models of other agents. In agent-based software engineering it has been recognized that the major drawback of the agent perspective is that in exc...

  4. Relational Agents Page 1 Relational Agents for

    E-print Network

    Bickmore, Timothy

    -updated multiple-choice menu (Fig 1). These agents have been tested in two randomized trials for physical activity effectiveness over standard-of-care control conditions. These trials were conducted on home desktop computers goals were met and problem-solving to overcome obstacles when they weren't. In addition, the agent

  5. Hypoglycin stimulates insulin secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. G. Milner; P. K. Wirdnam

    1977-01-01

    Summary  Hypoglycin A (0.01–1.0 mmol\\/l) stimulated insulin release from pieces of rabbit pancreas in vitro in the presence or absence of extracellular glucose. The relevance of this finding to the hypoglycaemia of Jamaican vomiting sickness is discussed.

  6. Stimulating energy technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Office of Technology Assessment considers the various options available to Congress for stimulating new energy technology development and commercialization in the area of onsite systems designed to serve specific industrial, commercial, or residential applications. The two basic approaches for encouraging the public to use new technologies lie in direct or indirect subsidies and public education programs. Subsidies may

  7. Transcranial stimulation and cognition.

    PubMed

    Miniussi, Carlo; Ruzzoli, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a unique method for studying cognitive function. For the study of cognition, NIBS has gained popularity as a complementary method to functional neuroimaging. By bypassing the correlative approaches of standard imaging techniques, it is possible to establish a putative relationship between brain cognition. In fact, functional neuroimaging data cannot demonstrate the actual role of a particular cortical activation in a specific function because an activated area may simply be correlated with task performance, rather than being responsible for it. NIBS can induce a temporary modification of performance only if the stimulated area is causally engaged in the task. In analogy with lesion studies, NIBS can provide information about where and when a particular process occurs. Based on this assumption, NIBS has been used in many different cognitive domains. However, one of the most interesting questions in neuroscience may not be where and when, but how cognitive activity occurs. Beyond localization approaches, NIBS can be employed to study brain mechanisms. NIBS techniques have the potential to influence behavior transiently by altering neuronal activity, which may have facilitatory or inhibitory behavioral effects. NIBS techniques include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). TMS has been shown transiently to modulate neural excitability in a manner that is dependent mainly on the timing and frequency of stimulation (high versus low). The mechanism underlying tES is a change in neuronal membrane potentials that appears to be dependent mainly on the direction of current flow (anodal versus cathodal). Nevertheless, the final effects induced by TMS or tES depend on many technical parameters used during stimulation, such as the intensity of stimulation, coil orientation, site of the reference electrode, and time of application. Moreover, an important factor is the possible interactions between these factors and the physiological and cognitive state of the subject. To use NIBS in cognition, it is important to understand not only how NIBS functions but also the brain mechanisms being studied and the features of the area of interest. To describe better the advanced knowledge provided by NIBS in cognition, we will treat each NIBS technique separately and underline the related hypotheses beyond applications. PMID:24112935

  8. Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package

    E-print Network

    Logan, Brian

    G54DIA: Designing Intelligent Agents Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package Brian Logan School of Computer package(s) · agent toolkits · uk.ac.nott.cs.g54dia Java agent packages ­library package ­demo package © Brian Logan 2013 G54DIA Tutorial 1: Java Agent Package 2 #12;Implementing your agent · many agent

  9. AgentSheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Reppening

    From personal and information Agents to interactive demos, modifiable simulations to virtual game worlds, AgentSheets' unique user interface captivates people and draws them into a new relationship with technology.

  10. Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Qualité des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et déchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le développement important de la méthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'être avec des digestats ou non. Les quantités de compost produit ne cessent d

  11. Agent Oriented Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Shoham

    1992-01-01

    Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

  12. Biological warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Pohanka; Kamil Ku?a

    \\u000a Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military\\u000a or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical\\u000a aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological\\u000a warfare agents and epidemiology of

  13. The DES Story: Lessons Learned

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Robert Hoover discusses the DES followup study, which follows diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposed and unexposed mothers, daughters and sons, and granddaughters for adverse health effects resulting from this exposure.

  14. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  15. Physical agent modalities in physical therapy and rehabilitation of small animals.

    PubMed

    Hanks, June; Levine, David; Bockstahler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Physical agent modalities can be effective components of the overall rehabilitation of small animals. This article reviews the effects, indications, contraindications, and precautions of cold, superficial heat, therapeutic ultrasound, and electrical stimulation. PMID:25432680

  16. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  17. APP: AGENT PLANNING PACKAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S RADOVANOVI ´ C

    C† Abstract. Nowadays, a large number of planning systems exist. The majority of them are either applicable only to specific domains (domain dependent) or support only plan generation, but not plan execution and supervision. This paper presents Agent Planning Package (APP), a new domain independent planner which facilitates the creation of intelligent agents. Through the use of APP, agents can

  18. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  19. MOBILE AGENTS AND SECURITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Jansen

    1999-01-01

    Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a software agent can suspend its execution on a host computer, transfer itself to another agent-enabled host on the network, and resume execution on the new host. The use of mobile code has a long history dating back to the use of remote job entry systems in the 1960's. Today's

  20. Normative KGP agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fariba Sadri; Kostas Stathis; Francesca Toni

    2006-01-01

    We extend the logical model of agency known as the KGP model, to support agents with normative concepts, based on the roles an agent plays and the obligations and prohibitions that result from playing these roles. The proposed framework illustrates how the resulting normative concepts, including the roles, can evolve dynamically during the lifetime of the agent. Furthermore, we illustrate

  1. Declarative Agent Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonis C. Kakas; Paolo Mancarella; Fariba Sadri; Kostas Stathis; Francesca Toni

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we extend the architecture of agents (and robots) based upon fixed, one-size-fits-all cycles of operation, by providing a framework of declarative specification of agent control. Control is given in terms of cycle the- ories, which define in a declarative way the possible alternative behaviours of agents, depending on the particular circumstances of the (perceived) external en- vironment

  2. Cooperative Interface Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiano Pizzutilo; Berardina De Carolis; Fiorella de Rosis

    Animated agents are endowed with personality and emotions, with the aim of increasing their believability and of establishing an “empathetic” relationship with the user. In this chapter, we claim that, to endow agents with social intelligence, the communication traits described in the Five Factor Model should be integrated with some cooperation attitudes. We describe our experience in building an agent

  3. Agent-enhanced Workflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Judge; Brian Odgers; John Shepherdson; Zhan Cui

    1998-01-01

    In agent-enhanced workflow, a community of intelligent, distributed and autonomous software agents is used to improve the management of business processes under the control of a workflow management system. These improvements are achieved by allowing the software agents to negotiate with each other to establish contracts that govern the distribution of work across a number of processing centres. Furthermore, the

  4. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  5. International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the IFESS UK & Ireland Chapter: Sheffield, 2015 Stimulating Technology for the Future 5 th Conference of the ... website: www.ifessuki2015.co.uk Attachment Size Stimulating Technology for the Future - IFESS UK&I 2015.pdf ...

  6. Pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, J R

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Stimulants that increase alertness/reduce fatigue or activate the cardiovascular system can include drugs like ephedrine available in many over-the-counter medicines. Others such as amphetamines, cocaine and hallucinogenic drugs, available on prescription or illegally, can modify mood. A total of 62 stimulants (61 chemical entities) are listed in the WADA List, prohibited in competition. Athletes may have stimulants in their body for one of three main reasons: inadvertent consumption in a propriety medicine; deliberate consumption for misuse as a recreational drug and deliberate consumption to enhance performance. The majority of stimulants on the list act on the monoaminergic systems: adrenergic (sympathetic, transmitter noradrenaline), dopaminergic (transmitter dopamine) and serotonergic (transmitter serotonin, 5-HT). Sympathomimetic describes agents, which mimic sympathetic responses, and dopaminomimetic and serotoninomimetic can be used to describe actions on the dopamine and serotonin systems. However, many agents act to mimic more than one of these monoamines, so that a collective term of monoaminomimetic may be useful. Monoaminomimietic actions of stimulants can include blockade of re-uptake of neurotransmitter, indirect release of neurotransmitter, direct activation of monoaminergic receptors. Many of the stimulants are amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives, including agents with abuse potential as recreational drugs. A number of agents are metabolized to amphetamine or metamphetamine. In addition to the monoaminomimetic agents, a small number of agents with different modes of action are on the list. A number of commonly used stimulants are not considered as Prohibited Substances. PMID:18500382

  7. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  8. Occipital nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mammis, Antonios; Agarwal, Nitin; Mogilner, Alon Y

    2015-01-01

    Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a form of neuromodulation therapy aimed at treating intractable headache and craniofacial pain. The therapy utilizes neurostimulating electrodes placed subcutaneously in the occipital region and connected to a permanently implanted programmable pulse generator identical to those used for dorsal column/spinal cord stimulation. The presumed mechanisms of action involve modulation of the trigeminocervical complex, as well as closure of the physiologic pain gate. ONS is a reversible, nondestructive therapy, which can be tailored to a patient's individual needs. Typically, candidates for successful ONS include those patients with migraines, Chiari malformation, or occipital neuralgia. However, recent MRSA infections, unrealistic expectations, and psychiatric comorbidities are generally contraindications. As with any invasive procedure, complications may occur including lead migration, infection, wound erosion, device failure, muscle spasms, and pain. The success of this therapy is dependent on careful patient selection, a preimplantation trial, meticulous implantation technique, programming strategies, and complication avoidance. PMID:25411143

  9. Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

  10. New York Canyon Stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "����No Go"��� decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  11. Neuromodulation for Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Novel Techniques Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, and Deep Brain Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell J. Andrews

    \\u000a The last two decades have seen the development of several neuromodulation techniques that have been applied to the problem\\u000a of severe, medication-refractory depression – notably vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial\\u000a direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. The four techniques are here reviewed from the standpoint of the hardware\\u000a involved, the techniques of application, the biological effects of

  12. Intelligent Agents What is an Agent?

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Charles R.

    and news from stock market and produces buy/sell trades as actions · Medicine ­ Diagnostic agent takes test's sensors give it access to the complete state of the environment at any point in time · If all aspects

  13. Human Tissue Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

  14. Travaux de cblage rseaux pour mutation en tlphonie IP l'IUT Moulins Page 1 sur 3 MARCHE VALANT CAHIER DES CHARGES

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    'Université Blaise Pascal - Origine de son pouvoir de signature : Article L 712-2 al. 4 du Code de l des paiements : Agent Comptable de l'Université Blaise Pascal Et La société jours. Le titulaire du marché transmet une facture à la fin des travaux à : l'université Blaise Pascal

  15. IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents!

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    IM Free Agent Sign Up 1 Wanted! Intramurals Free Agents! Individuals who do not have a full team a "Free Agent". Within the UNLV Intramural Sports program there are multiple ways to improve a Free Agent will not force any team to accept a Free Agent participant. History and research has shown that Free Agents

  16. Coût clinique des retards dans le changement de traitement

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    La prise en charge des patients séropositifs pour le VIH ayant déjà reçu un traitement continue de s’améliorer et d’évoluer. Les nouvelles lignes directrices semblent indiquer que l’objectif du traitement devrait être une suppression virologique maximale. La meilleure façon d’y parvenir consiste à utiliser une combinaison d’agents auxquels le virus sera le plus vraisemblablement sensible et, si possible, des agents appartenant à une nouvelle classe thérapeutique. Les cas discutés démontrent comment l’utilisation d’un schéma thérapeutique puissant à titre de traitement de sauvetage peut avoir de bons résultats virologiques, immunologiques et cliniques. Toutefois, si le traitement de sauvetage retenu n’est pas assez puissant pour atteindre ces objectifs, la durabilité de la réponse est limitée. Ce qu’il faut retenir ici, c’est que ces stratégies devraient reposer sur la puissance du schéma thérapeutique et qu’il ne faut pas retarder l’instauration des agents en cas d’échec d’une stratégie.

  17. The prevention of stimulant misuse.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, C D; Husch, J A; Bieleman, B

    1994-11-01

    The term 'stimulant' refers to a class of drugs that increase psychophysiological arousal. From the viewpoint of prevention, it is more useful to look primarily at the social consequences and functions of stimulants. Every society has a documented use of stimulants. When planning interventions the dynamics of use must be placed in the foreground. Stimulant epidemics, like problematic stimulant users, have a natural tendency to burn themselves out. Different types of stimulants may differ in their origins, but their epidemiological consequences and use functions tend to be similar. Implications for prevention can be drawn from the characteristics of stimulant use epidemics. Users at risk for socially unacceptable patterns should be targeted for prevention efforts. Mass media campaigns that single out stimulants should be avoided. Much of the harm associated with stimulants is a consequence of life-styles characterized by polydrug use and unhealthy practices. Prevention should be timed to the appropriate period of the epidemic. Interventions useful at period 1 will not work at period 2. The recommendations of the WHO Advisory Group on the Adverse Effects of Cocaine and Coca provide a good model for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention for all forms of stimulant misuse. Stimulant prevention must be creative in finding ways of encouraging the movements of the drug to the periphery of users' lives. PMID:7841865

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Condensed from Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Fact Sheet Table of ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease? Deep brain stimulation (DBS) ...

  19. INTERMITTENT STIMULATION BY LIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Selig; Verrijp, Cornelis D.

    1933-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of the data of intermittent stimulation by light is presented in terms of the familiar reversible photochemical system previously used for other properties of vision. It appears that such a system considered merely as the initial event in photoreception is capable of giving a first order quantitative description of the relation between critical frequency and illumination for different retinal regions, and of Talbot's law. Moreover the development of this concept shows that the general form of most of the existing relationships in flicker are already apparent in the characteristics of the behavior of this initial photochemical event. PMID:19872778

  20. Conservation des Textiles

    E-print Network

    Brest, Université de

    Conservation des Textiles Les 22 et 23 mai 2013 Soit 2 jours - 14 heures OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION essentielles dans la gestion de collections textiles, depuis leur identification jusqu'à leur conservation conservation d'éléments et de collections textiles, et toutes personnes travaillant dans le domaine du

  1. Fachprfungsordnung des Bachelorstudiengangs Geographie

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Fachprüfungsordnung des Bachelorstudiengangs Geographie an der Ernst Geographie: Inhaltsverzeichnis: § 1 Studium § 2 Zulassungsvoraussetzungen § 3 Module § 4 Berufsbezogenes Bachelorstudiengang Geographie. Ergänzend gilt die Gemeinsame Prüfungsordnung für Bachelor- und Masterstudiengänge

  2. Das Bandenspektrum des CO +

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Coster; H. H. Brons; H. Bulthuis

    1932-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Es wird die Rotationsstruktur der s ? s Banden (1 ? 4, 2 ? 4, 2 ? 5, 3 ? 5, 3 ? 6, 4 ? 7) des CO+ analysiert und eine Nullinienformel für diese Banden abgeleitet. Von denII ? s-Banden (5 ? 0, 6 ? 0, 7 ? 0, 8 ? 0) wird die Rotationsstruktur analysiert. Jede Bande

  3. Die Stoffwechselsituation des Reizleitungssystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. H. Schiebler; M. Stark; R. Caesar

    1956-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die spezifische Muskulatur des Reizleitungssystems unterscheidet sich u. a. von der Arbeitsmuskulatur durch ein vermindertes Vorkommen von Sarkosomen, eine schwächere Bernsteinsäuredehydrogenase-und Oxydasereaktion und einen geringeren Sauerstoffverbrauch. Wir schließen daraus auf einen stoffwechselmäßigen Unterschied zwischen den beiden Muskelarten und stellen zur Diskussion, ob das Reizleitungssystem relativ unabhängig von der Sauerstoffversorgung ist. Das Reizleitungssystem weist auch unter Thyroxinbelastung einen zäh festgehaltenen,

  4. des sciences pharmaceutiques

    E-print Network

    Pellier, Damien

    .-M. Scherrmann La faculté de pharmacie de Paris est habilitée à percevoir 45 % du montant total de votre Taxe d pharmacie de paris en sera bénéficiaire ! En indiquant précisément lors de votre déclaration de versement de'Observatoire - 75006 Paris Diplôme : docteur en pharmacie - Monsieur le doyen Faculté des sciences pharmaceutiques et

  5. Chronometric Electrical Stimulation of Right Inferior Frontal Cortex Increases Motor Braking

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Christopher R.; Aron, Adam R.; Tandon, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) is important for stopping responses. Recent research shows that it is also activated when response emission is slowed down when stopping is anticipated. This suggests that rIFC also functions as a goal-driven brake. Here, we investigated the causal role of rIFC in goal-driven braking by using computer-controlled, event-related (chronometric), direct electrical stimulation (DES). We compared the effects of rIFC stimulation on trials in which responses were made in the presence versus absence of a stopping-goal (“Maybe Stop” [MS] vs “No Stop” [NS]). We show that DES of rIFC slowed down responses (compared with control-site stimulation) and that rIFC stimulation induced more slowing when motor braking was required (MS) compared with when it was not (NS). Our results strongly support a causal role of a rIFC-based network in inhibitory motor control. Importantly, the results extend this causal role beyond externally driven stopping to goal-driven inhibitory control, which is a richer model of human self-control. These results also provide the first demonstration of double-blind chronometric DES of human prefrontal cortex, and suggest that—in the case of rIFC—this could lead to augmentation of motor braking. PMID:24336725

  6. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  7. The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

  8. CHROMATOGRAPHIE EN PHASE GAZEUSE DES COMPOSS VOLATILS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CHROMATOGRAPHIE EN PHASE GAZEUSE DES COMPOSÉS VOLATILS DES GLANDES A PHÉROMONES DES ABEILLES'introduction directe et en petit nombre des glances à phéromones à l'entrée d'une colonne à chromatographie; le procédé : chromatographie phase gazeuse, glande, phéromone, substance d'alarme, abeille ouvrière. INTRODUCTION La vie des

  9. TRANSFORMATION ET DEVENIR DES CELLULES ADIPEUSES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TRANSFORMATION ET DEVENIR DES CELLULES ADIPEUSES AU COURS DE L'AMAIGRISSEMENT. ÉTUDE environ 400 g, les transformations ultrastructurales des cellules adipeuses et leur devenir ont été. Le reste des cellules adipeuses des dépôts, représentant environ 90 p. 100 de la totalité des

  10. Extending UML for Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Odell; H. Van Dyke Parunak; Bernhard Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Gaining wide acceptance for the use of agents in industry requires both relating it to the nearest antecedent technology (object-oriented software development) and using artifacts to support the development environment throughout the full system lifecycle. We address both of these requirements in this paper by describing some of the most common requirements for modeling agents and agent-based systems—using a set

  11. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    DNA damaging agents are among the most successful treatments for cancer. The enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (abbreviated PARP) can facilitate repair of DNA damage caused by insult from chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Increased PARP activity is associated with survival of some cancer cells. ABT-888, an orally bioavailable PARP-inhibitor developed by Abbott Laboratories, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of DNA-damaging agents and radiation in preclinical models. Further development of this compound is ongoing.

  12. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    The “Featured Agents” portion of the DCTD Website provides information for researchers involved in drug discovery and development. Any public preclinical and clinical data that DCTD has on a particular agent are presented here. New agents will be added periodically to the current list. DCTD Website visitors may subscribe to the Listserv on this page to be notified when additions to the list are made.

  13. fevrier 2012 Journes Francophones des Langages Applicatifs JFLA12 Separation des couleurs dans un -calcul bichrome

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AlligatorEggs3 cherche `a expliquer le -calcul `a des enfants. Pour cela il utilise la couleur pour relier des alligators affam´es et des oeufs afin de constituer des familles. La couleur sert `a expliciter les liaisons des variables dans les termes, des oeufs naissent de nouveaux alligators ou familles lors

  14. Usage possibilities of laser stimulation in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The laser stimulation is used in ophthalmology as a supplement toother way of therapy. Nowadays, the following types of procedures are being performed: eyeball anterior segment stimulation, lacrimal gland stimulation, eyeball posterior pole stimulation, trigeminal nerve opening stimulation. Laser stimulation can be used as an independent procedure or together with pharmacological treatment.

  15. Interactive agent generated architecture

    E-print Network

    Krause, Jeffrey Charles Stanley

    1996-01-01

    The thesis explores architectural form generation through two behavior based artificial intelligence approaches: the communication of agents in an unpredictable simulation system, and the codification of information within ...

  16. Brain stimulation for intractable epilepsy: Anterior thalamus and responsive stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Vibhor; Lozano, Andres M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite medications, resective surgery, and vagal nerve stimulation, some patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. In these patients, other approaches are urgently needed. The biological basis of stimulation of anterior thalamic nucleus and epileptogenic focus is presented. Results from two large randomized controlled trials Stimulation of Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTE) and Neuropace pivotal trial are discussed. Neuromodulation provides effective treatment for a select group of refractory epilepsy patients. Future investigations into the mechanism underlying ‘response’ to brain stimulation are desired. PMID:24791096

  17. [New immunosuppressive agents for treating psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Urda, S; Rappersberger, K

    2003-03-01

    Accumulative evidence suggests that psoriasis may be a genetically determined immunologenic inflammatory disorder based on an ongoing autoreactive Th-1 response. Various cytokines (e.g. IL-2, interferon-gamma etc.) are released and exert proliferative signals on to keratinocytes, which start proliferation that finally results in an incomplete differentiation. During this pathobiological process keratinocytes themselves express receptors that make them sensitive for growth inducing stimulation and also start the production of a set of cytokines that contribute to and maintain inflammation. Immunosuppressive agents, mostly by affecting T-cells may interfere with or even disrupt by rather unspecific mechanisms, this complex process of mutual stimulation of leucocytes and keratinocytes. In this manuscript we show mode of action, efficacy and side effects of Methotrexate, Ciclosporin A, Tacrolimus and Pimecrolimus, and discuss therapeutic options with mycophenolate mofetil and fumaric acid esters. PMID:12634991

  18. 1984 - 1992 : alourdissement des loyers et des charges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laure Pitrou

    1995-01-01

    [fre] 1984-1992 : alourdissement des loyers et . Au cours des années 1984-1992 les loyers ont augmenté beaucoup plus rapidement que le niveau général des prix. Cette évolution reflète à la fois le coût plus élevé que par le passé conféré au droit d'usage du logement et l'amélioration du confort du parc locatif. Elle est à nuancer suivant le secteur

  19. Stimulation of postmortem platelets with adenosine-5-diphosphate and epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, H; Schmidtke, E

    1997-09-19

    In an earlier study, we assessed the aggregation of postmortem platelets following stimulation with collagen and arachidonic acid [1]. We now extend those investigations to include the effects of stimulation with various concentrations of adenosine-5-diphosphate (ADP) and epinephrine on the aggregation of platelets in 463 blood samples during the first 10 h postmortem (hpm). Stimulation with low concentrations of ADP and of the weak in vivo agent epinephrine evoked only potentially reversible 1st order aggregation and not irreversible 2nd order aggregation, indicating that the release reaction of platelets is already impaired in the early postmortem hours by milieu changes within the cadaver. These findings, like those of our previous study, demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the aggregation behaviour of postmortem platelets as a tool for estimating time of death as well as for differentiating between intravital and postmortem hematomas. PMID:9306663

  20. Mobile Agents and Java Mobile Agents Toolkits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damir Horvat; Dragana Cvetkovi?; Veljko Milutinovi?; Petar Ko?ovi?; Vlada Kova?evi?

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of what the mobile agents are, what they should do and how they can be implemented in Java. Why Java? The choice to concentrate on Java is evoked by many existing solutions in Java that handles architectural heterogeneity between communicating machines on the net. It seems to be the best available language for making mobile

  1. Agents on the Web Ontologies for Agents

    E-print Network

    Huhns, Michael N.

    When we need to find the cheapest airfare, we call our travel agent, Betsi, at Prestige Travel. We of discourse (e.g., classes, relations, functions, or other objects) with human-readable text describing what. The semantic relationships provide users with an abstract view of an information space for their domain

  2. Hydromechanical stimulation of bioluminescent plankton.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Stefan; Kurisu, Futoshi; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    The response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrocystis fusiformis was investigated for different hydraulic conditions ('hydromechanical stimulation'). Pipe flow and oscillating shear produced luminescence, whereas changes in hydrostatic pressure were not stimulating. More intense fluid motion led to higher intensity, mainly due to a higher probability of cell response. The organism was also able to emit light in a glucose-salt mixture. The experiments suggest that the cells are effectively stimulated if the flow conditions change in time. PMID:12444590

  3. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  4. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Featured Agents Agents NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) Program Drug Development Primer FDA-Approved Cancer Drugs DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis Program Cancer

  5. Chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Shenoi

    2002-01-01

    There is an increased risk that civilian populations will be targets of domestic terrorism. Release of chemical warfare agents in these populations can cause a large number of casualties, with children being disproportionately affected. Chemical agents pose a significant risk to unprepared medical providers. Emergency medical personnel must be able to diagnose and manage victims of toxic exposures. This article

  6. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  7. Agent Server Architecture for the Ajanta MobileAgent System

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Agent Server Architecture for the Ajanta Mobile­Agent System Neeran M. Karnik and Anand R. Tripathi an overview of Ajanta, a Java­based mobile­agent system, and focuses in par­ ticular on the architecture. Keywords: Mobile agents, Distributed computing, Java, Security 1 Introduction Mobile agent

  8. Agents as web service providers: single agents or MAS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Sonntag

    2006-01-01

    Agents are good tools for providing Web services. They are usually either single agents, where one agent provides one or multiple services, or multiple individual agents that are discovered using UDDI. But then also a singular recipient is determined for fulfilling actual requests. This is well suited for smaller services, which are provided by a single, but perhaps complex, agent

  9. Open MultiAgent Systems: Agent Communication and Integration

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    have been proposed that facilitate the communication process in a multi­agent system. These agentsOpen Multi­Agent Systems: Agent Communication and Integration Rogier M. van Eijk, Frank S. de Boer is on the issues of agent communication and integration. We define an abstract programming lan­ guage for open

  10. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  11. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  12. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  13. PLANNING DES STAGES Dpartements

    E-print Network

    Stouls, Nicolas

    'offres PFE en laboratoire INSA de 49 jours (Peut avoir lieu en entreprise) Projets innovants Stage 20PLANNING DES STAGES Départements BIOSCIENCES : Filière Biochimie et Biotechnologies 3ère année 4ème année GENIE ENERGETIQUE ET ENVIRONNEMENT 3ère année 4ème année 5ème année Stage de 16 semaines Stage

  14. Bibliothek des indischen Parlaments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaum eine prestigeträchtigere Bauaufgabe konnte in den letzten 15 Jahren in Indien ausgeschrieben werden als ein Neubau in\\u000a der Nähe der Parlamentsbauten kolonialer Vergangenheit. Ebenso wie der Auftraggeber, die Regierung, war sich der Gewinner\\u000a des Wettbewerbs, Raj Rewal, einer historischen Aufgabe bewusst, die eine sowohl zeitgemäße als auch den dominierenden Nachbarn\\u000a angemessene Lösung verlangte. Die Chance durfte nicht vertan werden,

  15. PROPOSITION DE SUJET DE THESE Nom du laboratoire : Laboratoire de Physique des Solides

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    : bourse des ED Ecole doctorale : ED107 Connectivity in biofilms Bacteria would represent more than 40 % of the total biomass. Most often bacteria socially self-organize by secreting polymers able to glue the cells or disinfection agents). First described in 1970-1980, such biofilms are now well known to colonize solid surface

  16. The isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from Northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Nanda; A. Chatterjee; A. K. Purohit; A. Diallo; K. Innui; R. N. Sharma; G. Libeau; J. A. Thevasagayam; A. Brüning; R. P. Kitching; J. Anderson; T. Barrett; W. P. Taylor

    1996-01-01

    The aetiological agent responsible for an epizootic of a rinderpest-like disease afflicting sheep and goats in three states of northern India was confirmed as peste des petits ruminants virus. To differentiate the virus from rinderpest a number of diagnostic tests were used, including immunocapture ELISA, specific oligonucleotide primers in a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence with virus specific monoclonal

  17. Rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Li; Jingyue Bao; Xiaodong Wu; Zhiliang Wang; Junwei Wang; Mingxia Gong; Chunju Liu; Jinming Li

    2010-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral disease of small ruminants. In this report, a one-step, single-tube, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PPRV. A set of six LAMP primers were designed based on the matrix gene sequence of PPRV

  18. Autonomous Interface Agents Henry Lieberman

    E-print Network

    the user and the agent "take turns" acting. Autonomous interface agents lead to a somewhat different design "agents" that are gaining currency are interface agents, software that actively assists a user in operating an interactive interface, and autonomous agents, software that takes action without user

  19. Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.

    PubMed

    Syed, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-15

    Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

  20. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  1. Animateur 2D/3D-Illustrateur 3D Rendu des couleurs, des textures, des

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    spéciaux d'un produit ou d'un site grâce à des logiciels d'animation en 2D ou en 3D. Ce métier exige à la presse et l'édition, le DA élabore la charte graphique (choix des styles de caractères, taille des photos de rough (esquisse du projet) ou de story-board (scénario d'un film sous forme de BD). Il assure le

  2. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  3. Are Prescription Stimulants “Smart Pills”?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  4. Brain Stimulation in Poststroke Rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Alonso-Alonso; Felipe Fregni; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    2007-01-01

    Brain stimulation techniques provide a powerful means to modulate the function of specific neural structures, and show potential for future applications in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Recent studies have started to translate to the bedside the body of data gathered over the last few years on mechanisms underlying brain plasticity and stroke recovery. Both noninvasive and invasive brain stimulation

  5. FRACTURE STIMULATION IN ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    FRACTURE STIMULATION IN ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY of stimulation is induced shear on preexisting fractures, which increases their transmissibility by orders of magnitude. The processes that create fractured rock are discussed from the perspective of geology and rock

  6. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  7. Stimulation of mucus and nonparietal cell secretion by the E 2 prostaglandins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Bolton; Douglas Palmer; Max M. Cohen

    1978-01-01

    The effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 15-methyl prostaglandin E2 (15M), and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (16DM) on gastric mucus and nonparietal cell secretion in rats were measured. Alcian blue binding was used as a measure of gastric mucus. Applied topically, all three agents stimulated nonparietal cell secretion, and PGE2 and 16 DM stimulated the secretion of mucus, increasing the fraction in

  8. Caractrisation des systmesCaractrisation des systmes industriels

    E-print Network

    Histace, Aymeric

    Chapitre 3 Caractérisation des systèmesCaractérisation des systèmes industriels Aymeric Histace 1 Plan 1. Performances d'un système industriel 2. Etude temporelle 3. Etude fréquentielleq Aymeric comment concrètement les prévoir ou les mesurer pratiquement pour un système industriel donné. Aymeric

  9. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de science politique

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de science politique POL6523 - Diplomatie et affaires département de science politique (responsable du cours) · Nadja Pollaert, directrice générale, Fondation Paul System," in P. Kerr and G. Wiseman (dir) Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and Practices. New

  10. Modlisation multivarie des comportements risque des conducteurs d'automobile

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ~ 1 ~ Modélisation multivariée des comportements à risque des conducteurs d'automobile Mériem la probabilité de l'utilisation du téléphone portable au volant. Mots clés : Assurance automobile of phoning while driving. Key words: Car insurance, risky behavior, survey, trivariate probit model

  11. Expos de synthse Etude immunochimique des molcules du CMH des

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Exposé de synthèse Etude immunochimique des molécules du CMH des bovins (BoLA) D. Levy, J. Goyeneche C. Demeulemester M. Baquero INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, laboratoire pathologie et'histocompatibilité - réunion scientifique - structure - fonction Bovine CMH (BoLA) molecules : immunochemical study major

  12. Radiolabelled spiroperidol: Possible pituitary adenoma imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, C.A.; Marshall, J.C.; Lloyd, R.V.; Sherman, P.S.; Wieland, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. Detection currently depends on physical symptoms, elevated serum prolactin levels and CT scans. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas based on some functional characteristic of the tumor would be of considerable clinical value not only for early detection but also for monitoring of therapy. Tritiated spiroperidol (/sup 3/H-Sp) was selected for evaluation based on 1) the presence of D-2 receptors in normal anterior pituitary and adenoma tissue and 2) the high affinity of spiroperidol for D-2 receptors. Recent data have established that implantation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in Fischer F344 rats induced prolactin-secreting tumors in the pituitary. /sup 3/HSp was evaluated in pituitary tissue of both control and DES-treated rats. /sup 3/HSp concentration in normal female anterior pituitary tissue was found to be about 0.27% kg dose/g from 5 min to 4hrs. This value was about 10 times levels in cortex, cerebellum and striatum. In DES-treated rats the % kg dose/g values remained approximately the same. A 5-fold increase in serum prolactin was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ. The data suggests that although total pituitary weight has increased due to tumor growth (reflected in increased values for % dose/organ), the relative number of receptors per g of tissue has remained constant. This result is in agreement with observations of others on D-2 receptor concentration in prolactinomas.

  13. Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Reynolds, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, Atomic Oxygen Simulated Outgassing, consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge and, for reference, to the relative wake environment on the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of the various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and a optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to the RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  14. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  15. Healthcare Agents: Being One

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Preparing Your Advance Directives Storing Your Advance Directives Healthcare Agents: Being One Advocating for your loved one ... will be to communicate with your loved ones healthcare providers to ensure your loved ones' wishes are ...

  16. LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES UMR 8502 Centre Universitaire, Bât. 510 91405 Orsay cedex) 212503. #12;LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES UMR 8502 Centre Universitaire, Bât. 510 91405 Orsay cedex fundamental fine particle magnetism utilizing colloidal dispersions or ferrofluids as the medium for study

  17. STRUCTURE ET DFAUTS DES NANOTUBES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    STRUCTURE ET D�FAUTS DES NANOTUBES Pascale Launois Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (UMR CNRS://www.lps.u-psud.fr/Collectif/gr_23/themes/fullnano/en_fullnano.htm http://www.lps.u-psud.fr/Utilisateurs/launois/ PLAN 1. Nanotubes de carbone Structure Défauts Arrangement Autres nanofilaments 2. Nanotubes hétéroatomiques #12

  18. Ageismus – Sprachliche Diskriminierung des Alters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Undine Kramer

    Daniel Sanders, einer der bedeutendsten Lexikografen des 19. Jahrhunderts, wertete für sein Wörterbuch Quellen seit der Lutherzeit aus und\\u000a vermerkt im Wörterbuchartikel zu alt eine „bald lobende, bald tadelnde“ Bedeutung des Adjektivs. Sein Zeit- und Berufsgenosse Jacob Grimm benennt in seiner Rede über das Alter die zeitgenössischen Synonyme zu alt und Alter: „aus einheimischen schriftstellern liesze sich eine lange reihe

  19. DEFORMATIONS EQUIVARIANTES DES COURBES SEMISTABLES

    E-print Network

    Di Girolami, Cristina

    - portement par d´eformation des points du bord, les rev^etements stables. Il est fortement souhaitable de description heuristique des points du bord, et leur comportement par d´eformation. Par exemple, peut-on donner 2, on examine les probl`emes globaux, plus particuli`erement les interactions entre les obstructions

  20. Fonctionnement et restauration des milieux

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    préservation, la restauration et la valorisation des écosystèmes aquatiques ou à l'exercice des métiers de la fonctionnelle, biologie cellulaire et moléculaire, physiologie, écophysiologie, écologie), mais aussi de chimie

  1. Chemopreventive Agent Development

    Cancer.gov

    This group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The focus is to identify and develop agents with the potential to help detect, block, reverse, or delay early stages of cancer. Preclinical studies evaluate potential new drugs and combinations in model systems using emergent knowledge of genetic and biochemical mechanisms, while early phase trials emphasize pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety.

  2. des doublcls ainsi forms devraient tre plus petites que la vitesse des rayons B, de mme celles des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    88 des doublcls ainsi formés devraient être plus petites que la vitesse des rayons B, de même celles des rayons secondaires qu'ils libèrent en se brisant. Ceci est en désaccord avec les expériences des rayons B qui donnent naissance à ces pulsations, La théorie du professeur Thomson supprime cette

  3. Comptes Rendus des JNC 16 Toulouse 2009 Essais et simulations des mes Nomex sous des sollicitations de type

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comptes Rendus des JNC 16 Toulouse 2009 Essais et simulations des âmes Nomex sous des sollicitations de type statique et fatigue Experimental tests and prediction of Nomex cores under statique en cisaillement hors plan des âmes nids d'abeilles Nomex® lors de sollicitations de fatigue. La

  4. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A. [AT& T Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  5. Systemic Sublingual Delivery of Octreotide Acetate Utilizing Low-Current Oral Electrical Stimulation in Rabbits

    E-print Network

    Bolch, Christina M.

    2012-10-19

    biological warfare agents such as anthrax, nerve agents, smallpox, and Ebola. On a broader scale, patients taking biologics or drugs for ailments such as cancer and autoimmune diseases will benefit from alternatives to intravenous injections.1... membrane is thought to act primarily by electroosmosis and electrorepulsion, which occurs when an electric field repels compounds of like charges.18,21,30 3.2 Orotransmucosal Electrical Stimulation Iontophoretic applications in the oral mucosa...

  6. Qualit germinative des semences de pois -I. Dveloppement de la gousse et des graines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualité germinative des semences de pois - I. Développement de la gousse et des graines : incidences sur la germination des semences avec ou sans séchage Zohreh RACHIDIAN Yvon LE DEUNFF Institut étapes ; à chacune peuvent être asso- ciés des événements dans la croissance des graines. La germination

  7. Peroxidase antimicrobial system of human saliva: hypothiocyanite levels in resting and stimulated saliva.

    PubMed

    Tenovuo, J; Pruitt, K M; Thomas, E L

    1982-08-01

    The antimicrobial oxidizing agent hypothiocyanite ion (OSCN-) was measured in resting (drooling) and stimulated (expectorated) whole saliva. Stimulation of the saliva flow rate resulted in a rapid decrease in OSCN- concentration, whereas the thiocyanate ion (SCN-) concentration and peroxidase activity were increased. The decrease in OSCN- levels was greater than could be accounted for by dilution of the whole saliva volume. Assuming that the antimicrobial activity of the salivary peroxidase system is proportional to OSCN- concentration, this system may be more effective in resting saliva than in stimulated saliva. PMID:6955343

  8. Vagal Nerve Stimulation Therapy: What Is Being Stimulated?

    PubMed Central

    Kember, Guy; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Armour, John A.; Zamir, Mair

    2014-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity. PMID:25479368

  9. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  10. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  11. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve muscle strength for over a century. Bigelow reported in 1894, for example, the use of electrical stimulation on a young man for the purpose of increasing muscle strength. Employing a rapidly alternating sinusoidal induced current and a dynamometer for strength testing, Bigelow reported that the total lifting capacity of a patient increased from 4328 pounds to 4639 pounds after only 25 minutes of stimulation. In 1965, Massey et al. reported on the use of an Isotron electrical stimulator that emitted a high frequency current. Interestingly enough, the frequencies used by Massey et al. and the frequencies used by Bigelow in 1894 were in the same range of frequencies reported by Kots as being the most effective in strength development. It would seem the Russian secret of high frequency electrical stimulation for strength development, then, is not a modern development at all.

  12. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, P C; Diallo, A

    1990-12-01

    The peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is proving to be a disease which has an increasingly significant economic impact on a number of countries in Africa and the Middle East, and possibly also on the Indian sub-continent. The antigenic relationships which exist between the PPR and rinderpest viruses pose problems for diagnosis which complicates rinderpest control and eradication programmes. Progress has recently been made in regard to diagnosis (specific nucleic probes and monoclonal antibodies), as well as control (homologous vaccine). International legislation remains to be established and epidemiological surveys should be conducted in order to determine the exact geographical distribution of the disease. PMID:2132714

  13. Des Moines Water Works

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

  14. JAMA Patient Page: Deep Brain Stimulation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Deep Brain Stimulation D eep brain stimulation ( DBS ) is ... Disorders and Stroke www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders /deep_brain_stimulation INFORM YOURSELF To find this and ...

  15. Tactile Feeling Display using Functional Electrical Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Tachi, Susumu

    Tactile Feeling Display using Functional Electrical Stimulation Hiroyuki KAJIMOTO, Naoki KAWAKAMI, electrocutaneous, array elec- trodes, anodic stimulation, functional electrical stimula- tion 1. Introduction an electro-cutaneous display which stimulate three types of mechanoreceptors in human skin separate- ly. We

  16. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The following are included: review of available data from previous fracturing stimulation operations, stimulation process variables, fracturing fluid design, hydraulic fracture design, stimulation case histories, and selected bibliography. (MHR)

  17. NEUROMARKETING ET NEUROSCIENCES AU SERVICE DES PUBLICITAIRES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 NEUROMARKETING ET NEUROSCIENCES AU SERVICE DES PUBLICITAIRES : QUESTIONNEMENTS ETHIQUES Didier neuromarketing et des neurosciences au service des publicitaires soulève immanquablement des questions éthiques débats éthiques entre les personnes adeptes du neuromarketing (les "pro-neuromarketing") et les "anti-neuromarketing

  18. Analyse thermographique du comportement des matriaux

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    transfert et de traitement des images infrarouges, rendant plus conviviale l'utilisation des nouveaux de degré Celsius. L'intérêt de la thermographie pour le mécanicien vient du fait que la déformation d traitement des données infrarouges. En effet, cette analyse s'appuie sur une mesure des effets (les

  19. MINES ParisTech Centre des Matriaux

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    instructions scientifiques, des conseils concrets, des encouragements et pour ´etaient tr`es patience et compr´eaires pour la r´ealisation de diff´erents ´equipements. Soumis `a une irradiation neutronique induite par le parti- culier l'apparition de d´efauts d'irradiation comme des boucles interstitielles, des amas

  20. DTERMINATION QUANTITATIVE DES DENSITS LEVES DES DISLOCATIONS DANS DES MONOCRISTAUX DE GERMANIUM

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    GERMANIUM PAR DIFFUSION D'ATOMES MARQUÉS Par MAREK BRAFMAN, OLGA KRUSZEWSKA, WALDEMAR WRONSKI et KAROL'exemple des monocristaux de germanium et comparaison des résultats obtenus avec les mêmes déterminations measurement of the density of the autoradio- grams. The method is illustrated by example of germanium

  1. Agents & ALifeAgents & ALife Artificial LifeArtificial Life

    E-print Network

    Hawick, Ken

    -state phase space systems thatCannot (?) pre-state phase space systems that include life?include life? HowAgents & ALifeAgents & ALife Artificial LifeArtificial Life Thumbing its Nose atThumbing its NoseMassey University #12;Agents & ALifeAgents & ALife QuestionsQuestions Philosophy and Life - what is it

  2. Intolerability of cobalt salt as erythropoietic agent.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Bastian; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Unfair athletes seek ways to stimulate erythropoiesis, because the mass of haemoglobin is a critical factor in aerobic sports. Here, the potential misuse of cobalt deserves special attention. Cobalt ions (Co(2+) ) stabilize the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that increase the expression of the erythropoietin (Epo) gene. Co(2+) is orally active, easy to obtain, and inexpensive. However, its intake can bear risks to health. To elaborate this issue, a review of the pertinent literature was retrieved by a search with the keywords 'anaemia', 'cobalt', 'cobalt chloride', 'erythropoiesis', 'erythropoietin', 'Epo', 'side-effects' and 'treatment', amongst others. In earlier years, cobalt chloride was administered at daily doses of 25 to 300?mg for use as an anti-anaemic agent. Co(2+) therapy proved effective in stimulating erythropoiesis in both non-renal and renal anaemia, yet there were also serious medical adverse effects. The intake of inorganic cobalt can cause severe organ damage, concerning primarily the gastrointestinal tract, the thyroid, the heart and the sensory systems. These insights should keep athletes off taking Co(2+) to stimulate erythropoiesis. PMID:24039233

  3. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  4. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-06-24

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l’on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  5. Development of stimulation diagnostic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project is to apply Sandia's expertise and technology towards the development of stimulation diagnostic technology in the areas of in situ stress, natural fracturing, stimulation processes and instrumentation systems. Initial work has concentrated on experiment planning for a site where hydraulic fracturing could be evaluated and design models and fracture diagnostics could be validated and improved. Important issues have been defined and new diagnostics, such as inclinometers, identified. In the area of in situ stress, circumferential velocity analysis is proving to be a useful diagnostic for stress orientation. Natural fracture studies of the Frontier formation are progressing; two fracture sets have been found and their relation to tectonic events have been hypothesized. Analyses of stimulation data have been performed for several sites, primarily for in situ stress information. Some new ideas in stimulation diagnostics have been proposed; these ideas may significantly improve fracture diagnostic capabilities.

  6. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  7. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  8. Wireless Magnetothermal Deep Brain Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ritchie

    Wireless deep brain stimulation of well-defined neuronal populations could facilitate the study of intact brain circuits and the treatment of neurological disorders. Here we demonstrate minimally-invasive and remote neural ...

  9. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  10. Emerging Neural Stimulation Technologies for Bladder Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Woong; Kim, Daejeong; Yoo, Sangjin; Lee, Hyungsup; Lee, Gu-Haeng; Nam, Yoonkey

    2015-01-01

    In the neural engineering field, physiological dysfunctions are approached by identifying the target nerves and providing artificial stimulation to restore the function. Neural stimulation and recording technologies play a central role in this approach, and various engineering devices and stimulation techniques have become available to the medical community. For bladder control problems, electrical stimulation has been used as one of the treatments, while only a few emerging neurotechnologies have been used to tackle these problems. In this review, we introduce some recent developments in neural stimulation technologies including microelectrode array, closed-loop neural stimulation, optical stimulation, and ultrasound stimulation. PMID:25833475

  11. Cannabinoids: potential anticancer agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Guzmán

    2003-01-01

    Cannabinoids — the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives — exert palliative effects in cancer patients by preventing nausea, vomiting and pain and by stimulating appetite. In addition, these compounds have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumour cells in culture and animal models by modulating key cell-signalling pathways. Cannabinoids are usually well tolerated, and do not

  12. Agent Server Architecture for the Ajanta Mobile-Agent System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeran M. Karnik; Anand R. Tripathi

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Ajanta, aJava-based mobile-agent system, and focuses in particularon the architecture of the agent server --the process which hosts agents and enables them toaccess resources, communicate, migrate etc. Theagent server's main components include an agentexecution environment, an agent transfer protocol,a resource access protocol, and an agent monitoringservice. Security is a major concern in the designof

  13. Neuroprotection trek--the next generation: neuromodulation I. Techniques--deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Russell J.

    2003-01-01

    Neuromodulation denotes controlled electrical stimulation of the central or peripheral nervous system. The three forms of neuromodulation described in this paper-deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation-were chosen primarily for their demonstrated or potential clinical usefulness. Deep brain stimulation is a completely implanted technique for improving movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, by very focal electrical stimulation of the brain-a technique that employs well-established hardware (electrode and pulse generator/battery). Vagus nerve stimulation is similar to deep brain stimulation in being well-established (for the treatment of refractory epilepsy), completely implanted, and having hardware that can be considered standard at the present time. Vagus nerve stimulation differs from deep brain stimulation, however, in that afferent stimulation of the vagus nerve results in diffuse effects on many regions throughout the brain. Although use of deep brain stimulation for applications beyond movement disorders will no doubt involve placing the stimulating electrode(s) in regions other than the thalamus, subthalamus, or globus pallidus, the use of vagus nerve stimulation for applications beyond epilepsy-for example, depression and eating disorders-is unlikely to require altering the hardware significantly (although stimulation protocols may differ). Transcranial magnetic stimulation is an example of an external or non-implanted, intermittent (at least given the current state of the hardware) stimulation technique, the clinical value of which for neuromodulation and neuroprotection remains to be determined.

  14. Diadenosine polyphosphate-stimulated gluconeogenesis in isolated rat proximal tubules.

    PubMed Central

    Edgecombe, M; Craddock, H S; Smith, D C; McLennan, A G; Fisher, M J

    1997-01-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates released into the extracellular environment influence a variety of metabolic and other cellular activities in a wide range of target tissues. Here we have studied the impact of these novel nucleotides on gluconeogenesis in isolated rat proximal tubules. Gluconeogenesis was stimulated following exposure of isolated proximal tubules to a range of adenine-containing nucleotides including ADP, ATP, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A. The concentration-dependence of ATP-, Ap3A- and Ap4A-mediated stimulation of gluconeogenesis was similar and was consistent with a role for these agents in the physiological control of renal metabolism. Nucleotide-stimulated gluconeogenesis was diminished in the presence of agents that interfere with phospholipase C activation or intracellular Ca2+ metabolism, indicative of a role for polyphosphoinositide-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in the mechanism of action of ATP, Ap3A and Ap4A. The characteristics of binding of [2-3H]Ap4A to renal plasma-membrane preparations suggest that Ap4A mediates its effects on proximal tubule gluconeogenesis via interaction with P2y-like purinoceptor(s) also recognized by extracellular ATP. PMID:9163337

  15. Electrical stimulation of beef carcasses

    E-print Network

    McKeith, Floyd Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    - ulation to determine +he various voltages, durations of s+imulation and sites in the slaughter-dressing sequence effect of' quality, palatability and muscle characteristics of' young and mature beef. Elec+rical stimulation parameters for all three.... . ion, (2) ES, a. fter split- ting, of sides and (3) untreated controls, uusplit carcasses or sides. Electrically stimulated carcasses had mor youth- ful, orighter -cclcred longiss mus muscles then control car- casses. Sides from ES carcasses...

  16. Magnetic brain stimulation: safety studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chokroverty; W. Hening; D. Wright; T. Walczak; J. Goldberg; R. Burger; J. Belsh; B. Patel; D. Flynn; S. Shah; R. Mero

    1995-01-01

    We describe short-term and long-term safety studies after low repetition rate magnetic brain stimulation in 10 normal subjects. We obtained quantitative EEG data, psychometric test results, serum prolactin and cortisol levels before and after brain stimulation. EEG and psychometric data were also obtained in 5 of these subjects 16–24 months after the initial experiment. Short-and long-term studies did not show

  17. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  18. Neuromodulation for depression: invasive and noninvasive (deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, trigeminal nerve stimulation).

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian A; Espinoza, Randall; Leuchter, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is among the most disabling illnesses and, despite best practices with medication and psychotherapy, many patients remain ill even after several treatment trials. For many of these patients with treatment-resistant or pharmacoresistant depression, treatment with neuromodulation offers an alternative. Options range from systems that are implanted to others that are entirely noninvasive. This review surveys recent literature to update readers on 3 particular interventions: deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and trigeminal nerve stimulation. Additional comparative research is needed to delineate the relative advantages of these treatments, and how best to match individual patients to neuromodulation intervention. PMID:24262903

  19. Medical defense against blistering chemical warfare agents. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.; Dunn, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    First used in World War I, chemical blistering agents present a serious medical threat that has stimulated renewed interest in the light of extensive use in recent conflicts. Current medical management cannot yet prevent or minimize injury from the principal agent of concern--sulfur mustard. Research directed at this goal depends on defining effective intervention in the metabolic alterations induced by exposure to sulfur mustard. Chemicals capable of inducing blisters, known as blistering or vesicating agents, have been widely known for more than 150 years. They were extensively used in chemical warfare during World War I, well before the development of the more deadly nerve agents 25 years later.

  20. Sensor networks with mobile agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lang Tong; Qing Zhao; Srihari Adireddy

    2003-01-01

    Architecture for large scale low power sensor network is proposed. Referred to as sensor networks with mobile agents (SENMA), SENMA exploit node redundancies by introducing mobile agents that communicate opportunistically with a large field of sensors. The addition of mobile agents shifts computationally intensive tasks away from primitive sensors to more powerful mobile agents, which enables energy efficient operations under

  1. Inactivation of the BSE agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Taylor

    2002-01-01

    In the studies carried out so far, the BSE agent has proved to be just as resistant as other TSE agents to inactivation by procedures such as autoclaving or exposure to sodium hydroxide that are effective with conventional microorganisms. However, in common with other TSE agents, the BSE agent appears to be effectively inactivated by exposure to sodium hypochlorite solutions

  2. Advances in gastrointestinal electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiyue; Chen, J D Z

    2002-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, analogous to pacing the human heart, is an attractive idea. This is because these organs, like the heart, have their own natural pacemakers, and the electrical signals they generate can be altered by externally delivering certain types of electric currents via intraluminal or serosal electrodes to certain areas of the GI tract. A number of studies on animals have been accomplished successfully to treat a variety of disease models, including gastroparesis, dumping, and short bowel syndrome. Over the past 10 years or so, electrical stimulation of the GI tract has received increasing attention among researchers and clinicians because of new techniques, such as implantable devices, and promising results achieved in treatment of gastroparesis and morbid obesity. The objective of this article is to review the advances in electrical stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract. First the electrophysiology of the GI tract and history of GI electrical stimulation are introduced. Then various methods of electrical stimulation of the stomach and small bowel in healthy animals and models of GI diseases are reviewed. Finally clinical applications of electrical stimulation to GI disorders and their possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:12739756

  3. Salmonella as an innovative therapeutic antitumor agent.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Wei; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Lack of specificity of the therapeutic agent is a primary limitation in the treatment of a tumor. The use of preferentially replicating bacteria as therapeutic agents is an innovative approach to tumor treatment. This is based on the observation that certain obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria are capable of multiplying selectively in tumors and inhibiting their growth. Bacteria have been employed as antitumor agents that are capable of preferentially amplifying within tumors and inhibiting their growth. Moreover, bacteria-derived factors have an immune-stimulation effect. Therefore, bacteria are able to transfer therapeutic genes into the tumor cells using their infective ability. Herein, we introduce the application of bacteria for tumor therapy and focus on Salmonella, which have been widely used for tumor therapy. Salmonella have mainly been applied as gene-delivery vectors, antitumor immune activators and tumor cell death inducers. This study will not only evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella for the treatment of tumor but will also elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antitumor activities mediated by Salmonella, which involve host immune responses and cellular molecular responses. PMID:25196596

  4. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de science politique

    E-print Network

    Leclercq, Remi

    doivent être effacés des langues modernes. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Émile, ou De l'éducation Premier article-huitième siècle : Machiavel, James Harrington, Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau et Immanuel Kant. Puis, nous

  5. Gastric Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for the treatment of chronic, symptomatic refractory gastroparesis and morbid obesity. Background Gastroparesis - Epidemiology Gastroparesis (GP) broadly refers to impaired gastric emptying in the absence of obstruction. Clinically, this can range from the incidental detection of delayed gastric emptying in an asymptomatic person to patients with severe nausea, vomiting and malnutrition. Symptoms of GP are nonspecific and may mimic structural disorders such as ulcer disease, partial gastric or small bowel obstruction, gastric cancer, and pancreaticobiliary disorders. Gastroparesis may occur in association with diabetes, gastric surgery (consequence of peptic ulcer surgery and vagotomy) or for unknown reasons (idiopathic gastroparesis). Symptoms include early satiety, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and weight loss. The majority of patients with GP are women. The relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the rate of gastric emptying is considered to be weak. Some patients with markedly delayed gastric emptying are asymptomatic and sometimes, severe symptoms may remit spontaneously. Idiopathic GP may represent the most common form of GP. In one tertiary referral retrospective series, the etiologies in 146 GP patients were 36% idiopathic, 29% diabetic, 13% postgastric surgery, 7.5% Parkinson’s disease, 4.8% collagen vascular disorders, 4.1% intestinal pseudoobstruction and 6% miscellaneous causes. The true prevalence of digestive symptoms in patients with diabetes and the relationship of these symptoms to delayed gastric emptying are unknown. Delayed gastric emptying is present in 27% to 58% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 30% with type 2 diabetes. However, highly variable rates of gastric emptying have been reported in type 1 and 2 diabetes, suggesting that development of GP in patients with diabetes is neither universal nor inevitable. In a review of studies examining gastric emptying in patients with diabetes compared to control patients, investigators noted that in many cases the magnitude of the delay in gastric emptying is modest. GP may occur as a complication of a number of different surgical procedures. For example, vagal nerve injury may occur in 4% to 40% of patients who undergo laparoscopic fundoplication1 for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The prevalence of severe, refractory GP is scantily reported in the literature. Using data from a past study, it has been estimated that the prevalence of severe, symptomatic and refractory GP in the United States population is 0.017%. Assuming an Ontario population of 13 million, this would correspond to approximately 2,000 people in Ontario having severe, symptomatic, refractory GP. The incidence of severe refractory GP estimated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is approximately 4,000 per year in the United States. This corresponds to about 150 patients in Ontario. Using expert opinion and FDA data, the incidence of severe refractory GP in Ontario is estimated to be about 20 to 150 per year. Treatment for Gastroparesis To date, there have been no long-term studies confirming the beneficial effects of maintaining euglycemia on GP symptoms. However, it has been suggested that consistent findings of physiologic studies in healthy volunteers and diabetes patients provides an argument to strive for near-normal blood glucose levels in affected diabetes patients. Dietary measures (e.g., low fibre, low fat food), prokinetic drugs (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide and erythromycin) and antiemetic or antinausea drugs (e.g, phenothiazines, diphenhydramine) are generally effective for symptomatic relief in the majority of patients with GP. For patients with chronic, symptomatic GP who are refractory to drug treatment, surgical options may include jejunostomy tube for feeding, gastrotomy tube for stomach decompression and pyloroplasty for gastric emptying. Few small studies

  6. Evaluation on the Antipruritic Role of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Pruritic Dermatoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Yuk Ming Tang; Loi Yuen Chan; Kuen Kong Lo; Tze Wai Wong

    1999-01-01

    Background: Pruritus is a common and sometimes distressing symptom in many dermatological conditions. Response to conventional pharmaceutical agents may not be satisfactory, and adverse effects are real problems. Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and adverse effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for ameliorating pruritus in patients with dermatoses. Methods: A prospective 1-week study using TENS given once daily

  7. Analysis of thermally stimulated processes in new phenanthroline derivatives suitable for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelipceanu, Marius; Cojocariu, Lucian; Graur, Adrian; Schrader, Sigurd

    2015-02-01

    Thermally stimulated processes have been studied in thin films of phenanthroline derives to describe the states that had been localized. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy had checked out before thin films of new pyrrolo[l,2-a][l,10] phenanthroline derivatives [1], in order to further applications in optoelectronic devices. The investigated compounds have an electronic band structure which is due to the substituent (R=NO2, Cl) induced transformations of molecular orbitals. Thermally stimulated discharge currents (TSDC) attested dipolar and charge transport mechanisms. Each TSDC peak has been assigned to elementary processes that are different utilizing in addition dielectric spectroscopy (DES), and the mean trap depths have been approximated from thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) curves.

  8. Musee des Horreurs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What is this Musee des Horreurs? Visitors will find out soon enough: it is a remarkable collection of 52 hand-colored lithograph caricatures of individuals involved in the Dreyfus Affair in France. These lithographs were originally produced from 1899 to 1900 by an artist who used the pseudonym V. Lenepveu and they document the anti-Semitic upsurge brought about by this well-known event. Those represented in the caricatures include prominent members of the Jewish community, Dreyfus supporters, and Republican statesmen placed on grotesque animal bodies. Visitors with an interest in the subject may wish to use the images in a class on graphic design, illustration, European history, or cultural affairs.

  9. Fiche technique Dtail des panneaux

    E-print Network

    Panneau 23 - Écabossage du cacao au Cameroun Panneau 24 - Culture du palmier à huile au Bénin Panneau 25 capital humain, les outils et la production font partie intégrante du patrimoine familial. L'essentiel des

  10. Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ammon

    1934-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

  11. Are "bath salts" the next generation of stimulant abuse?

    PubMed

    Winder, Gerald Scott; Stern, Nathan; Hosanagar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    "Bath salts" are stimulants with high abuse potential that are known to contain agents such as 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone and 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone). They are marketed locally and through online retailers as legitimate products in order to evade legal control and facilitate widespread distribution. They have been present in Europe since 2007 but are now becoming a burgeoning presence in American hospitals. Though preliminary efforts are underway in the United States to restrict their usage and distribution, there remains a general unawareness on the part of physicians regarding the drugs' physiological effects. While they mimic the effects of other known stimulants, they are not detected on standard urine screens. We present a clinical case that illustrates a typical pattern of usage along with a description of their basic chemistry, appearance, methods of delivery, withdrawal and intoxication characteristics, treatment recommendations, and areas for further research. PMID:22445773

  12. Space Travel Agent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Williams

    2010-11-29

    You are in charge of creating a travel brochure to a planet in our solar system. Travel Agent for the Solar System Introduction You are in charge of the new ?Travel the Solar System? account at Universe Travel Agency.

  13. E-Learning Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  14. Mobility control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1983-05-17

    Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

  15. Can agents close contracts?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances Brazier; Anja Oskamp; Maurice Schellekens; Niek Wijngaards

    2003-01-01

    One of the tasks of software agents on the Internet will be to close contracts on behalf of their owner. The closing of a contract is subject to liabilities. In this, there is no distinction between the real world and the virtual world. Like in the real world, within the virtual world a distinction has to be made between the

  16. Embodied mobile agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Tomlinson; Man Lok Yau; Eric Baumer

    2006-01-01

    The move in many societies toward individuals having multiple networked computational devices - workstations, notebooks computers, mobile phones, PDAs - radically changes the ways in which people engage those devices. However, we lack interaction paradigms that enable a coherent experience across these technologies. One possible approach to this problem involves the use of embodied mobile agents (EMAs), that is, graphically

  17. New antitumor agent — Spirobromin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Safonova; V. A. Chernov; S. M. Minakova; M. I. Dorokhova; L. G. Levkovskaya; T. A. Andreyanova; L. A. Serochkina; I. E. Mamaeva

    1983-01-01

    piperazinium dichloride (Ia) with the acid chloride of B-bromopropionic acid. Reaction was effected in aqueous medium or a medium of wa~er and ether with basic agents such as LiOH or NaHCO3 used as acceptors to bind the hydrogen chloride formed in the reaction process. N,N'\\

  18. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  19. Agents of Infection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michelle Ferro

    2012-06-15

    This is a collaborative lesson design by Lori Kern and Dawn Barone. This lesson focuses on infectious agents (fungus, bacteria, virus and parasites). Students will be able experience a hands-on activity to reinforce the concepts addressed in this benchmark.

  20. Comparison of mild stimulation and conventional stimulation in ART outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh; Shahnaz Ahmadi; Homa Oskouian; Elham Rahmani

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  To provide a treatment for particular condition that is the most effective treatment with the least risk and cost for the\\u000a patient we compared the efficacy of using clomiphene 100 mg + delayed low dose gonadotropin + flexible GnRH antagonist administration\\u000a for ovarian stimulation protocol and GnRH agonist + gonadotropin for stimulation protocol in IVF outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Clinical outcome of 243 women with regularly menstruation who were candidate

  1. The role of aromatase inhibitors in ameliorating deleterious effects of ovarian stimulation on outcome of infertility treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mitwally, Mohamed FM; Casper, Robert F; Diamond, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    Clinical utilization of ovulation stimulation to facilitate the ability of a couple to conceive has not only provided a valuable therapeutic approach, but has also yielded extensive information on the physiology of ovarian follicular recruitment, endometrial receptivity and early embryo competency. One of the consequences of the use of fertility enhancing agents for ovarian stimulation has been the creation of a hyperestrogenic state, which may influence each of these parameters. Use of aromatase inhibitors reduces hyperestrogenism inevitably attained during ovarian stimulation. In addition, the adjunct use of aromatase inhibitors during ovarian stimulation reduces amount of gonadotropins required for optimum stimulation. The unique approach of reducing hyperestrogenism, as well as lowering amount of gonadotropins without affecting the number of mature ovarian follicles is an exciting strategy that could result in improvement in the treatment outcome by ameliorating the deleterious effects of the ovarian stimulation on follicular development, endometrial receptivity, as well as oocyte and embryo quality. PMID:16202169

  2. Validating the Autonomous Science Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Schaffer, Steve; Tran, Danny; Rabideau, Gregg; Sherwood, Rob; Bote, Robert; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu; Shulman, Seth; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Boyer, Darrell

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the validation process for the Autonomous Science Agent, a software agent that will fly onboard the EO-1 spacecraft from 2003-2004. This agent will recognize science events, retarget the spacecraft to respond to the science events, and reduce data downlink to only the highest value science data. The autonomous science agent has been designed using a layered architectural approach with specific redundant safeguards to reduce the risk of an agent malfunction to the EO-1 spacecraft. This 'safe' design is also in the process of being thoroughly validated by informal validation methods and extensive testing. This paper describes the analysis used to define agent safety, elements of the design that increase the safety of the agent, and the process being used to validate agent safety prior to the agent software controlling the spacecraft.

  3. Frdric Truax, Coordonnateur des stages Dpartement de communication, Universit de Montral

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    Frédéric Truax, Coordonnateur des stages Département de communication, Université de Montréal Bureau B-415, Pavillon Marie-Victorin, Tél. : 514 343-6111, poste 2763 frederic.truax@umontreal.ca STAGE montréalais. Ses programmes de soutien et d'accompagnement stimulent l'innovation tout en encourageant la

  4. Wireless magnetothermal deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ritchie; Romero, Gabriela; Christiansen, Michael G; Mohr, Alan; Anikeeva, Polina

    2015-03-27

    Wireless deep brain stimulation of well-defined neuronal populations could facilitate the study of intact brain circuits and the treatment of neurological disorders. Here, we demonstrate minimally invasive and remote neural excitation through the activation of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 by magnetic nanoparticles. When exposed to alternating magnetic fields, the nanoparticles dissipate heat generated by hysteresis, triggering widespread and reversible firing of TRPV1(+) neurons. Wireless magnetothermal stimulation in the ventral tegmental area of mice evoked excitation in subpopulations of neurons in the targeted brain region and in structures receiving excitatory projections. The nanoparticles persisted in the brain for over a month, allowing for chronic stimulation without the need for implants and connectors. PMID:25765068

  5. Le Pseudomonas: Experience du Centre des Brules D’Annaba et Revue de la Litterature

    PubMed Central

    Chaibdraa, A.; Medjellekh, M.S.; Saouli, A.; Bentakouk, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Le Pseudomonasest un agent pathogène à l'origine d'infections nosocomiales graves dans les centres des brûlés. Son opportunisme et sa virulence en font une préoccupation majeure. Ce travail se propose d'évaluer la place de cette bactérie dans l'écologie bactérienne locale et d'en apprécier la sensibilité aux antibiotiques. Cette étude rétrospective préliminaire porte sur la période de juin 2003 à décembre 2005. Elle intéresse l'ensemble des prélèvements bactériologiques ayant pu être réalisés au centre des brûlés d'Annaba. L'effectif est de 633 micro-organismes isolés dont 128 Pseudomonas (20,2%): 127 aeruginosa (99,2%), 1 fluorescens (0,8%); distribution selon le site de prélèvement: écouvillon (87,5%), prélèvement trachéobronchique (4,6%), hémoculture (3,1%), cathéters (1,6%), urine (1,6%) et sonde urinaire (1,6%). Le pyocyanique se situe après le staphylocoque pour les prélèvements précoces et repasse en tête après un séjour supérieur à une semaine, où 89% des pyocyaniques sont identifiés. Il est en première position dans les pneumopathies sous ventilation assistée invasive. Il se classe troisième dans les hémocultures et les cultures de cathéters. Dans les infections urinaires il est devancé par Candida et la flore périnéale. Les 128 antibiogrammes regroupent 314 réponses sensibles. La sensibilité à plus de deux antibiotiques est de 68%, à deux antibiotiques 24% et à un antibiotique 8%. Seules quatre molécules restent actives: ciprofloxacine > péfloxacine > pipéracilline > ceftazidime. Une résistance absolue est retrouvée pour trois Pseudomonas (2,4%). Le pronostic sévère des infections nosocomiales à pyocyanique et les risques d'options thérapeutiques très limitées font toute leur gravité, d'où l'intérêt de respecter des règles strictes de prescription des antibiotiques et des mesures de prévention. PMID:21991140

  6. Reference Number Non-invasive magnetic stimulation is an emerging technology to stimulate

    E-print Network

    stimulation. Electrical stimulation, however, applies a current directly through the skin of the patient, i magnetic stimulation did not yet replace electrical stimulation in neuro- logical rehabilitation of the patient. This invention offers the possibility to replace the electrical stimulation by the painless

  7. Intramuscular electrical stimulation: Tissue damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Thomas Mortimer; David Kaufman; Uros Roessmann

    1980-01-01

    Coiled wire electrodes have been evaluated for intramuscular electrical stimulation. Monophasic cathodal stimulation at average\\u000a current densities not exceeding 10 ?amp\\/mm2 (0.2 ?C\\/mm2\\/stimulus pulse at 50 Hz) shows no increased tissue trauma over that incurred by passive implant. At average current densities\\u000a greater than 50 ?amp\\/mm2 (1.0 ?C\\/mm2 \\/stimulus pulse at 50 Hz), extensive tissue damage occurs. The muscle tissue

  8. Deep brain stimulation: Current status.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay; Sarma, Neelav

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, applications of deep brain stimulation (DBS) have expanded rapidly in the field of neurosciences. The most common indications for DBS are Parkinson's disease, medically refractory seizures, essential tremors, and primary dystonia. This device has also been used as an investigational tool in patients having Tourette's syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and refractory seizures. In the field of psychiatry, DBS has been used for the treatment of refractory obsessive compulsive disorder and depression. The complications are mainly related to surgery, the device, and its stimulation. This article provides an overview of the current status and recent advances in the field of DBS. PMID:25751463

  9. Proteolysis in human erythrocytes is triggered only by selected oxidative stressing agents.

    PubMed

    Di Cola, D; Sacchetta, P; Battista, P

    1988-01-01

    Human erythrocytes have been treated with different agents producing oxidative stress. Diamide, tetrathionate, chromate, cystamine and iodate preferentially influenced the cellular redox state by oxidation of free and protein thiol groups leaving the redox state of hemoglobin virtually unaffected. None of these compounds was able to stimulate the proteolysis. By contrast, phenylhydrazine, nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, ter-butylhydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide and copper-ascorbate caused a noticeable oxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin. These latter agents, except nitrite and copper-ascorbate, triggered proteolysis. Identical results have been obtained in a ghost-free hemolysate. The fraction containing the proteolytic activity was isolated from hemolysate and tested on native or oxidant-treated hemoglobin. The proteolysis was stimulated by all agents able to produce methemoglobin. It is concluded that proteolysis correlated to an unbalance of cellular redox state. The results obtained with isolated and recombined fractions suggests that increased proteolysis does not depend on the removal of the effect of protease(s) inhibitor(s). Since all agents stimulating proteolysis are able to generate free radicals, it seems that protein breakdown is triggered by the direct effect of these intermediates on proteins (mostly hemoglobin) without the involvement of radical species produced in the membranes by action of organic hydroperoxides. In addition, since nitrite and copper-ascorbate, which also oxidize hemoglobin by radical generation, are unable to stimulate proteolysis, it should be concluded that protein degradation induced by oxidative stress is a complex event induced only by specific agents. PMID:3049442

  10. Agent-based Simulation Platforms Agent-based Simulation Platforms

    E-print Network

    Boone, Randall B.

    Agent-based Simulation Platforms Agent-based Simulation Platforms: Review and Development 1081 Fritz Ave. McKinleyville, CA 95519, USA Five software platforms for scientific agent-based models documentation. It is designed primarily for ABMs of mobile individuals with local interactions in a grid space

  11. Clinical studies of plaque control agents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lobene, R R

    1979-12-01

    Dental plaque is massed packed bacterial cells which accumulate on the supra- and subgingival surfaces of the teeth as well as on the oral mucosa. The microorganisms of plaque have been shown to be associated with both dental caries and periodontal disease. This overview of clinical studies of plaque control agents reviews the properties and effects of chemical compounds which have demonstrated a potential for the control of plaque microorganisms. The search for clinically effective antiplaque agents has been stimulated by findings in laboratory and animal studies of plaque dynamics. Based upon these in vitro and in vivo experiments, chemotherapeutic agents such as antibiotics, antiseptics, enzymes, detergents, bacteriosides, antimetabolites, and oxidizing agents have been evaluated against human plaque microorganisms using the ultimate biological model -- man. Continued study of chemotherapeutic agents should be encouraged because many of these drugs have been shown to be safe for human use and may require only the development of a delivery system to potentiate their concentration in a specific local site. Use of these chemotherapeutic agents, which can be self-administered, becomes an attractive way of providing the public with a cost-effective method of preventing caries and periodontal disease. PMID:117032

  12. Oral hypoglycemic agent update.

    PubMed

    Krall, L P; Chabot, V A

    1978-07-01

    The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of oral hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the oral agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The oral agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the oral agents have marked limitations and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available oral agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This limits the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the oral agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the oral agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the oral agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other conditions, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675

  13. Attentive Presentation Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Eichner; Helmut Prendinger; Elisabeth André; Mitsuru Ishizuka

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes an infotainment application where life- like characters present two MP3 players in a virtual showroom. The key feature of the system is that the presenter agents analyze the user's gaze-behavior in real-time and may thus adapt the presentation flow ac- cordingly. In particular, a user's (non-)interest in interface objects and also preference in decision situations is estimated

  14. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  15. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  16. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P. (Coram, NY); Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  17. Agents for Traffic Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Kesting; Martin Treiber; Dirk Helbing

    2008-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a classical example of a multi-agent system in which autonomous drivers operate in a shared environment. The article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in microscopic traffic modeling and the implications for simulation techniques. We focus on the short-time dynamics of car-following models which describe continuous feedback control tasks (acceleration and braking) and models for discrete-choice tasks

  18. Technique de prparation des minraux argileux en vue de l'analyse par diffraction des Rayons X

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    des Rayons X et introduction à l'interprétation des diagrammes Médard Thiry Noëlia Carrillo Christine argileux en vue de l'analyse par diffraction des Rayons X et introduction à l'interprétation des diagrammes diffraction des Rayons X et introduction à l'interprétation des diagrammes. Rapport Technique N° RT131010MTHI

  19. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  20. Hrp mutant bacteria as biocontrol agents

    PubMed Central

    Hanemian, Mathieu; Zhou, Binbin; Deslandes, Laurent; Marco, Yves; Trémousaygue, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture necessitates development of environmentally safe methods to protect plants against pathogens. Among these methods, application of biocontrol agents has been efficiently used to minimize disease development. Here we review current understanding of mechanisms involved in biocontrol of the main Gram-phytopathogenic bacteria-induced diseases by plant inoculation with strains mutated in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes. These mutants are able to penetrate plant tissues and to stimulate basal resistance of plants. Novel protection mechanisms involving the phytohormone abscisic acid appear to play key roles in the biocontrol of wilt disease induced by Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis thaliana. Fully understanding these mechanisms and extending the studies to other pathosystems are still required to evaluate their importance in disease protection. PMID:23887499

  1. Composition en acides amins des aliments et des rsidus de fermentation in vitro

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Composition en acides aminés des aliments et des résidus de fermentation in vitro M. ANTONGIOVANNI in vitro fermentation with rumen inoculum, and of the faeces relative to an in vivo digestibility trial run fermentation in vitro comme l'ont fait Dennison et Philips (1983) et des fèces. Pour des raisons de place, nous

  2. TUDE DE LA VARIATION DU NOMBRE ET DES DIMENSIONS DES FIBRES MUSCULAIRES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    caractéristiques histolo- giques des muscles soleus, accessovius latissimi dovsi, extensor carpi vadialis longus et sont mesurés sur les4muscles. Les 2 derniers sont mesurés seulement sur les muscles soleus et accesso Communs. Le muscle soleus des produits des croisements présente des caractères intermédiaires ou proches

  3. TUDE DES RAYONS DE RECUL RADIOACTIFS PAR LA MTHODE DES DTENTES DE WILSON Par F. JOLIOT.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ÉTUDE DES RAYONS DE RECUL RADIOACTIFS PAR LA MÉTHODE DES DÉTENTES DE WILSON Par F. JOLIOT. Institut'atomes radioactifs et les trajectoires des rayons de recul. Le parcours des rayons de recul de An et AeA a été mesuré diminue tandis que son pouvoir ionisant augmente. Le rayon de recul lors d'un choc subit une déviation

  4. La nature des rayons 03B3 et des rayons X Par W. H. BRAGG

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    213 La nature des rayons 03B3 et des rayons X Par W. H. BRAGG Université d'Adélaïde. 2014 faites par le Dr Mad- sen et moi, sur lus propriétés des rayons secondaires dus aux rayons y. Un travail travers de la matière, il apparaît des rayons B qui se meuvent d'abord dans la même direction que les

  5. LA SPECTROGRAPHIE DES PHNOMNES D'ABSORPTION DES RAYONS X1; Par M. DE BROGLIE.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    11 LA SPECTROGRAPHIE DES PHÉNOMÈNES D'ABSORPTION DES RAYONS X1; Par M. DE BROGLIE. 1. A partir du moment où l'étude des rayons secondaires des rayons X a permis aux physiciens anglais, Barkla, Kaye rayons de qualité définie, il a été possible de parvenir aux résultats d'ensemble suivants : . v , FIG. 1

  6. APPLICATION DE LA TOPOGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X A L'TUDE DES MTAUX

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    311. APPLICATION DE LA TOPOGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X A L'ÉTUDE DES MÉTAUX Par G On rappelle le principe des différentes méthodes de topographie par diffraction des rayons X : méthode de Berg améliorations à apporter dans le cadre de l'appareillage : tubes à rayons X plus puissants, intensificateurs d

  7. Les limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 Les limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des conchyliculteurs en limites de la couverture des risques en aquaculture : le cas des conchyliculteurs en France Véronique Le in defining risks in aquaculture and we propose a classification that takes the specificities into account. We

  8. La transmission des textes mathmatiques : l'exemple des lments d'Euclide Bernard VITRAC

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 La transmission des textes mathématiques : l'exemple des Éléments d'Euclide Bernard VITRAC Les'erreurs d'inattention par lassitude, facilité de corrections parfois abusives3. I. Les Éléments d'Euclide Le cas des Éléments d'Euclide, en treize Livres est, à bien des égards, exemplaire : · le traité a connu

  9. Newer antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Türel, Ozden

    2011-03-01

    The frequency and spectrum of fungal infections have been increasing steadily over the last several decades. The reason for this increase may be explained by the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients due to malignancies, AIDS, invasive surgical procedures and transplantation. In parallel with this increase, several therapeutic options have become available but problems such as intrinsic or acquired antifungal resistance have led researchers to develop new antifungal drugs with expanded effectiveness. Reduced toxicity, enhancement of bioavailability and counteraction of resistance are features desired by clinicians. The aim of this article is to summarize the studies involving isavuconazole, ravuconazole, albaconazole, aminocandin and some other investigational antifungal agents. Most data on the clinical use of ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole are mainly available as meeting abstracts or limited to animal studies or Phase I/II studies in humans. These new antifungal agents in development offer extended half-lives, possibly reduced drug interaction profiles and good tolerance. In addition to activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp., they have a broad spectrum of activity including activity against resistant and emerging pathogens. The real possibilities of these agents will only be fully understood after adequate randomized clinical trials. PMID:21417872

  10. Pituitary apoplexy after stimulation tests.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, M; Rana, Z; Allen, S

    1994-06-01

    Pituitary apoplexy occurs after infarction of a non-neoplastic pituitary or sudden expansion of an adenoma following haemorrhage or infarction. It usually occurs spontaneously but can follow a number of causes including pituitary stimulation tests. Since this complication is potentially life-threatening, the benefits of subjecting patients who might have pituitary tumours to such tests should be considered. PMID:8029166

  11. Activities to Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas B.; Schroeder, Connie

    1989-01-01

    Describes sample vocational activities that stimulate critical thinking: (1) setting up an accounting system (business education); (2) developing a marketing plan (marketing education); (3) developing a fertilizer application plan (agricultural education); (4) making the best purchase (home economics); (5) planning a repair/remodeling project…

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie A. Garvey; Volker Mall

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set

  13. Gas stimulation studies at LASL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Carter; B. W. Olinger; N. E. Vanderborgh; T. E. Springer

    1977-01-01

    Hugoniots, dynamic spall strengths, wave profiles on shock and release, and ultrasonic elastic constants were determined as functions of material density and bedding orientation for Devonian shales. These data form the basis of predictive explosive stimulation technology. Weapons-developed shaped charges using heavy metal liners are investigated for downhole use in order to produce a horizontal manifold system leading to a

  14. CAMPAGNE DE RECRUTEMENT DES ENSEIGNANTS-CHERCHEURS -SESSION SYNCHRONISEE 2014 -LISTE des MEMBRES des CDS POSTES DE MAITRES DE CONFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Arleo, Angelo

    Mathématiques, bâtiment Fermat département de Mathématiques et applications Ecole Normale Supérieure InriaCAMPAGNE DE RECRUTEMENT DES ENSEIGNANTS-CHERCHEURS - SESSION SYNCHRONISEE 2014 - LISTE des MEMBRES des CDS POSTES DE MAITRES DE CONFERENCE Numéro Poste Nature Concours Section(s) CNU Profil Labo d

  15. FACULT DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES -SORBONNE

    E-print Network

    Pellier, Damien

    FACULTÉ DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES - SORBONNE LICENCE EN SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES ANNÉE UNIVERSITAIRE 2013-2014 MENTION SCIENCES DE L'ÉDUCATION L3 Faculté des Sciences humaines et sociales

  16. FACULT DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES -SORBONNE

    E-print Network

    Pellier, Damien

    FACULTÉ DES SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES - SORBONNE LICENCE EN SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES ANNÉE UNIVERSITAIRE 2013-2014 MENTION SCIENCES DU Vaillant 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt L3, M1 et M2 Faculté des Sciences

  17. DES JUIFS LACS EN FRANCE Liliane Kuczynski

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    familiaux. Des universitaires en vue, des écrivains ont retracé le leur : Albert Memmi le premier, Edgar Morin plus tard. Celui-ci, dans un article qui fit grand bruit (1989), définit ces « juifs laïcisés

  18. Des Lacs River and Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The Des Lacs River coming in to the Souris River. Des Lacs River is the darker water, which is sediment and the Souris River is the lighter water. >Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  19. Signaling mechanisms of inhibition of phospholipase D activation by CHS111 in formyl peptide-stimulated neutrophils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-Chu Chang; Tai-Hung Huang; Chi-Sen Chang; Ya-Ru Tsai; Ruey-Hseng Lin; Pin-Wen Lee; Mei-Feng Hsu; Li-Jiau Huang; Jih-Pyang Wang

    2011-01-01

    A selective phospholipase D (PLD) inhibitor 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI) inhibited the O2? generation and cell migration but not degranulation in formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated rat neutrophils. A novel benzyl indazole compound 2-benzyl-3-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)indazole (CHS-111), which inhibited O2? generation and cell migration, also reduced the fMLP- but not phorbol ester-stimulated PLD activity (IC50 3.9±1.2?M). CHS-111 inhibited the interaction of PLD1 with ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)

  20. Liability for Autonomous Agent Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carey Heckman; Jacob O. Wobbrock

    1999-01-01

    Though exciting scientifically, autonomous agent design can result in legal liability. This paper surveys those legal concerns, focusing on issues arising from the unique qualities of agents not found in conventional software. Informed designers can more effectively reduce their liability exposure and influence emerging agent liability law and policies.

  1. Liability for autonomous agent design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carey Heckman; Jacob O. Wobbrock

    1998-01-01

    Though exciting scientifically, autonomous agent design can result in legal liability. This paper surveys those legal concerns, focusing on issues arising from the unique qualities of agents not found in conventional software. Informed designers can more effectively reduce their liability exposure and influence emerging agent liability law and policies.

  2. Mobile Agents for Mobile Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Rus; David Kotz; George Cybenko; Robert Gray; Saurab Nog

    1996-01-01

    Mobile agents are programs that can move through a network under their own control, migratingfrom host to host and interacting with other agents and resources on each. We argue thatthese mobile, autonomous agents have the potential to provide a convenient, efficient and robustprogramming paradigm for distributed applications, particularly when partially connected computersare involved. Partially connected computers include mobile computers such

  3. Countermeasures for mobile agent security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne A. Jansen

    2000-01-01

    Security is an important issue for the widespread deployment of applications based on software agent technology. It is generally agreed that without the proper countermeasures in place, use of agent-based applications will be severely impeded. However, not all applications require the same set of countermeasures, nor can they depend entirely on the agent system to provide them. Instead, countermeasures are

  4. Software Agent Technology: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chrysanthi E. Georgakarakou; Anastasios A. Economides

    This chapter provides an overview of the rapidly evolving area of software agents and presents the basic aspects of applying the agent technology to virtual enterprises (VE). As the field of software agents can appear chaotic, this chapter briefly introduces the key issues rather than present an in-depth analysis and critique of the field. In addition to, this chapter investigates

  5. Hydroxypyridonate and hydroxypyrimidinone chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Doble, Daniel M.; Sunderland, Christopher J.; Thompson, Marlon

    2005-01-25

    The present invention provides hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidone chelating agents. Also provides are Gd(III) complexes of these agents, which are useful as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The invention also provides methods of preparing the compounds of the invention, as well as methods of using the compounds in magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  6. Launch commit criteria monitoring agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S. Semmel; Steven R. Davis; Kurt W. Leucht; Daniel A. Rowe; Andrew O. Kelly; Ladislau Bölöni

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when

  7. Decision making soft computing agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitar Vassilev Lakov; Mariana Vassileva Vassileva

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes a soft computing agent approach to intelligent control of remote learning. It presents a special type of decision making soft computing agent applied to the selection of appropriate groups for definition of individual remote learning purposes. Soft computing agents are used to perform two tasks: optimal partitioning of distributed data bases in accordance with a grade of

  8. Multi-Agent Planning Introduction

    E-print Network

    Moraitis, Pavlos

    Multi-Agent Planning Introduction Pavlos Moraitis #12;Introductory Comments · Multi-Agent (MAS) planning is the problem of finding a plan of action for a set of agents in order to reach a set of goals as Distributed Planning to emphasize the distributed nature of the problem · MAS planning is not only reasoning

  9. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)] [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)] [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  10. Archives de sciences sociales des religions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives de sciences sociales des religions Numéro 131-132 (juillet - décembre 2005) Varia », Archives de sciences sociales des religions [En ligne], 131-132 | juillet - décembre 2005, mis en ligne le religions #12;Genèse des émotions au sein des Assemblées de Dieu polynésiennes 2 Archives de sciences

  11. LA VITESSE DE REMONTE DES SPERMATOZODES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    vivants se trouvent dans la partie terminale de la trompe au moment où l'oeuf est pondu. Pour que cette dans la partie terminale des trompes. On relève des contradictions analogues dans les résultats obtenus spermatozoïdes dans la partie supérieure des trompes de Fallope, 2 h 25 m. après le coït. C'est pourquoi nous

  12. Rentre des tudiants UNIVERSIT BLAISE PASCAL

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    Rentrée des étudiants étrangers UNIVERSIT� BLAISE PASCAL www.univ-bpclermont.fr COMMUNIQU� DE PRESSE Accueil des étudiants étrangers de l'Université Blaise Pascal Les échanges internationaux, chaque année, l'université Blaise Pascal envoie des étudiants à l'étranger et accueille des étudiants d

  13. Marché unique et développement des échanges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Freudenberg; Lionel Fontagné

    1999-01-01

    [fre] Marché unique et développement des échanges Contrairement à la théorie classique du commerce international, la première vague d'intégration européenne ne s'est pas traduite par un développement du commerce inter-branche reflétant une spécialisation accrue des pays . membres dans des produits pour lesquels ils détenaient un avantage comparatif. En revanche, le développement du commerce intra-branche reflète davantage une spécialisation des

  14. ECOLE PRATIQUE DES HAUTES ETUDES Ecole doctorale sciences des religions et systmes de pense

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ECOLE PRATIQUE DES HAUTES ETUDES Ecole doctorale « sciences des religions et systèmes de pensée » Doctorat de sciences des religions et systèmes de pensée, sociologie Nadia GARNOUSSI DE NOUVELLES HAUTES ETUDES Ecole doctorale « sciences des religions et systèmes de pensée » Doctorat de sciences des

  15. Master Management spcialit Management des relations humaines

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    ressources humaines ; Acquérir des connaissances pointues en matière de gestion et de pilotage du changement organisationnel ; Acquérir des connaissances approfondies dans la gestion des relations sociales ; Acquérir les collectifs de travail ; Initier, accompagner et gérer le changement dans l'organisation ; Maîtriser les

  16. Archives de sciences sociales des religions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives de sciences sociales des religions Numéro 144 (octobre-décembre 2008) Varia de l'�tat chinois, 1900-2008 », Archives de sciences sociales des religions [En ligne], 144 sciences sociales des religions #12; #12; #12;#12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12

  17. Archives de sciences sociales des religions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives de sciences sociales des religions Numéro 140 (octobre - décembre 2007) Varia) © Archives de sciences sociales des religions #12;Yves Déloye, Les voix de Dieu. Pour une autre histoire du suffrage électoral : le clergé (...) 2 Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 140 | octobre

  18. Archives de sciences sociales des religions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives de sciences sociales des religions 157 (janvier-mars 2012) Christianismes en Océanie). ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Référence électronique Yannick Fer, « Introduction », Archives de sciences sociales des religions [En ligne pour l'édition électronique ouverte) © Archives de sciences sociales des religions #12;Yannick Fer

  19. Archives de sciences sociales des religions

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Archives de sciences sociales des religions 131-132 (juillet - décembre 2005) Varia guerre indo-pakistanaise de 1999 », Archives de sciences sociales des religions [En ligne], 131 de l'édition papier. © Archives de sciences sociales des religions #12;Rites publics et deuil

  20. Archives de sciences sociales des religions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives de sciences sociales des religions 157 (janvier-mars 2012) Christianismes en Océanie évangéliques », Archives de sciences sociales des religions [En ligne], 157 | janvier-mars 2012, mis en ligne pour l'édition électronique ouverte) © Archives de sciences sociales des religions #12;Yannick Fer Le

  1. Efficient DNA sticker algorithms for DES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihua Chen; Xiutang Geng; Jin Xu

    2008-01-01

    The data encryption standard (DES) is an algorithm with approximate 72 quadrillion possible keys. The security of the DES is based on the difficulty of picking out the right key after the 16-round nonlinear function operations. In this paper, we propose a concrete recursive sticker molecular algorithm to the DES. The molecular sticker algorithm includes three parts: initializing the key

  2. Facult des tudes suprieures et postdoctorales

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    visiteurs de recherche. La FESP exerce donc un rôle de leader et de facilitateur tant dans la gestion desUr tant dans la gestion des dossiers coUrants qUe dans l'identiFication des grands enjeUx d'aUjoUrd'hUi et

  3. Lipodystrophies : perceptions et souffrance des personnes atteintes,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lipodystrophies : perceptions et souffrance des personnes atteintes, réponses collectives 117 Alice Desclaux, Sokhna Boye 1. INTRODUCTION Les lipodystrophies sont définies par la médecine comme des ailleurs il existe actuellement un débat sur la prévalence des lipodystrophies dans les pays du Sud. Elles

  4. CARACTRES CYTOLOGIQUES DES CELLULES GONADOTROPES, THYROTROPES, CORTICOTROPES,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CARACTÈRES CYTOLOGIQUES DES CELLULES GONADOTROPES, THYRÉOTROPES, CORTICOTROPES, SOMATOTROPES ET DES CELLULES A PROLACTINE PRÉSENTES DANS LE LOBE ANTÉRIEUR DE L'HYPOPHYSE DES BOVINS M.-P. DUBOIS M. HERLANT). - Orange G, séparant entre elles les trois catégories de cellules élaborant les hormones protidiques (STH

  5. Bioclimatologie Utilisation des cellules au silicium amorphe

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bioclimatologie Utilisation des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du rayonnement simulation et la confrontation expérimentale ccellules au silicium amorphe par rapport à celles des capteurs existants montrent l'intérêt des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du

  6. Magnetic-motor-root stimulation: review.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic stimulation can activate the human central and peripheral nervous systems non-invasively and virtually painlessly. Magnetic stimulation over the spinal enlargements can activate spinal nerves at the neuroforamina (magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation). This stimulation method provides us with information related to the latency of compound-muscle action potential (CMAP), which is usually interpreted as peripheral motor-conduction time (PMCT). However, this stimulation method has faced several problems in clinical applications. One is that supramaximal CMAPs were unobtainable. Another is that magnetic stimulation did not usually activate the spinal nerves in the spinal canal, i.e., the cauda equina, which prevented an evaluation of its conduction. For these reasons, magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation was rarely used to evaluate the conduction of peripheral nerves. It was mainly used to evaluate the conduction of the corticospinal tract using the parameter of central motor-conduction time (CMCT), which was calculated by subtracting PMCT from the latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex. Recently, supramaximal stimulation has been achieved in magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation, and this has contributed to the measurement of both CMAP size and latency. The achievement of supramaximal stimulation is ascribed to the increase in magnetic-stimulator output and a novel coil, the magnetic augmented translumbosacral stimulation (MATS) coil. The most proximal part of the cauda equina can be reliably activated using the MATS coil (magnetic-conus stimulation), thus contributing to the measurement of cauda equina conduction time (CECT) and cortico-conus motor-conduction time (CCCT). These recent developments in magnetic-motor-root stimulation enable us to more precisely evaluate the conduction of the proximal part of peripheral nerves and that of the corticospinal tract for lower-limb muscles. In this review article, we summarise the basic mechanisms, recent topics, clinical applications, comparison to electrical stimulation, pitfalls, safety and additional issues in magnetic-motor-root stimulation. PMID:23485367

  7. Stimulators of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase: Future Clinical Indications

    PubMed Central

    Nossaman, Bobby D.; Kadowitz, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is expressed in mammalian cytoplasm and catalyzes the synthesis of the second messenger guanosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cGMP) involved in important physiological functions such as relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of platelet aggregation, modulation of inflammation, and control of vascular permeability. sGC is the intracellular receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and the active moiety in traditional organic nitrate therapy, recently as an inhalant in the intensive care unit and experimentally in improving microcirculatory flow in shock. However, dysfunction of the heme moiety on sGC occurs in a number of cardiovascular diseases, which reduces NO effectiveness. Methods In this review, we examine animal studies and early clinical trials on agents that can directly stimulate sGC and may have future clinical application in cardiovascular disease and in perioperative care. Conclusions Animal and early clinical studies have shown that sGC stimulator agents have great promise for treating cardiopulmonary disorders and may also have a role in modulating the inflammatory response observed in perioperative care. PMID:23532174

  8. Intelligent agents: Theory and practice

    E-print Network

    Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as the reader will see, the divisions are at times somewhat arbitrary). Agent theory is concerned with the question of what an agent is, and the use of mathematical formalisms for representing and reasoning about the properties of agents. Agent architectures can be thought of as software engineering models of agents; researchers in this area are primarily concerned with the problem of designing software or hardware systems that will satisfy the prop-erties specified by agent theorists. Finally, agent languages are software systems for programming and experimenting with agents; these languages may embody principles proposed by theorists. The paper is not intended to serve as a tutorial introduction to all the issues mentioned; we hope instead simply to identify the most important issues, and point to work that elaborates on them. The article includes a short review of current and potential applications of agent technology.

  9. Learning models of intelligent agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Computer Science Dept., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  10. An Introduction to Software Agents

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey M. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    ion and delegation: Agents can be made extensible and composable in ways that common iconic interface objects cannot. Because we can "communicate" with them, they can share our goals, rather than simply process our commands. They can show us how to do things and tell us what went wrong (Miller and Neches 1987). . Flexibility and opportunism: Because they can be instructed at the level of 16 BRADSHAW goals and strategies, agents can find ways to "work around" unforeseen problems and exploit new opportunities as they help solve problems. . Task orientation: Agents can be designed to take the context of the person's tasks and situation into account as they present information and take action. . Adaptivity: Agents can use learning algorithms to continually improve their behavior by noticing recurrent patterns of actions and events. Toward Agent-Enabled System Architectures In the future, assistant agents at the user interface and resource-managing agents behind the scenes will increas...

  11. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith; Steven Y. (Rochester, MN)

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  12. Novel targeted agents for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    West, Howard Jack

    2009-03-01

    It has been quite challenging to demonstrate significant improvements in survival for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) over the past decade, but targeted therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors have been associated with benefits sufficient to alter our treatment standards. In addition to variations within these classes and combinations of such agents, several novel targeted therapy strategies have been introduced and are now emerging with encouraging results in early clinical trials for patients with advanced NSCLC. Immunotherapies targeting the MUC1 protein, MAGE-A3, and EGFR have shown early evidence of clinical benefits. Belagenpumatucel-L is a nonspecific allogeneic vaccine derived from multiple lung cancer cell lines, and the agent talactoferrin alfa might improve clinical outcomes based on broad immune system activation and stimulation. Other approaches that inhibit insulin-like growth factor receptor or heat-shock protein, both involved with multiple pathways involved with cell growth and survival, have shown activity in early trials and are moving forward in trials that specifically focus on patients with advanced NSCLC. This article reviews current data and future directions for each of these approaches. PMID:19362946

  13. Humans as Geomorphic Agents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Riihimaki

    1) The students read an article from the literature on humans as geomorphic agents as an introduction to order-of-magnitude calculations. 2) The class discusses the article in a 50-minute class 3) The students complete a problem set that introduces them to dimensional analysis, walks them through a comparison of the article's results to natural geomorphic rates, and explores how the author derived the article's final numbers. 4) Once the students are done with the problem set, the class discusses the results and implications as a group.

  14. DCTD — Featured Agents

    Cancer.gov

    Tandutinib (MLN518), previously known as CT53518, is a small-molecule inhibitor of the type III receptor tyrosine kinases, including the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Tandutinib is relatively selective, having no appreciable activity against EGFR, FGFR, KDR, or several non-receptor kinases. FLT3, c-Kit, and ßPDGFR are equally inhibited by tandutinib, while the agent is much less active against CSF-1R (in vitro IC50 of 3.4 µM).

  15. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  16. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-07-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  17. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle. PMID:22737049

  18. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you understand how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy ...

  19. Learn about Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The two explanations suggested most often are that electrical stimulation of the nerves blocks the pain sensation and ... painful area. Are there different types of TENS? Electrical stimulation can be used in the following ways: Conventional ...

  20. Comptes Rendus des JNC 17 -Poitiers 2011 valuation des performances des modles d'homognisation pour des fibres alatoirement

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    méthodes d'homogénéisation analytiques de Mori-Tanaka et auto-cohérente ont été utilisées pour évaluer les forme des fibres aléatoires. Les estimations du modèle de Mori-Tanaka sont légèrement plus rigides que que les résultats des méthodes éléments finis et Mori-Tanaka. Abstract Analytical homogenization

  1. Chronic precentral stimulation in trigeminal neuropathic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ebel; D. Rust; V. Tronnier; D. Böker; S. Kunze

    1996-01-01

    Summary The results of Deep Brain Stimulation in deafferentation pain syndromes, in particular in thalamic pain, indicate that excellent long-term pain relief can hardly ever be achieved. We report 7 cases using Motor-Cortex-Stimulation for treating severe trigeminal neuropathic pain syndromes, i.e., dysaesthesia, anaesthesia dolorosa and postherpetic neuralgia. The first implantation of the stimulation device for precentral cerebral stimulation was performed

  2. Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

  3. Galectin-3 Stimulates Cell Proliferation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenori Inohara; Shiro Akahani; Avraham Raz

    1998-01-01

    Galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding protein, has been shown to be involved in multiple biological processes through interaction with its complementary glycoconjugates. Here we provide the first evidence of galectin-3 as a mitogen. Incubation of quiescent cultures of normal human lung fibroblast IMR-90 cells with recombinant galectin-3 (rgalectin-3) stimulated DNA synthesis as well as cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. This mitogenic

  4. Hydraulic redistribution may stimulate decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary T. Aanderud; James H. Richards

    2009-01-01

    Roots influence root litter decomposition through multiple belowground processes. Hydraulic lift or redistribution (HR) by\\u000a plants is one such process that creates diel drying–rewetting cycles in soil. However, it is unclear if this phenomenon influences\\u000a decomposition. Since decomposition in deserts is constrained by low soil moisture and is stimulated when dry soils are rewetted,\\u000a we hypothesized that diel drying–rewetting, via

  5. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  6. Lipid-lowering agents.

    PubMed

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented. PMID:23811423

  7. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission d’un article et seulement la moitié des journaux avait donné une définition de la qualité d’auteur. La publication scientifique de travaux sur les pratiques pharmaceutiques n’est pas à l’abri des manques de transparence liés à la publication. L’utilisation d’une grille décrivant la contribution de chaque auteur et la publication en ligne des travaux peuvent contribuer à limiter ces risques. PMID:24970938

  8. Annotation smantique pour des domaines spcialiss et des ontologies riches

    E-print Network

    sur deux textes décrivant des réglementations métier. Notre approche obtient de bons résultats. En-measure in the label and position predictions with different settings. This suggests that human annotators can

  9. Habilitation `a Diriger des Recherches "Simulation numerique des ecoulements

    E-print Network

    Franchi, Jacques

    : chromatographie ; · physique des plasmas : tokamak, vent solaire, relativit´e g´en´erale ; · autres : trafic principe de conservation de certaines quantit´es comme la masse, l'´energie, l'impul- sion ; · un principe

  10. SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    : Pour garantir aujourd'hui des conditions sécuritaires de passage dans les eaux territoriales et, clandestine immigrants, piracy, toxic waste pollution, accidents, etc.). Key words: Maritime border security fréquentent par an la Méditerranée et 50 millions de passagers sont transportés. La carte suivante (figure 1

  11. Techniken & Sprachen des Semantic Web Techniken & Sprachen des Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    World Wide Web (7) Tim Berners-Lee Proposal 1989: Hypertextsystem als Infrastrukturprinzp f Berners-Lee) 1989: An intriguing possibility, given a large hypertext database with typed links, Inst. f¨ur KI, Uni Ulm 3 - 10 Techniken & Sprachen des Semantic Web Aber ... CERN Proposal, (Tim

  12. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de science politique

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    . 369-384. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission (Hans Blix Commission), rapport final, «Weapons opérations de maintien de la paix, le contrôle de la prolifération des armes de destruction massive et les et A. Roth, « Nuclear Weapons in Neo-Realist Theory », International Studies Review, automne 2007, p

  13. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  14. Vomiting Center reanalyzed: An electrical stimulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brainstem of 15 decerebrate cats produced stimulus-bound vomiting in only 4 animals. Vomiting was reproducible in only one cat. Effective stimulating sites were located in the solitary tract and reticular formation. Restricted localization of a vomiting center, stimulation of which evoked readily reproducible results, could not be obtained.

  15. Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Humayun; De Juan E; James D. Weiland; Gislin Dagnelie; Steve Katona; Robert Greenberg; Satoshi Suzuki; Maumenee Bldg

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study if electrical stimulation of the retinal surface can elicit visual sensation in individuals blind from end-stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Under local anesthesia, different stimulating electrodes were inserted through the eyewall and positioned over the surface of the retina. Subjects' psychophysical responses to electrical stimulation were recorded. Subjects perceived simple forms

  16. Emission of Electromagnetic Radiation Upon Electric Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Karczmarek, Joanna

    Emission of Electromagnetic Radiation Upon Electric Stimulation of Preserved Cucumis sativus of ElectromagneticEmission of Electromagnetic Radiation Upon ElectricRadiation Upon Electric Stimulation of PreservedStimulation-Pronged Electrical Cord · Electrical Tape · 2 Pins · Variac · Spectroscopes #12;How it all goes together

  17. Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Humayun; Eugene de Juan Jr.; James D. Weiland; Gislin Dagnelie; Steve Katona; Robert Greenberg; Satoshi Suzuki

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study if electrical stimulation of the retinal surface can elicit visual sensation in individuals blind from end-stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Under local anesthesia, different stimulating electrodes were inserted through the eyewall and positioned over the surface of the retina. Subjects’ psychophysical responses to electrical stimulation were recorded. Subjects perceived simple forms

  18. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    To assess the stimulation technology developed in the oil and gas industry as to its applicability to the problems of geothermal well stimulation, a literature search was performed through on-line computer systems. Also, field records of well stimulation programs that have worked successfully were obtained from oil and gas operators and service companies. The results of these surveys are presented. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  20. Evaluating Competing Agent Strategies for a Voice Email Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn A. Walker; Donald Hindle; Jeanne Fromer; Giuseppe Di Fabbrizio; Craig Mestel

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results comparing a mixed-initiative to a system-initiative dialog strategy i n the context of a personal voice email agent. To independently test the effects of dialog strategy and user expertise, user s in- teract with either the system-initiative or the mixed-init iative agent to perform three successive tasks which are identical for both agents. We report

  1. Tests de réception des tours de réfrigération

    E-print Network

    Pirollet, B

    1999-01-01

    Dans le cadre du projet LHC, les premiers équipements de refroidissement installés, seront des tours de réfrigération de grande puissance. Contrairement à d'autres matériels construits en grande série, ces équipements, tours et stations de pompage associées sont à créer sur mesure. Différentes normalisations permettent de concevoir, de construire et de tester ces réalisations. L'ensemble des tests de réception ne peut avoir lieu avant l'achèvement complet de l'installation, de plus, ces essais sont rarement réalisés à charge nominale. Des défaillances potentielles, liées aux études ou à la réalisation, peuvent apparaître après la période de garantie. Le but de ce document est de présenter les différentes méthodes imposées par le CERN au niveau des cahiers des charges. Cela permettra la vérification des valeurs garanties par les constructeurs et de suivre l'évolution des critères de performances à long terme.

  2. Crafting the mind of PROSOCS agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Bracciali; Ulle Endriss; Neophytos Demetriou; Antonis C. Kakas; Wenjin Lu; Kostas Stathis

    2006-01-01

    prosocs agents are software agents that are built according to the kgp model of agency. kgp is used as a model for the mind of the agent, so that the agent can act autonomously using a collection of logic theories, providing the mind's reasoning functionalities. The behaviour of the agent is controlled by a cycle theory that specifies the agent's

  3. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation coupled with repetitive electrical stimulation on cortical spreading depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Fregni; David Liebetanz; Katia K. Monte-Silva; Manuella B. Oliveira; Angela A. Santos; Michael A. Nitsche; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Rubem C. A. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    We have recently shown that two techniques of brain stimulation – repetitive electrical stimulation (ES) (that mimics transcranial magnetic stimulation) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) – modify the velocity of cortical spreading depression (CSD) significantly. Herein we aimed to study the effects of these two techniques combined on CSD. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to

  4. Transcutaneous functional electrical stimulator "Compex Motion".

    PubMed

    Keller, Thierry; Popovic, Milos R; Pappas, Ion P I; Müller, Pierre-Yves

    2002-03-01

    Research groups in the field of functional electrical stimulation (FES) are often confronted with the fact that existing and commercially available FES stimulators do not provide sufficient flexibility and cannot be used to perform different FES tasks. The lack of flexibility of the commercial systems until now forced various FES research teams to develop their own stimulators. This paper presents a newly developed firmware and graphical programming software for the commercial Compex 2 stimulator which enhances the versatility and capabilities of the stimulator from a medical and therapeutic device to a neuroprosthesis and research tool. The new stimulator, called Compex Motion, can now be used to develop various custom-made neuroprostheses, neurological assessment devices, muscle exercise systems, and experimental setups for physiological studies. It can be programmed to generate any arbitrary stimulation sequence that can be controlled or regulated by various external sensors, sensory systems, or laboratory equipment. By interconnecting two or more Compex Motion stimulators, the number of stimulation channels can be increased to multiples of four channels, 8, 12, 16, 20, and so forth. The stimulation sequences and the control strategies are programmed and stored on exchangeable credit card-sized memory chip cards. The stimulator has four biphasic current-regulated stimulation channels and two general purpose analog input channels that can be configured to measure the output voltage of a variety of sensors such as goniometers, inclinometers, gyroscopes, or electromyographic (EMG) sensors. For real-time EMG control of the stimulation patterns, an EMG processing algorithm with software stimulation artifact blanking was implemented. The Compex Motion stimulator is manufactured by the Swiss company Compex SA and is currently undergoing clinical trials. PMID:11940017

  5. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous system toxicities occurring most commonly, but only rarely necessitating discontinuance of therapy. In 17 of 18 prospective, randomized, double-blind comparisons with another agent or placebo, fluoroquinolones were tolerated as well as or better than the comparison regimen. Bacterial resistance has been uncommonly documented but occurs, most notably with P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and occasionally other species for which the therapeutic ratio is less favorable. Fluoroquinolones offer an efficacious, well-tolerated, and cost-effective alternative to parenteral therapies of selected infections. PMID:2680058

  6. Mathematisches Seminar des DFGSonderforschungsbereichs 393

    E-print Network

    Chemnitz, Technische Universität

    . Seiler (Mannheim) Thema: Vervollständigung Allgemeiner Systeme von Differentialgleichungen Unter der Vervollständigung eines Systems von Differentialgleichungen versteht man (etwas vereinfacht) die Konstruktion aller von Differentialgleichungen vorliegt, d.h. ein System, das nicht den Bedingungen des Cauchy

  7. Thorie des ensembles 1. Motivation

    E-print Network

    Dolecki, Szymon

    des ensembles. David Hilbert (1862-1943) écrivait de cette contribution «Que personne ne puisse nous Bologne en 1928 du langage formel de Peano, Hilbert disait que c'était un outil essentiel pour sa théorie

  8. Information -Communication Communication des entreprises

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    Information - Communication 2 PARCOURS Communication des entreprises Communication et solidarité;2 Information - Communication UFR Langues Appliquées, Commerce et Communication PR�SENTATION Objectifs La Licence Information et communication est destinée aux étudiants qui souhaitent suivre un parcours

  9. On Dennis Des Chene's Physiologia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Menn

    2000-01-01

    Dennis Des Chene's Physiologia: Natural philosophy in late Aristotelian and Cartesian Though reconstructs the discourse of late scholastic natural philosophy, and assesses Descartes' agreements and disagreements. In a critical discussion, I offer a different interpretation of late scholastic theories of final causality and of God's concursus with created efficient causes. Fonseca's and Suárez' conceptions of final causality in nature depend

  10. MOISISSURES TOXINOGNES DES FOURRAGES ENSILS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , I of Aspevgillus terreus, and I of Penicillium urticae, isolated in ensilaged forages, is tested, Bysso- chlamys fulva, Paecilomyces varioti, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium Penicillium urticae isolées d'ensilages, lorsqu'elles sont cultivées in vitro sur milieu liquide dans des

  11. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  12. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  13. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  14. Ambient Intelligence Using KGP Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas Stathis; Francesca Toni

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a We investigate the application of a logical model of agency, known as the KGP model, to develop agents for ambient intelligence\\u000a applications. Using a concrete scenario, we illustrate how the logical formalism employed by a KGP agent allows a person to\\u000a access the surrounding ambient through the agent in a transparent manner. We evaluate our claims by implementing the resulting

  15. Specifying recursive agents with GDTs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Mermet; Gaële Simon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to formalise the notion of recursive agent by extending the Goal Decomposition Tree formalism (GDT). A formal semantics of this decomposition is given, as well as the\\u000a definition of operators to introduce various ways of recursively defining agents. Design patterns, that show various use cases\\u000a for recursive agents, are also presented. Finally, to preserve

  16. [Unconventional antidiabetic agents].

    PubMed

    Rustenbeck, Ingo

    2007-04-01

    The current pharmacological therapy of type 2 diabetes reduces the risk of diabetic complications, but is not able to achieve a long-lasting normalization of the metabolic disorder. Thus diabetic patients in increasing numbers are taking dietary supplements and herbs from which they expect additional health benefits. These unconventional antidiabetic agents consist mainly in trace metals like chromium, vanadium and zinc and a heterogeneous group of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs (e. g. Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre, Trigonella foenum-graecum) often derived from the ayurvedic medicine. In this overview the current evidence for the antidiabetic effect is presented. The trace elements chromium and vanadium have a number of potentially antidiabetic actions in vitro, however, the results obtained with diabetic patients are not convincing so far. Similarly, the available data on the therapeutic use of herbs suggest that in principle a number of them possess a blood glucose-lowering effect, but at present no firm conclusions as to their efficacy and safety can be made. To set up reliable dose-effect relationships requires the identification of the relevant antidiabetic molecules as was apparently achieved by isolating 4-hydroxyisoleucine from the seeds of T. foenum-graecum. This requirement is also valid in the case of the antidiabetic action of cinnamon. Coffee and a moderate alcohol consumption were found to be surprisingly effective in lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes manifestation, their effect being roughly equal to that of conventional drugs used in diabetes prevention trials. Diabetic patients should inform their physician about the use of unconventional agents and should be warned against uncontrolled starting or stopping their use. PMID:17484443

  17. Chemosensitization as a Means to Augment Commercial Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Bruce C.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Kim, Jong H.

    2012-01-01

    Antimycotic chemosensitization and its mode of action are of growing interest. Currently, use of antifungal agents in agriculture and medicine has a number of obstacles. Foremost of these is development of resistance or cross-resistance to one or more antifungal agents. The generally high expense and negative impact, or side effects, associated with antifungal agents are two further issues of concern. Collectively, these problems are exacerbated by efforts to control resistant strains, which can evolve into a treadmill of higher dosages for longer periods. This cycle in turn, inflates cost of treatment, dramatically. A further problem is stagnation in development of new and effective antifungal agents, especially for treatment of human mycoses. Efforts to overcome some of these issues have involved using combinations of available antimycotics (e.g., combination therapy for invasive mycoses). However, this approach has had inconsistent success and is often associated with a marked increase in negative side effects. Chemosensitization by natural compounds to increase effectiveness of commercial antimycotics is a somewhat new approach to dealing with the aforementioned problems. The potential for safe natural products to improve antifungal activity has been observed for over three decades. Chemosensitizing agents possess antifungal activity, but at insufficient levels to serve as antimycotics, alone. Their main function is to disrupt fungal stress response, destabilize the structural integrity of cellular and vacuolar membranes or stimulate production of reactive oxygen species, augmenting oxidative stress and apoptosis. Use of safe chemosensitizing agents has potential benefit to both agriculture and medicine. When co-applied with a commercial antifungal agent, an additive or synergistic interaction may occur, augmenting antifungal efficacy. This augmentation, in turn, lowers effective dosages, costs, negative side effects and, in some cases, countermands resistance. PMID:22393330

  18. Chemosensitization as a means to augment commercial antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce C; Chan, Kathleen L; Kim, Jong H

    2012-01-01

    Antimycotic chemosensitization and its mode of action are of growing interest. Currently, use of antifungal agents in agriculture and medicine has a number of obstacles. Foremost of these is development of resistance or cross-resistance to one or more antifungal agents. The generally high expense and negative impact, or side effects, associated with antifungal agents are two further issues of concern. Collectively, these problems are exacerbated by efforts to control resistant strains, which can evolve into a treadmill of higher dosages for longer periods. This cycle in turn, inflates cost of treatment, dramatically. A further problem is stagnation in development of new and effective antifungal agents, especially for treatment of human mycoses. Efforts to overcome some of these issues have involved using combinations of available antimycotics (e.g., combination therapy for invasive mycoses). However, this approach has had inconsistent success and is often associated with a marked increase in negative side effects. Chemosensitization by natural compounds to increase effectiveness of commercial antimycotics is a somewhat new approach to dealing with the aforementioned problems. The potential for safe natural products to improve antifungal activity has been observed for over three decades. Chemosensitizing agents possess antifungal activity, but at insufficient levels to serve as antimycotics, alone. Their main function is to disrupt fungal stress response, destabilize the structural integrity of cellular and vacuolar membranes or stimulate production of reactive oxygen species, augmenting oxidative stress and apoptosis. Use of safe chemosensitizing agents has potential benefit to both agriculture and medicine. When co-applied with a commercial antifungal agent, an additive or synergistic interaction may occur, augmenting antifungal efficacy. This augmentation, in turn, lowers effective dosages, costs, negative side effects and, in some cases, countermands resistance. PMID:22393330

  19. ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE (Specialite : GENIE DES PROCEDES) MODELISATION DE LA\\flNES DE SAINT-ETIENNE (Specialite : GENIE DES PROCEDES) MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE DE REDUCTION D Michele Yves Cahn Materiaux Productique Genie des procedes Environnement Materiaux Genie des procedes

  20. Diffusion des rayons X par un corps de structure

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    Diffusion des rayons X par un corps de structure quelconque · Notion de cohérence · Approximation) · Approximation statique · Fréquences des rayons X : 1018 Hz · Fréquences des vibrations atomiques : 1012 Hz (THz système isotrope : mesurable par diffusion des rayons X ou des neutrons ( ) = = 1 + ( - 1) = 1 + - 1 sin

  1. The nature of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte tissue factor activity.

    PubMed

    Butenas, Saulius; Gissel, Matthew; Krudysz-Amblo, Jolanta; Mann, Kenneth G

    2013-09-16

    There are several contradictory hypotheses that attempt to explain changes in cell tissue factor (TF) activity upon treatment with various agents ('encryption-decryption'). We evaluated the influence of lipopolysaccharide stimulation on expression of TF antigen and activity on/in THP-1 human leukemia monocytic cells. Prior to stimulation, there were 240?±?60 TF molecules/cell on the cell surface and 510?±?180?molecules/cell in lysates (n?=?8). Upon stimulation, TF antigen increased 10-fold on the cell surface and 16.5-fold in lysates. Coincidently, the intact cell factor (F)Xa generation by TF/FVIIa increased 11-fold. Correspondingly, TF-induced clotting activity increased 35.7?±?4.9-fold. The KM of the TF/FVIIa complex formed on the THP-1 surface and cell lysates for FX was 0.73?±?0.07 and 0.41?±?0.02??mol/l and the kcat 59.4?±?1.8 and 44.6?±?0.1?s, respectively. For isolated and relipidated THP-1 cell TF, the efficiency of FXase was lower (KM?=?1.54??mol/l and kcat?=?12.0?s). A similar comparison of isolated/relipidated vs. cell-surface TF in the synthetic coagulation proteome and corn trypsin inhibitor blood showed that the cell-surface TF-induced thrombin generation is more than 100-fold more efficient than that induced by purified/relipidated TF. These data indicate that the increase in monocytic cell TF activity upon stimulation is primarily related to an increased expression of TF protein, and that significantly higher specific activity of TF presented on cells than that of purified and relipidated protein suggests the presence of the cell membrane components which substantially enhance TF function. PMID:24047888

  2. Infrared neural stimulation in the cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud; Bendett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The application of photonics to manipulate and stimulate neurons and to study neural networks has gained momentum over the last decade. Two general methods have been used: the genetic expression of light or temperature sensitive ion channels in the plasma membrane of neurons (Optogenetics and Thermogenetics) and the direct stimulation of neurons using infrared radiation (Infrared Neural Stimulation, INS). Both approaches have their strengths and challenges, which are well understood with a profound understanding of the light tissue interaction(s). This paper compares the opportunities of the methods for the use in cochlear prostheses. Ample data are already available on the stimulation of the cochlea with INS. The data show that the stimulation is selective, feasible at rates that would be sufficient to encode acoustic information and may be beneficial over conventional pulsed electrical stimulation. A third approach, using lasers in stress confinement to generate pressure waves and to stimulate the functional cochlea mechanically will also be discussed. PMID:25075260

  3. Infrared neural stimulation in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud; Bendett, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The application of photonics to manipulate and stimulate neurons and to study neural networks has gained momentum over the last decade. Two general methods have been used: the genetic expression of light or temperature sensitive ion channels in the plasma membrane of neurons (Optogenetics and Thermogenetics) and the direct stimulation of neurons using infrared radiation (Infrared Neural Stimulation, INS). Both approaches have their strengths and challenges, which are well understood with a profound understanding of the light tissue interaction(s). This paper compares the opportunities of the methods for the use in cochlear prostheses. Ample data are already available on the stimulation of the cochlea with INS. The data show that the stimulation is selective, feasible at rates that would be sufficient to encode acoustic information and may be beneficial over conventional pulsed electrical stimulation. A third approach, using lasers in stress confinement to generate pressure waves and to stimulate the functional cochlea mechanically will also be discussed. PMID:25075260

  4. Agent based process management: applying intelligent agents to workflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. O'BRIEN; W. E. Wiegand

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an Agent-based Process Management System (APMS) architecture that combines recent developments in autonomous agent technology and distributed computing platforms. It argues that a service-oriented view is required in order to meet the requirements of open distributed enterprises, now and in the future. This approach embraces and fully supports the decentralisation of responsibility and local autonomy, within and

  5. Investigating Interactions Between Agent Conversations and Agent Control Components \\Lambday

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    for the purpose of coordinating \\Lambda Effort sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, either expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Air Force Research agent conversation in the context of fine­grained agent coordination research has raised several

  6. Agent Tcl: A flexible and secure mobile-agent system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Gray

    1997-01-01

    A mobile agent is an autonomous program that can migrate under its own control from machine to machine in a heterogeneous network. In other words, the program can suspend its execution at an arbitrary point, transport itself to another machine, and then resume execution from the point of suspension. Mobile agents have the potential to provide a single, general framework

  7. Agents as Resource Brokers in Grids - Forming Agent Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Kuranowski; Marcin Paprzycki; Maria Ganzha; Maciej Gawinecki; Ivan Lirkov; Svetozar Margenov

    2007-01-01

    Recently we have proposed an approach to utilizing agent teams as resource brokers and managers in the Grid. Thus far we have discussed the general overview of the proposed system, how to efficiently implement matchmaking services, as well as proposed a way by which agents select a team that will execute their job. In this paper we focus our attention

  8. Concept features in Re:Agent, an intelligent Email agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Boone

    1998-01-01

    An important issue in the application of machine learningtechniques to information management tasks is the natureof features extracted from textual information. We have createdan intelligent email agent that can learn actions suchas filtering, prioritizing, downloading to palmtops, and forwardingemail to voicemail using automatic feature extraction.Our agent's new feature extraction approach is basedon first learning concepts present within the mail, then

  9. An Afiective Agent Framework Towards Believable Agents for Digital Entertainment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogerio E. da Silva; Amilcar Cardoso; Luis Macedo

    Digital entertainment industry uses multi-agents techniques based on several difierent approaches to establish autonomous characters that behave the most believable way as possible. This article presents a preliminary version of an agent architecture based on psychological and neurobiological theories. We expect that this architecture could facili- tate implementation of synthetic believable characters by providing ways of deflning difierent personalities for

  10. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  11. ARCHIVAL REPORT Nondependent Stimulant Users of Cocaine and

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    ARCHIVAL REPORT Nondependent Stimulant Users of Cocaine and Prescription Amphetamines Show Verbal: Stimulants are used increasingly to enhance social (cocaine) or cognitive performance (stimulants normally and methylphenidate, intensifies these deficits. Key Words: Amphetamine, cocaine, executive function, stimulant

  12. Tissue stimulator enclosure welding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the thickness of the stimulator titanium enclosure is directly related to the battery recharge time cycle. Reduction of the titanium enclosure thickness from approximately 0.37 mm (0.015 inch) to 0.05 mm (0.002 inch) significantly reduced the recharge time cycle and thereby patient inconvenience. However, fabrication of titanium enclosures from the thinner material introduced problems in forming, holding, and welding that required improvement in state of the art shop practices. The procedures that were utilized to resolve these fabrication problems are described.

  13. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for medication-refractory movement disorders, and has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of dystonia. The success of DBS in the treatment of dystonia depends on our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of this disorder and close collaboration between neurosurgeons, neurologists, clinical neurophysiologists, neuroradiologists and neuropsychologists. Currently, pallidal DBS is an established treatment option for medically refractive dystonia. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive review of the use of DBS for dystonia, focusing mainly on the surgical aspects, clinical outcome, MRI findings and side effects of DBS. PMID:24444300

  14. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  15. Prevalence of Rhabdomyolysis in Sympathomimetic Toxicity: a Comparison of Stimulants.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ayrn D; Padilla-Jones, Angie; Gerkin, Richard D; Levine, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic cathinones have emerged as popular drugs of abuse and produce sympathomimetic toxicity. It is unknown if rhabdomyolysis occurs more frequently following the use of synthetic cathinones compared to other stimulants. This retrospective study sought to determine the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis in patients with sympathomimetic toxicity and compare rates among patients using specific agents. Patients greater than 14 years of age with sympathomimetic toxicity and detection of a stimulant agent in urine via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were included. Patients were excluded if clinical sympathomimetic toxicity was not present, a serum creatine kinase (CK) was not measured, or urine GC-MS was not performed. Rhabdomyolysis and severe rhabdomyolysis were defined as CK?>?1000 and 10,000 IU/L, respectively. Prevalence of rhabdomyolysis and severe rhabdomyolysis were reported. Logistic regression was performed to determine the relative effect in single-agent exposures of a synthetic cathinone compared to other sympathomimetics on rhabdomyolysis. A secondary outcome, a composite endpoint defined as need for mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, development of compartment syndrome, or death, was also analyzed. One hundred two subjects met inclusion criteria; median age (IQR) was 32 (25-42)?years with a range of 14-65 years; 74 % were male. Rhabdomyolysis occurred in 42 % (43/102) of subjects. Patients whose sympathomimetic toxicity could be ascribed to a single agent were considered for further statistical analysis and placed into four groups: methamphetamine (n?=?55), synthetic cathinone (n?=?19), cocaine (n?=?9), and other sympathomimetic (n?=?6). In 89 subjects with single stimulant exposure, the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis was as follows: synthetic cathinone, 12/19 (63 %); methamphetamine, 22/55 (40 %); cocaine, 3/9 (33 %); and other single agent, 0/6 (0 %). The occurrence of severe rhabdomyolysis (CK?>?10,000 IU/L) for each of the four groups was synthetic cathinone with 5/19 (26 %), methamphetamine with 2/55 (3.6 %), cocaine with 1/9 (11 %), and other with 0/6 (0 %). Median maximal CK (range) by groups was as follows: synthetic cathinone, 2638 (62-350,000+)?IU/L; methamphetamine, 665 (61-50,233)?IU/L; cocaine, 276 (87-25,614)?IU/L; and other, 142 (51-816)?IU/L. A statistically significant difference (p?=?0.004) was found when comparing maximal CK among the four groups. Exposure to a synthetic cathinone compared with other sympathomimetics was associated with increased risk of developing rhabdomyolysis and severe rhabdomyolysis with odds ratios of 3.09 and 7.98, respectively. In this cohort of patients with sympathomimetic toxicity, 42 % developed rhabdomyolysis. Synthetic cathinones were associated with an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis and severe rhabdomyolysis compared with other stimulants. PMID:25468315

  16. Socit Tarnaise de sciences Naturelles 2011 : 10-22. Contribution au catalogue des lichens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Société Tarnaise de sciences Naturelles ­ 2011 : 10-22. - 1 - Contribution au catalogue des lichens des Cévennes ont permis de compléter le catalogue des lichens, des champignons lichénicoles et des.) Fuckel.). Introduction Un inventaire des lichens et des champignons lichénicoles du Parc National des

  17. La diffusion des sciences et des techniques l'Universit de Lige PriNtemPs des scieNces

    E-print Network

    Liège, Université de

    , 22 · Bât. I1 · 4020 Liège description Regroupés en bord de Meuse à l'Embarcadère du Savoir interactive ; · des travaux pratiques en laboratoire ; · des visites de laboratoires de recherche ; · des samedi 27/03 et dimanche 28/03/2010· L'exposition interactive sera accessible au grand public et aux

  18. La gestion des mises en defns forestieres : Une reelle opportunite pour la reconstitution des forets des pays du Maghreb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Benzyane; Mustapha Naggar; Bouchra Lahlou

    2009-01-01

    Les forêts des pays du Maghreb (Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie) souffrent de multi ples formes de surexploitation pastorale au point de compromettre la régénération naturelle des formations forestières dans ces pays. Depuis plus de quarante années, plusieurs actions techniques ont été entreprises en matière d'aménagement des espaces pastoraux (plantations d'arbustes fourragers, ensemencements, fertilisation, traitements sylvo-pastoraux……..), dont l'impact est resté limité sur

  19. Dialogue des droits et dialogues des traditions juridiques Jean-Michel Blanquer

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    'une évolution dialectique interne : Liberté des anciens, liberté des modernes. La tragédie d'Antigone nous met devoir de chacun d'obéir à la règle commune. Notre sympathie va à Antigone mais est-ce parce qu

  20. Facult de Psychologie et des Sciences de l'Education Analyse critique des fondements de

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). Capital humain, niveau d'instruction et performances scolaires. Des concepts à leur mesure. In Capital humain et croissance régionale. Quatorzième Congrès des Economistes belges de Langue française. Charleroi

  1. Mandibular Bone Formation Rates in Aged Ovariectomized Rats Treated with Anti-resorptive Agents Alone and in Combination with Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hunziker; TJ Wronski; S. C. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Anti-resorptive agents-including estrogen (E), calcitonin (CT), and bisphosphonates-are established in the treatment of osteoporosis. Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone formation and is a possible therapeutic agent for the restoration of bone mass. The purpose was to determine the effects of the anti-resorptive agents alone and in combination with intermittent PTH on bone formation in the mandible and

  2. Neuromuscular blocking agents.

    PubMed

    Lingle, C J; Steinbach, J H

    1988-01-01

    Clearly, many aspects of the action of neuromuscular blockers remain poorly understood at the molecular level. In the case of competitive blockers, blockade of EPPs by competitive binding to the ACh receptor site accounts for the most clinically important aspect of blockade. Although train-of-four fade produced by curare and some other competitive agents probably represents a presynaptic action, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been addressed. Depolarizing blockade is inherently more complicated than competitive blockade. Simple depolarization and inactivation of the mechanism for generation of the action potential probably account for the major clinical effect seen in phase I block. Furthermore, the relative balance between activation of channels and desensitization may also provide a qualitative explanation for phase II block and tachyphylaxis. However, effects that are more likely to be explained by presynaptic actions of depolarizing blockers have also been described, and it is not yet possible to assess quantitatively whether the rates of onset of the different postsynaptic actions can account for most aspects of depolarizing block. This discussion has raised several issues which need to be addressed in future studies. 1. What are the presynaptic effects of cholinergic drugs? Do these drugs act through a specific receptor or, on other ion channels in the terminal membrane, or do they operate by mechanisms distinct from effects on membrane conductance? Can any of the observations be explained by indirect effects mediated through postsynaptic ACh receptors, e.g., K+ release? 2. What are the factors that influence variability in sensitivity to neuromuscular blockers among species, muscles within species, and during development? Many of the potential factors, e.g., differences in safety factor, resting conductances, ACh receptor type, and differences in the presence and absence of presynaptic receptors, have been outlined, but definitive tests of the contribution of any particular mechanisms are lacking. 3. Does modulation of desensitization play a role in any components of neuromuscular blockade? 4. Can trapping of blocking agents in ion channels in some cases account for slowly reversible components of blockade? 5. Can closed-channel block provide an effective mechanism of neuromuscular block? PMID:2848776

  3. DOCTEUR YVES GAUTHIER Spcialiste des maladies des yeux

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Médecins : 64 1 01509 4 / 0 20 2 TRAITEMENT DES MIGRAINES OPHTALMIQUES PAR L'UTILISATION DU R�FLEXE NYSTAGMOG�NE The nystagmogene reflexe used for the treatement of migraine Résumé : Cette publication présente une série d'ob- servations de cas de migraines ophtalmi- ques. Un traitement y est présenté. La

  4. Direction des Ressources Humaines Service des Personnels Administratifs et

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    logistique » CORPS : ATRF NATURE : AFFECTATION ETABLISSEMENT : Université Blaise Pascal ­ IUFM d'Auvergne, Université Blaise Pascal. Il est basé à Chamalières. La tâche principale sera d'assurer l'entretien des Responsable administrative de l'IUFM d'Auvergne, Université Blaise Pascal Tel : 04 73 31 71 52 #12;

  5. Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Victor H.; Gehrt, Anna; Reuter, Kirsten; Jing, Zhizi; Jeschke, Marcus; Mendoza Schulz, Alejandro; Hoch, Gerhard; Bartels, Matthias; Vogt, Gerhard; Garnham, Carolyn W.; Yawo, Hiromu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Augustine, George J.; Bamberg, Ernst; Kügler, Sebastian; Salditt, Tim; de Hoz, Livia; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Auditory prostheses can partially restore speech comprehension when hearing fails. Sound coding with current prostheses is based on electrical stimulation of auditory neurons and has limited frequency resolution due to broad current spread within the cochlea. In contrast, optical stimulation can be spatially confined, which may improve frequency resolution. Here, we used animal models to characterize optogenetic stimulation, which is the optical stimulation of neurons genetically engineered to express the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. Approximation of the spatial spread of cochlear excitation by recording local field potentials (LFPs) in the inferior colliculus in response to suprathreshold optical, acoustic, and electrical stimuli indicated that optogenetic stimulation achieves better frequency resolution than monopolar electrical stimulation. Virus-mediated expression of a ChR2 variant with greater light sensitivity in SGNs reduced the amount of light required for responses and allowed neuronal spiking following stimulation up to 60 Hz. Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics. PMID:24509078

  6. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  7. Microsphere contrast agents for OCT

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    409 CHAPTER 29 Microsphere contrast agents for OCT Stephen A Boppart Kenneth S Suslick INTRODUCTION in achieving this goal for OCT15 , with the development of contrast agents such as microspheres16 describes the fabrication, characterization and application of a new class of engineered protein microsphere

  8. Agents Capable of Dynamic Negotiations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garima Parakh; Sandhya Rani; Marcin Paprzycki; Ajith Abraham; Johnson Thomas

    Support for negotiation is one of the more important research issues when developing agent systems utilized in e-commerce. While, depending on the type of the transaction, different negotiation procedures need to be utilized, only very few proposed frameworks are generic and flexible enough to handle multiple scenarios. This note presents negotiating agents, which can change their negotiation strategy depending on

  9. Self-Protected Mobile Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Ametller; Sergi Robles; Jose A. Ortega-Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new solution for the implementation of flexible protection mechanisms in the context of mobile agent systems, where security problems are currently a major issue. In our scheme, agents protect their code and data by carrying their own protection mechanisms. This approach improves traditional solutions, where protection was managed by the platform. The implementation is

  10. Gelled Anti-icing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markles, O. F.; Sperber, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Pectin added to antifreeze/water mixture. Formulations include water with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as deicer and pectin as gel former. Without gelling agent, deicer runs off vertical surfaces. Without pectin solution will completely evaporate in far less time. Agents developed have wide potential for ice prevention on runways, highways, bridges and sidewalks.

  11. Itinerant agents for mobile computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Chess; Benjamin Grosof; Colin Harrison; David Levine; Colin Parris; Gene Tsudik

    1995-01-01

    Describes a framework for itinerant agents that can be used to implement secure, remote applications in large, public networks such as the Internet or the IBM Global Network. Itinerant agents are programs, dispatched from a source computer, that roam among a set of networked servers until they accomplish their task. This is an extension to the client\\/server model in which

  12. Language Support for Mobile Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick Colville Knabe

    1995-01-01

    Mobile agents are code-containing objects that may be transmitted between communicatingparticipants in a distributed system. As opposed to systems that onlyallow the exchange of nonexecutable data, systems incorporating mobile agentscan achieve significant gains in performance and functionality.A programming language for mobile agents must be able to express theirconstruction, transmission, receipt, and subsequent execution. Its implementationmust handle architectural heterogeneity...

  13. Situating Cognitive Agents in GOLEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Bromuri; Kostas Stathis

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the application of a logic-based framework representing an agent environment as a composite structure that evolves over time. Such a complex structure contains the interaction between two main classes of entities: agents and objects. Interactions between these entities are specified in term of events whose occurrence is governed by a set of physical laws specifying the possible evolutions

  14. Multimodal communication between synthetic agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Pelachaud; Isabella Poggi

    1998-01-01

    Dialoging with a synthetic agent is a vast research topic to enhance user-interface friendliness. We present in this paper an on-going project on the simulation of a dialog situation between two synthetic agents. More particularly we focus our interest on finding the appropriate facial expressions of a speaker addressing to different types of listeners (tourist, employee, child, and so on)

  15. Contrast agents for NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, R.C.; Schmidt, P.G.

    1988-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for scanning tissue are described comprising bilayer vesicles with paramagnetic material encapsulated therein. The vesicles are formulated with an agent to promote vesicle stability for a sufficient time to allow biodistribution of the vesicles for scanning of the tissue and formulated to permit adequate water proton exchange across the vesicle bilayer to provide contrast for scanning the tissue.

  16. A Simple Shill Bidding Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarrod Trevathan; Wayne Read

    2007-01-01

    Shill bidding is where fake bids are introduced into an auction to drive up the final price for the seller, thereby defrauding legitimate bidders. Although shill bidding is strictly forbidden in online auctions such as eBay, it is still a major problem. This paper presents a software bidding agent that follows a shill bidding strategy. The malicious bidding agent was

  17. Multimodal nanoparticulate bioimaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parvesh; Singh, Amit; Brown, Scott C; Bengtsson, Niclas; Walter, Glenn A; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Iwakuma, Nobutaka; Santra, Swadeshmukul; Scott, Edward W; Moudgil, Brij M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of bioimaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound, computed X-ray tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography) are commonly employed for clinical diagnostics and scientific research. While all of these methods use a characteristic "energy-matter" interaction to provide specific details about biological processes, each modality differs from another in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, anatomical and molecular details, imaging depth, as well as the desirable material properties of contrast agents needed for augmented imaging. On many occasions, it is advantageous to apply multiple complimentary imaging modalities for faster and more accurate prognosis. Since most imaging modalities employ exogenous contrast agents to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the development and use of multimodal contrast agents is considered to be highly advantageous for obtaining improved imagery from sought-after imaging modalities. Multimodal contrast agents offer improvements in patient care, and at the same time can reduce costs and enhance safety by limiting the number of contrast agent administrations required for imaging purposes. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate-based multimodal contrast agent for noninvasive bioimaging using MRI, optical, and photoacoustic tomography (PAT)-imaging modalities. The synthesis of these agents is described using microemulsions, which enable facile integration of the desired diversity of contrast agents and material components into a single entity. PMID:20217589

  18. COOPERATIVE INFORMATION AGENTS AND COMMUNICATION

    E-print Network

    Dignum, Frank

    Information Agents. We describe an architecture for these CIA's in which the relations of a CIA with other CIA manager can also negotiate a contract with other CIA's. The contracts (which may include communication or transaction protocols) between agents are handled by the contract manager of the CIA responsible

  19. Multi-agent smart environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane J. Cook

    2009-01-01

    Research in pervasive computing and ambient intelligence has catapulted smart environments to the forefront of many research labs. While tremendous strides have been made toward realizing the dream of designing environments that act as intelligent agents, the size of the problem creates issues that still need to be addressed by researchers. One such issue is the role of multi-agent systems

  20. Empathic Touch by Relational Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Bickmore; Rukmal Fernando; Lazlo Ring; Daniel Schulman

    2010-01-01

    We describe a series of experiments with an agent designed to model human conversational touch-capable of physically touching users in synchrony with speech and other nonverbal communicative behavior-and its use in expressing empathy to users in distress. The agent is composed of an animated human face that is displayed on a monitor affixed to the top of a human mannequin,

  1. Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wooldridge; Nicholas R. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as

  2. Cooperating Air Traffic Control Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Nitschke

    2001-01-01

    The key aim of cooperating air traffic control agents (CAT CA) was to comparatively analyze and evaluate the success of a multiagent system (MAS) and a single agent system (SAS) at addressing a given set of goals in a problem domain amenable to the utilization of either a MAS or SAS. The problem domain selected was air traffic control (AT

  3. Induction and Modulation of Neuroplasticity by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nitsche; A. Antal; D. Liebetanz; N. Lang; F. Tergau; W. Paulus

    2007-01-01

    Brain stimulation with weak direct current has recently been reintroduced as a method to elicit and modulate neuroplasticity of the human cerebral cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates modulations of excitability during as well as up to an hour after the end of stimulation, depending on the duration of stimulation. While anodal stimulation increases excitability, cathodal stimulation reduces it.

  4. Yvon PESQUEUX Professeur titulaire de la Chaire Dveloppement des Systmes

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    norme. Un modèle organisationnel repose sur des éléments de discours qui prennent corps sur des'excitation pour un changement perpétuel dans les catégories de l'organisation réseau en est aussi une des

  5. Marie-Nolle Pons Laboratoire Ractions et Gnie des Procds

    E-print Network

    Canet, Léonie

    : corrosion, adaptation des bactéries en station d'épuration des eaux résiduaires Possible pour des îles ou durs Énergie (à optimiser) Membrane: colmatage Impact sur les écosystèmes Pompage Rejet saumure

  6. Werkzeuge der Informatik Grundlagen und Werkzeuge des WWW (Teil 1)

    E-print Network

    Zachmann, Gabriel

    . Müller, 2011 Geschichte des WWW · Anfänge des WWW Geschichte des Internet · 1980: Tim Berners-Lee (CERN) schreibt Programm "ENQUIRE", das es erlaubt, Knoten im Internet zu verlinken · 1989: Tim Berners-Lee: CERN

  7. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d?autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  8. Immunomodulatory agents for prophylaxis and therapy of infections.

    PubMed

    Masihi, K N

    2000-04-01

    The advent of the antibiotic era ushered in a shift towards non-pathogen-specific therapy of infectious diseases. This led to an overt emphasis on targeting microbial pathogens while strategies directed towards enhancing host immunity were neglected. In an effort to decrease sole reliance on antimicrobials, the time has come for a critical reappraisal of nonantibiotic, albeit immune response-enhancing substances. The diverse array of natural, synthetic, and recombinant immunomodulators discussed in this review succinctly demonstrate the potential of these agents to stimulate host defense mechanisms for prophylaxis and treatment of various microbial infections. PMID:10773486

  9. Valeur alimentaire des marcs de raisin. III. -Rle des tanins condenss dans la faible valeur nutritive

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Valeur alimentaire des marcs de raisin. III. - Rôle des tanins condensés dans la faible valeur Zootechnie El-Harrach (Algérie) Résumé Pour vérifier que les tanins des marcs de raisin (5 p. 100 de la M dosage des tanins est effectué. Il ressort que, au cours du nycthémère, la concentration du jus en tanins

  10. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  11. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  12. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  13. Regulation of Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Transporter GLUT4 Translocation and Akt Kinase Activity by Ceramide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT A. SUMMERS; LUIS A. GARZA; HONGLIN ZHOU; MORRIS J. BIRNBAUM

    1998-01-01

    The sphingomyelin derivative ceramide is a signaling molecule implicated in numerous physiological events. Recently published reports indicate that ceramide levels are elevated in insulin-responsive tissues of diabetic animals and that agents which trigger ceramide production inhibit insulin signaling. In the present series of studies, the short-chain ceramide analog C2-ceramide inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport by ;50% in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, with similar

  14. Impact of hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Rahmi Garcia, Rosa Maria; Rezende, Paulo Cury; Hueb, Whady

    2014-01-01

    Murry et al in 1986 discovered the intrinsic mechanism of profound protection called ischemic preconditioning. The complex cellular signaling cascades underlying this phenomenon remain controversial and are only partially understood. However, evidence suggests that adenosine, released during the initial ischemic insult, activates a variety of G protein-coupled agonists, such as opioids, bradykinin, and catecholamines, resulting in the activation of protein kinases, especially protein kinase C (PKC). This leads to the translocation of PKC from the cytoplasm to the sarcolemma, where it stimulates the opening of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, which confers resistance to ischemia. It is known that a range of different hypoglycemic agents that activate the same signaling cascades at various cellular levels can interfere with protection from ischemic preconditioning. This review examines the effects of several hypoglycemic agents on myocardial ischemic preconditioning in animal studies and clinical trials. PMID:24936247

  15. Contamination des mollusques bivalves par des phycotoxines : interactions entre niveaux de toxicit et rponses physiologiques

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Contamination des mollusques bivalves par des phycotoxines : interactions entre niveaux de principaux types de phycotoxines peuvent contaminer les mollusques bivalves : les toxines diarrhéiques (DSP nécessite de connaître au préalable les conditions initiales de contamination des mollusques ainsi que les

  16. La nature des exsudats de raisins et leur rle dans la germination des conidies de Botrytis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    La nature des exsudats de raisins et leur rôle dans la germination des conidies de Botrytis cinerea mycélienne de Botrytis cinerea. Au cours de la maturation, le rapport sucres/acides des eaux de lavage évolue of the exudates of grape berries and their effect on germination of conidia of Botrytis cinerea. Washing water

  17. Qualit germinative des semences de pois. II. — Suivi conductimtrique des graines au cours de

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualité germinative des semences de pois. II. — Suivi conductimétrique des graines au cours plantules, peut, au moins en partie, expliquer l'évo- lution de la capacité germinative des semences semences immatures, réalisée à température modérée, permet une bonne germination ainsi que l'élimination du

  18. Activit parasitaire des Trichoderma vis--vis des champignons sclrotes ; corrlation avec

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Activité parasitaire des Trichoderma vis-à-vis des champignons à sclérotes ; corrélation avec l Montpellier Cedex R�SUM�� Une vingtaine de clones de Trichoderma, comparés pour leur aptitude à détruire des saprophytique. SUMMARYY Parasitic activity of Trichoderma clones against sclerotial fungi ; correlation

  19. Profil épidemio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles à Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Narindra, Lova Hasina Rajaonarison Ny Ony; Rabemanorintsoa, Feno Hasina; Randrianantenaina, Faralahy Ravelonarivo; Rakoto, Olivat Alson Aimée; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer le profil épidémio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles malagasy. Méthodes Une étude prospective, descriptive portant sur 25 patients hémophiles venant de tout Madagascar a été réalisée. Des radiographies numérisées des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes en incidence de face et de profil ainsi qu'une échographie des hanches, des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes ont été réalisées chez ces patients. Le type et la sévérité de la maladie ainsi que l'aspect de la cavité articulaire, la synoviale, les noyaux épiphysaires et les surfaces articulaires ont été analysés. Résultats Soixante-huit pourcent des patients étaient hémophiles de type A et 32 % de type B. Quarante pourcent étaient classés sévères, 28 % modérés et 32 % mineurs. Les atteintes ostéo-articulaires ont été retrouvées chez 56 % des patients. Il n'existait pas de prédominance d'atteinte selon le type ni la sévérité de la maladie. Les plus jeunes étaient les plus atteints et l'articulation du genou et de la cheville étaient les plus touchées. Conclusion Les complications ostéo-articulaire de l'hémophilie sont graves et ne dépendent pas du type ni de la sévérité de l'affection. Elles touchent surtout les enfants d'âge scolaire. Le couple radiographie-échographie permet de diagnostiquer et de surveiller ces lésions.

  20. Electronique organique: Emission de lumire bleue dans des OLEDs via des excimres intramolculaires.

    E-print Network

    Rennes, Université de

    Electronique organique: Emission de lumière bleue dans des OLEDs via des excimères ces nouvelles molécules comme couche active dans des diodes organiques électroluminescentes (OLEDs OLEDs. Ces travaux s'intègrent dans la thématique "Composés 3-2spiro pour l'électronique organique