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Sample records for des balkans occidentaux

  1. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  2. Higher Education Reform in the Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anthony W.

    2004-01-01

    Struggling economies, outdated academic cultural traditions, and obsolete organizational structures are among the problems facing higher education reformers in the Balkans today. Change comes hard there despite difficult financial circumstances that elsewhere might provide the impetus for reform. Yet governmental and university leaders are finding…

  3. Preservation of Scientific and Cultural Heritage in Balkan Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonta, Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The peoples living in the Balkan Peninsula over centuries have created a very rich cultural heritage and the constant political upheavals in the region have affected the development and preservation of their cultures. This paper aims to review the internet infrastructure and networked readiness levels of the Balkan countries, which are…

  4. Folk Calendars in the Balkan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Dimiter

    Folk calendars are a good source for studying the knowledge and rituals of peoples from distant epochs. The turbulent history of the cultures in the Balkan Peninsula leads to a mixture of calendar traditions - different calendar types and naming systems of the calendar units (months and weekdays). Despite the differences, they share a common astronomical basis and the seasonal structure is of fundamental importance (i.e., dividing the year into two economic seasons - warm and cold). The Old Bulgarian 12-year calendar is also mentioned briefly.

  5. Balkan nephropathy: evolution of our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Boletis, John

    2008-09-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), originally described in the late 1950s as a chronic tubulointerstitial kidney disease, is identified by its unique epidemiological features. The most remarkable characteristic of BEN is the focal topographical nature that characterizes its occurrence at the global, national, and even household level. BEN affects only certain endemic rural foci along tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan countries of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia. The spatial distribution has remained astonishingly unchanged with time because the disease affects the same endemic clusters as 50 years ago. The natural course of the disease is characterized by universal development of end-stage renal disease and the frequent development of upper urinary tract tumors, posing a substantial disease burden to the afflicted areas. The greatest challenge in the study of BEN has been the elucidation of its cause. The unique features of the disease, in particular its endemic nature and the long incubation period required for the disease to develop, have led to the proposal that BEN represents a unique environmental disease. The quest for the responsible environmental factor has been long and diverse, and although no definitive answer has been provided to date, converging lines of evidence support the theory that long-term consumption of food contaminated with aristolochic acid underlies the pathogenesis of BEN. The present review describes the evolution of our knowledge of BEN in relation to the development of the main theories for its pathogenesis. PMID:18725017

  6. Probabilistic Seismic Risk Model for Western Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stejskal, Vladimir; Lorenzo, Francisco; Pousse, Guillaume; Radovanovic, Slavica; Pekevski, Lazo; Dojcinovski, Dragi; Lokin, Petar; Petronijevic, Mira; Sipka, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    A probabilistic seismic risk model for insurance and reinsurance purposes is presented for an area of Western Balkans, covering former Yugoslavia and Albania. This territory experienced many severe earthquakes during past centuries producing significant damage to many population centres in the region. The highest hazard is related to external Dinarides, namely to the collision zone of the Adriatic plate. The model is based on a unified catalogue for the region and a seismic source model consisting of more than 30 zones covering all the three main structural units - Southern Alps, Dinarides and the south-western margin of the Pannonian Basin. A probabilistic methodology using Monte Carlo simulation was applied to generate the hazard component of the model. Unique set of damage functions based on both loss experience and engineering assessments is used to convert the modelled ground motion severity into the monetary loss.

  7. The vegetational history of the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.

    The vegetational history of the Balkans from the last glacial through to present features a dynamic system not subject to immigration of additional taxa. Many temperate taxa appear to have survived in this region during the last glacial in low but persistent populations. Evidence suggests that a greater diversity of taxa existed in the mid to high altitude sites probably where the climate was more humid. At the lateglacial/Holocene transition many tree taxa expanded simultaneously with no evidence of the time-transgressive appearance of taxa which is taken to be indicative of differential immigration in northern Europe. Expansion of temperate woodland was at least 1000 years earlier than in northern Europe suggesting that this was the minimum time for migration of temperate trees into northern Europe. Changes in the composition of the early Holocene woodland included expansion of Pistacia between 9000 and 8000 14C BP, a change in the forest dominants between 8000 and 7000 14C BP, and the appearance and increase of Carpinus orient./Ostrya, Abies. Carpinus betulus and Fagus between 7500 and 5000 14C BP. Since all types were present in the region from the lateglacial, it is suggested that factors other than migration are responsible for their population increase. These factors are considered and include climate, soil development, establishment time and anthropogenic disturbance. Development of the present day landscape started at approximately 4500 14C BP with the onset of anthropogenic disturbance. Clearance resulted in the increase of open ground herbaceous types with grasses, Cerealia-type and Plantago lanceolata. New trees also to become established included Juglans, Olea, Castanea and Platanus. At least two of these types ( Juglans and Castanea) were present in the Balkans during the lateglacial suggesting that although some types were imported by the Greeks/Romans others may have expanded in situ as a result of a favourable niche being created by anthropogenic

  8. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950-2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans. PMID:27152340

  9. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance

    PubMed Central

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950–2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans. PMID:27152340

  10. The Transformation of the European Educational Discourse in the Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmas, Aristotelis

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of the European educational discourse to particular nation-states is a complex process. The outcomes following this transfer are unclear. This article examines the transfer of the European educational discourse in the Balkans and proposes its richer description through the consideration of the processes of educational democratisation…

  11. Description and implementation of a surveillance network for bluetongue in the Balkans and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, F; Paladini, C; Meiswinkel, R; Savini, L; Calistri, P

    2006-01-01

    During the recent severe outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) in the Mediterranean Basin, the BT virus (BTV) spread beyond its historical limits into the Balkan region. One of the primary impacts of BT is the cessation in livestock trade which can have severe economic and social consequences. The authors briefly describe the development of the collaborative East-BTnet programme which aims to assist all affected and at-risk Balkan states and adjoining countries in the management of BT, and in the development of individual national surveillance systems. The beneficiary countries involved, and led by the World organisation for animal health (Office International des Epizooties) Collaborating Centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare of the Istituto Zooprofilattico dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale' in collaboration with the Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen, the European Commission Joint Research Centre (IPSC-JRC), were Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Malta, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia and Turkey. A regional web-based surveillance network is a valuable tool for controlling and managing transboundary animal diseases such as BT. Its implementation in the Balkan region and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe is described and discussed. PMID:20429055

  12. Deforming Balkans : Insights on Continental Collisional Processes from GPS Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metois, M.; D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Rabaute, A.; Duni, L.; Kuka, N.; Koci, R.; Georgiev, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Balkans region that sits at the transition between stable Eurasia and highly straining Eastern Mediterranean, is a natural laboratory to study diffuse deformation of areas affected by continental collision. As in the Himalayan collision zone, it results in a widespread seismicity and underestimated seismic hazard (England & Jackson, 2011). Several Mw~6 shallow earthquakes occurred there in the last century producing large destructions and casualties. The completeness interval of the available historical seismicity catalogs is probably below the average recurrence of individual seismogenic structures, making them insufficient for accurate estimates of seismic hazard there. However, cGPS networks in the Balkans have been growing during the last few years mainly for civilian application, opening new opportunities to quantify the present-day rates of crustal deformation. Here, we processed all the currently available data acquired on these new networks using the Gipsy-Oasis software and combined them with previously published velocities. We use this dense velocity field together with tensor moments from RCMT and CMT to derive an homogeneous map of the current-day strain using the methodology of Haines & Holt (1993). We image the deformation resulting from the boundary conditions around the Balkans : (i) the NE motion of Adria-Apulia blocks, (ii) the rigid Eurasian and Black sea backstops, (iii) the hellenic subduction zone and NAF rapid SE motion. We show that the «Adria-Apulia push» is nearly entirely accommodated by compression across the Dinarides with minor propagation in the Pannonian basin. On the other hand, East of 20°E, the entire peninsula is moving southward, probably driven by the hellenic subduction pull. The transition between the SW-NE compressive and the N-S extensive regimes roughly corresponds to the Scutari-Pec transform zone, also known to be a boundary between paleomagnetic domains. Therefore, we show that the clockwise rotation pattern

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 8, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a...

  14. 78 FR 37097 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... With Respect to the Western Balkans #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Notice of June 17, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western... respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 22, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive...

  16. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  17. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-10-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were examined for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and provide a new tephrostratigraphic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ka) and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ka and ca. 31 ka. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the central Mediterranean area, like south Adriatic, Ionian, and south Tyrrhenian seas, lakes of southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa) and Balkans (Lake Shkodra).

  18. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-05-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were studied for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and supply the first detailed tephrochronologic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the end of the Ancient Age (AD 472). A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ky) and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ky and ca. 31 ky. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the Central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the Central Mediterranean area, like South Adriatic, Ionian, and South Tyrrhenian Seas, lakes of Southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa) and Balkans (Lake Shkodra).

  19. Phylogeography of the rare Balkan endemic Martino's vole, Dinaromys bogdanovi, reveals strong differentiation within the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Krystufek, Boris; Buzan, Elena V; Hutchinson, William F; Hänfling, Bernd

    2007-03-01

    The spatial genetic structure of Martino's vole, a rare palaeoendemic species of the western Balkans, was investigated using DNA isolated from archived museum samples. The study was based on partial sequencing (555 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 63 specimens from 20 different localities throughout the species' range. Three highly divergent allopatric phylogenetic lineages (Northwestern, Central and Southeastern) were recognized among 47 haplotypes, suggesting three independent glacial differentiation centres within the western Balkans. The Northwestern lineage, which showed the highest divergence from all other samples (mean sequence divergence of 6.64% +/- 1.10), comprised samples collected from northwest of the Neretva River in Croatia, western Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Central and Southeastern lineages were separated by an average sequence divergence of 2.95% +/- 0.66 and were geographically divided by the Drim River (the Kosovo Basin in Serbia). Overall, haplotype diversity decreased from the Northwestern lineage to the Central and subsequently the Southeastern lineage, in a geographical pattern consistent with a stepping stone colonization. The observed distribution indicates a gradual southerly expansion with subsequent allopatry across the Neretva River and Drim River approximately 1 and 0.3 million years ago, respectively. Such a scenario is concordant with palaeontological evidence. Several highly divergent sublineages within the Northwestern and Central lineages showed no significant geographical structuring, suggesting secondary contact of allopatrically evolved lineages. We hypothesize that the topographical complexity of the Balkans promoted allopatry and isolation on a small geographical scale during interglacial periods, with secondary contact during glacial maxima. Furthermore, the three main lineages should be regarded as evolutionary significant units with important implications for conservation. Ecological data show that the

  20. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceović, S

    1977-06-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703

  1. 75 FR 32843 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 8, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-14118 Filed 6-9-10; 8... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or the...

  2. 76 FR 37239 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 23, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-16103 Filed 6-23-11; 11:15 am] Billing code... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or United...

  3. 77 FR 37993 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 22, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-15671 Filed 6-22-12; 2:15 pm... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or United...

  4. Phylogeographic reconstruction of HIV type 1B in Montenegro and the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lai, Alessia; Ebranati, Erika; Gabanelli, Elena; Galli, Massimo; Mugosa, Boban; Vratnica, Zoran; Vujoševic, Danijela; Lauševic, Dragan; Ciotti, Marco; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2012-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most genetically variable human viruses as it is characterized by high rates of mutation, viral replication, and recombination. Phylodynamics is a powerful means of describing the behavior of an infection as a combination of evolutionary and ecological processes. Only a few studies of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology have so far been carried out in the Balkans. In this study, we used Bayesian methods to reconstruct the phylogeography and phylodynamics of HIV-1B in Montenegro and some other Balkan countries on the basis of pol gene sequences retrieved from a public database. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 43% of the isolates grouped in accordance with their geographic area, whereas the majority were interspersed in the tree, thus confirming the multiple introductions of HIV-1B in the Balkans. The Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggested that HIV-1B entered the Balkans in the early 1970s probably through Greece and other Mediterranean tourist/travel destinations (such as Slovenia). Other Balkan countries, such as Bulgaria and Serbia, may have played an important role in spreading the infection to the entire Eastern Mediterranean area, and possibly to Northeast Europe. This suggests that the Balkans may have played a role as a "gateway" between Western and Eastern Europe. PMID:22364163

  5. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 'real world' adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey.

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S; Polovina, Marija M; Petranov, Stanislav L; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary 'real-world' AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the 'truly low-risk' patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  6. Ticks (Acari: Argasidae, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in the central Balkans.

    PubMed

    Burazerović, J; Ćakić, S; Mihaljica, D; Sukara, R; Ćirović, D; Tomanović, S

    2015-06-01

    Ticks parasitizing bats have been largely understudied, especially in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, where the last data from the field research date from almost 25 years ago. Bats are hosts to a large number of ectoparasites, including ticks, which can act as vectors of zoonotic agents. For this reason, it is important to identify the distribution of ticks and their relationship to different hosts, including wild animals, bats in particular. The present research was conducted at 16 localities throughout Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). We examined 475 individuals of bats belonging to 13 species. A total of three tick species were identified, I. simplex being the most numerous and widespread, followed by I. vespertilionis and A. vespertilionis. To the best of our knowledge, the presented data include the first records of I. simplex in Serbia and Montenegro, I. vespertilionis for Montenegro and A. vespertilionis in FYROM. Also, we identify a new possible host/parasite association between I. simplex and Rhinolophus euryale. PMID:25717009

  7. US policy in the Balkans: A Hobson`s choice

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.; Johnson, W.T.; Tilford, E.H.

    1995-08-28

    At this writing, the strategic balance may have shifted in the ongoing war in the former Yugoslavia, and the region could be on the verge of a settlement. But, the window of opportunity may be fleeting, and the failures and frustrations of the past four years temper any optimism that conflict in the former Yugoslavia will end quickly or completely. If this opening passes without an end to the fighting, the United States may have to reassess its fundamental policy objectives-and the ways and means to achieve them-if peace is to be effected in the Balkans. The intent of this report, therefore, is to analyze and assess existing policies, to identify any conflicts or contradictions that may stymie U.S. efforts to bring about a peaceful resolution of the crisis, and to offer potential solutions. The report does not offer an ambitious criticism of policy or an expert`s solution to an intractable problem. Its more modest goal is to examine current policy within a context that fits Bosnia into the larger pattern of U.S. interests and policy. In this manner, the report offers a broader framework for the strategic decisions that may face the United States in the not so distant future.

  8. Balkan endemic nephropathy—current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pavlović, Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), originally described in 1956, is a unique familial, chronic renal disease encountered with a high-prevalence rate in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The most prominent features of the disease are its endemic nature, long-incubation period, familial clustering of the disease and an unusually high incidence of associated upper urothelial cancer (UUC). There are no clear-cut data on BEN incidence and prevalence, since the studies carried out in different endemic areas yielded contradictory information. In spite of intermittent variations, the incidence of new cases has remained stable over time. It has been estimated that almost 100 000 people are at risk of BEN, whereas 25 000 have the disease. The clinical signs and symptoms of BEN are non-specific and often remain unrecognized for years. There are no pathognomonic diagnostic features of BEN, but the set of epidemiological, clinical and biochemical data along with the pattern of pathologic injury in the absence of any other renal diseases are highly suggestive of this entity. Although the aetiology has been extensively studied, fostering the publication of various hypotheses, only one of them has provided conclusive evidence related to the aetiology of BEN. Studies conducted over the past decade have provided particularly strong arguments that BEN and UUC are caused by chronic poisoning with aristolochic acids (AAs). In light of these later studies, one can raise the question whether AAs could be responsible for previously and currently widespread unrecognized global renal disease and UUC. PMID:26064484

  9. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    PubMed

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. PMID:21986187

  10. Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur. PMID:17589972

  11. Higher Education in Balkan Region and its Contribution to the Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisec, A.; Fras, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    The needs for spatial data as well as techniques of Earth Observation are changing, and new professional areas are developing very rapidly. In addition, scientific work and its connection with the teaching process have influenced the introduction of new cognitions into the higher education programs in general. Considering these facts, in the period shorter than one decade, the higher education institutions in the Balkan region, which have study programs in the fields of spatial data acquisition, analysis and spatial decisions, have made significant changes of the curricula. In our research, we have analyzed the current higher education programs in the Balkan region having focused on curricula related to the Earth Observation. Due to historical reasons, these curricula have its roots in surveying study programs in the most Balkan countries. The competences of classical surveying higher educational programs have been changing and nowadays include the wider area of spatial data acquisition, geoinformatics. In parallel, we present the current Earth Observation activities in the selected countries from the Balkan region. Based on the results of our research in the framework of the European program Observe, which aims to establish a new Balkan Earth Observation (EO) community of multilevel stakeholders that will make use of state of the art technological developments, products and knowhow from the existing European EO community and industry, we estimate the contribution of advanced higher educational programs to the Earth Observation activities in the selected countries.

  12. Collaborative investigations on thoron and radon in some rural communities of Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Z S; Celiković, I; Tokonami, S; Ishikawa, T; Ujić, P; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Milić, G; Jakupi, B; Cuknić, O; Veselinović, N; Fujimoto, K; Sahoo, S K; Yarmoshenko, I

    2010-10-01

    This paper deals with the results of the first-field use in the Balkans, i.e. Serbia and Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Hercegovina), of a passive polycarbonate Mark II type and poliallyldiglycol carbonate (Cr-39) alpha track detectors sensitive to thoron as well as to radon. Both types of solid state nuclear track detectors were designed and supplied by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The commercial names for these detectors which all have been field tested in Balkan rural communities are known as: UFO and RADUET passive discriminative radon/thoron detectors. No database of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings in Serbia or Balkans region exist, and as a result, the level of exposure of the Serbian population to thoron and its progeny is unknown so far. PMID:20966203

  13. The ancient Balkan lakes harbor a new endemic species of Diaphanosoma Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Korovchinsky, Nikolai M; Petkovski, Trajan K

    2014-01-01

    Diaphanosoma macedonicum sp. nov. is described from material collected from the ancient Lakes Dojran and Prespa, located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It can be regarded as a member of the "D. mongolianum" species group. It is characterized by specific, but not readily visible features, such as the absence of a thorn near the posterior valve margins, as well as setules between setae of the ventral valve inflection, and the presence of more chitinized integument. The discovery of this new species previously identified as "Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Liévin)" highlights the necessity of more detailed investigations of the zooplankton of Balkan lakes potentially populated by greater numbers of endemic cladoceran species. A short overview of the ancient lakes in the Central Balkans is provided. PMID:24872071

  14. On depleted uranium: gulf war and Balkan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duraković, A

    2001-04-01

    The complex clinical symptomatology of chronic illnesses, commonly described as Gulf War Syndrome, remains a poorly understood disease entity with diversified theories of its etiology and pathogenesis. Several causative factors have been postulated, with a particular emphasis on low level chemical warfare agents, oil fires, multiple vaccines, desert sand (Al-Eskan disease), botulism, Aspergillus flavus, Mycoplasma, aflatoxins, and others, contributing to the broad scope of clinical manifestations. Among several hundred thousand veterans deployed in the Operation Desert Storm, 15-20% have reported sick and about 25,000 died. Depleted uranium (DU), a low-level radioactive waste product of the enrichment of natural uranium with U-235 for the reactor fuel or nuclear weapons, has been considered a possible causative agent in the genesis of Gulf War Syndrome. It was used in the Gulf and Balkan wars as an armor-penetrating ammunition. In the operation Desert Storm, over 350 metric tons of DU was used, with an estimate of 3-6 million grams released in the atmosphere. Internal contamination with inhaled DU has been demonstrated by the elevated excretion of uranium isotopes in the urine of the exposed veterans 10 years after the Gulf war and causes concern because of its chemical and radiological toxicity and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Polarized views of different interest groups maintain an area of sustained controversy more in the environment of the public media than in the scientific community, partly for the reason of being less than sufficiently addressed by a meaningful objective interdisciplinary research. PMID:11259733

  15. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  16. Explaining the Tragedy of Sarajevo to the Children: Bringing the Contemporary Balkans into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the political changes that have swept across Europe since the end of the Cold War have not necessarily led to a more stable world. Contends that Yugoslavia is crucial to the future of the Balkan region. Includes suggestions for incorporating lessons about Yugoslavia into the social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  17. Teachers for the Future: Teacher Development for Inclusive Education in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Closs, Alison; Ivosevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Teachers for the Future is a regional report that draws together and analyses research findings from a study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in seven countries in the Western Balkan region, namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. The overall…

  18. Teachers for the Future: Teacher Development for Inclusive Education in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Closs, Alison; Ivosevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Teachers for the Future is a regional report that draws together and analyses research findings from a study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in seven countries in the Western Balkans region, namely, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. The overall…

  19. The "1+1:Life & Love" Simultaneous Exhibition: Cross-Border Collaboration in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a cross-border, "simultaneous exhibition" collaborative project in six post-conflict western Balkan countries. Through a process of collaboration, active learning, and audience development, professional and personal trust developed among eleven museums. Previously identified barriers were overcome and…

  20. A larval key to the Drusinae species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) of Austria, Germany, Switzerland and the dinaric western Balkan1

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, J.; Graf, W.; Pauls, S.U.; Previšić, A.; Kučinić, M.

    2016-01-01

    A larval key of the Drusinae of Central Europe and the dinaric western Balkan is presented. Phylogeographic relationships are discussed in the light of molecular genetics, feeding ecology and larval morphology. PMID:26985170

  1. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  2. Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:25148043

  3. Health technology assessment in the Balkans: opportunities for a balanced drug assessment system

    PubMed Central

    Dankó, Dávid; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-01-01

    Countries in the Balkan region use pharmaco-economic data for decisions about the inclusion of new pharmaceuticals into their positive drug lists, but no predefined frameworks are used and resources for health technology assessment (HTA) are limited. The goal of this analysis is to investigate into possible development directions for the HTA system in the region, and provide some practical recommendations for a sustainable model. For this purpose, the main factors currently influencing HTA in Balkan countries are briefly presented, and possible development strategies are compared. A resource-saving balanced assessment approach is proposed. It is aligned with available resources and capabilities, and helps access to new pharmaceuticals while ensuring the transparency of decision-making processes and the stability of the pharmaceutical budget. PMID:26019605

  4. Cryptic diversity of caddisflies in the Balkans: the curious case of Ecclisopteryx species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Pauls, Steffen U.; Waringer, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Adults and larvae of two new cryptic, endemic caddisflies, Ecclisopteryx keroveci sp.n. and Ecclisopteryx ivkae sp.n., are described and illustrated from the Western Balkans. Phylogenetic analysis (Bayesian MCMCMC) and association of different life history stages in both cryptic species were achieved through comparison of morphological characters and mitochondrial (mtCOI and mtLSU) and nuclear (nuWG) gene sequence data. The new species form a sister clade to the widely distributed E. dalecarlica and E. guttulata, with which they were formerly misidentified. Adults differ from each other and other species in the genus by the uniquely shaped inferior appendages in males and segment X in females. The larvae differ from each other and their congeners in the shape of the pronotum, and presence and constitution of additional spines on the parietalia. Larvae of both species are grazers and prefer stony substrate. Ecclisopteryx keroveci sp.n. has a wide distribution in the Western Balkans, while E. ivkae sp.n. is endemic to Dalmatia. Our findings demonstrate the significance of the Western Balkans as a freshwater biodiversity hotspot, and accentuate the importance of research focused on freshwater biodiversity and biogeography in southern Europe. PMID:25810791

  5. New investigations or recent vertical movements in the Carpatho-Balkan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joó, István; Arabadžijski, Dončo; Füry, Mihály; Meščerskij, Igor'N.; Mihǎila, Mircea; Mladenovski, Mladen M.; Németh, Zsuzsanna; Steinberg, Johannes; Thury, József; Vanko, Jan; Wyrzykowski, Tadeusz

    1987-12-01

    Recent work concerning the investigation of vertical movements in the Carpatho-Balkan Region is reported, based on the "Explanatory Text to the Map of Recent Vertical Movements in the Carpatho-Balkan Region". For this investigation, the following countries supplied information: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Austria, and Italy. The activities were coordinated by the Hungarian Geodetic Service. Hungary undertook the task of collecting the data, their preparation for adjustment, and the adjustment of the investigation network, as well as the compilation and publication of the map of vertical movement. The authors present the algorithm of the rigorous adjustment: the height differences of the second leveling have been adjusted jointly with the velocities derived from the first and second levelings. In this paper the applied geodetic and oceanographic data, as well as the main character of the investigation network are presented. The interpretation of the adjustment is outlined. The map of Recent Vertical Movements in the Carpatho-Balkan Region (CBR) is printed at the scale of 1:1,000,000. In general, it is claimed that due to the new methods of investigation, the new CBR map of vertical movements provides a better tool to help with further investigations.

  6. Evaluating Weight of Evidence in the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bui-Klimke, Travis; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, progressive wasting disease of the kidneys, endemic in certain rural regions of the Balkan nations Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania. It is irreversible, and ultimately fatal. Though this disease was first described in the 1920s, its causes have been a mystery and a source of much academic and clinical contention. Possible etiologic agents that have been explored include exposure to metals and metalloids, viruses and bacteria, and the environmental toxins aristolochic acid (AA) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Aristolochic acid is a toxin produced by weeds of the genus Aristolochia, common in Balkan wheat fields. Aristolochia seeds may intermingle with harvested grains and thus inadvertently enter human diets. Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin (fungal toxin) common in many foods, including cereal grains. In this study, we analyzed the weight of evidence for each of the suspected causes of BEN using the Bradford Hill Criteria (BHC): nine conditions that determine weight of evidence for a causal relationship between an agent and a disease. Each agent postulated to cause BEN was evaluated using the nine criteria, and for each criterion was given a rating based on the strength of the association between exposure to the substance and BEN. From the overall available scientific evidence for each of these suspected risk factors, aristolochic acid is the agent with the greatest weight of evidence in causing BEN. We describe other methods for testing causality from epidemiological studies, which support this conclusion of AA causing BEN. PMID:24954501

  7. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  8. Secular trends in body height in Balkan populations from 1945 to 1995

    PubMed Central

    Sarajlić, Nermin; Resić, Emina; Gradaščević, Anisa; Salihbegović, Adis; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, and Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look for any secular trend in the stature of Balkan populations from the time of World War II (1939–1945) to the Balkans War (1991–1995). The research was based on the examination of exhumed skeletons of 202 men killed in World War II in the area of the Republic of Slovenia, and 243 men killed in the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The length measurements of the right and left humerus, femur, tibia and fibula were taken. Since the results revealed no significant differences and the left-sided bones were more complete and recurrent in the sample, the bones of the left side were used in the analysis. Since the increase in height depends mostly on the increase in length of the long bones, with an average absolute change of about 0.28 cm for humerus, 0.55 cm for femur, 0.49 cm for tibia and 0.20 cm for fibula per decade in our case, these results suggest a significant increase of the height of the Balkans population. The difference of the sum of the average femur and tibia length for the study period was 4.13 cm. Recalculated average length increase of the sum length of femur and tibia per decade was 0.88 cm for the left side. Our study revealed that there was a trend towards increased long bone lengths, at least in the male population analyzed. PMID:25428672

  9. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  10. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  11. New insights on the seismic hazard in the Balkans inferred from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Nicola; Métois, Marianne; Avallone, Antonio; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The Balkans region sits at the transition between stable Eurasia and highly straining continental Eastern Mediterranean, resulting in a widespread seismicity and high seismic hazard. Because of intensive human and economic development over the last decades, the vulnerability has increased in the region faster than the progress in seismic hazard assessments. Opposite to the relatively good understanding of the seismicity in plate boundaries contexts, the seismic hazard is poorly known in the regions of distributed continental deformation like the Balkan region and is often underestimated (England and Jackson, 2011). Current seismic hazard assessments are based on the historical and instrumental catalogues. However, the completeness interval of the historical data bases may be below the average recurrence of individual seismogenic structures. In addition, relatively sparse seismological networks in the region and limited cross-border seismic data exchanges cast doubts in seismotectonic interpretation and challenge our understanding of seismic and geodynamic processes. This results in a inhomogeneous knowledge of the seismic hazard of the region to date. Geodetic measurements have the capability to contribute to seismic hazard by mapping the field of current active deformation and translating it into estimates of the seismogenic potential. With simple assumptions, measurements of crustal deformation can be translated in estimates of the average frequency and magnitude of the largest events and assessments of the aseismic deformation. GPS networks in the Balkans have been growing during the last few years mainly for civilian application (e.g. Cadastral plan, telecommunications), but opening new opportunities to quantify the present-day rates of crustal deformation. Here we present the initial results of GEOSAB (Geodetic Estimate of Strain Accumulation over Balkans), an AXA-Research-Fund supported project devoted to the estimation of crustal deformation and the

  12. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs. PMID:27383872

  13. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and ‘real world’ adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey

    PubMed Central

    Potpara, Tatjana S.; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S.; Polovina, Marija M.; Petranov, Stanislav L.; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Potpara, Tatjana S.; Polovina, Marija; Milanov, Srdjan; Pavlovic, Marija; Petrovic, Marijana; Simovic, Stefan; Mitic, Gorana; Milanov, Marko; Savic, Jelena; Gnip, Sanja; Radovic, Pavica; Markovic, Snezana; Koncarevic, Ivana; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Acimovic, Tijana; Djikic, Dijana; Malic, Semir; Hodzic, Jusuf; Stojanovic, Milovan; Ilic, Marina Deljanin; Zlatar, Milan; Matic, Dragan; Lazic, Snezana; Peric, Vladan; Markovic, Sanja; Kovacevic, Snezana; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Asanin, Milika; Zdravkovic, Marija; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Breha, Anca; Dan, Anca Rodica; Musetescu, Rodica; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Badila, Elisabeta; Georgescu, Catalina Arsenescu; Pop, Sorina; Popescu, Raluca; Neamtu, Simina; Oancea, Floriana; Trendafilova, Elina; Dimitrova, Elena; Goshev, Evgenii; Velichkova, Anna; Petranov, Stanislav; Kamenova, Delyana; Kamenova, Penka; Elefterova, Svetoslava; Shterev, Valentin; Zekova, Maria; Diukiandzhieva, Stela; Dimitrov, Boiko; Sotirov, Tihomir; Simeonova, Valentina; Drianovska, Dimitrina; Boiadzhieva, Liliya Ivanova Vasileva; Buchukova, Darina; Goda, Artan; Paparisto, Vilma; Gjergo, Hortensia; Mijo, Alma; Shirka, Ervina; Gjini, Viktor; Ekmekciu, Uliks; Refatllari, Ina; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Loncar, Daniela; Mrsic, Denis; Tulumovic, Hazim; Pojskic, Belma; Sijamija, Alma; Bijedic, Amira; Karamujic, Indira; Bijedic, Irma; Halilovic, Sanela; Sokolovic, Sekib; Manola, Sime; Zeljkovic, Ivan; Pavlovic, Nikola; Radeljic, Vjekoslav; Brusich, Sandro; Anic, Ante; Jeric, Melita; Pekic, Petar; Milas, Kresimir; Music, Ljilja; Bulatovic, Nebojsa; Nenezic, Ana; Asanovic, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary ‘real-world’ AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the ‘truly low-risk’ patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  14. An Examination of Long-Term Environmental-Social Dynamics in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the interactions of environmental and social dynamics in Central Balkans over the past millennium, a period that experienced three major climatic phases (Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and the warm 20th century). Meanwhile, the same period witnessed a complex human history with the emergence-rise-decline of the Ottoman Empire and subsequent socio-political events (e.g. wars, famines, migrations). Environmental datasets for the analysis include biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating of two western and central Serbian lakes while social datasets include historic population data, land use, settlement patterns, and critical historic events derived from a review of the literature and local archives. Among the environmental datasets, indigenous tree and herbaceous pollen from these Central Balkans records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics whereas potassium and titanium counts obtained through XRF act as a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes. Microscopic charcoal, cereal pollen and subordinate anthropogenic pollen (e.g. cultivated fruits and vegetables) are used to distinguish strong human impact over the landscape. These key anthropogenic indicators create a more thorough social component of the analysis in association with the social datasets. After reconstructing the individual time series for each environmental and social dataset, the two Central Balkan records are correlated in order to identify the environmental and social homogeneity and heterogeneity patterns occurring at shorter and longer timescales during the period. Results provide insights on how a region responds to social and environmental stressors and our approach demonstrates ways to integrate natural and social science system research.

  15. The Pannonian plain as a source of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Sikoparija, B; Smith, M; Skjøth, C A; Radisić, P; Milkovska, S; Simić, S; Brandt, J

    2009-05-01

    This study aims to find likely sources of Ambrosia pollen recorded during 2007 at five pollen-monitoring sites in central Europe: Novi Sad, Ruma, Negotin and Nis (Serbia) and Skopje (Macedonia). Ambrosia plants start flowering early in the morning and so Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the day are likely to be from a local source. Conversely, Ambrosia pollen grains recorded at night or very early in the morning may have arrived via long-range transport. Ambrosia pollen counts were analysed in an attempt to find possible sources of the pollen and to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. Diurnal variations and the magnitude of Ambrosia pollen counts during the 2007 Ambrosia pollen season showed that Novi Sad and Ruma (Pannonian Plain) and to a lesser degree Negotin (Balkans) were located near to sources of Ambrosia pollen. Mean bi-hourly Ambrosia pollen concentrations peaked during the middle of the day, and concentrations at these sites were notably higher than at Nis and Skopje. Three episodes were selected for further analysis using back-trajectory analysis. Back-trajectories showed that air masses brought Ambrosia pollen from the north to Nis and, on one occasion, to Skopje (Balkans) during the night and early morning after passing to the east of Novi Sad and Ruma during the previous day. The results of this study identified the southern part of the Pannonian Plain around Novi Sad and Ruma as being a potential source region for Ambrosia pollen recorded at Nis and Skopje in the Balkans. PMID:19224251

  16. The environmental state of rivers in the Balkans--a review within the DPSIR framework.

    PubMed

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2009-04-01

    Fifteen major Balkan rivers with over 80% of the inflows in Eastern Mediterranean were examined for their environmental state within the DPSIR framework. Physicogeographic and hydrochemical conditions differ substantially among river basins, which may be roughly classified into three main zones. Despite strong fragmentation, most of the rivers are liable to flash floods and have low summer flow. Decreasing precipitation and (mis)management caused a dramatic discharge reduction over the last decades. Wars, political instability, economical crises over the past decades, combined with administrative and structural constraints, poor environmental planning and inspection and, frequently, a lack of environmental awareness imposed significant pressures on rivers. Large wetland areas were drained in favour of widespread intensive agriculture. The treatment of municipal wastewaters is barely adequate in Greece and insufficient elsewhere, while management and treatment of mining and industrial wastewaters is overall poor. In general, lowland river sections are hydro-morphologically modified and are at the greatest pollution risk, while upstream areas mostly retain their natural conditions. Nutrient concentrations in a number of central and eastern Balkan rivers often exceed quality standards, whereas pesticides and heavy metals, partly of geochemical origin, occasionally exceed quality standards. Reservoirs retain vast masses of sediments, thus adversely affecting delta evolution, while dam operation disturbs the seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical regimes. Almost all Balkan countries face daunting water resource challenges because of urgently needed investments in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, and hydroelectricity. International treaties and designations and European Union Directives have mobilized pollution mitigation and conservation efforts. However, the application of environmental legislation has proved in a number of cases inadequate. Constraints arise

  17. Phenotype and allele frequencies of some serum protein polymorphisms in populations of the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Scheil, H G; Schmidt, H D; Efremovska, L; Mikerezi, I; Huckenbeck, W

    2004-12-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations seven serum protein polymorphisms (AMY2, BF, C3, CP, GC, HPA, TF) were examined in two samples of Aromuns and one reference sample (Musequiar-Aromuns from Dukasi in Albania, Moskopolian-Aromuns from Krusevo, Republic of Macedonia, and Macedonians from Skopje). The neighbor joining tree as well as the principal component analysis show results which do not correspond well to the geographic and historic background. This indicates that in the present case the serum protein polymorphisms give no clearly defined information about the relationships between the Balkan populations and to the origin of Aromuns. PMID:15648851

  18. From globalization to Europeanization-and then? Transnational influences in lesbian activism of the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Dioli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at transnational dynamics in lesbian activism in the Western Balkans, with particular focus on Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, over the last two decades. Based on 30 interviews with activists from local and international feminist, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT), and queer organizations, the article discusses the role played by transnational contacts in the development of lesbian activism in the region and the related issues arising within the conflicting relationship between the "East" and the "West," with special attention to trends related to international intervention and cooperation, globalization, and Europeanization. PMID:21774599

  19. Description of two new filtering carnivore Drusus species (Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Vitecek, Simon; Kučinić, Mladen; Oláh, János; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U.; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans are described. Additionally, observations on the biodiversity and threats to the region’s endemic aquatic fauna are discussed. Drusus krpachi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Korab Mountains, Macedonia, and Drusus malickyi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Prokletije Mountains, Albania. Both new species are most similar to Drusus macedonicus but differ from the latter in the shape of segment IX, the shape of the tips of the intermediate appendages in lateral view, the shape of the inferior appendages, and the form and shape of the parameres. In addition, males of the European species of filtering carnivore Drusinae are diagnosed and illustrated, including Cryptothrix nebulicola McLachlan, Drusus chrysotus Rambur, Drusus discolor Rambur, Drusus macedonicus Schmid, Drusus meridionalis Kumanski, Drusus muelleri McLachlan, Drusus romanicus Murgoci and Botosaneanu, and Drusus siveci Malicky. These additions to the Western Balkan fauna demonstrate the significance of this region for European biodiversity and further highlight the importance of faunistic studies in Europe. PMID:26257570

  20. Daily uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction.

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Roth, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peacekeeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peacekeeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d(-1) for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. PMID:17567762

  1. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Volume 1. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publications Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Designed as an introductory history, this book covers developments in the Balkan Peninsula from the 17th through the 19th centuries. Emphasis is placed on the process by which separate nationalities broke away from imperial rule, established independent states, and embarked on economic and social modernization. To establish perspective on the role…

  2. Genetic characterization of the M RNA segment of a Balkan Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strain.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, E; Boźović, B; Antoniadis, A

    2005-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes one of the most severe diseases in humans, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of hard ticks or by contact with blood or tissues from human patients or infected livestock. Balkan Peninsula is an endemic region of the disease, and sporadic cases or even outbreaks are observed every year. The M RNA segment encodes for the glycoprotein precursor of two surface glycoproteins Gn and Gc. Up to now complete M RNA CCHF virus sequences have been published from strains isolated in Nigeria, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Russia. In the present study, the genetic characterization of the complete nucleotide sequence of the M RNA segment of a Balkan CCHF virus strain, Kosovo/9553/2001, isolated in summer of 2001 from a human fatal case in Kosovo is reported. This is the first published complete M nucleotide sequence of a CCHF virus strain isolated in Balkans. It was found that the Balkan strain is similar to the Russian strain, both strains differing from all other completely sequenced CCHF virus strains by approximately 22% at the nucleotide level forming an independent clade in the phylogenetic tree. PMID:15648072

  3. Teacher Competence as a Basis for Teacher Education: Comparing Views of Teachers and Teacher Educators in Five Western Balkan Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Wubbels, Theo; Mainhard, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Orientation of teacher preparation toward the development of competence has recently been suggested as a worthwhile direction of change in teacher education in the Western Balkan countries. In this study, 2,354 teachers, teacher educators, and student teachers from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia responded to a…

  4. Dearth of Early Education Experience: A Significant Barrier to Educational and Social Inclusion in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovanovic, Suncica Macura; Kokic, Ivana Batarelo; Kristiansen, Selma Džemidžic; Gera, Ibolya; Ikonomi, Estevan; Kafedžic, Lejla; Milic, Tamara; Rexhaj, Xhavit; Spasovski, Ognen; Closs, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The article summarises the socio-political, cultural, economic and educational background to the Western Balkans region and outlines the wider qualitative research study that provided the data on early and pre-school educational opportunities in the seven countries involved; Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo (under United Nations…

  5. Late-Quaternary Speleothem Records from the Balkan Peninsula - Potential, Objectives and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, I.; McCoy, W. D.; Markovic, S.; Endlicher, W.

    2010-12-01

    Mid-latitude speleothems often contain detailed, high-resolution records of local and regional interglacial climate changes. Many speleothem records of Holocene (MIS 1) and Eemian (MIS 5e) climate evolution have been investigated, but there is very little work being done in the Balkan region, despite the fact that the area is very rich in limestone caves with speleothems. Situated at the interface between temperate-continental and Mediterranean climates, present-day climate on the Balkan Peninsula is determined by two major upper-level jet streams, the polarfront jet (PFJ) and the subtropical jet (STJ). On a seasonal scale, both features exert varying influence and determine frontogenesis processes, cyclonic activity and precipitation. On decadal to millennial time-scales, changes and fluctuations in the position and permanency of these atmospheric circulation features influence the isotope signature in rainfall and ultimately in cave drip waters and related speleothems. We are investigating speleothems from Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina to study Late Quaternary climatic changes and to learn how both synoptic-scale systems were linked during the Holocene and previous interglacial periods. By example of a stalagmite collected in Vernjikica Cave, Serbia (Carpatho-Balkans), the project's potential to address important aspects of paleoclimatic research in the Mediterranean realm is discussed. The first studied, fine-laminated calcite stalagmite is about 50 cm tall and extends conically from the base to the top, presenting at least two visible growth discontinuities. Four preliminary uranium-series ages (234U/230Th) constrain the general period of growth to MIS 5d to MIS 5b. Preliminary results suggest that the stable oxygen isotope profile obtained from the axial zone largely reflects the unaltered isotopic composition of the cave drip water. The observed shifts in the isotope records display long-term changing climate conditions from temperate warm and

  6. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. Despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are, however, not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is used here to test the biogeographical zonation of the Southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most populations studied belong to two native species: D. presbensis (incl. the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, D. ''stankovici'') and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the Southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. is largely in concordance with the biogeographical zonations previously proposed based on fish data. Disagreement, however, consists regarding the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. For Lake Prespa, however, a closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the Northern Ionian region is suggested. While reconstructing the evolutionary histories of Dreissena spp., signs of major demographic and spatial expansions were found. They started some 320 000-300 000 years ago in D. ''stankovici'', some 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and some 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had pronounced effects on the

  7. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici") and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000-300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  8. The Balkans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Transylvanian Basin in Romania stands out in brilliant green in this image from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 3, 2002. Near the top of the image, the hilly, forested basin is tucked in between the Carpathian Mountains, running northwest-southeast, and the Transylvanian Alps, running west-east. To the right of the image is the Black Sea. The large patch of turquoise water in the Black Sea is a large phytoplankton bloom. At the bottom of the image, the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara is ringed by Greece (left) and Turkey (right). Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor?s fullest (250-m) resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Consensus statement on screening, diagnosis, classification and treatment of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jelaković, Bojan; Nikolić, Jovan; Radovanović, Zoran; Nortier, Joelle; Cosyns, Jean-Pierre; Grollman, Arthur P.; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Belicza, Mladen; Bukvić, Danica; Čavaljuga, Semra; Čvorišćec, Dubravka; Cvitković, Ante; Dika, Živka; Dimitrov, Plamen; Đukanović, Ljubica; Edwards, Karen; Ferluga, Dušan; Fuštar-Preradović, Ljubica; Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Imamović, Goran; Jakovina, Tratinčica; Kes, Petar; Leko, Ninoslav; Medverec, Zvonimir; Mesić, Enisa; Miletić-Medved, Marica; Miller, Frederick; Pavlović, Nikola; Pasini, Josip; Pleština, Stjepko; Polenaković, Momir; Stefanović, Vladislav; Tomić, Karla; Trnačević, Senaid; Vuković Lela, Ivana; Štern-Padovan, Ranka

    2014-01-01

    Currently used diagnostic criteria in different endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN) centers involve different combinations of parameters, various cut-off values and many of them are not in agreement with proposed international guidelines. Leaders of EN centers began to address these problems at scientific meetings, and this paper is the outgrowth of those discussions. The main aim is to provide recommendations for clinical work on current knowledge and expertise. This document is developed for use by general physicians, nephrologists, urologist, public health experts and epidemiologist, and it is hoped that it will be adopted by responsible institutions in countries harboring EN. National medical providers should cover costs of screening and diagnostic procedures and treatment of EN patients with or without upper urothelial cancers. PMID:24166461

  10. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed Central

    Tatu, C A; Orem, W H; Finkelman, R B; Feder, G L

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799184

  11. Chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes of Gulf War and Balkans War veterans.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Heimers, A; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Schott, A; Hoffmann, W

    2003-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium (DU) while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The Bremen laboratory control served as a reference in this study. Compared with this control there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (dic) and centric ring chromosomes (cR) in the veterans' group. indicating a previous exposure to ionising radiation. The statistically significant overdispersion of die and cR indicates non-uniform irradiation as would be expected after non-uniform exposure and/or exposure to radiation with a high linear energy transfer (LET). The frequency of SCEs was decreased when compared with the laboratory control. PMID:12678382

  12. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: Still more questions than answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatu, C.A.; Orem, W.H.; Finkelman, R.B.; Feder, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology.

  13. The Little Ice Age and its Spatial Variability across the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence, and AMS 14C based chronology, we present a correlation between two new high resolution Little Ice Age (LIA) records from the Central Balkans that are part of one of the least studied regions of Europe. The sediments extracted from a western sinkhole and central Serbian oxbow lake are analyzed at 8-10-cm intervals to capture the nature and magnitude of the LIA at a resolution of 20 years. During the 15th-19th CE, indigenous tree (e.g. Quercus, Acer, Pinus) and herbaceous (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia) pollen from these records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics. While tree populations from Central Serbia remain comparatively stable (40-60%), the trees of western Serbia vacillate drastically between 15% and 50%. Similarly, central Serbian grasses show variations of ~18-36% whereas the western Serbian grass populations exhibit abrupt oscillations between high (55%) and low (19%) percentages. As a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes, the 1-cm resolution potassium and titanium counts are in strong agreement with varying herbaceous taxa. These variations in ecological signals across the cores can account for local factors including altitude, terrain exposure, soils etc., however, the dynamic human component of the landscape is evident through crop pollen (e.g. Cerealia, Juglans) and microscopic charcoal highlighting the dominant role of people in ecological changes. Although the two sites show certain differences in charcoal concentration, extremely high charcoal indicates accelerated land clearance between the 15th and 17th CE. Until the beginning of 18th CE, the cultivars (e.g. Secale, Triticum) occur with very low percentages and then peak to suggest improved agriculture in the region. In the post-LIA era, the 20th CE exhibits increased arboreal percentages and declining grasslands in both the two Central

  14. Dynamics of the Balkans deformation : regional impact of the Western Hellenic subduction-collision transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métois, Marianne; D'Agostino, Nicola; Copley, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number of GPS measurements in the Balkan Peninsula over the last decades has brought new insights on the kinematic of the Eurasian plate there, revealing a significant ( 5 mm/yr) clockwise rotation motion of the entire region around the Scutari-Pec line in North Albania [Métois et al. 2015]. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes in this seismically active area are consistent with this deformation pattern. In this study, we use simple dynamic models based on the thin viscous sheet approximation to test the influence of realistic kinematic boundary conditions and gradients of gravitational potential energy on the predicted surface deformation in the region. In addition, we compare the surface velocity field with maps of azimuthal anisotropy at depth to assess whether mantle motions may drive part of the observed lithosphere deformation. We show that the observed shearing and rotation around Albania can be explained at the first order by kinematic boundary conditions applied on a viscous lithosphere (η ˜ 2.1021Pa.s), while GPE gradients may control the smaller-scale patterns of deformation. Our models appear to be very sensitive to the abrupt velocity-change imposed across the Kefalonia fault in northern Greece where the subduction to collision transition takes place. We propose that the large-scale shearing of the region observed in the GPS data results mainly from this lithospheric tearing, that is one of the most active structure in the area. This hypothesis implies that the slab tearing initiation would have been an important controlling factor on the tectonic history of the Balkans and that the current velocity gradient across the Kefalonia fault is probably sufficient to trigger a large scale shearing propagating up to central Serbia.

  15. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    PubMed Central

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  16. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  17. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  18. Demography of the Early Neolithic Population in Central Balkans: Population Dynamics Reconstruction Using Summed Radiocarbon Probability Distributions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Central Balkans region is of great importance for understanding the spread of the Neolithic in Europe but the Early Neolithic population dynamics of the region is unknown. In this study we apply the method of summed calibrated probability distributions to a set of published radiocarbon dates from the Republic of Serbia in order to reconstruct population dynamics in the Early Neolithic in this part of the Central Balkans. The results indicate that there was a significant population growth after ~6200 calBC, when the Neolithic was introduced into the region, followed by a bust at the end of the Early Neolithic phase (~5400 calBC). These results are broadly consistent with the predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition theory and the patterns of population booms and busts detected in other regions of Europe. These results suggest that the cultural process that underlies the patterns observed in Central and Western Europe was also in operation in the Central Balkan Neolithic and that the population increase component of this process can be considered as an important factor for the spread of the Neolithic as envisioned in the demic diffusion hypothesis. PMID:27508413

  19. Demography of the Early Neolithic Population in Central Balkans: Population Dynamics Reconstruction Using Summed Radiocarbon Probability Distributions.

    PubMed

    Porčić, Marko; Blagojević, Tamara; Stefanović, Sofija

    2016-01-01

    The Central Balkans region is of great importance for understanding the spread of the Neolithic in Europe but the Early Neolithic population dynamics of the region is unknown. In this study we apply the method of summed calibrated probability distributions to a set of published radiocarbon dates from the Republic of Serbia in order to reconstruct population dynamics in the Early Neolithic in this part of the Central Balkans. The results indicate that there was a significant population growth after ~6200 calBC, when the Neolithic was introduced into the region, followed by a bust at the end of the Early Neolithic phase (~5400 calBC). These results are broadly consistent with the predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition theory and the patterns of population booms and busts detected in other regions of Europe. These results suggest that the cultural process that underlies the patterns observed in Central and Western Europe was also in operation in the Central Balkan Neolithic and that the population increase component of this process can be considered as an important factor for the spread of the Neolithic as envisioned in the demic diffusion hypothesis. PMID:27508413

  20. The state of hepatitis B and C in the Mediterranean and Balkan countries: report from a summit conference.

    PubMed

    Hatzakis, A; Van Damme, P; Alcorn, K; Gore, C; Benazzouz, M; Berkane, S; Buti, M; Carballo, M; Cortes Martins, H; Deuffic-Burban, S; Dominguez, A; Donoghoe, M; Elzouki, A-N; Ben-Alaya Bouafif, N; Esmat, G; Esteban, R; Fabri, M; Fenton, K; Goldberg, D; Goulis, I; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Hadjichristodoulou, T; Hatzigeorgiou, T; Hamouda, O; Hasurdjiev, S; Hughes, S; Kautz, A; Malik, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papatheodoridis, G; Peck, R; Peterle, A; Potamitis, G; Prati, D; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Reic, T; Sharara, A; Shennak, M; Shiha, G; Shouval, D; Sočan, M; Thomas, H; Thursz, M; Tosti, M; Trépo, C; Vince, A; Vounou, E; Wiessing, L; Manns, M

    2013-08-01

    The burden of disease due to chronic viral hepatitis constitutes a global threat. In many Balkan and Mediterranean countries, the disease burden due to viral hepatitis remains largely unrecognized, including in high-risk groups and migrants, because of a lack of reliable epidemiological data, suggesting the need for better and targeted surveillance for public health gains. In many countries, the burden of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and C is increasing due to ageing of unvaccinated populations and migration, and a probable increase in drug injecting. Targeted vaccination strategies for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among risk groups and harm reduction interventions at adequate scale and coverage for injecting drug users are needed. Transmission of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthcare settings and a higher prevalence of HBV and HCV among recipients of blood and blood products in the Balkan and North African countries highlight the need to implement and monitor universal precautions in these settings and use voluntary, nonremunerated, repeat donors. Progress in drug discovery has improved outcomes of treatment for both HBV and HCV, although access is limited by the high costs of these drugs and resources available for health care. Egypt, with the highest burden of hepatitis C in the world, provides treatment through its National Control Strategy. Addressing the burden of viral hepatitis in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions will require national commitments in the form of strategic plans, financial and human resources, normative guidance and technical support from regional agencies and research. PMID:23827008

  1. A novel method to combat the cholera epidemic among the Romanian Army during the Balkan War - 1913.

    PubMed

    Leasu, Florin; Nemet, Codruta; Borzan, Cristina; Rogozea, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    The history of cholera, a specific infection caused by Vibrio Cholerae, starts in ancient times. The sixth pandemic that began in 1899 and lasted until 1923, started in India and came to Eastern Europe through Russia. The expansion of the epidemic in the Balkans was facilitated both by the 2 Balkan Wars and the First World War. Romania, as a participant in these wars was affected by cholera, which was especially common among the army during the Balkan War. If the original source of the cholera issue is still controversial, both Romanians and Bulgarians accusing each other of being the basis of the outbreaks south of the Danube, it is widely recognized that the extent of the disease was facilitated by the sanitary conditions of food preparation and drinking water sources among both Romanian soldiers and in the civilian population. Under these conditions, in addition to numerous measures against cholera taken by the Ministry of War, Prof. I. Cantacuzino successfully experiments outbreak vaccination for the first time in the world with a vaccine prepared by himself and his collaborators. The vaccine containing 25 breeds of vibriones was a success in terms of rapid development of a preparation, the application of which was achieved through a quick campaign and proved extremely efficient, imposing the Romanian method as an effective way to combat a disease in full outbreak. PMID:26203545

  2. Molecular phylogeny of Salmo of the western Balkans, based upon multiple nuclear loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Classification of species within the genus Salmo is still a matter of discussion due to their high level of diversity and to the low power of resolution of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based phylogeny analyses that have been traditionally used in evolutionary studies of the genus. We apply a new marker system based on nuclear (n)DNA loci to present a novel view of the phylogeny of Salmo representatives and we compare it with the mtDNA-based phylogeny. Methods Twenty-two nDNA loci were sequenced for 76 individuals of the brown trout complex: Salmo trutta (Danubian, Atlantic, Adriatic, Mediterranean and Duero mtDNA lineages), Salmo marmoratus (marble trout), Salmo obtusirostris (softmouth trout), and Salmo ohridanus (Ohrid belvica or belushka). Sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The divergence time of the major clades was estimated using the program BEAST. Results The existence of five genetic units i.e. S. salar, S. ohridanus, S. obtusirostris, S. marmoratus and the S. trutta complex, including its major phylogenetic lineages was confirmed. Contrary to previous observations, S. obtusirostris was found to be sister to the S. trutta complex and the S. marmoratus clade rather than to the S. ohridanus clade. Reticulate evolution of S. obtusirostris was confirmed and a time for its pre-glacial origin suggested. S. marmoratus was found to be a separate species as S. trutta and S. obtusirostris. Relationships among lineages within the S. trutta complex were weakly supported and remain largely unresolved. Conclusions Nuclear DNA-based results showed a fairly good match with the phylogeny of Salmo inferred from mtDNA analyses. The comparison of nDNA and mtDNA data revealed at least four cases of mitochondrial–nuclear DNA discordance observed that were all confined to the Adriatic basin of the Western Balkans. Together with the well-known extensive morphological and genetic variability of Balkan trouts, this

  3. Cryptic diversity in the Western Balkan endemic copepod: Four species in one?

    PubMed

    Previšić, Ana; Gelemanović, Andrea; Urbanič, Gorazd; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2016-07-01

    We use mitochondrial (mtCOI) and nuclear (nH3) sequence data to investigate differentiation of Eudiaptomus hadzici, a freshwater copepod endemic to the Western Balkans. E. hadzici has a disjunct distribution and morphological differences were observed at regional scale. In the current study 6 out of 7 known populations are included. We applied several species delimiting approaches, distance based methods (K2P p-distance and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, ABGD) using the mtCOI, Bayesian phylogeny and the Bayesian method implemented in bPTP and BPP programs using the concatenated sequences of both genes. Phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses all suggest that the nominal species E. hadzici consists of four isolated, cryptic evolutionary lineages in the Western Balkans. Each of the four lineages inhabits a single lake or a group of lakes in close proximity. They exhibit major differences in secondary sexual characters, e.g. right antennule in males. Denticulation of spine on 13th segment is substantially distinct among the four lineages, having different number and shape of tooth-like protrusions. Gene flow and dispersal are restricted to very small spatial scale, but with local differences, implying that diverse historical and contemporary processes are operating at small spatial scales in E. hadzici. In order to further examine spatial and temporal diversification patterns, we constructed a dated species tree analysis using (*)BEAST. Due to lack of reliable calibration points and taxa specific evolutionary rates, two evolutionary rates were applied and the faster one (2.6% myr) seems more plausible considering the geological history of the region. The divergence of E. hadzici lineages is dated from Early Miocene onwards with geographically close lineages diverging more recently, Late Miocene to Pleistocene and Pleistocene, respectively. Overall, our findings shed light on cryptic genetic complexity of endemics in one of European biodiversity hotspots

  4. Marine Isotope Stage 5 Climate Variability in the Central Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, I.; Burns, S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, L.; McCoy, W.; Markovic, S.; Endlicher, W.

    2012-04-01

    In this study we present results from two speleothems collected from Vernjikica Cave, situated in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, at the fringes of the Carpathians and Balkan Mountains. The preliminary age models were determined by U-Th dating techniques that at present comprise 9 dates in stratigraphic order. The samples grew from approximately 63-113 ka BP and from 115-121 ka BP, spanning much of MIS stage 5 and the transition into MIS 4. Samples for δ18O values were micromilled from each stalagmite along the growth axis. Oxygen isotopic values of the younger sample, stalagmite V4-2, range from -9.9‰ to -6.3‰, while carbon isotopic values show an opposing general trend ranging from -8.8‰ to -3.0‰. Over the growth period, δ18O and δ13C values show frequent simultaneous and distinct high-amplitude shifts towards more positive values that coincide with pronounced accumulations of denser and darker laminae. The strongest enrichment of δ18O values is seen at approximately 107 ka and coincides with peaks of depleted oxygen values at Soreq cave, Israel, suggesting semiarid conditions at the study site at a time when sapropel layers formed in the Eastern Mediterranean. In regard to present isotopic compositions in rainfall in the study area, the V4-2 proxy record shows over its period of growth a change from more humid and warm to colder and drier environmental conditions. The distinct increases in stable isotopic ratios as seen at 107 ka reflect warm and dry intervals during which calcite precipitation is additionally affected by non-equilibrium conditions. The overall trend in isotopic data mirrors both global climatic signals as seen in δ18O variations from the NGRIP ice-core record, and regional climatic signals as seen in δ18O from speleothems from Soreq Cave or in aeolian dust records from the Vojvodina in North Serbia. However, a prominent characteristic of the Vernjikica samples is the substantial variability in isotopic values over the

  5. Management in child and adolescent psychiatry: how does it look in the Balkans?

    PubMed

    Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Miletic, V; Anagnostopoulos, D; Raleva, M; Stancheva, V; Burgic-Radmanovic, M; Barac-Otasevic, Z; Ispanovic, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of child and adolescent psychiatry in the following Balkan countries: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYROM, and Montenegro. With the exception of Greece, these countries are new democracies, with their mental health services in a transitional stage of organization. Overall, they have initiated programmes to move psychiatric care towards deinstitutionalization, developing outpatient infrastructures to handle psychiatric disorders. Child psychiatry as a specialization is still less developed than adult psychiatry at a significant, albeit different degree among these countries. The number of mental health services offered to children and adolescents is deemed insufficient, and the type of services limited and lacking. This situation is also reflected in the small number of child psychiatrists and other mental health specialists for children and adolescents, as well as in the complete lack (Montenegro) or deficiency of special programmes and actions for children and adolescents. The same also applies to mental health legislation. Greece is the exception in the development of the entire spectrum of services, the number of specialists, and the establishment of an adequate legislation framework reinforced by the incorporation of all international treaties on children's rights; although the recent economic crisis has affected the country negatively, threatening with regression to pre-reformational practices. Children and adolescents in need of mental health care have been increasing in all countries. The effect of violent and sudden changes taking place in most countries is a major factor for the emergence of increased and stress-related psychopathology and psychosocial problems in children and families. In all countries, there is a significant development of nongovernmental organizations undertaking a large part of reformation work. There is also the disconcerting phenomenon of professional exhaustion and the

  6. Phylogeography of Balkan wall lizard (Podarcis taurica) and its relatives inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Poulakakis, N; Lymberakis, P; Valakos, E; Pafilis, P; Zouros, E; Mylonas, M

    2005-07-01

    Wall lizards of the genus Podarcis (Sauria, Lacertidae) comprise 17 currently recognized species in southern Europe, where they are the predominant reptile group. The taxonomy of Podarcis is complex and unstable. Based on DNA sequence data the species of Podarcis falls into four main groups that have substantial geographical conherence (western island group, southwestern group, Italian group and Balkan group). The Balkan species are divided in two subgroups: the subgroup of Podarcis taurica (P. taurica, P. milensis, P. gaigeae and perhaps P. melisellensis), and the subgroup of Podarcis erhardii (P. erhardii and P. peloponnesiaca). We addressed the question of phylogenetic relations among the species of the P. taurica subgroup encountered in Greece, as they can be inferred from partial mtDNA (cyt b and 16S) sequences. Our data support the monophyly of P. taurica subgroup and suggest that P. gaigeae, P. milensis and P. melisellensis form a clade, which thereinafter connects to P. taurica. Within the previous clade, P. gaigeae is more closely related to P. milensis than to P. melisellensis. However, the specimens of P. taurica were subdivided in two different groups. The first one includes the specimens from northeastern Greece, and the other group includes the specimens from the rest of continental Greece and Ionian islands. Because the molecular clock of the cyt b and 16 rRNA genes was not rejected in our model test, it is possible to estimate times of speciation events. Based on the splitting of the island of Crete from Peloponnisos [c. 5 million years ago (Ma)], the evolutionary rate for the cyt b is 1.55% per million years (Myr) and for the 16S rRNA is 0.46% per Myr. These results suggest that the evolutionary history of P. taurica in Greece is more complex than a single evolutionary invasion. The data analysed, stress the need for a reconsideration of the evolutionary history of Greek Podarcis species and help overcome difficulties that classical taxonomy has

  7. Patterns of fine-scale plant species richness in dry grasslands across the eastern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palpurina, Salza; Chytrý, Milan; Tzonev, Rossen; Danihelka, Jiří; Axmanová, Irena; Merunková, Kristina; Duchoň, Mário; Karakiev, Todor

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale plant species richness varies across habitats, climatic and biogeographic regions, but the large-scale context of this variation is insufficiently explored. The patterns at the borders between biomes harbouring rich but different floras are of special interest. Dry grasslands of the eastern Balkan Peninsula, situated in the Eurasian forest-steppe zone and developed under Mediterranean influence, are a specific case of such biome transition. However, there are no studies assessing the patterns of fine-scale species richness and their underlying factors across the eastern Balkans. To explore these patterns, we sampled dry and semi-dry grasslands (phytosociological class Festuco-Brometea) across Bulgaria and SE Romania. In total, 172 vegetation plots of 10 × 10 m2 were sampled, in which all vascular plant species were recorded, soil depth was measured, and soil samples were collected and analysed in a laboratory for pH and plant-available nutrients. Geographic coordinates were used to extract selected climatic variables. Regression trees and linear regressions were used to quantify the relationships between species richness and environmental variables. Climatic factors were identified as the main drivers of species richness: (1) Species richness was strongly positively correlated with the mean temperature of the coldest month: sub-Mediterranean areas of S and E Bulgaria, characterized by warmer winters, were more species-rich. (2) Outside the sub-Mediterranean areas, species richness strongly increased with annual precipitation, which was primarily controlled by altitude. (3) Bedrock type and soil pH also significantly affected dry grassland richness outside the sub-Mediterranean areas. These results suggest that fine-scale species richness of dry grasslands over large areas is driven by processes at the regional level, especially by the difference in the species pools of large regions, in our case the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographic regions

  8. Correlation Of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy With Fluorescent Organic Compounds In Shallow Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Marvin C.; Feder, Gerald L.; Radovanovic, Zoran

    1994-04-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of intersitial nephropathy leading to end-stage renal failure. The disease occurs in persons living in villages on alluvial valleys of streams tributary to the Danube River in Rumania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia. The etiologic agent is not known, but a contaminant in shallow groundwater has become suspect. In this study, samples of drinking water from endemic and non-endemic village water supplies were analyzed by excitation/emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Spectra characteristic of groundwater from BEN households show elongated teardrop shapes in the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix. A sharp rise occurs in fluorescence emission between 380 and 400 nanometers (nm) and a trailing emission intensity from 400 to 550 nm. Spectra of groundwater samples from some BEN households have an additional excitation maxima at 300 nm, which further contributes to the emission intensity at 400 nm. Spectra of water samples from non-BEN households located in endemic villages show characteristics of BEN household waters, exhibiting the 250-nm excitation peak, even though the fluorophoric intensity is much less than that in samples from BEN household waters. Samples from non-endemic villages do not show the characteristic EEM spectra described as "teardrop shaped". The non-BEN households have lower concentrations of these fluorophores in the drinking water than the endemic households; hence, one of the factors in contracting the disease may be the concentration of these fluorescent materials in drinking water.

  9. Molecular detection and prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses of central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is significant tick-borne disease with wide distribution. The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina is unknown. In aim to obtain a first insight into the prevalence we performed molecular epidemiological study which included 142 horses, on seven locations in these three countries. We first performed PCR for the detection of a 450bp long section of the 18S rRNA of piroplasma-specific region. For all positive samples we have done multiplex PCR for the species detection. Species determination was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of 10 randomly selected Theileria equi and all Babesia caballi samples. The overall prevalence rates in analysed region for T. equi and B. caballi were 22.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Possible risk factors (such as location, age, sex and activity) associated with PCR positivity were evaluated. Marked differences were found in prevalence between geographic areas. There was no significant association between positivity and age group. T. equi was more prevalent in females and farming horses. This is the first report on the molecular survey of T. equi and B. caballi in central Balkan. Further prevalence studies on definitive host and vectors in this region are necessary. PMID:27078657

  10. Strontium isotopes document greater human mobility at the start of the Balkan Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Dušan; Price, T. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Questions about how farming and the Neolithic way of life spread across Europe have been hotly debated topics in archaeology for decades. For a very long time, two models have dominated the discussion: migrations of farming groups from southwestern Asia versus diffusion of domesticates and new ideas through the existing networks of local forager populations. New strontium isotope data from the Danube Gorges in the north-central Balkans, an area characterized by a rich burial record spanning the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition, show a significant increase in nonlocal individuals from ∼6200 calibrated B.C., with several waves of migrants into this region. These results are further enhanced by dietary evidence based on carbon and nitrogen isotopes and an increasingly high chronological resolution obtained on a large sample of directly dated individuals. This dataset provides robust evidence for a brief period of coexistence between indigenous groups and early farmers before farming communities absorbed the foragers completely in the first half of the sixth millennium B.C. PMID:23401535

  11. Mass distributions and morphological and chemical characterization of urban aerosols in the continental Balkan area (Belgrade).

    PubMed

    Đorđević, D; Buha, J; Stortini, A M; Mihajlidi-Zelić, A; Relić, D; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2016-01-01

    This work presents characteristics of atmospheric aerosols of urban central Balkans area, using a size-segregated aerosol sampling method, calculation of mass distributions, SEM/EDX characterization, and ICP/MS analysis. Three types of mass distributions were observed: distribution with a pronounced domination of coarse mode, bimodal distribution, and distribution with minimum at 1 μm describing the urban aerosol. SEM/EDX analyses have shown morphological difference and variation in the content of elements in samples. EDX spectra demonstrate that particles generally contain the following elements: Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ni, K, Si, S. Additionally, the presence of As, Br, Sn, and Zn found in air masses from southeast segment points out the anthropogenic activities most probably from mining activities in southeastern part of Serbia. The ratio Al/Si equivalent to the ratio of desert dust was associated with air masses coming from southeastern and southwestern segments, pointing to influences from North Africa and Middle East desert areas whereas the Al/Si ratio in other samples is significantly lower. In several samples, we found high values of aluminum in the nucleation mode. Samples with low share of crustal elements in the coarse mode are collected when Mediterranean air masses prevailed, while high share in the coarse mode was associated with continental air masses that could be one of the approaches for identification of the aerosol origin. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26347417

  12. Angiogenesis in upper tract urothelial carcinoma associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Velickovic, Ljubinka Jankovic; Petrovic, Ana Ristic; Stojnev, Slavica; Dolicanin, Zana; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Stojanovic, Mariola; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2012-01-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is characterized by a number of aberrations in cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to detect angiogenesis-related marker(s) specific for BEN UTUC, and to examine the influence of HIF 1α upon angiogenesis and apoptosis in UTUC. Present investigation included 110 patients with UTUC, 50 from BEN region and 60 control tumors. Altered expression of VEGFR1 was more often present in control UTUC than in BEN tumors (p<0.005). It was associated with high grade, low and high stage, solid growth, and metaplastic change of control UTUC. Microvessel density assessed by CD31 (MVD CD31) was significantly higher in UTUC with lymphovascular invasion (p<0.05), and in BEN tumors with papillary growth (p<0.05). Discriminant analysis indicated that BEN and control tumors do not differ significantly in expression of angiogenesis related markers. The most important discriminant variable that determined control UTUC was expression of VEGFR1 (p=0.002). HIF 1α in UTUC significantly correlated with the low stage, papillary growth and expression of Bcl-2, Caspase-3 index, and MVD CD34 (p<0.001; 0.0005; 0.01; 0.005; 0.01, respectively). HIF-1α may be helpful marker in evaluation of UTUC, especially when combined with angiogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:22977664

  13. Occurrence and fate of emerging wastewater contaminants in Western Balkan Region.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Senka; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Gros, Meritxell; Petrović, Mira; Barcelo, Damia; Müller, Jutta; Knepper, Thomas; Martí, Isabel; Ventura, Francesc; Jovancić, Petar; Jabucar, Dalila

    2008-07-25

    This paper reports on a comprehensive reconnaissance of over seventy individual wastewater contaminants in the region of Western Balkan (WB; Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia), including some prominent classes of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, surfactants and their degradation products, plasticizers, pesticides, insect repellents, and flame retardants. All determinations were carried out using a multiresidue analytical approach, based on the application of gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic techniques coupled to mass spectrometric detection. The results confirmed a widespread occurrence of the emerging contaminants in municipal wastewaters of the region. The most prominent contaminant classes, determined in municipal wastewaters, were those derived from aromatic surfactants, including linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), with the concentrations in raw wastewater reaching into the mg/l range. All other contaminants were present in much lower concentrations, rarely exceeding few microg/l. The most abundant individual compounds belonged to several classes of pharmaceuticals (antimicrobials, analgesics and antiinflammatories, beta-blockers and lipid regulators) and personal care products (fragrances). Due to the rather poor wastewater management practices in WB countries, with less than 5% of all wastewaters being biologically treated, most of the contaminants present in wastewaters reach ambient waters and may represent a significant environmental concern. PMID:18420255

  14. Environmental changes on the Balkans recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-05-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid on the Balkans are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several up to ca. 15 m long sediment records were studied during the past years. In this study, a first long sediment record from Lake Prespa was studied in order to shed more light on the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and the occurrence of 3 dated tephra layers provide a good age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record reaches back to 48 ka. The comparison of the results from this study with those from former studies of the Lake Ohrid cores indicates that Lake Prespa is more susceptible to environmental changes due to its lower volume and water depth. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter contents and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate contents in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter contents in Lake Prespa, which indicate a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental changes and short-term events, such as the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but partly expressed in different proxies.

  15. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  16. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with the die-back of ornamental trees in the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zlatković, Milica; Keča, Nenad; Wingfield, Michael J; Jami, Fahimeh; Slippers, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Extensive die-back and mortality of various ornamental trees and shrubs has been observed in parts of the Western Balkans region during the past decade. The disease symptoms have been typical of those caused by pathogens residing in the Botryosphaeriaceae. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with diseased ornamental trees in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Isolates were initially characterized based on the DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer rDNA and six major clades were identified. Representative isolates from each clade were further characterized using DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-alpha, β-tubulin-2 and large subunit rRNA gene regions, as well as the morphology of the asexual morphs. Ten species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified of which eight, i.e., Dothiorella sarmentorum, Neofusicoccum parvum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Phaeobotryon cupressi, Sphaeropsis visci, Diplodia seriata, D. sapinea and D. mutila were known taxa. The remaining two species could be identified only as Dothiorella spp. Dichomera syn-asexual morphs of D. sapinea, Dothiorella sp. 2 and B. dothidea, as well as unique morphological characters for a number of the known species are described. Based on host plants and geographic distribution, the majority of Botryosphaeriaceae species found represent new records. The results of this study contribute to our knowledge of the distribution, host associations and impacts of these fungi on trees in urban environments. PMID:26891906

  17. Limitations and plausibility of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in explaining the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, S V M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, tubulointerstitial renal disease often accompanied by urothelial cancer that has a lethality of nearly 100%. Introduction: One of the many factors that have been proposed to play an etiological role in BEN is exposure to organic compounds from Pliocene lignite coal deposits via the drinking water in endemic areas. Objectives: The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the role of the tenets of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in the etiology of BEN in order to provide an improved understanding of the hypothesis for colleagues and patients alike. Methods: A comprehensive compilation of the possible limitations of the hypothesis, with each limitation addressed in turn is presented. Results: The Pliocene lignite hypothesis can best account for, is consistent with, or has the potential to explain the evidence associated with the myriad of factors related to BEN. Conclusions: Residents of endemic areas are exposed to complex mixtures containing hundreds of organic compounds at varying doses and their potentially more toxic (including nephrotoxic) and/or carcinogenic metabolites; however, a multifactorial etiology of BEN appears most likely. PMID:24075451

  18. The Alburnus benthopelagic fish species of the Western Balkan Peninsula: An assessment of their sustainable use.

    PubMed

    Simić, Vladica; Simić, Snežana; Paunović, Momir; Radojković, Nataša; Petrović, Ana; Talevski, Trajče; Milošević, Djuradj

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the population status of bleak (Alburnus spp.) over the Western Balkan Peninsula in terms of its sustainable use. A second objective was to determine key factors important for fishery management planning. Two different basins, continental (the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin) and marine (the Adriatic and the Aegean Sea Basins) were examined. A sustainability assessment and factor analysis were conducted using the adjusted ESHIPPOfishing model, extended with additional socio-economic sub-elements, and the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA), respectively. The results of the assessment revealed the bleak populations in the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin to be highly sustainable. The population characteristics with abiotic and biotic factors were responsible for this status, while the influence of socio-economic factors was insignificant. The sustainability status of the bleak populations of the Mediterranean basin varied, with the populations from Ohrid and Skadar Lakes showing a high and those from Prespa and Dojran Lakes a medium status. Socio-economic factors with traditional fishing were the most important for the Mediterranean bleak populations. PMID:26216478

  19. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation. PMID:25491336

  20. Comparative study on carbon accumulation in soils under managed and unmanaged forests in Central Balkan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Each soil has a carbon storage capacity, which depends on many factors including type of soil, vegetation, precipitation and temperature. The aim of this work is to compare the carbon accumulation in forest floor layers and mineral soil horizons under managed and unmanaged spruce and beech forest ecosystems developed on Cambisols in Central Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria. We have investigated two managed and two unmanaged forests - pure stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). In each experimental site one representative soil profile was prepared with additional 4 sampling profiles for more precise determination of spatial variability of soil characteristic at site level. The forest floor was sampled in 3 repetitions per site, by a plastic frame (25:25 cm). The textural composition of soil, bulk density, coarse fraction content, pH, carbon and nitrogen content were analysed for forest floor layers and soil at different soil depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-50 cm). Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. When managed, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance. Further work will analyse the soil carbon dynamics using radiocarbon as a tracer.

  1. Part II: Is There a Role for Education in the Way towards Stability and Democratisation in the Balkans? A Critical Review of BA.SO.P.ED's Aims and Publications (1997-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonidis, Kyriakos Th.; Zarifis, George K.

    2006-01-01

    November 1997 witnessed the formation of the Balkan Society for Pedagogy and Education (BA.SO.P.ED) in Thessaloniki, with the support of individual academics and pedagogues from many Balkan Universities and research institutes, but also with the participation of representatives of Educational Societies from Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav…

  2. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  3. Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Varzari, Alexander; Kharkov, Vladimir; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Raicu, Florina; Simonova, Kseniya; Stephan, Wolfgang; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Stepanov, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Moldova has a rich historical and cultural heritage, which may be reflected in the current genetic makeup of its population. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. To bridge this gap with respect to paternal lineages, we analyzed 37 binary and 17 multiallelic (STRs) polymorphisms on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in 125 Moldavian males. In addition, 53 Ukrainians from eastern Moldova and 54 Romanians from the neighboring eastern Romania were typed using the same set of markers. In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%), R-M17* (17.6%), R-M458 (12.8%), E-v13 (8.8%), R-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%). In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%), R-M17* (16.7%), R-M405 (7.4%), E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%). In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%), I-M423 (20.8%), R-M269* (9.4%), N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%). Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations. The data correlate well with historical accounts and geographical location of the region and thus allow to hypothesize that extant Moldavian paternal genetic lineages arose from extensive recent admixture between genetically autochthonous populations of the Balkan-Carpathian zone and neighboring Slavic groups. PMID:23341985

  4. Genetic analysis of Dobrava-Belgrade virus from western Serbia--a newly detected focus in the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stamenković, G; Nikolić, V; Blagojević, J; Bugarski-Stanojević, V; Adnađević, T; Stanojević, M; Vujošević, M

    2015-03-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a hantavirus species that causes the most severe form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. DOBV has been detected in three Apodemus rodents: A. flavicollis, A. agrarius and A. ponticus. These emerging viruses appear throughout the Balkan Peninsula including Serbia as its central part. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of DOBV from A. flavicollis captured at six Serbian localities. Furthermore, we applied microsatellite typing of host animal genome to analyse the role of host kinship in DOBV animal transmission. The overall IgG seropositivity rate over 3 years (2008-2010) was 11.9% (22/185). All seropositive samples were subjected to RT-PCR and DNA sequencing for S and L genome segments (pos. 291-1079 nt and 2999-3316 nt, respectively). DOBV was genetically detected in three samples from mountain Tara in western Serbia, a newly detected DOBV focus in the Balkans. No sequence data from human cases from Serbia are available for the studied period. However, collected DOBV isolates in this work phylogenetically clustered together with isolates from Serbian human cases dating from 2002, with 1.9% nucleotide divergence. We determined the level of kinship between seropositive and seronegative animal groups and found no significant difference, suggesting that horizontal virus transmission in the studied population was the same within and among the hatches. Our findings are the first genetic detection of DOBV in rodents in Serbia. We confirm wide and continuous hantavirus presence in the examined parts of the Balkans, underlying the necessity of continual monitoring of hantavirus circulation in A. flavicollis. PMID:24867363

  5. Dissecting the molecular architecture and origin of Bayash Romani patrilineages: genetic influences from South-Asia and the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Klarić, Irena Martinović; Salihović, Marijana Pericić; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Rootsi, Siiri; Janićijević, Branka

    2009-03-01

    The Bayash are a branch of Romanian speaking Roma living dispersedly in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. To better understand the molecular architecture and origin of the Croatian Bayash paternal gene pool, 151 Bayash Y chromosomes were analyzed for 16 SNPs and 17 STRs and compared with European Romani and non-Romani majority populations from Europe, Turkey, and South Asia. Two main layers of Bayash paternal gene pool were identified: ancestral (Indian) and recent (European). The reduced diversity and expansion signals of H1a patrilineages imply descent from closely related paternal ancestors who could have settled in the Indian subcontinent, possibly as early as between the eighth and tenth centuries AD. The recent layer of the Bayash paternal pool is dominated by a specific subset of E1b1b1a lineages that are not found in the Balkan majority populations. At least two private mutational events occurred in the Bayash during their migrations from the southern Balkans toward Romania. Additional admixture, evident in the low frequencies of typical European haplogroups, J2, R1a, I1, R1b1b2, G, and I2a, took place primarily during the early Bayash settlement in the Balkans and the Romani bondage in Romania. Our results indicate two phenomena in the Bayash and analyzed Roma: a significant preservation of ancestral H1a haplotypes as a result of considerable, but variable level of endogamy and isolation and differential distribution of less frequent, but typical European lineages due to different patterns of the early demographic history in Europe marked by differential admixture and genetic drift. PMID:18785634

  6. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  7. Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services. PMID:23716007

  8. Microscale vicariance and diversification of Western Balkan caddisflies linked to karstification

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Jan; Kučinić, Mladen; Graf, Wolfram; Ibrahimi, Halil; Kerovec, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    The karst areas in the Dinaric region of the Western Balkan Peninsula are a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity. Many investigators have examined diversification of the subterranean freshwater fauna in these karst systems. However, diversification of surface-water fauna remains largely unexplored. We assessed local and regional diversification of surface-water species in karst systems and asked whether patterns of population differentiation could be explained by dispersal–diversification processes or allopatric diversification following karst-related microscale vicariance. We analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequence data of 4 caddisfly species (genus Drusus) in a phylogeographic framework to assess local and regional population genetic structure and Pliocene/Pleistocene history. We used BEAST software to assess the timing of intraspecific diversification of the target species. We compared climate envelopes of the study species and projected climatically suitable areas during the last glacial maximum (LGM) to assess differences in the species climatic niches and infer potential LGM refugia. The haplotype distribution of the 4 species (324 individuals from 32 populations) was characterized by strong genetic differentiation with few haplotypes shared among populations (16%) and deep divergence among populations of the 3 endemic species, even at local scales. Divergence among local populations of endemics often exceeded divergence among regional and continental clades of the widespread D. discolor. Major divergences among regional populations dated to 2.0 to 0.5 Mya. Species distribution model projections and genetic structure suggest that the endemic species persisted in situ and diversified locally throughout multiple Pleistocene climate cycles. The pattern for D. discolor was different and consistent with multiple invasions into the region. Patterns of population genetic structure and diversification were similar for the 3 regional

  9. Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhofer, Daniela; Quadt, Albrecht von; Peytcheva, Irena; Schmid, Stefan M.; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-09-01

    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen formed on the European margin during closure of the Neotethys Ocean. It was subsequently deformed into a complex orocline by continental collisions. The Cu-Au mineralized arc consists of geologically distinct segments: the Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Panagyurishte, and Eastern Srednogorie segments. New U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical whole rock data for the Banat and Apuseni segments are combined with previously published data to reconstruct the original arc geometry and better constrain its tectonic evolution. Trace element and isotopic signatures of the arc magmas indicate a subduction-enriched source in all segments and variable contamination by continental crust. The magmatic arc was active for 25 Myr (~92-67 Ma). Across-arc age trends of progressively younger ages toward the inferred paleo-trench indicate gradual steepening of the subducting slab away from the upper plate European margin. This leads to asthenospheric corner flow in the overriding plate, which is recorded by decreasing 87Sr/86Sr (0.70577 to 0.70373) and increasing 143Nd/144Nd (0.51234 to 0.51264) ratios over time in some segments. The close spatial relationship between arc magmatism, large-scale shear zones, and related strike-slip sedimentary basins in the Timok and Pangyurishte segments indicates mild transtension in these central segments of the restored arc. In contrast, the Eastern Srednogorie segment underwent strong orthogonal intraarc extension. Segmental distribution of tectonic stress may account for the concentration of rich porphyry Cu deposits in the transtensional segments, where lower crustal magma storage and fractionation favored the evolution of volatile-rich magmas.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Conservation of the Prespa Trout in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Berrebi, Patrick; Tougard, Christelle; Dubois, Sophie; Shao, Zhaojun; Koutseri, Irene; Petkovski, Svetozar; Crivelli, Alain J.

    2013-01-01

    The Balkans are known to have a high level of biodiversity and endemism. No less than 15 taxa have been recorded in salmonids of the Salmo genus. Among them, the Prespa trout is found in only four river systems flowing into Lake Macro Prespa, three in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and one in Greece. This is the first comprehensive survey of all streams located within the Macro Prespa Basin, encompassing the whole taxon range. A large genetic sample of 536 Prespa trout was collected mainly between 2005 and 2007. The sampling included 59 individuals from the Golema river system, 93 from the Kranska, 260 from the Brajcinska, 119 from the Agios Germanos, and five individuals from the lake itself. These specimens were analyzed with six microsatellite markers and by sequencing the mitochondrial control region. Nuclear data were examined through multidimensional analysis and assignment tests. Five clusters were detected by assignment: Golema, Kranska, Brajcinska upstream, Rzanska Brajcinska tributary and Brajcinska downstream. Most of these river systems thus hosted differentiated Prespa trout populations (with past gene flows likely dating before the construction of dams), except Agios Germanos, which was found to be composed of 5% to 32% of each cluster. Among the five trout individuals from the lake, four originated from Kranska River and one was admixed. Supported parsimonious hypotheses are proposed to explain these specificities. Conservation of this endemic taxon should take these results into account. No translocation should be performed between different tributaries of the lake and preservation of the Brajcinska populations should address the upstream-downstream differentiation described. PMID:24287917

  11. Population structure and genetic differentiation of livestock guard dog breeds from the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Ceh, E; Dovc, P

    2014-08-01

    Livestock guard dog (LGD) breeds from the Western Balkans are a good example of how complex genetic diversity pattern observed in dog breeds has been shaped by transition in dog breeding practices. Despite their common geographical origin and relatively recent formal recognition as separate breeds, the Karst Shepherd, Sarplaninac and Tornjak show distinct population dynamics, assessed by pedigree, microsatellite and mtDNA data. We genotyped 493 dogs belonging to five dog breeds using a set of 18 microsatellite markers and sequenced mtDNA from 94 dogs from these breeds. Different demographic histories of the Karst Shepherd and Tornjak breeds are reflected in the pedigree data with the former breed having more unbalanced contributions of major ancestors and a realized effective population size of less than 20 animals. The highest allelic richness was found in Sarplaninac (5.94), followed by Tornjak (5.72), whereas Karst Shepherd dogs exhibited the lowest allelic richness (3.33). Similarly, the highest mtDNA haplotype diversity was found in Sarplaninac, followed by Tornjak and Karst Shepherd, where only one haplotype was found. Based on FST differentiation values and high percentages of animals correctly assigned, all breeds can be considered genetically distinct. However, using microsatellite data, common ancestry between the Karst Shepherd and Sarplaninac could not be reconstructed, despite pedigree and mtDNA evidence of their historical admixture. Using neighbour-joining, STRUCTURE or DAPC methods, Sarplaninac and Caucasian Shepherd breeds could not be separated and additionally showed close proximity in the NeighborNet tree. STRUCTURE analysis of the Tornjak breed demonstrated substructuring, which needs further investigation. Altogether, results of this study show that the official separation of these dog breeds strongly affected the resolution of genetic differentiation and thus suggest that the relationships between breeds are not only determined by breed

  12. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  13. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Methods: Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. Results: The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. Conclusion: The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success. PMID:24757405

  14. Comparison of Satellite NO{sub 2} Observations with High Resolution Model Simulations over the Balkan Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Zyrichidou, I.; Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Katragkou, E.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Markakis, K.; Melas, D.; van der A., R.; Boersma, F. K.; Roozendael, M. van

    2010-01-21

    High resolution model estimations of tropospheric NO{sub 2} column amounts from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) were simulated for the Balkan Peninsula and were compared with satellite data for a period of one year, in order to study the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of pollution in the area. The Balkan area is considered a crossroad of different pollution sources and therefore has been divided in urban, industrial and rural regions, aiming to investigate the consistency of satellite retrievals and model predictions at high spatial resolution. Satellite measurements of tropospheric NO{sub 2} are available daily at 13:30 LT since 2004 from OMI/Aura with a resolution of 13x24 km. The anthropogenic emissions used in CAMx for the domain under study, was compiled employing bottom-up approaches (road transport sector, off-road machinery) as well as other national registries and international databases. High resolution GIS maps (road network, landuses, population) were also used in order to achieve high spatial resolution. In most of the cases the model reveals similar spatial patterns with the satellite data, while over certain areas discrepancies were found and investigated.

  15. The climate in the Balkans during the Eemian: a multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyron, Odile; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Goring, Simon; Klotz, Stefan; Kuhl, Norbert; Bordon, Amandine

    2010-05-01

    available in south Europe (Monticchio and Ioannina). Although Brewer et al (2008) show stable temperatures and precipitation for southern Europe throughout the Eemian, our results indicate a gradual decline in temperatures throughout the Eemian at the Lake Orhid site. Thus the Lake Orhid reconstruction fills a gap in South Europe and provides new results for the Balkan Peninsula.

  16. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b (ca. 91 kyr), has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR

  17. Geological units and Moho depth determination in the Western Balkans exploiting GOCE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampietro, D.

    2015-08-01

    In the present work we illustrate a new local inversion algorithm to retrieve the Moho depth from GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gravity field. In details the proposed procedure can be divided into two main steps: the first one consists in recognizing and isolating the different geological provinces in the study area by exploiting information coming from the GOCE global gravity field model. Once the main geological provinces are defined, a function relating the crust density of each province with depth is built and used to reduce the data. The gravitational effects of sediments, topography, bathymetry and upper mantle are also removed. In the second step the residual gravitational field is inverted to retrieve the Moho depth and some information on the crustal density. In particular, the clustering of geological province is performed by means of an automatic Bayesian classification algorithm while the inversion of GOCE residual field is performed by adapting the global algorithm developed in the framework of the GEMMA project to the local scale. The procedure, based on an iterative Wiener filter, allows to compute the Moho depth considering lateral as well as radial variations of crustal density. The algorithm has been applied to the fifth release of GOCE time-wise global gravity field model to infer information on the crustal structure in the Western Balkan area, that is, the region laying between Bulgaria and the Adriatic Sea. This region is one of the most complex and active, from the tectonic point of view, in the whole Europe and it is characterized by the presence of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, formed by the collision between the African and Eurasian plates, and by the opening of the Pannonian Basin. Results show a good agreement between the obtained geological provinces with the actual knowledge on the region. The resulting Moho depth ranges between about 20 km beneath the Adriatic Sea and 45 km in the Dinarides

  18. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  19. Four Authors and a Traveller: Intercultural Narrative in Balkan Prose of the Second Half of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angusheva, Adelina

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses different approaches to foreign culture in the works of four Balkan writers: Ismail Kadare, Milorad Pavi, Yordan Radichkov and Jadranka Vladova in the context of the works of the English traveller, Edith Durham. It studies the specific function of travel and exploration and the use of different languages (dictionaries) as a…

  20. Larval morphology of the Western Balkans endemic caddisflies Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981, D. vernonensis Malicky 1989, and D. vespertinus Marinković 1976 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae)

    PubMed Central

    KUČINIĆ, MLADEN; GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON; KERESZTES, LUJZA; BÁLINT, MIKLÓS; PAULS, STEFFEN U.

    2016-01-01

    Drusinae (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) are highland caddisflies inhabiting high-gradient, turbulent running water and spring habitats. They are disjunctly distributed over the Eurasian mountain ranges, and the majority of species is endemic to particular mountain areas. The most diverse of three main groups of the Drusinae, the grazer clade, consists of species in which larvae feed on epiltihic biofilm and algae. In this paper we describe three previously unknown grazer-clade Drusinae larvae: Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans), D. vernonensis Malicky 1989 (endemic to the Hellenic western Balkans), and D. vespertinus Marinković 1976 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans). The larvae of these species have toothless mandibles typical of the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated using molecular genetic data, i.e., the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment (mtCOI3-P). Morphological characteristics of the larvae are described and the diagnostic features enabling species-level identification are illustrated. We further discuss the ecology and distribution of three Western Balkan endemic species. PMID:26985141

  1. Investigating atmospheric transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region with DEHM-Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.

    2009-04-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens. The threshold value for clinical symptoms for ragweed pollen grains for the majority of sensitised patients is below 20 grains/m3. Ambrosia pollen appears to induce asthma about twice as often as other pollen. Each ragweed plant produces millions of pollen grains that are small (18-22 μm) and suitable for long-range transport when conditions are favourable. In this study we use DEHM-Pollen to investigate if the Pannonian Plain could be the source area for observed episodes of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans. A possible Ambrosia pollen inventory for various regions in the Pannonian Plain was constructed using detailed land cover data from Serbia, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic in combination with measurements of the annual load of Ambrosia pollen in the source areas. A simple unified pollen release model (SUPREME) was calibrated against daily measurements from Novi Sad in Serbia and implemented in DEHM-Pollen with the Ambrosia pollen inventory. Model simulations was then performed with DEHM-Pollen for the months August and September 2007 and compared with measurements from stations outside the Pannonian Plain. The simulations several times indicate regional scale transport from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region including the 26th - 27th of August and the 1st and 2nd September. During these episode air masses passed over parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Southern Serbia, Albania and Macedonia. The verifying measurements at Skopje (Macedonia) show episodes of elevated Ambrosia pollen concentration the 26th -27th of August and for the 1st and 2nd of September. The model experiments with DEHM-Pollen strongly indicate that the Pannonian Plain alone can be a source to significant Ambrosia pollen concentrations in the Balkans. The methods and the model results look promising with respect to future numerical forecasting of Ambrosia

  2. Review of the family Anthogonidae (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida), with descriptions of three new species from the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Antić, Dragan; Dražina, Tvrtko; Raða, Tonći; Tomić, Vladimir T; Makarov, Slobodan E

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of the family Anthogonidae are described from caves in Croatia and Montenegro, respectively: Egonpretneria vudutschajldi Antić & Dražina sp. n., Haasia jalzici Antić & Dražina sp. n., and Macrochaetosoma bertiscea Antić & Makarov sp. n. All three subfamilies within Anthogonidae are diagnosed, with brief discussion of relationships between genera and notes on their biogeography. A map of the global distribution of Anthogonidae is presented, as well as maps of the distribution of each species of Balkan anthogonids, including numerous new locality data. The first SEM images are provided for some representatives of this family. A key is given to all seven anthogonid genera. The subfamily Haasiinae Hoffman, 1980 is a new synonym of Anthogonidae, syn. n., while Macrochaetosoma bifurcatum Ćurčić & Makarov, 2001 becomes a new synonym for M. troglomontanum Absolon & Lang, 1933, syn. n.. PMID:25947770

  3. Chemotaxonomic Approach to the Central Balkan Sedum Species Based on Distribution of Triterpenoids in Their Epicuticular Waxes.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-04-01

    Triterpenoid distribution in epicuticular waxes of 20 central Balkan Sedum L. species and four out-groups of genera: Hylotelephium H. Ohba, Crassula L., Echeveria DC., and Kalanchoe Adans. were investigated for chemotaxonomic purposes. Identification and quantification of wax triterpenoids were performed by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. Distribution of identified triterpenoids (oleanane, lupane, and taraxerane series), as a pattern in statistical analysis, indicated very good agreement with phylogeny and systematics, except members of series Rupestria Berger, in which case the distribution of triterpenoids did not support known classification in a satisfactory manner. According to the obtained clustering, Kalanchoe is shown as similar to Sedum samples, while the other out-groups were clearly separated. PMID:26988894

  4. Identifying and Interpreting the Imprint of the Little Ice Age over the Balkan Landscape: A Combined Palynological and Geochemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    We examine a multi-centennial Balkan record of vegetation and landscape during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic transition that lasted from c. 15th to the 19th century AD. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)), and a robust chronology based on AMS 14C dating are used to reconstruct the vegetation response and human-environmental interactions during the LIA. A sediment core extracted from a sinkhole lake located in western Serbia (44°30'N-19°30'E; elevation 250 m a.s.l.) was sampled at 10-cm intervals for investigating biological proxies. Palynological data include temperate indigenous trees (e.g. Quercus, Betula), herbaceous taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae), and key anthropogenic indicators (e.g. Juglans, cereals) and demonstrate wet and cool conditions as well as seasonal variations during cal. 16th to 19th century AD. The XRF data obtained from the core at 1-cm intervals show changes in the clastic input and surface erosion around the lake probably owing to seasonal variations during the LIA. Moreover, pollen and charcoal data together reveal the changing nature of human interference across the LIA from intense deforestation to reforestation and sustained cultivation with climatic and seasonal variations. Correlating palaeoecological and geochemical data for this region allows us to interpret the long-term dynamics of landscape and humans across one of the important climatic intervals in Europe. The Balkans, as one of Europe's "Biodiversity Hotspots" and a rapidly changing region, provides insights into possible biotic responses to future global climatic change.

  5. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders - a study following the war in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Stefan; Bogic, Marija; Ashcroft, Richard; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Roughton, Michael; Schützwohl, Matthias; Ajdukovic, Dean

    2010-12-01

    War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our objective was to investigate the association of violations of human rights, as indicated in the 4th Geneva Convention, and other stressful war experiences with rates of PTSD and MD and symptom levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. In 2005/6, human rights violations and other war experiences, PTSD, post-traumatic stress symptoms and MD were assessed in war affected community samples in five Balkan countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia) and refugees in three Western European countries (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). The main outcome measures were the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In total 3313 participants in the Balkans and 854 refugees were assessed. Participants reported on average 2.3 rights violations and 2.3 other stressful war experiences. 22.8% of the participants were diagnosed with current PTSD and also 22.8% had MD. Most war experiences significantly increased the risk for both PTSD and MD. When the number of rights violations and other stressful experiences were considered in one model, both were significantly associated with higher risks for PTSD and were significantly associated with higher levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. However, only the number of violations, and not of other stressful experiences, significantly increased the risk for MD. We conclude that different types of war experiences are associated with increased prevalence rates of PTSD and MD more than 5 years later. As compared to other stressful experiences, the experience of human rights violations similarly increases the risk of PTSD, but appears more important for MD. PMID

  6. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further

  7. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  8. Endogean and cavernicolous Coleoptera of the Balkans. XVII. A new species of the genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae, Pterostichini) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013). PMID:27615918

  9. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Valade, R; Kenis, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A; Augustin, S; Mari Mena, N; Magnoux, E; Rougerie, R; Lakatos, F; Roques, A; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

    2009-08-01

    Biological invasions usually start with a small number of founder individuals. These founders are likely to represent a small fraction of the total genetic diversity found in the source population. Our study set out to trace genetically the geographical origin of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, an invasive microlepidopteran whose area of origin is still unkown. Since its discovery in Macedonia 25 years ago, this insect has experienced an explosive westward range expansion, progressively colonizing all of Central and Western Europe. We used cytochrome oxidase I sequences (DNA barcode fragment) and a set of six polymorphic microsatellites to assess the genetic variability of C. ohridella populations, and to test the hypothesis that C. ohridella derives from the southern Balkans (Albania, Macedonia and Greece). Analysis of mtDNA of 486 individuals from 88 localities allowed us to identify 25 geographically structured haplotypes. In addition, 480 individuals from 16 populations from Europe and the southern Balkans were genotyped for 6 polymorphic microsatellite loci. High haplotype diversity and low measures of nucleotide diversities including a significantly negative Tajima's D indicate that C. ohridella has experienced rapid population expansion during its dispersal across Europe. Both mtDNA and microsatellites show a reduction in genetic diversity of C. ohridella populations sampled from artificial habitats (e.g. planted trees in public parks, gardens, along roads in urban or sub-urban areas) across Europe compared with C. ohridella sampled in natural stands of horse-chestnuts in the southern Balkans. These findings suggest that European populations of C. ohridella may indeed derive from the southern Balkans. PMID:19627490

  10. Description of a new species of Wormaldia from Sardinia and a new Drusus species from the Western Balkans (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Kučinić, Mladen; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U.; Malicky, Hans; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New species are described in the genera Wormaldia (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) and Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae). Additionally, the larva of the new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is described, and a key provided to larval Drusus species of the bosnicus-group, in which the new species belongs. Observations on the threats to regional freshwater biodiversity and caddisfly endemism are discussed. The new species Wormaldia sarda sp. n. is an endemic of the Tyrrhenian island of Sardinia and differs most conspicuously from its congeners in the shape of segment X, which is trilobate in lateral view. The new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Western Balkans, and increases the endemism rate of Balkan Drusinae to 79% of 39 species. Compared to other Western Balkan Drusus, males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus discophorus Radovanovic and Drusus vernonensis Malicky, but differ in the shape of superior and intermediate appendages. The females of Drusus crenophylax sp. n. are most similar to those of Drusus vernonensis, but differ distinctly in the outline of segment X. Larvae of Drusus crenophylax sp. n. exhibit toothless mandibles, indicating a scraping grazing-feeding ecology. PMID:25931956

  11. Do Health Reforms Impact Cost Consciousness of Health Care Professionals? Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Vukovic, Mira; Chen, Chia-Ching; Antunovic, Mirjana; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Velickovic-Radovanovic, Radmila; Djendji, Mladenovic Siladji; Jankovic, Nikola; Rankovic, Ana; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Antunovic, Marko; Milovanovic, Olivera; Markovic, Veroljub; Dasari, Babu N.S.; Yamada, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serbia, as the largest market of the Western Balkans, has entered socioeconomic transition with substantial delay compared to most of Eastern Europe. Its health system reform efforts were bold during the past 15 years, but their results were inconsistent in various areas. The two waves of global recession that hit Balkan economies ultimately reflected to the financial situation of healthcare. Serious difficulties in providing accessible medical care to the citizens became a reality. A large part of the unbearable expenses actually belongs to the overt prescription of pharmaceuticals and various laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures requested by physicians. Therefore, a broad national survey was conducted at all levels of the healthcare system hierarchy to distinguish the ability of cost containment strategies to reshape clinician’s mindsets and decision-making in practice. Aims: Assessment of healthcare professionals’ judgment on economic consequences of prescribed medical interventions and evaluation of responsiveness of healthcare professionals to policy measures targeted at increasing cost-consciousness. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted through a hierarchy of medical facilities across diverse geographical regions before and after policy action, from January 2010 to April 2013. In the middle of the observed period, the National Health Insurance Fund (RFZO) adopted severe cost-containment measures. Independently, pharmacoeconomic guidelines targeted at prescribers were disseminated. Administration in large hospitals and community pharmacies was forced to restrict access to high budget-impact medical care. Economic Awareness of Healthcare Professionals Questionnaire–29 (EAHPQ-29), developed in Serbian language, was used in face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire documented clinician’s attitudes on: Clinical-Decision-Making-between-Alternative-Interventions (CDMAI), Quality

  12. Modeling of geomagnetic field secular variations observed in the Balkan area for purposes of regional topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metodiev, Metodi; Trifonova, Petya; Buchvarov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The most significant of the Earth's magnetic field elements is the geomagnetic declination, which is widely used in geodesy, cartography and their associated navigational systems. The geomagnetic declination is incorporated in the naval navigation maps and is used in the navigation process. It is also a very important factor for aviation where declination data have major importance for every airport (civil or military). As the geomagnetic field changes with time but maps of the geomagnetic declination are not published annually and are reduced to an epoch in the past, it is necessary to define two additional parameters in the maps, needed to determine the value of the geomagnetic declination for a particular moment in the future: 1) estimated value of the annual declination variation and 2) a table with the average diurnal variation of the declination for a given month and hour. The goal of our research is to analyze the annual mean values of geomagnetic declination on the territory of the Balkan Peninsula for obtaining of a best fitting model of that parameter which can be used for prediction of the declination value for the next 10 years. The same study was performed in 1990 for the purposes of Bulgarian declination map's preparation. As a result, a linear model of the declination annual variation was obtained for the neighboring observatories and repeat stations data, and a map of the obtained values for the Bulgarian territory was drawn. We use the latest version of the GFZ Reference Internal Magnetic Model (GRIMM-3.0) to compare the magnetic field evolution predicted by that model between 2001 and 2010 to the data collected in five independent geomagnetic observatories in the Balkan region (PAG, SUA, PEG, IZN, GCK) over the same time interval. We conclude that the geomagnetic core field secular variation in this area is well described by the global model. The observed small-scale differences might indicate induced lithospheric anomalies but it is still an open

  13. Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvan, Darko; Stratimirović, Djordje; Blesić, Suzana; Miljković, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, detrended moving average (DMA) method, and wavelet transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period Tp ≈ 90 days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially explain the observed difference in types of correlated behavior of corresponding scaling functions.

  14. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the southern Moesian platform and Balkan-Forebalken regions of northern Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, M. ); Georgiev, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The major tectonic elements of northern Bulgaria are the east-west-trending Balkan-Forebalkan fold belt and the Moesian platform. Moderate hydrocarbon exploration potential exists in trapping geometries generated during the tectonic evolution of the region coupled with reservoir/seal pairs and source rocks within Mesozoic strata. The tectonic evolution of the region includes Early Triassic to Early Jurassic intracratonic rifting followed by multiphase compression that contracted the rift basin and produced a north vergent fold and thrust belt along the southern margin of the stable Moesian platform. Compression began during the Early Cretaceous, continued during the Paleocene, and concluded during the middle Eocene. Trap types generated during the tectonic evolution include normal fault-bounded rotated blocks in the autochthonous section and elongate, asymmetric anticlines in the allochthonous section. Triassic to Upper Jurassic Marine facies were deposited in an east-west-trending rift. Sediments deposited in a shallow foredeep, which evolved during Lower cretaceous compression, overlay the rift sequence. The Early Mesozoic rift sequence provides the depositional settings for Middle Triassic and lower Middle Jurassic source rock shales and sandstone/carbonate reservoirs ranging from Middle Triassic to Lower Cretaceous. Carbonate reservoirs generally are porous dolomites with intercrystalline, moldic, and vugular pore types interbedded with nonporous limestones. Clastic reservoirs are quartz-rich sandstones with pore types that are reduced intergranular, dissolution, and microporosity. These heterogeneous reservoir targets exhibit poor to good reservoir characteristics and are overlain with sealing lithologies of variable thicknesses.

  15. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ujić, Predrag; Čeliković, Igor; Žunić, Zora S.

    2008-08-01

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined 235U/238U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  16. Chemical and principal-component analyses of the essential oils of Apioideae taxa (Apiaceae) from central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Kapetanos, Chrysostomos; Karioti, Anastasia; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar; Veljić, Milan; Skaltsa, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oils of 23 taxa belonging to the Apioideae subfamily were studied in detail. The investigated taxa were Pimpinella serbica (Vis.) Bentham & Hooker, Libanotis montana Cr., Cnidium silaifolium (Jacq.) Simk. ssp. orientale (Boiss.) Tutin, Bupleurum praealtum L., B. sibthorpianum S. S. var. diversifolium (Roch.) Hay, Aegopodium podagraria L., Torilis anthriscus (L.) Gmel., Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm., Laserpitium siler L., Laser trilobum (L.) Brokh., Chaerophyllum aureum L., C. hirsutum L., C. temulum L., Pastinaca sativa L., P. hirsuta Pancic., Tordylium maximum L., Physospermum cornubiense (L.) DC., Peucedanum alsaticum L., P. oreoselinum (L.) Moench, P. cervaria (L.) Cuss., P. austriacum (Jacq.) Koch, P. longifolium W. et K., and P. officinale L. All of these species grow wild in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. The essential oils were found to be complex mixtures of various compounds, more than 100 constituents being in each taxon, with contributions of main products never exceeding 25% of the total content. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the main group of constituents of all taxa, except for Peucedanum species, where monoterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the main components. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil composition is discussed according to results of principal-component analysis (PCA). The essential-oil composition mainly reflects current taxonomic relationships between the investigated taxa. PMID:18205131

  17. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  18. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  19. Resource recovery from waste by Roma in the Balkans: A case study from Zavidovici (BiH).

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Mentore; Perteghella, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Roma communities represent the main involved actors in the informal activities in the Balkan regions, especially because the state does not formally recognize them as formal inhabitants. The Roma community in Zavidovici, despite being resident since the beginning of the 20th century, is still considered a marginalized and vulnerable group. They are actively involved in and dependent on the informal solid waste sector. Waste collection is a 'family business', a kind of self-employment and the main source of income for households. Informal recyclers have a central role in the solid waste management system and they recover a significant amount of materials, especially iron, copper, brass, lead and exhausted batteries. Despite the negative fluctuations of the raw material prices, because of the international economic crisis, informal recyclers remain dependent on the waste recycling sector. They are crucial actors in the value chain of recyclables: though they cannot access the final buyers of recyclables, they provide more than 50% of the market to the middle dealers in the Zenica-Doboj Canton. This research activity consists of a deep socio-economic analysis of the informal recyclers' community living in Zavidovici city. In particular, this paper describes the composition and welfare status of informal recyclers' households, the role of informal recyclers in waste collection, the geographical coverage and the related pattern of waste picking, types, volumes and price fluctuations of recyclable materials, and the middle dealers involved in the informal recycling system. PMID:27305917

  20. Values of Alpha 1 Microglobulin Does Not Differ between Individuals with and without Family History of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Trnacevic, Senaid; Hodzic, Emir; Atic, Mirza; Dugonjic, Maida; Hasanovic, Evlijana

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare urinary alpha 1 microglobulin (A1MG) in healthy individuals with and without family burden for Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) in an endemic village. Methods. Otherwise healthy inhabitants with microalbuminuria or proteinuria were divided into two groups: with (n = 24) and without (n = 32) family BEN burden and screened for urinary A1MG and A1MG/urine creatinine ratio. Results. Average value of urinary A1MG was 10.35 ± 7.01 mg/L in group with and 10.79 ± 8.27 mg/L in group without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.87). A1MG was higher than 10 mg/L in eight (33.33%) inhabitants with family history and in 12 (37.5%) without (NS, P = 0.187). Average values of urinary A1MG/creatinine ratio were 1.30 ± 1.59 and 0.94 ± 0.78 in group with and group without family BEN history (NS, P = 0.39, resp.). Elevated values of this ratio were found in 13 (54.17%) inhabitants with and 14 (43.75%) without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.415). Conclusion. We did not find statistically significant difference in the examined markers between healthy individuals with and without family burden for BEN. We concluded that these markers are not predictive of risk for BEN. PMID:24563783

  1. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Zunic, Zora S.

    2008-08-07

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  2. Lowermost Mantle Velocity Estimations Beneath the Central North Atlantic Area from Pdif Observed at Balkan, East Mediterranean, and American Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Marian; Ghica, Daniela Veronica; Gosar, Andrej; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis; Hofstetter, Rami; Polat, Gulten; Wang, Rongjiang

    2015-02-01

    Lowermost mantle velocity in the area 15°S-70°N latitude/60°W-5° W longitude is estimated using two groups of observations, complementary to each other. There are 894 Pdif observations at stations in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean areas from 15 major earthquakes in Central and South America. Another 218 Pdif observations are associated with four earthquakes in Greece/Turkey and one event in Africa, recorded by American stations. A Pdif slowness tomographic approach of the structures immediately above the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB) is used, incorporating corrections for ellipticity, station elevation and velocity perturbations along the ray path. A low-velocity zone above CMB with a large geographical extent, approximately in the area (35-65°N) × (40-20°W), appears to have the velocity perturbations exceeding the value actually assumed by some global models. Most likely, it is extended beneath western Africa. A high-velocity area is observed west of the low-velocity zone. The results suggest that both Cape Verde and Azorean islands are located near transition areas from low-to-high velocity values in the lowermost mantle.

  3. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  4. Stable isotope ecology of Miocene bovids from Northern Greece and the ape/monkey turnover in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Kostopoulos, Dimitris S; Bonis, Louis de; Fourel, François; Koufos, George D; Lécuyer, Christophe; Martineau, François

    2013-08-01

    Eurasia was home to a great radiation of hominoid primates during the Miocene. All were extinct by the end of the Miocene in Western Eurasia. Here, we investigate the hypothesis of climate and vegetation changes at a local scale when the cercopithecoid Mesopithecus replaced the hominoid Ouranopithecus along the Axios River, Greece. Because they are herbivorous and were much more abundant than primates, bovids are preferred to primates to study climate change in the Balkans as a cause of hominoid extinction. By measuring carbon stable isotope ratios of bovid enamel, we conclude that Ouranopithecus and Mesopithecus both evolved in pure C3 environments. However, the large range of δ(13)C values of apatite carbonate from bovids combined with their molar microwear and mesowear patterns preclude the presence of dense forested landscapes in northern Greece. Instead, these bovids evolved in rather open landscapes with abundant grasses in the herbaceous layer. Coldest monthly estimated temperatures were below 10°C and warmest monthly temperatures rose close to or above 20°C for the two time intervals. Oxygen isotope compositions of phosphate from bulk samples did not show significant differences between sites but did show between-species variation within each site. Different factors influence oxygen isotope composition in this context, including water provenience, feeding ecology, body mass, and rate of amelogenesis. We discuss this latter factor in regard to the high intra-tooth variations in δ(18)Op reflecting important amplitudes of seasonal variations in temperature. These estimations fit with paleobotanical data and differ slightly from estimations based on climate models. This study found no significant change in climate before and after the extinction of Ouranopithecus along the Axios River. However, strong seasonal variations with relatively cold winters were indicated, conditions quite usual for extant monkeys but unusual for great apes distributed today in

  5. Climate variability over the last 92 ka in SW Balkans from analysis of sediments from Lake Prespa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Böhm, A.; Leng, M. J.; Wagner, B.; Schäbitz, F.

    2014-03-01

    The transboundary Lake Prespa (Albania/former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Greece) has been recognized as a conservation priority wetland. The high biodiversity encountered in the catchment at present points to the refugial character of this mountainous region in the southwestern Balkans. A lake sediment core retrieved from a coring location in the northern part of the lake was investigated through sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses. Based on tephrochronology, radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating, and cross correlation with other Northern Hemisphere records, the age model suggests that the basal part of core Co1215 reaches back to 92 ka cal BP. Here we present the responses of this mid-altitude site (849 m a.s.l.) to climate oscillations during this interval and assess its sensitivity to millennial-scale variability. Endogenic calcite precipitation occurred in marine isotope stages (MIS) 5 and 1 and is synchronous with periods of increased primary production (terrestrial and/or lacustrine). Periods of pronounced phytoplankton blooms (inferred from green algae and dinoflagellate concentrations) are recorded in MIS 5 and MIS 1 and suggest that the trophic state and lake levels underwent substantial fluctuations. Three major phases of vegetation development are distinguished: the forested phases of MIS 5 and MIS 1 dominated by deciduous trees with higher temperatures and moisture availability, the open landscapes of MIS 3 with significant presence of temperate trees, and the pine-dominated open landscapes of MIS 4 and MIS 2 with lower temperatures and moisture availability. Our findings suggest significant changes in forest cover and landscape openness, as well as in the properties of the vegetation belts (composition and distribution) over the period examined. The study area most likely formed the upper limit of several drought-sensitive trees (temperate tree refugium) at these latitudes in the Mediterranean mountains.

  6. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  7. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  8. Résection endoscopique des polypes colorectaux pédiculés en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé: une alternative a la polypectomie conventionnelle? A propos d'une série de cas

    PubMed Central

    Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Modjo, Gabriel; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap

    2014-01-01

    L'intérêt de l'endoscopie dans la résection des polypes colorectaux a été rapporté dans plusieurs études. Les techniques de résection endoscopique sont multiples et maîtrisées dans les pays occidentaux. La technique de mucosectomie endoscopique et celle de la pose d'une anse largable en nylon (endoloop) ont élargi le champ des lésions résécables par endoscopie. Toutefois, malgré cette évolution, la vulgarisation de la polypectomie n'est pas effective. En Afrique subsaharienne, la prise en charge de ces polypes de grande taille nécessite souvent une intervention chirurgicale à ciel ouvert ou une évacuation sanitaire onéreuse dans un pays en Occident. Nous rapportons une nouvelle approche de polypectomie endoscopique des polypes pédiculés colorectaux, en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé 2/0. Les polypes pédiculés étaient situés soit au niveau du sigmoïde soit au rectum. Après avoir passé le lasso autour du pédicule, le n'ud du lasso est serré autour de celui-ci pour strangulation. En moyenne 6 jours après la procédure, le polype est récupéré dans les selles. Une colonoscopie de contrôle est nécessaire pour confirmer la résection du polype. Cette technique peu coûteuse et accessible, devrait être vulgarisée dans les pays en voie de développement avec des plateaux techniques pauvres. Elle a ses limites et ses inconvénients qui doivent être connus de l'opérateur. PMID:25360198

  9. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  10. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations

  11. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080. PMID:24857887

  12. Comparative 1H NMR Metabolomic Urinalysis of People Diagnosed with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, and Healthy Subjects, in Romania and Bulgaria: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, Peter; Modalca, Mirela; Nicholls, Andrew; Tatu, Calin; Tatu, Diana; Toncheva, Draga

    2011-01-01

    1H NMR spectroscopy of urine has been applied to exploring metabolomic differences between people diagnosed with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), and treated by haemodialysis, and those without overt renal disease in Romania and Bulgaria. Convenience sampling was made from patients receiving haemodialysis in hospital and healthy controls in their village. Principal component analysis clustered healthy controls from both countries together. Bulgarian BEN patients clustered separately from controls, though in the same space. However, Romanian BEN patients not only also clustered away from controls but also clustered separately from the BEN patients in Bulgaria. Notably, the urinary metabolomic data of two people sampled as Romanian controls clustered within the Romanian BEN group. One of these had been suspected of incipient symptoms of BEN at the time of selection as a ‘healthy’ control. This implies, at first sight, that metabolomic analysis can be predictive of impending morbidity before conventional criteria can diagnose BEN. Separate clustering of BEN patients from Romania and Bulgaria could indicate difference in aetiology of this particular silent renal atrophy in different geographic foci across the Balkans. PMID:22069742

  13. Quantitation of Aristolochic Acids in Corn, Wheat Grain, and Soil Samples Collected in Serbia: Identifying a Novel Exposure Pathway in the Etiology of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan; Pavlović, Nikola M; Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Liu, Jingjing; Deng, Kailin; Wang, Yinan; Milosavljević, Biljana; Kostić, Emina N

    2016-07-27

    While to date investigations provided convincing evidence on the role of aristolochic acids (AAs) in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and upper urothelial cancer (UUC), the exposure pathways by which AAs enter human bodies to cause BEN and UUC remain obscure. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that environmental pollution by AAs and root uptake of AAs in the polluted soil may be one of the pathways by which AAs enter the human food chain. The hypothesis driving this study was that the decay of Aristolochia clematitis L., a AA-containing herbaceous plant that is found growing widespread in the endemic regions, could release free AAs to the soil, which could be taken up by food crops growing nearby, thereby transferring this potent human nephrotoxin and carcinogen into their edible parts. Using the highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time AAs in corn, wheat grain, and soil samples collected from the endemic village Kutles in Serbia. Our results provide the first direct evidence that food crops and soil in the Balkans are contaminated with AAs. It is possible that the presence of AAs in edible parts of crops originating from the AA-contaminated soil could be one of the major pathways by which humans become exposed to AAs. PMID:27362729

  14. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  15. Séquences de dépôt à l'articulation plate-forme urgonienne bassin (intervalle Barrémien Albien) dans le Prébalkan occidental (Bulgarie du Nord-Ouest)Depositional sequences at the Urgonian platform/basin transition (Barremian Albian interval) in the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Ivanov, Marin; Nikolov, Todor; Ciszak, Richard; Stoykova, Kristalina

    2000-04-01

    In the western Fore-Balkan (northwest Bulgaria), the characterization of numerous depositional sequences within the Barremian-Albian interval allows us to reconstruct from southeast to northwest the successive palaeogeographies of this part of the north Tethyan margin: two carbonate (Urgonian) platforms flanking a central terrigenous basin during the Barremian; a single centrifugal terrigenous basin (Aptian) marked, along its axis, by an olistostrome and siliciclastic turbidites; a single Albian basin characterized by the stacking of glauconite-rich condensation sections and anoxic black marls.

  16. Deep drilling of ancient Lake Ohrid (Balkan region) to capture over 1 million years of evolution and global climate cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Reicherter, Klaus; Leng, Melanie; Grazhdani, Andon; Trajanovski, Sasho; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Wonik, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkan region is thought to be the oldest lake in continuous existence in Europe and, with 212 endemic species described to date, is a hotspot of evolution. An international group of scientists working on a project entitled 'Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO)' realized a deep drilling campaign of Lake Ohrid in spring 2013. Based on several coring seismic campaigns between 2004 and 2011, Lake Ohrid became the target of an ICDP deep drilling campaign, with specific research aims: (i) obtain precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (ii) unravel the lake's seismotectonic history, (iii) obtain a continuous record of Quaternary volcanic activity and climate change, and (iv) investigate the influence of major geological/environmental events on evolution and the generation of extraordinary endemic biodiversity. Drilling began in April 2013 using the Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) of DOSECC (USA). The campaign, completed by late May, was deemed one of the most successful ICDP lake drilling projects, with a total of ~2100 m of sediment recovered from four different sites. At the central "DEEP" site, hydro-acoustic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m was recovered. Coarse gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies hampered deeper penetration. A total of 1526 m of sediment cores was collected from six boreholes, with a composite field recovery ('master core') of 544 m (95%). Three additional sites were drilled in order to analyze lake-level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ("Cerava", deepest drilled depth: 90 m), to investigate active tectonics and spring dynamics ("Gradiste", deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and to try to understand the geological origins of the Ohrid Basin ("Pestani

  17. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Our study concerns deformed gabbroic rocks from the Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria). The BCO consists of four ophiolitic massifs dismembered during Alpine tectonic and displaying together a complete classical oceanic lithosphere. Our new Sm-Nd dating on fresh lower gabbroic rocks give an accretion age for the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, in agreement with a previous age of 405 ± 3 Ma (Zakariadze et al. 2012). After removing the Alpine tectonic, the BCO appears as an elongated E-W body tilted to the south. At the base of the ophiolitic complex occurs a thin deformed zone (< 800m) of metagabbroic rocks underlined by Cambro-Ordovician metasediments. Petrostructural observations on metagabbroic rocks coupled with mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that their protoliths were mainly upper gabbros statically metamorphosed in the Greenschist/Amphibolite facies (event 1 = ocean-floor metamorphism at the ridge axis). These rocks have been affected by a second circulation of fluids (event 2), contemporaneous to a deformation and inducing local K-enrichment (formation of Cr-muscovite). Temperature estimates for this event indicate a range of 450°C - 280°C, with the lower values observed for the more intensively metasomatized rocks. 40Ar - 39Ar dating on two Cr-muscovites from slightly and highly deformed metagabbros gives plateau ages of 372.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 360.6 ± 1.2 Ma respectively. We interpret the first age as a mimimum age for the beginning of the event 2, observed into preserved rocks, and the second one as linked to (neo-/)recrystallisation due to localisation of the metasomatism/deformation. The interval of 30 Ma between oceanic crust accretion and initiation of metasomatism/deformation involves that the upper oceanic crust had cooled down to temperatures close to 100°C before the beginning of event 2. Consequently, a temperature increase is required to observe the greenschist facies assemblage. We have tested by tectono

  18. New data on age of the Pleistocene fauna from the Trlica locality (Montenegro, Central Balkans) and its correlation with other faunas of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislobokova, I. A.; Agadjanyan, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    New data specifying the age of the fauna from the Trlica locality near Pljevlja (Montenegro, Central Balkans) derived from material of excavations in 2010-2014 are discussed with the biostratigraphic analysis of two defined faunal levels TRL11-10 and TRL6-5 and its correlation with other faunas of Europe. It is shown that the fauna from the lower faunal level (TRL11-10) is correlative with the second half of the Early Pleistocene (Late Villafranchian, Zone MNQ 18, while the fauna from the upper faunal level existed in the post-Villafranchian time and its age is estimated to be the early Middle Pleistocene (MIS 19), not older.

  19. The role of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and organic substances from coal in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A new hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.M.; Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Bunnell, J.E.; Feder, G.L.; Kostic, E.N.; Ordodi, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. BEN has been characterized as a chronic, slowly progressive renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study, we examined the influence of soluble organic compounds in drinking water leached from Pliocene lignite from BEN-endemic areas on plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. We found that changes for all samples were the most prominent for the dilution category containing 90% plasma and 10% of diluting media. Water samples from BEN villages from Serbia and Romania showed higher LCAT inhibiting activity (p = 0.02) and (p = 0.003), respectively, compared to deionised water and non-endemic water. A secondary LCAT deficiency could result from this inhibitory effect of the organic compounds found in endemic water supplies and provide an ethiopathogenic basis for the development of BEN in the susceptible population. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  1. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  3. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  4. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  5. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  6. Review of the Balkan Isophya (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae) with particular emphasis on the Isophya modesta group and remarks on the systematics of the genus based on morphological and acoustic data.

    PubMed

    Chobanov, Dragan P; Grzywacz, Beata; Iorgu, Ionuţ Ş; Ciplak, Battal; Ilieva, Maya B; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    A critical review of the taxonomy and systematics of the genus Isophya from the Balkan Peninsula, together with a revision of the I. modesta group, including its representatives outside the Balkans, has been made using morphological, bioacoustic and karyological data. As a result, the following taxonomic considerations have been proposed: (1) the status of two taxa has been reconsidered: Isophya rhodopensis leonorae Kaltenbach, stat.n., I. rhodopensis petkovi Peshev, stat.n.; (2) five synonymies have been established: I. hospodar (Saussure) = I. hospodar medimontana Nedelkov, syn.n.; I. plevnensis Peshev, sensu novo = I. pravdini pravdini Peshev, syn.n.; I. rhodopensis leonorae Kaltenbach = I. kisi Peshev, syn.n.; I. obtusa = I. pravdini bazyluki Peshev, syn.n.; I. modesta Frivaldszky = I. modesta intermedia Kis syn.n. The descriptions of the taxa under consideration are supplemented with unpublished morphological and/or bioacoustic data. An updated list of the taxa occurring on the Balkans includes 24 taxa (21 species, including the doubtful data on I. camptoxypha). A dichotomic and tabulated key for recognition and maps of distribution of the established taxa are presented. PMID:25333087

  7. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  8. Oligocene shoshonitic rocks of the Rogozna Mts. (Central Balkan Peninsula): Evidence of petrogenetic links to the formation of Pb-Zn-Ag ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borojević Šoštarić, S.; Cvetković, V.; Neubauer, F.; Palinkaš, L. A.; Bernroider, M.; Genser, J.

    2012-09-01

    This study focuses on age and evolution of the Oligocene quartz latite of the Rogozna Mts. (Central Balkan Peninsula), in order to better understand the link between magmatism and formation of Pb-Zn ± Ag mineralization. New 40Ar/39Ar biotite and amphibole plateau ages suggest that the Rogozna Mts. quartz latite originated through a continuous volcanic episode from 27.3 ± 0.1 to 29.5 ± 0.1 Ma which was immediately followed by a hydrothermal phase. The quartz latites are hypocrystalline porphyritic with phenocrysts and microphenocrysts (~ 60 vol.%) of plagioclase (An37-49), biotite Mg# [100 × Mg / (Mg + Fetot)] < 50, calcic amphibole, quartz, sanidine clinopyroxene and phlogopite (Mg# = 79 to 84). The rocks display numerous disequilibrium textures, such as: sieved plagioclase phenocrysts, dissolution effects on quartz, phlogopitized biotite and amphibole crystals, and phlogopite microphenocrysts showing effects of incomplete growth (or dissolution?) and biotitization. The Rogozna Mts. quartz latites are shoshonitic in character with Na2O/K2O < 1, high LILE/HFSE ratios, strong depletions at Nb and Ti and K, Pb and U peaks on primitive mantle-normalized diagrams. They are similar to other potassic/ultrapotassic rocks in this region, in particular to those of Veliki Majdan and Rudnik (West Serbia), which are also related to Pb-Zn deposits. The evolution of the Rogozna Mts. quartz latite is modeled using a trace element binary mixing model adopting a lamproite magma and a dacite-like calc-alkaline melt as end-members. The model implies that a fractionating magma chamber (~ 4.5-9.5 km) undergoes cooling in the range of > 850 °C-~720 °C and injection of lamproite-like melts. The injection causes an increase of temperature and a decrease of viscosity of the resulting hybrid magma, facilitating its upwelling and triggering pyroclastic eruptions. The addition of new volatiles by lamproitic melts most probably established the conditions for a hydrothermal phase above the

  9. Overview of ophiolites and related units in the Late Palaeozoic-Early Cenozoic magmatic and tectonic development of Tethys in the northern part of the Balkan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Karamata, Stevan; Šarić, Kristina

    2009-03-01

    The northern Balkan Peninsula, including Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Croatia and the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia, represents an excellent region for the study of tectonic processes related to Mesozoic Tethyan ophiolite genesis and emplacement. We first summarise the main tectonic units of the northern Balkan Peninsula and then use this information to discuss tectonic processes, including rifting, sea-floor spreading, ophiolite genesis and emplacement, melange accretion, ocean-basin closure and collision. We then discuss alternative models of ophiolite genesis and emplacement for the region and suggest that multi-ocean-basin interpretations fit the data better than single-ocean-basin interpretations. Rifting of Adria (Gondwana) during the Triassic created a rift in the south (Budva zone) and opened a Triassic oceanic basin further north (Dinaride ocean). Occurrences of inferred sub-continental mantle lithosphere in the Dinaride ophiolite belt (e.g. Zlatibor) may record extensional exhumation within an ocean-continent transition zone bordering the Adria/Dinaride continent. This was followed by emplacement together with ophiolites and melange during Upper Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. Upper Triassic radiolarites and mid-ocean ridge-type basalts formed at a spreading ridge after continental break-up. The oceanic lithosphere of the Dinaride ophiolite belt was partly generated above a subduction zone. The metamorphic soles of the Dinaride ophiolites formed during Mid-Late Jurassic mainly based on K/Ar dating. Widespread melange that is associated with the ophiolites represents a subduction complex, controlled by tectonic accretion and sedimentary reworking in trench and fore-arc basin settings. A possible cause of Jurassic Dinaride ophiolite emplacement was collision of a subduction trench with a continental margin. Further north, Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere subducted northeastwards (present coordinates) opening a Late Jurassic marginal basin in the Main

  10. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  11. The first record of a soft-shelled turtle (Testudines: Pan-Trionychidae) from southern Balkans (Pliocene, Gefira, N. Greece) and new information from bone histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Evangelos; Cerda, Ignacio; Tsoukala, Evangelia

    2015-08-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pan-Trionychidae) are not included in the present-day chelonian fauna of Greece and have been unknown in the Greek fossil record up to now. Here, we report the first fossil occurrence of a soft-shelled turtle from Greece, originating from the Pliocene Gefira Member (Angelochori Formation), in the lower Axios valley. The corresponding specimens were discovered with several mammalian remains, most of them attributable to the mastodon of Auvergne, Anancus arvernensis. The chelonian material includes five carapacial fragments that belong to the same individual and can be attributed to Pan-Trionychidae based on the typical sculpturing on the dorsal side of the carapace. Most of these bony plates were histologically sampled and thereby provide evidence for the "plywood" structure, another characteristic of pan-trionychids. They represent the first extended sampling of trionychid plates that belong to the same individual, allowing the documentation of the variation of the relevant trionychid morphologies in the carapace. These findings expand the paleobiogeographic range of this taxon to the southern Balkans and Greece and allow a better estimation of the chelonian paleo-fauna of the area. They are also important for the temporal distribution of this clade in the Paleoarctic, as they join specimens from Italy as being the last trionychids in Europe.

  12. Distribution and Taxonomic Significance of Secondary Metabolites Occurring in the Methanol Extracts of the Stonecrops (Sedum L., Crassulaceae) from the Central Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Gordana S; Jovanović, Snežana C; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2015-06-01

    The present study is engaged in the chemical composition of methanol extracts of Sedum taxa from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, and representatives from other genera of Crassulaceae (Crassula, Echeveria and Kalanchoe) considered as out-groups. The chemical composition of extracts was determined by HPLC analysis, according to retention time of standards and characteristic absorption spectra of components. Identified components were considered as original variables with possible chemotaxonomic significance. Relationships of examined plant samples were investigated by agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHC). The obtained results showed how the distribution of methanol extract components (mostly phenolics) affected grouping of the examined samples. The obtained clustering showed satisfactory grouping of the examined samples, among which some representatives of the Sedum series, Rupestria and Magellensia, are the most remote. The out-group samples were not clearly singled out with regard to Sedum samples as expected; this especially applies to samples of Crassula ovata and Echeveria lilacina, while Kalanchoe daigremontiana was more separated from most of the Sedum samples. PMID:26197522

  13. Changing what it means to 'become a man': participants' reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  14. Dominant-Negative Effect of a Missense Variant in the TASK-2 (KCNK5) K+ Channel Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Wahab, Firdaus; Tucker, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    TASK-2, a member of the Two-Pore Domain (K2P) subfamily of K+ channels, is encoded by the KCNK5 gene. The channel is expressed primarily in renal epithelial tissues and a potentially deleterious missense variant in KCNK5 has recently been shown to be prevalent amongst patients predisposed to the development of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), a chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study we show that this variant (T108P) results in a complete loss of channel function and is associated with a major reduction in TASK-2 channel subunits at the cell surface. Furthermore, these mutant subunits have a suppressive or ‘dominant-negative’ effect on channel function when coexpressed with wild-type subunits. This missense variant is located at the extracellular surface of the M2 transmembrane helix and by using a combination of structural modelling and further functional analysis we also show that this highly-conserved threonine residue is critical for the correct function of other K2P channels. These results therefore provide further structural and functional insights into the possible pathophysiological effects of this missense variant in TASK-2. PMID:27228168

  15. Changing what it means to ‘become a man’: participants’ reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  16. Traces of DU in samples of environmental bio-monitors (non-flowering plants, fungi) and soil from target sites of the Western Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Zora S; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Błazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Paweł; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Ujić, Predrag; Celiković, Igor; Cuknić, Olivera; Demajo, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports results of gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements for mosses, lichens, fungi and soil samples from areas in the Balkans targeted by depleted uranium (DU). Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003 in the vicinity of several villages, principally Han Pijesak (Bosnia and Herzegovina, hit by DU in 1995) and Bratoselce (South Serbia, hit by DU in 1999) and in lesser numbers from Gornja Stubla, Kosovo (which is identified as a high natural radon/thoron area) and Presevo close to the Kosovo border. In the course of gamma spectrometric measurements some results suggested samples with unusual high uranium contents which might be considered to be a signature for the presence of DU, although many samples had very high detection limits. Alpha spectrometric measurements directly proved the presence of DU for five samples, all from directly targeted places. These were samples of mosses, lichens and soil. For some samples homogeneity tests were applied which showed a rather even distribution of DU in these samples. No trace of DU was found in any sample from a dwelling. PMID:18502546

  17. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only), serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases. PMID:19400955

  18. Environmental change within the Balkan region during the past ca. 50 ka recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-10-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid, in the Balkan region, are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several sediment cores up to 15 m long have been studied over the last few years. Here, we document the first long sediment record from nearby Lake Prespa to clarify the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and dated tephra layers provide robust age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record from Lake Prespa reaches back to 48 ka. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter content and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate content in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter content in Lake Prespa, which indicates a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental change and short-term events, such as related to the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 ka cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but are only evident in certain proxies. The comparison of the sediment cores from both lakes indicates that environmental change affects particularly the trophic state of Lake Prespa due to its lower volume and water depth.

  19. The first record of a soft-shelled turtle (Testudines: Pan-Trionychidae) from southern Balkans (Pliocene, Gefira, N. Greece) and new information from bone histology.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Evangelos; Cerda, Ignacio; Tsoukala, Evangelia

    2015-08-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pan-Trionychidae) are not included in the present-day chelonian fauna of Greece and have been unknown in the Greek fossil record up to now. Here, we report the first fossil occurrence of a soft-shelled turtle from Greece, originating from the Pliocene Gefira Member (Angelochori Formation), in the lower Axios valley. The corresponding specimens were discovered with several mammalian remains, most of them attributable to the mastodon of Auvergne, Anancus arvernensis. The chelonian material includes five carapacial fragments that belong to the same individual and can be attributed to Pan-Trionychidae based on the typical sculpturing on the dorsal side of the carapace. Most of these bony plates were histologically sampled and thereby provide evidence for the "plywood" structure, another characteristic of pan-trionychids. They represent the first extended sampling of trionychid plates that belong to the same individual, allowing the documentation of the variation of the relevant trionychid morphologies in the carapace. These findings expand the paleobiogeographic range of this taxon to the southern Balkans and Greece and allow a better estimation of the chelonian paleo-fauna of the area. They are also important for the temporal distribution of this clade in the Paleoarctic, as they join specimens from Italy as being the last trionychids in Europe. PMID:26231846

  20. On the amphibious food uptake and prey manipulation behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi, Arntzen and Wielstra, 2013).

    PubMed

    Lukanov, Simeon; Tzankov, Nikolay; Handschuh, Stephan; Heiss, Egon; Naumov, Borislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Feeding behavior in salamanders undergoing seasonal habitat shifts poses substantial challenges caused by differences in the physical properties of air and water. Adapting to these specific environments, urodelans use suction feeding predominantly under water as opposed to lingual food prehension on land. This study aims to determine the functionality of aquatic and terrestrial feeding behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) in its terrestrial stage. During the terrestrial stage, these newts feed frequently in water where they use hydrodynamic mechanisms for prey capture. On land, prey apprehension is accomplished mainly by lingual prehension, while jaw prehension seems to be the exception (16.67%) in all terrestrial prey capture events. In jaw prehension events there was no detectable depression of the hyo-lingual complex. The success of terrestrial prey capture was significantly higher when T. ivanbureschi used lingual prehension. In addition to prey capture, we studied the mechanisms involved in the subduction of prey. In both media, the newts frequently used a shaking behavior to immobilize the captured earthworms. Apparently, prey shaking constitutes a significant element in the feeding behavior of T. ivanbureschi. Prey immobilization was applied more frequently during underwater feeding, which necessitates a discussion of the influence of the feeding media on food manipulation. We also investigated the osteology of the cranio-cervical complex in T. ivanbureschi to compare it to that of the predominantly terrestrial salamandrid Salamandra salamandra. PMID:27013264

  1. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  2. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia. PMID:27568660

  3. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  4. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data reveal the evolutionary history of Barbus (Cyprinidae) in the ancient lake systems of the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Marková, Silvia; Sanda, Radek; Crivelli, Alain; Shumka, Spase; Wilson, Iain F; Vukić, Jasna; Berrebi, Patrick; Kotlík, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater fauna of ancient lakes frequently contain endemic taxa thought to have originated during the long existence of these lakes, yet uncertainties remain as to whether they represent distinct genetic lineages with respect to more widespread relatives and to the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in their evolution. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at nuclear and mitochondrial genes were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish genus Barbus in two European ancient lake systems on the Balkan Peninsula. The nuclear and mitochondrial data yielded concordant phylogeographic patterns though incomplete sorting of nuclear haplotypes between some mitochondrial clades was detected. The distributions of two currently recognized species investigated here do not match the distributions of evolutionary lineages revealed by phylogenetic analyses. The Prespa barbel, Barbus prespensis, is not endemic to the lakes Prespa as previously thought but is instead found to be widespread in the south-eastern Adriatic Sea basin, with a distribution largely corresponding to the basin of the now extinct Lake Maliq historically connected with Lake Prespa. On the other hand, a cryptic phylogenetic subdivision in a widespread species, B. rebeli, was discovered to be more distant from B. rebeli than from other Barbus species and to be endemic to the system of connected lakes Ohrid and Shkodra. The division coincides with the hydrogeographical boundary delimiting distributions of other freshwater fishes, and we suggest that this newly discovered evolutionary lineage represents a distinct species. These findings support the emerging pattern that endemic taxa have evolved not through isolation of individual lakes, but in systems of currently and historically interconnected lakes and their wider basins. PMID:20139017

  5. Geographically Related Variation in Epicuticular Wax Traits of Pinus nigra Populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans - Taxonomic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subspecies (namely subsp. nigra, subsp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques with respect to biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and 14 n-alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd-numbered n-alkanes C27 , C25 , C23 , and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the first group consisted of the southernmost populations of subsp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second consisted of the northernmost subsp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with subsp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results agree with CDA and CA analysis, and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations. PMID:27273147

  6. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  7. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  8. Copernic: la piste des influences arabes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Copernic a-t-il connu le travail des astronomes du Moyen-Orient ? S'en est-il inspiré pour élaborer sa théorie de l'héliocentrisme ? C'est l'hypothèse avancée par certains historiens des sciences pour comprendre le génie de celui qui, le premier, a placé le Soleil au centre du monde. Enquête.

  9. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  10. Frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 gene in selected populations of the western balkans.

    PubMed

    Grapci, A Daka; Dimovski, A J; Kapedanovska, A; Vavlukis, M; Eftimov, A; Geshkovska, N Matevska; Labachevski, N; Jakjovski, K; Gorani, D; Kedev, S; Mladenovska, K

    2015-06-01

    As a membrane influx transporter, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) regulates the cellular uptake of a number of endogenous compounds and drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encoding this transporter in two ethnic groups populating the Western Balkans. The distribution of SCLO1B1 alleles was determined at seven variant sites (c.388A>G, c.521T>C, c.571T>C, c.597C>T, c.1086C>T, c.1463G>C and c.*439T>G) in 266 Macedonians and 94 Albanians using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. No significant difference in the frequencies of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was observed between these populations. The frequency of the c.521T>C SNP was the lowest (<13.7 and 12.2%, respectively), while the frequencies of all other SNP alleles were above 40.0%. Variant alleles of c.1463G>C and c.1086 C>T SNPs were not identified in either ethnic group. The haplotype analysis revealed 20 and 21 different haplotypes in the Macedonian and Albanian population, respectively. The most common haplotype in both ethnic groups, *1J/*1K/*1L, had a frequency of 39.0% and 26.6%, respectively. In both populations, the variant alleles of the functionally significant c.521T>C and c.388A>G SNPs existed in one major haplotype (*15/*16/*17), with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.4% in the Macedonian and Albanian subjects, respectively. In conclusion, sequence variations of the SLCO1B1 gene in the studied populations occur at high frequencies, which are similar to that of the Caucasian population. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these SNPs and/ or the major SLCO1B1 haplotypes they form for a large number of substrates and for susceptibility to certain diseases. PMID:26929901

  11. Frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 gene in selected populations of the western balkans

    PubMed Central

    Grapci, A Daka; Dimovski, AJ; Kapedanovska, A; Vavlukis, M; Eftimov, A; Geshkovska, N Matevska; Labachevski, N; Jakjovski, K; Gorani, D; Kedev, S; Mladenovska, K

    2015-01-01

    As a membrane influx transporter, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) regulates the cellular uptake of a number of endogenous compounds and drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encoding this transporter in two ethnic groups populating the Western Balkans. The distribution of SCLO1B1 alleles was determined at seven variant sites (c.388A>G, c.521T>C, c.571T>C, c.597C>T, c.1086C>T, c.1463G>C and c.*439T>G) in 266 Macedonians and 94 Albanians using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. No significant difference in the frequencies of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was observed between these populations. The frequency of the c.521T>C SNP was the lowest (<13.7 and 12.2%, respectively), while the frequencies of all other SNP alleles were above 40.0%. Variant alleles of c.1463G>C and c.1086 C>T SNPs were not identified in either ethnic group. The haplotype analysis revealed 20 and 21 different haplotypes in the Macedonian and Albanian population, respectively. The most common haplotype in both ethnic groups, *1J/*1K/*1L, had a frequency of 39.0% and 26.6%, respectively. In both populations, the variant alleles of the functionally significant c.521T>C and c.388A>G SNPs existed in one major haplotype (*15/*16/*17), with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.4% in the Macedonian and Albanian subjects, respectively. In conclusion, sequence variations of the SLCO1B1 gene in the studied populations occur at high frequencies, which are similar to that of the Caucasian population. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these SNPs and/ or the major SLCO1B1 haplotypes they form for a large number of substrates and for susceptibility to certain diseases. PMID:26929901

  12. Constraining Holocene hydrological changes in the Carpathian-Balkan region using speleothem δ18O and pollen-based temperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drăguşin, V.; Staubwasser, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Ersek, V.; Onac, B. P.; Veres, D.

    2014-07-01

    Here we present a speleothem isotope record (POM2) from Ascunsă Cave (Romania) that provides new data on past climate changes in the Carpathian-Balkan region from 8.2 ka until the present. This paper describes an approach to constrain the effect of temperature changes on calcite δ18O values in stalagmite POM2 over the course of the middle Holocene (6-4 ka), and across the 8.2 and 3.2 ka rapid climate change events. Independent pollen temperature reconstructions are used to this purpose. The approach combines the temperature-dependent isotope fractionation of rain water during condensation and fractionation resulting from calcite precipitation at the given cave temperature. The only prior assumptions are that pollen-derived average annual temperature reflects average cave temperature, and that pollen-derived coldest and warmest month temperatures reflect the range of condensation temperatures of rain above the cave site. This approach constrains a range of values between which speleothem δ18O changes should be found if controlled only by surface temperature variations at the cave site. Deviations of the change in δ18Ocspel values from the calculated temperature-constrained range of change are interpreted towards large-scale variability of climate-hydrology. Following this approach, we show that an additional ∼0.6‰ enrichment of δ18Oc in the POM2 stalagmite was caused by changing hydrological patterns in SW Romania across the middle Holocene, most likely comprising local evaporation from the soil and an increase in Mediterranean moisture δ18O. Further, by extending the calculations to other speleothem records from around the entire Mediterranean basin, it appears that all eastern Mediterranean speleothems recorded a similar isotopic enrichment due to changing hydrology, whereas all changes recorded in speleothems from the western Mediterranean are fully explained by temperature variation alone. This highlights a different hydrological evolution between

  13. Pollen, sediment and diatom response to past climate and environmental change in the Balkan region: the Holocene record of Lake Dojran (Greece/FYROM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Alessia; Sadori, Laura; Francke, Alexander; Pepe, Caterina; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Dojran (41° 12'N, 22° 44'E, 144 m a.s.l.) is located at the border between the F.Y.R. of Macedonia and Greece in a karstic basin formed by a combination of Tertiary volcanic and tectonic activities. The lake is fed by small rivers, creeks and springs, with most of the run off originating from the near Belasica and Kroussia Mountains. The area of Lake Dojran is influenced by the mountain climate of the central and northern Balkans. In addition, it is tempered by the influence of the Mediterranean Sea, to which it is exposed via the Thessaloniki Plain. The marine influence provides mild winters with high precipitation and long, hot, dry summers. The diverse natural vegetation has been heavily influenced by human activities, particularly during the historical era. Remnants of natural vegetation which survive are dominated by mesophilous plants, in particular deciduous oaks and ashes together with riparian elements such as alders and planes. A 717 cm core was collected from the deepest part of the lake (ca. 6.6 m depth), in Macedonian waters. Thirteen radiocarbon dates carried out on terrestrial plant remains, charcoal, carbonate shell fragments, and bulk organic matter, established that the core covers the last ca. 12500 years, spanning the Younger Dryas to the present (1). Here, we build on previous sedimentological and diatom-based palaeolimnological research, strengthening the multi-proxy dataset by addition of palynological evidence for vegetation catchment change. The Late Glacial was characterized first by an Artemisia steppe, followed by expansion of chenopods and then grasses, confirming the arid climate inferred from sedimentology and diatom data. The subsequent expansion of grasses matches with an increase in lake level inferred from changes in the diatom assemblages. Forest expansion at the onset of the Holocene is characterized by deciduous, semideciduous and evergreen oaks, with pine and fir, during an initial deepwater phase followed by shallowing

  14. Dating intrusion and cooling of Cenozoic granitoids in the Dinarides of Southern Serbia and discussion of the geodynamic setting of Paleocene-Miocene magmatism in the Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senecio, Schefer; Cvetković, Vladica; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Kounov, Alexandre; Ovtcharova, Maria; Schaltegger, Urs; Schmid, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of high precision single grain U-Pb dating and Hf isotope analyses of thermally annealed and chemically abraded zircons from the Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin, Golija and Polumir intrusions in the inner Dinarides of southern Serbia. In addition, new zircon and apatite fission-track data together with local structural observations, allow for constraining the subsequent exhumation history of these intrusions. Two age groups were determined for the granitoid intrusions: (i) Oligocene intrusive bodies (Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin) ranging in age from 31.7 to 30.6 Ma and (ii) Miocene Golija and Polumir intrusions which emplaced at 20.58-20.17 and 18.06-17.74 Ma, respectively. The apatite fission-track modelling combined with zircon central ages show rapid cooling from above 300 to ca. 80 °C between 16 and 10 Ma for granitoids of both age groups, followed by rather slow cooling to surface temperatures for the last 10 Ma. Fast Middle Miocene cooling between 16 and 10 Ma is caused by extensional exhumation of the plutons that are located in the footwall of core-complexes. This documents that Miocene magmatism and core-complex formation leading to formation of the Pannonian basin also affected a part of the mountainous areas of the internal Dinarides. The discussion of an extensive set of age data from the literature and the geodynamic setting of the Balkan Peninsula reveals that there is no direct connection of the Dinaridic Late Eocene to earliest Miocene magmatic belt with contemporaneous Periadriatic intrusions in the Alps and along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone as proposed in the literature. We insist on the fact that the subduction polarity in the Alps, including that within the Western Carpathians north of the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, is opposite to that of the Dinarides during the given time span. Instead, we propose that Late Eocene to Oligocene magmatism, which affects the Adria-derived lower plate units of the internal Dinarides, may be

  15. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  16. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  17. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  18. The GBT-SerDes ASIC prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P.; Baron, S.; Bonacini, S.; Cobanoglu, O.; Faccio, F.; Feger, S.; Francisco, R.; Gui, P.; Li, J.; Marchioro, A.; Paillard, C.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the GigaBit Transceiver project (GBT), a prototype, the GBT-SerDes ASIC, was developed, fabricated and tested. To sustain high radiation doses while operating at 4.8Gb/s, the ASIC was fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology employing radiation tolerant techniques and circuits. The transceiver serializes-deserializes the data, Reed-Solomon encodes and decodes the data and scrambles and descrambles the data for transmission over optical fibre links. This paper describes the GBT-SerDes architecture, and presents the test results.

  19. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  20. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  1. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  2. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  3. The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

  4. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  5. Profil epidemiologique des brulures d'enfants admis au Centre National des Brules, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, A.; Atannaz, J.; Alaoui, M.; Rafik, A.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Chlihi, A.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ce travail rétrospectif analyse les particularités épidémiologiques de 543 cas de brûlures d'enfants, représentant 45,7% des admissions de notre centre, en vue de déterminer les éléments pouvant contribuer à renforcer la prévention, qui reste le traitement de choix de cette pathologie. La moyenne d'âge est de 4,25 ans avec une prédilection pour la tranche d'âge d'un à cinq ans, avec 42,5% des cas. Une atteinte masculine est retrouvée dans 63,5% des cas. La brûlure survient à domicile dans 85,1% et accidentellement dans 95% des cas. Les brûlures thermiques représentent 96,5% des causes dominées par les liquides dans 69,3% des cas. La surface cutanée brûlée est ≥ 20% dans 52,3%. La brûlure intéresse essentiellement les membres supérieurs (79,1%). 56,8% des enfants sont transférés par d'autres hôpitaux et le délai de prise en charge hospitalière est supérieur à 6 heures dans 65,5%. Le taux de mortalité a été de 13,2%. PMID:22639559

  6. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  7. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  8. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report. Fort Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.; Rausch, K.; Kang, J.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) at the Fort Des Moines, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Fort Des Moines is a 53.28-acre site located in Polk County, Iowa, within the city limits of Des Moines. The installation's primary mission is to provide support and shelter for the U.S. Army Reserve. Activities associated with the property that have environmental significance are photographic processing, vehicle maintenance, printing, and fuel storage. TETC reviewed existing investigation documents; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), State, and county regulatory records; environmental data bases; and title documents pertaining to Fort Des Moines during this investigation. In addition, TETC conducted interviews and visual inspections of Fort Des Moines as well as visual inspections and data base searches for the surrounding properties. Information in this CERFA Report was current as of April 1994.

  9. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de

  10. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  11. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  12. Early Results from the DES SN Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolnic, Daniel; Dark Energy Survey

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES SN) has already discovered over 1000 Type Ia supernovae with well-sampled multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.2. I will present an overview of the survey and show recent advances in our detection, photometry, calibration and spectroscopic follow-up pipelines. I will go over initial results from photometric classification of our sample and discuss methods used to reach measurements of cosmological parameters.

  13. A Magellanic Origin of the DES Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-06-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of subhaloes in ΛCDM, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95)% confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the LMC. Marginalising over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  14. Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Walther; Lettowsky, Christoph

    Das Spritzgießen ist neben der Extrusion das wichtigste Verarbeitungsverfahren für Kunststoffe [1]. Das Verfahren hat sich seit seinen Ursprüngen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts bis heute stetig weiterentwickelt [2]. In neuerer Zeit steigt die Anzahl komplexer Anwendungen, die die gezielte Kombination verschiedener Funktionalitäten in einem Formteil erfordern. Das Standard-Spritzgießen kann diese Anforderungen immer weniger befriedigen. Daher gewinnen die Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens zunehmend an Bedeutung [3]. Ihre Anzahl beträgt inzwischen über 100. Die Aufgabe des Anwenders ist es, aus der Vielzahl der möglichen Verfahren, ein anforderungsgerechtes auszuwählen, das sowohl unter technischen wie wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten die optimale Lösung darstellt. Dies setzt die ständige Auseinandersetzung mit Entwicklungstendenzen im Bereich der Spritzgießtechnologie voraus. Daher soll im folgenden Abschnitt ein Überblick über die wichtigsten Spritzgieß-Sonderverfahren gegeben werden.

  15. Profil anthropometrique des enfants scolarises tananariviens

    PubMed Central

    Razafimanantsoa, Fetralinjiva; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Raherimandimby, Hasina; Robinson, Annick; RakotoAlson, Olivat; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

    2013-01-01

    Les enfants tananariviens sont en état de malnutrition chronique. Notre objectif est d’évaluer l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) pour estimer les enfants apparemment "sains". Une enquête et une mesure de la taille et du poids des enfants scolarisés tananariviens de 6 à 11 ans ont été réalisées. Après leur accord, la taille et l'indice de masse corporelle des 442 enfants tirés au hasard ont été ainsi obtenus. L'analyse de la moyenne de la taille a révélé une différence significative à 8 ans, une différence non évidente sur l'indice de masse corporelle. La comparaison avec les valeurs de référence (OMS 2006) a montré un retard statural de 34% avec une tendance globale à la hausse et un déficit pondéral égal à 5,5% selon le z score. Ainsi, au sein d'une population malnutrie, l'indice de masse corporelle pourrait être utilisé comme un des paramètres à considérer dans l’évaluation de l’état de santé pour classer ces enfants en bonne santé apparente. PMID:24711862

  16. Dermatomyosite et panniculite: place des immunoglobulines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une maladie inflammatoire du tissu adipeux sous-cutané rarement associée à la dermatomyosite. Elle peut survenir avant, après ou en même temps que l'atteinte musculaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’évolution de la panniculite et des autres atteintes de la dermatomyosite est favorable sous traitement corticoïde et/ou immunosuppresseur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 48 ans ayant présenté des lésions de panniculite précédant de 2 mois les signes musculaires. L'atteinte cutanée était résistante au traitement corticoïde associés aux immunosuppresseurs ce qui a nécessité le recours au traitement par Immunoglobulines polyvalentes permettant ainsi une amélioration à la fois de l'atteinte cutanée et musculaire.

  17. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  18. Choice of DES: is there a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, U; Bhatia, V

    2009-01-01

    Restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions has been a major limitation of this otherwise very well-accepted method of coronary revascularisation. Coronary stents work by scaffolding the intimal flaps and preventing elastic recoil, which was a major problem after balloon angioplasty. The neointimal growth response to stenting contributes significantly to the restenotic process. Randomised studies comparing coronary artery bypass surgery with coronary stenting especially in multivessel disease clearly highlighted this problem. The problem has been greater in magnitude in special subgroups: diabetics, patients with small vessels (≤2.5 mm in diameter), long segments of disease (≥20 mm in length), etc. These limitations of Bare metal stents have been addressed by drug-eluting stents (DESs). Third-generation stents with bioabsorbable polymers like the Biolimus releasing Biomatrix stent have already become available in Europe and parts of Asia. A longer follow-up will prove their long-term safety vis-à-vis first-generation DES. The polymer-free stent with capability of using more than one drug, though very attractive, needs larger multicentric studies before gaining wider acceptance. The fully bioabsorbable stent is yet another promising concept. The feasibility has already been demonstrated, and finer refinements are under way. The future of newer DES thus is very promising, and most of the issues related to first-generation DES are at the threshold of being solved.

  19. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  20. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  1. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  2. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  3. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  4. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  5. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  6. Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

    2002-07-01

    Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concr

  7. Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austénitiques au voisinage des soudures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

    2003-03-01

    Des fissures intergranulaires peuvent se développer au voisinage des soudures des aciers inoxydables austénitiques lorsqu'ils sont réchauffés dans le domaine de température compris entre 500^{circ}C et 700^{circ}C. A ces températures, les contraintes résiduelles post-soudage se relaxent par déformation viscoplastique. Il peut arriver que ces zones proches de la soudure soient tellement fragiles, qu'elles ne puissent accommoder cette faible déformation. Afin de préciser quelles peuvent être les modifications microstructurales qui conduisent à une telle fragilisation, on a examiné les microstructures de ces zones et révélé ainsi un écrouissage résiduel, responsable d'une forte élévation de la dureté. On a pu reproduire par hypertrempe puis laminage entre 400^{circ}C et 600^{circ}C une microstructure similaire. Des essais mécaniques (traction, fluage, relaxation, sur éprouvettes lisses et pré-fissurées) ont été réalisés à 550^{circ}C et à 600^{circ}C sur ces zones affectées simulées et sur un état de référence hypertrempé. Ils ont montré que l'écrouissage diminuait la ductilité dans le domaine de rupture intergranulaire, sans modifier qualitativement le mécanisme d'endommagement. Pendant la pré-déformation les incompatibilités de déformation entre grains conduiraient à l'existence de contraintes locales élevées qui favoriseraient la germination des cavités intergranulaires.

  8. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  9. Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le médecin communautaire

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

    2010-01-01

    L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

  10. OzDES Spectroscopic Classification of DES13X3woy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Childress, M.; Sharp, R.; Lidman, C.; Parkinson, D.; Mould, J.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Foley, R. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report spectroscopic classification by OzDES of a supernova discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (370-885nm) was obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell and Wang, 2002, BAAS, 34, 1256), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  11. Prise en compte des ``courants de London'' dans la modélisation des supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossavit, Alain

    1997-10-01

    A model is given, in variational form, in which volumic “Bean currents”, ruled by Bean's law, and surface “London currents” coexist. This macroscopic model generalizes Bean's one, by appending to the critical density j_c a second parameter, with the dimension of a length, similar to London's depth λ. The one-dimensional version of the model is investigated, in order to link this parameter with the standard observable H-M characteristics On propose un modèle, sous forme variationnelle, associant des “courants de Bean” volumiques, décrits par la loi de Bean, et des “courants de London”, surfaciques. Ce modèle macroscopique généralise celui de Bean, caractérisé par le courant critique j_c, et fait intervenir un second paramètre, homogène à une longueur, analogue au λ de London. La version unidimensionnelle du modèle est étudiée en détail de manière à relier ce paramètre à l'observation des caractéristiques H-M usuelles.

  12. Characterization of the Glycosyltransferase DesVII and Its Auxiliary Partner Protein DesVIII in the Methymycin/Pikromycin Biosynthetic Pathway†

    PubMed Central

    Borisova, Svetlana A.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro characterization of the catalytic activity of DesVII, the glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotics methymycin, neomethymycin, narbomycin, and pikromycin in Streptomyces venezuelae, is described. DesVII is unique among glycosyltransferases in that it requires an additional protein component, DesVIII, for activity. Characterization of the metabolites produced by a S. venezuelae mutant lacking desVIII gene confirmed that desVIII is important for the biosynthesis of glycosylated macrolides, but can be replaced by at least one of the homologous genes from other pathways. The addition of recombinant DesVIII protein significantly improves the glycosylation efficiency of DesVII in the in vitro assay. When affinity-tagged DesVII and DesVIII proteins were co-produced in E. coli, they formed a tight (αβ)3 complex that is at least 103-fold more active than DesVII alone. The formation of the DesVII/DesVIII complex requires co-expression of both genes in vivo and cannot be fully achieved by mixing the individual protein components in vitro. The ability of DesVII/DesVIII system to catalyze the reverse reaction with the formation of TDP-desosamine was also demonstrated in a transglycosylation experiment. Taken together, our data suggest that DesVIII assists the folding of DesVII during protein production and remains tightly bound during catalysis. This requirement must be taken into consideration in the design of combinatorial biosynthetic experiments of new glycosylated macrolides. PMID:20695498

  13. Organisation des gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutzes auf Bundesebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschiersky-Schöneburg, Helmut; Büttner, Antje

    Zahlreiche Krisen wie Dioxin belastete Futtermittel, die missbräuchliche Verwendung von Antibiotika in der Schweinemast und nicht zuletzt das Auftreten von BSE in Deutschland erschütterten Ende der neunziger Jahre das Vertrauen der Bürger in die Sicherheit der Lebensmittel. Mit dem Weißbuch zur Lebensmittelsicherheit, das im Januar 2000 herausgegeben wurde, hatte die Europäische Kommission ihre Erfahrungen aus dem BSE-Geschehen in ein neues Konzept für den Verbraucherschutz eingearbeitet. Kernstücke des Konzepts sind die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Lebensmittelsicherheit von der landwirtschaftlichen Erzeugung bis zum Verzehr und der Anspruch nach Transparenz und Unabhängigkeit der Risikobewertung.

  14. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude de l'évolution des quasars. Elle en aborde certains aspects théoriques et observationnels, ainsi que la construction des grands échantillons de quasars dans le but à long terme de combiner le tout dans un test cosmologique géométrique pour déterminer les valeurs des paramètres cosmologiques Omega et Lambda. Les paramètres cosmologiques Omegaspan>et Lambdaspan>décrivent la géométrie globale de l'Univers. En faisant des hypothèses raisonnables sur la distribution spatiale et l'évolution des objets astrophysiques (galaxies, amas des galaxies, quasars), on peut déterminer les valeurs de ces paramètres qui sont cohérentes avec ces hypothèses. Les tests cosmologiques traditionnels ont besoin de ''chandelles standards'', objets dont les propriétés intrinsèques sont indépendantes des distances. De tels objets sont probablement fictifs. Néanmoins, certains de ces tests cosmologiques peuvent être adaptés si l'évolution individuelle, ou au moins l'évolution statistique d'une population d'objets est connue. La question de la nature de l'évolution des quasars a très vite été posée et des réponses ''phénoménologiques'' ont d'abord été données. Ces réponses ne faisaient que donner une forme mathématique à l'évolution mais n'expliquaient rien de la physique duphénomène. Les premières tentatives de construction d'un modèle physique, liées au processus d'accrétion sur un trou noir et à la théorie de la formation de l'Univers ont commencé à la fin des années 80. Depuis, des dizaines de modèles tentent d'expliquer les observations, qui sont les résultats de l'étude d'objets de plus en plus nombreux. Au cours de cette thèse, le test V/Vmax a été appliqué sur l'échantillon du Large Bright Quasar Survey en montrant 1) que l'échantillon était biaisé à cause des critères de sélection et 2) que la (simple) loi de Pure Evolution en Luminosité n'était pas une bonne approximation à tout

  15. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2kqw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Kniazev, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2kqw discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (380-820nm) was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  16. La détermination des distances: Sol, Hipparcos, GAIA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turon, C.

    Les parallaxes trigonométriques des étoiles les plus proches du soleil sont la base de la détermination des distances dans l'Univers. Elles permettent, par la calibration en luminosité des différents indicateurs de distance d'étalonner les distances d'abord dans notre Galaxie, puis dans les galaxies du Groupe Local, puis pour les galaxies plus lointaines. Cette base est, actuellement, très mince, et peu de types d'étoiles y sont représentés. Hipparcos va déjà apporter une amélioration sensible. Avec GAIA une révision complète des calibrations de luminosité de tous les indicateurs "primaires" serait directement possible.

  17. A quantitative ~1ky lake level record of Lake Prespa (SW Balkans) derived from beach ridge sediments: implications for hydro-climatic changes from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    We present the first quantitative lake stage record of Prespa that covers the past millennium, based on the singular isthmus beach ridge complex, allowing numerical reconstruction of precipitation-driven inflow changes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Mediterranean precipitation change, based on lake-proxy reconstructions, shows a distinct W-E pattern over the past millennium. Generally, the West experienced drier conditions during the MCA and wetter conditions during the LIA; the East experienced opposite conditions. This pattern is linked to the multi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Winter Index: positive phases are associated with drier (wetter) and negative phases with wetter (drier) conditions in the W (E) Mediterranean. The SW Balkans is located at the juncture of proposed boundary between these contrasting climate and hydrological domains. It is not clear which, if any, of these patterns reflects past precipitation changes in the region, given the lack of detailed palaeo-hydrological data. The beach ridge complex that underlies the entire isthmus separating Lakes Mikri- and Megali Prespa offers a unique opportunity to address this question. High, oblique, sediment-supply allows the formation and preservation of beach ridges that register the annual water level fluctuations of Lake Megali Prespa which are driven by wet season precipitation and contain a strong NAO-signal. Modern beach-ridge sediment facies were calibrated against observed lake levels, thus allowing the reliable determination of past lake levels from the geological record. Lake surface area variation was found to be a more reliable indicator of hydro-climate change than water level fluctuations as the latter are strongly influenced by lake bathymetry. Accordingly, surface areas were calculated for different water levels to enable the conversion of lake level stage-indicators to quantitative inflow estimates. The isthmus profile reveals a "high

  18. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River basins, southern Minnesota and northern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  19. Rôle des hyrates dans la formation de Titan et des satellites réguliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.

    2001-12-01

    Cette these est dediee a l'etude de l'origine de Titan et de son atmosphere. Dans l'hypothese ou la subnebuleuse de Saturne etait geometriquement mince, le modele de disque turbulent utilise, derive des travaux de Dubrulle (1993), est moins dense que le modele de Prinn et Fegley (1981). De ce fait, les conversions de Co en CH4 et de N2 en NH3 ont ete inhibees dans la subnebuleuse, contrairement a ce qui est couramment admis pour interpreter la presence du methane dans l'atmosphere de Titan. C'est pourquoi nous avons developpe un nouveau scenario de la formation de titan, qui tient compte simultanement des contraintes resultant de la chimie de la subnebuleuse et des abondances de CH4, N2 et CH3D mesurees dans l'atmosphere du satellite. Nous faisons l'hypothese que ces gaz proviennent initialement de la vaporisation du nuage presolaire, qui s'effondra et forma le Soleil et son disque environnant. Lors du refroidissement de la nebuleuse, les volatils auraient ete pieges sous formes de clathrates d'hydrates dans les grains, puis dans les planetesimaux qu'ils formerent. Les planetesimaux hydrates a l'origine de la formation de Titan seraient alors des rescapes de l'effondrement hydsrodynamique de la feeding zone de Saturne. Ce scenario a ete applique aux subnebuleuses de Jupiter et d'Uranus, et a apporte un certain nombre de contraintes sur la formation des satellites reguliers de ces planetes. Le temps et la zone de formation des grains cometaires ont egalement ete estimes dans la nebuleuse solaire. Enfin, l'etude experimentale de la temperature de fusion du dihydrate d'ammoniac dans la gamme des hautes pressions a apporte des nouvelles donnees thermodynamiques qui permettront d'ameliorer les modeles de l'interieur de Titan.

  20. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  1. Caractérisation des convertisseurs matriciels : II. Synthèse des fonctions de connexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Cambronne, J. P.; Hautier, J. P.

    1996-05-01

    Knowing the wished conversion levels (-1,0,1) of a power converter, this paper describes a particular method for setting the corresponding states of switches into the matrix converter. In a first step, a mathematical analysis establishes the relations linking the states of switches with the conversion functions. Afterwards, the presented method gives the inverse relations which constitute the sequential part of the converter control. The turn-on and the turn-off sequences are designed by considering the on-line wished level conversions. This general method enhances the idea that a converter functionnality must be defined by its structure and its control. Cet article propose une méthode originale pour définir la séquence de commande d'un convertisseur à partir de la fonction de conversion globalement souhaitée. Les auteurs procèdent d'abord à une analyse mathématique précise des relations qui existent entre les états des interrupteurs et les fonctions de conversion obtenues. À partir de cette analyse, la méthode developpée permet d'établir systématiquement les relations inverses qui constituent alors le module séquentiel de la commande rapprochée du convertisseur. Les ordres d'ouverture et de fermeture des interrupteurs sont élaborés en considérant à tout instant les niveaux de conversion souhaités pour les grandeurs électriques. Cette méthode générale renforce l'idée que la fonction remplie par un convertisseur moderne doit être définie à la fois par sa structure et sa commande.

  2. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  3. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  4. Catalog Production for the DES Blind Cosmology Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, R. H.; Becker, M. R.; Erickson, B.; Evrard, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Blind Cosmology Challenge (BCC) is an effort by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to test analysis tools for extracting cosmological information using a set of detailed synthetic galaxy catalogs. Here, we describe the creation of these synthetic sky catalogs based on requirements of the optical (DES) and the near-IR VISTA Hemisphere Survey, producing catalogs covering a quarter of the sky to z ˜ 2, with sources complete to r ˜ 25. Starting with a nested set of lightcone outputs of large, N-body simulation, galaxies are assigned to the dark matter distribution using an empirical algorithm that is tunable to match observed evolution of low-order galaxy population properties (counts and spatial clustering) in luminosity-color-density space. Galaxies are lensed by matter along the line of sight (including magnification, shape distortion, and multiple images), using a new algorithm that calculates shear with 3.22 arcsec resolution at galaxy positions in the full catalog. The catalog is well suited to support DES+VISTA joint studies of galaxy clustering, groups and clusters of galaxies, and gravitational lensing, and we highlight their application to the ongoing DES BBCC. Catalogs include ˜320 million galaxies and ˜150 million stars, with realistic colors, shapes and photometric errors. Using the expected DES photometric errors, three independent photometric redshift codes are run on the catalog, two of which produce full probability distributions. The synthetic observable catalog includes object position, magnitudes in the DES and VISTA bands, photometric errors, photometric redshifts, size, ellipticity, for each of ˜ 500 million objects. The galaxy distribution is additionally masked appropriately for the 5000 square degree DES footprint, including the impact of bright stars. In addition, we offer separate catalogs with magnitudes for additional existing and planned surveys, including SDSS, CFHTLS, HSC, LSST, and Euclid.

  5. Contributions a l'etude des lidars a champs visuels multiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Gilles

    On presente un modele, base sur la diffraction et l'optique geometrique, liant les signaux lidar a champs multiples a la densite de distribution de la taille des particules. On ecrit la relation sous forme matricielle ce qui permet d'obtenir la densite de distribution apparente de la taille des particules par inversion matricielle avec contrainte. On interprete la perturbation causee par la contribution de l'optique geometrique au signal lidar comme de la diffraction causee par une particule de diametre d'environ un micron. La densite de distribution apparente est corrigee a posteriori en calculant la contribution relative des differents ordres de diffusion a l'elargissement de la fonction de phase des particules. La validite du modele est supportee par des simulations Monte Carlo et par des resultats experimentaux obtenus sous des conditions controlees. Finalement, on applique avec succes, la technique d'inversion aux mesures lidar multichamps obtenues sur des nuages.

  6. Regles de fusion en theorie des champs conformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begin, Luc

    1999-10-01

    Les théories de champs conformes constituent un domaine de recherche très actif avec de nombreuses applications en physique statistique, en matière condensée, en théorie des cordes, en mathématiques, etc. Nous analysons ici le calcul des règles de fusion dans les modèles Wess- Zumino-Witten par des méthodes positives. Les règles de fusion sont des quantités importantes puisqu'elles indiquent comment se combinent les champs primaires de la théorie. L'approche présentée est basée sur l'hypothèse que les règles de fusion sont décrites par un système d'inéquations linéaire et homogène et mène au concept original de «base de fusion». Cette approche simple et générale permet d'utiliser les méthodes combinatoires et de programmation linéaire pour construire les fonctions génératrices et les bases de fusion. Cette méthode permet d'obtenir des résultats originaux et explicites pour les algèbres su (3), su (4) et sp (4).

  7. Problemes en enseignement fonctionnel des langues (Problems in the Functional Teaching of Languages). Publication B-103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo, Ed.; Huot, Diane, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "L'elaboration du materiel pedagogique pour des publics adultes" (The Elaboration of Teaching Materials for the Adult Public) by G. Painchaud-Leblanc, (2) "L'elaboration d'un programme d'etudes en francais langue seconde a partir des donnees recentes en didactique des langues" (The Elaboration of a Program of Study in French…

  8. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part. PMID:26827551

  9. Spectroscopic confirmation of DES12S2a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Marshall, J.; Suntzeff, N.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gilhool, S.; Gladney, L.; Gupta, R.; Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Campbell, H.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; March, M.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2013-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova (SN) candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Supernova Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (450-1000 nm) of DES12S2a was obtained with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (+Marcario Low-Resolution Spectrograph) by J. Caldwell. The spectrum shows a blue continuum with a narrow H-alpha emission feature atop a broader component indicative of a type IIn SN. The phase at the date of the spectrum given below is based on the DES light curves.

  10. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  11. Analyse des facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires : à propos de 500 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Les nodules thyroïdiens sont très fréquents et moins de 10% d'entre eux sont malin. Ils posent un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique surtout par rapport à leur nature bénigne ou maligne. L’étude de certains facteurs cliniques et paracliniques de présomption de malignité permet de bien codifier la stratégie thérapeutique. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires et comparer nos résultats à ceux de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 500 cas de goitres nodulaires opérés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) et Chirurgie cervico-faciale (CCF) de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech entre 2006 et 2012. Le pourcentage de cancers a été de 6,8%. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 46 ans, avec une sex-ratio de 5 (F/H). A la palpation cervicale; le caractère dure du nodule a été constaté dans 94,4% des cas de cancer, avec des limites irrégulières dans 64,70% des cas de cancer. Trois nodules étaient fixes et ils étaient tous malins. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été constatées chez 8 malades dont 7 présentaient des cancers. A l’échographie, 61,8% des nodules malins présentaient un aspect hypoéchogène, avec des contours flous dans 88,24% des cas. La vascularisation intra nodulaire était présente dans 35,3% de ces cas des cancers avec des microcalcifications chez 55,9% d'entre eux. Le halo hypoéchogene périnodulaire était incomplet dans 73,5% des cas de cancer. Nos patients étaient en euthyroïdie dans 84,6% des cas. Les facteurs prédictifs de malignité d'un goitre nodulaire, étaient donc dans notre étude d'abord cliniques: l’âge supérieur à 60 ans, la consistance dure du nodule, sa fixité, son caractère irrégulier et mal limité à la palpation, ainsi que la présence d'adénopathie(s) cervicale(s) à l'examen; et échographiques: le caractère hypoéchogène, les limites floues, la présence de

  12. Transport de paires EPR dans des structures mesoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Emilie

    Dans cette these, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses a la propagation de paires EPR1 delocalisees et localisees, et a l'influence d'un supraconducteur sur le transport de ces paires. Apres une introduction de cette etude, ainsi que du cadre scientifique qu'est l'informatique quantique dans lequel elle s'inscrit, nous allons dans le chapitre 1 faire un rappel sur le systeme constitue de deux points quantiques normaux entoures de deux fils supraconducteurs. Cela nous permettra d'introduire une methode de calcul qui sera reutilisee par la suite, et de trouver egalement le courant Josephson produit par ce systeme transforme en SQUID-dc par l'ajout d'une jonction auxiliaire. Le SQUID permet de mesurer l'etat de spin (singulet ou triplet), et peut etre forme a partir d'autres systemes que nous etudierons ensuite. Dans le chapitre 2, nous rappellerons l'etude detaillee d'un intricateur d'Andreev faite par un groupe de Bale. La matrice T, permettant d'obtenir le courant dans les cas ou les electrons sont separes spatialement ou non, sera etudiee en detail afin d'en faire usage au chapitre suivant. Le chapitre 3 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence du bruit sur le fonctionnement de l'intricateur d'Andreev. Ce bruit modifie la forme du courant jusqu'a aboutir a d'autres conditions de fonctionnement de l'intricateur. En effet, le bruit present sur les points quantiques peut perturber le transport des paires EPR par l'intermediaire des degres de liberte. Nous montrerons que, du fait de l'"intrication" entre la charge de la paire et le bruit, la paire est detruite pour des temps longs. Cependant, le resultat le plus important sera que le bruit perturbe plus le transport des paires delocalisees, qui implique une resonance de Breit-Wigner a deux particules. Le transport parasite n'implique pour sa part qu'une resonance de Breit-Wigner a une particule. Dans le chapitre 4, nous reviendrons au systeme constitue de deux points quantiques entoures de deux fils

  13. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  14. Opération multimode transverse des OPOs: des structures classiques aux corrélations quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, M.; Ducci, S.; Gigan, S.; Treps, N.; Maître, A.; Fabre, C.

    2002-06-01

    Nous démontrons la formation de structures transverses sur les faisceaux émis par un oscillateur paramétrique optique (OPO) de type II en configuration confocale. D'un point de vue classique nous mettons en évidence le caractère multimode transverse de telles structures. A travers l'étude des corrélations spatiales des faisceaux générés nous montrons que ces structures sont également multimodes d'un point de vue quantique.

  15. Apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la dilatation des sténoses caustiques de l’œsophage

    PubMed Central

    Seydou, Togo; Abdoulaye, Ouattara Moussa; xing, Li; Zi, Sanogo Zimogo; sekou, Koumaré; Wen, Yang Shang; Ibrahim, Sankare; Sekou, Toure Cheik Ahmed; Boubacar, Maiga Ibrahim; Saye, Jacque; Jerome, Dakouo Dodino; Dantoumé, Toure Ousmane; Sadio, Yena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toutes les sténoses symptomatiques de l’œsophage peuvent être dilatées par voie endoscopique. Nous évaluons l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la prise en charge de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique de l’œsophage (SCO) au Mali. Méthodes IL s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et prospective réalisée dans le service de chirurgie thoracique à l'hôpital du Mali. Au total 46 dossiers cliniques de patients on été enregistrés et subdivisés en 4 groupes en fonction de la topographie des lésions cicatricielles. Le nombre de cas d'assistance endoscopique réalisé a été déterminé afin de comprendre l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans le succès de la dilatation des SCO. Pour les 2 différentes méthodes de dilatation utilisées, le résultat du traitement et le coût ont comparés. Résultats La FOGD a été utilisée dans 19 cas (41.30%) de dilatation avec la bougie de Savary Guillard et dans 47.82% des cas dans la dilatation de Lerut. La vidéo-laryngoscopie a été utilisé 58.69% des cas de dilatation à la bougie de Lerut. Le passage de guide métallique et / ou de fil-guide a été réalisée dans 39.13% avec la vidéo laryngoscopie et dans 58.68% avec la FOGD. Dans la comparaison des deux méthodes, il existe une différence significative dans la survenue des complications (p=0.04075), l'anesthésie générale (p=0.02287), l'accessibilité à la méthode (p=0.04805) et la mortalité (p=0.00402). Conclusion La SCO est une pathologie grave et sous évaluée au Mali. Les moyens endoscopiques contribuent considérablement au succès de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique dans les différentes méthodes utilisées. PMID:27200129

  16. Régimes transitoires des photopiles: durée de vie des porteurs et vitesse de recombinaison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialhe, P.; Sissoko, G.; Pelanchon, F.; Salagnon, J. M.

    1992-12-01

    A detailed analysis of a new experimental practice of the open circuit voltage decay method and of the short circuit current decay method for determining the base minority carrier lifetime and the back surface recombination velocity in solar cells has been performed. The measurements have been made by using the monitoring of a single transient of an operating cell at any level of injection; no power supply is required and a constant illumination level imposes the carrier injection level for normal operating conditions. The theory considers the complete continuity equation including generation and recombination rates of carriers. Precision and sensitivity of the method have been compared. The necessity of a precise knowledge of cell structural parameters have been shown to impose a limitation of the practical use of short-circuit current decay method, to low illumination levels. Cette étude développe une nouvelle méthode expérimentale pour mesurer la durée de vie des porteurs minoritaires dans la base d'une photopile ainsi que la vitesse de recombinaison à son interface arrière. Au cours de la mesure, la photopile est maintenue sous un éclairement constant qui impose le niveau d'injection souhaité. Cette méthode permet d'éliminer les effets néfastes à la mesure, provenant des impédances, propres au composant. Un régime transitoire, provoqué par une variation d'impédance, est étudié au cours de fonctionnements dans des conditions de court-circuit ou de circuit ouvert. L'étude théorique souligne la prise en compte de l'ensemble des phénomènes de recombinaison. L'obtention d'une bonne précision des mesures nécessite, avec une expérimentation rigoureuse, une connaissance précise des paramètres de structure de la photopile étudié. Pour la mesure de la durée de vie des porteurs, la plus grande sensibilité de la méthode en régime transitoire de court-circuit, comparée au régime de circuit ouvert, impose des mesures sous faible

  17. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard; Sharp, Rob; Lidman, C.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ≥500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrain the radius-luminosity (R-L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ˜35-45 per cent of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ˜1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R-L relationship parameters for H β, Mg II λ2798, and C IV λ1549. Extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R-L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.

  18. The Des Moines Plan: A Plan for Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelda, Sharon; Wagner, Mary

    The Des Moines Plan (DMP) is described, which is a comprehensive kindergarten through grade 12 program designed to improve and strengthen students' reading, writing, and mathematics skills. The program was implemented during the fall semester of the 1986-87 school year. The DMP adopted the instructional model implemented by the Chapter 1 program…

  19. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  20. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  1. Mechanistic Enzymology of the Radical SAM Enzyme DesII

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    DesII is a member of the radical SAM family of enzymes that catalyzes radical-mediated transformations of TDP-4-amino-4,6-didexoy-D-glucose as well as other sugar nucleotide diphosphates. Like nearly all radical SAM enzymes, the reactions begin with the reductive homolysis of SAM to produce a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical which is followed by regiospecific hydrogen atom abstraction from the substrate. What happens next, however, depends on the nature of the substrate radical so produced. In the case of the biosynthetically relevant substrate, a radical-mediated deamination ensues; however, when this amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl, one instead observes dehydrogenation. The factors that govern the fate of the initially generated substrate radical as well as the mechanistic details underlying these transformations have been a key focus of research into the chemistry of DesII. This review will discuss recent discoveries pertaining to the enzymology of DesII, how it may relate to understanding other radical-mediated lyases and dehydrogenases and the working hypotheses currently being investigated regarding the mechanism of DesII catalysis.

  2. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard; Sharp, Rob; Lidman, C.

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrain the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.

  3. 75 FR 63714 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Des Allemands Bayou, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway swing bridge across Des Allemands Bayou, mile 14.0, in St. Charles and Lafourche Parishes, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to perform extensive rehabilitation to the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to navigation completely from January 18,...

  4. L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

  5. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  6. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  7. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  8. Conflict in the Balkans affects the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The leaves on the plants on Snezana Komatina's balcony have turned yellow from toxic fumes. All of the windows are broken and the walls are cracked from nearby explosive blasts. From her flat on a hill in the upscale Filmsky Grad section of Belgrade, Serbia, Komatina, a geophysicist with the Geophysical Institute of the Naftagas oil and gas company watches the night fires flare across the city. In their attempt to stop the Serbian killing and driving out of ethnic Albanians from the southern province of Kosovo, NATO airplanes bomb and light up the skies in the Serbian capital and at strategic targets throughout the country.

  9. Balkanization and Unification of Probabilistic Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Many research-related classes in social sciences present probability as a unified approach based upon mathematical axioms, but neglect the diversity of various probability theories and their associated philosophical assumptions. Although currently the dominant statistical and probabilistic approach is the Fisherian tradition, the use of Fisherian…

  10. 76 FR 38002 - Western Balkans Stabilization Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... 13219 (66 FR 34777, June 29, 2001) (``E.O. 13219''), invoking the authority of, inter alia, the... Stabilization Regulations, 31 CFR part 588 (67 FR 37671, May 30, 2002) (the ``WBSR''), to implement E.O. 13219. On May 28, 2003, the President issued Executive Order 13304 (68 FR 32315, May 29, 2003) (``E.O....

  11. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  12. Dépistage des maladies cardiovasculaires chez des étudiants de l'Université de Douala et influence des activités physiques et sportives

    PubMed Central

    Ewane, Marielle Epacka; Mandengue, Samuel Honoré; Priso, Eugene Belle; Tamba, Stéphane Moumbe; Ahmadou; Fouda, André Bita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) constituent l'une des principales causes de mortalité dans les pays en développement. Le dépistage de ces dernières chez des jeunes est un défi dans la lutte contre leur expansion. Le but de cette étude était de dépister ces maladies au sein d'une population jeunes d’étudiants camerounais. Methodes Deux mille six cent cinquante-huit étudiants de l'Université de Douala (23,6 ± 2,9 ans, sex-ratio H/F = 0,9) ont en Avril - Mai 2011 participé à une campagne de dépistage gratuit du diabète, de l'hypertension artérielle (HTA) et de l'obésité. Ils ont également été soumis à une d'enquête évaluant leur niveau en activités physiques et sportives (APS). Resultats 12,7% des participants avaient une pression artérielle (PA) ≥ 140/90 mmHg, 3,6% étaient obèses et 0,9% avaient une glycémie ≥1,26 g/L. Des corrélations ont été trouvées entre certains facteurs de risque (diabète, hypertension et obésité) et le niveau académique d'une part (r =0,366; p < 0,0001) et le temps passé devant la télévision d'autres part (r = 0,411; p < 0,0001). L‘APS était inversement corrélée à l‘âge (r =-0,015; p < 0,0001) et au temps passé devant la télévision (r = -0,059; p = 0,002). Conclusion La présence des MCV et leurs facteurs de risque mis en évidence dans cette étude réalisée en milieu estudiantin camerounais interpelle à une prévention et une éducation dans la lutte contre ces dernières. PMID:22655111

  13. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as

  14. Prise en charge des complications des fistules artério-veineuses pour hémodialyse chronique

    PubMed Central

    Jiber, Hamid; Zrihni, Youssef; Zaghloul, Rachid; Hajji, Rita; Zizi, Othman; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    La fistule artério-veineuse native est l'accès vasculaire de choix pour l'hémodialyse chronique en raison de sa longévité, son taux faible de complication et de mortalité par rapport aux pontages artério-veineux et aux cathéters. Cependant, il arrive assez souvent que l'on assiste à des complications qui sont dominées par la sténose et la thrombose. C'est une étude rétrospective des complications ayants survenues pour 31 fistules artério-veineuses pour hémodialyse chronique des 200 fistules réalisées chez 200 patients au sein du service de chirurgie vasculaire du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une période de trois ans, étendue de Janvier 2007 à Décembre 2009. Ces complications ont été présentés par les thromboses dans 14 cas soit 45,15% de l'ensemble des complications, les sténoses dans 4 cas (12,90%,) les anévrismes dans 4 cas (12,90%), les complications ischémiques dans 3 cas (9,67%), l'infection dans 3 cas (9,67%), l'hémorragie dans 2 cas (6,45%) et l’ hyperdébit dans un seul cas soit 3,22%. On a pu conserver 22 fistules soit 70,96% par traitement chirurgical ou endovasculaire, on a confectionné une nouvelle fistule dans 8 cas soit 25,80%, et on a adressé une patiente (3,22%) pour pose d'un cathéter veineux tunnelisé permanent. Les complications des fistules artério-veineuses pour l'hémodialyse chronique sont la principale cause de morbidité chez les patients hémodialysés, il est donc important de s'impliquer lors de leur création, et de donner un maximum d'attention quand ils sont manipulés. Ceci suggère la mise en place d'un programme de surveillance de ces fistules en raison de l'impact des complications sur la morbi-mortalité du patient hémodialysé et sur le plan financier. PMID:26113933

  15. The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  16. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.

    2015-07-20

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  17. The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies, respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-yr DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  18. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jarvis, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SVmore » data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.« less

  19. Acupuncture Au Laser He-Ne: Traitement Des Infections Rhinopharyngees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussert, Dr.

    1984-03-01

    Mesdames, Messieurs, y a 23 mois, je recevais l'urgence suivante dans mon cabinet medical : 1) Un homme de 53 ans, dyspneioue (cliniquement it etait en Bradypnee expiratoire). Il venait d'être hospitalise 1 mois et avait ete place sous cortisone. Je le fais assoir, et j'irradie avec un laser sur chacun des ganglions stellaires pendant 6 minutes je debloque ce malade qui se met e respirer normalement. 2) Quelques temps apres : C'est un enfant de 7 ans que je regois en crise d'asthme. J'irradie sur chacun des ganglions stellaires pendant 4 minutes une onde laser d'impulsion 6 et en basse freouence. L'enfant voit s'estomper la crise d'asthme. Devant ces deux cas, je decide d'organiser un travail de recherche.

  20. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  1. Des recommandations probantes pour surveiller l’innocuité des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Davidson, Jana; Ho, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au Canada, l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques, notamment les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération (ADG), a augmenté de façon considérable depuis cinq ans chez les enfants ayant des troubles de santé mentale. Ces médicaments ont le potentiel de causer de graves complications métaboliques et neurologiques lorsqu’on les utilise de manière chronique. OBJECTIF : Synthétiser les données probantes relatives aux effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques précis associés à l’usage d’ADG chez les enfants et fournir des recommandations probantes sur la surveillance de ces effets secondaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des essais cliniques contrôlés des ADG auprès d’enfants. Ils ont fait des recommandations à l’égard de la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG d’après un modèle de classification fondé sur le système GRADE (système de notation de l’évaluation et de l’élaboration des recommandations). Lorsque les données probantes n’étaient pas suffisantes, ils fondaient leurs recommandations sur le consensus et l’avis d’experts. Un groupe consensuel multidisciplinaire a analysé toutes les données probantes pertinentes et est parvenu à un consensus à l’égard des recommandations. RÉSULTATS : Les recommandations probantes portant sur la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG figurent dans les présentes lignes directrices. Les auteurs indiquent la qualité des recommandations relatives à des examens physiques et tests de laboratoire précis à l’égard de chaque ADG à des moments déterminés. CONCLUSION : De multiples essais aléatoires et contrôlés ont permis d’évaluer l’efficacité de bon nombre des ADG utilisés pour traiter les troubles de santé mentale en pédiatrie. Toutefois, leurs avantages ne sont pas sans risques : on observe à la fois des effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques chez les enfants traités au moyen d

  2. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  3. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d?autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  4. Landform Variability in the Chaine Des Puys Tracing Multiple Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Chaîne des Puys is a highly varied, type monogenetic field, and was acknowledged by 38th WH UNESCO Committee to contain Outstanding Universal Value. The Chaîne des Puys - Limagne Fault should be presented in 2016 for World Heritage Status. The 30 km long Chaîne des Puys contains ranges from simple basaltic scoria cones to complex, multicrater cones, and small simple domes to complicated trachytic edifices. There is also a range of phreatomagmatic landforms from tuff rings to maars and vulcanian to sub plinian deposits. There is a wide range of pahoehoe and aa lava types, that have flowed over different topographies. Here we take morphometrical data to analyse the variability of the edifices using a 10 m regional topographic DTM. The volcanoes form a broad continuum of morphological features, and height/widths of domes and cones overlap. Some edifices, are smooth and elliptical, even though they have erupted complex lava sequences, while others complex shapes, but are related to simple lava flows. There seems to be no easy correlation between cone morphology and eruption histories derived from lava fields and distal tephras. In the few cones where the interior is visible, the shape of the cone is seen to vary with changing eruption events. The final shape is a combination of changing activity, with the last events having the strongest morphometic signature. The broad variations in edifice, lava field, and deposit morphology are described and quantified, however it becomes clear from the few individual eruptions already studied, that to fully appreciate the range of monogenetic eruption scenarios presented by the Chaîne des Puys, much more detailed work is required. This is being made possible by new acquisitions of LiDAR imagery, new geophysical work, and the combination of excellent preservation and extensive outcrop that is partly the result the original geology and long term responsible land management by the local populace, regional park and local

  5. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    DOE PAGESBeta

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; et al

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrainmore » the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.« less

  6. La dysplasie fibreuse: état des lieux

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Talbi, Sofia; Tahiri, Latifa; Harzy, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    La dysplasie fibreuse des os est une affection osseuse bénigne congénitale mais non héréditaire, où l'os normal est remplacé par un tissu fibreux renfermant une ostéogenèse immature. Elle est due à une mutation du gène GNAS 1sur le chromosome 20q13, une mutation activatrice de la sous-unité α de la protéine G. C'est une pathologie qui est le plus souvent silencieuse, de découverte fortuite sur une radiographie standard ou révélée par une douleur osseuse ou une fracture pathologique. L'imagerie et l'histologie, quand elle est nécessaire, permettent d’établir le diagnostic. Bien qu'il ne s'agisse pas d'une tumeur, elle est souvent classée dans la catégorie des tumeurs osseuses bénignes pour des raisons de diagnostic différentiel radiographique et anatomopathologique. Elle peut être monostotique ou polyostotique. L'approche thérapeutique est essentiellement symptomatique. Quelques publications récentes ont suggéré l'intérêt majeur d'un bisphosphonate, en particulier le pamidronate, qui diminuerait les douleurs et stimulerait une reminéralisation progressive des zones ostéolytiques chez les patients traités. D'autres traitements tels que la thérapie ciblée sont en cours d’évaluation. PMID:26401215

  7. Discovery and Classification of DES15C2kyh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. L.; Filippenko, A. V.; Nugent, P.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15C2kyh discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (340-1025nm) was obtained using LRIS on Keck-I. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  8. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  9. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  10. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  11. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  12. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giannantonio, T.

    2016-01-07

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of themore » signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the LCDM Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.« less

  13. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannantonio, T.; Fosalba, P.; Cawthon, R.; Omori, Y.; Crocce, M.; Elsner, F.; Leistedt, B.; Dodelson, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Holder, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Percival, W. J.; Kirk, D.; Bauer, A. H.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Carretero, J.; Crawford, T. M.; Crittenden, R.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Krause, E.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ross, A. J.; Simard, G.; Soergel, B.; Stark, A.; Story, K. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Weller, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C. L.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-03-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck , respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of the signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the Λ cold dark matter Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.

  14. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2011 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2010-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  15. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2012 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2011-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  16. Que peut-on voir avec des neutrons? Une introduction pour des non spécialistes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2005-11-01

    Le neutron est une particule élémentaire qui a été découverte en 1932 par James Chadwick. Ses caractéristiques principales sont résumées dans le tableau I. Il a été utilisé pour la première fois par Clifford Shull en 1946 comme outil pour des expériences de diffusion. Cette technique s'est depuis constamment développée pour concerner tous les aspects de la matière condensée: physique, chimie, matériaux, biologie. Il s'agit d'un outil tout à fait exceptionnel car le neutron possède des propriétés uniques et particulièrement adaptées pour ces études.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE, Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa, July 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-21

    The Des Moines TCE site includes the underground infiltration gallery used by the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) as a source of the public water supply. The site was discovered in 1984 after trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in the city's public water supply. The Dico Company disposed of an unknown quantity of oily waste sludge containing TCE onto their parking lot for dust control and into a drainage ditch on their property. The primary contaminants of concern include: TCE, PCE, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride. The selected remedial action for this site includes: extraction wells to collect the contaminated ground water; isolation of the northern-most section of the north gallery; treatment of the ground water through air stripping to remove 96% of the TCE; discharge of the treated water to the Raccoon River; operation of the west extraction wells until established effluent levels are achieved for four consecutive months.

  18. Etudes physiques des mélanges eau-cryoprotecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassoille, R.; Perez, J.

    The aim of the following review is to present the most important studies concerning the physical properties of water-solutes mixtures used in cryobiology. Cryobiology is a branch of biology which deals with the very low temperature behaviour of cells. This technique is developed today in several directions. The creation of banks of cells and perhaps in a short time of small organs, is the purpose of much research in this domain. Before freezing, living cells are generally put in a solution containing one or more solutes. The role of these solutes is to protect the cells against damage due to crystallization of water (cryoprotectors). The mechanisms of cryoprotection are not well known ; nevertheless the vitreous state formation during cooling is often invoked. So, it is possible to avoid crystallization damage such as mechanical strain (due to an increase of volume of about 10 %) and salt effects (due to osmotic pressure). The conditions in which the vitreous state is obtained, maintained during cooling, storage at low temperature and rewarming can be defined by physical studies presented in the following review. Le présent travail est essentiellement une revue bibliographique des principales études physiques qui ont été réalisées avec des solutions de composés habituellement employés en cryobiologie. La cryobiologie est une branche de la biologie qui s'intéresse au comportement des cellules à basse température. Cette discipline est actuellement en plein développement dans des domaines très divers. Son principal but est la création de banques de cellules de plus en plus complexes avec comme perspective la conservation des organes. Les cellules vivantes sont généralement placées avant congélation dans une solution contenant divers composés dont le rôle est de protéger les cellules contre les effets de la cristallisation de l'eau. L'action protectrice de ces cryoprotecteurs est encore mal connue; cependant, la formation d'un état vitreux lors du

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE Site, Operable Unit 3, Des Moines, IA. (Second remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-18

    The Des Moines TCE site is located southwest of downtown Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa. Land use in the area is predominantly industrial and commercial, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of the Raccoon River. Water from the Des Moines Water Works north infiltration gallery was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and vinyl chloride at levels above accepted drinking water standards. The ROD addresses OU3, which encompasses potential sources of ground water contamination in an area north of the Raccoon River. The selected remedial action for OU3 includes no action with periodic groundwater monitoring.

  20. Caracterisation du coefficient de retrodiffusion radar des surfaces d'hydrocarbure: Modelisation et interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Francois

    La surveillance maritime est un domaine d'applications ou l'interet politique et scientifique croit constamment au Canada. Un des outils privilegies pour la surveillance maritime est l'acquisition de donnees radars, par des systemes aeroportes ou spatio-portes (ERS-2, RADARSAT et Envisat). Par leur grande couverture spatiale, ainsi que leur sensibilite a la geometrie de surface, les donnees radars permettent, en autres, la detection de cibles ponctuelles (bateaux), estimation des vents, detection des glaces de mer, ainsi que la detection de deversement d'hydrocarbure. Les limites et les avantages de la detection d'hydrocarbure par acquisitions de donnees radars sont bien connus, mais il reste encore des lacunes au niveau de l'extraction des parametres physiques d'une surface d'hydrocarbure. Ce projet a pour objectif de caracteriser le coefficient de retrodiffusion radar associe a une surface d'hydrocarbure en milieu oceanique, par l'introduction d'un modele thermodynamique d'attenuation de la surface, au modele theorique radar IEM. Le modele global permet de simuler le comportement de sigma° en fonction des proprietes visco-elastiques, ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la couche d'hydrocarbure et en fonction des parametres d'acquisition radar. Le modele developpe fut valide a partir des donnees SIR-C acquises lors d'experimentations controlees. A partir des informations environnementales et du type d'hydrocarbure, notre modele a permis d'estime le contraste d'intensite avec une precision de 1 a 1,5 dB, a la bande C. Alors qu'a la bande L, l'erreur sur le contraste est d'environ 1,5 a 2 dB sur l'ensemble des mesures. Ce qui est excellant considerant l'heterogeneite des surfaces analysees. Egalement, nous effectuons des analyses multi-polarisees et polarimetriques avec les donnees SIR-C acquises au-dessus de sites experimentaux. II en ressort que le ratio de polarisation VV/HH, ainsi que le facteur d'anisotropie sont des pistes de recherche prometteuses qu'il faudra

  1. Environnement des Systèmes Binaires Jeunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchene, Gaspard

    2000-07-01

    La fréquence élevée des systèmes binaires, tant parmi les étoiles de la séquence principale que dans les régions de formation stellaire, a été largement mise en évidence au cours des dix dernières années. Cette constatation soulève naturellement la question de la nature du processus responsable de la formation préférentielle de ces systèmes multiples. Par ailleurs, les phénomènes d'interaction entre un compagnon et l'environnement complexe d'une étoile T Tauri sont encore trèsmal compris. C'est dans ce cadre que se place le travail conduit durant cette thèse, dont les principaux objectifs sont: i) la détermination de la fraction de binaires dans différentes populations pré-séquence principale, ii) l'étude quantitative du phénomène d'accrétion dans les systèmes binaires T Tauri, et iii) l'observation directe et la modélisation de disques circumstellaires et circumbinaires. Dans le cadre d'une recherche de binaires visuelles à l'aide du système d'optique adaptative du Télescope Canada-France-Hawaii, j'ai pris part à l'observation de plusieurs centaines d'objets situés dans différents amas stellaires jeunes. Je détaille ici l'analyse et les résultats concernant deux amas âgés de moins de deux millions d'années. Lorsqu'on considère l'ensemble des populations étudiées jusqu'à présent, on constate que la proportion de binaires visuelles parmi les étoiles de type solaire est la même dans les amas stellaires que sur la séquence principale. De plus, cette propriété ne dépend pas de l'âge de l'amas, ce qui implique que la fraction de binaires n'évolue pas après le premier million d'années dans ces amas. A l'opposé, les zones de formation peu denses, qui sont toutes très jeunes, possèdent une proportion de binaires sensiblement plus élevée. Les modèles les plus à même de reproduire ces observations sont ceux selon lesquels la fraction de binaires qui résulte de l'effondrement gravitationnel est proche de 100

  2. La prévention des blessures dans les terrains de jeux

    PubMed Central

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Dans un climat d’inquiétude croissante à l’égard de l’obésité juvénile et de l’inactivité, les terrains de jeux permettent aux enfants d’être actifs. Ils comportent toutefois aussi des risques, les blessures causées par des chutes étant de loin les plus courants. Les recherches démontrent la possibilité de réduire les blessures dans les terrains de jeux si on abaisse la hauteur des structures de jeu et si on utilise des surfaces molles et profondes pour amortir les chutes. L’Association canadienne de normalisation a publié des normes volontaires qu’elle a mises à jour plusieurs fois pour tenir compte de ces risques. Afin de contribuer à les réduire, les parents peuvent respecter des stratégies simples. Le présent document de principes souligne le fardeau des blessures subies dans les terrains de jeux. Il procure également aux parents et aux dispensateurs de soins des occasions de réduire l’incidence et la gravité des blessures grâce à l’éducation et à la défense d’intérêts, ainsi que de mettre en œuvre des normes de sécurité probantes et des stratégies plus sécuritaires dans les terrains de jeux locaux. Enfin, il remplace le document de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie publié en 2002 sur le sujet.

  3. "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) in Sexually Abused Children: An Exloratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Darlene Kordich

    1999-01-01

    Compares three groups of young sexually abused children on seven "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) indices. As cumulative number of types of trauma increased, the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. Results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused children, especially those who have been…

  4. The Des Moines Plan: A Plan for Student Success, 1987-88. Report of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnelker, Diane; Tompkins, John

    The comprehensive Des Moines Plan (DMP) for Des Moines, Iowa elementary through high school students throughout the district who require academic support was evaluated, as implemented during 1987-88. The plan represents an expansion and reorganization of all district remedial programs, and receives federal, state, and local funding. The DMP…

  5. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  6. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices

  7. Comprendre la maltraitance des aînés en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter ce qui constitue la maltraitance des aînés, ce dont les médecins de famille devraient être au courant, les signes et les symptômes laissant présager de mauvais traitements chez des adultes plus âgés, comment l’outil Elder Abuse Suspicion Index peut aider à détecter la maltraitance et les options qui existent pour réagir en cas de soupçons de maltraitance. Sources des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE, PsycINFO et Social Work Abstracts pour trouver des publications en français ou en anglais, de 1970 à 2011, à l’aide des expressions elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools et signs and symptoms. Les publications pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal La maltraitance des aînés est une cause importante de morbidité et de mortalité chez les adultes plus âgés. Si les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour détecter des mauvais traitements infligés aux aînés, leurs taux réels de signalement de cas de maltraitance sont plus faibles que dans d’autres professions. Cette situation pourrait s’améliorer s’ils comprenaient mieux les genres d’agissements qui constituent de la maltraitance des aînés, ainsi que les signes et les symptômes observés au bureau qui pourraient pointer vers des cas de mauvais traitements. La détection de tels cas pourrait être facilitée par le recours à un court outil validé, comme l’Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle plus important dans la détection d’une éventuelle maltraitance des aînés. Une fois qu’on soupçonne de mauvais traitements, il existe dans la plupart des communautés des services sociaux ou des forces de l’ordre accessibles pour effectuer des évaluations plus approfondies et intervenir.

  8. What We Did Last Summer: Depicting DES Data to Enhance Simulation Utility and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfrey, Priscilla; Conroy, Mike; Lagares, Jose G.; Mann, David; Fahmi, Mona

    2009-01-01

    At Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an important use of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) addresses ground operations .of missions to space. DES allows managers, scientists and engineers to assess the number of missions KSC can complete on a given schedule within different facilities, the effects of various configurations of resources and detect possible problems or unwanted situations. For fifteen years, DES has supported KSC efficiency, cost savings and improved safety and performance. The dense and abstract DES data, however, proves difficult to comprehend and, NASA managers realized, is subject to misinterpretation, misunderstanding and even, misuse. In summer 2008, KSC developed and implemented a NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) project based on the premise that visualization could enhance NASA's understanding and use of DES.

  9. La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, JL

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

  10. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les caractéristiques principales des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO), soit le dabigatran, le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban, et répondre aux questions qui font surface lors de la comparaison de ces agents. Qualité des données Une recherche dans PubMed a été effectuée afin de relever les études cliniques récentes (de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire (FA) et pour le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Message principal Selon 3 essais d’envergure, tous les NACO sont au moins aussi efficaces que la warfarine dans la prévention des AVC chez les patients atteints d’une FA non valvulaire, et au moins aussi sûrs pour ce qui est du risque de saignement. Des méta-analyses de ces essais ont montré que, comparativement au traitement par la warfarine, les NACO avaient réduit la mortalité totale, la mortalité d’origine cardiovasculaire et les saignements intracrâniens, et était aussi ressortie une tendance vers la réduction des saignements généraux. Du côté pratique, les avantages des NACO par rapport à la warfarine sont : posologie orale fixe uniquotidienne ou biquotidienne sans devoir surveiller la coagulation et peu d’interactions connues ou définies avec d’autres médicaments ou des aliments. Les désavantages potentiels des NACO sont notamment un risque de saignement qui serait accru chez les patients de plus de 75 ans, une hausse des saignements gastro-intestinaux majeurs avec des doses élevées de dabigatran, une hausse des cas de dyspepsie avec le dabigatran, l’absence d’un test de laboratoire de routine visant à mesurer de façon fiable l’effet anticoagulant et l’absence d’antidote pour renverser l’effet anticoagulant. Aucun essai randomisé contrôlé n’a effectué de comparaison directe des NACO, et le choix d’un NACO est influencé par les caract

  11. Prévalence des cervicalgies et douleurs des membres supérieures chez les utilisateurs d'ordinateur en milieu professionnel à Casablanca (Maroc)

    PubMed Central

    Seknaji, Nawal; Rachidi, Wafaa; Hassoune, Samira; Janani, Saadia; Nani, Samira; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane; Mkinsi, Ouafaa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les cervicalgies et douleurs du membre supérieur (CDMS) affectent des millions d'utilisateurs d'ordinateurs dans les pays développés. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence des cervicalgies et douleurs du membre supérieur (CDMS) à Casablanca et identifier les différents facteurs de risque qui y sont impliqués, afin de définir les sous-groupes à haut risque, et d’établir des plans d'intervention efficaces. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, menée chez 118 employés de bureau francophones et utilisant l'ordinateur, à Casablanca. Les données ont été collectées de Décembre 2011 à Juin 2012, en utilisant la version française d'un questionnaire validé: Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Résultats 118 utilisateurs d'ordinateur en milieu professionnel ont été recrutés. Parmi les employés enquêtés, 93% ont rapporté des CDMS localisées au moins à un site. Les plaintes les plus fréquemment rapportées étaient les douleurs des épaules et les cervicalgies (48,3% et 46,6% respectivement). Nous n'avons pas remarqué de différence significative des fréquences des douleurs selon le genre. Nos résultats concordent avec les données de la littérature où il existe un certain consensus quant à l'impact des mauvaises conditions ergonomiques sur les troubles musculo-squelettiques du membre supérieur en milieu professionnel. De même, les études récentes examinant les effets combinés et/ou interactifs tant des facteurs biomécaniques/physiques que de facteurs psychosociaux professionnels vont de pair avec nos résultats. Conclusion Il en ressort que les stratégies d'intervention visant à réduire les CDMS doivent agir essentiellement sur 3 volets, le premier correspond à l'amélioration et la sensibilisation quant au respect des conditions ergonomiques, le second concerne l'amélioration des conditions psychosociales. Enfin le troisième volet vise la rationalisant de la demande de

  12. Cosmology from Cosmic Shear with DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.

    2015-07-20

    We present the first constraints on cosmology from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), using weak lensing measurements from the preliminary Science Verification (SV) data. We use 139 square degrees of SV data, which is less than 3% of the full DES survey area. Using cosmic shear 2-point measurements over three redshift bins we find σ8(m=0.3)0.5 = 0:81 ± 0:06 (68% confidence), after marginalising over 7 systematics parameters and 3 other cosmological parameters. Furthermore, we examine the robustness of our results to the choice of data vector and systematics assumed, and find them to be stable. About 20% of our error bar comes from marginalising over shear and photometric redshift calibration uncertainties. The current state-of-the-art cosmic shear measurements from CFHTLenS are mildly discrepant with the cosmological constraints from Planck CMB data. Our results are consistent with both datasets. Our uncertainties are ~30% larger than those from CFHTLenS when we carry out a comparable analysis of the two datasets, which we attribute largely to the lower number density of our shear catalogue. We investigate constraints on dark energy and find that, with this small fraction of the full survey, the DES SV constraints make negligible impact on the Planck constraints. The moderate disagreement between the CFHTLenS and Planck values of σ8m=0.3)0.5 is present regardless of the value of w.

  13. DES exposure checker: Dark Energy Survey image quality control crowdsourcer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, Peter; Sheldon, Erin; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Rykoff, Eli S.

    2015-11-01

    DES exposure checker renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes, thus allowing image quality control for the Dark Energy Survey to be crowdsourced through its web application. Users can also generate custom labels to help identify previously unknown problem classes; generated reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. These problem reports allow rapid correction of artifacts that otherwise may be too subtle or infrequent to be recognized.

  14. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis. [Des Moines, Iowa area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Seven heterogeneous areas within the Des Moines, Iowa area test site were selected to define candidate spectral training classes using a clustering algorithm. In addition to the 91 cluster (nonsupervised) classes, three supervised training classes were defined and subsequently included in the training statistics file. The identity of all 94 candidate classes were determined using available reference data. Through analysis of the interclass separabilities, the original 94 candidate training classes were reduced to 42 spectrally separable final classes. The minimum average transformed divergence values for the 42 spectral classes and for the best subsets of TM spectral bands are shown in a table.

  15. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité h

  16. Le syndrome des brides amniotiques et ses difficultés diagnostiques et de prise en charge au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Badiel, Roger; Kouéta, Fla; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome des brides amniotiques est une embryo-foetopathie rare, d’étiopathogénie encore inconnue, caractérisé par des malformations crânio-faciales, thoraco-abdominales, des membres et des extrémités. Afin de discuter des difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques du syndrome des brides amniotiques, nous rapportons cinq cas de ce syndrome. Ces cas représentaient autant de phénotypes de la maladie mais avec quelques singularités. Les deux premiers étaient des cas de maladie des brides amniotiques caractérisés l'un par une amputation d'un membre inférieur associée à des lésions cutanées et à une surdité, l'autre par des strictions avec amputation des doigts associées à une fente labio-palatine, une cataracte congénitale et un strabisme. Les trois autres cas correspondaient à des formes létales du Limb Body Wall Complex dont deux avec attache placento-crânienne et un avec attache placento-abdominale. Le renforcement du diagnostic anténatal, l'instauration du conseil génétique et la mise en place d'un registre national des malformations devraient permettre d'améliorer la prise en charge des cas du syndrome des brides amniotiques. PMID:26113939

  17. Integration des sciences et de la langue: Creation et experimentation d'un modele pedagogique pour ameliorer l'apprentissage des sciences en milieu francophone minoritaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marianne

    Les faibles resultats en sciences des eleves du milieu francophone minoritaire, lors d'epreuves au plan national et international, ont interpelle la recherche de solutions. Cette these avait pour but de creer et d'experimenter un modele pedagogique pour l'enseignement des sciences en milieu linguistique minoritaire. En raison de la presence de divers degres de francite chez la clientele scolaire de ce milieu, plusieurs elements langagiers (l'ecriture, la discussion et la lecture) ont ete integres a l'apprentissage scientifique. Nous avions recommande de commencer le processus d'apprentissage avec des elements langagiers plutot informels (redaction dans un journal, discussions en dyades...) pour progresser vers des activites langagieres plus formelles (redaction de rapports ou d'explications scientifiques). En ce qui a trait a l'apprentissage scientifique, le modele preconisait une demarche d'evolution conceptuelle d'inspiration socio-constructiviste tout en s'appuyant fortement sur l'apprentissage experientiel. Lors de l'experimentation du modele, nous voulions savoir si celui-ci provoquait une evolution conceptuelle chez les eleves, et si, simultanement, le vocabulaire scientifique de ces derniers s'enrichissait. Par ailleurs, nous cherchions a comprendre comment les eleves vivaient leurs apprentissages dans le cadre de ce modele pedagogique. Une classe de cinquieme annee de l'ecole de Grande-Digue, dans le Sud-est du Nouveau-Brunswick, a participe a la mise a l'essai du modele en etudiant les marais sales locaux. Lors d'entrevues initiales, nous avons remarque que les connaissances des eleves au sujet des marais sales etaient limitees. En effet, s'ils etaient conscients que les marais etaient des lieux naturels, ils ne pouvaient pas necessairement les decrire avec precision. Nous avons egalement constate que les eleves utilisaient surtout des mots communs (plantes, oiseaux, insectes) pour decrire le marais. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que les eleves ont

  18. Résultats du traitement du synovialosarcome des members

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les synovialosarcomes, sarcomes de haut grade, sont de diagnostic tardif et le traitement est complexe et onéreux, nécessitant la mise en œuvre d'une équipe pluridisciplinaire. Le but de ce travail était d'apprécier les résultats de l'association de la chirurgie à la radio chimiothérapie des synovialosarcomes des membres. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres pris en charge dans le service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique du CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat allant de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2011 (6 ans). Nous avons inclus les malades présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres dont la clinique et l'imagerie médicale étaient en faveur, confirmés par l'examen anatomopathologique et la prise en charge effectuée dans le service. Les patients ont été revus avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous n'avons pas retenu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets, perdus de vue. Nous avons apprécié les résultats selon les critères carcinologiques et le score MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été faites sur le logiciel SPSS Stastic 17.0 Nous avons colligé 20 cas de synovialosarcome des membres dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique au CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat Le sexe masculin a prédominé avec 65% (n = 13) avec un sex ratio 1,85. L’âge moyen a été de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans et 70 ans. Notre délai moyen de consultation était de 14,42 mois. Tous les malades ont consulté pour une tuméfaction dans 100% (localisée au membre inférieur dans 65% (n = 13), membre supérieur dans 35% (n = 7). La douleur était associée à la tuméfaction dans 55% (n = 11), quant à l'altération de l’état général et l'ulcération de la masse, elles ont été notées dans 3 cas chacune. Nous avons réalisé un bilan d'imagerie médicale comprenant: radiographie standard, échographie, écho doppler

  19. Les infections à Pseudomonas aeruginosa au service des maladies infectieuses du CHU YO, Burkina Faso: à propos deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Lassina, Dao; Fla, Koueta

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons deux cas d'infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa: un cas de méningite et un cas d'infection urinaire. Les auteurs rappellent qu’à côté des étiologies classiques des méningites et des infections urinaires, des germes résistants comme Pseudomonas aeruginosa peuvent être responsables d'infections à localisation méningées et urinaires et dont il faut connaître pour une bonne prise en charge. Le traitement de ces infections requiert un antibiogramme au regard de la grande capacité de résistance de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en milieu hospitalier. La limitation des gestes invasifs et l'application rigoureuse des mesures de prévention des infections en milieu hospitalier contribueront à lutter efficacement contre ces infections en milieu de soins. PMID:26491521

  20. A DES ASIC Suitable for Network Encryption at 10 Gbps and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Karl; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Wilcox, D. Craig; Witzke, Edward L.

    1999-04-30

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Data Encryption Standard (DES) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the fastest known implementation of the DES algorithm as defined in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 46-2. DES is used for protecting data by cryptographic means. The SNL DES ASIC, over 10 times faster than other currently available DES chips, is a high-speed, filly pipelined implementation offering encryption, decryption, unique key input, or algorithm bypassing on each clock cycle. Operating beyond 105 MHz on 64 bit words, this device is capable of data throughputs greater than 6.7 Billion bits per second (tester limited). Simulations predict proper operation up to 9.28 Billion bits per second. In low frequency, low data rate applications, the ASIC consumes less that one milliwatt of power. The device has features for passing control signals synchronized to throughput data. Three SNL DES ASICS may be easily cascaded to provide the much greater security of triple-key, triple-DES.

  1. Etude experimentale de la photoexcitation des colorants de type anthracene, azobenzene et thioindigo dans des matrices de cristaux liquides nematiques et smectiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Bendaoud

    Nous avons étudié le comportement de différents colorants (tétracène et azobenzènes AZD3, DR1 et D2) dans des matrices de cristaux liquides (E7 et 5CB). Les résultats obtenus ont montré que la réorientation optique des molécules de cristaux liquides se produit à des intensités extrêmement faibles (~1 μW/cm 2). Nous avons attribué cet effet à l'interaction entre les molécules des colorants photoexcitées et celles des cristaux liquides hôtes. Ces interactions se produisent lorsque les molécules dichroïques exçitées transitent entre des états triplets intermédiaires tout en conduisant à la génération d'un nouveau moment optique géant, responsable de la réorientation des molécules. Le changement de la forme de la molécule du colorant, dû à l'isomérisation Trans-Cis , est à l'origine de la création de ce moment. Ce qui distingue notre réorientation moléculaire de celle obtenue sur d'autres systèmes hôtes-dopants est que les molécules sont repoussées du champ électrique de la lumière. Par ailleurs, cette réorientation est accompagnée d'une diffusion anisotrope des molécules excitées. Nous avons aussi étudié le cristal liquide PhBz rendu ferroélectrique en le dopant par des molécules thioindigos. En exploitant l'augmentation de la polarisation spontanée due à la photoisomérisation du colorant, nous avons pu réaliser un hologramme dynamique contrôlable par un champ optique assisté par une tension statique.

  2. Molecular evolution of peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Muniraju, Murali; Munir, Muhammad; Parthiban, AravindhBabu R; Banyard, Ashley C; Bao, Jingyue; Wang, Zhiliang; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Ayelet, Gelagay; El Harrak, Mehdi; Mahapatra, Mana; Libeau, Geneviève; Batten, Carrie; Parida, Satya

    2014-12-01

    Despite safe and efficacious vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), this virus has emerged as the cause of a highly contagious disease with serious economic consequences for small ruminant agriculture across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. We used complete and partial genome sequences of all 4 lineages of the virus to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all PPRV lineages mapped the time to most recent common ancestor and initial divergence of PPRV to a lineage III isolate at the beginning of 20th century. A phylogeographic approach estimated the probability for root location of an ancestral PPRV and individual lineages as being Nigeria for PPRV, Senegal for lineage I, Nigeria/Ghana for lineage II, Sudan for lineage III, and India for lineage IV. Substitution rates are critical parameters for understanding virus evolution because restrictions in genetic variation can lead to lower adaptability and pathogenicity. PMID:25418782

  3. Use of DES Modeling for Determining Launch Availability for SLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael; Staton, Eric; Cates, Grant; Finn, Ronald; Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee

    2014-01-01

    (1) NASA is developing a new heavy lift launch system for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit comprising of the Space Launch System (SLS), Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO); (2) The desire of the system is to ensure a high confidence of successfully launching the exploration missions, especially those that require multiple launches, have a narrow Earth departure window, and high investment costs; and (3) This presentation discusses the process used by a Cross-Program team to develop the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Launch Availability (LA) Technical Performance Measure (TPM) and allocate it to each of the Programs through the use of Discrete Event Simulations (DES).

  4. Commande optimale à flux libre des machines asynchrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedinger, J. M.; Poullain, S.; Yvon, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the optimal control with unconstrained flux of an induction motor being considered as a distributed parameter system described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This approach allows to describe the electrodynamic state of the motor by taking into account, in a natural way, the influence of saturation and eddy-currents, as well as the nonlinearities due to the variable flux operation. Equations are approximated via a finite element formulation which leads to a finite dimensional dynamical system to which the techniques of optimal control may be applied. The generality of the methodology allows to treat various criteria. The objective aimed in this paper is to force the motor torque to follow a given input, especially under initially demagnetized conditions and with, naturally, constraints on the currents. For this purpose the criterion will be chosen as a norm of the difference between the electromagnetic torque and a given reference torque. Numerical simulations are presented for the case of a squirrel-cage rotor and for a solid iron rotor. Results are compared with those deduced from strategies based on lumped-parameter models. Torque responses obtained with field-oriented control method adapted to the case of flux-variable operation are also presented. Finally a modification of the criterion is proposed for identifying the command which allows to obtain the larger torque during transient states. Dans cet article on traite le problème du contrôle optimal à flux libre d'un moteur asynchrone considéré comme un système à paramètres répartis gouverné par une équation de diffusion non linéaire. Cette approche permet de décrire l'état électrodynamique de la machine en prenant naturellement en compte les effets de la saturation et des courants induits, ainsi que les non-linéarités liées au fonctionnement à flux variable. La formulation éléments finis est utilisée pour traduire le problème continu sous la forme d

  5. Experimental Results in DIS, SIDIS and DES from Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Sebastian E.

    2011-07-15

    Jefferson Lab's electron accelerator in its present incarnation, with a maximum beam energy slightly above 6 GeV, has already enabled a large number of experiments expanding our knowledge of nucleon and nuclear structure (especially in Deep Inelastic Scattering--DIS--at moderately high x, and in the resonance region). Several pioneering experiments have yielded first results on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and other Deep Exclusive Processes (DES), and the exploration of the rich landscape of transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) structure functions using Semi-Inclusive electron scattering (SIDIS) has begun. With the upgrade of CEBAF to 12 GeV now underway, a significantly larger kinematic space will become available. The 12 GeV program taking shape will complete a detailed mapping of inclusive, TMD and generalized distribution functions for quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the valence region and beyond.

  6. Experimental Results in DIS, SIDIS and DES from Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Kuhn

    2011-07-01

    Jefferson Lab's electron accelerator in its present incarnation, with a maximum beam energy slightly above 6 GeV, has already enabled a large number of experiments expanding our knowledge of nucleon and nuclear structure (especially in Deep Inelastic Scattering—DIS—at moderately high x, and in the resonance region). Several pioneering experiments have yielded first results on Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and other Deep Exclusive Processes (DES), and the exploration of the rich landscape of transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) structure functions using Semi-Inclusive electron scattering (SIDIS) has begun. With the upgrade of CEBAF to 12 GeV now underway, a significantly larger kinematic space will become available. The 12 GeV program taking shape will complete a detailed mapping of inclusive, TMD and generalized distribution functions for quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the valence region and beyond.

  7. Statistique des photons d'un laser à 4 niveaux soumis à un pompage optique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chusseau, L.; Arnaud, J.; Philippe, F.

    2002-06-01

    Les lasers conventionnels à 4 niveaux peuvent délivrer de la lumière de statistique sous-Poissonienne même lorsqu'ils sont soumis à un pompage optique. Nous retrouvons exactement ces prédictions de l'optique quantique en supposant simplement que les atomes ont des niveaux d'énergie quantifiés interagissant avec un champ électromagnétique classique, la source du bruit optique étant les sauts quantiques entre niveaux. Des formules analytiques sont obtenues pour les deux paramètres clefs de la statistique des photons du laser: le facteur de Fano et la densité spectrale des photons émis.

  8. Soins primaires des personnes victimes d’une lésion médullaire

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Alexander; Sakakibara, Brodie; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Effectuer une étude de la portée des données empiriques, entre 1980 et 2009, concernant les soins primaires aux adultes victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LME). Sources des données Une recension dans des revues révisées par des pairs de1980 à 2009 à l’aide de CINAHL, PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts et Social Work Abstracts. Sélection des études La recherche électronique au moyen de mots-clés a permis de cerner 42 articles sur les soins primaires et les LME. Des critères d’inclusion ont servi à réduire la liste à un ensemble de 21 articles publiés en anglais qui portaient sur un échantillon de plus de 3 et présentaient une analyse empirique. Synthèse Environ 90 % des personnes atteintes d’une LME ont identifié leur médecin de famille comme étant leur docteur habituel; 63 % avaient un spécialiste des LME. Les personnes vivant à long terme avec une LME développent des rubriques complexes pour naviguer dans leurs systèmes de soins de santé personnels. Les données scientifiques ne sont pas unanimes quant à l’efficacité des programmes d’intervention directe pour le maintien de la santé et la prévention des complications à la suite d’une LME. Les données appuient cependant le suivi périodique par une équipe spécialisée et un bilan de santé annuel complet. La recherche fait valoir un fort degré d’uniformité dans l’identification des problèmes les plus courants soulevés par les personnes atteintes d’une LME en soins primaires, dont la plupart concernent l’incapacité, plus précisément les complications secondaires, comme la dysfonction intestinale ou vésicale et la douleur. Il existe aussi de bonnes données probantes à l’effet que de nombreux problèmes de santé généraux exigent de l’attention dans une telle population, comme les problèmes de la densité osseuse, la dépression et les questions entourant la santé sexuelle et la reproduction. Il y a

  9. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  10. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Die Entdeckung des trägen Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2004-11-01

    Im Jahr 1904 erhielt der britische Physiker Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 bis 1919) den Nobelpreis für seine Untersuchungen über die Dichte von Gasen und die Entdeckung des Edelgases Argon.

  11. “Acceptation” et tolérance des allogreffes : nouveau concept

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La découverte du microchimérisme dans la transplantation de rein et de foie a permis de mieux comprendre « l’acceptation » des allogreffes, l’analyse des problèmes de conditionnement et la recherche de nouvelles orientations dans le traitement des greffes. En fonction de ce nouveau concept, seront ici discutées les relations avec les maladies infectieuses provoquées par des micro-organismes non cytopathologiques, les réponses aux questions autrefois posées, la réaction immunologique et les implications dans le domaine de l’immunologie générale. PMID:9622934

  12. Écologie des soins de santé au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un profil populationnel pancanadien des besoins en soins de santé et de leur utilisation, facile d’accès et permettant des comparaisons entre les provinces et avec d’autres instances internationales. Conception Une comparaison des taux d’utilisation des soins de santé entre les provinces en utilisant des données d’enquêtes et des renseignements administratifs sur la santé. Contexte Les provinces du Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les taux canadiens et provinciaux de personnes en mauvaise santé (présence de problèmes chroniques) et d’utilisation des soins de santé (contacts avec des médecins de famille, avec d’autres médecins spécialistes, avec des infirmières et hospitalisations) sous forme de proportions mensuelles par 1000 habitants normalisées en fonction de l’âge et du genre. Résultats La proportion mensuelle par 1000 habitants de personnes souffrant d’au moins 1 problème chronique variait de 524 au Québec à 638 en Nouvelle-Écosse; les contacts avec un médecin de famille se situaient entre 158 au Québec et 295 en Colombie-Britannique; les contacts avec d’autres médecins spécialistes variaient entre 53 en Saskatchewan et 79 en Ontario; et le nombre de contacts avec des infirmières se situait entre 23 en Colombie-Britannique et 41 au Québec. Le nombre de séjours à l’hôpital variait entre 8 et 11 par 1000 habitants et les proportions étaient semblables d’une province à l’autre. Conclusion Il est essentiel de reconnaître les distinctions entre les provinces pour éclairer les politiques sur la santé dans l’ensemble du pays. Les différences persistaient lorsque les taux étaient normalisés en fonction de la composition démographique variable selon l’âge et le genre dans les provinces. Cet article présente une méthodologie simple à l’aide de données publiquement accessibles qui peut servir dans chaque province à examiner, à l’avenir, l

  13. Explorer : des clés pour mieux comprendre la matière

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-14

    Le LHC va-t-il bouleverser les théories de l'infiniment petit ? Les physiciens aimeraient que l'accélérateur fasse trembler le modèle standard. Cette théorie des particules élémentaires et des forces laisse de nombreuses zones d'ombre. Le LHC et ses expériences ont été conçus pour les éclairer.

  14. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  15. Explorer : des clés pour mieux comprendre la matière

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Le LHC va-t-il bouleverser les théories de l'infiniment petit ? Les physiciens aimeraient que l'accélérateur fasse trembler le modèle standard. Cette théorie des particules élémentaires et des forces laisse de nombreuses zones d'ombre. Le LHC et ses expériences ont été conçus pour les éclairer.

  16. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  17. Application de l’analyse des séries chronologiques à la projection d’effectifs de population scolaire par la méthode des composantes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Herbert L.

    2016-01-01

    Cet article veut montrer qu’on peut réécrire des modèles démographiques en vue de réaliser des projections par cohorte, en les transposant dans un modèle économétrique vecteur autoré-gressif (VAR). De cette façon, la méthode des composantes se dote d’un cadre stochastique qui étend son envergure. Le potentiel de cette perspective est illustré à travers l’exemple d’une projection d’effectifs de population scolaire. Il met en valeur une série d’équations qui permet de vérifier la validité de plusieurs choix de modélisations habituellement utilisées dans le domaine de la prévision. PMID:27346921

  18. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  19. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  20. Effects of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis of the rat fetal spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Miho; Nakahara, Keiko; Goto, Shintaro; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya . E-mail: a0d201u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Date, Yukari; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2006-11-24

    Expressions of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) mRNA and its protein were confirmed in rat fetal spinal cord tissues by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, over 3 nM ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induced significant proliferation of primary cultured cells from the fetal spinal cord. The proliferating cells were then double-stained using antibodies against the neuronal precursor marker, nestin, and the cell proliferation marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and the nestin-positive cells were also found to be co-stained with antibody against GHS-R. Furthermore, binding studies using [{sup 125}I]des-acyl ghrelin indicated the presence of a specific binding site for des-acyl ghrelin, and confirmed that the binding was displaced with unlabeled des-acyl ghrelin or ghrelin. These results indicate that ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induce proliferation of neuronal precursor cells that is both dependent and independent of GHS-R, suggesting that both ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are involved in neurogenesis of the fetal spinal cord.

  1. Functional reconstitution of receptors for bradykinin and des argZ-bradykinin from pulmonary artery membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, M.C.; Polgar, P.; Dickey, B.F.; Fishman, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a vasoactive peptide which mediates a number of vascular functions, including activation of prostaglandin biosynthesis and modulation of vasomotor tone. BK and its kinase II metabolite, des argZ-BK, have been reported to activate the B2 and B1 receptors, respectively. The authors prepared membranes from the bovine pulmonary artery and solubilized membrane proteins using the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS (3-((3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate). The solubilized proteins were reconstituted into liposomes via a gel filtration method. The vesicles specifically bound both TH-BK and TH-des argZ-BK, although the latter bound with significantly lower affinity. The binding of TH-BK was inhibited 65% by guanosine 5'-0-thiotriphosphate S while the binding of TH-des argZ-BK was unaffected. This suggests that the receptor for BK was associated with a guanine-nucleotide binding protein whereas the receptor for des argZ-BK was not. Since des argZ-BK has recently been reported to be considerably less potent than BK at activating the turnover of phosphatidylinositol, the authors data suggest that this is due to the des argZ-BK receptor not being coupled to a G-protein. Further work towards characterizing these receptors is now underway.

  2. Lignes directrices sur l’aiguillage des cas soupçonnés de cancer colorectal par un médecin de famille ou autre professionnel des soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Vella, Emily T.; Hey, Amanda; Simunovic, Marko; Harris, William; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Ces lignes directrices ont pour but d’aider les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels des soins primaires à reconnaître les caractéristiques qui devraient susciter leurs soupçons quant à la présence d’un cancer colorectal (CCR) chez leurs patients. Composition du comité Les membres du comité ont été choisis parmi les dirigeants régionaux des soins primaires au sein du Réseau provincial des soins primaires et de la lutte contre le cancer, les membres du Comité consultatif sur le dépistage du cancer colorectal de l’Ontario et les membres du Groupe sur le siège de la maladie, Cancer gastrointestinal, d’Action Cancer Ontario. Méthodes Ces lignes directrices sont le fruit d’une revue systématique et d’une synthèse des données probantes, ainsi que d’un examen formel par des intervenants canadiens pour valider la pertinence des recommandations. Rapport Des lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes ont été élaborées pour améliorer la prise en charge des patients qui présentent des caractéristiques cliniques d’un CCR et ce, dans le contexte canadien. Conclusion Un équilibre judicieux entre une suspicion de CCR et le niveau de risque d’un tel cancer devrait favoriser une demande de consultation en temps opportun par les médecins de famille et les professionnels des soins primaires. Ces lignes directrices pourraient aussi orienter les décisions de demander une consultation à des programmes d’évaluation diagnostique du CCR.

  3. Attachment of human C5a des Arg to its cochemotaxin is required for maximum expression of chemotactic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Perez, H D; Chenoweth, D E; Goldstein, I M

    1986-01-01

    The chemotactic activity of human C5a des Arg is enhanced significantly by an anionic polypeptide (cochemotaxin) in normal human serum and plasma. We have found that the cochemotaxin attaches to the oligosaccharide chain of native C5a des Arg to form a complex with potent chemotactic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Although capable of enhancing the chemotactic activity of native C5a des Arg, the cochemotaxin had no effect on the chemotactic activity of either deglycosylated C5a des Arg, native C5a, or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Of the known components of the oligosaccharide chain, only sialic acid prevented enhancement by the cochemotaxin of the chemotactic activity exhibited by native C5a des Arg. Sialic acid also prevented the formation of C5a des Arg-cochemotaxin complexes, detected by acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, molecular sieve chromatography on polyacrylamide gels, and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Images PMID:3782473

  4. Des-acyl ghrelin prevents heatstroke-like symptoms in rats exposed to high temperature and high humidity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Yujiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Noboru; Nakahara, Keiko

    2016-02-26

    We have shown previously that des-acyl ghrelin decreases body temperature in rats through activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Here we investigated whether des-acyl ghrelin ameliorates heatstroke in rats exposed to high temperature. Peripheral administration of des-acyl ghrelin significantly attenuated hyperthermia induced by exposure to high-temperature (35°C) together with high humidity (70-80%). Although biochemical analysis revealed that exposure to high temperature significantly increased hematocrit and the serum levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)), most of these heatstroke-associated reactions were significantly reduced by treatment with des-acyl ghrelin. The level of des-acyl ghrelin in plasma was also found to be significantly increased under high-temperature conditions. These results suggest that des-acyl ghrelin could be useful for preventing heatstroke under high temperature condition. PMID:26773867

  5. Etat des lieux des mycobactérioses atypiques au Burkina Faso: résultats d'une enquête régionale

    PubMed Central

    Zida, Sylvie; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Kaboré, Antoinette; Zingué, Dézémon; Hien, Hervé; Sanou, Adama; Michel Gomgnimbou, Kireopori; Nouctara, Moumini; Ouédraogo, Mamoudou; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Godreuil, Sylvain; Méda, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L’étude avait pour but de déterminer la fréquence d'isolement des mycobactéries atypiques chez les patients déclarés tuberculeux pulmonaire à microscopie positive (TPM+) au Burkina Faso. Méthodes Il s'est agit d'une étude transversale qui s'est déroulée de mars 2011 à février 2012. Les patients TPM+ de plus de 15 ans ont été inclus dans l’étude de manière systématique dans les centres de diagnostic et de traitement (CDT) de la région sanitaire des Hauts Bassins. Une culture des mycobactéries et une identification biochimique ont été réalisées sur les échantillons des patients TPM+ La sérologie VIH a été réalisée par des tests rapides. Résultats Une fréquence de 11% (8/73) de mycobactéries atypiques et 89,0% (65/73) de mycobactéries du complexe tuberculosis ont été identifiées des 73 patients TPM+ inclus dans l’étude. La tranche d’âge de 20 à 40 ans était la plus touchée par les mycobactérioses en général et constituait 48% de l’échantillon. Nous avons trouvé 12,2% (8 / 66) de patients VIH positif, 83,3% (55 / 66) de patients VIH négatif et 4,5% (3 / 66) de patients dont le statut VIH était indéterminé. Conclusion Notre étude a mis en lumière l'implication des mycobactéries atypiques dans la pathogénie de certains patients déclarés TPM+. Le rôle des mycobactéries atypiques dans les infections pulmonaires est probablement sous estimé et devra être examiné avec plus de détails et sur un échantillon plus grand. PMID:25396014

  6. La prévention des blessures non intentionnelles chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Anna

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les blessures non intentionnelles sont la principale cause de décès chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones canadiens, à un taux de trois à quatre fois la moyenne nationale. Non seulement les décès et les blessures invalidantes dévastent les familles et les communautés, mais elles font également d’énormes ravages sur les ressources de santé. L’absence de statistiques, de surveillance continue ou de programmes de prévention des blessures à l’égard des enfants et adolescents autochtones exacerbe les coûts en matière de main-d’œuvre et de santé. Les communautés autochtones sont hétérogènes sur le plan culturel, qu’il s’agisse de l’accès aux ressources ou même des risques et des types de blessures. Pourtant, en général, ces communautés sont beaucoup plus susceptibles d’être pauvres, d’habiter dans un logement insalubre et d’éprouver de la difficulté à accéder aux soins de santé, des facteurs qui accroissent le risque et les conséquences des blessures. Il existe un besoin urgent de surveillance des blessures, de recherche, de renforcement des capacités, de diffusion des connaissances et de programmes de prévention des blessures qui sont axés sur les populations autochtones. Pour prévenir les blessures de manière efficace, il faut adopter des démarches multidisciplinaires, coopératives et durables, fondées sur des pratiques exemplaires, tout en étant spécifiques et sensibles sur le plan culturel et linguistique.

  7. Contrôler la douleur et réduire l’usage abusif d’opioïdes

    PubMed Central

    Kotalik, Jaro

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Aider les médecins de famille à faire un juste équilibre sur le plan de l’éthique dans leurs pratiques de prescription d’opioïdes. Source des données Une recension des articles en anglais publiés entre 1985 et 2011 a été effectuée dans MEDLINE. La majorité des données probantes étaient de niveau III. Message principal Il est essentiel de suivre les guides de pratique clinique quand on prescrit des opioïdes, sauf s’il est démontré qu’une autre option est justifiée. De plus, quand on réfléchit à la pertinence de prescrire des opioïdes et aux nombreuses implications sur le plan de l’éthique, il est utile de fonder sa décision sur l’application des principes éthiques de la bienfaisance, de la non-malfaisance, du respect de l’autonomie et de la justice. En outre, il est essentiel de se tenir au fait des changements dans les lois et la règlementation, ainsi qu’à propos des registres électroniques provinciaux des ordonnances d’opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins doivent s’assurer que la douleur de leurs patients est bien évaluée et prise en charge. Le contrôle optimal de la douleur peut exiger la prescription d’opioïdes. Cependant, l’obligation de soulager la douleur doit être exercée en juste équilibre avec l’acquittement de la responsabilité tout aussi importante de ne pas exposer les patients au risque de dépendance et de ne pas créer de possibilités de détournement de drogues, de trafic et de dépendance chez d’autres personnes. Les principes éthiques fondamentaux offrent un cadre de réflexion qui peut aider les médecins à prendre des décisions appropriées sur le plan de l’éthique au sujet de la prescription d’opioïdes.

  8. La prise en charge des troubles de santé mentale par les omnipraticiens du Québec

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Farand, Lambert; Aubé, Denise; Imboua, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Cette recherche vise à documenter la prise en charge des troubles mentaux (TM) par les omnipraticiens. Type d’étude Il s’agit d’une étude mixte intégrant un questionnaire auto-administré et des entrevues qualitatives. La banque de données administratives des actes médicaux de la Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec a aussi été analysée. Contexte La province de Québec. Participants Un total de 1415 omnipraticiens de différents lieux de pratiques ont été sollicités pour le questionnaire; 970 ont été rejoints. Un sous-groupe de 60 omnipraticiens a été rejoint pour les entrevues. Principaux paramètres à l'étude La prévalence annuelle des consultations reliées à des TM courants (TMC) ou graves (TMG), les pratiques cliniques, les pratiques de collaboration, les facteurs facilitant ou entravant la prise en charge des TM, ainsi que les recommandations pour l’amélioration du système de soins. Résultats Le taux de réponse a été de 41% (n = 398 omnipraticiens) pour le questionnaire et de 63% (n = 60) pour les entrevues. Environ 25 % des visites chez les omnipraticiens sont associées à des TM. Presque tous les omnipraticiens prennent en charge des TMC et se sentent compétents pour le faire, à l’inverse de la situation retrouvée pour les TMG. Près de 20 % des TMC sont référés (principalement à des intervenants psychosociaux), alors que près de 75 % des TMG sont référés (surtout en psychiatrie et à l’urgence). Plus de 50 % des omnipraticiens affirment n’entretenir aucun contact avec l’une ou l’autre des ressources de santé mentale. Plusieurs facteurs influencent la prise en charge des TM: les profils des patients (complexité des TM, troubles concomitants); les caractéristiques des omnipraticiens (réseau informel, formation); la culture professionnelle (travail en silo, mécanismes cliniques formalisés); le milieu institutionnel (multidisciplinarité, salariat); l’organisation des

  9. Etudes des Reactions de Transfert LITHIUM-7/LITHIUM -6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddou, Djafer

    Les reactions de transfert de deux nucleons ^7Li/^6Li(^3He, rm p)^8Be/^9Be ont ete effectuees a partir d'um faisceau d'^3He initialement polarise et d'energie incidente egale a 4.58 MeV au centre de la cible. Le faisceau d'^3He est simplement ionise et il est accelere par l'accelerateur Van de Graaff de l'Universite Laval. Ce faisceau d' ^3He est de polarisation egale a 40% et il est obtenu a partir d'une source d'^3He a l'etat metastable. Nous avons decrit la reaction depuis la production et le transport du faisceau initial de l'^3 He jusqu'a la chambre de reaction. Par la suite, nous avons obtenu les distributions angulaires de la section efficace differentielle et du pouvoir d'analyse de ces reactions. Elles ont ete comparees a la theorie DWBA a l'approximation zero. La theorie a montre qu'il s'agit d'un transfert de deux particules independants (neutron, proton) pour le cas de la reaction ^7Li( ^3He,rm p)^9Be et d'un transfert de "cluster" deuteron pour le cas de la reaction ^6Li(^3He, rm p)^8Be. Notons que pour cette reaction l'instabilite du ^8Be ne nous permet pas d'avoir une diffusion elastique permettant la determination des parametres du modele optique entre ce noyau et la particule diffusee. Afin de contourner cette difficulte, nous supposons que le ^8 Be est un noyau compose de deux particules alpha et nous avons teste cette hypothese avec les reactions ^6Li(^3He, rm p)^8Be et ^7Li( ^3He,rm d)^8Be. Nous mentionnons a la fin que nous avons observe que l'etat fondamental de la reaction ^6Li( ^3He,rm p)^8Be et l'etat excite 2.43 MeV de la reaction ^7Li(^3He,rm p)^9Be sont des reactions directes alors que le premier etat excite (2.96 MeV) de la reaction ^6Li(^3He,rm p)^8Be et l'etat fondamental de la reaction ^7Li(^3He,rm p)^9Be peuvent etre domines par une reaction a noyau compose.

  10. Douleurs et conflits : Approche comparative et implications pour la qualité des soins en fin de vie

    PubMed Central

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Verloo, Henk; Rapin, Charles-Henri; Chastonay, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Le conflit serait-il à l’organisation ce que la douleur est à un organisme ? OBJECTIFS: Explorer les similitudes et les differences entre les douleurs et les conflits dans les contextes de soins de fin de vie. Mieux comprendre le rôle des conflits dans la qualité de ces soins. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Méthode comparative et réflexive autour des politiques de prise en charge des douleurs et des conflits dans les systèmes de soins. RÉSULTATS: Les conflits et les douleurs présentent de nombreuses similitudes de par leur identité, leur typologie, leur prévalence, leur fonction d’alerte, leurs coûts économiques et sociaux, le déni ou l’occultation qui les entourent et les obstacles à leur prise en charge adéquate. À l’inverse, des différences apparaissent dans la prise en charge des douleurs comparée à celle des conflits. Ces différences portent sur l’existence des programmes de prévention et de lutte sur les scènes nationale et internationale, la mise en œuvre des activités de recherche et de formation et la visibilité sociale. Pour les conflits, cette mise en œuvre n’existe pas encore. CONCLUSION: Les décideurs en clinique et en santé publique devraient intégrer les conflits comme un indicateur de la qualité des soins et élaborer des politiques pertinentes en matière de santé. PMID:19714268

  11. Use of DES Modeling for Determining Launch Availability for SLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staton, Eric; Cates, Grant; Finn, Ronald; Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee; Watson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new capabilities for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit. This effort includes the Space Shuttle derived Space Launch System (SLS), the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO). There are several requirements and Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) that have been levied by the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) upon the SLS, Orion, and GSDO Programs including an integrated Launch Availability (LA) TPM. The LA TPM is used to drive into the SLS, Orion and GSDO designs a high confidence of successfully launching exploration missions that have narrow Earth departure windows. The LA TPM takes into consideration the reliability of the overall system (SLS, Orion and GSDO), natural environments, likelihood of a failure, and the time required to recover from an anomaly. A challenge with the LA TPM is the interrelationships between SLS, Orion, GSDO and the natural environments during launch countdown and launch delays that makes it impossible to develop an analytical solution for calculating the integrated launch probability. This paper provides an overview of how Discrete Event Simulation (DES) modeling was used to develop the LA TPM, how it was allocated down to the individual programs, and how the LA analysis is being used to inform and drive the SLS, Orion, and GSDO designs to ensure adequate launch availability for future human exploration.

  12. Use of DES Modeling for Determining Launch Availability for SLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Mike; Staton, Eric; Cates, Grant; Finn, Ron; Altino, Karen; Burns, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new capabilities for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit. This effort includes the Space Shuttle derived Space Launch System (SLS), the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) "Orion", and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO). There are several requirements and Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) that have been levied by the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) upon the SLS, MPCV, and GSDO Programs including an integrated Launch Availability (LA) TPM. The LA TPM is used to drive into the SLS, Orion and GSDO designs a high confidence of successfully launching exploration missions that have narrow Earth departure windows. The LA TPM takes into consideration the reliability of the overall system (SLS, Orion and GSDO), natural environments, likelihood of a failure, and the time required to recover from an anomaly. A challenge with the LA TPM is the interrelationships between SLS, Orion, GSDO and the natural environments during launch countdown and launch delays that makes it impossible to develop an analytical solution for calculating the integrated launch probability. This paper provides an overview of how Discrete Event Simulation (DES) modeling was used to develop the LA TPM, how it was allocated down to the individual programs, and how the LA analysis is being used to inform and drive the SLS, Orion, and GSDO designs to ensure adequate launch availability for future human exploration.

  13. Cosmic Shear Measurements with DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, M. R.

    2015-07-20

    We present measurements of weak gravitational lensing cosmic shear two-point statistics using Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. We demonstrate that our results are robust to the choice of shear measurement pipeline, either ngmix or im3shape, and robust to the choice of two-point statistic, including both real and Fourier-space statistics. Our results pass a suite of null tests including tests for B-mode contamination and direct tests for any dependence of the two-point functions on a set of 16 observing conditions and galaxy properties, such as seeing, airmass, galaxy color, galaxy magnitude, etc. We use a large suite of simulations to compute the covariance matrix of the cosmic shear measurements and assign statistical significance to our null tests. We find that our covariance matrix is consistent with the halo model prediction, indicating that it has the appropriate level of halo sample variance. We also compare the same jackknife procedure applied to the data and the simulations in order to search for additional sources of noise not captured by the simulations. We find no statistically significant extra sources of noise in the data. The overall detection significance with tomography for our highest source density catalog is 9.7σ. Cosmological constraints from the measurements in this work are presented in a companion paper (DES et al. 2015).

  14. The Opportunity To Eradicate Peste des Petits Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Mariner, Jeffrey C; Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Thevasagayam, Samuel; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter L

    2016-05-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease of sheep and goats that is caused by PPR virus, a member of the genus Morbillivirus that includes the viruses that cause rinderpest (RP) in cattle. RP was the first animal disease to be globally eradicated in 2011 and is only the second disease, after smallpox, to have ever been eradicated. PPR is one of the principal constraints to small ruminant production in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The epidemiology of PPR and RP as well as the technologies available for their diagnosis and control are similar. The conditions that favored the eradication of RP are also largely present for PPR. In this work, we outline the evolving strategy for eradication in light of current opportunities and challenges, as well as the lessons from other eradication programs in animal and human health. The global PPR situation and technology for its control are summarized. A strategy based on the lessons from previous eradication efforts that integrate epidemiology, social science, and economics as tools to target and motivate vaccination is summarized. Major aspects of the cost and benefit-cost analysis of the indicated program are presented. The overall undiscounted cost of eradication was estimated as $3.1 billion, and the benefit-cost ratio for the most likely scenario was estimated at 33.8. We close with a discussion of the possible next steps. PMID:27183645

  15. Iberomaurusian funerary behaviour: evidence from Grotte des Pigeons, Taforalt, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Louise; Bello, Silvia M; Turner, Elaine; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Barton, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Grotte des Pigeons at Taforalt, north-east Morocco, is well known for a large assemblage of Iberomaurusian (Epipalaeolithic) skeletons, possibly representing the earliest and most extensively used prehistoric cemetery in North Africa. New archaeological excavations carried out in 2005 and 2006 revealed further human remains in a largely undisturbed burial area in an alcove at the back of the cave. This discovery provides the first opportunity to report on Iberomaurusian human mortuary activity at this site. Reported here are a closely spaced and inter-cutting series of four burials. These contained the remains of four adults, of which three were buried in a seated or slightly reclining position facing towards the cave entrance and one was buried in a highly flexed position on its left side. The distribution of articulated and disarticulated bones suggested intensive use of the area, with earlier burials disturbed or truncated by subsequent burials, and displaced skeletal elements deliberately or unwittingly incorporated into later depositions. Through this process, parts of a single skeleton were redistributed among several discrete graves and within the surrounding deposit. Some aspects of the Iberomaurusian funerary tradition that are evident from the human remains excavated in the 1950s are absent in the newly excavated adult burials, suggesting a possible elaboration of funerary activity over time. PMID:22154088

  16. Plaies des membres par agression: analyse de 245 dossiers

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

    2015-01-01

    Il s'agit d'une étuderétrospective, analytique, monocentrique rentrant dans le cadre d'une étude épidémiologique s’étalant sur une période de trois années (de 2010 à 2012) durant laquelle nous avons revu les dossiers de 245 patients victimes de violence et d'agression. Nous avons exclu les lésions simples traitées en ambulatoire. Par conséquent, nous nous sommes limités aux cas de blessures ayant nécessité une prise en charge spécialisée au bloc opératoire. Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de connaitre la fréquence des agressions au service de traumatologie du CHU de Rabat, classer les différents types de lésions, évaluer leur gravité, mettre la lumière sur les populations les plus touchées et enfin montrer les différentes modalités de prise en charge thérapeutiques. PMID:26918078

  17. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  18. Contrôle du marché informel à l’heure de la mondialisation des échanges. Le cas des antirétroviraux au Chili

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Morales, Cristián

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Les nouveaux médicaments pour le VIH/sida ont créé des besoins d’accessibilité aux traitements que les gouvernements n’ont pas toujours réussi à couvrir. Il en résulte l’émergence d’un marché informel des ARV. Par l’analyse de la situation au Chili, nous traitons des différents créneaux d’approvisionnement, des conséquences de l’existence d’un tel marché, ainsi que des moyens envisageables pour réduire les effets indésirables. Les aspects tant microéconomiques que macroéconomiques concernant le marché et l’accessibilité aux médicaments sont abordés. PMID:23997580

  19. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin-flood of June 18 through August 4, 1993, in Des Moines and vicinity, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    1996-01-01

    This hydrologic investigations atlas shows the areas in and near Des Moines, Iowa, that were flooded by the Des Moines and the Raccoon Rivers and Walnut, Fourmile, and Beaver Creeks from June 18 through August 4, 1993. This map also depicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood boundaries. The area drained by the Des Moines River upstream from Des Moines received more than 100 percent of normal rainfall in May, June, and July, 1993. At Boone, which is located about 35 miles north-northeast of Des Moines, July rainfall was 424 percent of normal. The discharges at streamflow- gaging stations on the Des Moines River near Stratford, downstream from Saylorville Lake, and at Des Moines are shown. The cumulative discharge for inflow-gaging stations in the Des Moines area and discharge for the Des Moines River below the Raccoon River at Des Moines from July 8 through 21, 1993, are shown. The water-surface elevations of Saylorville Lake from June 18 through August 4, 1993, are shown. Profiles of the maximum water- surface elevations of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers during the 1993 flood in Des Moines and vicinity are higher than the respective Federal Emergency Management Agency 100- and 500-year flood profiles.

  20. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel... Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, Calumet-Saganashkee Channel on all waters of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal from Mile Marker 296.1 to Mile Marker 296.7 at...

  1. Les transfusions de globules rouges chez le nouveau-né : Des directives révisées

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    En général, depuis dix ans, les professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque dans des unités de soins intensifs néonatals sont plus restrictifs dans leur utilisation de transfusions de globules rouges. Le présent énoncé est conçu pour ceux qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque (des prématurés aux nouveau-nés d’un mois). Il vise à fournir des directives pour réduire l’incidence d’anémie chez les nourrissons prématurés et à terme, à repérer des stratégies pour réduire le besoin de transfusions de globules rouges et à limiter l’exposition à des donneurs au sein de cette population. Des recommandations portant sur les transfusions de globules rouges sont incluses.

  2. Downtown Elementary School (DES): The Unique School That Juxtaposes Both Magnet and Professional Development School (PDS) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alenuma, Sidonia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the operation of magnet and professional development school (PDS) programs in a real life situation using an ethnographic study of Downtown Elementary School (DES--a pseudonym) that simultaneously operates as a PDS and a magnet school. The author spent almost three years at DES, located in the Southern…

  3. 77 FR 30273 - DES Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission DES Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of DES Wholesale, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 33 CFR 165.930 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River... River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago, IL. (a... (point at which the Des Plaines River connects with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal). (2)......

  5. Activation of the bacterial thermosensor DesK involves a serine zipper dimerization motif that is modulated by bilayer thickness.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Larisa Estefanía; Ballering, Joost; Moussatova, Anastassiia; Inda, Maria Eugenia; Vazquez, Daniela B; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; de Mendoza, Diego; Tieleman, D Peter; Killian, J Antoinette

    2015-05-19

    DesK is a bacterial thermosensor protein involved in maintaining membrane fluidity in response to changes in environmental temperature. Most likely, the protein is activated by changes in membrane thickness, but the molecular mechanism of sensing and signaling is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to elucidate the mode of action of DesK by studying the so-called "minimal sensor DesK" (MS-DesK), in which sensing and signaling are captured in a single transmembrane segment. This simplified version of the sensor allows investigation of membrane thickness-dependent protein-lipid interactions simply by using synthetic peptides, corresponding to the membrane-spanning parts of functional and nonfunctional mutants of MS-DesK incorporated in lipid bilayers with varying thicknesses. The lipid-dependent behavior of the peptides was investigated by circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence, and molecular modeling. These experiments were complemented with in vivo functional studies on MS-DesK mutants. Based on the results, we constructed a model that suggests a new mechanism for sensing in which the protein is present as a dimer and responds to an increase in bilayer thickness by membrane incorporation of a C-terminal hydrophilic motif. This results in exposure of three serines on the same side of the transmembrane helices of MS-DesK, triggering a switching of the dimerization interface to allow the formation of a serine zipper. The final result is activation of the kinase state of MS-DesK. PMID:25941408

  6. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des... will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and...

  7. Etude theorique des fluctuations structurales dans les composes organiques a dimensionnalite reduite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Benoit

    Les systemes a dimensionnalite reduite constituent maintenant une branche entiere de la physique de la matiere condensee. Cette derniere s'est developpee rapidement au cours des dernieres annees, avec la decouverte des materiaux organiques qui presentent, justement, des proprietes physiques fortement anisotropes. Cette these presente une etude en trois parties de plusieurs composes organiques qui, bien que tres differents du point de vue de leurs compositions chimiques et de leurs proprietes physiques a haute temperature, subissent tous une instabilite structurale a tres basse temperature. De plus, dans chacun des cas, l'instabilite structurale est precedee d'un important regime fluctuatif a partir duquel les proprietes physiques changent de maniere significative. Notre etude suit un ordre chronologique inverse puisque nous nous attardons en premier lieu au cas de composes recemment decouverts: les composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X (X = PF6 , AsF6). Ces derniers sont des isolants magnetiques a la temperature ambiante et subissent une instabilite structurale de type spin-Peierls a une temperature appelee TSP. En particulier, nous nous interessons a l'etude des proprietes physiques de ces systemes dans le regime fluctuatif, qui precede cette instabilite. Notre etude theorique nous permet de comprendre en detail comment ces systemes s'approchent de l'instabilite struturale. Dans la seconde partie de cette these, nous etudions le regime fluctuatif (pre-transitionnel) observe experimentalement dans le compose de (TMTTF)2PF6. Ce compose organique, dont la structure s'apparente aux sels de Bechgaard, subit une instabilite de type spin-Peierls a une temperature T SP = 19K. Bien que ce compose possede la particularite d'etre un bon conducteur a la temperature ambiante, il subit une transition de type Mott-Hubbard a une temperature Trho ≈ 220K et devient alors un isolant magnetique, analogue aux composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X. Le regime fluctuatif precedant l

  8. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Traiter des différentes éventualités pouvant survenir durant le suivi clinique et la prise en charge prolongés des patients prenant de nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO). Qualité des données Aux fins de cette révision narrative (non systématique), nous avons effectué une recherche dans la base de données PubMed afin de relever des études cliniques récentes (soit de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire et le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Nous avons utilisé cette base de données probantes pour répondre à nos questions prédéfinies ayant trait à l’emploi des NACO en pratique générale. Message principal Le dabigatran et le rivaroxaban doivent être pris avec les repas afin de limiter la dyspepsie et de favoriser l’absorption, respectivement. Aucun NACO n’est accompagné de restrictions alimentaires, à l’exception de la consommation modérée d’alcool, et le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban peuvent être écrasés, au besoin. Les antiacides ne semblent pas perturber l’efficacité des NACO. Comme c’est le cas avec la warfarine, les patients traités aux NACO doivent éviter l’emploi prolongé d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens et d’antiplaquettaires. Chez les patients devant subir une chirurgie, il faut interrompre la prise de NACO de 2 à 5 jours avant l’intervention, en fonction du risque de saignement, et le traitement par le NACO doit être habituellement repris au moins 24 heures après la chirurgie. Il n’est habituellement pas nécessaire d’effectuer un test préopératoire de coagulation. Chez les patients qui développent un saignement, un saignement mineur ne justifie habituellement pas un test de laboratoire ni l’interruption du traitement par le NACO; dans le cas des saignements majeurs, il faut se concentrer sur l’application de mesures localisées visant à endiguer le

  9. N-to-One-Provisionierung zwischen internen Satellitenverzeichnissen des IntegraTUM-Metadirectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa

    Dieser Beitrag beschreibt und analysiert die Synchronisationslösungen zur Verwaltung von Benutzerdaten, die Konnektoren aus verschiedenen Quellsystemen und zwischen Verzeichnisdiensten übertragen müssen. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Analyse liegt dabei auf den Transformationen, die zwei Datenmodelle mit unterschiedlichen Strukturen des Directory Information Tree (DIT) innerhalb des IntegraTUM-Metadirectory miteinander abgleichen. Besonders herausfordernd ist, diesen Abgleich mittels des Novell DirXML-Treibers zu realisieren, weil das DirXML-Datenmodell für die Synchronisation der LDAP-Objekte auf eins zu eins Synchronisation ausgelegt ist. In diesem Beitrag wird unsere Lösung für die Synchronisation mehreren LDAP-Objekte auf ein einziges Objekt detailliert und ihre Integrierbarkeit in anderen Hochschulen vorgestellt.

  10. Water-surface profiles of Raccoon River at Des Moines, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Philip J.; Appel, David H.

    1966-01-01

    The Raccoon River., having a drainage area of 3,630 square miles, borders the south edge of the Des Moines downtown business district before flowing into the Des Moines River at mile 201.6. A large residential area and the city airport are separated from downtown Des Moines by the Raccoon River (fig. 1). Five highway bridges and one railroad bridge span the river between the mouth and mile 205.75, the limits of this report (fig. 1). The river is confined to a narrow channel from the mouth to the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad bridge (mile 202.6); upstream of this bridge the river is not confined and during high water spreads over a wide flood plain. Fleur Drive, a principal traffic artery to the downtown area, is the only roadway of the five that crosses this wide flood plain. It has been flooded 15 times during the period 1903, 1918-1965.

  11. Ultrasound and deep eutectic solvent (DES): a novel blend of techniques for rapid and energy efficient synthesis of oxazoles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balvant S; Lobo, Hyacintha R; Pinjari, Dipak V; Jarag, Krishna J; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Shankarling, Ganapati S

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of novel oxazole compounds by using effective combination of ultrasound (US) and deep eutectic solvent (DES). The reaction was also conducted by thermal method (NUS) and the comparative studies are provided. It was observed that applying ultrasound not only improved yields and reduced reaction times but also saved more than 85% energy as shown by energy consumption calculations. The advantages of using DES as reaction medium is highlighted from the fact that it is bio-degradable, non-toxic, recyclable and could be easily prepared using inexpensive raw materials. The recyclability for DES was studied wherein it was found that ultrasound has no negative effects on DES even up to four runs. In addition, the present work is the first report on the combinative use of DES and US in organic synthesis. PMID:22784641

  12. Peste des Petits Ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?

    PubMed

    Albina, Emmanuel; Kwiatek, Olivier; Minet, Cécile; Lancelot, Renaud; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Libeau, Geneviève

    2013-07-26

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a widespread viral disease caused by a Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae). There is a single serotype of PPR virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. Morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. Cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. Other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. PPR has recently spread in southern and northern Africa, and in central and far-east Asia. More than one billion sheep and goats worldwide are at risk. PPR is also present in Europe through western Turkey. Because of its clinical incidence and the restrictions on animal movements, PPR is a disease of major economic importance. A live attenuated vaccine was developed in the 1980s, and has been widely used in sheep and goats. Current researches aim (i) to make it more thermotolerant for use in countries with limited cold chain, and (ii) to add a DIVA mark to shorten and reduce the cost of final eradication. Rinderpest virus-another Morbillivirus-was the first animal virus to be eradicated from Earth. PPRV has been proposed as the next candidate. Considering its wide distribution and its multiple target host species which have an intense mobility, it will be a long process that cannot exclusively rely on mass vaccination. PPR specific epidemiological features and socio-economic considerations will also have to be taken into account, and sustained international, coordinated, and funded strategy based on a regional approach of PPR control will be the guarantee toward success. PMID:23313537

  13. Influence du comportement des accompagnants sur le vécu des patients admis pour hémorragies digestives hautes au CHU campus de Lomé (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Bagny, Aklesso; Dusabe, Angelique; Bouglouga, Oumboma; Lawson-ananisoh, Mawuli Late; Kaaga, Yeba Laconi; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Soedje, Kokou Mensah; Dassa, Simliwa Kolou; Redah, Datouda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'hémorragie digestive haute est une urgence, qui constitue souvent pour les patients un danger mortel suscitant inquiétude et agitation. Dans cet état, le patient dépend de ses accompagnants pour ses soins et pour honorer le traitement; mais souvent, il a été observé une discordance entre l'urgence et les comportements des accompagnants. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les facteurs socioéconomiques et psychologiques pouvant influencer les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH, estimer l'indice de relation entre ces comportements et les facteurs associés d'une part et le vécu des patients admis pour HDH d'autre part. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude prospective menée de Septembre 2010 à Juin 2011 (soit 10 mois). Nous avions utilisé l'entretien semi-dirigé et l'observation directe pour collecter nos données, ces dernières avaient été traitées par les méthodes statistiques et d'analyse de contenu. Résultats Dans la présente étude, les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH sont en majorité marqués par l'abandon (84%) et le manque de sollicitude (80,2%). Ces comportements sont souvent stimulés par les facteurs socioéconomiques tels que les difficultés économiques (83,2%), des conflits intrafamiliaux (85,1%) et des représentations (maladie incurable ou envoûtement) de la maladie par les accompagnants (73,3%) des cas. Quant aux patients, ils vivent ces comportements comme étant des menaces de mort ou des rejets (77,20%) et comme étant une dévalorisation ou une humiliation de la part de leurs accompagnants (70,30%). Les résultats confirment l'existence de lien significatif entre les comportements des accompagnants et les facteurs socio économiques, entre les comportements des accompagnants et des facteurs psychologiques, et entre le vécu des patients admis pour l'HDH et les comportements des accompagnants. Conclusion Des études ultérieures devraient aborder les points

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa DesB Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Growth Inhibition in Coculture by Controlling the Synthesis of HAQs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that can cause serious infections and usually coexists with other pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Virulence factors are important for maintaining a presence of the organisms in these multispecies environments, and DesB plays an important role in P. aeruginosa virulence. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DesB on S. aureus reduction under competitive situation. Liquid cultures of P. aeruginosa wild type (WT) and its desB mutant were spotted on agar plates containing S. aureus, and the size of the clear zones was compared. In addition, interbacterial competition between P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was observed over time during planktonic coculture. The transcriptional profiles of the WT and desB mutant were compared by qRT-PCR and microarray to determine the role of DesB in S. aureus reduction at the molecular level. As a result, the clear zone was smaller for the desB mutant than for P. aeruginosa PAO1 (WT), and in planktonic coculture, the number of S. aureus cells was reduced in the desB mutant. qRT-PCR and microarray revealed that the expression of MvfR-controlled pqsA-E and phnAB operons was significantly decreased, but the mexEF-oprN operon was highly expressed. The results indicate that intracellular levels of 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ), a ligand of MvfR, are reduced due to MexEF-OprN-mediated efflux in desB mutant, resulting in the decrease of MvfR binding to pqsA-E promoter and the reduction of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) synthesis. Overexpression of mexEF-oprN operon in desB mutant was phenotypically confirmed by observing significantly increased resistance to chloramphenicol. In conclusion, these results suggest that DesB plays a role in the inhibition of S. aureus growth by controlling HAQ synthesis. PMID:26230088

  15. Discovery and Classification of the z=1.86 SLSNe: DES15E2mlf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Galbany, L.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Forster, F.; Hamuy, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of DES15E2mlf as a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). DES15E2mlf was discovered on 7 November 2015 at R.A. = 00:41:33.40, Decl = -43:27:17.2 with r = 24.1 mag. We obtained spectra using GMOS on Gemini-South (520-990nm) on 06 December 2015 which indicated a redshift of z = 1.86 from Mg II 2800 absorption.

  16. Aspects cliniques des cancers bronchopulmonaires primitifs au service d'oncologie du CHUA-HUJRA Antananarivo

    PubMed Central

    Refeno, Valéry; Hasiniatsy, Nomeharisoa Rodrigue Emile; Andrianandrasana, Ny Ony Tiana Florence; Ramahandrisoa, Andriatsihoarana Voahary Nasandratriniavo; Rakotonarivo, Jean Marc; Maevazaka, Joée Larissa; Rakotovao, Hanitrala Jean Louis; Rafaramino, Florine

    2015-01-01

    Le retard de diagnostic des cancers broncho-pulmonaires est l'une des sources du retard de leur prise en charge dans les pays en développement. A notre connaissance, l'aspect clinique des cancers broncho-pulmonaires au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo-Hôpital Universitaire Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (CHUA-HUJRA) n'a jamais été étudié. L'objectif était de décrire les aspects cliniques des cancers broncho-pulmonaires primitifs dans le plus grand centre de cancérologie de Madagascar. C'est une étude rétrospective et descriptive des patients atteints de cancers broncho-pulmonaires primitifs vus au service d'oncologie du CHUA-HUJRA du 1er janvier 2008 au 31 décembre 2013. Nous avons recensé 101 patients (80 hommes et 21 femmes). Les circonstances de découverte sont principalement la toux chronique (n = 29), la dyspnée (n = 16) et l'association d'une hémoptysie à la toux chronique (n = 12). Soixante et onze patients avaient un index de performans status ≥ à 2 au moment du diagnostic. On a retrouvé des bacilles de Koch actives dans le crachat de deux patients. Le délai moyen entre l'apparition des premiers signes et la première consultation était de 11 mois. Le délai moyen entre la première consultation et le diagnostic anatomopathologique était de 3 mois. Le cancer broncho-pulmonaire peut avoir des manifestations cliniques non spécifiques parfois trompeuses qui peuvent retarder leur prise en charge. De ce fait, il doit être recherché devant tout signe respiratoire persistant. Par ailleurs, le délai de prise en charge pré-hospitalière et hospitalière de ces cancers doit être amélioré. PMID:26958134

  17. L'Apport de la Greffe de Peau Totale dans le Traitement des Sequelles des Brulures de la Main: a Propos de 14 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Ettalbi, S.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Rachid, M.; Bahaichar, N.; Boukind, H.

    2007-01-01

    Summary La main est fréquemment exposée aux brûlures, ce qui entraîne des séquelles cutanées. A partir d'une série de 14 patients suivis dans notre service sur une année, nous avons essayé d'établir la simplicité, l'efficacité et le rôle de la greffe de peau totale dans le traitement de ces séquelles (les organes nobles ne sont pas mis à nu). La greffe de peau totale associée à une rééducation efficace permet aux patients de reprendre la mobilité des mains dans les brefs délais. PMID:21991094

  18. Etude des émissions radio aurorales de Saturne, modélisation et aurores UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Laurent

    2008-09-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude du rayonnement radio auroral kilométrique de Saturne (SKR pour Saturn Kilometric Radiation) observé de façon quasi-continue par les antennes radio de la sonde Cassini depuis son entrée en orbite autour de Saturne en juillet 2004. Comme les rayonnements radio auroraux des autres planètes magnétisées, le SKR est généré sur des lignes de champ magnétique de haute latitude prés des pôles magnétiques. Tirant parti de plusieurs années d'observations, les propriétés macroscopiques du SKR (spectre, polarisation, conjuguaison des sources de chaque hémisphère, mode d'émission) sont déduites par une analyse statistique. Elles montrent en particulier que les caractéristiques de l'émission dépendent fortement de la position de l'observateur. Ceci est une conséquence directe de l'anisotropie du SKR qui engendre de forts effets de visibilité, visibles dans les cartes d'intensité temps-fréquence (arcs, régions d'invisibilité de l'émission). La simulation de ces effets de visibilité apporte de nouvelles contraintes sur les propriétés microscopiques des sources (énergie et distribution des électrons auroraux). Le SKR est connu pour être modulé à une période variable. Une analyse de la variation de cette période radio sur plusieurs années révèle des oscillations à court terme de l'ordre de 20-30 jours dont l'origine est attribuée à la variation de la vitesse caractéristique du vent solaire au niveau de Saturne. Une étude parallèle du rayonnement auroral kilométrique terrestre (AKR), observé lors du survol de la Terre par Cassini en août 1999, met en évidence la découverte d'une modulation diurne semblable à celle du SKR. Enfin, la technique de goniopolarimétrie permet de faire de l'imagerie radio des sources du SKR. L'étude de leur distribution moyenne montre pour la première fois l'existence d'un ovale radio. La comparaison des images des sources du SKR avec celles des ovales auroraux (observ

  19. Analyse de L'ancrage des Vortex Intergrains pour le Yttrium BARYUM(2) CUIVRE(3) OXYGENE(7) Polycristallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Patrick

    Le Modele de l'Etat Critique Generalise (MECG) est utilise pour decrire les proprietes magnetiques et de transport du YBa_2Cu_3O _7 polycristallin. Ce modele empirique permet de relier la densite de courant critique a la densite de lignes de flux penetrant dans la region intergrain. Deux techniques de mesures sont utilisees pour caracteriser nos materiaux. La premiere consiste a mesurer le champ au centre d'un cylindre creux en fonction du champ magnetique applique pour des temperatures comprises entre 20 et 85K. En variant l'epaisseur de la paroi du cylindre creux, il est possible de suivre l'evolution des cycles d'hysteresis et de determiner des champs caracteristiques qui varient en fonction de cette dimension. En utilisant un lissage des resultats experimentaux, nous determinons J _{co}, H_ {o} et n, les parametres du MECG. La forme des cylindres, avec une longueur comparable au diametre externe, entrai ne la presence d'un champ demagnetisant qui peut etre inclus dans le modele theorique. Ceci nous permet d'evaluer la fraction du volume ecrante, f _{g}, ainsi que le facteur demagnetisant N. Nous trouvons que J_{ co}, H_{o} et f_{g} dependent de la temperature, tandis que n et N (pour une epaisseur de paroi fixe) n'en dependent pas. La deuxieme technique consiste a mesurer le courant critique de lames minces en fonction du champ applique pour differentes temperatures. Nous utilisons un montage que nous avons developpe permettant d'effectuer ces mesures en contact direct avec le liquide refrigerant, i.e. dans l'azote liquide. Nous varions la temperature du liquide en variant la pression du gaz au-dessus du bain d'azote. Cette methode nous permet de balayer des temperatures entre 65K et la temperature critique du materiau ({~ }92K). Nous effectuons le lissage des courbes de courant critique en fonction du champ applique encore a l'aide du MECG, pour a nouveau obtenir ses parametres. Pour trois echantillons avec des traitements thermiques differents, les parametres

  20. Office International des Epizooties international standards for bluetongue.

    PubMed

    Schudel, A; Wilson, D; Pearson, J E

    2004-01-01

    Preventing the spread of disease through international trade is one of the primary objectives of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), the World Organisation for Animal Health. This is accomplished by establishing international standards that facilitate trade while minimising the risk of introducing diseases such as bluetongue (BT). The OIE standards for BT are contained in the Terrestrial animal health code (Code) and the Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (Manual). These standards include procedures for prompt reporting of BT outbreaks; requirements that should be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of bluetongue virus (BTV); recommendations for the safe importation of live animals, semen and embryos into a BTV-free country or zone; and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of BTV through trade. The Manual describes in detail the various tests for the diagnosis of BT. It provides a list of prescribed tests; these are the tests that are required by the Code for the testing of animals in connection with international trade. There are 24 serotypes of BTV and infected countries have the right to restrict imports from countries that have different types of BTV. However, this should only be done if a surveillance and monitoring programme has confirmed that the other types are not present. Zoning for an arbovirus is difficult to apply but zoning for vectors is practicable. Some countries have demonstrated that there is no evidence of infection in their country or parts of their country even though there has been unrestricted animal movement between endemic zones and free zones. This freedom is due to the absence of vectors in the free zone. Based on this observation, free countries and zones can be established if an appropriate surveillance and monitoring programme is in place to define their boundaries. Consequently, there have been extensive changes in the Code to allow the

  1. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  2. Spectroscopic Classification of DES14X3taz as a SLSN-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castander, F. J.; Casas, R.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Perez-Valladares, D.; Miquel, R.; Smith, M.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.

    2015-03-01

    We report optical spectroscopy and classification of DES14X3taz discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (490-920 nm) were obtained using OSIRIS on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), and classification was performed using SuperFit (Howell et al. 2005, Ap.J. 634, 1190). Details of the observations and classification are given below.

  3. Creatio ex zero. Ursprungs-Konzepte in der mathematischen Naturphilosophie des 19. Jahrhunderts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuser, M.-L.

    Die Autorin zeigt in ihrem Beitrag, daß Ansätze der heutigen Selbstorganisationstheorien, die diese in Richtung einer vereinheitlichten dynamischen Theorie verallgemeinern wollen, zumindest in konzeptueller Hinsicht, schon in der Mathematik und Naturphilosophie des 19. Jahrhunderts gewisse Vorläufer finden könnten.

  4. Jane of All Trades: Des Plaines Chief is Illinois Superintendent of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Jane L. Beyer Westerhold knows no boundaries. As superintendent of the Des Plaines (Ill.) Community Consolidated School District 62 in suburban Chicago, Westerhold has led a three-year master plan with a $109 million facilities upgrade, narrowed the achievement gap between low-income and other students, and kept a AA+ bond rating--the highest…

  5. The Des Moines Plan for Student Success. Focus on Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    The Des Moines (Iowa) Plan for Student Success provides an academic program for about 6,500 students having difficulty in reading/writing and/or mathematics in K-12. The Plan is a comprehensive kindergarten through grade 12 program with five components: (1) a Kindergarten Enrichment Program; (2) the Reading Recovery Program; (3) the…

  6. Des proprietes de l'etat normal du modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, Francois

    Depuis leur decouverte, les etudes experimentales ont demontre que les supra-conducteurs a haute temperature ont une phase normale tres etrange. Les proprietes de ces materiaux ne sont pas bien decrites par la theorie du liquide de Fermi. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel, bien qu'il ne soit pas encore resolu, est toujours considere comme un candidat pour expliquer la physique de ces composes. Dans cet ouvrage, nous mettons en evidence plusieurs proprietes electroniques du modele qui sont incompatibles avec l'existence de quasi-particules. Nous montrons notamment que la susceptibilite des electrons libres sur reseau contient des singularites logarithmiques qui influencent de facon determinante les proprietes de la self-energie a basse frequence. Ces singularites sont responsables de la destruction des quasi-particules. En l'absence de fluctuations antiferromagnetiques, elles sont aussi responsables de l'existence d'un petit pseudogap dans le poids spectral au niveau de Fermi. Les proprietes du modele sont egalement etudiees pour une surface de Fermi similaire a celle des supraconducteurs a haute temperature. Un parallele est etabli entre certaines caracteristiques du modele et celles de ces materiaux.

  7. Women exposed to DES in the womb face increased cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A large study of the daughters of women who had been given DES, the first synthetic form of estrogen, during pregnancy has found that exposure to the drug while in the womb (in utero) is associated with many reproductive problems and an increased risk of

  8. Peste des petits ruminants infection among cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Tiziana; Oura, Christopher; Parida, Satya; Hoare, Richard; Frost, Lorraine; Fyumagwa, Robert; Kivaria, Fredrick; Chubwa, Chobi; Kock, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Batten, Carrie

    2013-12-01

    We investigated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection in cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania. No wildlife from protected ecosystems were seropositive. However, cattle from villages where an outbreak had occurred among small ruminants showed high PPR seropositivity, indicating that spillover infection affects cattle. Thus, cattle could be of value for PPR serosurveillance. PMID:24274684

  9. Discovery and Classification of DES15C2ir by SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Vaisanen, P.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.

    2015-09-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (400-850nm) of DES15C2ir was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  10. A Resource Manual for Career Education in the Des Moines Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA.

    Information contained in this resource manual is designed to help educators become more familiar with career opportunities available to high school graduates in the local (Des Moines) labor market, and employer requirements for entry into these career areas. Fifteen occupational clusters are investigated: Agribusiness and natural resources,…

  11. Le monde des affaires (The Business World). Teacher's Guide [and] Student's Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Martha; Ullmann, Rebecca

    The two components of this publication are the student's book and the teacher's guide to the module, "The Business World" or "Le monde des affaires," which would be suitable for use in an advanced French course or in a class of business French. The teacher's book in French and English has four parts: (1) an explanation of the meaning and use of…

  12. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques et memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    Cette these s'attaque a deux problemes majeurs de l'information quantique: - Comment caracteriser efficacement un systeme quantique? - Comment stocker de l'information quantique? Elle se divise done en deux parties distinctes reliees par des elements techniques communs. Chacune est toutefois d'un interet propre et se suffit a elle-meme. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques. Le calcul quantique exige un tres grand controle des systemes quantiques composes de plusieurs particules, par exemple des atomes confines dans un piege electromagnetique ou des electrons dans un dispositif semi-conducteur. Caracteriser un tel systeme quantique consiste a obtenir de l'information sur l'etat grace a des mesures experimentales. Or, chaque mesure sur le systeme quantique le perturbe et doit done etre effectuee apres avoir reprepare le systeme de facon identique. L'information recherchee est ensuite reconstruite numeriquement a partir de l'ensemble des donnees experimentales. Les experiences effectuees jusqu'a present visaient a reconstruire l'etat quantique complet du systeme, en particulier pour demontrer la capacite de preparer des etats intriques, dans lesquels les particules presentent des correlations non-locales. Or, la procedure de tomographie utilisee actuellement n'est envisageable que pour des systemes composes d'un petit nombre de particules. Il est donc urgent de trouver des methodes de caracterisation pour les systemes de grande taille. Dans cette these, nous proposons deux approches theoriques plus ciblees afin de caracteriser un systeme quantique en n'utilisant qu'un effort experimental et numerique raisonnable. - La premiere consiste a estimer la distance entre l'etat realise en laboratoire et l'etat cible que l'experimentateur voulait preparer. Nous presentons un protocole, dit de certification, demandant moins de ressources que la tomographie et tres efficace pour plusieurs classes d'etats importantes pour l'informatique quantique. - La seconde

  13. Patrick Des Jarlait, Ojibwe Artist. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students of Patrick Des Jarlait (Ojibwe), an American Indian painter, includes photographs of the artist and some of his work. A teacher's guide following the bibliography contains excerpts from the artist's published reminiscences about his childhood, learning objectives and directions for teachers, suggested…

  14. La Prise en Charge des Brulures Electriques: a Propos de 30 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, K.; Bellamari, H.; Ennouhi, A.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Achbouk, A.; Moussaoui, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques sont rares mais graves nécessitant une prise en charge urgente et adéquate car l'évolution peut être émaillée de complications graves, notamment cardiaques, neurologiques et rénales, et les séquelles sont importantes. A travers une étude analytique et rétrospective de janvier 2000 à novembre 2007 ayant inclus 30 patients admis au Service des Brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohamed V de Rabat, Maroc, pour prise en charge de brûlures électriques, il a été relaté les mécanismes des brûlures électriques, comme aussi les complications, la morbidité et la mortalité, dues aux brûlures électriques, tout en insistant sur les modalités de prise en charge initiale chez ces patients. La prévention reste le point capital pour réduire l'incidence de ces accidents. Cette prévention se base sur la surveillance des enfants et l'élimination de facteurs de risque à la maison, par la maintenance des installations électriques et par l'information et l'éducation du public. PMID:21991148

  15. Literature and the Teaching of Culture: The Example of Roger Ikor's "Le Tourniquet des innocents."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Richard G.

    1983-01-01

    Roger Ikor's 1972 novel "Le Tourniquet des innocents" is proposed for advanced university-level French culture courses, illustrating how the study of a contemporary novel can be integrated into cultural education. Classroom activities suggested include text analyses, study of cultural themes, and preparation of a lexicon featuring cultural…

  16. Enseignement des langues et theories d'acquisition Sprachunterricht unde Spracherwerbstheorien. (Language Teaching and Acquisition Theories).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Alexander, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This collection of articles on language teaching and language acquisition theories includes: "Enseignement des langues et theories de l'acquisition. Introduction au colloque" ("Language Teaching and Theories of Acquisition. Introduction to the Colloquium") (Rene Richterich); "Apprendre une langue dans l'interaction verbale" ("Language Learning in…

  17. Dépistage précoce des retards du développement moteur

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Décrire le test HINT (Harris Infant Neuromotor Test), un test d’évaluation du développement neuromoteur chez les nourrissons publié en 2010, qui s’appuie sur les normes canadiennes et peut être utilisé pour dépister les retards du développement moteur durant la première année de la vie. Qualité des données D’abondantes recherches ont été publiées sur la fiabilité intra-évaluateur, inter-évaluateur et test-retest ainsi que sur la validité convergente, prédictive, du contenu et des groupes connus du test HINT, de même que sur la sensibilité, la spécificité et les valeurs prédictives négatives et positives des inquiétudes des parents, telles qu’évaluées par le test HINT. La plupart des données probantes sont de niveau II. Message principal Il est important de diagnostiquer les retards du développement moteur durant la première année de vie, car ils sont souvent le signe de retards du développement généralisés ou de déficiences précises, telles que la paralysie cérébrale. Les inquiétudes des parents quant au développement moteur de leur enfant sont une valeur prédictive robuste de diagnostics subséquents de retard du développement moteur. Conclusion Seul le dépistage précoce des retards du développement moteur, initialement par l’entremise d’outils de dépistage comme le test HINT, permet de recommander le patient à une intervention précoce qui profiterait tant à l’enfant qu’à sa famille. PMID:27521405

  18. DES13S2cmm: The first superluminous supernova from the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papadopoulos, A.; Plazas, A. A.; D"Andrea, C. B.; Sullivan, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Biswas, R.; Brown, P. J.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Finley, D. A.; et al

    2015-03-23

    We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 ± 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (type I). Using this redshift, we find MpeakU = –21.05+0.10–0.09 for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low-metallicity (sub-solar), low stellar-mass hostmore » galaxy (log(M/M⊙) = 9.3 ± 0.3), consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to fourteen similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 days rest frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the bolometric light curves of all SLSNe-I studied herein possess a dispersion of only 0.2–0.3 magnitudes between +25 and +30 days after peak (rest frame) depending on redshift range studied; this could be important for ‘standardising’ such supernovae, as is done with the more common type Ia. We fit the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm with two competing models for SLSNe-I – the radioactive decay of ⁵⁶Ni, and a magnetar – and find that while the magnetar is formally a better fit, neither model provides a compelling match to the data. Although we are unable to conclusively differentiate between these two physical models for this particular SLSN-I, further DES observations of more SLSNe-I should break this degeneracy, especially if the light curves of SLSNe-I can be observed beyond 100 days in the rest frame of the supernova.« less

  19. Gas-phase basicities for ions from bradykinin and its des-arginine analogues.

    PubMed

    Ewing, N P; Pallante, G A; Zhang, X; Cassady, C J

    2001-08-01

    Apparent gas-phase basicities (GB(app)s) for [M + H]+ of bradykinin, des-Arg1-bradykinin and des-Arg9-bradykinin have been assigned by deprotonation reactions of [M + 2H]2+ in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. With a GB(app) of 225.8 +/- 4.2 kcal x mol(-1), bradykinin [M + H]+ is the most basic of the ions studied. Ions from des-Arg1-bradykinin and des-Arg9-bradykinin have GB(app) values of 222.8 +/- 4.3 kcal x mol(-1) and 214.9 +/- 2.3 kcal x mol(-1), respectively. One purpose of this work was to determine a suitable reaction efficiency 'break point' for assigning GB(app) values to peptide ions using the bracketing method. An efficiency value of 0.1 (i.e. approximately 10% of all collisions resulting in a deprotonation reaction) was used to assign GB(app)s. Support for this criterion is provided by the fact that our GB(app) values for des-Arg1-bradykinin and des-Arg9-bradykinin are identical, within experimental error, to literature values obtained using a modified kinetic method. However, the GB(app)s for bradykinin ions from the two studies differ by 10.3 kcal x mol(-1). The reason for this is not clear, but may involve conformation differences produced by experimental conditions. The results may be influenced by salt-bridge conformers and/or by conformational changes caused by the use of a proton-bound heterodimer in the kinetic method. Factors affecting the basicities of these peptide ions are also discussed, and molecular modeling is used to provide information on protonation sites and conformations. The presence of two highly basic arginine residues on bradykinin results in its high GB(app), while the basicity of des-Arg1-bradykinin ions is increased by the presence of two proline residues at the N-terminus. The proline residue in the second position folds the peptide chain in a manner that increases intramolecular hydrogen bonding to the protonated N-terminal amino group of the proline at the first position. PMID:11523086

  20. DES13S2cmm: The first superluminous supernova from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, A.; Plazas, A. A.; D"Andrea, C. B.; Sullivan, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Biswas, R.; Brown, P. J.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Finley, D. A.; Fischer, J. A.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R. R.; Kessler, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Lidman, C.; March, M.; Nugent, P. E.; Sako, M.; Smith, R. C.; Spinka, H.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F.; Allam, S. S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Carnero, A.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Roe, N. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, L. D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-23

    We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 ± 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (type I). Using this redshift, we find MpeakU = –21.05+0.10–0.09 for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low-metallicity (sub-solar), low stellar-mass host galaxy (log(M/M⊙) = 9.3 ± 0.3), consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to fourteen similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 days rest frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the bolometric light curves of all SLSNe-I studied herein possess a dispersion of only 0.2–0.3 magnitudes between +25 and +30 days after peak (rest frame) depending on redshift range studied; this could be important for ‘standardising’ such supernovae, as is done with the more common type Ia. We fit the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm with two competing models for SLSNe-I – the radioactive decay of ⁵⁶Ni, and a magnetar – and find that while the magnetar is formally a better fit, neither model provides a compelling match to the data. Although we are unable to conclusively differentiate between these two physical models for this particular SLSN-I, further DES observations of more SLSNe-I should break this degeneracy, especially if the light curves of SLSNe-I can be observed beyond 100 days in the rest frame of the supernova.

  1. Caractérisation des effets de l'implantation ionique dans les alliages super-élastiques nickel titane par diffraction des rayons X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, H.; Muller, D.; Grob, J. J.; Mille, P.; Cornet, A.

    2002-07-01

    the specific properties (shape memory effect and super-elasticity) of NiTi alloys have provided the enabling technology for many groundbreaking applications in the medical and dentistry industries. These applications include everything from the surgical tools to permanent implants. Super-elastic NiTi alloys take advantage of a stress induced martensitic transformation to achieve incredible amounts of flexibility. This last property represents the most interesting aspect of such alloys for restoration procedures. However, recent instrumentation tests have shown brittle rupture of endodontic instruments inside the tooth during preparation of dental root channels.To improve the mechanical properties of NiTi endodontic instruments, argon, nitrogen and boron implantations at different energies and at fixed dose (1.10^{17} at.cm^{-2}) have been used. In this paper, we have investigated the effects on NiTi microstructure, especially the crystalline to amorphous transition induced by ion bombardment, using Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD). Nano-indentation tests have also been performed to determine hardness H and elastic modulus E of implanted surfaces as a function of ion species and energy. Le but de cette d'étude est de caractériser les effets de l'implantation ionique sur la microstructure d'un alliage Nickel Titane à l'aide de la diffraction des rayons X en incidence rasante. Nous avons réalisé différents types d'implantation en faisant varier l'espèce implantée (bore, azote, argon) ainsi que l'énergie d'implantation, pour des doses d'implantation de l'ordre de 1.10^{17} at.cm^{-2}. Les résultats des mesures de diffraction sous différents angles d'incidence (0{,}5^circ leq α_ileq 6^circ) ont été corrélés avec les différents profils d'implantation simulés. Des tests de nanoindentation ainsi que des mesures de RBS ont été également réalisés. Après implantation, on observe la formation d'une couche amorphe, conduisant à une

  2. Détermination du module d'Young dans des films minces de tungstène par diffraction des rayons X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villain, P.; Goudeau, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Badawi, K. F.

    2002-07-01

    Elasticity of reduced dimension materials remains misunderstood since both experimental and theoretical studies on this subject are difficult to perform. Numerous experiments realised in the early 90's evidenced “elastic anomalies” in small period multilayer systems: “supermodulus”, breakdown of the Poisson's effect. The polemic raised by these observations lead us to develop a method to study the elastic constants in thin films on substrates; it combines X-ray diffraction and in situ tensile testing. This paper presents results on Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus measurement in 140nmW thin films; the obtained Young's modulus was smaller to the bulk material one whereas the Poisson's ratio was significantly larger than the bulk one. L'élasticité des matériaux de faible dimension demeure encore méconnue. Ceci tient entre autre à la difficulté de l'approche expérimentale et théorique. Dans les années 90, un grand nombre d'expériences ont mis en évidence des anomalies élastiques dans des systèmes multicouches de très faible période : supermodule, déviation à la loi de Poisson. La polémique soulevée par ces observations nous a amené à développer une méthode d'étude des constantes d'élasticité module d'Young et coefficient de Poisson dans les films minces sur substrats; elle combine la diffraction des rayons X et la déformation in situ. Cet article présente les résultats obtenus dans le cas de films de tungstène de 140nm d'épaisseur; la valeur mesurée pour le module d'Young est inférieure à celle du même matériau à l'état massif alors que pour le coefficient de Poisson, la valeur est plus grande.

  3. La physique des bulles de champagne Une première approche des processus physico-chimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2002-07-01

    bubbles collapsing at a free surface. But, to the best of our knowledge, and surprising as it may seem, no results concerning the collateral effects on adjoining bubbles of bubbles collapsing in a bubble monolayer have been reported up to now. Actually, effervescence in a glass of champagne ideally lends to a preliminary work with bubbles collapsing in a bubble monolayer. For a few seconds after pouring, the free surface is completely covered with a monolayer composed of quite monodisperse millimetric bubbles collapsing close to each others. We took high-speed photographs of the situation which immediately follows the rupture of a bubble cap in a bubble monolayer. Adjoining bubbles were found to be literally sucked and strongly stretched toward the lowest part of the cavity left by the bursting bubble, leading to unexpected and short-lived flower-shaped structures. Stresses in distorted bubbles (petals of the flower-shaped structure) were evaluated and found to be, at least, one order of magnitude higher than stresses numerically calculated in the boundary layer around an isolated single millimetric collapsing bubble. This is a brand-new and slightly counter-intuitive result. While absorbing the energy released during collapse, as an air-bag would do, adjoining bubble caps store this energy into their thin liquid film, leading finally to stresses much higher than those observed in the boundary layer around single millimetric collapsing bubbles. Further investigation should be conducted now, and especially numerically, in order to better understand the relative influence of each pertinent parameters (bubble size, liquid density and viscosity, effect of surfactant...) on bubble deformation. L'objectif général de cet ouvrage consacré à l'étude des processus physico- chimiques de l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous r

  4. La dermoscopie pour la détection des mélanomes en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Herschorn, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Évaluer l’exactitude diagnostique et l’utilité clinique de la dermoscopie pour la détection de mélanomes en pratique familiale. Sources des données Nous avons fait une recension dans les bases de données Ovid MEDLINE (de 1946 à juin 2011), EMBASE, PubMed et Cochrane à l’aide des expressions suivantes en anglais: dermoscopy, dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy, family practice, general practice, primary health care, melanoma, skin neoplasms et pigmented nevus. Pour être prises en considération, les études devaient être des articles de recherche primaire ayant pour sujets des médecins de famille, ainsi que la formation en dermoscopie et son utilisation en tant qu’intervention. La recherche a produit 4 articles qui répondaient aux critères d’inclusion et présentaient des données probantes de niveau I selon la définition du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Dans le milieu de la pratique familiale, la dermoscopie a une sensibilité plus élevée que l’examen à l’œil nu pour la détection des mélanomes sans avoir, généralement, une spécificité moins grande. La dermoscopie aide aussi à accroître le degré de confiance des médecins de famille dans leur diagnostic préliminaire des lésions. L’utilisation de la dermoscopie plutôt que l’examen à l’œil nu augmente la probabilité qu’une lésion jugée cancéreuse le soit de fait et qu’une lésion jugée bénigne le soit en réalité. Conclusion Il est démontré que la dermoscopie est un outil utile et relativement peu coûteux pour la détection des mélanomes en pratique familiale. Cette technique rend les médecins de famille plus confiants dans l’exactitude de leurs demandes de consultations auprès de dermatologues et contribue à diminuer les biopsies inutiles. La dermoscopie peut se révéler plus particulièrement utile dans l’examen des patients à risque élevé de mélanomes, étant donn

  5. Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Robert

    Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par

  6. Evaluation d'un scenario d'apprentissage favorisant la mobilisation des habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Samuel F. J.

    Les resultats au Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des eleves (PISA) demontrent que les jeunes neobrunswickois francophones se classent b un niveau significativement inferieur comparaiivement aux eleves anglophones du Nouveau-Brunswick, aux eleves des autres provinces canadiennes et se classent sous la moyenne internationale de tous les pays participants quant b la culture scientifique. L'evaluation de cette culture scientifique est basee sur une serie de savoirs, de savoir-faire et de savoir-etre reliee au processus d'enquete scolaire. Le processus d'enquete scolaire est une approche b l'apprentissage ou les eleves effectuent des recherches d'informations, discutent d'idees et entreprennent des investigations pour augmenter leur comprehension d'un probleme ou d'un sujet. Les recherches demontrent que le processus d'enquete scolaire est rarement une composante pedagogique importante de la salle de classe et les recherches portant sur l'implantation du processus d'enquete scolaire recommandent de rendre ce dernier plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants. Afin de rendre le processus d'enquete plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants, notre recherche porte sur l'evaluation de la valeur pedagogique d'un scenario d'apprentissage (PhaRoboS) concu specialement pour creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions a mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Les retombees de cette evaluation nous permettront d'offrir des pistes de remediations afin d'aider plus d'enseignantes et d'enseignants b creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions b mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Cette evaluation s'est faite a partir d'une methodologie inspiree de l'evaluation pour fin d'amelioration d'un objet pedagogique. L'analyse des donnees qualitatives recueillies aupres des eleves et de leur enseignante d'une ecole francophone du Nouveau-Brunswick semble montrer que

  7. Total Synthesis of Plakilactones C, B and des-Hydroxyplakilactone B by the Oxidative Cleavage of Gracilioether Furanylidenes.

    PubMed

    Norris, Matthew D; Perkins, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    A chemoselective oxidative cleavage of synthetic gracilioether B, 11-epi-gracilioether C benzoate, and des-hydroxygracilioether C with pyridinium chlorochromate, which proceeds with loss of the furanyl acetate, has enabled total synthesis and stereochemical elucidation of the marine sponge metabolites (4R,6R)-plakilactone C, (4R,6R,9R)-plakilactone B, and (4R,6R)-des-hydroxyplakilactone B. des-Hydroxygracilioether C, the putative biosynthetic precursor to hippolachnin A, was also found to undergo a facile ene cyclization on treatment with SnCl4. PMID:27359169

  8. Brulures Profondes des Membres Apres Intoxication au Co Par Usage du Barbecue Traditionnel en Salle de Bain

    PubMed Central

    Chraïbi, R.; Moussaoui, A.; Tourabi, K.; Ennouhi, A.; Ihrai, H.; Hassam, B.

    2007-01-01

    Summary En l'absence des moyens de chauffage moderne à domicile chez une proportion non négligeable des Marocains, le recours au moyen traditionnel est fréquent. A travers six observations de brûlures profondes des membres, particulières par leur mode de survenue et par leur gravité, les Auteurs attirent l'attention sur le danger de l'utilisation du barbecue traditionnel «majmer» pour réchauffement en milieu clos. PMID:21991072

  9. Filtrage actif des harmoniques en courant et en tension des reseaux électriques : modélisation, simulation numérique et expérimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, C.; Lapierre, O.; Pouliquen, H.; Saadate, S.

    1997-12-01

    Static converters generate harmonic currents and consume reactive power. These new phenomena on the mains generate some perturbations going from malfunction to destruction of the connected sensible equipments. In this paper disturbances generated by static converters are studied. Some solutions based on passive and active filtering are presented. Some passive filter design elements are given. Active filter is then studied. Both structures, current and voltage, are studied and voltage source structure is chosen. Different active filter control principles are presented. The active and reactive instantaneous power theory give good results for harmonic identification. Some numerical simulation are realized. A 100kVA prototype is realized and tested on an industrial site. The GTO prototype shows good results for harmonic filtering. The voltage active filtering is also presented. The active filter eliminates voltage harmonics on 400 V busbar generated by a MVA SCR bridge connected on 15kV busbar. Les convertisseurs statiques absorbent des courants non sinusoïdidaux et consomment généralement de la puissance réactive. Ces deux phénomènes nouveaux sur le réseau ont engendré un certain nombre de perturbations allant du dysfonctionnement d'un équipement jusqu'à la destruction d'une partie des équipements connectés. Dans cet article, les problèmes liés aux perturbations générées par les convertisseurs statiques ont été étudiés et des solutions visant à les éliminer ont été présentées. Elles portent sur les méthodes de filtrage passif et actif. Quelques éléments de définition et de dimensionnement de filtres passifs sont donnés. Le filtrage actif est ensuite traité. Les deux structures, courant et tension, sont étudiées et la structure tension a été retenue pour la suite de l'article. Différents principes de contrôle du filtre actif à structure tension ont été présentés. La méthode d'identification des harmoniques par le principe du

  10. Redshift Distributions of Galaxies in the DES Science Verification Shear Catalogue and Implications for Weak Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, C.

    2015-07-21

    We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods { annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-U fig simulations, skynet, and tpz { are analysed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we also construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evalu-ated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-zs. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72 ±0.01 over the range 0:3 < z < 1:3, we construct three tomographic bins with means of z = {0.45; 0.67,1.00g}. These bins each have systematic uncertainties δz ≲ 0.05 in the mean of the fiducial skynet photo-z n(z). We propagate the errors in the redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approx. 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalog. We also found that further study of the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, contained levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0:05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  11. The mangement of DES-exposed patients at the Medical College of Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, A W

    1976-06-01

    Since diethylstilbestrol (DES)-exposed offspring are mostly asymptomatic the 1st problem is finding these patients. Maternity charts have been examined to determine if DES was taken when the patient was pregnant. New patients in the range of possible DES mothers are questioned regarding DES history. Referring physicians are sent a history of any DES exposure. Where a doubt exists colposcopic examination is made. At the 1st visit Papanicolaou (Pap) smears are taken from the cervix and vaginal walls and colposcopy is done to rule out carcinoma. Intensive colposcopy is done after admission to the hospital. General anesthesia is then used. Areas for excisional biopsies are determined and 8 or 10 excisional biopsies may be taken. Biopsy wounds may be sutured. or Monsel's solution applied to stop bleeding of lesser lesions. Schiller's iodine is applied to determine the extent of cauterization. All abnormal areas are cauterized. After intensive colposcopy a dilatation and curettage may be done. A 2-inch pack is placed in the vagina after application of Sultrin cream. Each piece of removed tissue is put in a separate jar and a sketch is drawn to inform the pathologist of its original site. Glandular tissue from the vagina means adenosis but from the cervix it may be a common finding. The next morning the vaginal pack is removed and the patient is discharged. 2-4 weeks later, a colposcopic examination is made to ensure healing. A repeat Pap smear is made after 6 months. After 12 months the patient is reevaluated, Vaginal tampons are advised at menstruation to prevent vaginal adhesions. If a carcinoma is found colposcopy is needed to determine the extent of indicated surgery or irradiation therapy. Others report doing colposcopy at shorter intervals with no therapy until changes are found. This method is advised only when follow-up is complete. PMID:957353

  12. Révision systématique des effets de la fréquence des repas en famille sur les résultats psychosociaux chez les jeunes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Megan E.; Norris, Mark L.; Obeid, Nicole; Fu, Maeghan; Weinstangel, Hannah; Sampson, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Effectuer une révision systématique des effets de repas en famille fréquents sur les résultats psychosociaux chez les enfants et les adolescents et examiner s’il existe des différences dans les résultats selon le sexe. Sources des données Des études ont été cernées à la suite d’une recherche dans MEDLINE (de 1948 à la dernière semaine de juin 2011) et dans PsycINFO (de 1806 à la première semaine de juillet 2011) à l’aide de l’interface Ovide. Les expressions et mots clés MeSH utilisés seuls ou en combinaisons étaient les suivants : family, meal, food intake, nutrition, diets, body weight, adolescent attitudes, eating behaviour, feeding behaviour et eating disorders. Les bibliographies des articles jugés pertinents ont aussi été passées en revus. Sélection des études La recherche initiale a produit 1783 articles. Pour être incluses dans l’analyse, les études devaient répondre aux critères suivants : être publiées en anglais dans une revue révisée par des pairs; porter sur des enfants ou des adolescents; traiter de l’influence des repas en famille sur les paramètres psychosociaux (p. ex. consommation de drogues et autres substances, troubles de l’alimentation, dépression) chez les enfants ou les adolescents; avoir une conception d’étude appropriée, notamment des méthodes statistiques acceptables pour l’analyse des paramètres. Quatorze articles satisfaisaient aux critères d’inclusion. Deux examinateurs indépendants ont étudié et analysé les articles. Synthèse Dans l’ensemble, les résultats font valoir que la fréquence des repas en famille est inversement proportionnelle aux troubles de l’alimentation, à la consommation d’alcool et de drogues, aux comportements violents, aux sentiments de dépression ou aux pensées suicidaires chez les adolescents. Il existe une relation positive entre de fréquents repas en famille, une bonne estime de soi et la réussite scolaire. Les

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Xylopia aethiopica, Monodora myristica, Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloi;des and Zanthoxylum leprieurii from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tatsadjieu, L N; Essia Ngang, J J; Ngassoum, M B; Etoa, F-X

    2003-07-01

    The essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica, Monodora myristica, Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloïdes and Z. leprieurii, four Cameroonian plants used as spices in local food, showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. PMID:12837363

  14. Approche pour les comportements sexuels inappropriés chez des personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Joller, Petra; Gupta, Neeraj; Seitz, Dallas P.; Frank, Christopher; Gibson, Michelle; Gill, Sudeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une mise à jour sur l’approche au diagnostic et à la prise en charge des comportements sexuels inappropriés (CSI) chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Sources des données On a fait une recherche dans MEDLINE et EMBASE pour cerner des articles pertinents publiés avant juin 2012. On n’a trouvé aucune étude de niveau I; la plupart des articles fournissaient des données probantes de niveau III. Message principal Les comportements sexuels inappropriés sont fréquents chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Divers facteurs (p. ex., culturels, religieux, perspectives sociétales de la sexualité gériatrique, questions médicolégales) pourraient compliquer l’évaluation de tels comportements et doivent être pris en compte pour permettre une prise en charge appropriée à chaque patient. Il existe des outils pour documenter les CSI. Des interventions créatives non pharmacologiques pour les CSI pourraient être efficaces quand elles sont adaptées à chaque patient. Certaines pharmacothérapies (p. ex., antidépresseurs, antiandrogènes, antipsychotiques et anticonvulsifs) ont été proposées pour les symptômes qui ne répondent pas aux interventions non pharmacologiques. Par ailleurs, les données probantes à l’appui des traitements à l’aide de médicaments sont limitées, les effets secondaires demeurent un aspect important à considérer et il est incertain s’ils devraient être utilisés comme traitement de première ou de deuxième intention. Conclusion Quoiqu’il n’y ait pas d’algorithme de traitements empiriquement établi pour les CSI reliés à la démence, les ouvrages actuels offrent certaines données probantes concernant diverses thérapies pharmacologiques et non pharmacologiques. Des recherches de grande qualité plus approfondies sont nécessaires de toute urgence pour guider les médecins de famille qui prennent en charge des patients qui ont des CSI reliés à la

  15. Spectroscopie Raman et Rayleigh stimulée des mélasses optiques unidimensionnelles (partie II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtois, Jean-Yves

    Dans la première partie de cet article, nous nous sommes attachés à décrire dans le détail les caractéristiques générales des processus de diffusion Raman et Rayleigh stimulée se produisant dans les milieux atomiques et moléculaires traditionnels, de manière à bien faire ressortir les spécificités des propriétés optiques non linéaires des mélasses optiques, dont l'étude fait l'objet de cette seconde partie. L'origine de ces spécificités réside dans une particularité des atomes refroidis par laser, à savoir l'intime corrélation entre degrés de liberté internes et externes dans leur réponse non linéaire. Cette caractéristique est en fait inhérente au processus de ralentissement : d'une part la force exercée par les faisceaux lasers sur les atomes (pression de radiation et redistribution de photons) dépend fortement de l'état atomique interne, et d'autre part cet état est modifié de façon très sélective en position ou en vitesse par les ondes lasers de refroidissement (déplacements lumineux et pompage optique). Elle sous-tend toute la richesse et l'originalité du comportement non linéaire des mélasses optiques, mais aussi toute la complexité de leur modélisation théorique, qui requiert une description globale de l'évolution des degrés de liberté internes et externes des atomes sous l'action des champs lasers. Afin de mettre en évidence le lien entre ces corrélations et les propriétés non linéaires des atomes froids, nous concentrerons notre étude d'une part sur les mélasses linbot lin qui constituent un cas de couplage entre état interne et position des atomes localisés au fond des puits du potentiel associé aux déplacements lumineux (paragr. 4), et d'autre part sur les mélasses σ^+-σ- qui correspondent quant à elles à un couplage entre état interne et vitesse atomiques (paragr. 5).

  16. Etiologies des hypertensions artérielles endocrines: à propos d'une série de cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouznad, Naima; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2016-01-01

    Les hypertensions artérielles (HTA) d'origine endocrine restent une cause rare d'HTA, sa prévalence globale n'excède pas 4% des hypertendus. L'intérêt de la recherche des HTA endocrines réside dans la gravité de certaines formes parfois mortelles et le caractère potentiellement curable et réversible de ces HTA. Le but du travail est de déterminer le profil clinique, para clinique, étiologique et thérapeutique des HTA secondaires d'origine endocrine chez les patients suivis au service d'endocrinologie au CHU Mohamed IV à Marrakech. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive prospective s’étalant sur une période de 4 ans incluant 45 patients ayant une HTA endocrinienne. La moyenne d’âge est de 44,89 ans, avec une nette prédominance du sexe féminine (sexe ratio de 0,49). Les étiologies des HTA endocrines étaient dominées par le phéochromocytome (17 cas), l'hypercorticisme (11 cas) et l'acromégalie (8 cas). L'HTA était paroxystique dans 24,4%. Elle était d'emblée sevère classée grade 3 dans 40% des cas. L'HTA a été compliquée de cardiopathie dans 24% des cas et de néphropathie dans 20% des cas. Le traitement curatif a permis une guérison de l'HTA chez 60% (27 cas). Le diagnostic des HTA secondaires endocrines est parfois difficile du fait de l'absence de spécificité clinique. Il n'est pas exceptionnel que l'HTA soit l'unique manifestation de la maladie. Dans notre travail nous notons le caractère paroxystique et sévère de l'HTA. Le caractère éventuellement curable des HTA endocrines, dans plus des deux tiers des cas, fait qu'il est important de la dépister devant toute HTA sévère, résistante au traitement, ou en présence de signes cliniques, biologiques ou radiologiques évocateurs. PMID:27303586

  17. L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?

    PubMed Central

    Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

  18. X-ray structure of putative acyl-ACP desaturase DesA2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, David H.; Lyle, Karen S.; Rayment, Ivan; Fox, Brian G.

    2010-07-13

    Genome sequencing showed that two proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv contain the metal binding motif (D/E)X{sub 2}HX{sub {approx}100}(D/E)X{sub 2}H characteristic of the soluble diiron enzyme superfamily. These putative acyl-ACP desaturase genes desA1 and desA2 were cloned from genomic DNA and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). DesA1 was found to be insoluble, but in contrast, DesA2 was a soluble protein amenable to biophysical characterization. Here, we report the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of DesA2 determined by multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing from a Se-met derivative and refinement against diffraction data obtained on the native protein. The X-ray structure shows that DesA2 is a homodimeric protein with a four-helix bundle core flanked by five additional helices that overlay with 192 structurally equivalent amino acids in the structure of stearoyl-ACP {Delta}9 desaturase from castor plant with an rms difference 1.42 {angstrom}. In the DesA2 crystals, one metal (likely Mn from the crystallization buffer) was bound in high occupancy at the B-site of the conserved metal binding motif, while the A-site was not occupied by a metal ion. Instead, the amino group of Lys-76 occupied this position. The relationships between DesA2 and known diiron enzymes are discussed.

  19. Activation of the bacterial thermosensor DesK involves a serine zipper dimerization motif that is modulated by bilayer thickness

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Larisa Estefanía; Ballering, Joost; Moussatova, Anastassiia; Inda, Maria Eugenia; Vazquez, Daniela B.; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.; de Mendoza, Diego; Tieleman, D. Peter; Killian, J. Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    DesK is a bacterial thermosensor protein involved in maintaining membrane fluidity in response to changes in environmental temperature. Most likely, the protein is activated by changes in membrane thickness, but the molecular mechanism of sensing and signaling is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to elucidate the mode of action of DesK by studying the so-called “minimal sensor DesK” (MS-DesK), in which sensing and signaling are captured in a single transmembrane segment. This simplified version of the sensor allows investigation of membrane thickness-dependent protein–lipid interactions simply by using synthetic peptides, corresponding to the membrane-spanning parts of functional and nonfunctional mutants of MS-DesK incorporated in lipid bilayers with varying thicknesses. The lipid-dependent behavior of the peptides was investigated by circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence, and molecular modeling. These experiments were complemented with in vivo functional studies on MS-DesK mutants. Based on the results, we constructed a model that suggests a new mechanism for sensing in which the protein is present as a dimer and responds to an increase in bilayer thickness by membrane incorporation of a C-terminal hydrophilic motif. This results in exposure of three serines on the same side of the transmembrane helices of MS-DesK, triggering a switching of the dimerization interface to allow the formation of a serine zipper. The final result is activation of the kinase state of MS-DesK. PMID:25941408

  20. Potentiel des images satellitaires multibandes a haute resolution spatiale pour la cartographie des componsants de l'eau en milieu cotier marin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Andre

    L'objectif principal que que nous poursuivons est de developper un modele de simulation du transfert radiatif eau-atmosphere adapte aux observations faites par le capteur Thematic Mapper (TM) de Landsat. Les informations que nous cherchons ont trait au milieu cotier marin et concernent les elements qui sont en suspension dans l'eau. Les images multibandes du capteur TM dans la partie visible du spectre, sont surtout visees par nos travaux. A la base de la simulation, nous utilisons un programme de simulation atmospherique, le code 6S, auquel nous greffons un modele de simulation du transfert radiatif dans la masse d'eau. Ce dernier estime le signal en fonction de 4 composants: l'eau, les pigments chlorophylliens (chlorophylle et phaeopigments), les matieres minerales et les substances organiques dissoutes. La concentration des differents composants sert de parametre d'entree pour definir le comportement optique de la masse d'eau. Le modele permet egalement de simuler une masse d'eau stratifiee si l'on connai t les concentrations des composants dans les differentes couches. Il inclut aussi la contribution du fond, selon sa nature et sa composition, ainsi que celle du miroitement du soleil et du ciel a la surface de l'eau. Les informations d'un echantillonnage de la masse d' eau synchronise avec le passage du satellite, a la baie des Chaleurs, d'une cartographie du couvert d'algues et d'un modele bathymetrique ont ete utilisees pour fixer les parametres de simulation par le modele. La comparaison montrent que le modele se comporte relativement bien surtout dans la bande TM2. Une erreur systematique de 2 valeurs numeriques en moyenne subsiste dans les trois bandes spectrales. Les resultats nous montrent que la visibilite du fond aux faibles profondeurs est un element tres important a considerer. Par ailleurs, l'analyse de sensibilite montre que les images TM sont plus sensibles aux concentrations en matieres minerales qu'aux pigments chlorophylliens et aux substances

  1. Long term dismantling of a basaltic volcano (Piton des Neiges, La Réunion hotspot).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, Marie; Famin, Vincent; Michon, Laurent; Catry, Thibault

    2010-05-01

    We present a structural investigation of destabilization processes at the Piton des Neiges, the extinct volcano of La Reunion Island. We focus on the Cirque of Cilaos (a large erosional depression south of the volcano summit), where the exposed internal structure of Piton des Neiges is made of pahoehoe lava flows of the shield building stage (unknown thickness) and breccias (~1 km thick), covered by volcanic products of the differentiated stage (~1 km thick). The breccias contain only basic elements and consist in debris flows and debris avalanches deposits. Beddings in the debris flows and shear structures in the avalanche deposits indicate a runout in the direction 300°. We suggest that these breccias may represent the upper part of the Cap La Houssaye mass wasting events observed onshore and offshore on the western side of la Réunion (Bachèlery et al., 2003). The breccias display many indicators of brittle deformation, such as faults (normal and strike slip) and intrusions (dykes and sills). Fault data inversion allows to recognize two episodes of deformation. The first, older step of deformation is consistent with a minimum principal stress oriented N120. Intrusions related to this deformation are basic magmas of the shield building stage. The second, later stage of extension oriented N-S crosscuts the N120 deformation with intrusion compositions of the differentiated stage. These results show that the dismantling of Piton des Neiges proceeded in two ways: catastrophic episodic destabilization and slow internal deformation. During the shield-building stage, slow and rapid dismantling was occurring in the 300° direction in the studied area, whereas it evolved toward a N-S slow collapse during the differentiated stage of magmatic activity. This result fully agrees with a recent study carried out within debris avalanches deposits in the cirque of Salazie (north of Piton des Neiges summit) which attests that the northern flank of the Piton des Neiges has also

  2. Cross-correlation of gravitational lensing from DES Science Verification data with SPT and Planck lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, D.; et al.

    2015-12-14

    We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg$^{2}$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of $z_{\\rm med} {\\sim} 0.7$, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at $z{\\sim}2$. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at $z{\\sim}0.44$. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fit cosmology, the amplitude of the DES$\\times$SPT cross-power is found to be $A = 0.88 \\pm 0.30$ and that from DES$\\times$Planck to be $A = 0.86 \\pm 0.39$, where $A=1$ corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of $2.9 \\sigma$ and $2.2 \\sigma$ respectively. We demonstrate that our results are robust to a number of important systematic effects including the shear measurement method, estimator choice, photometric redshift uncertainty and CMB lensing systematics. Significant intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes would increase the cross-correlation signal inferred from the data; we calculate a value of $A = 1.08 \\pm 0.36$ for DES$\\times$SPT when we correct the observations with a simple IA model. With three measurements of this cross-correlation now existing in the literature, there is not yet reliable evidence for any deviation from the expected LCDM level of cross-correlation, given the size of the statistical uncertainties and the significant impact of systematic errors, particularly IAs. We provide forecasts for the expected signal-to-noise of the combination of the five-year DES survey and SPT-3G.

  3. Genetic, Genomic and Epigenomic Studies of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (Ben).

    PubMed

    Staneva, Rada G; Balabanski, L; Dimova, I; Rukova, B; Hadjidekova, S; Dimitrov, P; Simeonov, V; Ivanov, S; Vagarova, R; Malinov, M; Cukuranovic, R; Stefanovic, V; Polenakovic, M; Djonov, V; Galabov, A; Toncheva, D

    2015-01-01

    BEN is a primary, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis characterized with chronic anemia, absence of edema, xantoderma, normal blood pressure and normal findings on the fundus oculi. The disease is distributed in restricted areas in Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Former Yugoslavia. Despite numerous studies on genetic and environmental factors and their possible involvement in BEN, its etiopathogenesis still remains elusive. Our recent study aim to elucidate the possible epigenetic component in BEN development. Whole genome DNA array methylation analysis was applied to compare the methylation profiles of male and female BEN patients from endemic regions in Bulgaria and Serbia and healthy controls. All three most prominent candidate genes with aberrations in the epigenetic profile discovered with this study are involved in the inflammatory/immune processes and oncogenesis. These data are in concordance with the reported pathological alterations in BEN. This research supports the role of epigenetic changes in BEN pathology. Exome sequencing of 22.000 genes with Illumina Nextera Exome Enrichment Kit revealed three mutant genes (CELA1, HSPG2, and KCNK5) in BEN patients which encode proteins involved in basement membrane/extracellular matrix and vascular tone, tightly connected to process of angiogenesis. We suggest that an abnormal process of angiogenesis plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis of BEN. PMID:27442376

  4. Population genetic studies in the Balkans. I. Serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Scheil, H G; Scheffrahn, W; Schmidt, H D; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L; Xirotiris, N

    2001-09-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations seven serum protein polymorphisms (AMY2, BF, C3, CP, GC, HPA, TF) were examined in three samples of Aromuns (Albania: the village of Andon Poci, province Gjirocaster, Republic of Macedonia: Stip region, Romania: the village Kogalniceanu, province Dobruja) and four reference samples (Albanians: Tirana, Romanians: Constanta and Ploiesti as well as Greeks (Northeastern Greece)). The Aromun samples from Albania and Romania form one separate cluster and the reference samples together with the Aromuns from Macedonia (Stip region) form a second one. PMID:11591047

  5. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  6. Identification of DES1 as a Vitamin A Isomerase in Müller Glial Cells of the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Kaylor, Joanna J.; Yuan, Quan; Cook, Jeremy; Sarfare, Shanta; Makshanoff, Jacob; Miu, Anh; Kim, Anita; Kim, Paul; Habib, Samer; Roybal, C. Nathaniel; Xu, Tongzhou; Nusinowitz, Steven; Travis, Gabriel H.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of a light particle by an opsin-pigment causes photoisomerization of its retinaldehyde chromophore. Restoration of light sensitivity to the resulting apo-opsin requires chemical re-isomerization of the photobleached chromophore. This is carried out by a multistep enzyme pathway called the visual cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of an alternate visual cycle for regenerating opsins in daylight. Here, we identified dihydroceramide desaturase-1 (DES1) as a retinol isomerase and an excellent candidate for isomerase-2 in this alternate pathway. DES1 is expressed in retinal Müller cells where it co-immunoprecipitates with cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP). Adenoviral gene therapy with DES1 partially rescued the biochemical and physiological phenotypes in rpe65 −/− mice lacking isomerohydrolase (isomerase-1). Knockdown of DES1 expression by RNA-interference concordantly reduced isomerase-2 activity in cultured Müller cells. Purified DES1 possessed very high isomerase-2 activity in the presence of appropriate cofactors, suggesting that DES1 by itself is sufficient for isomerase activity. PMID:23143414

  7. Santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescentes de Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso: place de la communication parents-adolescentes pour la réduction des risques

    PubMed Central

    Some, Donmozoun Télesphore; Some, Der Adolphe; Hien, Hervé; Diallo, Ramata; Zingue, Dézémon; Diallo, Ibrahim; Diagbouga, Serge; Dao, Blami

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Les adolescentes sont très vulnérables face aux Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles (IST) et au VIH/SIDA. Notre étude a pour objectifs d’explorer la qualité de la communication entre les adolescentes et leurs parents sur les IST/VIH/SIDA et de recueillir leurs suggestions pour l’amélioration de cette communication. Méthodes L’étude était transversale qualitative sur 2 mois. La population de l’étude était composée par des adolescentes de 13 à 17 ans et leurs parents habitant la ville de Bobo Dioulasso. Vingt (20) adolescentes scolarisées ont été tirés au sort dans trois établissements secondaires et 20 autres non scolarisées choisies de façon accidentelle dans la ville. Les informations ont été collectées à l’aide de 8 focus groups. Les discussions ont été enregistrées sur cassettes, retranscrites en verbatim, et analysées à l’aide du logiciel QSR NVIVO 2.0. Résultats Les adolescentes et leurs parents communiquent très peu ou pas sur les questions des IST/VIH/SIDA; l’auto-information par les paires ou les médias est la première source d’information. Pour les parents, l’information existe et est accessible aux adolescentes alors que pour ces dernières, leurs connaissances de ces maladies sont parfois erronées. L’abstinence, la fidélité et le dépistage volontaire comme moyen de prévention sont très peu évoqués par les adolescentes de même que par leurs parents. Conclusion La communication parents-adolescentes est insuffisante voire absente dans certains milieux. Il est urgent de conduire des actions auprès des adolescentes et leurs parents pour mieux les informer sur les IST/VIH/SIDA et améliorer la communication sur ces maladies. PMID:22655099

  8. Etude des aspects cliniques, échographiques et nutritionnels du syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques (SOMPK) à Mbuji-Mayi, RD du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kalenda, Louis Mbuyamba Ntobo; Mikenji, Justin Biayi; Nkoy, Albert Mwembo-Tambwe; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Muenze

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Syndrome des Ovaires Micropolykystiques (SOMPK) est polymorphe. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence et rechercher les facteurs nutritionnels éventuellement associés. Méthodes Chez 300 patientes atteintes de SOMPK faisant l'objet de cette étude, les données anamnestiques, cliniques et échographiques, et les habitudes alimentaires ont été analysées. Les statistiques usuelles et les mesures d'association ont été utilisées pour analyser les résultats. Résultats La prévalence de SOMPK était de 23,6%. L’âge moyen des patientes avec SOMPK était 24 ± 7 ans et chez celles sans SOMPK 36 ± 7 ans (P < 0,05). Le risque de développer le SOMPK en présence d'un niveau de vie élevé était de 2,03 (RR = 2,03; IC à 95%: 1,73-2,38; P = 0,00). Le risque de développer le SOMPK en exerçant une activité légère est de 2,15 (RR = 2,15; IC à 95%: 1,87-2,87; P= 0,00). La proportion des patientes avec SOMPK ayant accumulé plus de 2400 kcal était de 59% vs 36% (P < 0,05) et le risque de développer le SOMPK lorsque l’énergie accumulée était supérieure à 2400 kcal était de 1,57 (RR = 1,57; IC à 95%: 1,33-1,85; P= 0,00). Conclusion Dans notre milieu la prévalence de SOMPK était de 23,6%. Les facteurs associés au SOMPK étaient l’âge, l’énergie accumulée de plus de 2400 Kcal, le niveau socio-économique élevé et l'activité physique légère. Des études analytiques plus poussées sont nécessaires, pour évaluer la force du risque que représentent ces différents facteurs étudiés. PMID:25870722

  9. Comparison of the ActiDes-Blue and CARELA HYDRO-DES technology for the sanitation of contaminated cooling water systems in dental units

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Lemanski, Sandra; Demond, Kathleen; Assadian, Ojan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The hygienic-microbiological control of 6 dental units being in use for the past 16 years revealed a significantly increased microbial contamination of their cooling water system. In order to comply with the requirements of the drinking water directive (“Trinkwasserverordnung”), the commercially available production system ActiDes, producing on-site ActiDes-Blue which is based on hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and generated by anodic oxidation, was investigated. Method: Water samples from the 6 contaminated dental units were examined for the total number of colony forming units (cfu), contamination with molds, L. pneumophila and P. aeruginosa. The control period for the total colony count was 4 weeks (8 samples/unit). The subsequent application phase of the ActiDes-Blue procedure was 6 months (31 samples/unit). Additionally, the redox potential and the pH value were measured. Futhermore, the decontamination agent CARELA HYDRO-DES, a two component agent based on H2O2 with the addition of a mixture of sodium hydrogen sulphate and sulphuric acid in an aqueous solution effective at 0.1% and higher, was applied in a unit that had been put out of service for a month before. Before application, the system was first filled with a 5% solution of the alkaline pre-cleaning agent CARELA Solvent for bacterial slime; the system was left with this solution for 1 h. The pre-cleaning agent was then completely displaced from the system with tap water and a decontaminating solution of 5% CARELA HYDRO-DES and left in place for 1 h. Results: Drinking water quality level was reached only twice during the control phase. The average values of the dental units ranged between 3,633 CFU/ml and 29,417 c/ml. During the application phase, drinking water level could be achieved in 11 water samples. In another 6 water samples a total colony count of <150 cfu/ml was reached. The average values for the dental units' total colony count ranged between 529 cfu/ml and 87,450 cfu/ml. No

  10. État de santé des nouveaux réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la prévalence de certaines maladies infectieuses parmi les patients nouvellement réfugiés et la présence ou non d’une variation en fonction de facteurs démographiques clés. Conception Revue rétrospective de dossiers. Contexte Clinique de soins primaires pour patients réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario. Participants Au total, 1063 patients réfugiés inscrits à la clinique entre décembre 2011 à juin 2014. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Données démographiques (âge, sexe et pays de naissance); prévalence de VIH, d’hépatite B, d’hépatite C, d’infections à strongyloïdes, à schistosomes, à parasite intestinal, de gonorrhée, de chlamydia et de syphilis; et immunité contre la varicelle. Résultats L’âge médian des patients était de 29 ans et 56 % étaient de sexe féminin. Les réfugiés étaient nés dans 87 pays différents. Environ 33 % des patients étaient originaires d’Afrique, 28 % d’Europe, 14 % de la région de la Méditerranée orientale, 14 % d’Asie et 8 % des Amériques (à l’exception de 4 % nés au Canada ou aux États-Unis). Le taux global de VIH était de 2 %. La prévalence d’hépatite B était de 4 %, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Asie (12 %, p < 0,001). L’immunité contre l’hépatite B était de 39 %, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Asie (64 %, p < 0,001) et les enfants de moins de 5 ans (68 %, p < 0,001). Le taux d’hépatite C se situait à moins de 1 %. Une infection à strongyloïdes a été dépistée chez 3 % des patients testés, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Afrique (6 %, p = 0,003). Une infection à schistosomes a été dépistée chez 15 % des patients africains. Des parasites intestinaux ont été observés chez 16 % des patients ayant soumis un échantillon de selles. Environ 8 % des patients n’étaient pas immunisés contre la varicelle, ce taux étant sup

  11. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  12. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  13. Prediction des vibrations eoliennes d'un systeme conducteur-amortisseur avec une methode temporelle non lineaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, Sebastien

    Les vibrations eoliennes sont la cause principale de bris de conducteurs en fatigue des lignes aeriennes de transport d'energie electrique. Ces vibrations sont dues a des detachements tourbillonnaires produits dans le sillage du conducteur. Une methode commune de reduction des vibrations est l'ajout d'amortisseurs de vibrations pres des pinces de suspension. Contrairement aux essais en ligne experimentale, la modelisation numerique permet d'evaluer rapidement et a faible cout la performance d'un amortisseur de vibration sur une portee de ligne aerienne. La technologie la plus frequemment utilisee fait appel au principe de balance d'energie (PBE) en evaluant le niveau de vibrations pour lequel la puissance injectee par le vent est egale a la puissance dissipee par le conducteur et l'amortisseur. Les methodes actuelles pour la prediction des vibrations reposent sur des hypotheses simplificatrices quant a la modelisation de l'interaction conducteur-amortisseur. Une approche prometteuse pour la prediction des vibrations est l'utilisation d'un modele numerique temporel non lineaire qui permet de mieux representer la masse, la geometrie, la rigidite et l'amortissement du systeme. L'objectif principal de ce projet de recherche est de developper un modele numerique avec integration temporelle directe d'un conducteur et d'un amortisseur en vibration permettant de reproduire le comportement dynamique du systeme pour la gamme de frequence et d'amplitude typique des vibrations eoliennes des conducteurs. Un modele par elements finis d'un conducteur seul en vibration resolu par integration temporelle directe a d'abord ete developpe en considerant une rigidite de flexion variable. Comme une rigidite de flexion constante et egale a 50% de la rigidite de flexion maximale theorique ( EImax) est jugee adequate pour la modelisation du conducteur, c'est cette valeur qui a ete utilisee pour la suite du projet. Ensuite, des modeles non-lineaires pour deux types d'amortisseur de

  14. The polymerization and thrombin-binding properties of des-(B beta 1-42)-fibrin.

    PubMed

    Siebenlist, K R; DiOrio, J P; Budzynski, A Z; Mosesson, M W

    1990-10-25

    Multiple factors affect the thrombin-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, including: fibrinopeptide (FPA and FPB) release leading to exposure of two types of polymerization domains ("A" and "B," respectively) in the central portion of the molecule, and exposure of a noncatalytic "secondary" thrombin-binding site in fibrin. Fibrinogen containing the FPA sequence but lacking the B beta 1-42 sequence ("des-(B beta 1-42)-fibrinogen"), was compared to native fibrinogen (containing both FPA and FPB) to investigate the role played by B beta 1-42 in the polymerization of alpha-fibrin (i.e. fibrin lacking FPA), to compare reptilase and thrombin cleavage of FPA from fibrinogen, and to explore the location and function of the secondary thrombin-binding site. Electron microscopy of evolving polymer structures (mu, 0.14; pH 7.4) plus turbidity measurements, showed that early thin fibril formation as well as subsequent lateral fibril associations were impaired in des-(B beta 1-42)-alpha-fibrin, thus indicating that the B beta 1-42 sequence contributes to the A polymerization site. Reptilase-activated des-(B beta 1-42)-alpha-fibrin polymerized even more slowly than thrombin-activated des-(B beta 1-42)-alpha-fibrin, differences that disappeared when repolymerization of preformed fibrin monomers was carried out. Since existing data indicate that thrombin releases FPA in a concerted manner, resulting in relatively rapid evolution of fully functional divalent alpha-fibrin monomers, it can be inferred that delayed fibrin assembly of reptilase fibrin is due to slower formation of divalent alpha-fibrin monomers. Thrombin-activated des-(B beta 1-42)-alpha-fibrin polymerized more rapidly at low ionic strength (mu, 0.04) than did native alpha,beta-fibrin, a reversal of their behavior at physiological ionic strength (mu, 0.14). Concomitant measurement of FPA release revealed modest slowing of release at low ionic strength from des-(B beta 1-42)-fibrinogen (t1/2, 36.5 versus 21

  15. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  16. Le Pseudomonas: Experience du Centre des Brules D’Annaba et Revue de la Litterature

    PubMed Central

    Chaibdraa, A.; Medjellekh, M.S.; Saouli, A.; Bentakouk, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Le Pseudomonasest un agent pathogène à l'origine d'infections nosocomiales graves dans les centres des brûlés. Son opportunisme et sa virulence en font une préoccupation majeure. Ce travail se propose d'évaluer la place de cette bactérie dans l'écologie bactérienne locale et d'en apprécier la sensibilité aux antibiotiques. Cette étude rétrospective préliminaire porte sur la période de juin 2003 à décembre 2005. Elle intéresse l'ensemble des prélèvements bactériologiques ayant pu être réalisés au centre des brûlés d'Annaba. L'effectif est de 633 micro-organismes isolés dont 128 Pseudomonas (20,2%): 127 aeruginosa (99,2%), 1 fluorescens (0,8%); distribution selon le site de prélèvement: écouvillon (87,5%), prélèvement trachéobronchique (4,6%), hémoculture (3,1%), cathéters (1,6%), urine (1,6%) et sonde urinaire (1,6%). Le pyocyanique se situe après le staphylocoque pour les prélèvements précoces et repasse en tête après un séjour supérieur à une semaine, où 89% des pyocyaniques sont identifiés. Il est en première position dans les pneumopathies sous ventilation assistée invasive. Il se classe troisième dans les hémocultures et les cultures de cathéters. Dans les infections urinaires il est devancé par Candida et la flore périnéale. Les 128 antibiogrammes regroupent 314 réponses sensibles. La sensibilité à plus de deux antibiotiques est de 68%, à deux antibiotiques 24% et à un antibiotique 8%. Seules quatre molécules restent actives: ciprofloxacine > péfloxacine > pipéracilline > ceftazidime. Une résistance absolue est retrouvée pour trois Pseudomonas (2,4%). Le pronostic sévère des infections nosocomiales à pyocyanique et les risques d'options thérapeutiques très limitées font toute leur gravité, d'où l'intérêt de respecter des règles strictes de prescription des antibiotiques et des mesures de prévention. PMID:21991140

  17. Lignes directrices sur la prise en charge en soins primaires des céphalées chez l’adulte

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Werner J.; Findlay, Ted; Moga, Carmen; Scott, N. Ann; Harstall, Christa; Taenzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Accroître l’utilisation d’approches éclairées par des données probantes pour diagnostiquer, investiguer et traiter en soins primaires les céphalées des patients. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire exhaustive a été effectuée pour trouver des lignes directrices et des révisions systématiques publiées entre janvier 2000 et mai 2011. La grille d’évaluation de la qualité des recommandations pour la pratique clinique AGREE a servi à l’analyse critique des lignes directrices. Les 6 guides de pratique clinique de la plus grande qualité ont servi de base dans le processus d’adaptation. Message principal Un groupe d’élaboration multidisciplinaire de professionnels des soins primaires ont formulé 91 recommandations précises à l’aide d’un processus consensuel. Les recommandations portent sur le diagnostic, l’investigation et la prise en charge de la migraine, de la céphalée de tension, de la céphalée due à une surmédication et de la céphalée vasculaire de Horton. Conclusion Un guide de pratique clinique adapté au contexte des soins de santé au Canada a été produit en suivant un processus d’adaptation de lignes directrices dans le but d’aider les professionnels de toutes les disciplines des soins primaires à dispenser des soins éclairés par des données probantes aux patients souffrant de céphalées.

  18. A lipid-mediated conformational switch modulates the thermosensing activity of DesK.

    PubMed

    Inda, María Eugenia; Vandenbranden, Michel; Fernández, Ariel; de Mendoza, Diego; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Cybulski, Larisa Estefanía

    2014-03-01

    The thermosensor DesK is a multipass transmembrane histidine-kinase that allows the bacterium Bacillus subtilis to adjust the levels of unsaturated fatty acids required to optimize membrane lipid fluidity. The cytoplasmic catalytic domain of DesK behaves like a kinase at low temperature and like a phosphatase at high temperature. Temperature sensing involves a built-in instability caused by a group of hydrophilic residues located near the N terminus of the first transmembrane (TM) segment. These residues are buried in the lipid phase at low temperature and partially "buoy" to the aqueous phase at higher temperature with the thinning of the membrane, promoting the required conformational change. Nevertheless, the core question remains poorly understood: How is the information sensed by the transmembrane region converted into a rearrangement in the cytoplasmic catalytic domain to control DesK activity? Here, we identify a "linker region" (KSRKERERLEEK) that connects the TM sensor domain with the cytoplasmic catalytic domain involved in signal transmission. The linker adopts two conformational states in response to temperature-dependent membrane thickness changes: (i) random coiled and bound to the phospholipid head groups at the water-membrane interface, promoting the phosphatase state or (ii) unbound and forming a continuous helix spanning a region from the membrane to the cytoplasm, promoting the kinase state. Our results uphold the view that the linker is endowed with a helix/random coil conformational duality that enables it to behave like a transmission switch, with helix disruption decreasing the kinase/phosphatase activity ratio, as required to modulate the DesK output response. PMID:24522108

  19. Base de données des étoiles doubles et multiples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblak, E.; Chareton, M.; Dumon, R.; Kurpinska-Winiarska, M.; Kundera, T.

    Les auteurs réalisent à Besançon une base de données de tous les types d'étoiles doubles et multiples. Le traitement des données concerne l'acquisition de nouvelles données, l'examen de celles déjà disponibles, et le développement d'un outil informatique de gestion et d'interrogation à distance de la base.

  20. Mapping and Simulating Systematics Due to Spatially-Varying Observing Conditions in DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Leistedt, B.

    2015-07-20

    Spatially-varying depth and characteristics of observing conditions, such as seeing, airmass, or sky background, are major sources of systematic uncertainties in modern galaxy survey analyses, in particular in deep multi-epoch surveys. We present a framework to extract and project these sources of systematics onto the sky, and apply it to the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to map the observing conditions of the Science Verification (SV) data. The resulting distributions and maps of sources of systematics are used in several analyses of DES SV to perform detailed null tests with the data, and also to incorporate systematics in survey simulations. We illustrate the complementarity of these two approaches by comparing the SV data with the BCC-UFig, a synthetic sky catalogue generated by forward-modelling of the DES SV images. We then analyse the BCC-UFig simulation to construct galaxy samples mimicking those used in SV galaxy clustering studies. We show that the spatially-varying survey depth imprinted in the observed galaxy densities and the redshift distributions of the SV data are successfully reproduced by the simulation and well-captured by the maps of observing conditions. The combined use of the maps, the SV data and the BCC-UFig simulation allows us to quantify the impact of spatial systematics on N(z), the redshift distributions inferred using photometric redshifts. We conclude that spatial systematics in the SV data are mainly due to seeing fluctuations and are under control in current clustering and weak lensing analyses. However, they will need to be carefully characterised in upcoming phases of DES in order to avoid biasing the inferred cosmological results. The framework presented is relevant to all multi-epoch surveys, and will be essential for exploiting future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will require detailed null-tests and realistic end-to-end image simulations to correctly interpret the deep, high-cadence observations of the

  1. Methodes non perturbatives en mecanique quantique et en theorie des champs quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirari, Hamza

    2001-10-01

    Nous construisons un hamiltonien effectif à partir de l'intégrale de chemin via la méthode Monte-Carlo. Cet hamiltonien décrit les phénomènes physiques dans le domaine de basse énergie. Nous déterminons le spectre d'énergie et les fonctions d'ondes de plusieurs systèmes quantiques. Les résultats obtenus montrent que cette nouvelle approche Monte-Carlo hamiltonienne fonctionne. En mécanique quantique, nous suggérons une expression analytique de l'intégrale de chemin en introduisant une action quantique avec des paramètres renormalisés. Nous présentons des résultats numériques pour quelques potentiels locaux. Cette action quantique offre la possibilité de comparer l'évolution classique et quantique et permet de quantifier les instantons classiques et éventuellement le chaos classique. Nous investiguons la QCD sur un réseau bidimensionnel en utilisant une version améliorée des fermions de Wilson. Nous montrons que la théorie améliorée conduit à une réduction significative des erreurs dues à la valeur finie du pas du réseau. Nous calculons le condensat chiral et la masse de l'état lié quark-antiquark. Nous aboutissons à une bonne concordance entre nos résultats numériques et les résultats analytiques du modèle dans le continu.

  2. Cryptographie quantique avec des états cohérents à longueur d'onde télécom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodewyck, J.; Tualle-Brouri, R.; Debuisschert, T.; Grangier, P.

    2006-10-01

    Nous proposons un système de distribution quantique de clé avec des variables continues, implémenté avec des technologies télécom à 1550 nm. Le dispositif actuel nous a permis de transmettre une clé secrète brute au taux de 1 Mb/s sur une distance de quelques mètres. Une extension en cours de réalisation nous permettra de transmettre des clés sur des distances allant jusqu'à plusieurs dizaines dekilomètres.

  3. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  4. Sur la nature des absorbeurs dans l'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sebastien

    L'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique est l'une des plus recentes propositions de description des phenomenes du microcosme. En accord avec les predictions de la mecanique quantique standard, l'interpretation transactionnelle propose une alternative a celle de Copenhague. Son principal avantage est qu'elle permet de visualiser les mecanismes sous-jacents a l'echange d'energie, de quantite de mouvement ou d'autres quantites quantiques entre un emetteur et un absorbeur. Ces echanges sont le resultat, a l'instar de la theorie de l'absorbeur de Wheeler et Feynman, de l'utilisation autant d'ondes avancees que retardees. Bien que l'interpretation transactionnelle n'ait pas attire la plus grande attention scientifique, plusieurs critiques lui ont ete adressees. Dans les annees 1990, differentes experiences a mesure sans interaction ont ete concues. Depuis, il a ete avance que la version originale de l'interpretation transactionnelle pouvait difficilement rendre compte de ce type d'experience et meme qu'elle n'est pas compatible avec le concept d'univers quadridimensionnel. La recherche de ce memoire par article consiste a montrer que lorsque l'on utilise systematiquement l'interpretation transactionnelle en considerant la configuration totale des absorbeurs (incluant l'absorbeur universel), il n'est pas necessaire de faire appel a une hierarchie de transactions comme certains l'ont propose.

  5. DES2 protein is responsible for phytoceramide biosynthesis in the mouse small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Omae, Fumio; Miyazaki, Masao; Enomoto, Ayako; Suzuki, Minoru; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Akemi

    2004-01-01

    The C-4 hydroxylation of sphinganine and dihydroceramide is a rate-limiting reaction in the biosynthesis of phytosphingolipids. Mouse DES1 (MDES1) cDNA homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster degenerative spermatocyte gene-1 (des-1) cDNA leads to sphingosine Delta4-desaturase activity, and another mouse homologue, MDES2, has bifunctional activity, producing C-4 hydroxysphinganine and Delta4-sphingenine in yeast [Ternes, Franke, Zahringer, Sperling and Heinz (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 25512-25518]. Here, we report the characterization of mouse DES2 (MDES2) using an in vitro assay with a homogenate of COS-7 cells transfected with MDES2 cDNA and N -octanoyl-sphinganine and sphinganine as substrates. MDES2 protein prefers dihydroceramide as a substrate to sphinganine, and exhibits dihydroceramide Delta4-desaturase and C-4 hydroxylase activities. MDES2 mRNA content was high in the small intestine and abundant in the kidney. In situ hybridization detected signals of MDES2 mRNA in the crypt cells. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-MDES2 peptide antibody stained the crypt cells and the adjacent epithelial cells. These results suggest that MDES2 is the dihydroceramide C-4 hydroxylase responsible for the biosynthesis of enriched phytosphingoglycolipids in the microvillous membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:14731113

  6. Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, D.R.; Bradshaw, W.S.; Booth, G.M.; Seegmiller, R.E.; Allen, S.D.

    1992-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators have shown in rats that PCB (Arochlor) causes liver adenofibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, atypical mitochondria, and dilation of both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Matthews et al. (1978) also reported that 4, 4{prime} chlorinated biphenyl was the most potent inducer of monooxygenases, irrespective of chlorination at other sites. Although these compounds have been studied extensively in mammals, there is a paucity of data examining their effects when non-fetotoxic amounts are administered chronically and orally during gestation. The present study is part of a larger effort designed to establish a protocol for testing the developmental effects of xenobiotics such as DES and PCB. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured as an indicator of the integrity of nerve transmission in the central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a marker for the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an important amine metabolizing enzyme. Testosterone and estradiol are important sex steroids in mammals, and effects upon levels of the two hormones may signal anomalies in development of sex characteristics. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Coût clinique des retards dans le changement de traitement

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    La prise en charge des patients séropositifs pour le VIH ayant déjà reçu un traitement continue de s’améliorer et d’évoluer. Les nouvelles lignes directrices semblent indiquer que l’objectif du traitement devrait être une suppression virologique maximale. La meilleure façon d’y parvenir consiste à utiliser une combinaison d’agents auxquels le virus sera le plus vraisemblablement sensible et, si possible, des agents appartenant à une nouvelle classe thérapeutique. Les cas discutés démontrent comment l’utilisation d’un schéma thérapeutique puissant à titre de traitement de sauvetage peut avoir de bons résultats virologiques, immunologiques et cliniques. Toutefois, si le traitement de sauvetage retenu n’est pas assez puissant pour atteindre ces objectifs, la durabilité de la réponse est limitée. Ce qu’il faut retenir ici, c’est que ces stratégies devraient reposer sur la puissance du schéma thérapeutique et qu’il ne faut pas retarder l’instauration des agents en cas d’échec d’une stratégie.

  8. Comparative assessment of SAS and DES turbulence modeling for massively separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Yan, Chao; Liu, Hongkang; Luo, Dahai

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of the flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 1.4× 105 and NACA0021 airfoil at the angle of attack 60° have been carried out by scale-adaptive simulation (SAS) and detached eddy simulation (DES), in comparison with the existing experimental data. The new version of the model developed by Egorov and Menter is assessed, and advantages and disadvantages of the SAS simulation are analyzed in detail to provide guidance for industrial application in the future. Moreover, the mechanism of the scale-adaptive characteristics in separated regions is discussed, which is obscure in previous analyses. It is concluded that: the mean flow properties satisfactorily agree with the experimental results for the SAS simulation, although the prediction of the second order turbulent statistics in the near wake region is just reasonable. The SAS model can produce a larger magnitude of the turbulent kinetic energy in the recirculation bubble, and, consequently, a smaller recirculation region and a more rapid recovery of the mean velocity outside the recirculation region than the DES approach with the same grid resolution. The vortex shedding is slightly less irregular with the SAS model than with the DES approach, probably due to the higher dissipation of the SAS simulation under the condition of the coarse mesh.

  9. A river is reborn--Use Attainability Analysis for the Lower Des Plaines River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Vladimir; O'Reilly, Neal; Ehlinger, Timothy; Frevert, Toby; Twait, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the Use Attainability Analysis (UAA) of the Lower Des Plaines River was to upgrade the designated "Secondary Contact Recreation and Indigenous Aquatic Life Use" to a higher use that would be commensurate with the goals of the Clean Water Act (CWA). In Illinois, the water body use in compliance with the goals of the CWA is named "General Use". The river has been extensively modified and receives most point-source and urban runoff discharges from the Chicago metropolitan area (9.5 million inhabitants). The study included an extensive assessment of the physical, chemical, biological, and bacteriological integrity status of the water body and sediments. The UAA found that the water quality situation of the river has improved significantly since the 1970s, when the Illinois Pollution Control Board defined and assigned the Secondary Contact Recreation and Indigenous Aquatic Life Use designation to the Lower Des Plaines River. The study defined and suggested a "Modified Impounded Use" for one highly modified reach, with adjusted standards for dissolved oxygen and recreation. The study also recommended adoption of the General Use standards, some of them in a modified form, for other water quality parameters. Standards for limited recreation were also developed. The UAA also outlines a suggested action plan that will bring UAA segments of the Lower Des Plaines River in compliance with UAA goals. PMID:17290974

  10. Joint measurement of lensing-galaxy correlations using SPT and DES SV data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baxter, E. J.

    2016-07-04

    We measure the correlation of galaxy lensing and cosmic microwave background lensing with a set of galaxies expected to trace the matter density field. The measurements are performed using pre-survey Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification optical imaging data and millimeter-wave data from the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. The two lensing-galaxy correlations are jointly fit to extract constraints on cosmological parameters, constraints on the redshift distribution of the lens galaxies, and constraints on the absolute shear calibration of DES galaxy lensing measurements. We show that an attractive feature of these fits is that they are fairly insensitive to the clustering bias of the galaxies used as matter tracers. The measurement presented in this work confirms that DES and SPT data are consistent with each other and with the currently favoredmore » $$\\Lambda$$CDM cosmological model. In conclusion, it also demonstrates that joint lensing-galaxy correlation measurement considered here contains a wealth of information that can be extracted using current and future surveys.« less

  11. Modélisation des effets de la photoabsorption K sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrigneaud, J. M.; Terrissol, M.

    1999-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate the transport of photons and their secondary electrons produced on a linear and hydrated DNA model. Between 150 and 550eV, the variation of photon cross section upon the K-ionisation threshold in C, N, O atoms of DNA is responsible for an increase of the biological effectiveness. We showed that, with the same number of absorbed photons, the distribution of breaks as a function of energy reaches a maximum around 450eV. Nous avons simulé le transport des photons et de leurs électrons secondaires mis en mouvement dans un modèle d'ADN linéaire hydraté, en utilisant la méthode de Monte Carlo. Entre 150 et 550 eV, la variation de section efficace photonique au- dessus du seuil d'ionisation K des atomes C, N, O de l'ADN est responsable d'un accroissement de l'efficacité biologique. Nous avons montré que, pour un même nombre de photons absorbés, la distribution des cassures en fonction de l'énergie passe par un maximum autour de 450 eV.

  12. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  13. Physical properties of star clusters in the outer LMC as observed by the DES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieres, A.; Santiago, B.; Balbinot, E.; Luque, E.; Queiroz, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Roodman, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) harbours a rich and diverse system of star clusters, whose ages, chemical abundances and positions provide information about the LMC history of star formation. We use Science Verification imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to increase the census of known star clusters in the outer LMC and to derive physical parameters for a large sample of such objects using a spatially and photometrically homogeneous data set. Our sample contains 255 visually identified cluster candidates, of which 109 were not listed in any previous catalogue. We quantify the crowding effect for the stellar sample produced by the DES Data Management pipeline and conclude that the stellar completeness is <10 per cent inside typical LMC cluster cores. We therefore reanalysed the DES co-add images around each candidate cluster and remeasured positions and magnitudes for their stars. We also implement a maximum-likelihood method to fit individual density profiles and colour-magnitude diagrams. For 117 (from a total of 255) of the cluster candidates (28 uncatalogued clusters), we obtain reliable ages, metallicities, distance moduli and structural parameters, confirming their nature as physical systems. The distribution of cluster metallicities shows a radial dependence, with no clusters more metal rich than [Fe/H] ≃ -0.7 beyond 8 kpc from the LMC centre. The age distribution has two peaks at ≃1.2 and ≃2.7 Gyr.

  14. Le Phénomène Wolf-Rayet au Sein des Etoiles chaudes de Populations I et II: Histoire des Vents stellaires et Impact sur la Structure nébulaire circumstellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosdidier, Yves

    2000-12-01

    Les spectres des étoiles Wolf-Rayet pop. I (WR) présentent de larges raies en émission dues à des vents stellaires chauds en expansion rapide (vitesse terminale de l'ordre de 1000 km/s). Le modèle standard des étoiles WR reproduit qualitativement le profil général et l'intensité des raies observées. Mais la spectroscopie intensive à moyenne résolution de ces étoiles révèle l'existence de variations stochastiques dans les raies (sous-pics mobiles en accélération échelles de temps: environ 10-100 min.). Ces variations ne sont pas comprises dans le cadre du modèle standard et suggèrent une fragmentation intrinsèque des vents. Cette thèse de doctorat présente une étude de la variabilité des raies spectrales en émission des étoiles WR pop. II; la question de l'impact d'un vent WR fragmenté sur le milieu circumstellaire est aussi étudiée: 1) à partir du suivi spectroscopique intensif des raies CIIIl5696 et CIVl5801/12, nous analysons quantitativement (via le calcul des Spectres de Variance Temporelle) les vents issus de 5 étoiles centrales de nébuleuses planétaires (NP) galactiques présentant le phénomène WR; 2) nous étudions l'impact de la fragmentation des vents issus de deux étoiles WR pop. I sur le milieu circumstellaire via: i) l'imagerie IR (NICMOS2/HST) de WR 137, et ii) l'imagerie H-alpha (WFPC2/HST) et l'interférométrie Fabry-Perot H-alpha (SIS-CFHT) de la nébuleuse M 1-67 (étoile centrale: WR 124). Les principaux résultats sont les suivants: VENTS WR POP. II: (1) Nous démontrons la variabilité spectroscopique intrinsèque des vents issus des noyaux de NP HD 826 ([WC 8]), BD +30 3639 ([WC 9]) et LSS 3169 ([WC 9]), observés durant respectivement 22, 15 et 1 nuits, et rapportons des indications de variabilité pour les noyaux [WC 9] HD 167362 et He 2-142. Les variabilités de HD 826 et BD +30 3639 apparaissent parfois plus soutenues (``bursts'' qui se maintiennent durant plusieurs nuits); (2) La cinématique des sous

  15. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  16. Epidémiologie et étiologies des insuffisances cardiaques à Lomé

    PubMed Central

    Pio, Machihudé; Afassinou, Yaovi; Pessinaba, Soulemane; Baragou, Soodougoua; N'djao, Jacques; Atta, Borgatia; Ehlan, Efadzi; Damorou, Findibé; Goeh-Akué, Edem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif est de déterminer la fréquence et les principales étiologies des insuffisances cardiaques (IC) en milieu cardiologique à Lomé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale réalisée de janvier 2010 au Janvier 2012 dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Sylvanus Olympio de Lomé. Elle a porté sur 297 dossiers des patients hospitalisés pour IC. L’échodoppler cardiaque était indispensable pour l'inclusion du dossier dans l’étude. Résultats L'IC représentait 25,6% des hospitalisations. L’âge moyen des patients était de 52,2 ± 16,7 ans avec un sex ratio à 0,93. Le tableau clinique était celui d'une IC globale (67%), IC gauche (31,3%) et IC droite (1,7%). La fraction d’éjection du ventricule gauche (FEVG) moyenne était de 0,4 ± 0,17 (extrêmes 0,07 et 0,88). Les diagnostics lésionnels des IC étaient les cardiomyopathies dilatées (60%), l'IC à FEVG conservée (11,4%), les valvulopathies (11,8%). Les étiologies étaient l'hypertension artérielle (HTA) (43,1%), les coronaropathies (19,2%), la cardiomyopathie du péripartum (11,8%), les valvulopathies (11,8%), la cardiothyréose (3%), le c'ur pulmonaire chronique (2,7%), les cardiopathies congénitales (2,7%), l'alcoolisme chronique (2%), le VIH (3,4%) et idiopathique (5,9%). Conclusion L'IC est fréquente à Lomé et touche les sujets jeunes. Les lésions sont sévères et avancées sous forme de cardiomyopathies dilatées. PMID:25419310

  17. Traitement chirurgical initial des brûlures de la main de l’enfant. Revue

    PubMed Central

    Goffinet, L.; Breton, A.; Gavillot, C.; Barbary, S.; Journeau, P.; Lascombes, P.; Dautel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Trente cinq revues concernant la prise en charge chirurgicale de la main brûlée de l’enfant sont indexées dans Pub- Med. Elles portent sur l’indication de la cicatrisation dirigée versus chirurgie, les techniques et délais d’instauration des traitements par excision-greffe, le calendrier et la nature du traitement de réadaptation et la surveillance. L’enfant présente un risque accru de brides cicatricielles, nécessitant un suivi médico-chirurgical attentif et prolongé. L’objet de cet article est de rapporter les spécificités chirurgicales de la prise en charge de ces brûlures. Cette revue de la littérature, réalisée au moyen de la base PubMed (publication entre 2005 et 2011) à partir des mots-clés « hand AND/OR child AND/OR burn » retrouve 67 publications utiles au sein de 171 références. Les données rapportées ont été comparées aux ouvrages de références français et américains. Des données contradictoires sont rapportées concernant la délai de l’excision et de la greffe, avec seulement deux études comparatives comportant de nombreux biais. L’état de la science n’apporte pas d’éléments de preuve suffisant en raison d’un manque de puissance statistique des études, mais de nombreux avis d’expert explorant chaque type d’indication permet d’établir une stratégie claire, guidant les indications thérapeutiques. Il apparaît donc indispensable de réaliser des études prospectives incluant ces patients depuis le suivi initial jusqu’au suivi à long terme, pour augmenter le niveau de preuve de cette stratégie. PMID:27279807

  18. Lignes directrices sur l’aiguillage des cas soupçonnés de cancer du poumon par un médecin de famille ou autre professionnel des soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Young, Sheila-Mae; Vella, Emily T.; Ash, Marla; Bansal, Praveen; Robinson, Andrew; Skrastins, Roland; Ung, Yee; Zeldin, Robert; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Les présentes lignes directrices visent à aider les médecins de famille et autres généralistes à reconnaître les manifestations cliniques devant éveiller les soupçons quant à la présence d’un cancer du poumon chez les patients. Composition du comité Les membres du comité ont été choisis parmi les leaders régionaux en soins primaires du Réseau provincial des soins primaires et de la lutte contre le cancer d’Action Cancer Ontario et parmi les membres du Groupe sur le siège de la maladie, Cancer du poumon d’Action Cancer Ontario. Méthodes Les présentes lignes directrices sont le fruit d’une revue systématique des données probantes, d’une synthèse des données et d’un examen externe formel effectué par des intervenants canadiens qui ont validé la pertinence des recommandations. Rapport Ces lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes ont été formulées pour améliorer la prise en charge en contexte canadien des patients qui présentent des manifestations cliniques du cancer du poumon. Conclusion Le dépistage et l’aiguillage précoces des patients atteints de cancer du poumon pourraient en fin de compte aider à réduire les morbidités et mortalités liées au cancer. Ces lignes directrices pourraient aussi s’avérer utiles dans la mise sur pied de programmes de diagnostic du cancer du poumon et pour aider les décideurs à veiller à ce que les ressources appropriées soient en place.

  19. Une recension des écrits concernant la réalité psychoaffective des femmes ayant une vulvodynie : Difficultés rencontrées et stratégies développées

    PubMed Central

    Cantin-Drouin, Maude; Damant, Dominique; Turcotte, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au cours des trois dernières décennies, une attention grandissante a été portée à l’étude du syndrome de vulvodynie, soit un inconfort vulvaire chronique inexpliqué, éprouvé en l’absence de pathologie précisée. En plus d’avoir des répercussions physiques, l’expérience de la vulvodynie comporte une dimension psychosociale. OBJECTIF : Cet article vise à faire une recension des écrits sur la réalité psychoaffective des femmes qui éprouvent une vulvodynie. MÉTHODE : Une recherche documentaire basée sur une exploration systématique de textes présentant des résultats de recherche et recensés dans les principales banques de données en sciences sociales, dont Dissertation Abstracts, Current Contents et PsycINFO, a été réalisée. RÉSULTATS : Cette recension des écrits révèle, malgré la présence de certains résultats divergents, que les femmes ayant une vulvodynie affrontent souvent des difficultés identitaires et psychologiques, qui sont influencées notamment par les normes sociales de sexualité et de féminité. Pour composer avec ces difficultés, les femmes développent différentes stratégies visant à diminuer le stress occasionné par la douleur et à améliorer leur bien-être psychologique. CONCLUSION : Les difficultés relationnelles et psychologiques vécues par les femmes ayant une vulvodynie ne découlent pas seulement de la douleur physique, mais aussi du sens qu’elles lui accordent, souvent influencé par les discours sociaux sur l’hétérosexualité et la féminité. Il importe donc d’intervenir auprès des femmes en tenant compte de l’influence du contexte social tout en poursuivant le développement des connaissances sur les aspects psychosociaux de cette expérience. PMID:18592063

  20. Étude des perturbations conduites et rayonnées dans une cellule de commutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, F.; Forest, F.; Puzo, A.; Rojat, G.

    1993-12-01

    The principles used in static conversion and the rise of the performances of the new switching devices contribue to increase the level of electromagnetic noises emitted by electronic converters. We have studied the way how these perturbations are created and coupled through their environment in conducted and radiated mode by a switching cell. This one can work in hard switching, zero current or voltage switching modes. We first outline the general problems of electromagnetic pollution and their metrology in converters. Then we describe the experimental environment. We analyse the mechanisms of generation of parasitic signals in a switching cell related to the electrical constraints and its switching mode. The simulated results, issued of the analytical models obtained, are confronted with the experimental ones. Then we show a method to calculate analytically the E and H near fields. It has been confirmed by experimental results. At last, we present, in a synthetic manner, the main results obtained, relative to the switching mode and the electrical constraints, using a new characterizing method. Theses results will allow the designer to incorporate the electromagnetic considerations in the conception of a converter. Les principes de commutation employés en conversion statique, l'évolution des performances statiques et dynamiques des composants, contribuent à faire des dispositifs de conversion statique de puissants générateurs de perturbations conduites et rayonnées. Nous nous sommes attachés à étudier les mécanismes de génération et de couplage des perturbations, tant en mode conduit que rayonné dans des structures à une seule cellule de commutation et fonctionnant selon les trois principaux modes de commutation : commutation forcée, à zéro de courant (ZCS), et à zéro de tension (ZVS). Après la mise en évidence de la problématique de pollution électromagnétique dans les structures et leur métrologie, nous décrivons l'environnement exp

  1. Apport de l'orientation clinique dans le diagnostic des hypertensions arterielles endocriniennes

    PubMed Central

    El Aziz, Siham; Chadli, Asma; Louda, Fatima; El Ghomari, Hassan; Farouqi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    L'hypertension artérielle d'origine endocrinienne représente une cause curable d'hypertension artérielle (HTA), ce qui en justifie le dépistage. Une orientation clinique est souhaitable afin de prescrire les bilans adéquats, notamment dans les pays en voie de développement. L'objectif de notre étude est décrire les aspects cliniques des patients ayant une HTA endocrinienne diagnostiquée au CHU de Casablanca. Méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive rétrospective de 2004 à 2011, incluant tout patient ayant une HTA endocrinienne (en dehors des dysthyroïdies) admis en Endocrinologie. Les données concernant les facteurs cliniques, paracliniques et thérapeutiques ont été colligées. Au cours de la période étudiée, 53 cas d'HTA endocrinienne ont été admis, avec une age moyen au diagnostic de 39,3 ans et un sex-ratio F/H de 3,9. Trente patients (56.6%) ont un age ont un âge inférieur à 40 ans. On ne retrouve pas d'hérédité tensionelle chez 88.7% des patients. Les étiologies sont le Syndrome de cushing (41.5%), le phéochromocytome (32%), les adénomes somatotropes (15%) et les hyperaldostéronismes primaire (7.5%). L'HTA est essentiellement de grade un ou deux (69.8%), avec un retentissement cardio-vasculaire chez 11 patients (20.7%). Les patients ayant un SC avaient tous des signes cutanés spécifiques. Il s'agissait de sujets jeunes avec plusieurs facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire. Nous avons retrouvé un amaigrissement chez 37.5% des patients ayant un phéochromocytome avec un indice de masse corporel moyen de 20 kg/m2. L'HTA était permanente dans 5 cas de phéochromocytomes. Il n'existait pas d'hypokaliémie chez 50% des patients ayant un hyperaldostéronisme. Les signes cliniques des patients ayant une acromégalie étaient francs, avec un age moyen plus élevé de 50 ans. Nous avons noté une régression de l'HTA chez 59% de ces patients après guérison de l'endocrinopathie en cause. Plusieurs signes cliniques peuvent nous

  2. Etude exploratoire des conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Jean-Marc

    Il existe peu d'etudes sur les conceptions touchant les domaines de la biologie, notamment sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine Nous avons observe egalement l'absence de recherche menee aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial sur cette question. Nous avons voulu combler une lacune en menant une recherche sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial. Pour mener cette recherche nous nous sommes inspires d'une methode developpee par Treagust (1988). Le premier niveau de formulation didactique etablit l'architecture du systeme et la fonction nutritive de la circulation. Le second niveau de formulation didactique decrit et relie les parametres de la dynamique de la circulation et leur relation: Pression, Debit et Resistance. Le troisieme niveau de formulation didactique s'interesse au controle de la circulation du sang dans un contexte d'homeostasie qui implique la regulation de la pression arterielle. Nous avons construit un questionnaire en nous guidant sur les niveaux de formulation didactique et l'analyse des entrevues menees aupres de dix-huit eleves, representatifs de la population cible. Ce questionnaire fut administre a un echantillon de 2300 eleves disperses dans six colleges de la region de Montreal. Notre echantillon comprend des eleves inscrits a des programmes de l'ordre collegial en Sciences de la nature et en Techniques de la sante et qui n'ont pas suivi le cours sur la circulation sanguine. Notre analyse des reponses des eleves de notre echantillon aux questions sur le premier niveau de formulation didactique revele que la majorite des eleves considerent que le systeme circulatoire relie les organes les uns aux autres dans un circuit en serie. Notre analyse revele egalement que la majorite des eleves estiment que les nutriments sont extraits du sang par les organes selon un processus de selection base sur les besoins determines par la fonction de l'organe. Ces besoins sont differents selon les organes qui ne

  3. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a pretreatment for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Nur Atikah Md; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) at different parameters to enable a highest yield of sugar. DES is a combination of two or more cheap and safe components to form a eutectic mixture through hydrogen bond interaction, which has a melting point lower than that of each component. DES can be used to replace ionic liquids (ILs), which are more expensive and toxic. In this study, OPEFB was pretreated with DES mixture of choline chloride: urea in 1:2 molar ratio. The pretreatment was performed at temperature 110°C and 80°C for 4 hours and 1 hour. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour). Enzymatic hydrolysis was done by using the combination of two enzymes, namely, Cellic Ctec2 and Cellic Htec2. The treated fiber is tested for crystallinity using XRD and functional group analysis using FTIR, to check the effect of the pretreatment on the fiber and compared it with the untreated fiber. From XRD analysis, DES successfully gave an effect towards degree of crystallinity of cellulose. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours) and B (110°C, 1 hour) successfully reduce the percentage of crystallinity while pretreatment C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) increased the percentage of crystallinity. From FTIR analysis, DES cannot remove the functional group of lignin and hemicellulose but it is believed that DES can expose the structure of cellulose. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, DES-treated fiber successfully produced sugar but not significantly when compared with raw. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) produced glucose at the amount of 60.47 mg/ml, 66.33 mg/ml, 61.96 mg/ml and 59.12 mg/ml respectively. However, pretreatment C gave the highest xylose (70.01 mg/ml) production compared to other DES pretreatments.

  4. Étude des anomalies chromosomiques après radiothérapie chez des patients traités pour lymphome malin non-Hodgkinien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahe, M. A.; André, M. J.; Moyon, E.; Le Mevel, A.; Soubeyran, P.; Hamidou, M.; Milpied, N.; Bourdin, S.; Cuillière, J. C.; Chatal, J. F.

    1998-04-01

    Structural chromosome defects were evaluated in the lymphocytes of 30 patients (pts) who had undergone radiotherapy for non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Twelve had received 20 Grays (Gy) over the abdomen (group I), 12 whole body irradiation at 1.5 Gy (group II) and 6 whole body irradiation at 15 Gy (group III). A cohort of 468 unirradiated pts served as controls. For the irradiated group, 7% of cells had aberrations compared to 0.4% in controls {P <10-6}. The frequency of abnormal cells was statistically higher in group I (12%) than in group II (3.5%) and III (2.5%) . In group I, frequency of aberrations was statistically higher in pts who had additionnal extra-abdominal involved field irradiation, those with evolutive NHL and those receiving chemotherapy at the time of the cytogenetic analysis. Les aberrations chromosomiques ont ,été, mesurées sur les lymphocytes de 30 patients (pts) irradiés pour lymphome malin non-hodgkinien (LNH) selon 3 modalités : 20 Grays (Gy) sur l'abdomen (groupe I : 12 pts), Irradiation corporelle totale 1,5 Gy (groupe II : 12 pts), ou 15 Gy (groupe III : 6 pts). Une population non irradiée de 468 pts a servi de témoin. Dans le groupe irradié, 7 % des cellules présentaient des anomalies contre 0,4 % dans le groupe témoin {P <10-6}. Les aberrations ,étaient statistiquement plus nombreuses dans le groupe I (12 % des cellules) que dans les groupes II (3,5 %) et III (2,5 %). Dans le groupe I, les anomalies , étaient statistiquement plus fréquentes chez les pts ayant eu une irradiation localisée extra-abdominale en complément de celle de l'abdomen ainsi que chez ceux en rechute de leur LNH et ceux recevant une chimiothérapie lors de l',étude cytogénétique.

  5. Un exemple de transfert de technologie dans le domaine des polymères conducteurs : le projet ``HYRA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parneix, J. P.; Miane, J. L.; Colin, T.; Ruffie, G.; Mege, J.

    1998-06-01

    The HYRA project is a response to the restructuration of local companies : these are purveyors of high technology military and spatial especially in the radars business. Furthermore, the development of mobile communications needs devices and materials in the millimeter range (from 20 to 100Ghz). The aim of the HYRA project is the development of materials with specific properties - particularly conducting materials - in the millimeter wave range. The results obtained on thermoplastic/conducting polymer composites are presented. Le projet HYRA répond à des préoccupations régionales liées à des restructurations industrielles : les industries régionales fournissant les marchés militaires et spatiaux disposent de techniques très performantes mais coûteuses, en particulier dans le domaine des radars. Par ailleurs le développement des communications mobiles a besoin de dispositifs et de matériaux dans tout le domaine millimétrique (de 20 à 100 Ghz). Le projet HYRA a pour but le développement de matériaux à propriétés spécifiques - en particulier conducteurs - dans ce domaine de fréquence. Les résultats obtenus sur des composites thermoplastiques/polymères conducteurs sont présentés.

  6. Comparaison de méthodes d'identification des paramètres d'une machine asynchrone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaaj-Mrabet, N.; Jelassi, K.

    1998-07-01

    Interests, in Genetic Algorithms (G.A.) expands rapidly. This paper consists initially to apply G.A. for identifying induction motor parameters. Next, we compare the performances with classical methods like Maximum Likelihood and classical electrotechnical methods. These methods are applied on three induction motors of different powers to compare results following a set of criteria. Les algorithmes génétiques sont des méthodes adaptatives de plus en plus utilisée pour la résolution de certains problèmes d'optimisation. Le présent travail consiste d'une part, à mettre en œuvre un A.G sur des problèmes d'identification des machines électriques, et d'autre part à comparer ses performances avec les méthodes classiques tels que la méthode du maximum de vraisemblance et la méthode électrotechnique basée sur des essais à vides et en court-circuit. Ces méthodes sont appliquées sur des machines asynchrones de différentes puissances. Les résultats obtenus sont comparés selon certains critères, permettant de conclure sur la validité et la performance de chaque méthode.

  7. Protective actions of des-acylated ghrelin on brain injury and blood-brain barrier disruption after stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jacqueline M; Taher, Mohammadali; Chin, Kai Yee; Barsby, Tom; Austin, Victoria; Wong, Connie H Y; Andrews, Zane B; Spencer, Sarah J; Miller, Alyson A

    2016-09-01

    The major ghrelin forms, acylated ghrelin and des-acylated ghrelin, are novel gastrointestinal hormones. Moreover, emerging evidence indicates that these peptides may have other functions including neuro- and vaso-protection. Here, we investigated whether post-stroke treatment with acylated ghrelin or des-acylated ghrelin could improve functional and histological endpoints of stroke outcome in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). We found that des-acylated ghrelin (1 mg/kg) improved neurological and functional performance, reduced infarct and swelling, and decreased apoptosis. In addition, it reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in vivo and attenuated the hyper-permeability of mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cells after oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD + RO). By contrast, acylated ghrelin (1 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg) had no significant effect on these endpoints of stroke outcome. Next we found that des-acylated ghrelin's vasoprotective actions were associated with increased expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-5), and decreased cell death. Moreover, it attenuated superoxide production, Nox activity and expression of 3-nitrotyrosine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that post-stroke treatment with des-acylated ghrelin, but not acylated ghrelin, protects against ischaemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury and swelling, and BBB disruption, by reducing oxidative and/or nitrosative damage. PMID:27303049

  8. Les conseils des cliniciens canadiens en matière de commotion dans le sport sont-ils cohérents?

    PubMed Central

    Carson, James D.; Rendely, Alexandra; Garel, Alisha; Meaney, Christopher; Stoller, Jacqueline; Kaicker, Jatin; Hayden, Leigh; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les connaissances et l’utilisation des recommandations concernant la prise en charge de la commotion dans le sport (CDS) démontrées par les spécialistes de la médecine du sport et de l’exercice (SMSE) et les urgentologues afin d’évaluer la réussite du transfert des connaissances sur la CDS au Canada. Conception Un sondage à choix multiples envoyé par courriel et autoadministré par des SMSE et des urgentologues. La validité du contenu du sondage a fait l’objet d’une évaluation. Contexte Canada. Participants Le sondage a été complété entre mai et juillet 2012 par des SMSE qui ont réussi l’examen menant au diplôme de l’Académie canadienne de la médecine du sport et de l’exercice et des urgentologues qui n’avaient pas ce diplôme. Principaux paramètres à l’étude La connaissance et l’identification des sources d’information sur la prise en charge des commotions, l’utilisation des stratégies de diagnostic de la commotion et l’utilisation d’une terminologie courante et cohérente dans l’explication des stratégies de repos aux patients après une CDS. Résultats Le taux de réponse était de 28 % (305 sur 1085). Les taux de réponse par les SMSE et les urgentologues se situaient respectivement à 41 % (147 sur 360) et 22 % (158 sur 725). Parmi les répondants, 41 % des urgentologues et 3 % des SMSE n’étaient pas au courant de l’existence de déclarations consensuelles sur la commotion dans le sport; 74 % des SMSE utilisaient « habituellement ou toujours » la version 2 de l’Outil d’évaluation de la commotion dans le sport (SCAT2), tandis que 88 % des urgentologues n’utilisaient jamais le SCAT2. Aucune réponse uniforme n’a été documentée à la question visant à connaître les meilleurs modes de repos cognitif. Conclusion Nous avons cerné des différences et un manque d’uniformité chez les SMSE et les urgentologues dans la mise en application des recommandations

  9. Aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile: exemple des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville

    PubMed Central

    Souhail, Hassane; Assoumou, Prudence; Birinda, Hilda; Mengome, Emmanuel Mve

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’évaluer l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique, qui s'est déroulée à Libreville pendant la période du 4 avril 2012 au 14 juillet 2012 (soit 4 mois et 10 jours). La population d’étude concernait les candidats soumis aux épreuves d'obtention du permis de conduire. Nous avons inclus dans notre travail, les candidats, ayant donné leur consentement par écrit et exclus ceux refusant d'adhérer à l'enquête. Les variables étudiées concernaient l’âge, le sexe, la population d’étude, l'activité professionnelle, l'acuité visuelle de loin et de près, la vision des couleurs, la catégorie du permis de conduire, et l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile. La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été collectées au moyen d'une fiche d'enquête standardisée; après vérification et validation, elles ont été saisies sur le logiciel Excel Windows et analysées sur le logiciel Epi Info version 3.5.1. L’âge moyen des 406 candidats était de 29 ans ± 6,65 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 17 ans à 52 ans. Les hommes représentaient 283 (69,7%) et les femmes 123 (30,3%), soit un ratio de 2,3. Les fonctionnaires étaient retrouvés dans 39,4 % des cas, suivi des élèves-étudiants dans 33,5%. Dans notre population d’étude, 71 sur 406 candidats avaient une baisse de l'acuité visuelle de loin, soit 17,5%. Dans notre série, nous avons retrouvés 34 candidats âgés de 40 ans et plus, et seulement 14 candidats (41,2%) avaient une baisse de l'acuité visuelle de près. La quasi-totalité des patients avaient une vision de couleurs normale (99,5%), cependant 2 candidats avaient une vision de couleurs anormale, soit une prévalence de 0,5%. Dans notre échantillon, 403 (99,3%) sollicitaient un permis de conduire de catégorie léger (perms A, A1, B, F) et 3 (0,7%) sollicitaient un permis de conduire de type

  10. DES Education and Research Amendments of 1992. Report to accompany H.R. 4178. House of Representatives, 102D Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document is a Congressional report about a proposed amendment to the Public Health Service Act to provide for a program to carry out research on the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES), to educate health professionals and the public on the drug, and to provide for certain longitudinal studies regarding DES. The amendment itself is presented in the…

  11. Angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénal bénin: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Bagayogo, Tidiani; Othmane, Yddoussalah; Tarik, Karmouni; Khalid, Elkhader; Abdellatif, Koutani; Ahmed, Ibn Attya Andaloussi

    2015-01-01

    Les angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénaux (AMLeR) sont des tumeurs rares (identifiées chez moins de 0,1 patients pour 1000 habitants) et représentent 8% des angiomyolipomes (AML) opérés. Il a longtemps été considérécomme un hamartome mais plusieurs articles récents font penser qu'il s'agir d'une tumeur dérivant de cellules épithélioïdespérivasculaires. L'angiomyolipome épithélioïde est une forme rare d'angiomyolipome à potentiel malin, composé decellules épithélioïdes posant des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les carcinomes à cellules rénales. L'immunohistochimie,en révélant la positivité des cellules épithélioïdes au marqueur HMB45 est essentielle au diagnostic. Les auteursrapportent l'aspect tomodensitométrique et histologique d'angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes chez deux patientes. PMID:26953738

  12. Sécurité de la plus récente classe d’antagonistes des opioïdes durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Shirley; Pupco, Anna; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai une patiente dont 6 semaines de grossesse viennent d’être confirmées. Depuis 6 mois, elle suit une thérapie pour une dépendance aux opioïdes à l’aide d’une combinaison de buprénorphine et de naloxone. Devrais-je m’inquiéter qu’elle ait été exposée à cette combinaison de médicaments jusqu’à ce stade de sa grossesse? Faudrait-il que je change sa médication pour de la méthadone maintenant qu’elle est enceinte? Réponse Les données limitées sur l’exposition à la buprénorphine durant la grossesse ne révèlent pas d’augmentation du risque de résultats indésirables chez le nouveau-né. Il y a peu de données sur la naloxone durant la grossesse; par ailleurs, on ne s’attendrait pas à ce que l’administration par voie orale soit associée avec un risque accru de résultats de grossesse défavorables. On conseille aux médecins qui traitent des femmes enceintes ou qui deviennent enceintes et dont l’état est stable en prenant une thérapie à la buprénorphine et naloxone de continuer ce traitement mais d’envisager une transition à une monothérapie à la buprénorphine.

  13. NMR solution structure of the glucagon antagonist [desHis1, desPhe6, Glu9]glucagon amide in the presence of perdeuterated dodecylphosphocholine micelles.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jinfa; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Jacobsen, Neil E; Brown, Michael F; Hruby, Victor J

    2003-03-18

    Glucagon, a 29-residue peptide hormone, plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and in diabetes mellitus. Several glucagon antagonists and agonists have been developed, but limited structural information is available to clarify the basis of their biological activity. The solution structure of the potent glucagon antagonist, [desHis1, desPhe6, Glu9]glucagon amide, was determined by homonuclear 2D NMR spectroscopy at pH 6.0 and 37 degrees C in perdeuterated dodecylphosphocholine micelles. The overall backbone root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) for the structured portion (residues 7-29, glucagon numbering) of the micelle-bound 27-residue peptide is 1.36 A for the 15 lowest-energy structures, after restrained molecular dynamics simulation. The structure consists of four regions (segment backbone rmsd in A): an unstructured N-terminal segment between residues 2 and 5 (1.68), an irregular helix between residues 7 and 14 (0.79), a hinge region between residues 15 and 18 (0.54), and a well-defined alpha-helix between residues 19 and 29 (0.33). The two helices form an L-shaped structure with an angle of about 90 degrees between the helix axes. There is an extended hydrophobic cluster, which runs along the inner surface of the L-structure and incorporates the side chains of the hydrophobic residues of each of the amphipathic helices. The outer surface contains the hydrophilic side chains, with two salt bridges (D15-R18 and R17-D21) implied from close approach of the charged groups. This result is the first clear indication of an overall tertiary fold for a glucagon analogue in the micelle-bound state. The relationship of the two helical structural elements may have important implications for the biological activity of the glucagon antagonist. PMID:12627948

  14. Les perceptions des femmes tunisiennes selon le modèle des croyances liées à la santé et leurs pratiques relativement à l'ostéoporose

    PubMed Central

    Belgacem, Amina; Nouira, Amel; Soussi, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'étude a pour objectif de décrire les croyances des femmes et leurs pratiques liées à la santé et à l'ostéoporose, afin d'élaborer des interventions efficaces et ciblées pour la prévention de cette maladie dans le contexte tunisien. Méthodes Une étude descriptive transversale a été effectuée auprès de 100 femmes tunisiennes, âgées de 45 ans et plus, qui consultent au centre de santé de base d'une zone périurbaine de la région de Sousse (Tunisie). La collecte de l'information a été réalisée à l'aide de « l'échelle des croyances relatives à la santé sur l'ostéoporose» développée par Kim et ses collègues traduit en arabe et validé en Tunisie et le questionnaire de «Calcul des apports calciques quotidiens» développé par Fardellone Patrice. L'interprétation des résultants s'est basée sur le «Health Belief Model ». Résultats La perception des participantes pourrait être considérée comme au dessus de la moyenne pour la vulnérabilité de l'ostéoporose (58%), la gravité de la maladie, les avantages de la pratique de l'activité physique, les avantages de l'apport en calcium et la motivation à la santé; par contre, elle pourrait être considérée comme modérée concernant les obstacles à la prévention. Cependant, les pratiques exposant au risque de la maladie sont relativement fréquentes et ceci essentiellement en rapport avec des facteurs socio-économiques et culturels. Conclusion Les programmes de promotion doivent viser la création d'un environnement physique et social favorable à l'adoption des comportements à moindre risque et viser l'éducation ciblée de la population. PMID:27217868

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in some marine organisms from the Baie des Anglais (Baie-Comeau, Quebec, Saint-Lawrence Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Delval, C.; Fournier, S.; Vigneault, Y.

    1986-12-01

    The main source of PCB's in the Baie des Anglais comes from a pseudo lagoon which is located upstream from the Anse au Moulin immediately below an aluminum plant. Organic matter in suspension coming from industrial wastes from baie-Comeau is likely responsible for the binding of PCB's. However due to hydrodynamic factors in the Baie des Anglais, contaminants stay only a short time in the littoral area and are evacuated to the southeast, where they accumulate at 80 m depth. Another source of contamination is the accumulation of dredging spoils at the entrance of the Anse au Moulin above the 40 m isobath. The contaminated sediments are resuspended by storm wave action. The work described in this paper was conducted in order to determine the extent of PCB bioaccumulation in two molluscs species (Mytilus edulis L. and Buccinum undatum L.) and two fish species (Clupea harengus harengus and Anguilla rostrata) from the Baie des Anglais (Baie-Comeau, Quebec).

  16. Analyse chronometrique intersexes de la resolution de la tache d'horizontalite des liquides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthiaume, Francois

    D'abondantes recherches ont demontre que la reussite a la tache d'horizontalite des liquides est en moyenne plus elevee chez les individus de sexe masculin que chez ceux de sexe feminin. Deux facteurs principaux ont ete proposes: il s'agit de la connaissance du principe physique de l'invariance de l'orientation des liquides et de certaines habiletes perceptives d'ordre visuel. Le but de la presente recherche est d'etablir la duree detaillee de la resolution de la tache d'horizontalite des liquides chez 185 filles et 180 garcons, ages de 15 a 19 ans et repartis en 8 groupes. Dans une version informatisee, le premier groupe trace la position de la surface de l'eau a l'interieur d'un contenant dans diverses inclinaisons et le deuxieme evalue si l'orientation d'une ligne y represente bien cette position; le troisieme groupe trace une horizontale dans un rectangle et le quatrieme juge si la ligne illustree y est bien horizontale. Quatre autres groupes executent respectivement les memes taches dans la version classique papier-crayon. Le temps accorde a la reflexion avant de commencer le trace, le temps de tracage comme tel et le temps de verification du trace complete sont calcules. Chez les groupes qui evaluent l'orientation d'une ligne sur support informatique, le temps requis pour y parvenir est note. Enfin, un questionnaire estime si les participants connaissent ou non le principe physique d'invariance de l'orientation de la surface d'un liquide. Les resultats revelent que cette connaissance est plus frequente chez les garcons dans l'ensemble des groupes. Dans le cas ou les sujets ont a tracer une ligne, les filles reussissent moins d'essais que les garcons s'il faut, sur support informatique, tracer la surface de l'eau dans un contenant incline ou a l'horizontale. Il en va de meme s'il faut, sur support papier, tracer une horizontale dans un contenant incline. Le trace de la surface de l'eau est plus exact chez les sujets connaissant le principe d'invariance et l

  17. L’alimentation des enfants ayant une déficience neurologique

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    La malnutrition, qu’il s’agisse de sous-alimentation ou de suralimentation, est courante chez les enfants ayant une déficience neurologique. Les besoins en énergie sont difficiles à définir au sein de cette population hétérogène. De plus, on manque d’information sur ce qui constitue la croissance normale chez ces enfants. Des facteurs non nutritionnels peuvent influer sur la croissance, mais des facteurs nutritionnels, tels qu’un apport calorique insuffisant, des pertes excessives d’éléments nutritifs et un métabolisme énergétique anormal, contribuent également au retard de croissance de ces enfants. La malnutrition est liée à une importante morbidité, tandis que la réadaptation nutritionnelle améliore l’état de santé global. Le soutien nutritionnel doit faire partie intégrante de la prise en charge des enfants ayant une déficience nutritionnelle et viser non seulement à améliorer l’état nutritionnel, mais également la qualité de vie des patients et de leur famille. Au moment d’envisager une intervention nutritionnelle, il faut tenir compte du dysfonctionnement oromoteur, du reflux gastro-œsophagien et de l’aspiration pulmonaire, et une équipe multidisciplinaire doit se concerter. Il faut repérer rapidement les enfants vulnérables à des troubles nutritionnels et procéder à une évaluation de leur état nutritionnel au moins une fois par année, et plus souvent chez les nourrissons et les jeunes enfants ou chez les enfants qui risquent de souffrir de malnutrition. Il faut optimiser l’apport oral s’il est sécuritaire, mais entreprendre une alimentation entérale chez les enfants ayant un dysfonctionnement oromoteur qui provoque une aspiration marquée ou chez ceux qui sont incapables de maintenir un état nutritionnel suffisant au moyen de l’apport oral. Il faut réserver l’alimentation par sonde nasogastrique aux interventions à court terme, mais si une intervention nutritionnelle prolongée s

  18. L’administration postnatale de corticoïdes pour traiter ou prévenir les affections pulmonaires chroniques chez les prématurés

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Le présent énoncé est conçu à l’intention des professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés et de jeunes nourrissons. Il vise à examiner les effets à court et à long terme de l’administration postnatale de corticoïdes systémiques et par inhalation pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique évolutive ou établie et à faire des recommandations quant à l’usage de corticoïdes chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance. Le recours systématique à la dexaméthasone systémique pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique n’est pas recommandé chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance.

  19. The RedMaPPer Galaxy Cluster Catalog From DES Science Verification Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykoff, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Hollowood, D.; Bermeo-Hernandez, A.; Jeltema, T.; Mayers, J.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P.; Saro, A.; Vergara Cervantes, C.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wilcox, H.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Childress, M.; Collins, C. A.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, T. M.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Glazebrook, K.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Hilton, M.; Honscheid, K.; Hoyle, B.; James, D. J.; Kay, S. T.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Mann, R. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Sahlén, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Stott, J. P.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S.; Viana, P. T. P.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.; DES Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We describe updates to the redMaPPer algorithm, a photometric red-sequence cluster finder specifically designed for large photometric surveys. The updated algorithm is applied to 150 {{deg}}2 of Science Verification (SV) data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 photometric data set. The DES SV catalog is locally volume limited and contains 786 clusters with richness λ \\gt 20 (roughly equivalent to {M}{{500c}}≳ {10}14 {h}70-1 {M}ȯ ) and 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.9. The DR8 catalog consists of 26,311 clusters with 0.08\\lt z\\lt 0.6, with a sharply increasing richness threshold as a function of redshift for z≳ 0.35. The photometric redshift performance of both catalogs is shown to be excellent, with photometric redshift uncertainties controlled at the {σ }z/(1+z)˜ 0.01 level for z≲ 0.7, rising to ˜0.02 at z˜ 0.9 in DES SV. We make use of Chandra and XMM X-ray and South Pole Telescope Sunyaev–Zeldovich data to show that the centering performance and mass–richness scatter are consistent with expectations based on prior runs of redMaPPer on SDSS data. We also show how the redMaPPer photo-z and richness estimates are relatively insensitive to imperfect star/galaxy separation and small-scale star masks.

  20. The improvement of in vivo model (Balb/c mice) for cervical carcinogenesis using diethylstilbestrol (DES).

    PubMed

    Zulfahmi, Said; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Armania, Nurdin

    2013-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and one of the major causes of female cancer-related death worldwide particularly in developing countries. Thus far, there are a few in vivo models have been developed in investigating this type of cancer. In this study, we induced cervical cancer in Balb/c mice by exploiting the carcinogenic property of diestylstilbestrol (DES). The Balb/c pregnant mice were given subcutaneous (SC) injection of 67μg/kg body weight of DES on GD 13, and the mice gave birth approximately at gestation day 19-22. Female offspring were reared and the body weight was recorded once weekly. The female offspring were sacrificed at age of 5 months. Upon termination, blood was collected in a plain tube via cardiac puncture and the reproductive tracts were collected and weighed. The reproductive tract sections were stained using H&E for observation of pathological changes. The progression of disease state was monitored by measuring the level of serum interleukin (IL-6) using the Mouse IL-6 ELISA Assay Kit (BD OptEIA™, USA). All parameters were compared with Not-induced group. The outcome of this study demonstrated a significant difference in body weight gain, reproductive organ weight, diameter of cervix and the level of serum IL-6 in the Induced group as compared to the Not-induced group (P<0.05). Histopathological findings revealed the presence of adenosis only in the Induced group. It shows that DES could be employed as an agent to induce cervical carcinogenesis in animal model. In addition to that, new potential anti-cancer agents from various sources could be further evaluated using this technique. PMID:23726752

  1. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouvel, S.; et al.

    2015-09-23

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

  2. Galaxy bias from the DES Science Verification data: combining galaxy density maps and weak lensing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Pujol, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Amara, A.; Réfrégier, A.; Bacon, D.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    We measure the redshift evolution of galaxy bias for a magnitude-limited galaxy sample by combining the galaxy density maps and weak lensing shear maps for a ˜116 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. This method was first developed in Amara et al. (2012) and later re-examined in a companion paper (Pujol et al. 2016) with rigorous simulation tests and analytical treatment of tomographic measurements. In this work we apply this method to the DES SV data and measure the galaxy bias for a i < 22.5 galaxy sample. We find the galaxy bias and 1σ error bars in 4 photometric redshift bins to be 1.12 ± 0.19 (z = 0.2 - 0.4), 0.97 ± 0.15 (z = 0.4 - 0.6), 1.38 ± 0.39 (z = 0.6 - 0.8), and 1.45 ± 0.56 (z = 0.8 - 1.0). These measurements are consistent at the 2σ level with measurements on the same dataset using galaxy clustering and cross-correlation of galaxies with CMB lensing, with most of the redshift bins consistent within the 1σ error bars. In addition, our method provides the only σ8-independent constraint among the three. We forward-model the main observational effects using mock galaxy catalogs by including shape noise, photo-z errors and masking effects. We show that our bias measurement from the data is consistent with that expected from simulations. With the forthcoming full DES data set, we expect this method to provide additional constraints on the galaxy bias measurement from more traditional methods. Furthermore, in the process of our measurement, we build up a 3D mass map that allows further exploration of the dark matter distribution and its relation to galaxy evolution.

  3. Cross-correlation of gravitational lensing from DES Science Verification data with SPT and Planck lensing